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1

A robust functional-data-analysis method for data recovery in multichannel sensor systems.  

PubMed

Multichannel sensor systems are widely used in condition monitoring for effective failure prevention of critical equipment or processes. However, loss of sensor readings due to malfunctions of sensors and/or communication has long been a hurdle to reliable operations of such integrated systems. Moreover, asynchronous data sampling and/or limited data transmission are usually seen in multiple sensor channels. To reliably perform fault diagnosis and prognosis in such operating environments, a data recovery method based on functional principal component analysis (FPCA) can be utilized. However, traditional FPCA methods are not robust to outliers and their capabilities are limited in recovering signals with strongly skewed distributions (i.e., lack of symmetry). This paper provides a robust data-recovery method based on functional data analysis to enhance the reliability of multichannel sensor systems. The method not only considers the possibly skewed distribution of each channel of signal trajectories, but is also capable of recovering missing data for both individual and correlated sensor channels with asynchronous data that may be sparse as well. In particular, grand median functions, rather than classical grand mean functions, are utilized for robust smoothing of sensor signals. Furthermore, the relationship between the functional scores of two correlated signals is modeled using multivariate functional regression to enhance the overall data-recovery capability. An experimental flow-control loop that mimics the operation of coolant-flow loop in a multimodular integral pressurized water reactor is used to demonstrate the effectiveness and adaptability of the proposed data-recovery method. The computational results illustrate that the proposed method is robust to outliers and more capable than the existing FPCA-based method in terms of the accuracy in recovering strongly skewed signals. In addition, turbofan engine data are also analyzed to verify the capability of the proposed method in recovering non-skewed signals. PMID:25051452

Sun, Jian; Liao, Haitao; Upadhyaya, Belle R

2014-08-01

2

Physiological functions of the effects of the different bathing method on recovery from local muscle fatigue  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, mist saunas have been used in the home as a new bathing style in Japan. However, there are still few reports on the effects of bathing methods on recovery from muscle fatigue. Furthermore, the effect of mist sauna bathing on human physiological function has not yet been revealed. Therefore, we measured the physiological effects of bathing methods including the mist sauna on recovery from muscle fatigue. Methods The bathing methods studied included four conditions: full immersion bath, shower, mist sauna, and no bathing as a control. Ten men participated in this study. The participants completed four consecutive sessions: a 30-min rest period, a 10-min all out elbow flexion task period, a 10-min bathing period, and a 10-min recovery period. We evaluated the mean power frequency (MNF) of the electromyogram (EMG), rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), skin blood flow (SBF), concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb), and subjective evaluation. Results We found that the MNF under the full immersion bath condition was significantly higher than those under the other conditions. Furthermore, Tre, SBF, and O2Hb under the full immersion bath condition were significantly higher than under the other conditions. Conclusions Following the results for the full immersion bath condition, the SBF and O2Hb of the mist sauna condition were significantly higher than those for the shower and no bathing conditions. These results suggest that full immersion bath and mist sauna are effective in facilitating recovery from muscle fatigue. PMID:22980588

2012-01-01

3

Partial volume correction using structural–functional synergistic resolution recovery: comparison with geometric transfer matrix method  

PubMed Central

We validated the use of a novel image-based method for partial volume correction (PVC), structural–functional synergistic resolution recovery (SFS-RR) for the accurate quantification of dopamine synthesis capacity measured using [18F]DOPA positron emission tomography. The bias and reliability of SFS-RR were compared with the geometric transfer matrix (GTM) method. Both methodologies were applied to the parametric maps of [18F]DOPA utilization rates (kicer). Validation was first performed by measuring repeatability on test–retest scans. The precision of the methodologies instead was quantified using simulated [18F]DOPA images. The sensitivity to the misspecification of the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of the scanner point-spread-function on both approaches was also assessed. In the in-vivo data, the kicer was significantly increased by application of both PVC procedures while the reliability remained high (intraclass correlation coefficients >0.85). The variability was not significantly affected by either PVC approach (<10% variability in both cases). The corrected kicer was significantly influenced by the FWHM applied in both the acquired and simulated data. This study shows that SFS-RR can effectively correct for partial volume effects to a comparable degree to GTM but with the added advantage that it enables voxelwise analyses, and that the FWHM used can affect the PVC result indicating the importance of accurately calibrating the FWHM used in the recovery model. PMID:23486292

Kim, Euitae; Shidahara, Miho; Tsoumpas, Charalampos; McGinnity, Colm J; Kwon, Jun Soo; Howes, Oliver D; Turkheimer, Federico E

2013-01-01

4

Oil recovery method  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced oil recovery process comprising the injection of aqueous alkaline hypochlorite solution and aqueous alkaline alcohol solution into a subterranean formation to react with crude oil and form carboxylate surfactants in-situ. In a preferred embodiment, aqueous alkaline hypochlorite solution is followed by injection of an aqueous alcohol solution to form a carboxylate-alcohol surfactant system and then an aqueous mobility buffer.

Shaw, J. E.

1985-11-19

5

Electrochemical catalyst recovery method  

DOEpatents

A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

Silva, Laura J. (Richland, WA); Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA)

1995-01-01

6

Electrochemical catalyst recovery method  

DOEpatents

A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

1995-05-30

7

Magnesium fluoride recovery method  

DOEpatents

A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

Gay, Richard L. (Canoga Park, CA); McKenzie, Donald E. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1989-01-01

8

Predicting Functional Recovery after Acute Ankle Sprain  

PubMed Central

Introduction Ankle sprains are among the most common acute musculoskeletal conditions presenting to primary care. Their clinical course is variable but there are limited recommendations on prognostic factors. Our primary aim was to identify clinical predictors of short and medium term functional recovery after ankle sprain. Methods A secondary analysis of data from adult participants (N = 85) with an acute ankle sprain, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial was undertaken. The predictive value of variables (age, BMI, gender, injury mechanism, previous injury, weight-bearing status, medial joint line pain, pain during weight-bearing dorsiflexion and lateral hop test) recorded at baseline and at 4 weeks post injury were investigated for their prognostic ability. Recovery was determined from measures of subjective ankle function at short (4 weeks) and medium term (4 months) follow ups. Multivariate stepwise linear regression analyses were undertaken to evaluate the association between the aforementioned variables and functional recovery. Results Greater age, greater injury grade and weight-bearing status at baseline were associated with lower function at 4 weeks post injury (p<0.01; adjusted R square=0.34). Greater age, weight-bearing status at baseline and non-inversion injury mechanisms were associated with lower function at 4 months (p<0.01; adjusted R square=0.20). Pain on medial palpation and pain on dorsiflexion at 4 weeks were the most valuable prognostic indicators of function at 4 months (p< 0.01; adjusted R square=0.49). Conclusion The results of the present study provide further evidence that ankle sprains have a variable clinical course. Age, injury grade, mechanism and weight-bearing status at baseline provide some prognostic information for short and medium term recovery. Clinical assessment variables at 4 weeks were the strongest predictors of recovery, explaining 50% of the variance in ankle function at 4 months. Further prospective research is required to highlight the factors that best inform the expected convalescent period, and risk of recurrence. PMID:23940806

O’Connor, Sean R.; Bleakley, Chris M.; Tully, Mark A.; McDonough, Suzanne M.

2013-01-01

9

Towards a definition of recovery of function.  

PubMed

In this review we consider recovery of function after spinal cord injury, and, in particular, recovery improved following intraspinal cellular transplants. Some recovery occurs spontaneously and this can be especially dramatic in neonates, supporting the notion that developing and adult spinal cord respond differently to injury. Recovery can be improved in both neonates and adults by appropriate cellular transplants into the injury site. We describe several functional tests used in animals with spinal lesions and transplants. We compare the effects of transplants of fetal tissue and genetically modified fibroblasts into neonatal and adult injury sites on recovery of motor and sensorimotor function. Fetal tissue transplants support greater recovery and elicit more regeneration in neonates than in adults. Transplants of fibroblasts modified to produce neurotrophic factors however support both recovery and axonal growth even in adults. The contribution of the transplant to recovery is shown by the loss of function that follows a second lesion just rostral to the original lesion/transplant site. The effect of the re-lesion indicates that the recovery is mediated by the presence of the transplant but the way in which transplants act to promote recovery may include a number of mechanisms, including regeneration and sprouting, neuroprotection, and modifications of organization of spared CNS structures. PMID:15115590

Murray, Marion; Fischer, Itzhak; Smeraski, Cynthia; Tessler, Alan; Giszter, Simon

2004-04-01

10

Optimized basis function for spectral reflectance recovery from tristimulus values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral reflectance is a significant physical property of materials. It plays an important role in color constancy, illumination modeling, and color reproduction. Spectral reflectance basis functions are the most important impact factors for spectral reflectance recovery. Previous methods mainly calculated basis functions for the reflectance spectra data sets by employing the principle component analysis (PCA) and its improved methods. In this paper, we present a new method to solve this problem. Specifically, we propose a new cost function and some constraint conditions to convert the problem into an optimization problem by minimizing the cost function. Unlike the PCA method which yields the orthogonal basis functions for approximating the reflectance spectra, our method yields the nonorthogonal basis functions for better approximating the reflectance spectra. Experimental results show that our derived basis functions are better than those obtained by the PCA method for reflectance spectra recovery.

Wu, Denglu; Tian, Jiandong; Tang, Yandong

2014-03-01

11

Method for magnesium sulfate recovery  

DOEpatents

A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

1987-08-25

12

Method for magnesium sulfate recovery  

DOEpatents

A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

Gay, Richard L. (Canoga Park, CA); Grantham, LeRoy F. (Calabasas, CA)

1987-01-01

13

Method for the recovery of oil  

SciTech Connect

This method for recovery of heavy oil involves injecting a solvent eg. toluene for the oil in admixture with either (I) a steam distillable surfactant eg. butylamine or (II) a short lived surfactant eg. a petroleum sulphonate and then injecting steam.

Buckley, P.S.; Grist, D.M.

1980-03-04

14

Prolonged Myocardial Hibernation Exacerbates Cardiomyocyte Degeneration and Impairs Recovery of Function After Revascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We sought to define the effects of time on contractile function, morphology and functional recovery after coronary revascularization in patients with dysfunctional but viable (hiber- nating) myocardium. Background. Functional recovery after coronary artery bypass graft surgery in patients with chronic myocardial hibernation is incomplete or delayed. The proposed cause is a progressive temporal degeneration of cardiomyocytes. Methods. In 32

ERNST R. SCHWARZ; FRIEDRICH A. SCHOENDUBE; SAWA KOSTIN; NICOLE SCHMIEDTKE; GERNOT SCHULZ; UDALRICH BUELL; BRUNO J. MESSMER; JOHN MORRISON

15

Prolonged Myocardial Hibernation Exacerbates Cardiomyocyte Degeneration and Impairs Recovery of Function After Revascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We sought to define the effects of time on contractile function, morphology and functional recovery after coronary revascularization in patients with dysfunctional but viable (hibernating) myocardium.Background. Functional recovery after coronary artery bypass graft surgery in patients with chronic myocardial hibernation is incomplete or delayed. The proposed cause is a progressive temporal degeneration of cardiomyocytes.Methods. In 32 patients with multivessel

Ernst R Schwarz; Friedrich A Schoendube; Sawa Kostin; Nicole Schmiedtke; Gernot Schulz; Udalrich Buell; Bruno J Messmer; John Morrison; Peter Hanrath; Juergen vom Dahl

1998-01-01

16

Actinide Recovery Method for Large Soil Samples  

SciTech Connect

A new Actinide Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides in very large soil samples. Diphonix Resin(r) is used eliminate soil matrix interferences and preconcentrate actinides after soil leaching or soil fusion. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin(r). After the resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be easily loaded onto small extraction-chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin(r), U-TEVA Resin(r) or TRU Resin(r) (Eichrom Industries). This method enables the application of small, selective extraction-columns to recover actinides from very large soil samples with high selectivity, consistent tracer recoveries and minimal liquid waste.

Maxwell, S.L. III [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Nichols, S.

1998-11-01

17

Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery  

DOEpatents

A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

Peru, Deborah A. (Bartlesville, OK)

1989-01-01

18

Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for flooding of a subterranean petroleum bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery, comprising the steps of providing at least one production well having at least one inlet within the subterranean petroleum bearing formation, and at least one injection well having at least one outlet within the subterranean petroleum bearing formation, injecting into the petroleum bearing formation through the injection well, a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution having a pH in the range of from about 8.25 to about 9.25 comprising from about 0.25 to about 5 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate, from about 0.05 to about 1.0 weight percent of petroleum recovery surfactant, and from about 1 to about 20 weight percent of sodium chloride, based on the total weight of the aqueous flooding solution, withdrawing through at least one inlet of the production wells, an oil and water mixture comprising petroleum from the subterranean petroleum bearing formation and at least a portion of the low alkaline pH sodium bicarbonate aqueous flooding solution, and separating the oil from the aqueous oil and water mixture.

Peru, D.A.

1989-04-04

19

Method for recovery of waste water residues  

SciTech Connect

A method for recovery of waste water residues containing the activated sludge biomass, fibre and bark comprising the steps of treating these with alkali solution having a concentration of 5-80 g/l on the Na/sub 2/O basis at a temperature of 20/sup 0/-70/sup 0/ C. and dewatering the reaction mixture obtained, the alkali filtrate decanted containing the activated sludge alkali hydrolysis products being used to dissolve the melt in the course of preparing the alkali pulping liquor, and the dewatered alkali mass being added, in an amount of up to 40 percent by mass, to the fibred mass composition for the manufacture of cardboard and wood-fibre board.

Grudinin, V.P.; Bukhteev, B.M.; Dergunova, T.V.

1984-11-06

20

RPC gas recovery by open loop method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RPC detectors require to be flushed with small but continuous flow of gas mixture. Dealing with large number of detectors, gas consumption to very large volumes. Gas flow is a running expense and constituent gases are too expensive to be treated as consumables. Exhaust gas mixture from detectors is a potential environmental hazard if discharged directly into the atmosphere. Storage of gases on a large scale also leads to inventory- and safety-related problems. A solution to these problems is the recovery and reuse of exhaust gas mixture from RPC detectors. Close loop method employs recirculation of exhausted gas mixture after purification, analysis and addition of top-up quantities. In open loop method, under consideration here, individual component gases are separated from gas mixture and reused as source. During open loop process, gases liquefiable at low pressures are separated from ones liquefiable at high pressure. The gas phase components within each group are successively separated by either fractional condensation or gravity separation. Gas mixture coming from RPC exhaust is first desiccated by passage through molecular sieve adsorbent type (3A+4A). Subsequent scrubbing over basic activated alumina removes toxic and acidic contaminants such as S 2F 10 produced during corona (arcing) discharge. In the first stage of separation isobutane and freon are concentrated by diffusion and liquefied by fractional condensation by cooling upto -30 °C. Liquefied gases are returned to source tanks. In the second stage of separation, argon and sulphur hexafluoride, the residual gases, are concentrated by settling due to density difference. SF 6 is stored for recovery by condensation at high pressure while argon is further purified by thermal cracking of crossover impurities at 1000 °C followed by wet scrubbing.

Joshi, Avinash; Kalmani, S. D.; Mondal, N. K.; Satyanarayana, B.

2009-05-01

21

The administration of intermittent parathyroid hormone affects functional recovery from pertrochanteric fractured neck of femur: a protocol for a prospective mixed method pilot study with randomisation of treatment allocation and blinded assessment (FRACTT)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pertrochanteric hip fractures occur in an elderly population and cause considerable morbidity and loss of functional ability as the fracture heals. Recently, parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is licensed for the treatment of osteoporosis, has been shown to potentially accelerate bone healing in animal and human studies. If its administration could allow a faster functional recovery after pertrochanteric hip fracture, then a patient's hospital stay may be reduced and rehabilitation could be potentially accelerated. PTH can currently only be administered by subcutaneous injection. The acceptability of this intervention is unknown in this elderly population. The aim of this pilot study is to inform the design of a future powered study comparing the functional recovery after pertrochanteric hip fracture in patients undergoing standard care versus those who undergo administration of subcutaneous injection of PTH. Methods and analysis The study is an open label, prospective, randomised, comparative pilot study with blinded outcomes assessment to establish feasibility of the trial design. Patients will be randomised to receive a 6-week course of PTH or usual treatment. Functional outcomes will be assessed at 6?weeks and 12?weeks. Blinded assessment will be used to minimise the effect of bias of an open label study design. A nested qualitative study will investigate the patient experience of, and expectations following, hip fracture and the patient important aspects of recovery compared with the outcome measures proposed. Results Results will be analysed to establish the potential recruitment, compliance and retention rates using 95% CIs, and trial outcomes quoted with SDs and 95% CIs for the effect size. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the South West 2 Research Ethics committee (reference 10/H0206/34). The findings of this study will be disseminated to the medical community via presentations to orthopaedic, orthogeriatric and osteoporosis societies, and their relevant specialist journals. Trial Registration ISRCTN Register reference number: ISRCTN03362357. Eudract Number: 2010-020081-22 PMID:24477319

Chesser, Tim; Fox, Rebecca; Harding, Karen; Greenwood, Rosemary; Javaid, Kassim; Barnfield, Steven; Halliday, Ruth; Willett, Keith; Lamb, Sallie

2014-01-01

22

Silencing Nogo-A Promotes Functional Recovery in Demyelinating Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if suppressing Nogo-A, an axonal inhibitory protein, will promote functional recovery in a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods A small interfering RNA was developed to specifically suppress Nogo-A (siRNA-NogoA). The siRNA-NogoA silencing effect was evaluated in vitro and in vivo via immunohistochemistry. The siRNA was administered intravenously in two models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Axonal repair was measured by upregulation of GAP43. ELISA, flow cytometry and 3H-thymidine incorporation was used to determine immunological changes in myelin-specific T cells in mice with EAE. Results The siRNA-NogoA suppressed Nogo-A expression in vitro and in vivo. Systemic administration of siRNA-NogoA ameliorated EAE and promoted axonal repair as demonstrated by enhanced GAP43+ axons in the lesions. Myelin-specific T cell proliferation and cytokine production were unchanged in the siRNA-NogoA treated mice. Interpretation Silencing Nogo-A in EAE promotes functional recovery. The therapeutic benefit appears to be mediated by axonal growth and repair, and is not attributable to changes in the encephalitogenic capacity of the myelin-specific T cells. Silencing Nogo-A may be a therapeutic option for MS patients to prevent permanent functional deficits caused by immune-mediated axonal damage. PMID:20437585

Yang, Yuhong; Liu, Yue; Wei, Ping; Peng, Haiyan; Winger, Ryan; Hussain, Rehana Z.; Ben, Li-Hong; Cravens, Petra D.; Gocke, Anne R.; Puttaparthi, Krishna; Racke, Michael K.; McTigue, Dana M.; Lovett-Racke, Amy E.

2010-01-01

23

Infarct Size as Predictor of Systolic Functional Recovery after Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of modern therapy on functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are unknown. Objectives To evaluate the predictors of systolic functional recovery after anterior wall AMI in patients undergoing modern therapy (reperfusion, aggressive platelet antiaggregant therapy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers). Methods A total of 94 consecutive patients with AMI with ST-segment elevation were enrolled. Echocardiograms were performed during the in-hospital phase and after 6 months. Systolic dysfunction was defined as ejection fraction value < 50%. Results In the initial echocardiogram, 64% of patients had systolic dysfunction. Patients with ventricular dysfunction had greater infarct size, assessed by the measurement of total and isoenzyme MB creatine kinase enzymes, than patients without dysfunction. Additionally, 24.5% of patients that initially had systolic dysfunction showed recovery within 6 months after AMI. Patients who recovered ventricular function had smaller infarct sizes, but larger values of ejection fraction and E-wave deceleration time than patients without recovery. At the multivariate analysis, it can be observed that infarct size was the only independent predictor of functional recovery after 6 months of AMI when adjusted for age, gender, ejection fraction and E-wave deceleration time. Conclusion In spite of aggressive treatment, systolic ventricular dysfunction remains a frequent event after the anterior wall myocardial infarction. Additionally, 25% of patients show functional recovery. Finally, infarct size was the only significant predictor of functional recovery after six months of acute myocardial infarction. PMID:25004416

Minicucci, Marcos F.; Farah, Elaine; Fusco, Daniéliso R.; Cogni, Ana Lúcia; Azevedo, Paula S.; Okoshi, Katashi; Zanati, Silméia G.; Matsubara, Beatriz B.; Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M.

2014-01-01

24

Evaluation of special recovery methods: activities developed by Petrobras  

SciTech Connect

Petrobras has employed conventional recovery methods (water and/or gas injection) extensively. Estimates of reserves, both primary and secondary, are tabulated and compared for the principal Brazilian oil fields. Specific field data are given for 7 secondary recovery projects, employing steam injection, in situ combustion, carbon dioxide injection, polymer waterflooding, and surfactant waterflooding.

De Andrade, P.J.V.; De Andrade, G.M.

1981-03-01

25

Evaluation of special recovery methods: activities developed by Petrobras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petrobras has employed conventional recovery methods (water and\\/or gas injection) extensively. Estimates of reserves, both primary and secondary, are tabulated and compared for the principal Brazilian oil fields. Specific field data are given for 7 secondary recovery projects, employing steam injection, in situ combustion, carbon dioxide injection, polymer waterflooding, and surfactant waterflooding.

P. J. V. De Andrade; G. M. De Andrade

1981-01-01

26

Connectivity-based approaches in stroke and recovery of function.  

PubMed

After focal damage, cerebral networks reorganise their structural and functional anatomy to compensate for both the lesion itself and remote effects. Novel developments in the analysis of functional neuroimaging data enable us to assess in vivo the specific contributions of individual brain areas to recovery of function and the effect of treatment on cortical reorganisation. Connectivity analyses can be used to investigate the effect of stroke on cerebral networks, and help us to understand why some patients make a better recovery than others. This systems-level view also provides insights into how neuromodulatory interventions might target pathological network configurations associated with incomplete recovery. In the future, such analyses of connectivity could help to optimise treatment regimens based on the individual network pathology underlying a particular neurological deficit, thereby opening the way for stratification of patients based on the possible response to an intervention. PMID:24457190

Grefkes, Christian; Fink, Gereon R

2014-02-01

27

Schwann Cells Seeded in Acellular Nerve Grafts Improve Functional Recovery  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study evaluated whether Schwann cells (SCs) from different nerve sources transplanted into cold-preserved acellular nerve grafts (CP-ANGs) would improve functional regeneration compared to nerve isografts. Methods SCs isolated and expanded from motor and sensory branches of rat femoral and sciatic nerves were seeded into 14mm CP-ANGs. Growth factor expression, axonal regeneration, and functional recovery were evaluated in a14 mm rat sciatic injury model and compared to isografts. Results At 14 days, motor or sensory-derived SCs increased expression of growth factors in CP-ANGs versus isografts. After 42 days, histomorphometric analysis found CP-ANGs with SCs and isografts had similar numbers of regenerating nerve fibers. At 84 days, muscle force generation was similar for CP-ANGs with SCs and isografts. SC source did not affect nerve fiber counts or muscle force generation. Discussion SCs transplanted into CP-ANGs increase functional regeneration to isograft levels; however SC nerve source did not have an effect. PMID:23625513

Jesuraj, Nithya J.; Santosa, Katherine B.; MacEwan, Matthew R.; Moore, Amy M.; Kasukurthi, Rahul; Ray, Wilson Z.; Flagg, Eric R.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Borschel, Gregory H.; Johnson, Philip J.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E.

2014-01-01

28

Quantification of analytical recovery in particle and microorganism enumeration methods.  

PubMed

Enumeration-based methods that are often used to quantify microorganisms and microscopic discrete particles in aqueous systems may include losses during sample processing or errors in counting. Analytical recovery (the capacity of the analyst to successfully count each microorganism or particle of interest in a sample using a specific enumeration method) is frequently assessed by enumerating samples that are seeded with known quantities of the microorganisms or particles. Probabilistic models were developed to account for the impacts of seeding and analytical error on recovery data, and probability intervals, obtained by Monte Carlo simulation, were used to evaluate recovery experiment design (i.e., seeding method, number of seeded particles, and number of samples). The method of moments, maximum likelihood estimation, and credible intervals were used to statistically analyze recovery experiment results. Low or uncertain numbers of seeded particles were found to result in variability in recovery data that was not due to analytical recovery, and should be avoided if possible. This additional variability was found to reduce the reproducibility of experimental results and necessitated the use of statistical analysis techniques, such as maximum likelihood estimation using probabilistic models that account for the impacts of sampling and analytical error in recovery data. PMID:20108894

Schmidt, Philip J; Emelko, Monica B; Reilly, Park M

2010-03-01

29

Aging profoundly delays functional recovery from gustatory nerve injury  

PubMed Central

The peripheral taste system remains plastic during adulthood. Sectioning the chorda tympani (CT) nerve, which sends sensory information from the anterior tongue to the CNS, causes degeneration of distal fibers and target taste buds. However, taste function is restored after about 40 days in young adult rodents. We tested whether aging impacts the reappearance of neural responses after unilateral CT nerve injury. Taste bud regeneration was minimal at day 50–65 after denervation, and most aged animals died before functional recovery could be assessed. A subset (n=3/5) of old rats exhibited normal CT responses at day 85 post-sectioning, suggesting the potential for efficient recovery. The aged taste system is fairly resilient to sensory receptor loss and major functional changes in normal aging. However, injury to the taste system reveals a surprising vulnerability in old rodents. The gustatory system provides an excellent model to study mechanisms underlying delayed recovery from peripheral nerve injury. Strategies to accelerate recovery and restore normal function will be of interest as the elderly population continues to grow. PMID:22387273

He, Lianying; Yadgarov, Arkadiy; Sharif, Shan; McCluskey, Lynnette Phillips

2012-01-01

30

Recovery of vestibular function following hair cell destruction by streptomycin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Can the vestibular periphery of warm-blooded vertebrates recover functionally from severe sensory hair cell loss? Recent findings in birds suggest a mechanism for recovery but in fact no direct functional evidence has been reported. We produced vestibular hair cell lesions using the ototoxic agent streptomycin sulfate (600 mg/kg/day, 8 days, chicks, Gallus domesticus). Compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve were used as a direct measure of peripheral vestibular function. Vestibular thresholds, neural activation latencies and amplitudes were documented. Eight days of drug treatment elevated thresholds significantly (P < 0.001) and eliminated all but remnants of vestibular activity. Virtually complete physiological recovery occurred in all animals studied over a period of 70 days following treatment. Thresholds recovered within two weeks of drug treatment whereas the return of response morphologies including activation latencies and amplitudes required an additional 6-8 weeks.

Jones, T. A.; Nelson, R. C.

1992-01-01

31

Functional Recovery of Older Hip-Fracture Patients after Interdisciplinary Intervention Follows Three Distinct Trajectories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose To assess the effects of an interdisciplinary intervention on the trajectories of functional recovery among older patients with hip fracture during 2 years after hospitalization. Design and Methods In a randomized controlled trial with 24-month follow-up, 162 patients [greater than or equal to]60 years were enrolled after hip-fracture…

Tseng, Ming-Yueh; Shyu, Yea-Ing L.; Liang, Jersey

2012-01-01

32

Transcranial brain stimulation to promote functional recovery after stroke  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) is increasingly used to enhance the recovery of function after stroke. The purpose of this review is to highlight and discuss some unresolved questions that need to be addressed to better understand and exploit the potential of NIBS as a therapeutic tool. Recent findings Recent meta-analyses showed that the treatment effects of NIBS in patients with stroke are rather inconsistent across studies and the evidence for therapeutic efficacy is still uncertain. This raises the question of how NIBS can be developed further to improve its therapeutic efficacy. Summary This review addressed six questions: How does NIBS facilitate the recovery of function after stroke? Which brain regions should be targeted by NIBS? Is there a particularly effective NIBS modality that should be used? Does the location of the stroke influence the therapeutic response? How often should NIBS be repeated? Is the functional state of the brain during or before NIBS relevant to therapeutic efficacy of NIBS? We argue that these questions need to be tackled to obtain sufficient mechanistic understanding of how NIBS facilitates the recovery of function. This knowledge will be critical to fully unfold the therapeutic effects of NIBS and will pave the way towards adaptive NIBS protocols, in which NIBS is tailored to the individual patient. PMID:24296641

Raffin, Estelle; Siebner, Hartwig R.

2014-01-01

33

Video-Gait Analysis of Functional Recovery of Nerve Repaired with Chitosan Nerve Guides  

E-print Network

Video-Gait Analysis of Functional Recovery of Nerve Repaired with Chitosan Nerve Guides MINAL PATEL assessment of functional sciatic nerve recovery treated with chitosan nerve guides. We used video to functional nerve recovery. The chitosan group showed increased functional improvement compared to the control

VandeVord, Pamela

34

Functional recovery is considered the most important target: a survey of dedicated professionals  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to survey the relative importance of postoperative recovery targets and perioperative care items, as perceived by a large group of international dedicated professionals. Methods A questionnaire with eight postoperative recovery targets and 13 perioperative care items was mailed to participants of the first international Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) congress and to authors of papers with a clear relevance to ERAS in abdominal surgery. The responders were divided into categories according to profession and region. Results The recovery targets ‘To be completely free of nausea’, ‘To be independently mobile’ and ‘To be able to eat and drink as soon as possible’ received the highest score irrespective of the responder's profession or region of origin. Equally, the care items ‘Optimizing fluid balance’, ‘Preoperative counselling’ and ‘Promoting early and scheduled mobilisation’ received the highest score across all groups. Conclusions Functional recovery, as in tolerance of food without nausea and regained mobility, was considered the most important target of recovery. There was a consistent uniformity in the way international dedicated professionals scored the relative importance of recovery targets and care items. The relative rating of the perioperative care items was not dependent on the strength of evidence supporting the items. PMID:25089195

2014-01-01

35

Method for silicon nitride precursor solids recovery  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus are provided for collecting reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow from a reaction situs, wherein the gaseous outflow includes a condensable vapor. A condensate is formed of the condensable vapor on static mixer surfaces within a static mixer heat exchanger. The entrained reaction product solids are captured in the condensate which can be collected for further processing, such as return to the reaction situs. In production of silicon imide, optionally integrated into a production process for making silicon nitride caramic, wherein reactant feed gas comprising silicon halide and substantially inert carrier gas is reacted with liquid ammonia in a reaction vessel, silicon imide reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow comprising residual carrier gas and vaporized ammonia can be captured by forming a condensate of the ammonia vapor on static mixer surfaces of a static mixer heat exchanger.

Crosbie, Gary M. (Dearborn, MI); Predmesky, Ronald L. (Livonia, MI); Nicholson, John M. (Wayne, MI)

1992-12-15

36

Level Set Methods for Shape Recovery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Overview of a movie on medical imaging. Imagine that you are given an image, say a medical (MRI or CT) scan. Suppose you want to extract the important feature within the image of a digital subtraction angiogram (DSA); in this case, the outline of the artery. One idea is to look for places where there is a big jump in intensity between neighboring pixels. However, it is hard to pick a good value for the jump; too small and you get extra boundaries; too large and you miss the whole show. Another problem is that you can get fooled by large spikes of noise... See also Sethian, J.A., Level Set Methods: Evolving Interfaces in Geometry, Fluid Mechanics, Computer Vision and Materials Sciences, Cambridge University Press, 1996, a book intended for mathematicians, applied scientists, practicing engineers, computer graphic artists, and anyone interested in the evolution of boundaries and interfaces.

37

A New Method for Predicting Recovery After Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Several prognostic factors have been identified for outcome after stroke. However, there is a need for empirically derived models that can predict outcome and assist in medical management during rehabilitation. To be useful, these models should take into account early changes in recovery and individual patient characteristics. We present such a model and demonstrate its clinical utility. Methods—Data

Kate Tilling; Jonathan A. C. Sterne; Anthony G. Rudd; Thomas A. Glass; Robert J. Wityk; Charles D. A. Wolfe

2010-01-01

38

40 CFR Appendix D to Part 136 - Precision and Recovery Statements for Methods for Measuring Metals  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Recovery Statements for Methods for Measuring Metals D Appendix D to Part 136 Protection...Recovery Statements for Methods for Measuring Metals Twenty-eight selected methods from...Accuracy An interlaboratory study on metal analyses by this method was...

2010-07-01

39

Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions whereas the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

Kreuzmann, A.B.

1982-10-27

40

Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions wherein the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

Kreuzmann, Alvin B. (Cincinnati, OH)

1983-01-01

41

The complex relation between myocardial viability and functional recovery in chronic left ventricular dysfunction.  

PubMed

Preserved myocardial viability and recurrent symptomatic ischemia are the most widely accepted criteria indicating that coronary revascularization should take place in patients with postischemic left ventricular dysfunction. However, the presence of viable myocardium within the infarct zone does not necessarily imply recovery of function after coronary revascularization. The complex relation between the extent of transmural necrosis and the degree of residual perfusion within the infarct area plays an important role. However, independently of functional recovery, cell viability may have important clinical implications, since it may improve long-term prognosis by attenuating left ventricular remodeling processes. Several different methods are used to detect hibernating myocardium. Mounting evidence suggests that thallium-201 scintigraphy is most sensitive in identifying tissue viability, whereas dobutamine echocardiography is most specific in predicting functional recovery after revascularization. In between, myocardial contrast echocardiography is the only technique able to evaluate the microvascular integrity that is a condition sine qua non for both cell viability and later functional recovery. Combined information derived from these 3 different approaches might be considered as the best way to understand how the combination of contractile, viable but noncontractile, and dead tissue affect resultant function and prognosis. PMID:9662225

Agati, L; Autore, C; Iacoboni, C; Castaldo, M; Veneroso, G; Voci, P; Fedele, F; Dagianti, A

1998-06-18

42

Method for the removal and recovery of mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate

C. E. Easterly; A. A. Vass; R. L. Tyndall

1997-01-01

43

Stress Recovery and Dynamic Analysis of Functionally Graded Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A macroelement recovery technique for the strain field of a functionally graded material (FGM), based on the residual dynamic equilibrium equation for elasticity, is proposed. The derivatives are recovered by solving a local variational problem, using the superconvergence points. The basic idea is to utilize post-processing to achieve a more accurate approximation of the stresses while considering the dynamic nature of the problem. The development includes dynamic modeling of FGM and can be applied to direct and inverse problems. A numerical simulation is presented to better demonstrate the proposed methodology.

Paulino, Rivânia H.; Romero, Juan S.; Menandro, Fernando C. M.

2008-02-01

44

Recovery of motor function after stroke: a polymyography-based analysis.  

PubMed

We present a method for assessing muscle activation patterns during goal-directed movement. We present a cohort study from a randomized clinical trial that followed the recovery of motor function during and after intensive gait training, assisted by sensor-driven, four-channel electrical stimulation. The instrument that we developed allows for the simultaneous recordings of up to 16 channels that are wirelessly sent to a host computer, which then provides feedback to the subject. The inputs to the portable instrument support electromyography (EMG) amplifiers, inertial sensors and goniometers. We show that this method is sensitive enough to show changes in muscle activation patterns in stroke patients before and after gait training (four weeks, five days a week, 30 min daily). We also show that the recovery decreases the differences between patterns of muscle activities (e.g., levels of muscle activations and median frequencies) assessed in hemiplegic and healthy subjects. This method allows for the analysis of muscle contributions and activation patterns; therefore, it might be possible to better understand the physiology behind the recovery of function. This EMG analysis provides a quantification of recovery that is a valuable addition to other measures, such as the Fugl-Meyer score, the Berg-Balance score, gait speed, and the symmetry index. PMID:20951735

Kojovi?, Jovana; Miljkovi?, Nadica; Jankovi?, Milica M; Popovi?, Dejan B

2011-01-15

45

Laboratory methods for enhanced oil recovery core floods  

SciTech Connect

Current research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is investigating microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) systems for application to oil reservoirs. Laboratory corefloods are invaluable in developing technology necessary for a field application of MEOR. Methods used to prepare sandstone cores for experimentation, coreflooding techniques, and quantification of coreflood effluent are discussed in detail. A technique to quantify the small volumes of oil associated with laboratory core floods is described.

Robertson, E.P.; Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

1994-03-01

46

Differences and similarities between functional and personal recovery in an Asian population: a cluster analytic approach.  

PubMed

This study gathers empirical data to test whether two forms of recovery are related: (1) the traditional outcome-based notion of recovery from a mental illness, which is called "functional recovery," and (2) the more recent, consumer-based concept of recovery in mental illness, which is called "personal recovery." A total of 150 Chinese outpatients were recruited, 75 with bipolar disorder and 75 with schizophrenia, as determined by structured clinical interview. Participants were reported to be in clinical remission for at least the previous 6 months by treating psychiatrists. Personal recovery was measured with the Stages of Recovery Scale, and functional recovery was measured with residential and employment status. In addition to clinical and demographic data, self-report measures included functioning (confirmed through chart review) and a survey of the participant's assessment of the importance of various elements of recovery. Personal recovery was significantly correlated with functional recovery; small effect size suggested that the two domains are far from identical. The strength of this correlation was stronger for participants with schizophrenia than for those with bipolar disorder. A cluster analysis also suggested that residential and employment statuses, along with personal recovery scores, were useful in differentiating participants. Patients were more likely to reach better recovery outcomes if they were female, married, had higher family income, and perceived social roles as less important to their recovery. Consistent with the consumer literature, personal recovery is related but still distinct from functional recovery. Personal recovery has more to do with life circumstances than with functioning status alone. PMID:24575912

Tse, Samson; Davidson, Larry; Chung, Ka-fai; Ng, King Lam; Yu, Chong Ho

2014-01-01

47

Recovery of Parathyroid Hormone Secretion and Function in Postoperative Hypoparathyroidism: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Context: Transient and permanent postoperative hypoparathyroidism are recognized complications of neck surgery. Postoperative hypoparathyroidism is usually considered permanent when it persists for 6 months; in rare cases, recovery of hypoparathyroidism through 1 year has been described. Recovery of hypoparathyroidism years after diagnosis has not previously been reported. Objective: We report four patients being treated with PTH(1–84) in a research protocol who recovered from postoperative hypoparathyroidism many years after onset. Methods: Recovery from hypoparathyroidism was established by: 1) serum calcium and PTH levels within the normal range off PTH(1–84) treatment for at least 1 week; 2) requirement for daily calcium supplementation reduced to ?1 g; and 3) no supplemental active vitamin D therapy. Results: Hypoparathyroidism developed in three subjects after repeated neck surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism and in one subject after total thyroidectomy for Graves' disease. Parathyroid tissue autotransplant was performed in two of the four subjects. Two had undetectable PTH levels at study entry, whereas the other two subjects had detectable, although low, PTH levels. Hypoparathyroidism had been present for at least 8 years, and in one case for 16 years. The recovery of parathyroid function followed treatment with PTH(1–84) for 36 to 63 months. Conclusions: Although it remains relatively rare, this report documents recovery of long-term postoperative hypoparathyroidism many years after the initial diagnosis. A potential role for exogenous PTH is intriguing with several plausible mechanisms. PMID:24037886

Cusano, Natalie E.; Anderson, Laura; Rubin, Mishaela R.; Silva, Barbara C.; Costa, Aline G.; Irani, Dinaz; Sliney, James

2013-01-01

48

Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation  

DOEpatents

A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

Sisemore, Clyde J. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01

49

Method for the removal and recovery of mercury  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

Easterly, Clay E. (Knoxville, TN); Vass, Arpad A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

1997-01-01

50

Method for the removal and recovery of mercury  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

Easterly, C.E.; Vass, A.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

1997-01-28

51

Arterial Injury and Endothelial Repair: Rapid Recovery of Function after Mechanical Injury in Healthy Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Objective. Previous studies suggest a protracted course of recovery after mechanical endothelial injury; confounders may include degree of injury and concomitant endothelial dysfunction. We sought to define the time course of endothelial function recovery using flow-mediated dilation (FMD), after ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) and mechanical injury in patients and healthy volunteers. The contribution of circulating CD133+/CD34+/VEGFR2+ “endothelial progenitor” (EPC) or repair cells to endothelial repair was also examined. Methods. 28 healthy volunteers aged 18–35 years underwent transient forearm ischaemia induced by cuff inflation around the proximal biceps and radial artery mechanical injury induced by inserting a wire through a cannula. A more severe mechanical injury was induced using an arterial sheath and catheter inserted into the radial artery of 18 patients undergoing angiography. Results. IR and mechanical injury produced immediate impairment of FMD (from 6.5 ± 1.2% to 2.9 ± 2.2% and from 7.4 ± 2.3% to 1.5 ± 1.6% for IR and injury, resp., each P < 0.001) but recovered within 6 hours and 2 days, respectively. FMD took up to 4 months to recover in patients. Circulating EPC did not change significantly during the injury/recovery period in all subjects. Conclusions. Recovery of endothelial function after IR and mechanical injury is rapid and not associated with a change in circulating EPC. PMID:24719774

Hunt, Joanne; Donald, Ann; Chowienczyk, Phil

2014-01-01

52

Subthreshold continuous electrical stimulation facilitates functional recovery of facial nerve after crush injury in rabbit.  

PubMed

We sought to determine whether electrical stimulation (ES) with subthreshold, continuous, low-frequency impulses is a viable clinical method for improving functional recovery after facial nerve crush injury. In 10 rabbits, bilateral crush injuries were made on the facial nerve by compression for 30 s with mosquito forceps, causing complete facial paralysis. Subthreshold continuous direct current ES with 20-Hz square-wave pulses was applied to the proximal stump on one side for 4 weeks. Vibrissae movement returned significantly earlier on the ES side, with a less variable recovery time. Electrophysiologically, the stimulated side had a significantly shorter latency, longer duration, and faster conduction velocity. Light and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the electrical stimulation also markedly decreased Wallerian degeneration. The average numbers of fluorescent, double-labeled nerve cells were significantly different between the ES and non-ES sides. This study shows that subthreshold, continuous, low-frequency ES immediately after a crush injury of the facial nerve results in earlier recovery of facial function and shorter overall recovery time. PMID:21254091

Kim, Jin; Han, Su Jin; Shin, Dong Hyun; Lee, Won-Sang; Choi, Jae Young

2011-02-01

53

Plasticity of Language-Related Brain Function During Recovery from Stroke  

E-print Network

to correlate functional recovery from aphasia after acute stroke with the temporal evolution of the anatomic during recovery from acute stroke presenting with aphasia. Perfusion, diffusion, sodium, and conventional patient, in whom mapping was performed fortuitously before stroke, recovery of a Wernicke's aphasia showed

54

Neurogenic bladder following myelopathies: Has it any correlation with neurological and functional recovery?  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To observe neurogenic bladder pattern in patients with myelopathy by performing urodynamic study (UDS) and to observe whether it has any correlation with functional and neurological recovery. Patients and Methods: This prospective study was conducted with 90 patients with myelopathy, both traumatic and non-traumatic (males = 65) in a university tertiary research hospital in India between January 2011 and December 2013. Mean age was 33.5 ± 13.2 years (range 15-65 years), mean duration of injury was 82.63 ± 88.3 days (range 14-365 days) and mean length of stay (LOS) in the rehabilitation unit 42.5 ± 23.3 days (range 14-130 days). The urodynamic study was performed in all the patients to assess the neurogenic bladder pattern. Management was based on the UDS findings. Functional recovery was assessed using Barthel index (BI) scores and spinal cord independence measures (SCIM) scores. Neurological recovery was assessed using ASIA impairment scale (AIS). We tried to correlate neurogenic bladder patterns with recovery. Results: Fifty patients (55.6%) had overactive detrusor with 25 each had detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) and synergic sphincter. Thirty-eight patients had hypoactive/acontractile detrusor and two had normal studies. No significant correlation observed between neurogenic bladder pattern and change in BI scores (P = 0.696), SCIM scores (P = 0.135) or change in ASIA status (P = 0.841) in the study. Conclusions: More than half of the patients with myelopathies had overactive detrusor with or without dyssynergic sphincter according to the urodynamic study. Neurogenic bladder patterns had no significant correlation with functional and neurological recovery in these patients.

Menon, Nitin; Gupta, Anupam; Taly, Arun B.; Khanna, Meeka; Kumar, Sushruth Nagesh

2014-01-01

55

Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery  

DOEpatents

A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (1) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (2) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the conate water of the production field; (3) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (4) mathematically comparing the maps from step (1) and step (3) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

1984-03-30

56

The Effects of Rehabilitation Protocol on Functional Recovery After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of rehabilitation protocol which corresponds to surgical technique results in optimal postoperative outcome and functional recovery of patients to a pre-injury level of activity. The aim of this paper is to show the effects of the official rehabilitation protocol in our Institute on functional recovery of patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Patients and methods: In prospective study, we evaluated 70 males after ACL reconstruction using hamstring graft. Patients were divided into two groups according to the manner of conducting the postoperative rehabilitation. Group A consisted of 35 patients that followed postoperative rehabilitation according to the rehabilitation protocol. Group B also 35 patients, which did not undergo the rehabilitation protocol. We evaluated thigh muscle circumference and modified Tegner Lysholm Score, preoperatively and postoperatively after 1,3,6 and 12 months. In the statistical analysis, the Studentov T-test was used. Results: In the first postoperative month, the difference between groups in thigh muscle circumference is statistically significant (p<0,05). This difference between groups is statistically highly significant after 3, 6, and 12 months postoperative (p<0,01). Results of the modified Tegner Lysholm Score is statistically highly significant in 1, 3 and 6 postoperative months in patients from the experimental group (p<0,01). Conclusion: The positive effects of the rehabilitation protocol results in significant increase of the thigh muscle circumference and faster functional recovery of patients after ACL reconstruction. PMID:25568570

Dragicevic-Cvjetkovic, Dragana; Jandric, Slavica; Bijeljac, Sinisa; Palija, Stanislav; Manojlovic, Slavko; Talic, Goran

2014-01-01

57

Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Stimulation Impairs Epidermal Permeability Barrier Function and Recovery and Modulates Cornified Envelope Proteins  

PubMed Central

Aim To characterize how nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) influence epidermal barrier function and recovery following prolonged stress or direct nAChR activation or antagonism. Main Methods Mice were subjected to psychological stress or treated topically with nAChR agonist or antagonist for 3 days. We assessed barrier permeability and recovery by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) before and after barrier disruption. In parallel, we analyzed the production and localization of several epidermal cornified envelope proteins in mouse skin and in human EpiDerm™ organotypic constructs stimulated with a nAChR agonist (nicotine) and/or a nAChR selective antagonist (?-bungarotoxin). Key Findings We determined that psychological stress in mice impairs barrier permeability function and recovery, an effect that is reversed by application of the ?7 selective nAChR antagonist, ?-bungarotoxin (Bung). In the absence of stress, both topical nicotine or Bung treatment alone impaired barrier permeability. We further observed that stress, topical nicotine, or topical Bung treatment in mice influenced the abundance and/or localization of filaggrin, loricrin, and involucrin. Similar alterations in these three major cornified envelope proteins were observed in human EpiDerm™ cultures. Significance Perceived psychological stress and nicotine usage can both initiate or exacerbate several dermatoses by altering the cutaneous permeability barrier. Modulation of nAChRs by topical agonists or antagonists may be used to improve epidermal barrier function in skin diseases associated with defects in epidermal barrier permeability. PMID:22940618

Curtis, Brenda J.; Plichta, Jennifer K.; Blatt, Hanz; Droho, Steven; Griffin, Tina M.; Radek, Katherine A.

2012-01-01

58

Prognostic Factors Predicting Early Recovery of Pre-fracture Functional Mobility in Elderly Patients With Hip Fracture  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the prognostic factors predicting the recovery of pre-fracture functional mobility, we evaluated this by the use of ambulatory assistive devices in short-term follow-up. Methods Five hundred and fifty-three elderly patients who had undergone hip fracture operations from January 2006 to June 2013 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Clinical characteristics and predicted factors affecting functional recovery, such as the delay of rehabilitation after the operation, were reviewed. The functional status of the gait was classified as either a bedridden state, wheelchair-bound state, walker gait, single cane gait, and self-gait without any ambulatory assistance device. When this functional grade in patients who recovered after the surgery was compared to before the surgery, this state was considered 'functional recovery'. Results One hundred and ninety-two patients (34.7%) showed recovery of preoperative mobility in the first month after their operation. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified that the following four factors were significantly associated with a deterioration of functional recovery: old age (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-0.97), delays in rehabilitation after operation (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.98), the presence of cognitive dysfunction (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.18-0.71), and trochanteric fracturing (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.36-0.94). Conclusion We found that old age, cognitive dysfunction, trochanteric fracture type, and delay of rehabilitation were associated with the deterioration of functional recovery after a hip fracture operation in the short-term. Therefore, early rehabilitation was required to acquire functional recovery after a hip fracture operation in the short-term.

Lee, Daegu; Jo, Jae Yong; Jung, Ji Sun

2014-01-01

59

Expansion resetting for recovery from fatal error in Monte Carlo localization - comparison with sensor resetting methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though Monte Carlo localization is a popular method for mobile robot localization, it requires a method for recovery of large estimation error in itself. In this paper, a recovery method, which is named an expansion resetting method, is newly proposed. A blending of the expansion resetting method and another, which is called the sensor resetting method, is also proposed. We

Ryuichi UEDA; Tamio ARAI; K. Sakamoto; T. Kikuchi; S. Kamiya

2004-01-01

60

Neuromotor recovery from stroke: computational models at central, functional, and muscle synergy level  

PubMed Central

Computational models of neuromotor recovery after a stroke might help to unveil the underlying physiological mechanisms and might suggest how to make recovery faster and more effective. At least in principle, these models could serve: (i) To provide testable hypotheses on the nature of recovery; (ii) To predict the recovery of individual patients; (iii) To design patient-specific “optimal” therapy, by setting the treatment variables for maximizing the amount of recovery or for achieving a better generalization of the learned abilities across different tasks. Here we review the state of the art of computational models for neuromotor recovery through exercise, and their implications for treatment. We show that to properly account for the computational mechanisms of neuromotor recovery, multiple levels of description need to be taken into account. The review specifically covers models of recovery at central, functional and muscle synergy level. PMID:23986688

Casadio, Maura; Tamagnone, Irene; Summa, Susanna; Sanguineti, Vittorio

2013-01-01

61

Recovery Time of Platelet Function After Aspirin Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Introduction Inappropriate antiplatelet therapy discontinuation increases the risk of thrombotic complications and bleeding after dental procedures. To determine the platelet reactivity recovery time after aspirin withdrawal in vivo, our study was conducted in patients with low-risk cardiovascular disease who can stop aspirin administration following the guidelines stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians. The time it takes for platelet activity to normalize and the diagnostic accuracy of testing methods were assessed for a residual antiplatelet activity with multiple electrode aggregometry. Our study included patients with clinically indicated hypertension preparing for a dental extraction procedure. Materials and methods A total of 212 patients not taking aspirin (control group) and 248 patients with hypertension receiving long-time aspirin treatment at a 100-mg daily dose were prospectively included in the study, which involved stopping aspirin intake before dental extraction. The residual platelet activity and dental bleeding in patients who stopped aspirin intake were analyzed and compared with those of the control group. In addition, platelet reactivity recovery time and bleeding risk in patients who stopped taking aspirin every 24 hours for 0 to 5 days (0–143 hours) before dental extraction was also assessed. Results Platelet reactivity normalized 96 hours after aspirin withdrawal. The cut-off value of 49 arbitrary units in the arachidonic acid platelet aggregation test excluded the effect of aspirin with 91% sensitivity and 66% specificity. AUC showed 0.86 (P < 0.001) diagnostic accuracy. The immediate bleeding complications in all treatment groups were similar to those seen in the control group and were successfully managed with local hemostatic measures. Conclusions The antiplatelet effects of aspirin disappeared 96 hours after aspirin withdrawal in our study, and dental extractions may be safely performed in this period when appropriate local hemostatic measures are taken. Based on these results, a shorter aspirin intake cessation period may be allowable in complex dental procedures and surgery for which a longer aspirin intake cessation period (7–10 days) is recommended based on the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines. PMID:25031665

Lee, Jeonghun; Kim, Jeong Kyung; Kim, Jeong Hee; Dunuu, Tsagaan; Park, Sang-Ho; Park, Sang Joon; Kang, Ji Yeon; Choi, Rak Kyeong; Hyon, Min Su

2014-01-01

62

Postoperative Recovery of Visual Function after Macula-Off Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine which factors affect the recovery of visual function in macula off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods In a prospective study of forty-five patients with a primary macula-off RRD of 24 hours to 6 weeks duration, the height of the macular detachment was determined by ultrasonography. At 12 months postoperatively, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast acuity, and color confusion indexes (CCI) were obtained. Results Macular detachment was present for 2–32 (median 7) days before repair. A shorter duration of macular detachment was correlated with a better CCI saturé (p?=?0.0026) and lower LogMAR BCVA (better Snellen visual acuity)(p?=?0.012). Also, a smaller height of macular detachment was correlated with a lower LogMAR BCVA (p?=?0.0034). A younger age and lower pre-operative LogMAR BCVA at presentation were both correlated with better postoperative contrast acuity in the total group (age: p?=?1.7×10?4 and pre-operative LogMAR BCVA: p?=?0.0034). Conclusion Functional recovery after macula-off RRD is affected by the duration and the height of the macular detachment. Recovery of contrast acuity is also affected by age and BCVA at presentation. Meeting presentation ARVO annual meeting 2013, May 7, Seattle, Washington, United States of America. Trial registration: trialregister.nl NTR839 PMID:24927502

van de Put, Mathijs A. J.; Croonen, Danna; Nolte, Ilja M.; Japing, Wouter J.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.

2014-01-01

63

The effects of ADL on recovery of swallowing function in stroke patients after acute phase.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the association between the degree of recovery from dysphagia and changes in functional independence measure (FIM) items in stroke patients after acute phase by conducting a historical cohort study, because none explains the effects of activities of daily living (ADL) on recovery of swallowing function. Study patients included hospitalised stroke patients after acute phase in whom dysphagia was confirmed (n = 72). Change in nutritional intake method score was examined for association with age, days from stroke onset to admission, length of hospital stay and change in FIM score. Moreover, to examine characteristics of patients who were removed from tube feeding, all patients who required tube feeding at the time of admission were divided into two groups comprising those who required tube feeding at discharge and those who did not. A significant and positive association was observed between change in nutritional intake method and FIM for all items other than self-care of bathing, locomotion of stairs and problem solving. Patients who were removed from tube feeding were significantly younger than those who required tube feeding at the time of discharge (P < 0.041) and also showed significantly higher FIM scores for transfer and all cognitive FIM items at the time of admission (P < 0.05). This study demonstrated that nutritional intake methods improve in conjunction with FIM improvements in patients with dysphagia following the acute phase of stroke. Our results suggest that the age and cognitive function may influence the recovery of patient ability of oral intake. PMID:25041090

Nakayama, E; Tohara, H; Hino, T; Sato, M; Hiraba, H; Abe, K; Ueda, K

2014-12-01

64

Arm function after stroke. An evaluation of grip strength as a measure of recovery and a prognostic indicator.  

PubMed Central

The value of strength of voluntary grip as an indicator of recovery of arm function was assessed by testing 38 recent stroke patients using a sensitive electronic dynamometer, and comparing the results with those from five other arm movement and function tests (Motricity Index, Motor Club Assessment, Nine Hole Peg Test, and Frenchay Arm Test). This procedure allowed measurement of grip in a large proportion of patients, and strength correlated highly with performance on the other tests. Measuring grip over a six month follow up period was a sensitive method of charting intrinsic neurological recovery. The presence of voluntary grip at one month indicates that there will be some functional recovery at six months. PMID:2592969

Sunderland, A; Tinson, D; Bradley, L; Hewer, R L

1989-01-01

65

Combination of diffusion tensor and functional magnetic resonance imaging during recovery from the vegetative state.  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Combination of diffusion tensor and functional magnetic resonance imaging during recovery from the vegetative state Davinia Fernández-Espejo1,2, Carme Junque1,2*, Damian Cruse3, Montserrat Bernabeu4, Teresa Roig-Rovira5... , Petersen SE: Common blood flow changes across visual tasks:II. Decreases in cerebral cortex. J Cogn Neurosci 1997, 9:648-663. 38. Fair DA, Schlaggar BL, Cohen AL, Miezin FM, Dosenbach NU, Wenger KK, Fox MD, Snyder AZ, Raichle ME, Petersen SE: A method...

Fernandez-Espejo, Davinia; Junque, Carme; Cruse, Damian; Bernabeu, Montserrat; Roig-Rovira, Teresa; Fabregas, Neus; Rivas, Eva; Mercader, Jose M

2010-09-03

66

Acute Leptin Treatment Enhances Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Background Spinal cord injury is a major cause of long-term disability and has no current clinically accepted treatment. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, is best known as a regulator of food intake and energy expenditure. Interestingly, several studies have demonstrated that leptin has significant effects on proliferation and cell survival in different neuropathologies. Here, we sought to evaluate the role of leptin after spinal cord injury. Findings Based on its proposed neuroprotective role, we have evaluated the effects of a single, acute intraparenchymal injection of leptin in a clinically relevant animal model of spinal cord injury. As determined by quantitative Real Time-PCR, endogenous leptin and the long isoform of the leptin receptor genes show time-dependent variations in their expression in the healthy and injured adult spinal cord. Immunohistochemical analysis of post-injury tissue showed the long isoform of the leptin receptor expression in oligodendrocytes and, to a lesser extent, in astrocytes, microglia/macrophages and neurons. Moreover, leptin administered after spinal cord injury increased the expression of neuroprotective genes, reduced caspase-3 activity and decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules. In addition, histological analysis performed at the completion of the study showed that leptin treatment reduced microglial reactivity and increased caudal myelin preservation, but it did not modulate astroglial reactivity. Consequently, leptin improved the recovery of sensory and locomotor functioning. Conclusions Our data suggest that leptin has a prominent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory role in spinal cord damage and highlights leptin as a promising therapeutic agent. PMID:22536415

Fernández-Martos, Carmen María; González, Pau; Rodriguez, Francisco Javier

2012-01-01

67

SLEEP, Vol. 33, No. 8, 2010 1013 Neurobehavioral Recovery Dynamics from Sleep Restriction--Banks et al RECOVERY OF NEUROBEHAVIORAL FUNCTIONS  

E-print Network

sleep-restricted rats revealed increased recovery sleep du- ration, NREM and REM sleep durationsSLEEP, Vol. 33, No. 8, 2010 1013 Neurobehavioral Recovery Dynamics from Sleep Restriction--Banks et al RECOVERY OF NEUROBEHAVIORAL FUNCTIONS FROM CHRONIC CURTAILMENT OF SLEEP DURATION AS A RESULT

Pennsylvania, University of

68

Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles  

DOEpatents

A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

2013-06-11

69

Monitoring of thermal enhanced oil recovery processes with electromagnetic methods  

SciTech Connect

Research in applying electromagnetic methods for imaging thermal enhanced oil recovery has progressed significantly during the past eighteen months. Working together with researchers at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and supported by a group of industrial sponsors we have focused our effort on field system development and doing field surveys connected with EOR operations. Field surveys were recently completed at the Lost Hills No.3 oil field and at UC Richmond Field station. At Lost Hills, crosshole EM data sets were collected before a new phase of steam injection for EOR and again four months after the onset of steaming. The two data sets were nearly identical suggesting that very little steam had been injected into this borehole. This is in accord with the operators records which indicate injectivity problems with this particular well. At Richmond we conducted a salt water injection monitoring experiment where 50,000 gallons of salt water were injected in a shallow aquifer and crosshole EM data were collected using the injection well and several observation wells. We applied the imaging code to some of the collected data and produced an image showing that the salt water slug has propagated 8--10 m from the injector into the aquifer. This result is partially confirmed by prior calculations and well logging data. Applying the EM methods to the problem of oil field characterization essentially means extending the borehole resistivity log into the region between wells. Since the resistivity of a sedimentary environment is often directly dependent on the fluids in the rock the knowledge of the resistivity distribution within an oil field can be invaluable for finding missed or bypassed oil or for mapping the overall structure. With small modification the same methods used for mapping EOR process can be readily applied to determining the insitu resistivity structure.

Wilt, M.

1992-09-01

70

Method for stabilizing an acrylamide polymer in a petroleum recovery process  

SciTech Connect

A method for stabilizing an acrylamide polymer in a petroleum recovery process is described. As a result of investigations into methods for stabilizing acrylamide polymers and additives for stabilizing these polymers in a petroleum recovery process, it has been found that aqueous solutions of these polymers can be stabilized for use in a petroleum recovery process by the addition of 2-mercaptobenzoimidazole or its water soluble salt. 1 claim.

Kanda, S.; Kawamura, G.

1983-07-12

71

Methods for optimal recovery of Malassezia furfur from blood culture.  

PubMed Central

Malassezia furfur, a recently described agent of catheter-associated sepsis, requires long-chained fatty acids for in vitro growth. To determine optimum conditions for recovery of the organism from blood culture, we compared a radiometric (BACTEC) with a lysis centrifugation-direct agar plating (Isolator) blood culture method. When blood culture isolates of M. furfur were suspended in phosphate-buffered saline and used as inocula, the BACTEC system detected the organisms radiometrically only when bottles were supplemented with lipid compounds; detection was often delayed (greater than or equal to 72 h) when small inoculum sizes were tested. The Isolator pediatric tube system detected growth of M. furfur within 48 h of plating onto a lipid-supplemented agar medium. Simulated blood culture experiments showed that the addition of whole human blood and Intralipid to the BACTEC 6B bottle was associated with rapid lysis of erythrocytes, accumulation of a chocolate brown sediment in the bottles, and fungicidal activity to the M. furfur isolates. In contrast, suspensions of M. furfur in whole human blood were stable for at least 8 h in Isolator tubes and quantitatively recoverable after plating onto agar. Of the two systems studied, the Isolator tube system provided a more suitable procedure for isolation of M. furfur from blood culture. PMID:3771759

Marcon, M J; Powell, D A; Durrell, D E

1986-01-01

72

Thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus for exploiting deep well reservoirs utilizes electric downhole steam generators to provide supplemental heat to generate high quality steam from hot pressurized water which is heated at the surface. A downhole electric heater placed within a well bore for local heating of the pressurized liquid water into steam is powered by electricity from the above-ground gas turbine-driven electric generators fueled by any clean fuel such as natural gas, distillate or some crude oils, or may come from the field being stimulated. Heat recovered from the turbine exhaust is used to provide the hot pressurized water. Electrical power may be cogenerated and sold to an electric utility to provide immediate cash flow and improved economics. During the cogeneration period (no electrical power to some or all of the downhole units), the oil field can continue to be stimulated by injecting hot pressurized water, which will flash into lower quality steam at reservoir conditions. The heater includes electrical heating elements supplied with three-phase alternating current or direct current. The injection fluid flows through the heater elements to generate high quality steam to exit at the bottom of the heater assembly into the reservoir. The injection tube is closed at the bottom and has radial orifices for expanding the injection fluid to reservoir pressure.

Stahl, Charles R. (Scotia, NY); Gibson, Michael A. (Houston, TX); Knudsen, Christian W. (Houston, TX)

1987-01-01

73

Factors Associated With Neurological Recovery of Brainstem Function Following Postoperative Conformal Radiation Therapy for Infratentorial Ependymoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To identify risk factors associated with incomplete neurological recovery in pediatric patients with infratentorial ependymoma treated with postoperative conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods: The study included 68 patients (median age +- standard deviation of 2.6 +- 3.8 years) who were followed for 5 years after receiving CRT (54-59.4 Gy) and were assessed for function of cranial nerves V to VII and IX to XII, motor weakness, and dysmetria. The mean (+- standard deviation) brainstem dose was 5,487 (+-464) cGy. Patients were divided into four groups representing those with normal baseline and follow-up, those with abnormal baseline and full recovery, those with abnormal baseline and partial or no recovery, and those with progressive deficits at 12 (n = 62 patients), 24 (n = 57 patients), and 60 (n = 50 patients) months. Grouping was correlated with clinical and treatment factors. Results: Risk factors (overall risk [OR], p value) associated with incomplete recovery included gender (male vs. female, OR = 3.97, p = 0.036) and gross tumor volume (GTV) (OR/ml = 1.23, p = 0.005) at 12 months, the number of resections (>1 vs. 1; OR = 23.7, p = 0.003) and patient age (OR/year = 0.77, p = 0.029) at 24 months, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting (Yes vs. No; OR = 21.9, p = 0.001) and GTV volume (OR/ml = 1.18, p = 0.008) at 60 months. An increase in GTV correlated with an increase in the number of resections (p = 0.001) and CSF shunting (p = 0.035); the number of resections correlated with CSF shunting (p < 0.0001), and male patients were more likely to undergo multiple tumor resections (p = 0.003). Age correlated with brainstem volume (p < 0.0001). There were no differences in outcome based on the absolute or relative volume of the brainstem that received more than 54 Gy. Conclusions: Incomplete recovery of brainstem function after CRT for infratentorial ependymoma is related to surgical morbidity and the volume and the extent of tumor.

Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.or [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Chitti, Ramana M. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Sanford, Robert A. [Semmes-Murphy Neurological Institute, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Khan, Raja B. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

2010-02-01

74

Walking Recovery After an Acute Stroke: Assessment With a New Functional Classification and the Barthel Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viosca E, Lafuente R, Martínez JL, Almagro PL, Gracia A, González C. Walking recovery after an acute stroke: assessment with a new functional classification and the Barthel Index. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86:1239–44.

Enrique Viosca; Rubén Lafuente; José L. Martínez; Pedro L. Almagro; Antonio Gracia; Carmen González

2005-01-01

75

PLANKTON RESPIRATION AND BIOMASS AS FUNCTIONAL INDICATORS OF RECOVERY IN RESTORED PRAIRIE WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Reliable ecological indicators of wetland integrity are necessary for assessing recovery of restored wetlands, yet little consensus currently exists on which indicators are most appropriate. We employed indicators derived from simple, standard measures of ecosystem function selec...

76

Femur bone mineral density is independently associated with functional recovery after hip fracture in elderly women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Di Monaco M, Di Monaco R, Mautino F, Cavanna A. Femur bone mineral density is independently associated with functional recovery after hip fracture in elderly women. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1715-20. Objective: To evaluate the association between femur bone mineral density (BMD) and functional recovery after hip fracture. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Rehabilitation hospital in Italy. Participants: A total of

Marco Di Monaco; Roberto Di Monaco; Fulvio Mautino; Alberto Cavanna

2002-01-01

77

Monitoring aquifer storage and recovery using multiple geophysical methods , Kristofer Davis  

E-print Network

Monitoring aquifer storage and recovery using multiple geophysical methods Yaoguo Li , Kristofer-gravity methods to monitor an aquifer storage recovery (ASR) project. An abandoned coal mine has been developed the primary storage space in the aquifer. The ASR project at Leyden, CO provides an ideal test site for hydro

78

Monitoring Functional Impairment and Recovery after Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats by fMRI  

PubMed Central

Abstract The present study was designed to test a hypothesis that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to monitor functional impairment and recovery after moderate experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). Moderate TBI was induced by lateral fluid percussion injury in adult rats. The severity of brain damage and functional recovery in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) was monitored for up to 56 days using fMRI, cerebral blood flow (CBF) by arterial spin labeling, local field potential measurements (LFP), behavioral assessment, and histology. All the rats had reduced blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses during the 1st week after trauma in the ipsilateral S1. Forty percent of these animals showed recovery of the BOLD response during the 56 day follow-up. Unexpectedly, no association was found between the recovery in BOLD response and the volume of the cortical lesion or thalamic neurodegeneration. Instead, the functional recovery occurred in rats with preserved myelinated fibers in layer VI of S1. This is, to our knowledge, the first study demonstrating that fMRI can be used to monitor post-TBI functional impairment and consequent spontaneous recovery. Moreover, the BOLD response was associated with the density of myelinated fibers in the S1, rather than with neurodegeneration. The present findings encourage exploration of the usefulness of fMRI as a noninvasive prognostic biomarker for human post-TBI outcomes and therapy responses. PMID:23259713

Niskanen, Juha-Pekka; Airaksinen, Antti M.; Sierra, Alejandra; Huttunen, Joanna K.; Nissinen, Jari; Karjalainen, Pasi A.; Pitkänen, Asla

2013-01-01

79

Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a promising strategy for peripheral nerve repair.

Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin, E-mail: chengleiyx@126.com

2013-10-18

80

Cold water immersion enhances recovery of submaximal muscle function after resistance exercise.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of cold water immersion (CWI) on the recovery of muscle function and physiological responses after high-intensity resistance exercise. Using a randomized, cross-over design, 10 physically active men performed high-intensity resistance exercise followed by one of two recovery interventions: 1) 10 min of CWI at 10°C or 2) 10 min of active recovery (low-intensity cycling). After the recovery interventions, maximal muscle function was assessed after 2 and 4 h by measuring jump height and isometric squat strength. Submaximal muscle function was assessed after 6 h by measuring the average load lifted during 6 sets of 10 squats at 80% of 1 repetition maximum. Intramuscular temperature (1 cm) was also recorded, and venous blood samples were analyzed for markers of metabolism, vasoconstriction, and muscle damage. CWI did not enhance recovery of maximal muscle function. However, during the final three sets of the submaximal muscle function test, participants lifted a greater load (P < 0.05, Cohen's effect size: 1.3, 38%) after CWI compared with active recovery. During CWI, muscle temperature decreased ?7°C below postexercise values and remained below preexercise values for another 35 min. Venous blood O2 saturation decreased below preexercise values for 1.5 h after CWI. Serum endothelin-1 concentration did not change after CWI, whereas it decreased after active recovery. Plasma myoglobin concentration was lower, whereas plasma IL-6 concentration was higher after CWI compared with active recovery. These results suggest that CWI after resistance exercise allows athletes to complete more work during subsequent training sessions, which could enhance long-term training adaptations. PMID:25121612

Roberts, Llion A; Nosaka, Kazunori; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

2014-10-15

81

Electroacupuncture for Bladder Function Recovery in Patients Undergoing Spinal Anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine the efficacy of electroacupuncture on recovering postanesthetic bladder function. Materials and Methods. Sixty-one patients undergoing spinal anaesthesia were recruited and allocated into electroacupuncture or control group randomly. Patients in electroacupuncture group received electroacupuncture therapy whereas ones in control group were not given any intervention. Primary endpoint was incidence of bladder overdistension and postoperative urinary retention. Secondary endpoints included time to spontaneous micturition, voided volume, and adverse events. Results. All patients (31 in electroacupuncture group and 30 in control group) completed the evaluation. During postoperative follow-up, patients in electroacupuncture group presented a significant lower proportion of bladder overdistension than counterparts in control group (16.1% versus 53.3%, P < 0.01). However, no significant difference was found in incidence of postoperative urinary retention between the two groups (0% versus 6.7%, P > 0.05). Furthermore, a shorter time to spontaneous micturition was found in electroacupuncture group compared to control group (228?min versus 313?min, P < 0.001), whereas urine volume and adverse events had no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions. Electroacupuncture reduced the proportion of bladder overdistension and shortened the time to spontaneous micturition in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia. Electroacupuncture may be a therapeutic strategy for postanesthetic bladder dysfunction. PMID:25610486

2014-01-01

82

Predicting recovery of facial nerve function following injury from a basilar skull fracture.  

PubMed

Twenty-five patients with posttraumatic facial nerve palsy were studied. Partial recovery of function had occurred in 95% of these patients by 18 months after injury. At 5 months posttrauma, there was some recovery in 92.5% of those with a partial lesion compared with 10% of those with a complete lesion. This difference attains statistical significance. Complete recovery of nerve function had occurred by 10.5 months in 53.5% of the patients; in 62% of patients with a partial lesion, complete recovery had occurred by 4 months compared with 0% in those with a complete lesion. This difference also attains statistical significance. There was no statistically significant difference in recovery of function between patients with an immediate as opposed to a delayed onset of facial nerve palsy. It was determined that the degree of palsy had a statistically significant influence on recovery of facial nerve function, whereas the time of onset did not. The data presented support a conservative approach to these injuries and it is recommended that the possibility of surgical treatment should be entertained in patients with complete facial palsy persisting for 12 to 18 months after injury. PMID:1919699

Adegbite, A B; Khan, M I; Tan, L

1991-11-01

83

Method of recovery of gas flow pressure based on the results of measurements in short-duration wind tunnels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a method of recovery of gas flow pressure from the results of measurements by a piezoelectric pressure sensor in short-duration wind tunnels. It is assumed that the measuring system is a linear dynamic object. A quasisolution of linear Volterra integral equation of the first kind is constructed based on the condition that the equation holds on average in successive intervals into which the time interval of the measurement is divided. An experimental technique for determining the normal response of the sensor (transfer function) is proposed, and an example of recovery of air flow pressure in a wind tunnel is given.

Derevyanko, V. A.; Kukushkin, S. V.; Latypov, A. F.

2014-11-01

84

Peritoneal dialysis does not adversely affect kidney function recovery after congenital heart surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to correct congenital heart disease is common. We prevent fluid overload and further cardiac compromise in oliguric infants with continuous peritoneal dialysis (CPD). The effect of CPD on kidney recovery is unknown, thus indications to discontinue CPD are unclear. We aimed to determine if CPD affects kidney recovery, measured by urine output and novel urinary AKI biomarker concentrations. Methods Twenty infants <90 days old with congenital heart disease who underwent bypass surgery and were post-operatively treated with CPD were randomized at the time of clinical readiness for CPD discontinuation to 1) discontinue CPD (control) or 2) continue 24 h more CPD (experimental). Urine output (ml/kg per h), total output (ml/kg per h) and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, interleukin-18, liver-type fatty acid binding protein, and kidney injury molecule-1 were assessed post-surgery until CPD catheter removal. Results 24 hours preceding randomization, there were no differences in mean urine output or total output; 24 hours post-randomization, the control group had higher mean urine output (4.2 ± 2.6 ml/kg per h vs. 2.8 ± 2.0 ml/kg per h, p = 0.02) but lower total output (6.3 ± 2.1 ml/kg per h vs. 4.7 ± 2.7 ml/kg per h, p = 0.01). Median biomarker concentrations did not differ significantly between groups at any time point. Conclusions Our results suggest renal replacement therapy does not change the time course of kidney function recovery. PMID:24634333

Riley, Alyssa A.; Jefferies, John L.; Nelson, David P.; Bennett, Michael R.; Blinder, Joshua J.; Ma, Qing; Devarajan, Prasad; Goldstein, Stuart L.

2015-01-01

85

Apolipoprotein E Mimetic Promotes Functional and Histological Recovery in Lysolecithin-Induced Spinal Cord Demyelination in Mice  

PubMed Central

Objective Considering demyelination is the pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), reducing demyelination and/or promoting remyelination is a practical therapeutic strategy to improve functional recovery for MS. An apolipoprotein E (apoE)-mimetic peptide COG112 has previously demonstrated therapeutic efficacy on functional and histological recovery in a mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of human MS. In the current study, we further investigated whether COG112 promotes remyelination and improves functional recovery in lysolecithin induced focal demyelination in the white matter of spinal cord in mice. Methods A focal demyelination model was created by stereotaxically injecting lysolecithin into the bilateral ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) of T8 and T9 mouse spinal cords. Immediately after lysolecithin injection mice were treated with COG112, prefix peptide control or vehicle control for 21 days. The locomotor function of the mice was measured by the beam walking test and Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) assessment. The nerve transmission of the VLF of mice was assessed in vivo by transcranial magnetic motor evoked potentials (tcMMEPs). The histological changes were also examined by by eriochrome cyanine staining, immunohistochemistry staining and electron microscopy (EM) method. Results The area of demyelination in the spinal cord was significantly reduced in the COG112 group. EM examination showed that treatment with COG112 increased the thickness of myelin sheaths and the numbers of surviving axons in the lesion epicenter. Locomotor function was improved in COG112 treated animals when measured by the beam walking test and BMS assessment compared to controls. TcMMEPs also demonstrated the COG112-mediated enhancement of amplitude of evoked responses. Conclusion The apoE-mimetic COG112 demonstrates a favorable combination of activities in suppressing inflammatory response, mitigating demyelination and in promoting remyelination and associated functional recovery in animal model of CNS demyelination. These data support that apoE-mimetic strategy may represent a promising therapy for MS and other demyelination disorders.

Gu, Zhen; Li, Fengqiao; Zhang, Yi Ping; Shields, Lisa B.E.; Hu, Xiaoling; Zheng, Yiyan; Yu, Panpan; Zhang, Yongjie; Cai, Jun; Vitek, Michael P.; Shields, Christopher B.

2014-01-01

86

Differential recovery of volitional motor function, lateralized cognitive function, dopamine agonist-induced rotation and dopaminergic parameters in monkeys made hemi-parkinsonian by intracarotid MPTP infusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is still controversy regarding the fequency and extent of spontaneous functional recovery in primate models of parkinsonism, perhaps in part stemming from the variety of ways in which recovery has been assessed. The present study examined functional recovery in monkeys made unilaterally parkinsonian by intracarotid infusion of MPTP. Monkeys were evaluated prior to lesioning and for at least 1

J. S. Schneider; T. I. Lidsky; T. Hawks; J. C. Mazziotta; J. M. Hoffman

1995-01-01

87

Thrombospondins 1 and 2 are necessary for synaptic plasticity and functional recovery after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrombospondins 1 and 2 (TSP-1\\/2) belong to a family of extracellular glycoproteins with angiostatic and synaptogenic properties. Although TSP-1\\/2 have been postulated to drive the resolution of postischemic angiogenesis, their role in synaptic and functional recovery is unknown. We investigated whether TSP-1\\/2 are necessary for synaptic and motor recovery after stroke. Focal ischemia was induced in 8- to 12-week-old wild-type

Jason Liauw; Stanley Hoang; Michael Choi; Cagla Eroglu; Matthew Choi; Guo-hua Sun; Matthew Percy; Benjamin Wildman-Tobriner; Tonya Bliss; Raphael G Guzman; Ben A Barres; Gary K Steinberg

2008-01-01

88

Investigation of methods for removal and recovery of manganese in hydrometallurgical processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese is a major impurity which needs to be removed in many hydrometallurgical processes while some waste solutions are also important secondary manganese sources. Precipitation methods were investigated for the removal and recovery of manganese from a typical nickel laterite waste solution.Hydroxide precipitation alone was not an attractive option for the recovery and removal of manganese to very low levels

Wensheng Zhang; Chu Yong Cheng; Yoko Pranolo

2010-01-01

89

Secondary recovery method and system for oil wells using solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for heating recovered crude oil at the site of recovery thereof and injecting at least a portion of such heated crude oil back into the oil formation in order to reduce the viscosity of oil remaining in the oil formation, the invention facilitates recovery of the remaining oil and renders the oil more easily handled through pumping operations.

F. W. Slater; D. Fuqua

1979-01-01

90

Driving Functional Behavioral Recovery Using Activity-Dependent Stimulation  

E-print Network

................................................................................................................................. 43 Lesion Model Methods ..................................................................................................................... 45 Stroke Model... ................................................................................................................................... 45 Traumatic Brain Injury Model ................................................................................................. 45 Microdevice Implantation...

Guggenmos, David

2012-12-31

91

Recovery of platelet function after withdrawal of cilostazol administered orally for a long period.  

PubMed

To clarify the recovery of platelet function after abrupt withdrawal of cilostazol, we studied platelet function and cilostazol concentration in elderly who received cilostazol, 100 mg twice a day (200 mg/day), for a long period. After interviewing the time of final cilostazol intake, platelet aggregability was determined with an aggregometer using four different concentrations of adenosine-5'-diphosphate as an inducer, which showed the grading curve (GC) type and platetet aggregatory threshold index (PATI). Serum cilostazol concentration was also determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The GC type and PATI showed suppressed platelet function until 15 hours after withdrawal in half of patients. Bleeding time measured by the Simplate method was prolonged within 4 hours, but recovered by 12 hours after the withdrawal. Some serum cilostazol concentrations were still high 15 hours after withdrawal, while platelets were inhibited even in patients with low serum concentration of cilostazol. In the group receiving the drug for less than 6 months, PATI correlated with serum cilostazol concentration, but platelets in the long-term administration group (more than 48 months) were suppressed at the low serum cilostazol concentration. These findings indicated that platelet function recovered within 12-16 hours after withdrawal in these patients. PMID:15037824

Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Kin, Kyoko; Miyazaki, Kaori; Shin, Kouichi; Takasaki, Masaru

2003-01-01

92

Functional Recovery After Facial and Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To systematically record rat facial nerve re- covery following crush injury to the main trunk with re- spect to ocular and vibrissial function and to compare the rates of facial and sciatic nerve recovery from crush injury in the same animals. This serves as a means of vali- dating the functional parameters of facial nerve recov- ery against the

Tessa A. Hadlock; James Heaton; Mack Cheney; Susan E. Mackinnon

2005-01-01

93

False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method  

PubMed Central

Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10 × 10?3 to 1.86 CFU/cm2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (?1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions. PMID:22138998

Piepel, Greg F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

2012-01-01

94

The influence of functional electrical stimulation on hand motor recovery in stroke patients: a review  

PubMed Central

Neuromuscular stimulation has been used as one potential rehabilitative treatment option to restore motor function and improve recovery in patients with paresis. Especially stroke patients who often regain only limited hand function would greatly benefit from a therapy that enhances recovery and restores movement. Multiple studies investigated the effect of functional electrical stimulation on hand paresis, the results however are inconsistent. Here we review the current literature on functional electrical stimulation on hand motor recovery in stroke patients. We discuss the impact of different parameters such as stage after stoke, degree of impairment, spasticity and treatment protocols on the functional outcome. Importantly, we outline the results from recent studies investigating the cortical effects elicited by functional electrical stimulation giving insights into the underlying mechanisms responsible for long-term treatment effects. Bringing together the findings from present research it becomes clear that both, treatment outcomes as well as the neurophysiologic mechanisms causing functional recovery, vary depending on patient characteristics. In order to develop unified treatment guidelines it is essential to conduct homogenous studies assessing the impact of different parameters on rehabilitative success. PMID:25276333

2014-01-01

95

Spray method for recovery of heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes.  

PubMed

Selective agar is inadequate for supporting recovery of injured cells. During risk assessment of certain foods, both injured and noninjured cells must be enumerated. In this study, a new method (agar spray method) for recovering sublethally heat-injured microorganisms was developed and used for recovery of heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes. Molten selective agar was applied as an overlay to presolidified nonselective tryptic soy agar (TSA) by spray application. Heat-injured cells (55°C for 10 min in 0.1% peptone water or 55°C for 15 min in sterilized skim milk) were inoculated directly onto solidified TSA. After a 2-h incubation period for cell repair, selective agar was applied to the TSA surface with a sprayer, and the plates were incubated. The recovery rate for heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes with the spray method was compared with the corresponding rates associated with TSA alone, selective media alone, and the conventional overlay method (selective agar poured on top of resuscitated cells grown on TSA and incubated for 2 h). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in pathogen recovery obtained with TSA, the overlay method, and the spray method. However, a lower recovery rate (P < 0.05) was obtained for isolation of injured cells on selective media. Overall, these results indicate that the agar spray method is an acceptable alternative to the conventional overlay method and is a simpler and more convenient approach to recovery and detection of injured cells. PMID:23043840

Back, Kyeong-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Oh; Park, Ki-Hwan; Chung, Myung-Sub; Kang, Dong-Hyun

2012-10-01

96

Niaspan Treatment Improves Neurological Functional Recovery in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mice  

PubMed Central

We investigated the treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice with Niaspan, an agent used to elevate high density lipoprotein (HDL). EAE mice were treated with Niaspan starting on the immunization or clinical onset day. Neurological functional recovery was significantly increased in the Niaspan treated mice (100mg/kgbw) compared to the controls. Inflammatory infiltrates were significantly reduced in the Niaspan treatment group compared to the EAE controls. HDL level, intact myelin area, newly formed oligodendrocytes, regenerating axons, gene and protein levels of sonic hedgehog (Shh)/Gli1 were significantly increased in the Niaspan treated mice compared to EAE controls. These data indicate that Niaspan treatment improved functional recovery after EAE, possibly, via reducing inflammatory infiltrates and demyelination areas, and stimulating oligodendrogenesis and axonal regeneration. Niaspan mediated activation of Shh/Gli1 pathway may promote functional recovery post EAE. PMID:18778774

Zhang, Jing; Chen, Jieli; Li, Yi; Cui, Xu; Zheng, Xuguang; Roberts, Cynthia; Lu, Mei; Elias, Stanton B.; Chopp, Michael

2008-01-01

97

EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR SAMPLING, RECOVERY, AND ENUMERATION OF BACTERIA APPLIED TO THE PHYLLOPANE  

EPA Science Inventory

Determining the fate and survival of genetically engineered microorganisms released into the environment requires the development and application of accurate and practical methods of detection and enumeration. everal experiments were performed to examine quantitative recovery met...

98

STAT3 promotes corticospinal remodelling and functional recovery after spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

If and how neurons remodel their connections after CNS injury critically influences recovery of function. Here, we investigate the role of the growth-initiating transcription factor STAT3 during remodelling of the injured corticospinal tract (CST). Endogenous STAT3 expression in lesioned cortical projection neurons is transient but can be sustained by viral gene transfer. Sustained activation of STAT3 enhances remodelling of lesioned CST fibres and induces de novo formation of collaterals from unlesioned CST fibres. In a unilateral pyramidotomy paradigm, this recruitment of unlesioned fibres leads to the formation of midline crossing circuits that establish ipsilateral forelimb activation and functional recovery. PMID:23928811

Lang, Claudia; Bradley, Peter M; Jacobi, Anne; Kerschensteiner, Martin; Bareyre, Florence M

2013-01-01

99

Psychological Stress as a Modulator of Functional Recovery Following Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

There is strong evidence indicating that the social environment triggers changes to the psychological stress response and glucocorticoid receptor function. Considerable literature links the subsequent changes in stress resiliency to physical health. Here, converging evidence for the modulatory role of chronic psychological stress in the recovery process following spinal cord injury (SCI) is presented. Despite the considerable advances in SCI research, we are still unable to identify the causes of variability in patients’ recovery following injury. We propose that individuals’ past and present life experiences (in the form of stress exposure) may significantly modulate patients’ outcome post-SCI. We propose a theoretical model to explain the negative impact of chronic psychological stress on physical and psychological recovery. The stress experienced in life prior to SCI and also as a result of the traumatic injury, could compromise glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and function, and contribute to high levels of inflammation and apoptosis post-SCI, decreasing the tissue remaining at the injury site and undermining recovery of function. Both stress-induced glucocorticoid resistance and stress-induced epigenetic changes to the glucocorticoid receptor can modulate the nuclear factor-kappa B regulated inflammatory pathways and the Bcl-2 regulated apoptosis pathways. This model not only contributes to the theoretical understanding of the recovery process following injury, but also provides concrete testable hypotheses for future studies. PMID:24782818

Maldonado Bouchard, Sioui; Hook, Michelle A.

2014-01-01

100

Functional recovery in parkinsonian monkeys treated with GDNF  

Microsoft Academic Search

PARKINSON 's disease results from the progressive degeneration of dopamine neurons that innervate the striatum1,2. In rodents, glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) stimulates an increase in midbrain dopamine levels, protects dopamine neurons from some neurotoxins, and maintains injured dopamine neurons3-9. Here we extend the rodent studies to an animal closer to the human in brain organization and function, by evaluating the

Don M. Gash; Zhiming Zhang; Aliza Ovadia; Wayne A. Cass; Ai Yi; Linda Simmerman; Deborah Russell; David Martin; Paul A. Lapchak; Frank Collins; Barry J. Hoffer; Greg A. Gerhard

1996-01-01

101

The Role of Species Traits in Mediating Functional Recovery during Matrix Restoration  

PubMed Central

Reversing anthropogenic impacts on habitat structure is frequently successful through restoration, but the mechanisms linking habitat change, community reassembly and recovery of ecosystem functioning remain unknown. We test for the influence of edge effects and matrix habitat restoration on the reassembly of dung beetle communities and consequent recovery of dung removal rates across tropical forest edges. Using path modelling, we disentangle the relative importance of community-weighted trait means and functional trait dispersion from total biomass effects on rates of dung removal. Community trait composition and biomass of dung beetle communities responded divergently to edge effects and matrix habitat restoration, yielding opposing effects on dung removal. However, functional dispersion—used in this study as a measure of niche complementarity—did not explain a significant amount of variation in dung removal rates across habitat edges. Instead, we demonstrate that the path to functional recovery of these altered ecosystems depends on the trait-mean composition of reassembling communities, over and above purely biomass-dependent processes that would be expected under neutral theory. These results suggest that any ability to manage functional recovery of ecosystems during habitat restoration will demand knowledge of species' roles in ecosystem processes. PMID:25502448

Barnes, Andrew D.; Emberson, Rowan M.; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Didham, Raphael K.

2014-01-01

102

Integrated Treatment to Achieve Functional Recovery for First-Episode Psychosis  

PubMed Central

This study describes an integrated treatment approach that was implemented to enhance functional recovery in first-episode psychotic patients. Patients were randomized to two treatment conditions: either to an integrated treatment approach: pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatment, and psychoeducation (experimental group: N = 39) or to medication alone (control group: N = 34). Patients were evaluated at baseline and after one year of treatment. Functional recovery was assessed according to symptomatic and functional remission. At the end of treatment, experimental patients showed a 94.9% of symptomatic remission compared to 58.8% of the control group. Functional remission was 56.4% for the experimental group and 3.6% for the control group, while 56.4% of the experimental group met both symptomatic and functional remission criteria and were considered recovered compared to 2.9% of the control group. PMID:22970366

Valencia, Marcelo; Juarez, Francisco; Ortega, Hector

2012-01-01

103

Ear-worn body sensor network device: an objective tool for functional postoperative home recovery monitoring  

PubMed Central

Patients' functional recovery at home following surgery may be evaluated by monitoring their activities of daily living. Existing tools for assessing these activities are labor-intensive to administer and rely heavily on recall. This study describes the use of a wireless ear-worn activity recognition sensor to monitor postoperative activity levels continuously using a Bayesian activity classification framework. The device was used to monitor the postoperative recovery of five patients following abdominal surgery. Activity was classified into four groups ranging from very low (level 0) to high (level 3). Overall, patients were found to be undertaking a higher proportion of level 0 activities on postoperative day 1 which was gradually replaced by higher-level activities over the next 3?days. This study demonstrates how a pervasive healthcare technology can objectively monitor functional recovery in the unsupervised home setting. This may be a useful adjunct to existing postoperative monitoring systems. PMID:21252051

Atallah, Louis; Lo, Benny; Gray, Edward; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong

2011-01-01

104

Epidemiology and Natural History of Recovery of Left Ventricular Function in Recent Onset Dilated Cardiomyopathies  

PubMed Central

Although the long term prognosis of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) remains poor, approximately 25% of DCM patients with recent onset of heart failure (< 6 months) have a relatively benign clinical course with a spontaneously improvement in symptoms and partial, or in some cases complete, recovery of left ventricular (LV) function. Despite the longstanding recognition of the clinical phenomenon of LV recovery, relatively little attention has been paid to the etiology and natural history of this important group of DCM patients. Accordingly, in the present review we will focus on the epidemiology and natural history of recent onset DCM in patients who undergo spontaneous resolution of symptoms that is accompanied by recovery of LV function. PMID:24014141

Givertz, Michael M.; Mann, Douglas L.

2013-01-01

105

Exploiting Laguerre Functions to Regularize Contaminant Source History Recovery Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of recovering contaminant source histories in the subsurface represents a highly multidimensional (in reality, infinite-dimensional) inverse problem, even if the location of the source and all groundwater parameters are known precisely. Essentially, one attempts to determine a time series of concentrations at the source location based on concentrations measured down gradient. The inverse problem defined by the advection dispersion equation is known to be unstable, and cannot be solved for real data without some sort of regularizing constraint, usually enforcing temporal smoothness. A number of techniques for this task have been previously discussed in the literature, including Bayesian techniques and classical regularization techniques, such as Tikhonov regularization. Recently the authors have presented a new technique exploiting the convolution and orthogonality properties of Laguerre functions to model contaminant transport between a source and a receptor as an input-output system, using only linear algebra. This technique generalizes well to inverse modelling, an approach that will be presented for the first time. The new inverse technique works by expanding both an analytic forward model and observed monitoring well data in the same Laguerre function basis, and then computing, by linear algebra alone, the inverse solution. The inversion of the low-order terms of the Laguerre series can be shown to be numerically stable, and also to enforce smoothness on the recovered solution (implicitly containing a sort of regularizing constraint). This approach has a number of advantages over existing techniques. It allows direct estimation of the source history, obviating the need for running multiple forward models (as in MCMC Bayesian approaches), and avoids the need for selecting an arbitrary penalty functional (as in Tikhonov regularization). Simulation results comparing the performance of this approach to existing approaches will be presented.

Hansen, S. K.; Kueper, B. H.

2012-12-01

106

Compression socks and functional recovery following marathon running: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Armstrong, SA, Till, ES, Maloney, SR, and Harris, GA. Compression socks and functional recovery following marathon running: A randomized controlled trial. J Strength Cond Res 29(2): 528-533, 2015-Compression socks have become a popular recovery aid for distance running athletes. Although some physiological markers have been shown to be influenced by wearing these garments, scant evidence exists on their effects on functional recovery. This research aims to shed light onto whether the wearing of compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running can improve functional recovery, as measured by a timed treadmill test to exhaustion 14 days following marathon running. Athletes (n = 33, age, 38.5 ± 7.2 years) participating in the 2012 Melbourne, 2013 Canberra, or 2013 Gold Coast marathons were recruited and randomized into the compression sock or placebo group. A graded treadmill test to exhaustion was performed 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after each marathon. Time to exhaustion, average and maximum heart rates were recorded. Participants were asked to wear their socks for 48 hours immediately after completion of the marathon. The change in treadmill times (seconds) was recorded for each participant. Thirty-three participants completed the treadmill protocols. In the compression group, average treadmill run to exhaustion time 2 weeks after the marathon increased by 2.6% (52 ± 103 seconds). In the placebo group, run to exhaustion time decreased by 3.4% (-62 ± 130 seconds), P = 0.009. This shows a significant beneficial effect of compression socks on recovery compared with placebo. The wearing of below-knee compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running has been shown to improve functional recovery as measured by a graduated treadmill test to exhaustion 2 weeks after the event. PMID:25627452

Armstrong, Stuart A; Till, Eloise S; Maloney, Stephen R; Harris, Gregory A

2015-02-01

107

GRACE: Public Health Recovery Methods following an Environmental Disaster  

PubMed Central

Different approaches are necessary when Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) of environmental illness is initiated after an environmental disaster within a community. Often such events are viewed as golden scientific opportunities to do epidemiological studies. However, we believe that in such circumstances, community engagement and empowerment needs to be integrated into the public health service efforts in order for both those and any science to be successful, with special care being taken to address the immediate health needs of the community first rather than the pressing needs to answer important scientific questions. We will demonstrate how we have simultaneously provided valuable public health service, embedded generalizable scientific knowledge, and built a successful foundation for supplemental CBPR through our on-going recovery work after the chlorine gas disaster in Graniteville, South Carolina. PMID:20439226

Svendsen, ER; Whittle, N; Wright, L; McKeown, RE; Sprayberry, K; Heim, M; Caldwell, R; Gibson, JJ; Vena, J.

2014-01-01

108

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Waste Heat Recovery Methods for the UBC Microbrewery  

E-print Network

into Waste Heat Recovery Methods for the UBC Microbrewery Nazanin Bahrami, Michael Huang, Aldrich Huang Heat Recovery Methods for the UBC Microbrewery Written By: Nazanin Bahrami (45179090) Michael Huang. Flue gas recovery and separation can recover 26% of the total heat energy, and can reduce the GHG

109

Chronic psychological stress impairs recovery of muscular function and somatic sensations over a 96-hour period.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this study was to determine whether chronic mental stress moderates recovery of muscular function and somatic sensations: perceived energy, fatigue, and soreness, in a 4-day period after a bout of strenuous resistance exercise. Undergraduate resistance training students (n = 31; age, 20.26 ± 1.34 years) completed the Perceived Stress Scale and the Undergraduate Stress Questionnaire, a measure of life event stress. At a later visit, they performed an acute heavy-resistance exercise protocol (10 repetition maximum [RM] leg press test plus 6 sets: 80-100% of 10RM). Maximal isometric force (MIF), perceived energy, fatigue, and soreness were assessed in approximately 24-hour intervals after exercise. Recovery data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling growth curve analysis. Life event stress significantly moderated linear (p = 0.027) and squared (p = 0.031) recovery of MIF. This relationship held even when the model was adjusted for fitness, workload, and training experience. Perceived energy (p = 0.038), fatigue (p = 0.040), and soreness (p = 0.027) all were moderated by life stress. Mean perceived stress modulated linear and squared recovery of MIF (p < 0.001) and energy (p = 0.004) but not fatigue or soreness. In all analyses, higher stress was associated with worse recovery. Stress, whether assessed as life event stress or perceived stress, moderated the recovery trajectories of muscular function and somatic sensations in a 96-hour period after strenuous resistance exercise. Therefore, under conditions of inordinate stress, individuals may need to be more mindful about observing an appropriate length of recovery. PMID:24343323

Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Bartholomew, John B; Sinha, Rajita

2014-07-01

110

Rapid T1 mapping of mouse myocardium with saturation recovery Look-Locker method.  

PubMed

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using gadolinium or manganese provides unique characterization of myocardium and its pathology. In this study, an electrocardiography (ECG) triggered saturation recovery Look-Locker method was developed and validated for fast cardiac T(1) mapping in small animal models. By sampling the initial portion of the longitudinal magnetization recovery curve, high temporal resolution (? 3 min) can be achieved at a high spatial resolution (195 × 390 ?m2) in mouse heart without the aid of parallel imaging or echo-planar imaging. Validation studies were performed both in vitro on a phantom and in vivo on C57BL/6 mice (n = 6). Our results showed a strong agreement between T(1) measured by saturation recovery Look-Locker and by the standard saturation recovery method in vitro or inversion recovery Look-Locker in vivo. The utility of saturation recovery Look-Locker in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI studies was demonstrated in manganese-enhanced MRI experiments in mice. Our results suggest that saturation recovery Look-Locker can provide rapid and accurate cardiac T(1) mapping for studies using small animal models. PMID:20632410

Li, Wen; Griswold, Mark; Yu, Xin

2010-11-01

111

Edaravone promotes functional recovery after mechanical peripheral nerve injury  

PubMed Central

Edaravone has been shown to reduce ischemia/reperfusion-induced peripheral nerve injury. However, the therapeutic effect of edaravone on peripheral nerve injury caused by mechanical factors is unknown. In the present study, we established a peripheral nerve injury model by crushing the sciatic nerve using hemostatic forceps, and then administered edaravone 3 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The sciatic functional index and superoxide dismutase activity of the sciatic nerve were increased, and the malondialdehyde level was decreased in animals in the edaravone group compared with those in the model group. Bcl-2 expression was increased, but Bax expression was decreased in anterior horn cells of the L4-6 spinal cord segments. These results indicated that edaravone has a neuroprotective effect following peripheral nerve injury caused by mechanical factors through alleviating free radical damage to cells and inhibiting lipid peroxidation, as well as regulating apoptosis-related protein expression. PMID:25374594

Zhang, Teng; Li, Zhengwei; Dong, Jianli; Nan, Feng; Li, Tao; Yu, Qing

2014-01-01

112

Edaravone promotes functional recovery after mechanical peripheral nerve injury.  

PubMed

Edaravone has been shown to reduce ischemia/reperfusion-induced peripheral nerve injury. However, the therapeutic effect of edaravone on peripheral nerve injury caused by mechanical factors is unknown. In the present study, we established a peripheral nerve injury model by crushing the sciatic nerve using hemostatic forceps, and then administered edaravone 3 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The sciatic functional index and superoxide dismutase activity of the sciatic nerve were increased, and the malondialdehyde level was decreased in animals in the edaravone group compared with those in the model group. Bcl-2 expression was increased, but Bax expression was decreased in anterior horn cells of the L4-6 spinal cord segments. These results indicated that edaravone has a neuroprotective effect following peripheral nerve injury caused by mechanical factors through alleviating free radical damage to cells and inhibiting lipid peroxidation, as well as regulating apoptosis-related protein expression. PMID:25374594

Zhang, Teng; Li, Zhengwei; Dong, Jianli; Nan, Feng; Li, Tao; Yu, Qing

2014-09-15

113

Crocin Enhanced Functional Recovery after Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Crocin is a constituent of saffron and has many biological functions. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) injection of crocin on sciatic nerve regeneration in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four rats were divided into 9 groups: groups 1-4 (intact + normal saline and intact + crocin at doses of 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg, respectively); group 5 (sham surgery + normal saline); groups 6-9 (crush + normal saline and crush + crocin at doses of 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg, respectively). Normal saline and crocin were IP injected for 10 consecutive days after induction of a standard crush injury in left sciatic nerve. Footprints were obtained 1 day before and weekly after induction of nerve injury for evaluation of sciatic functional index (SFI). Blood samples were taken for evaluation of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Histopathological changes of sciatic nerve were investigated by light microscopy. Results: Sciatic nerve crush-injured rats showed SFI values reduction, increased plasma MDA levels and produced Wallerian degeneration in sciatic nerve. Crocin at a dose of 5 mg/kg had no significant effects. At doses of 20 and 80 mg/kg, crocin accelerated the SFI recovery, decreased MDA levels and reduced Wallerian degeneration severity. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the neuroprotective effects afforded by crocin may be due in part to reduction of free radicals-induced toxic effects. PMID:23638296

Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Ahmadian, Elham; Hamidhoseyni, Abbas

2013-01-01

114

Reducing excessive GABAergic tonic inhibition promotes post-stroke functional recovery  

PubMed Central

Stroke is a leading cause of disability; but no pharmacological therapy is currently available for promoting recovery. The brain region adjacent to stroke damage, the peri-infarct zone, is critical for rehabilitation, as it exhibits heightened neuroplasticity, allowing sensorimotor functions to re-map from damaged areas1–3. Thus, understanding the neuronal properties constraining this plasticity is important to developing new treatments. Here we show that after a stroke in mice, tonic neuronal inhibition is increased in the peri-infarct zone. This increased tonic inhibition is mediated by extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and is caused by an impairment in GABA transporter (GAT-3/4) function. To counteract the heightened inhibition, we administered in vivo a benzodiazepine inverse agonist specific for the ?5-subunit-containing extrasynaptic GABAARs at a delay after stroke. This treatment produced an early and sustained recovery of motor function. Genetically lowering the number of ?5 or ?-subunit-containing GABAARs responsible for tonic inhibition also proved beneficial for post-stroke recovery, consistent with the therapeutic potential of diminishing extrasynaptic GABAAR function. Together, our results identify new pharmacological targets and provide the rationale for a novel strategy to promote recovery after stroke and possibly other brain injuries. PMID:21048709

Clarkson, Andrew N.; Huang, Ben S.; MacIsaac, Sarah E.; Mody, Istvan; Carmichael, S. Thomas

2010-01-01

115

Ear-worn body sensor network device: an objective tool for functional postoperative home recovery monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients' functional recovery at home following surgery may be evaluated by monitoring their activities of daily living. Existing tools for assessing these activities are labor-intensive to administer and rely heavily on recall. This study describes the use of a wireless ear-worn activity recognition sensor to monitor postoperative activity levels continuously using a Bayesian activity classification framework. The device was used

Omer Aziz; Louis Atallah; Benny Lo; Edward Gray; Thanos Athanasiou; Ara Darzi; Guang-Zhong Yang

2011-01-01

116

Research report Axon growth and recovery of function supported by human bone marrow  

E-print Network

Research report Axon growth and recovery of function supported by human bone marrow stromal cells. Introduction Treatments that enhance axonal growth and regeneration of damaged axons in the central nervous. Fischer). 1 These authors contributed equally to the paper. Brain Research 1035 (2005) 73­85 www

Fischer, Itzhak

117

Personality Traits and Interpersonal Functioning in Substance Abuse Therapists with and without Personal Recovery Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study ascertained whether there are differences in the personality traits or interpersonal functioning of therapists with personal recovery of substance abuse and other therapists. Moreover, an A\\/B typology reconstruction was made of the past substance abuse of the recovered therapists. The participants (N = 162) were therapists in Finnish inpatient treatment institutions. Personality traits were measured using a test

Pekka Saarnio

2010-01-01

118

Reorganization of Functional Connectivity as a Correlate of Cognitive Recovery in Acquired Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive processes require a functional interaction between specialized multiple, local and remote brain regions. Although these interactions can be strongly altered by an acquired brain injury, brain plasticity allows network reorganization to be principally responsible for recovery. The present work evaluates the impact of brain injury on…

Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Paul, Nuria; Ordonez, Victoria E.; Demuynck, Olivier; Bajo, Ricardo; Campo, Pablo; Bilbao, Alvaro; Ortiz, Tomas; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestu, Fernando

2010-01-01

119

Intrinsic and therapeutic factors determining the recovery of motor function after peripheral nerve transection.  

PubMed

Insufficient recovery after peripheral nerve injury has been attributed to (i) poor pathfinding of regrowing axons, (ii) excessive collateral axonal branching at the lesion site and (iii) polyneuronal innervation of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJ). The facial nerve transection model has been used initially to measure restoration of function after varying therapies and to examine the mechanisms underlying their effects. Since it is very difficult to control the navigation of several thousand axons, efforts concentrated on collateral branching and NMJ-polyinnervation. Treatment with antibodies against trophic factors to combat branching improved the precision of reinnervation, but had no positive effects on functional recovery. This suggested that polyneuronal reinnervation--rather than collateral branching--may be the critical limiting factor. The former could be reduced by pharmacological agents known to perturb microtubule assembly and was followed by recovery of function. Because muscle polyinnervation is activity-dependent and can be manipulated, attempts to design a clinically feasible therapy were performed by electrical stimulation or by soft tissue massage. Electrical stimulation applied to the transected facial nerve or to paralysed facial muscles did not improve vibrissal motor performance and failed to diminish polyinnervation. In contrast, gentle stroking of the paralysed muscles (vibrissal, orbicularis oculi, tongue musculature) resulted in full recovery of function. This manual stimulation was also effective after hypoglossal-facial nerve suture and after interpositional nerve grafting, but not after surgical reconstruction of the median nerve. All these findings raise hopes that clinically feasible and effective therapies could be soon designed and tested. PMID:21458252

Skouras, Emmanouil; Ozsoy, Umut; Sarikcioglu, Levent; Angelov, Doychin N

2011-07-01

120

Plankton respiration and biomass as functional indicators of recovery in restored prairie wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable ecological indicators of wetland integrity are necessary for assessing recovery of restored wetlands; yet, little consensus currently exists on which indicators are most appropriate. We employed indicators derived from simple, standard measures of ecosystem function selected on the basis of ecological succession theory developed by [Science 164 (1969) 262; Bioscience 35 (1985) 419], which suggests that respiration:biomass ratios should

Paul M. Mayer; Robert O. Megard; Susan M. Galatowitsch

2004-01-01

121

EVALUATION OF A CRYPTOSPORIDIUM INTERNAL STANDARD FOR DETERMINING RECOVERY WITH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY METHOD 1623  

EPA Science Inventory

The current benchmark method for detecting Cryptosporidium oocysts in water is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Method 1623. Studies evaluating this method report that recoveries are highly variable and dependent upon laboratory, water sample, and analyst. Ther...

122

Stem Cell Mediation of Functional Recovery after Stroke in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Background Regenerative strategies of stem cell grafting have been demonstrated to be effective in animal models of stroke. In those studies, the effectiveness of stem cells promoting functional recovery was assessed by behavioral testing. These behavioral studies do, however, not provide access to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the observed functional outcome improvement. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to address the underlying mechanisms of stem cell mediated functional improvement, this functional improvement after stroke in the rat was investigated for six months after stroke by use of fMRI, somatosensory evoked potentials by electrophysiology, and sensorimotor behavior testing. Stem cells were grafted ipsilateral to the ischemic lesion. Rigorous exclusion of spontaneous recovery as confounding factor permitted to observe graft-related functional improvement beginning after 7 weeks and continuously increasing during the 6-month observation period. The major findings were i) functional improvement causally related to the stem cells grafting; ii) tissue replacement can be excluded as dominant factor for stem cell mediated functional improvement; iii) functional improvement occurs by exclusive restitution of the function in the original representation field, without clear contributions from reorganization processes, and iv) stem cells were not detectable any longer after six months. Conclusions/Significance A delayed functional improvement due to stem cell implantation has been documented by electrophysiology, fMRI and behavioral testing. This functional improvement occurred without cells acting as a tissue replacement for the necrotic tissue after the ischemic event. Combination of disappearance of grafted cells after six months on histological sections with persistent functional recovery was interpreted as paracrine effects by the grafted stem cells being the dominant mechanism of cell activity underlying the observed functional restitution of the original activation sites. Future studies will have to investigate whether the stem cell mediated improvement reactivates the original representation target field by using original connectivity pathways or by generating/activating new ones for the stimulus. PMID:20877642

Wiedermann, Dirk; Hoehn, Mathias

2010-01-01

123

Gadd45b Mediates Axonal Plasticity and Subsequent Functional Recovery After Experimental Stroke in Rats.  

PubMed

Stroke causes devastating and irreversible losses of neurological function with subsequent slow and incomplete recovery of lost brain functions, because of the brain's limited capacity for brain plasticity. Growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 beta (Gadd45b) has recently been demonstrated as a candidate plasticity-related gene, making it an excellent candidate molecule that has therapeutic potential. Here, we examine whether in vivo blockage of Gadd45b affects axonal plasticity and subsequent functional recovery after focal brain infarction. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to cerebral ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). We adopted RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by a lentiviral vector (LV) as a means of suppressing the expression of Gadd45b. Functional recovery was assessed with a battery of tests that measured skilled forelimb reaching and forelimb balance controlling. Axonal reorganization at the level of the red nucleus was revealed by anatomical studies. Axonal regeneration was measured by elevated expression of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43). The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclic AMP (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA), and Rho-kinase (ROCK) were determined. Gadd45b-RNAi significantly inhibited axonal plasticity (axonal regeneration and axonal reorganization) after MCAO. This inhibition was paralleled by worse functional recovery performance on several behavioral measures. Gadd45b-RNAi also significantly decreased the expression levels of both BDNF and cAMP/PKA/phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) pathway and promoted ROCK expression. We conclude that Gadd45b stimulates recovery after stroke by enhancing axonal plasticity required for brain repair. Pharmacological targeting of Gadd45b provides new opportunities for stroke treatment. PMID:25324012

Liu, Bin; Li, Long-Ling; Tan, Xiao-Dan; Zhang, Yan-Hong; Jiang, Ying; He, Guo-Qian; Chen, Qian; Li, Chang-Qing

2014-10-17

124

Organism-Sediment Interactions Govern Post-Hypoxia Recovery of Ecosystem Functioning  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia represents one of the major causes of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning loss for coastal waters. Since eutrophication-induced hypoxic events are becoming increasingly frequent and intense, understanding the response of ecosystems to hypoxia is of primary importance to understand and predict the stability of ecosystem functioning. Such ecological stability may greatly depend on the recovery patterns of communities and the return time of the system properties associated to these patterns. Here, we have examined how the reassembly of a benthic community contributed to the recovery of ecosystem functioning following experimentally-induced hypoxia in a tidal flat. We demonstrate that organism-sediment interactions that depend on organism size and relate to mobility traits and sediment reworking capacities are generally more important than recovering species richness to set the return time of the measured sediment processes and properties. Specifically, increasing macrofauna bioturbation potential during community reassembly significantly contributed to the recovery of sediment processes and properties such as denitrification, bedload sediment transport, primary production and deep pore water ammonium concentration. Such bioturbation potential was due to the replacement of the small-sized organisms that recolonised at early stages by large-sized bioturbating organisms, which had a disproportionately stronger influence on sediment. This study suggests that the complete recovery of organism-sediment interactions is a necessary condition for ecosystem functioning recovery, and that such process requires long periods after disturbance due to the slow growth of juveniles into adult stages involved in these interactions. Consequently, repeated episodes of disturbance at intervals smaller than the time needed for the system to fully recover organism-sediment interactions may greatly impair the resilience of ecosystem functioning. PMID:23185440

Van Colen, Carl; Rossi, Francesca; Montserrat, Francesc; Andersson, Maria G. I.; Gribsholt, Britta; Herman, Peter M. J.; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda; Ysebaert, Tom; Middelburg, Jack J.

2012-01-01

125

Locomotor function after long-duration space flight: effects and motor learning during recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astronauts returning from space flight and performing Earth-bound activities must rapidly transition from the microgravity-adapted\\u000a sensorimotor state to that of Earth’s gravity. The goal of the current study was to assess locomotor dysfunction and recovery\\u000a of function after long-duration space flight using a test of functional mobility. Eighteen International Space Station crewmembers\\u000a experiencing an average flight duration of 185 days performed

Ajitkumar P. Mulavara; Alan H. Feiveson; James Fiedler; Helen Cohen; Brian T. Peters; Chris Miller; Rachel Brady; Jacob J. Bloomberg

2010-01-01

126

Subcortical vascular lesions and functional recovery in older patients with gait disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to assess whether subcortical vascular lesions (SVLs) predict functional recovery after rehabilitation in elderly patients with gait disorders (GD) due to multiple etiology (GD-ME). All patients consecutively admitted with GD-ME (n=103) in our Rehabilitation and Aged Care Unit (RACU) underwent a standardized rehabilitative program. The outcome measure was the Barthel Index (BI) Relative Functional Gain (RFG), a

Fabio Guerini; Giovanni Battista Frisoni; Giuseppe Bellelli; Marco Trabucchi

2007-01-01

127

Experimental strategies to promote functional recovery after peripheral nerve injuries.  

PubMed

The capacity of Schwann cells (SCs) in the peripheral nervous system to support axonal regeneration, in contrast to the oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system, has led to the misconception that peripheral nerve regeneration always restores function. Here, we consider how prolonged periods of time that injured neurons remain without targets during axonal regeneration (chronic axotomy) and that SCs in the distal nerve stumps remain chronically denervated (chronic denervation) progressively reduce the number of motoneurons that regenerate their axons. We demonstrate the effectiveness of low-dose, brain-derived neurotrophic and glial-derived neurotrophic factors to counteract the effects of chronic axotomy in promoting axonal regeneration. High-dose brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on the other hand, acting through the p75 receptor, inhibits axonal regeneration and may be a factor in stopping regenerating axons from forming neuromuscular connections in skeletal muscle. The immunophilin, FK506, is also effective in promoting axonal regeneration after chronic axotomy. Chronic denervation of SCs (>1 month) severely deters axonal regeneration, although the few motor axons that do regenerate to reinnervate muscles become myelinated and form enlarged motor units in the reinnervated muscles. We found that in vitro incubation of chronically denervated SCs with transforming growth factor-beta re-established their growth-supportive phenotype in vivo, consistent with the idea that the interaction between invading macrophages and denervated SCs during Wallerian degeneration is essential to sustain axonal regeneration by promoting the growth-supportive SC phenotype. Finally, we consider the effectiveness of a brief period of 20 Hz electrical stimulation in promoting the regeneration of axons across the surgical gap after nerve repair. PMID:14641648

Gordon, Tessa; Sulaiman, Olawale; Boyd, J Gordon

2003-12-01

128

Recovery time course in contractile function of fast and slow skeletal muscle after hindlimb immobilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present study was undertaken to characterize the time course and extent of recovery in the isometric and isotonic contractile properties of fast and slow skeletal muscle following 6 wk of hindlimb immobilization. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to an immobilized group or a control group. The results of the study show that fast and slow skeletal muscles possess the ability to completely recover normal contractile function following 6 wk of hindlimb immobilization. The rate of recovery is dependent on the fiber type composition of the affected muscle.

Witzmann, F. A.; Kim, D. H.; Fitts, R. H.

1982-01-01

129

Therapeutic Validity and Effectiveness of Preoperative Exercise on Functional Recovery after Joint Replacement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Our aim was to develop a rating scale to assess the therapeutic validity of therapeutic exercise programmes. By use of this rating scale we investigated the therapeutic validity of therapeutic exercise in patients awaiting primary total joint replacement (TJR). Finally, we studied the association between therapeutic validity of preoperative therapeutic exercise and its effectiveness in terms of postoperative functional recovery. Methods (Quasi) randomised clinical trials on preoperative therapeutic exercise in adults awaiting TJR on postoperative recovery of functioning within three months after surgery were identified through database and reference screening. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk of bias and therapeutic validity. Therapeutic validity of the interventions was assessed with a nine-itemed, expert-based rating scale (scores range from 0 to 9; score ?6 reflecting therapeutic validity), developed in a four-round Delphi study. Effects were pooled using a random-effects model and meta-regression was used to study the influence of therapeutic validity. Results Of the 7,492 articles retrieved, 12 studies (737 patients) were included. None of the included studies demonstrated therapeutic validity and two demonstrated low risk of bias. Therapeutic exercise was not associated with 1) observed functional recovery during the hospital stay (Standardised Mean Difference [SMD]: ?1.19; 95%-confidence interval [CI], ?2.46 to 0.08); 2) observed recovery within three months of surgery (SMD: ?0.15; 95%-CI, ?0.42 to 0.12); and 3) self-reported recovery within three months of surgery (SMD ?0.07; 95%-CI, ?0.35 to 0.21) compared with control participants. Meta-regression showed no statistically significant relationship between therapeutic validity and pooled-effects. Conclusion Preoperative therapeutic exercise for TJR did not demonstrate beneficial effects on postoperative functional recovery. However, poor therapeutic validity of the therapeutic exercise programmes may have hampered potentially beneficial effects, since none of the studies met the predetermined quality criteria. Future review studies on therapeutic exercise should address therapeutic validity. PMID:22675429

Hoogeboom, Thomas J.; Oosting, Ellen; Vriezekolk, Johanna E.; Veenhof, Cindy; Siemonsma, Petra C.; de Bie, Rob A.; van den Ende, Cornelia H. M.; van Meeteren, Nico L. U.

2012-01-01

130

The Recovery of Walking in Stroke Patients: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We reviewed the literature on walking recovery of stroke patients as it relates to the following subjects: epidemiology of walking dysfunction, recovery course of walking, and recovery mechanism of walking (neural control of normal walking, the evaluation methods for leg motor function, and motor recovery mechanism of leg). The recovery of walking…

Jang, Sung Ho

2010-01-01

131

An expert system for screening enhanced oil recovery methods  

SciTech Connect

This paper demonstrates how a small expert system can be written with inexpensive shells (CLIPS and EXSHELL) and run on inexpensive personal computers. CLIPS is a forward-chaining rule-based system written in the C language. Rules are entered in a LISP-like format. EXSHELL is a backward-chaining rule-based system written in the PROLOG language. These shells were used to write a small expert system, an expert assistant, which is used to help petroleum engineers screen possible enhanced oil recovery candidate processes. Though the final candidate process is selected on the basis of an economic evaluation, the expert assistant greatly reduces the amount of work involved. The system selects the optimal collection of paths to the solutions and is easily updated as new data become available. This paper also demonstrates the utility and ease of use of these inexpensive shells, compares the approach used by each, and demonstrates the relative advantages of forward-chaining versus backward-chaining for this problem. 11 refs.

Parkinson, W.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Luger, G.F. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Dept. of Computer Science); Bretz, R.E.; Osowski, J.J. (New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (USA). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering)

1990-01-01

132

Interaction between Vestibular Compensation Mechanisms and Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy: 10 Recommendations for Optimal Functional Recovery  

PubMed Central

This review questions the relationships between the plastic events responsible for the recovery of vestibular function after a unilateral vestibular loss (vestibular compensation), which has been well described in animal models in the last decades, and the vestibular rehabilitation (VR) therapy elaborated on a more empirical basis for vestibular loss patients. The main objective is not to propose a catalog of results but to provide clinicians with an understandable view on when and how to perform VR therapy, and why VR may benefit from basic knowledge and may influence the recovery process. With this perspective, 10 major recommendations are proposed as ways to identify an optimal functional recovery. Among them are the crucial role of active and early VR therapy, coincidental with a post-lesion sensitive period for neuronal network remodeling, the instructive role that VR therapy may play in this functional reorganization, the need for progression in the VR therapy protocol, which is based mainly on adaptation processes, the necessity to take into account the sensorimotor, cognitive, and emotional profile of the patient to propose individual or “à la carte” VR therapies, and the importance of motivational and ecologic contexts. More than 10 general principles are very likely, but these principles seem crucial for the fast recovery of vestibular loss patients to ensure good quality of life. PMID:25610424

Lacour, Michel; Bernard-Demanze, Laurence

2015-01-01

133

Recovery of Endothelial Function in Severe Falciparum Malaria: Relationship with Improvement in Plasma L-Arginine and Blood Lactate Concentrations  

PubMed Central

Background Severe malaria is characterized by microvascular obstruction, endothelial dysfunction, and reduced levels of L-arginine and nitric oxide (NO). L-Arginine infusion improves endothelial function in moderately severe malaria. Neither the longitudinal course of endothelial dysfunction nor factors associated with recovery have been characterized in severe malaria. Methods Endothelial function was measured longitudinally in adults with severe malaria (n = 49) or moderately severe malaria (n = 48) in Indonesia, using reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT). In a mixed-effects model, changes in RH-PAT index values in patients with severe malaria were related to changes in parasitemia, lactate, acidosis, and plasma L-arginine concentrations. Results Among patients with severe malaria, the proportion with endothelial dysfunction fell from 94% (46/49 patients) to 14% (6/42 patients) before discharge or death (P <.001). In severe malaria, the median time to normal endothelial function was 49 h (interquartile range, 20–70 h) after the start of antimalarial therapy. The mean increase in L-arginine concentrations in patients with severe malaria was 11 ?mol/L/24 h (95% confidence interval [CI], 9–13 ?mol/L/24 h), from a baseline of 49 ?mol/L (95% CI, 37–45 ?mol/L). Improvement of endothelial function in patients with severe malaria correlated with increasing levels of L-arginine (r = 0.56; P =.008) and decreasing levels of lactate (r = ?0.44; P =.001). Conclusions Recovery of endothelial function in severe malaria is associated with recovery from hypoargininemia and lactic acidosis. Agents that can improve endothelial NO production and endothelial function, such as L-arginine, may have potential as adjunctive therapy early during the course of severe malaria. PMID:18605903

Yeo, Tsin W.; Lampah, Daniel A.; Gitawati, Retno; Tjitra, Emiliana; Kenangalem, Enny; McNeil, Yvette R.; Darcy, Christabelle J.; Granger, Donald L.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Lopansri, Bert K.; Price, Ric N.; Duffull, Stephen B.; Celermajer, David S.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

2009-01-01

134

Numerical aspects of a spline-based multiresolution recovery of the harmonic mass density out of gravity functionals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show the numerical applicability of a multiresolution method based on harmonic splines on the 3-D ball which allows the regularized recovery of the harmonic part of the Earth's mass density distribution out of different types of gravity data, for example, different radial derivatives of the potential, at various positions which need not be located on a common sphere. This approximated harmonic density can be combined with its orthogonal anharmonic complement, for example, determined out of the splitting function of free oscillations, to an approximation of the whole mass density function. The applicability of the presented tool is demonstrated by several test calculations based on simulated gravity values derived from EGM96. The method yields a multiresolution in the sense that the localization of the constructed spline basis functions can be increased which yields in combination with more data a higher resolution of the resulting spline. Moreover, we show that a locally improved data situation allows a highly resolved recovery in this particular area in combination with a coarse approximation elsewhere which is an essential advantage of this method, for example, compared to polynomial approximation.

Michel, Volker; Wolf, Kerstin

2008-04-01

135

Motoneuron BDNF/TrkB Signaling Enhances Functional Recovery after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

A C2 cervical spinal cord hemisection (SH) interrupts descending inspiratory-related drive to phrenic motoneurons located between C3 and C5 in rats, paralyzing the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm muscle. There is gradual recovery of rhythmic diaphragm muscle activity ipsilateral to cervical spinal cord injury over time, consistent with neuroplasticity and strengthening of spared, contralateral descending premotor input to phrenic motoneurons. Brainderived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through the tropomyosin related kinase receptor subtype B (TrkB) plays an important role in neuroplasticity following spinal cord injury. We hypothesized that 1) increasing BDNF/TrkB signaling at the level of the phrenic motoneuron pool by intrathecal BDNF delivery enhances functional recovery of rhythmic diaphragm activity after SH, and 2) inhibiting BDNF/TrkB signaling by quenching endogenous neurotrophins with the soluble fusion protein TrkB-Fc or by knocking down TrkB receptor expression in phrenic motoneurons using intrapleurally-delivered siRNA impair functional recovery after SH. Diaphragm EMG electrodes were implanted bilaterally to verify complete hemisection at the time of SH and 3 days post-SH. After SH surgery in adult rats, an intrathecal catheter was placed at C4 to chronically infuse BDNF or TrkB-Fc using an implanted mini-osmotic pump. At 14 days post-SH, all intrathecal BDNF treated rats (n=9) displayed recovery of ipsilateral hemidiaphragm EMG activity, compared to 3 out of 8 untreated SH rats (p < 0.01). During eupnea, BDNF treated rats exhibited 76 ± 17% of pre-SH root mean squared EMG vs. only 5 ± 3% in untreated SH rats (p < 0.01). In contrast, quenching endogenous BDNF with intrathecal TrkB-Fc treatment completely prevented functional recovery up to 14 days post-SH (n=7). Immunoreactivity of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), a downstream effector of TrkB signaling, increased in phrenic motoneurons following BDNF treatment (n=6) compared to artificial cerebrospinal fluid treatment (n=6; p < 0.001). Intrapleural injections of non-sense or TrkB siRNA were administered after SH to specifically target phrenic motoneurons. At 14 days post-SH, none out of 9 TrkB siRNA treated rats displayed functional recovery compared to 5 out of 9 non-sense siRNA treated rats. These results indicate that BDNF/TrkB signaling in phrenic motoneuron pool plays a critical role in functional recovery after cervical spinal cord injury. PMID:23583688

Mantilla, Carlos B.; Gransee, Heather M.; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C.

2013-01-01

136

Motoneuron BDNF/TrkB signaling enhances functional recovery after cervical spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

A C2 cervical spinal cord hemisection (SH) interrupts descending inspiratory-related drive to phrenic motoneurons located between C3 and C5 in rats, paralyzing the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm muscle. There is gradual recovery of rhythmic diaphragm muscle activity ipsilateral to cervical spinal cord injury over time, consistent with neuroplasticity and strengthening of spared, contralateral descending premotor input to phrenic motoneurons. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through the tropomyosin related kinase receptor subtype B (TrkB) plays an important role in neuroplasticity following spinal cord injury. We hypothesized that 1) increasing BDNF/TrkB signaling at the level of the phrenic motoneuron pool by intrathecal BDNF delivery enhances functional recovery of rhythmic diaphragm activity after SH, and 2) inhibiting BDNF/TrkB signaling by quenching endogenous neurotrophins with the soluble fusion protein TrkB-Fc or by knocking down TrkB receptor expression in phrenic motoneurons using intrapleurally-delivered siRNA impairs functional recovery after SH. Diaphragm EMG electrodes were implanted bilaterally to verify complete hemisection at the time of SH and 3days post-SH. After SH surgery in adult rats, an intrathecal catheter was placed at C4 to chronically infuse BDNF or TrkB-Fc using an implanted mini-osmotic pump. At 14days post-SH, all intrathecal BDNF treated rats (n=9) displayed recovery of ipsilateral hemidiaphragm EMG activity, compared to 3 out of 8 untreated SH rats (p<0.01). During eupnea, BDNF treated rats exhibited 76±17% of pre-SH root mean squared EMG vs. only 5±3% in untreated SH rats (p<0.01). In contrast, quenching endogenous BDNF with intrathecal TrkB-Fc treatment completely prevented functional recovery up to 14days post-SH (n=7). Immunoreactivity of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), a downstream effector of TrkB signaling, increased in phrenic motoneurons following BDNF treatment (n=6) compared to artificial cerebrospinal fluid treatment (n=6; p<0.001). Intrapleural injections of non-sense or TrkB siRNA were administered after SH to specifically target phrenic motoneurons. At 14days post-SH, none out of 9 TrkB siRNA treated rats displayed functional recovery compared to 5 out of 9 non-sense siRNA treated rats. These results indicate that BDNF/TrkB signaling in phrenic motoneuron pool plays a critical role in functional recovery after cervical spinal cord injury. PMID:23583688

Mantilla, Carlos B; Gransee, Heather M; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C

2013-09-01

137

In Vitro Ovine Embryo Production: the Study of Seasonal and Oocyte Recovery Method Effects  

PubMed Central

Background: To current knowledge, different oocyte's recovery method and various seasons have profound impact on in vitro embryo production (IVEP). Objectives: The aim of this study was to define an efficient recovery method for oocytes harvesting from slaughterhouse material in different seasons, and their effects on IVEP yield. Materials and Methods: Ovaries from slaughtered ewes in breeding season (BS) and non-breeding season (NBS) were collected from a local abattoir. The oocytes were recovered through aspiration, centrifugation (ORC), puncture and slicing, and categorized into three classes (I, oocytes with more than three layers of cumulus cells; II, less than three layers with damaged cumulus cells; III, denuded oocytes). After cultivation in TCM 199 for 24 hours, matured oocytes were subjected to in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC). The oocyte recovery using ORC in BS and NBS was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with other recovery methods. Results: No significant dissimilarities in the proportion of oocytes reaching M-II stage were recorded when using different oocyte recovery methods in different seasons. Aspiration resulted in lower (P < 0.05) proportion of class I (BS, 60.0 ± 2.1; NBS, 51.1 ± 2.1) compared to ORC (BS, 82.0 ± 1.2; NBS, 70.0 ± 1.2), slicing (BS, 80.0 ± 2.1; NBS, 71.0 ± 1.4) and puncture (BS, 80.0 ± 1.5; NBS, 72.0 ± 2.0). Monospermy and blastocyst development rates were significantly higher using ORC than other recovery techniques in both BS and NBS. More oocytes with high quality, greater blastocyst development and oocyte recovery rates were achieved in BS. Conclusions: The results revealed that oocytes harvesting technique and season are effective in the rate of cleavage and blastocysts’ development, and suggest that despite same meiotic resumption rate in all treatments, it would be better to use ORC. PMID:25593733

Dadashpour Davachi, Navid; Zare Shahneh, Ahmad; Kohram, Hamid; Zhandi, Mahdi; Dashti, Saeed; Shamsi, Helia; Moghadam, Razieh

2014-01-01

138

PET Demonstrates Functional Recovery after Treatment by Danhong Injection in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate neuroprotection of Danhong injection (DHI) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET). Method. Rats were divided into 5 groups: sham group, ischemia-reperfusion untreated (IRU) group, DHI-1 group (DHI 1?mL/kg/d), DHI-2 group (DHI 2?mL/kg/d), and DHI-4 group (DHI 4?mL/kg/d). AII the treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with DHI daily for 14 days. The therapeutic effects in terms of cerebral infarct volume, neurological function, and cerebral glucose metabolism were evaluated. Expression of TNF-? and IL-1? was detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Levels of mature neuronal marker (NeuN), glial marker (GFAP), vascular density factor (vWF), and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Compared with the IRU group, rats treated with DHI showed dose dependent reductions in cerebral infarct volume and levels of proinflammatory cytokines, improvement of neurological function, and recovery of cerebral glucose metabolism. Meanwhile, the significantly increased numbers of neurons, gliocytes, and vessels and the recovery of glucose utilization were found in the peri-infarct region after DHI treatment using immunohistochemical analysis. Conclusion. This study demonstrated the metabolic recovery after DHI treatment by micro-PET imaging with 18F-FDG and the neuroprotective effects of DHI in a rat model of cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury. PMID:24707308

Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Yuyan; He, Yu; Yang, Jiehong; Zhao, Tao; Fu, Wei; Xing, Panke; Wan, Haitong; Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong

2014-01-01

139

Development of Advanced Nuclide Separation and Recovery Methods using Ion-Exchanhge Techniques in Nuclear Backend  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of compact separation and recovery methods using selective ion-exchange techniques is very important for the reprocessing and high-level liquid wastes (HLLWs) treatment in the nuclear backend field. The selective nuclide separation techniques are effective for the volume reduction of wastes and the utilization of valuable nuclides, and expected for the construction of advanced nuclear fuel cycle system and the rationalization of waste treatment. In order to accomplish the selective nuclide separation, the design and synthesis of novel adsorbents are essential for the development of compact and precise separation processes. The present paper deals with the preparation of highly functional and selective hybrid microcapsules enclosing nano-adsorbents in the alginate gel polymer matrices by sol-gel methods, their characterization and the clarification of selective adsorption properties by batch and column methods. The selective separation of Cs, Pd and Re in real HLLW was further accomplished by using novel microcapsules, and an advanced nuclide separation system was proposed by the combination of selective processes using microcapsules.

Miura, Hitoshi

140

Methods for functional brain imaging  

E-print Network

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has demonstrated the potential for non-invasive mapping of structure and function (fMRI) in the human brain. In this thesis, we propose a series of methodological developments towards ...

Witzel, Thomas, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

141

An alternative method for the recovery of lithium from spodumene  

SciTech Connect

Two important processes applied presently for the extraction of lithium from spodumene, the acid method and the lime method, are described in this paper. The less common method of chlorination roasting is also discussed. The behavior of tachydrite and spodumene, individually, during heating is investigated by differential thermal analysis. It was observed that tachydrite gradually loses its water of crystallization, becoming anhydrous at 573 K. Spodumene, on the other hand, is stable, showing a mass loss of 0.3 pct. around 693 K. At the reaction temperatures used in this study, the mixture can then be regarded as a mixture of spodumene plus MgO and CaCl/sub 2/.

Medina, L.F.; El - Naggar, M.M.A.A.

1984-12-01

142

MODIFICATION IN TECHNIQUE FOR NEUROVASCULAR BUNDLE PRESERVATION DURING RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY: ASSOCIATION BETWEEN TECHNIQUE AND RECOVERY OF ERECTILE FUNCTION  

PubMed Central

Purpose We recently modified our radical prostatectomy (RP) technique such that the neurovascular bundle (NVB) is completely mobilized off the prostate from the apex to above the seminal vesicles, including incision of Denonvilliers’ fascia, prior to urethral division and mobilization of the prostate off the rectum. We prospectively evaluated whether this modification in surgical technique was associated with an improvement in postoperative erectile function (EF) recovery. Materials and Methods Data from patients treated prior to technique modification was used to create a predictive model for EF at 6 months after RP using age, date of surgery, and nerve sparing (none vs unilateral vs bilateral) as predictors for patients who received the modified technique (MT) to estimate the expected outcomes had they received the standard technique (ST), and compared these with actual outcomes. Results Of 372 patients with evaluable data, 275 (74%) underwent the ST from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004 and 97 (26%) underwent the MT from January 1, 2005 through May 30, 2006. Sixty-five of the 97 patients (67%) receiving the MT had EF recovery at 6 months, whereas the expected probability of 6-month EF, had they received the ST, was 45%. The absolute improvement in EF recovery attributable to the MT was 22% (95% CI 5% to 40%; p = 0.013). Conclusions Technical modifications to NVB preservation during RP were associated with improved rates of EF recovery. Whether a causal association exists between change in technique and outcome requires further evaluation. Additionally, longer follow-up will be required to determine the effect our MT has on the quality of erections and overall EF recovery rates. PMID:18279446

Masterson, Timothy A.; Serio, Angel M.; Mulhall, John P.; Vickers, Andrew J.; Eastham, James A.

2008-01-01

143

Comparison of different culture methods on bacterial recovery in hemodialysis fluids.  

PubMed

To examine the culture method that could provide the highest bacterial recovery, 143 reverse osmosis water samples used in hemodialysis were collected for comparison of the media (Tryptic Soy Agar, TSA vs Reasoner's 2A Agar, R2A), the temperature (20 degrees C vs 37 degrees C), the duration of incubation (48-hour vs 7-day), and the culture technique (membrane filtration vs spread plate methods). The European Best Practice Guideline method, R2A at 20 degrees Cfor 7-day incubation provided higher bacterial recovery than the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) method, TSA at 37 degrees C for 48-hour incubation. The membrane filtration method gave better yield than the spread plate method. As such, the European Best Practice Guideline method in combination with the membrane filtration technique would be the culture method of choice for hemodialysis fluids. PMID:15825714

Punakabutra, Napawan; Nunthapisud, Pongpun; Pisitkun, Trairak; Tiranathanagul, Khajohn; Tungsanga, Kriang; Eiam-Ong, Somchai

2004-11-01

144

The effect of memantine on functional recovery of the facial nerve after crush injury.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to establish whether memantine is an alternative and effective treatment on facial nerve recovery after crush injury, and also to analyze the effective doses of this promising agent. This is a randomized controlled animal study. 40 rats underwent crush injury to left main trunk of the facial nerve, and divided into 4 groups; (1) control (saline treated), (2) 5-mg/kg memantine, (3) 10-mg/kg memantine, and (4) 20-mg/kg memantine group. Facial nerve functions were evaluated by eye reflex, and whisker movement compared to the unaffected side. They were scored on a 3-point scale. On day 28, the rats were sacrificed, and the facial nerves were dissected. The paraffin sections were studied with caspase-3 immunostaining. According to statistical data, the recovery in Group 4 began significantly earlier than the other groups on the basis of restoring eye blink reflexes and whisker movement. Groups 2 and 3 showed faster recovery than Group 1 on the basis of whisker movement. The caspase-3 positive staining was rarely detected in all groups. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed that Group 4 showed fewer apoptotic cells than other groups; this was statistically significant. However, the Mann-Whitney U test with the Bonferroni correction did not reveal any significant difference between the groups. In conclusion, this study revealed that memantine acted to restore facial nerve functions, and accelerate recovery after facial nerve injury by inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:24659363

Topdag, Murat; Topdag, Deniz Ozlem; Ila, Kadri; Muezzinoglu, Bahar; Yaprak, Busra; Ozturk, Murat; Caliskan, Sebla; Iseri, Mete

2014-03-23

145

COMPRESSION SOCKS AND FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY FOLLOWING MARATHON RUNNING: A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL.  

PubMed

Compression socks have become a popular recovery aid for distance running athletes. Although some physiological markers have been shown to be influenced by wearing these garments, scant evidence exists on their effects on functional recovery. This research aims to shed light onto whether the wearing of compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running can improve functional recovery, as measured by a timed treadmill test to exhaustion 14 days following marathon running.Athletes (n=33, age = 38.5 ±7.2yrs) participating in the 2012 Melbourne, 2013 Canberra or 2013 Gold Coast marathons were recruited and randomised into the compression sock or placebo group. A graded treadmill test to exhaustion was performed 2 weeks prior and 2 weeks following each marathon. Time to exhaustion, average and maximum heart rates were recorded. Participants were asked to wear their socks for 48 hours immediately after completion of the marathon. The change in treadmill times (seconds) was recorded for each participant.33 participants completed the treadmill protocols. In the compression group average treadmill run to exhaustion time 2 weeks following the marathon increased by 2.6% (52s ±103s). In the placebo group run to exhaustion time decreased by 3.4% (-62s ±130s). P=0.009. This shows a significant beneficial effect of compression socks on recovery compared to placebo.The wearing of below knee compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running has been shown to improve functional recovery as measured by a graduated treadmill test to exhaustion 2 weeks following the event. PMID:25187242

Armstrong, Stuart A; Till, Eloise S; Maloney, Stephen; Harris, Gregory

2014-09-01

146

Recovery of Diaphragm Function following Mechanical Ventilation in a Rodent Model  

PubMed Central

Background Mechanical ventilation (MV) induces diaphragmatic muscle fiber atrophy and contractile dysfunction (ventilator induced diaphragmatic dysfunction, VIDD). It is unknown how rapidly diaphragm muscle recovers from VIDD once spontaneous breathing is restored. We hypothesized that following extubation, the return to voluntary breathing would restore diaphragm muscle fiber size and contractile function using an established rodent model. Methods Following 12 hours of MV, animals were either euthanized or, after full wake up, extubated and returned to voluntary breathing for 12 hours or 24 hours. Acutely euthanized animals served as controls (each n?=?8/group). Diaphragmatic contractility, fiber size, protease activation, and biomarkers of oxidative damage in the diaphragm were assessed. Results 12 hours of MV induced VIDD. Compared to controls diaphragm contractility remained significantly depressed at 12 h after extubation but rebounded at 24 h to near control levels. Diaphragmatic levels of oxidized proteins were significantly elevated after MV (p?=?0.002) and normalized at 24 hours after extubation. Conclusions These findings indicate that diaphragm recovery from VIDD, as indexed by fiber size and contractile properties, returns to near control levels within 24 hours after returning to spontaneous breathing. Besides the down-regulation of proteolytic pathways and oxidative stress at 24 hours after extubation further repairing mechanisms have to be determined. PMID:24475293

Bruells, Christian S.; Bergs, Ingmar; Rossaint, Rolf; Du, Jun; Bleilevens, Christian; Goetzenich, Andreas; Weis, Joachim; Wiggs, Michael P.; Powers, Scott K.; Hein, Marc

2014-01-01

147

Increasing functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex during the course of recovery from Bell's palsy.  

PubMed

Bell's palsy (BP), a unilateral and idiopathic palsy of the facial nerve, is a common disorder generally followed by a good natural recovery. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the recovery process of BP. Thirty-seven healthy volunteers and 67 patients were studied by functional MRI (fMRI). The seed regions of bilateral ACC were first extracted from the task-state fMRI data of healthy participants performing the task of mouth opening and closing. The connectivity of bilateral ACC was calculated from resting-state fMRI data of patients in whom only resting-state fMRI data were collected. The correlation between the strength of ACC's connectivity with the duration (time course of disease) was computed by analysis of covariance. It was found that the functional connectivity of the ACC ipsilateral to the lesioned side was enforced as the duration increased. The enforced brain areas included the sensorimotor areas and the ACC contralateral to the palsy. It was suggested that enforced functional connectivity of ACC might be related to cortical reorganization, which is important in the process of BP recovery. PMID:25426823

Hu, Sheng; Wu, Yuanyuan; Li, Chuanfu; Park, Kyungmo; Lu, Guangming; Mohamed, Abdalla Z; Wu, Hongli; Xu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Linying; Yang, Jun; Qiu, Bensheng

2015-01-01

148

Method for energy recovery from solid hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method for achieving environmentally sound disposal of hazardous waste in an operating rotary kiln. It comprises a heated, rotating cylinder containing in-process mineral material. The method comprises: the steps of packaging the hazardous waste in containers and charging the containerized hazardous waste into the kiln to contact the mineral material at a point along the length of the kiln cylinder where the kiln gas temperature ranges from about 950{sup 0}C to about 1200{sup 0}C.

Benoit, M.R.; Hansen, E.R.; Reese, T.J.

1989-07-25

149

Functional proteomics with biolinguistic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, new algorithms for comparative proteomics using extensions of n-gram analysis are described. Results demonstrate that these algorithms are more sensitive than those currently available for both genomics and proteomics analysis, enabling a more accurate portrayal of similarity of gene function. The algorithms allow the comparison of protein sequences using biochemical properties that enable the protein molecules to

GAUTAM B. SINGH; HARKIRAT SINGH

2005-01-01

150

adjoint state method for the identification problem in spect: recovery ...  

E-print Network

X-ray transform, and we apply efficient fast sweeping methods to solve static transport equations .... and a, one can find f0 in an explicit form by computing certain Abel type of integral; see [26]. We ..... The modified scheme then is the following.

2014-01-01

151

Direct Recovery of Depth-map I: Differential Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new methods are described for recovering the depth-map (i.e. distance of visiblesurfaces from a camera) of a scene from images formed by a convex lense. Therecovery is based on observing the change in the scene's image due to a small knownchange in one of the three intrinsic camera parameters: (i) distance between the lens andthe image detector plane, (ii)

Muralidhara Subbarao

1987-01-01

152

Women's Voices on Recovery: A Multi-Method Study of the Complexity of Recovery from Child Sexual Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The current study was exploratory and used multiple methods to examine patterns of stability and change in resilient functioning across 7 years of early adulthood. Second, qualitative data were used to examine in greater detail survivors' own narratives about correlates of healing. Method: This study was longitudinal and used both…

Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.

2007-01-01

153

Caregiver-mediated intervention can improve physical functional recovery of patients with chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Background and Purpose. Patients with chronic stroke may benefit from continuing rehabilitation training after hospital discharge. This study examined whether caregiver-mediated, home-based intervention (CHI) could improve physical functioning and social participation in these patients. Methods. A single-blind, randomized, controlled 12-week trial conducted with 51 patients from 3 hospitals in Taiwan who had chronic stroke (>6 months; Brunnstrom recovery stages III-V). Patients and their caregivers in the intervention arm (n = 25) were given weekly personalized CHI trainings designed by a physical therapist. Patients in the control arm (n = 26) received visits from the therapist without intervention. All were evaluated for physical recovery through the Stroke Impact Scale, Berg Balance Scale, 10-Meter Walk Test, 6-Minute Walk Test, and Barthel Index at baseline and endpoint. Caregivers were evaluated with the Caregiver Burden Scale. Results were analyzed through Mann-Whitney U test. Results. CHI significantly improved scores of the Stroke Impact Scale: strength (control vs intervention, respectively: 1.4 vs 15.5; P = .002), mobility (-0.5 vs 13.7; P < .001), composite physical (-0.7 vs 11.2; P < .001), and general recovery domain (0.2 vs 17.4; P < .001). CHI also significantly improved free-walking velocity (-1.4 vs 7.5 cm/s; P = .006), 6-minute walk distance (-10.5 vs 15.8 m; P = .003), Berg Balance Scale score (-0.8 vs 4.5; P = .006), and Barthel Index score (0.6 vs 7.2; P = .008). CHI did not significantly increase caregiver burden at endpoint. Conclusion. CHI can improve physical functional recovery and, possibly, social participation in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:24788580

Wang, Tzu-Chi; Tsai, Alan C; Wang, Jiun-Yi; Lin, Yu-Te; Lin, Ko-Long; Chen, Jiun Jiang; Lin, Bei Yi; Lin, Tai Ching

2015-01-01

154

A Method for Comparative Analysis of Recovery Potential in Impaired Waters Restoration Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common decision support tools and a growing body of knowledge about ecological recovery can help inform and guide large state and federal restoration programs affecting thousands of impaired waters. Under the federal Clean Water Act (CWA), waters not meeting state Water Quality Standards due to impairment by pollutants are placed on the CWA Section 303(d) list, scheduled for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) development, and ultimately restored. Tens of thousands of 303(d)-listed waters, many with completed TMDLs, represent a restoration workload of many years. State TMDL scheduling and implementation decisions influence the choice of waters and the sequence of restoration. Strategies that compare these waters’ recovery potential could optimize the gain of ecological resources by restoring promising sites earlier. We explored ways for states to use recovery potential in restoration priority setting with landscape analysis methods, geographic data, and impaired waters monitoring data. From the literature and practice we identified measurable, recovery-relevant ecological, stressor, and social context metrics and developed a restorability screening approach adaptable to widely different environments and program goals. In this paper we describe the indicators, the methodology, and three statewide, recovery-based targeting and prioritization projects. We also call for refining the scientific basis for estimating recovery potential.

Norton, Douglas J.; Wickham, James D.; Wade, Timothy G.; Kunert, Kelly; Thomas, John V.; Zeph, Paul

2009-08-01

155

A method for comparative analysis of recovery potential in impaired waters restoration planning.  

PubMed

Common decision support tools and a growing body of knowledge about ecological recovery can help inform and guide large state and federal restoration programs affecting thousands of impaired waters. Under the federal Clean Water Act (CWA), waters not meeting state Water Quality Standards due to impairment by pollutants are placed on the CWA Section 303(d) list, scheduled for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) development, and ultimately restored. Tens of thousands of 303(d)-listed waters, many with completed TMDLs, represent a restoration workload of many years. State TMDL scheduling and implementation decisions influence the choice of waters and the sequence of restoration. Strategies that compare these waters' recovery potential could optimize the gain of ecological resources by restoring promising sites earlier. We explored ways for states to use recovery potential in restoration priority setting with landscape analysis methods, geographic data, and impaired waters monitoring data. From the literature and practice we identified measurable, recovery-relevant ecological, stressor, and social context metrics and developed a restorability screening approach adaptable to widely different environments and program goals. In this paper we describe the indicators, the methodology, and three statewide, recovery-based targeting and prioritization projects. We also call for refining the scientific basis for estimating recovery potential. PMID:19452204

Norton, Douglas J; Wickham, James D; Wade, Timothy G; Kunert, Kelly; Thomas, John V; Zeph, Paul

2009-08-01

156

Support Vector Regression Methods for Functional Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many regression tasks in practice dispose in low gear instance of digitized functions as predictor variables. This has motivated\\u000a the development of regression methods for functional data. In particular, Naradaya-Watson Kernel (NWK) and Radial Basis Function\\u000a (RBF) estimators have been recently extended to functional nonparametric regression models. However, these methods do not\\u000a allow for dimensionality reduction. For this purpose, we

Noslén Hernández-gonzález; Rolando J. Biscay; Isneri Talavera-bustamante

2007-01-01

157

Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.

Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley, NJ)

2011-03-08

158

Mass recovery methods for trichloroethylene in plant tissue.  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring expenses form a significant fraction of the costs associated with remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater sites. A novel monitoring method that could result in significant cost savings is the use of plants as monitoring devices; previous work indicates that plant tissue samples, especially trunk (core) and branch samples, can be used to delineate soil and groundwater plumes at phytoremediation sites. An important factor in reducing the uncertainty associated with this sampling method is development of a technique to analyze, both consistently and accurately, the chemicals stored in plant tissue samples. The present research presents a simple, robust, and inexpensive technique to recover most of the contaminant in plant branch tissue, irrespective of the age or species of the plant. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was the chemical analyzed. A number of headspace and solvent extraction techniques in the literature were evaluated, including headspace extraction at different incubation times and temperatures and solvent extraction using hexane or hot methanol. Extraction using hot methanol was relatively fast, simple, and reliable; this method recovered more than 89% of the TCE present in branches of five different tree species.

Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, M. C.; Werth, C. J.; Energy Systems; Univ. of Illionis

2009-06-01

159

Required distribution of noise sources for Green's function recovery in diffusive fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the most general sense, noise is the part of the signal of little or no interest, due to a multitude of reasons such as operator error, imperfect instrumentation, experiment design, or inescapable background interference. Considering the latter, it has been shown that Green's function can be extracted from cross-correlation of the ambient, diffusive wavefields arising from background random noise sources. Pore pressure and low-frequency electromagnetic induction are two such examples of diffusive fields. In theory, applying Green's function method in geophysical exploration requires infinity of volumetrically distributed sources; however, in the real world the number of noise sources in an area is limited, and furthermore, unevenly distributed in time, space and spectral content. Hence, quantification of the requisite noise sources that enable us to calculate Green's function acceptably well remains an open research question. The purpose of this study is to find the area of noise sources that contribute most to the Green's function estimation in diffusive systems. We call such a region the Volume of Relevance (VoR). Our analysis builds upon recent work in 1D homogeneous system where it was shown that sources located between two receivers positions are the most important ones for the purpose of Green's function recovery. Our results confirm the previous finding but we also examine the effect of heterogeneity, dimensionality and receiver location in both 1D and 2D at a fixed frequency. We demonstrate that for receivers located symmetrically across an interface between regions of contrasting diffusivity, the VoR rapidly shifts from one side of the interface to the other, and back again, as receiver separation increases. We also demonstrate that where the receiver pair is located on the interface itself, the shifting is less rapid, and for moderate to high diffusivity contrasts, the VoR remains entirely on the more diffusive side. In addition, because classical diffusivity plays a role analogous to resistivity our results suggest that the VoR for the latter is dominated by the air region when the receivers are located on Earth's surface - a finding that demonstrates the minimal impact of subsurface noise sources for EGF estimation in surface-based geophysical experiment design.

Shamsalsadati, S.; Weiss, C. J.

2011-12-01

160

Plasminogen Deficiency Causes Reduced Corticospinal Axonal Plasticity and Functional Recovery after Stroke in Mice  

PubMed Central

Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been implicated in neurite outgrowth and neurological recovery post stroke. tPA converts the zymogen plasminogen (Plg) into plasmin. In this study, using plasminogen knockout (Plg-/-) mice and their Plg-native littermates (Plg+/+), we investigated the role of Plg in axonal remodeling and neurological recovery after stroke. Plg+/+ and Plg-/- mice (n?=?10/group) were subjected to permanent intraluminal monofilament middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). A foot-fault test and a single pellet reaching test were performed prior to and on day 3 after stroke, and weekly thereafter to monitor functional deficit and recovery. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected into the left motor cortex to anterogradely label the corticospinal tract (CST). Animals were euthanized 4 weeks after stroke. Neurite outgrowth was also measured in primary cultured cortical neurons harvested from Plg+/+ and Plg-/- embryos. In Plg+/+ mice, the motor functional deficiency after stroke progressively recovered with time. In contrast, recovery in Plg-/- mice was significantly impaired compared to Plg+/+ mice (p<0.01). BDA-positive axonal density of the CST originating from the contralesional cortex in the denervated side of the cervical gray matter was significantly reduced in Plg-/- mice compared with Plg+/+ mice (p<0.05). The behavioral outcome was highly correlated with the midline-crossing CST axonal density (R2>0.82, p<0.01). Plg-/- neurons exhibited significantly reduced neurite outgrowth. Our data suggest that plasminogen-dependent proteolysis has a beneficial effect during neurological recovery after stroke, at least in part, by promoting axonal remodeling in the denervated spinal cord. PMID:24732409

Liu, Zhongwu; Li, Yi; Qian, Jianyong; Cui, Yisheng; Chopp, Michael

2014-01-01

161

Pitch-based methods for speech detection and automatic frequency recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many applications for which it is desireable to reliably detect the presence of speech. Examples of these applications are speech compression, voice activated devices and machine speech recognition. In this paper, a method of speech detection is developed which uses a frequency-domain pitch-based signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimate. This method takes full advantage of the spectral structure of pitch, which is the primary speech excitation function. The primary output of the detection algorithm is a decision that speech is present or not present. In addition, the algorithm provides an estimate of the speech SNR which may be used to estimate signal quality. This SNR estimate is important for applications such as estimating the reliability of machine-based recognition processes. Additional advantages of this method are that it is independent of signal gain and it works well under adverse conditions such as poor SNR and in the presence of interference. A by-product of the pitch-based detection process is a method for automatic recovery of frequency offset of mistuned analog speech. Mistuning is a condition which can arise in the demodulation of single-side-band amplitude-modulated (SSB-AM) speech if the precise carrier is not used in the demodulation process. This can cause severe problems since speech becomes nearly unintelligible if it is mistuned more than 100 Hz. The methods presented here use a double complex correlation of the complex speech spectrum to recover the carrier offset. This process provides significantly better resolution than more conventional correlation processes based on the speech power- spectrum.

Nelson, Douglas J.; Pencak, Joseph

1995-06-01

162

Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite  

DOEpatents

High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

Reimann, George A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1986-01-01

163

Method of controlling scale in oil recovery operations  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of producing highly viscous minerals from a subterranean formation by injection of an acidic, thermal vapor stream without substantial scale buildup in downstream piping, pumps and well bore. The process comprises heating the formation by injection of heat, preferably in the form of a thermal vapor stream composed of combustion gases and steam and injecting an acidic compound simultaneously with the thermal vapor stream into the formation at a temperature above the dew point of the thermal vapor stream. The acidic, thermal vapor stream increases the solubility of metal ions in connate water and thus reduces scaling in the downstream equipment during the production of viscous hydrocarbons.

Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

1981-01-01

164

Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite  

DOEpatents

High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

Reimann, G.A.

1985-03-05

165

Consumer return chronology alters recovery trajectory of stream ecosystem structure and function following drought.  

PubMed

Consumers are increasingly being recognized as important drivers of ecological succession, yet it is still hard to predict the nature and direction of consumer effects in nonequilibrium environments. We used stream consumer exclosures and large outdoor mesocosms to study the impact of macroconsumers (i.e., fish and crayfish) on recovery of intermittent prairie streams after drying. In the stream, macroconsumers altered system recovery trajectory by decreasing algal and macroinvertebrate biomass, primary productivity, and benthic nutrient uptake rates. However, macroconsumer influence was transient, and differences between exclosures and controls disappeared after 35 days. Introducing and removing macroconsumers after 28 days resulted mainly in changes to macroinvertebrates. In mesocosms, a dominant consumer (the grazing minnow Phoxinus erythrogaster) reduced macroinvertebrate biomass but had little effect on algal assemblage structure and ecosystem rates during recovery. The weak effect of P. erythrogaster in mesocosms, in contrast to the strong consumer effect in the natural stream, suggests that both timing and diversity of returning consumers are important to their overall influence on stream recovery patterns. Although we found that consumers significantly altered ecosystem structure and function in a system experiencing rapid changes in abiotic and biotic factors following disturbance, consumer effects diminished over time and trajectories converged to similar states with respect to primary producers, in spite of differences in consumer colonization history. Thus, consumer impacts can be substantial in recovering ecosystems and are likely to be dependent on the disturbance regime and diversity of the consumer community. PMID:20462119

Murdock, Justin N; Gido, Keith B; Dodds, Walter K; Bertrand, Katie N; Whiles, Matt R

2010-04-01

166

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

1988-05-04

167

Multiframe restoration methods for image synthesis and recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation is concerned with multiple-frame (multiframe) reconstructions using imagery acquired in dynamic imaging environments. Through several interesting examples, we address and relate the key concepts of information weighting, channel diversity and multiframe processing in the context of producing high resolution estimates from severely degraded imagery. For the problem of space object identification, we look at methods for preprocessing a collection of atmospheric turbulence-degraded short-exposure images to improve the resolving power of estimation algorithms. Specifically, we examine the performance of using frame selection to extract the least degraded subset of images from an ensemble for processing. Several measures of image quality are compared against idealized standards to demonstrate their relative effectiveness for ranking highly the least degraded image frames. We also examine the resolving implication of removing additive background noise, resulting from the sky and telescope. Specifically, we show that background compensation acts as a defacto restoration of the compact object support and leads to furthering the resolving power of estimation algorithms. In the context of dilute aperture imagery, we look at methods for inducing channel diversity into a collection of measurements. With a diverse image set, we compute estimates using both a joint multiframe objective and an aggregated objective. We then examine the implication of using joint or aggregate objectives in any estimation algorithm from a set-theoretic standpoint. Finally, we extend the classic Wiener filter for the multiframe case. The resulting formulation demonstrates that the appropriate weighting of image data allows for the worst frames to be included while improving the restoration. We discuss how this contradicts the earlier idea of frame selection and relates the multiframe Wiener filter to the dual information theoretic concept of ``water-filling''.

Green, Joseph Jacob

2000-09-01

168

Influence of killing method on Lepidoptera DNA barcode recovery.  

PubMed

The global DNA barcoding initiative has revolutionized the field of biodiversity research. Such large-scale sequencing projects require the collection of large numbers of specimens, which need to be killed and preserved in a way that is both DNA-friendly and which will keep voucher specimens in good condition for later study. Factors such as time since collection, correct storage (exposure to free water and heat) and DNA extraction protocol are known to play a role in the success of downstream molecular applications. Limited data are available on the most efficient, DNA-friendly protocol for killing. In this study, we evaluate the quality of DNA barcode (cytochrome oxidase I) sequences amplified from DNA extracted from specimens collected using three different killing methods (ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing). Previous studies have suggested that chemicals, such as ethyl acetate and formaldehyde, degraded DNA and as such may not be appropriate for the collection of insects for DNA-based research. All Lepidoptera collected produced DNA barcodes of good quality, and our study found no clear difference in nucleotide signal strength, probability of incorrect base calling and phylogenetic utility among the three different treatment groups. Our findings suggest that ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing can all be used to collect specimens for DNA analysis. PMID:25229871

Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie

2014-09-17

169

EXTRACTION METHODS FOR RECOVERY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM FORTIFIED DRY SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recovery of 8 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dry soils, each fortified at 800 ng/g soil, was studied in relation to the extraction method and time of extraction. Extraction procedures studied on desiccator-dried soils were modifications of EPA low-and high-level purge-and...

170

Selective Recovery of Platinum Group Metals From Spent Automobile Catalyst by Integrated Ion Exchange Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective Recovery of platinum group metals (PGMs), such as Pd, Pt and Rh, from spent automobile catalyst has been investigated by integrated ion exchange method using dihexyl sulfide (DHS) impregnated resin and commercial weak anion exchange resin (Diaion WA-21) as adsorbents. Batchwise adsorption revealed DHS impregnated resin possesses the selective adsorption ability for Pd and WA-21 possesses selectivity for all

Shuhei Tanaka; Akinori Harada; Syouhei Nishihama; Kazuharu Yoshizuka

2012-01-01

171

Oil recovery method employing alternate slugs of surfactant fluid and fresh water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is a petroleum recovery method useful for recovering petroleum from subterranean formations containing water having high salinity and\\/or divalent ion concentration, employing an aqueous surfactant-containing fluid which is designed to effect low surface tension displacement of petroleum in the formation in the presence of high salinity water. The improvement comprises injecting the total desired volume of surfactant in the

Bousaid

1980-01-01

172

Oil recovery method employing alternate slugs of surfactant and fresh water solution of sacrificial agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is a petroleum recovery method useful for recovering petroleum from subterranean formations containing water having high salinity and\\/or divalent ion concentration, employing an aqueous surfactant-containing fluid which is designed to effect low surface tension displacement of petroleum in the formation in the presence of high salinity water. The improvement comprises injecting the total desired volume of surfactant in the

I. S. Bousaid; B. K. Ho

1981-01-01

173

Oil recovery method employing alternate slugs of surfactant and fresh water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is a petroleum recovery method suitable for recovering petroleum from subterranean formations containing water having high salinity and\\/or divalent ion concentration, employing an aqueous surfactant-containing fluid which is designed to effect low surface tension displacement of petroleum in the formation in the presence of high salinity water. The improvement comprises injecting the total desired volume of surfactant in the

Bousaid

1984-01-01

174

Oil recovery method employing alternate slugs of surfactant and fresh water solution of polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is a petroleum recovery method for recovering petroleum from subterranean formations containing water having high salinity and\\/or divalent ion concentration, employing an aqueous surfactant-containing fluid which is designed to effect low surface tension displacement of petroleum in the formation in the presence of high salinity water. The improvement comprises injecting the total desired volume of surfactant in the form

I. S. Bousaid; B. K. Ho

1981-01-01

175

An Improved DC Recovery Method from AC Coefficients of DCT-Transformed Images  

E-print Network

An Improved DC Recovery Method from AC Coefficients of DCT-Transformed Images Shujun Li1 , Junaid of DCT-transformed images is investigated in this work, which finds applications in cryptanalysis such as SSIM and MS- SSIM. 1 Introduction The discrete cosine transform (DCT) is an orthogonal transform

Reiterer, Harald

176

A tutorial on the LQG/LTR method. [Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper the so-called Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian method with Loop-Transfer-Recovery is surveyed. The objective is to provide a pragmatic exposition, with special emphasis on the step-by-step characteristics for designing multivariable feedback control systems.

Athans, M.

1986-01-01

177

Secondary recovery method and system using solar energy and concentric tank separator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A secondary oil recovery method and system utilizing a concentric tank arrangement receiving crude oil from an oil well in the inner tank thereof with the crude oil being heated by a solar furnace to facilitate separation of water, oil and gas with the water being disposed within the outer tank for insulation of the inner tank and for use

D. Fuqua; F. W. Slater

1981-01-01

178

The recovery time of sevoflurane and desflurane and the effects of anesthesia on mental and psychomotor functions and pain  

PubMed Central

Background: Inhalation anesthetics have many advantages for outpatient general anesthesia, such as minimal postoperative side-effects and rapid and full recovery. The aim of this randomized study was to compare the postoperative recovery time of sevoflurane and desflurane and to observe the effects of anesthesia on mental, psychomotor and cognitive functions and pain in outpatients undergoing arthroscopic surgery. Patients and Methods: This study included 40 American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II patients who were divided into two groups via sealed envelopes. For maintenance of anesthesia, a mixture of 66% N2O and 33% O2 and 4–7% desflurane was used in Group D, and a mixture of 66% N2O and 33% O2 and 1–2.5% sevoflurane was used in Group S. The modified Aldrete score (MAS) was evaluated postoperatively at time points determined previously. An MAS of 8 or higher was considered to indicate alertness. Mental and psychomotor functions of the patients were evaluated using the short cognitive examination (SCE), and postoperative pain levels were evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: There was no difference between the groups in terms of demographic data (P > 0.05). The mean time to reach MAS 8, eye-opening, and orientation were higher in Group S as compared to Group D (P < 0.01). The mean MAS initially and at 5 and 10 min was higher in Group D as compared to Group S (P < 0.001). The mean SCE at 5 and 15 min was higher in Group D as compared to Group S (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of VAS scores (P > 0.05). Conclusion: It has been determined that desflurane provided better quality and more rapid recovery than sevoflurane, and the return of cognitive functions in the early postoperative period was faster. In conclusion, both agents can apparently be used safely in outpatient anesthetic procedures.

Ergönenç, Jalan; Ergönenç, Tolga; ?din, Kadir; Uzun, U?ur; Dirik, Ali; Gedikli, Gökhan; Bican, Gül?en

2014-01-01

179

Electrical stimulation and iterative learning control for functional recovery in the upper limb post-stroke.  

PubMed

Therapies using functional electrical stimulation (FES) in conjunction with practice of everyday tasks have proven effective in facilitating recovery of upper limb function following stroke. The aim of the current study is to develop a multi-channel electrical stimulation system that precisely controls the assistance provided in goal-orientated tasks through use of advanced model-based 'iterative learning control' (ILC) algorithms to facilitate functional motor recovery of the upper limb post-stroke. FES was applied to three muscle groups in the upper limb (the anterior deltoid, triceps and wrist extensors) to assist hemiparetic, chronic stroke participants to perform a series of functional tasks with real objects, including closing a drawer, turning on a light switch and repositioning an object. Position data from the participants' impaired upper limb was collected using a Microsoft Kinect® and was compared to an ideal reference. ILC used data from previous attempts at the task to moderate the FES signals applied to each muscle group on a trial by trial basis to reduce performance error whilst supporting voluntary effort by the participant. The clinical trial is on-going. Preliminary results show improvements in performance accuracy for each muscle group, as well as improvements in clinical outcome measures pre and post 18 training sessions. Thus, the feasibility of applying precisely controlled FES to three muscle groups in the upper limb to facilitate functional reach and grasp movements post stroke has been demonstrated. PMID:24187178

Meadmore, Katie; Exell, Timothy; Freeman, Christopher; Kutlu, Mustafa; Rogers, Eric; Hughes, Ann-Marie; Hallewell, Emma; Burridge, Jane

2013-06-01

180

Recovery of cardiac function mediated by MSC and interleukin-10 plasmid functionalised scaffold.  

PubMed

Stem cell transplantation has been suggested as a treatment for myocardial infarction, but clinical studies have yet to demonstrate conclusive, positive effects. This may be related to poor survival of the transplanted stem cells due to the inflammatory response following myocardial infarction. To address this, a scaffold-based stem cell delivery system was functionalised with anti-inflammatory plasmids (interleukin-10) to improve stem cell retention and recovery of cardiac function. Myocardial infarction was induced and these functionalised scaffolds were applied over the infarcted myocardium. Four weeks later, stem cell retention, cardiac function, remodelling and inflammation were quantified. Interleukin-10 gene transfer improved stem cell retention by more than five-fold and the hearts treated with scaffold, stem cells and interleukin-10 had significant functional recovery compared to the scaffold control (scaffold: -10 ± 7%, scaffold, interleukin-10 and stem cells: +7 ± 6%). This improved function was associated with increased infarcted wall thickness and increased ratios of collagen type III/type I, decreased cell death, and a change in macrophage markers from mainly cytotoxic in the scaffold group to mainly regulatory in scaffold, stem cells and interleukin-10 group. Thus, treatment of myocardial infarction with stem cells and interleukin-10 gene transfer significantly improved stem cell retention and ultimately improved overall cardiac function. PMID:22078809

Holladay, Carolyn A; Duffy, Aoife M; Chen, Xizhe; Sefton, Michael V; O'Brien, Timothy D; Pandit, Abhay S

2012-02-01

181

Diffusion tensor imaging as a predictor of locomotor function after experimental spinal cord injury and recovery.  

PubMed

Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes long-term disability with limited functional recovery linked to the extent of axonal connectivity. Quantitative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of axonal integrity has been suggested as a potential biomarker for prognostic and therapeutic evaluation after trauma, but its correlation with functional outcomes has not been clearly defined. To examine this application, female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent midthoracic laminectomy followed by traumatic spinal cord contusion of differing severities or laminectomy without contusion. Locomotor scores and hindlimb kinematic data were collected for 4 weeks post-injury. Ex vivo DTI was then performed to assess axonal integrity using tractography and fractional anisotropy (FA), a numerical measure of relative white matter integrity, at the injury epicenter and at specific intervals rostral and caudal to the injury site. Immunohistochemistry for tissue sparing was also performed. Statistical correlation between imaging data and functional performance was assessed as the primary outcome. All injured animals showed some recovery of locomotor function, while hindlimb kinematics revealed graded deficits consistent with injury severity. Standard T2 magnetic resonance sequences illustrated conventional spinal cord morphology adjacent to contusions while corresponding FA maps indicated graded white matter pathology within these adjacent regions. Positive correlations between locomotor (Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score and gait kinematics) and imaging (FA values) parameters were also observed within these adjacent regions, most strongly within caudal segments beyond the lesion. Evaluation of axonal injury by DTI provides a mechanism for functional recovery assessment in a rodent SCI model. These findings suggest that focused DTI analysis of caudal spinal cord should be studied in human cases in relationship to motor outcome to augment outcome biomarkers for clinical cases. PMID:24779685

Kelley, Brian J; Harel, Noam Y; Kim, Chang-Yeon; Papademetris, Xenophon; Coman, Daniel; Wang, Xingxing; Hasan, Omar; Kaufman, Adam; Globinsky, Ronen; Staib, Lawrence H; Cafferty, William B J; Hyder, Fahmeed; Strittmatter, Stephen M

2014-08-01

182

Human Hepatocyte Growth Factor Promotes Functional Recovery in Primates after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Many therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) using neurotrophic factors have focused on reducing the area damaged by secondary, post-injury degeneration, to promote functional recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes and a mediator of the inflammatory responses to tissue injury, was recently highlighted as a potent neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. We previously reported that introducing exogenous HGF into the injured rodent spinal cord using a herpes simplex virus-1 vector significantly reduces the area of damaged tissue and promotes functional recovery. However, that study did not examine the therapeutic effects of administering HGF after injury, which is the most critical issue for clinical application. To translate this strategy to human treatment, we induced a contusive cervical SCI in the common marmoset, a primate, and then administered recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) intrathecally. Motor function was assessed using an original open field scoring system focusing on manual function, including reach-and-grasp performance and hand placement in walking. The intrathecal rhHGF preserved the corticospinal fibers and myelinated areas, thereby promoting functional recovery. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed significant preservation of the intact spinal cord parenchyma. rhHGF-treatment did not give rise to an abnormal outgrowth of calcitonin gene related peptide positive fibers compared to the control group, indicating that this treatment did not induce or exacerbate allodynia. This is the first study to report the efficacy of rhHGF for treating SCI in non-human primates. In addition, this is the first presentation of a novel scale for assessing neurological motor performance in non-human primates after contusive cervical SCI. PMID:22140459

Kitamura, Kazuya; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Yamane, Jun-ichi; Toyota, Fumika; Hikishima, Keigo; Nomura, Tatsuji; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Aoki, Masashi; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

2011-01-01

183

Human hepatocyte growth factor promotes functional recovery in primates after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Many therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) using neurotrophic factors have focused on reducing the area damaged by secondary, post-injury degeneration, to promote functional recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes and a mediator of the inflammatory responses to tissue injury, was recently highlighted as a potent neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. We previously reported that introducing exogenous HGF into the injured rodent spinal cord using a herpes simplex virus-1 vector significantly reduces the area of damaged tissue and promotes functional recovery. However, that study did not examine the therapeutic effects of administering HGF after injury, which is the most critical issue for clinical application. To translate this strategy to human treatment, we induced a contusive cervical SCI in the common marmoset, a primate, and then administered recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) intrathecally. Motor function was assessed using an original open field scoring system focusing on manual function, including reach-and-grasp performance and hand placement in walking. The intrathecal rhHGF preserved the corticospinal fibers and myelinated areas, thereby promoting functional recovery. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed significant preservation of the intact spinal cord parenchyma. rhHGF-treatment did not give rise to an abnormal outgrowth of calcitonin gene related peptide positive fibers compared to the control group, indicating that this treatment did not induce or exacerbate allodynia. This is the first study to report the efficacy of rhHGF for treating SCI in non-human primates. In addition, this is the first presentation of a novel scale for assessing neurological motor performance in non-human primates after contusive cervical SCI. PMID:22140459

Kitamura, Kazuya; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Yamane, Jun-Ichi; Toyota, Fumika; Hikishima, Keigo; Nomura, Tatsuji; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Aoki, Masashi; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

2011-01-01

184

Long-term functional recovery and compensation after cerebral ischemia in rats  

PubMed Central

Cerebral ischemia is one of the most common causes of disabilities in adults and leads to long-term motor and cognitive impairments with limited therapeutic possibilities. Treatment options have proven efficient in preclinical models of cerebral ischemia but have failed in the clinical setting. This limited translation may be due to the suitability of models used and outcomes measured as most studies have focused on the early period after injury with gross motor scales, which have limited correlation to the clinical situation. The aim of this study was to determine long-term functional outcomes after cerebral ischemia in rats, focusing on fine motor function, social and depressive behavior as clinically relevant measures. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effects of an anti-inflammatory treatment (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)) on functional recovery and compensation. Infarct volume was correlated with long-term (25 days) impairments in fine motor skills, but not with emotional components of behavior. Motor impairments could not be detected using conventional neurological tests and only detailed analysis allowed differentiation between recovery and compensation. Acute systemic administration of IL-1Ra (at reperfusion) led to a faster and more complete recovery, but delayed (24 h) IL-1Ra treatment had no effect. In summary functional assessment after brain injury requires detailed motor tests in order to address long-term impairments and compensation processes that are mediated by intact tissues. Functional deficits in skilled movement after brain injury represent ideal predictors of long-term outcomes and should become standard measures in the assessment of preclinical animal models. PMID:24821402

Girard, Sylvie; Murray, Katie N.; Rothwell, Nancy J.; Metz, Gerlinde A.S.; Allan, Stuart M.

2014-01-01

185

Development of on-farm oil recovery and processing methods: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), peanut oil was extracted from ground peanuts at pressures of 2000 to 10,000 psi and temperatures of 25-120/degree/ C. Above 6000 psi, increasing the temperature to the maximum possible without heavily charring the peanuts (120/degree/C) significantly increased the initial extraction rate. Increasing the pressure at constant temperature increased the rate. At higher temperatures (75/degree/ C and above) roasting began to occur, however, this was not detrimental to the extraction rate or overall oil recovery. Decreasing the particle size increases the overall yield per batch of peanuts as seen in both the half factorial and particle size experiments. Increasing the moisture increases the amount of volatiles lost. The flow rate does not affect the solubility, percent oil recovered or volatiles lost for flow rates of 40 to 60 liters CO2/minute at STP. Recovery of peanut and rapeseed oil with a combined process of partial recovery in a screw press plus extraction of the remaining oil with SC-CO2 is technically a viable alternative to other oil recovery methods. Oil recoveries of 95% (peanuts) and 75% (rapeseed) have been demonstrated. The initial extraction rate for rapeseed was consistently lower than the rate for peanuts at the same extraction temperature and pressure. No differences in SC-CO2 extraction rates or yields were found between Dwarf Essex and Cascade varieties of rapeseed. 8 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

Goodrum, J.W.; Kilgo, M.B.

1987-09-02

186

Optimization of the purification methods for recovery of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to optimize the purification of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus. Recombinant flounder growth hormone (r-fGH) was expressed by Escherichia coli in form of inclusion body or as soluble protein under different inducing conditions. The inclusion body was renatured using two recovery methods, i.e., dilution and dialysis. Thereafter, the refolded protein was purified by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography and r-fGH was obtained by cleavage of thrombin. For soluble products, r-fGH was directly purified from the lysates by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography. ELISA-receptor assay demonstrated that despite its low receptor binding activity, the r-fGH purified from refolded inclusion body had a higher yield (2.605 mg L-1) than that from soluble protein (1.964 mg L-1). Of the tested recovery methods, addition of renaturing buffer (pH 8.5) into denatured inclusion body yielded the best recovery rate (17.9%). This work provided an optimized purification method for high recovery of r-fGH, thus contributing to the application of r-fGH to aquaculture.

Zang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xuecheng; Mu, Xiaosheng; Liu, Bin

2013-03-01

187

Women's voices on recovery: A multi-method study of the complexity of recovery from child sexual abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe current study was exploratory and used multiple methods to examine patterns of stability and change in resilient functioning across 7 years of early adulthood. Second, qualitative data were used to examine in greater detail survivors’ own narratives about correlates of healing.

Victoria L. Banyard; Linda M. Williams

2007-01-01

188

A biomaterials approach to peripheral nerve regeneration: bridging the peripheral nerve gap and enhancing functional recovery  

PubMed Central

Microsurgical techniques for the treatment of large peripheral nerve injuries (such as the gold standard autograft) and its main clinically approved alternative—hollow nerve guidance conduits (NGCs)—have a number of limitations that need to be addressed. NGCs, in particular, are limited to treating a relatively short nerve gap (4 cm in length) and are often associated with poor functional recovery. Recent advances in biomaterials and tissue engineering approaches are seeking to overcome the limitations associated with these treatment methods. This review critically discusses the advances in biomaterial-based NGCs, their limitations and where future improvements may be required. Recent developments include the incorporation of topographical guidance features and/or intraluminal structures, which attempt to guide Schwann cell (SC) migration and axonal regrowth towards their distal targets. The use of such strategies requires consideration of the size and distribution of these topographical features, as well as a suitable surface for cell–material interactions. Likewise, cellular and molecular-based therapies are being considered for the creation of a more conductive nerve microenvironment. For example, hurdles associated with the short half-lives and low stability of molecular therapies are being surmounted through the use of controlled delivery systems. Similarly, cells (SCs, stem cells and genetically modified cells) are being delivered with biomaterial matrices in attempts to control their dispersion and to facilitate their incorporation within the host regeneration process. Despite recent advances in peripheral nerve repair, there are a number of key factors that need to be considered in order for these new technologies to reach the clinic. PMID:22090283

Daly, W.; Yao, L.; Zeugolis, D.; Windebank, A.; Pandit, A.

2012-01-01

189

A biomaterials approach to peripheral nerve regeneration: bridging the peripheral nerve gap and enhancing functional recovery.  

PubMed

Microsurgical techniques for the treatment of large peripheral nerve injuries (such as the gold standard autograft) and its main clinically approved alternative--hollow nerve guidance conduits (NGCs)--have a number of limitations that need to be addressed. NGCs, in particular, are limited to treating a relatively short nerve gap (4 cm in length) and are often associated with poor functional recovery. Recent advances in biomaterials and tissue engineering approaches are seeking to overcome the limitations associated with these treatment methods. This review critically discusses the advances in biomaterial-based NGCs, their limitations and where future improvements may be required. Recent developments include the incorporation of topographical guidance features and/or intraluminal structures, which attempt to guide Schwann cell (SC) migration and axonal regrowth towards their distal targets. The use of such strategies requires consideration of the size and distribution of these topographical features, as well as a suitable surface for cell-material interactions. Likewise, cellular and molecular-based therapies are being considered for the creation of a more conductive nerve microenvironment. For example, hurdles associated with the short half-lives and low stability of molecular therapies are being surmounted through the use of controlled delivery systems. Similarly, cells (SCs, stem cells and genetically modified cells) are being delivered with biomaterial matrices in attempts to control their dispersion and to facilitate their incorporation within the host regeneration process. Despite recent advances in peripheral nerve repair, there are a number of key factors that need to be considered in order for these new technologies to reach the clinic. PMID:22090283

Daly, W; Yao, L; Zeugolis, D; Windebank, A; Pandit, A

2012-02-01

190

Comparison of Different Culture Methods on Bacterial Recovery in Hemodialysis Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the culture method that could provide the highest bacterial recovery, 143 reverse osmosis water samples used in hemodialysis were collected for comparison of the media (Tryptic Soy Agar, TSA vs Reasoner's 2A Agar, R2A), the temperature (20?C vs 37 ?C), the duration of incubation (48-hour vs 7- day), and the culture technique (membrane filtration vs spread plate methods).

Napawan Punakabutra; Pongpun Nunthapisud; Trairak Pisitkun; Khajohn Tiranathanagul; Kriang Tungsanga; Somchai Eiam-Ong

191

Interhemispheric Cerebral Blood Flow Balance during Recovery of Motor Hand Function after Ischemic Stroke—A Longitudinal MRI Study Using Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion  

PubMed Central

Background Unilateral ischemic stroke disrupts the well balanced interactions within bilateral cortical networks. Restitution of interhemispheric balance is thought to contribute to post-stroke recovery. Longitudinal measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes might act as surrogate marker for this process. Objective To quantify longitudinal CBF changes using arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL) and interhemispheric balance within the cortical sensorimotor network and to assess their relationship with motor hand function recovery. Methods Longitudinal CBF data were acquired in 23 patients at 3 and 9 months after cortical sensorimotor stroke and in 20 healthy controls using pulsed ASL. Recovery of grip force and manual dexterity was assessed with tasks requiring power and precision grips. Voxel-based analysis was performed to identify areas of significant CBF change. Region-of-interest analyses were used to quantify the interhemispheric balance across nodes of the cortical sensorimotor network. Results Dexterity was more affected, and recovered at a slower pace than grip force. In patients with successful recovery of dexterous hand function, CBF decreased over time in the contralesional supplementary motor area, paralimbic anterior cingulate cortex and superior precuneus, and interhemispheric balance returned to healthy control levels. In contrast, patients with poor recovery presented with sustained hypoperfusion in the sensorimotor cortices encompassing the ischemic tissue, and CBF remained lateralized to the contralesional hemisphere. Conclusions Sustained perfusion imbalance within the cortical sensorimotor network, as measured with task-unrelated ASL, is associated with poor recovery of dexterous hand function after stroke. CBF at rest might be used to monitor recovery and gain prognostic information. PMID:25191858

Missimer, John; Schroth, Gerhard; Hess, Christian W.; Sturzenegger, Matthias; Wang, Danny J. J.; Weder, Bruno; Federspiel, Andrea

2014-01-01

192

The functional connectivity of semantic task changes in the recovery from stroke aphasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the difference of functional connectivity of semantic task between the recovery aphasic patients and normal subject. In this paper, an fMRI experiment was performed in a patient with aphasia following a left-sided ischemic lesion and normal subject. Picture naming was used as semantic activation task in this study. We compared the preliminary functional connectivity results of the recovery aphasic patient with the normal subject. The fMRI data were separated by independent component analysis (ICA) into 90 components. According to our experience and other papers, we chose a region of interest (ROI) of semantic (x=-57, y=15, z=8, r=11mm). From the 90 components, we chose one component as the functional connectivity of the semantic ROI according to one criterion. The criterion is the mean value of the voxels in the ROI. So the component of the highest mean value of the ROI is the functional connectivity of the ROI. The voxel with its value higher than 2.4 was thought as activated (p<0.05). And the functional connectivity networks of the normal subjects were t-tested as group network. From the result, we can know the semantic functional connectivity of stroke aphasic patient and normal subjects are different. The activated areas of the left inferior frontal gyrus and inferior/middle temporal gyrus are larger than the ones of normal. The activated area of the right inferior frontal gyrus is smaller than the ones of normal. The functional connectivity of stroke aphasic patient under semantic condition is different with the normal one. The focus of the stroke aphasic patient can affect the functional connectivity.

Lu, Jie; Wu, Xia; Yao, Li; Li, Kun-Cheng; Shu, Hua; Dong, Qi

2007-03-01

193

Citalopram Enhances Neurovascular Regeneration and Sensorimotor Functional Recovery after Ischemic Stroke in Mice  

PubMed Central

Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) after stroke enhances motor functional recovery; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. We hypothesized that daily administration of the clinical drug citalopram would produce these functional benefits via enhancing neurovascular repair in the ischemic peri-infarct region. To test this hypothesis, focal ischemic stroke was induced in male C57/B6 mice by permanent ligation of distal branches of the middle cerebral artery to the barrel cortex and 7-min occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries. Citalopram (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected 24 hrs after stroke and daily thereafter. To label proliferating cells, bromo-deoxyuridine was injected daily beginning 3 days after stroke. Immunohistochemical and functional assays were performed to elucidate citalopram-mediated cellular and sensorimotor changes after stroke. Citalopram treatment had no significant effect on infarct formation or edema 3 days after stroke; however, citalopram-treated mice had better functional recovery than saline-treated controls 3 and 14 days after stroke in the adhesive removal test. Increased expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor was detected in the peri-infarct region 7 days after stroke in citalopram-treated animals. The number of proliferating neural progenitor cells and the distance of neuroblast migration from the sub-ventricular zone towards the ischemic cortex were significantly greater in citalopram-treated mice at 7 days after stroke. Immunohistochemical staining and co-localization analysis showed that citalopram-treated animals generated more new neurons and microvessels in the peri-infarct region 21 and 28 days after stroke. Taken together, these results suggest that citalopram promotes post-stroke sensorimotor recovery likely via enhancing neurogenesis, neural cell migration and the microvessel support in the peri-infarct region of the ischemic brain. PMID:23590907

Espinera, Alyssa R.; Ogle, Molly E.; Gu, Xiaohuan; Wei, Ling

2013-01-01

194

Reorganization of Motor Cortex after Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats and Implications for Functional Recovery  

PubMed Central

Abstract We report the results of controlled cortical impact (CCI) centered on the caudal forelimb area (CFA) of rat motor cortex to determine the feasibility of examining cortical plasticity in a spared cortical motor area (rostral forelimb area, RFA). We compared the effects of three CCI parameter sets (groups CCI-1, CCI-2, and CCI-3) that differed in impactor surface shape, size, and location, on behavioral recovery and RFA structural and functional integrity. Forelimb deficits in the limb contralateral to the injury were evident in all three CCI groups assessed by skilled reach and footfault tasks that persisted throughout the 35-day post-CCI assessment period. Nissl-stained coronal sections revealed that the RFA was structurally intact. Intracortical microstimulation experiments conducted at 7 weeks post-CCI demonstrated that RFA was functionally viable. However, the size of the forelimb representation decreased significantly in CCI-1 compared to the control group. Subdivided into component movement categories, there was a significant group effect for proximal forelimb movements. The RFA area reduction and reorganization are discussed in relation to possible diaschisis, and to compensatory functional behavior, respectively. Also, an inverse correlation between the anterior extent of the lesion and the size of the RFA was identified and is discussed in relation to corticocortical connectivity. The results suggest that CCI can be applied to rat CFA while sparing RFA. This CCI model can contribute to our understanding of neural plasticity in premotor cortex as a substrate for functional motor recovery. PMID:20873958

Nishibe, Mariko; Barbay, Scott; Guggenmos, David

2010-01-01

195

Time course of diaphragm function recovery after controlled mechanical ventilation in rats  

PubMed Central

Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is known to result in rapid and severe diaphragmatic dysfunction, but the recovery response of the diaphragm to normal function after CMV is unknown. Therefore, we examined the time course of diaphragm function recovery in an animal model of CMV. Healthy rats were submitted to CMV for 24–27 h (n = 16), or to 24-h CMV followed by either 1 h (CMV + 1 h SB, n = 9), 2 h (CMV + 2 h SB, n = 9), 3 h (CMV + 3 h SB, n = 9), or 4–7 h (CMV + 4–7 h SB, n = 9) of spontaneous breathing (SB). At the end of the experiment, the diaphragm muscle was excised for functional and biochemical analysis. The in vitro diaphragm force was significantly improved in the CMV + 3 h SB and CMV + 4–7 h SB groups compared with CMV (maximal tetanic force: +27%, P < 0.05, and +59%, P < 0.001, respectively). This was associated with an increase in the type IIx/b fiber dimensions (P < 0.05). Neutrophil influx was increased in the CMV + 4–7 h SB group (P < 0.05), while macrophage numbers remained unchanged. Markers of protein synthesis (phosphorylated Akt and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1) were significantly increased (±40%, P < 0.001, and ±52%, P < 0.01, respectively) in the CMV + 3 h SB and CMV + 4–7 h SB groups and were positively correlated with diaphragm force (P < 0.05). Finally, also the maximal specific force generation of skinned single diaphragm fibers was increased in the CMV + 4–7 h SB group compared with CMV (+45%, P < 0.05). In rats, reloading the diaphragm for 3 h after CMV is sufficient to improve diaphragm function, while complete recovery occurs after longer periods of reloading. Enhanced muscle fiber dimensions, increased protein synthesis, and improved intrinsic contractile properties of diaphragm muscle fibers may have contributed to diaphragm function recovery. PMID:23845980

Thomas, Debby; Maes, Karen; Agten, Anouk; Heunks, Leo; Dekhuijzen, Richard; Decramer, Marc; Van Hees, Hieronymus

2013-01-01

196

Rapid T1 Mapping of Mouse Myocardium with Saturation Recovery Look-Locker Method  

PubMed Central

Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) using gadolinium or manganese provides unique characterization of myocardium and its pathology. In the current study, an ECG-triggered saturation recovery Look-Locker (SRLL) method was developed and validated for fast cardiac T1 mapping in small animal models. By sampling the initial portion of the longitudinal magnetization recovery curve, high temporal resolution (~3 min) can be achieved at a high spatial resolution (195×390 µm2) in mouse heart without the aid of parallel imaging or EPI. Validation studies were performed both in vitro on a phantom and in vivo on C57BL/6 mice (n=6). Our results showed a strong agreement between T1 measured by SRLL and by the standard saturation recovery method in vitro or inversion recovery Look-Locker in vivo. The utility of SRLL in DEC-MRI studies was demonstrated in manganese-enhanced MRI experiments in mice. Our results suggest that SRLL can provide rapid and accurate cardiac T1 mapping for studies utilizing small animal models. PMID:20632410

Li, Wen; Griswold, Mark; Yu, Xin

2010-01-01

197

An Improved DC Recovery Method from AC Coefficients of DCT-Transformed Images  

E-print Network

Motivated by the work of Uehara et al. [1], an improved method to recover DC coefficients from AC coefficients of DCT-transformed images is investigated in this work, which finds applications in cryptanalysis of selective multimedia encryption. The proposed under/over-flow rate minimization (FRM) method employs an optimization process to get a statistically more accurate estimation of unknown DC coefficients, thus achieving a better recovery performance. It was shown by experimental results based on 200 test images that the proposed DC recovery method significantly improves the quality of most recovered images in terms of the PSNR values and several state-of-the-art objective image quality assessment (IQA) metrics such as SSIM and MS-SSIM.

Li, Shujun; Saupe, Dietmar; Kuo, C -C Jay

2010-01-01

198

Promoting recovery of sexual functioning after radical prostatectomy with group-based stress management: The role of interpersonal sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Objective Treatment for localized carcinoma of the prostate (PCa) is frequently associated with decrements in sexual functioning and satisfaction. Given the highly interpersonal nature of these decrements, interpersonal problems (such as interpersonal sensitivity) may affect recovery of sexual functioning after PCa treatment by interfering with physician and partner communication and through distorted cognitions surrounding sexual dysfunction. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of interpersonal sensitivity on several treatment indicators, including response to a group based psychosocial intervention. Methods Participants were 101 older men recovering from radical prostatectomy and were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a 10-wk group-based cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention. Measures included the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) and the Sexual Functioning subscale of the UCLA quality of life measure. Results At baseline, interpersonal sensitivity was related to a belief linking sexual dysfunction to core male identity (r = .29, p < .05). Using hierarchical regression, we found that (a) the CBSM intervention was effective in promoting sexual recovery in all participants and that (b) this effect was moderated by interpersonal sensitivity, such that individuals with higher levels of interpersonal sensitivity made larger improvements in sexual functioning in response to CBSM. Conclusions CBSM was effective for improving sexual function after radical prostatectomy. Individuals with higher levels of interpersonal sensitivity were more likely to perceive sexual dysfunction as a threat to masculine identity and made larger gains in the CBSM intervention. Results and relevance to the older male cancer patient are discussed from the perspective of interpersonal theory. PMID:18440406

Molton, Ivan R.; Siegel, Scott D.; Penedo, Frank J.; Dahn, Jason R.; Kinsinger, David; Traeger, Lara N.; Schneiderman, Neil; Antoni, Michael H.

2008-01-01

199

Effectiveness of Commercial Gaming-Based Virtual Reality Movement Therapy on Functional Recovery of Upper Extremity in Subacute Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effectiveness of commercial gaming-based virtual reality (VR) therapy on the recovery of paretic upper extremity in subacute stroke patients. Methods Twenty patients with the first-onset subacute stroke were enrolled and randomly assigned to the case group (n=10) and the control group (n=10). Primary outcome was measured by the upper limb score through the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-UL) for the motor function of both upper extremities. Secondary outcomes were assessed for motor function of both upper extremities including manual function test (MFT), box and block test (BBT), grip strength, evaluated for activities of daily living (Korean version of Modified Barthel Index [K-MBI]), and cognitive functions (Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination [K-MMSE] and continuous performance test [CPT]). The case group received commercial gaming-based VR therapy using Wii (Nintendo, Tokyo, Japan), and the control group received conventional occupational therapy (OT) for 30 minutes a day during the period of 4 weeks. All patients were evaluated before and after the 4-week intervention. Results There were no significant differences in the baseline between the two groups. After 4 weeks, both groups showed significant improvement in the FMA-UL, MFT, BBT, K-MBI, K-MMSE, and correct detection of auditory CPT. However, grip strength was improved significantly only in the case group. There were no significant intergroup differences before and after the treatment. Conclusion These findings suggested that the commercial gaming-based VR therapy was as effective as conventional OT on the recovery of upper extremity motor and daily living function in subacute stroke patients. PMID:25229027

Choi, Jun Hwan; Kim, Bo Ryun; Kim, Sun Mi; Im, Sang Hee; Lee, So Young; Hyun, Chul Woong

2014-01-01

200

Intrathecal Morphine Attenuates Recovery of Function after a Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Prior work has shown that a high dose (20?mg/kg) of systemic morphine, required to produce significant analgesia in the acute phase of a contusion injury, undermines the long-term health of treated subjects and increases lesion size. Moreover, a single dose of systemic morphine in the early stage of injury (24?h post-injury) led to symptoms of neuropathic pain 3 weeks later, in the chronic phase. The present study examines the locus of the effects using intrathecal morphine administration. Subjects were treated with one of three doses (0, 30, or 90??g) of intrathecal morphine 24?h after a moderate contusion injury. The 90-?g dose produced significant analgesia when subjects were exposed to noxious stimuli (thermal and incremented shock) below the level of injury. Yet, despite analgesic efficacy, intrathecal morphine significantly attenuated the recovery of locomotor function and increased lesion size rostral to the injury site. A single dose of 30 or 90??g of intrathecal morphine also decreased weight gain, and more than doubled the incidence of mortality and autophagia when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Morphine is one of the most effective pharmacological agents for the treatment of neuropathic pain and, therefore, is indispensable for the spinally injured. Treatment can, however, adversely affect the recovery process. A morphine-induced attenuation of recovery may result from increases in immune cell activation and, subsequently, pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the contused spinal cord. PMID:19388818

Moreno, Georgina; Woller, Sarah; Puga, Denise; Hoy, Kevin; Balden, Robyn; Grau, James W.

2009-01-01

201

Does Phototherapy Enhance Skeletal Muscle Contractile Function and Postexercise Recovery? A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Context Recently, researchers have shown that phototherapy administered to skeletal muscle immediately before resistance exercise can enhance contractile function, prevent exercise-induced cell damage, and improve postexercise recovery of strength and function. Objective To critically evaluate original research addressing the ability of phototherapeutic devices, such as lasers and light-emitting diodes (LEDs), to enhance skeletal muscle contractile function, reduce exercise-induced muscle fatigue, and facilitate postexercise recovery. Data Sources We searched the electronic databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Scopus, and Rehabilitation & Physical Medicine without date limitations for the following key words: laser therapy, phototherapy, fatigue, exercise, circulation, microcirculation, and photobiomodulation. Study Selection Eligible studies had to be original research published in English as full papers, involve human participants, and receive a minimum score of 7 out of 10 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Data Extraction Data of interest included elapsed time to fatigue, total number of repetitions to fatigue, total work performed, maximal voluntary isometric contraction (strength), electromyographic activity, and postexercise biomarker levels. We recorded the PEDro scores, beam characteristics, and treatment variables and calculated the therapeutic outcomes and effect sizes for the data sets. Data Synthesis In total, 12 randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. However, we excluded data from 2 studies, leaving 32 data sets from 10 studies. Twenty-four of the 32 data sets contained differences between active phototherapy and sham (placebo-control) treatment conditions for the various outcome measures. Exposing skeletal muscle to single-diode and multidiode laser or multidiode LED therapy was shown to positively affect physical performance by delaying the onset of fatigue, reducing the fatigue response, improving postexercise recovery, and protecting cells from exercise-induced damage. Conclusions Phototherapy administered before resistance exercise consistently has been found to provide ergogenic and prophylactic benefits to skeletal muscle. PMID:23672326

Borsa, Paul A; Larkin, Kelly A; True, Jerry M

2013-01-01

202

A combined scoring method to assess behavioral recovery after mouse spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Although the rat has been the predominant rodent used to investigate the pathophysiology and treatment of experimental spinal cord injury (SCI), the increasing availability of transgenic animals has led to greater use of mouse models. However, behavioral assessment after SCI in mice has been less extensively investigated than in rats and few studies have critically examined the correlation between behavioral tests and injury severity or tissue damage. The present study characterized hind-limb functional performance in C57Bl/6 mice after contusion SCI at T9 using the weight drop method. A number of behavioral tests were examined with regard to variability, inter-rater reliability, and correlation to injury severity and white matter sparing. Mice were subjected to sham, mild-moderate or moderate-severe SCI and evaluated at day 1 and weekly up to 42 days using the Basso mouse scale (BMS), ladder climb, grid walk, inclined plane, plantar test and tail flick tests. The ladder climb and grid walk tests proved sub-optimal for use in mice, but modifications enhanced their predictive value with regard to injury severity. The inclined plane, plantar test and tail flick test showed far too much variability to have meaningful predictive value. The BMS score proved reliable, as previously reported, but a combined score (BLG) using BMS, Ladder climb (modified), and Grip walk (modified grid walk) provided better separation across injury levels and less variability than the individual tests. These data provide support for use of a combined scoring method to follow motor recovery in mice after SCI contusion injury. PMID:20188770

Pajoohesh-Ganji, Ahdeah; Byrnes, Kimberly R.; Fatemi, Gita; Faden, Alan I.

2010-01-01

203

On statistical methods of structure function extraction  

E-print Network

Several methods of statistical analysis are proposed and analyzed in application for a specific task -- extraction of the structure functions from the cross sections of deep inelastic interactions of any type. We formulate the method based on the orthogonal weight functions and on an optimization procedure of errors minimization as well as methods underlying common $\\chi^2$ minimization. Effectiveness of these methods usage is analyzed by comparison of the statistical parameters such as bias, extraction variance etc., for sample deep inelastic scattering data set.

S. N. Sevbitov; T. V. Shishkina; I. L. Solovtsov

2007-11-29

204

Carboxy alkyl esters of Uncaria tomentosa augment recovery of sensorineural functions following noise injury.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that hydrophilic chemotypes of the medicinal vine Uncaria tomentosa (UT) would facilitate recovery of sensorineural functions following exposure to a damaging level of noise. The particular chemotypes investigated were carboxy alkyl esters (CAE) which are known to exhibit multifunctional cytoprotective properties that include: enhanced cellular DNA repair, antioxidation and anti-inflammation. Long-Evans rats were divided into four treatment groups: vehicle-control, noise-only, CAE-only and CAE+noise. The noise exposure was an 8kHz octave band of noise at 105dB SPL for 4h. Outer hair cell (OHC) function was measured with the cubic 2f(1)-f(2) distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) at the start of the study (baseline) and at time-points that corresponded to 1day, 1week and 4weeks post-noise exposure to determine within-group effects. Compound action potentials to puretone stimuli were recorded from the VIIIth craniofacial nerve at 4weeks post-noise exposure to determine between-group effects. Additionally, cytocochleograms were constructed for each row of OHCs from each group. Noise exposure produced significant sensorineural impairments. However, CAE treatment facilitated almost complete recovery of OHC function and limited the magnitude of cell loss. The loss of neural sensitivity to puretone stimuli was inhibited with CAE treatment. Therefore, it appears that the multifunctional cytoprotective capacity of CAE from UT may generalize to otoprotection from acoustic over-exposure. PMID:21762882

Guthrie, O'neil W; Gearhart, Caroline A; Fulton, Sherry; Fechter, Laurence D

2011-08-17

205

Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury?  

PubMed Central

Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury.

Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent

2012-01-01

206

Ketoprofen combined with artery graft entubulization improves functional recovery of transected peripheral nerves.  

PubMed

The objective was to assess the local effect of ketoprofen on sciatic nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Eighty healthy male white Wistar rats were randomized into four experimental groups of 20 animals each: In the transected group (TC), the left sciatic nerve was transected and nerve cut ends were fixed in the adjacent muscle. In the treatment group the defect was bridged using an artery graft (AG/Keto) filled with 10 microliter ketoprofen (0.1 mg/kg). In the artery graft group (AG), the graft was filled with phosphated-buffer saline alone. In the sham-operated group (SHAM), the sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups of five animals each and regenerated nerve fibres were studied at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks post operation. Behavioural testing, sciatic nerve functional study, gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indices showed earlier regeneration of axons in AG/Keto than in AG group (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemical study clearly showed more positive location of reactions to S-100 in AG/Keto than in AG group. When loaded in an artery graft, ketoprofen improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of the sciatic nerve. Local usage of this easily accessible therapeutic medicine is cost saving and avoids the problems associated with systemic administration. PMID:23932540

Mohammadi, Rahim; Mehrtash, Moein; Nikonam, Nima; Mehrtash, Moied; Amini, Keyvan

2014-12-01

207

Electroacupuncture Promotes Post-Stroke Functional Recovery via Enhancing Endogenous Neurogenesis in Mouse Focal Cerebral Ischemia  

PubMed Central

To investigate the question of whether electroacupuncture (EA) promotes functional recovery via enhancement of proliferation and differentiation of neuronal stem cells (NSCs) in ischemic stroke, EA stimulation with 2 Hz was applied at bilateral acupoints to Baihui (GV20) and Dazhui (GV14) in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) mice. EA stimulation improved neuromotor function and cognitive ability after ischemic stroke. EA stimulation resulted in an increase in the number of proliferated cells, especially in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the ipsilateral hemisphere. Although a very limited number of NSCs survived and differentiated into neurons or astrocytes, EA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the number of proliferative cells and differentiated cells in the hippocampus and SVZ of the ipsilateral hemisphere compared to MCAO mice. EA stimulation resulted in significantly increased mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Protein levels of these factors were confirmed in the ipsilateral hippocampus and SVZ by immunohistochemical and Western blotting analyses. Expression of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, BDNF, and VEGF-mediated down-stream were enhanced by EA stimulation in newly formed neuroblasts. These results indicate that EA treatment after ischemic stroke may promote post-stroke functional recovery by enhancement of proliferation and differentiation of NSCs via the BDNF and VEGF signaling pathway. PMID:24587178

Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Ha Neui; Ahn, Sung Min; Choi, Yung Hyun; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

2014-01-01

208

Polysialic Acid Glycomimetic Promotes Functional Recovery and Plasticity After Spinal Cord Injury in Mice  

PubMed Central

Regeneration after injury of the central nervous system is poor due to the abundance of molecules inhibiting axonal growth. Here we pursued to promote regeneration after thoracic spinal cord injury in young adult C57BL/6J mice using peptides which functionally mimic polysialic acid (PSA) and human natural killer cell-1 (HNK-1) glycan, carbohydrate epitopes known to promote neurite outgrowth in vitro. Subdural infusions were performed with an osmotic pump, over 2 weeks. When applied immediately after injury, the PSA mimetic and the combination of PSA and HNK-1 mimetics, but not the HNK-1 mimetic alone, improved functional recovery as assessed by locomotor rating and video-based motion analysis over a 6-week observation period. Better outcome in PSA mimetic-treated mice was associated with higher, as compared with control mice, numbers of cholinergic and glutamatergic terminals and monaminergic axons in the lumbar spinal cord, and better axonal myelination proximal to the injury site. In contrast to immediate post-traumatic application, the PSA mimetic treatment was ineffective when initiated 3 weeks after spinal cord injury. Our data suggest that PSA mimetic peptides can be efficient therapeutic tools improving, by augmenting plasticity, functional recovery when applied during the acute phase of spinal cord injury. PMID:19826404

Mehanna, Ali; Jakovcevski, Igor; Acar, Ay?e; Xiao, Meifang; Loers, Gabriele; Rougon, Geneviève; Irintchev, Andrey; Schachner, Melitta

2009-01-01

209

Postoperative complications do not influence the pattern of early lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer in patients at risk  

PubMed Central

Background The pattern and factors influencing the lung function recovery in the first postoperative days are still not fully elucidated, especially in patients at increased risk. Methods Prospective study on 60 patients at increased risk, who underwent a lung resection for primary lung cancer. Inclusion criteria: complete resection and one or more known risk factors in form of COPD, cardiovascular disorders, advanced age or other comorbidities. Previous myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularization or stenting, cardiac rhythm disorders, arterial hypertension and myocardiopathy determined the increased cardiac risk. The severity of COPD was graded according to GOLD criteria. The trend of the postoperative lung function recovery was assessed by performing spirometry with a portable spirometer. Results Cardiac comorbidity existed in 55%, mild and moderate COPD in 20% and 35% of patients respectively. Measured values of FVC% and FEV1% on postoperative days one, three and seven, showed continuous improvement, with significant difference between the days of measurement, especially between days three and seven. There was no difference in the trend of the lung function recovery between patients with and without postoperative complications. Whilst pO2 was decreasing during the first three days in a roughly parallel fashion in patients with respiratory, surgical complications and in patients without complications, a slight hypercapnia registered on the first postoperative day was gradually abolished in all groups except in patients with cardiac complications. Conclusion Extent of the lung resection and postoperative complications do not significantly influence the trend of the lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer. PMID:24884793

2014-01-01

210

A Flexible Method of Estimating Luminosity Functions  

E-print Network

We describe a Bayesian approach to estimating luminosity functions. We derive the likelihood function and posterior probability distribution for the luminosity function, given the observed data, and we compare the Bayesian approach with maximum-likelihood by simulating sources from a Schechter function. For our simulations confidence intervals derived from bootstrapping the maximum-likelihood estimate can be too narrow, while confidence intervals derived from the Bayesian approach are valid. We develop our statistical approach for a flexible model where the luminosity function is modeled as a mixture of Gaussian functions. Statistical inference is performed using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, and we describe a Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to perform the MCMC. The MCMC simulates random draws from the probability distribution of the luminosity function parameters, given the data, and we use a simulated data set to show how these random draws may be used to estimate the probability distribution for the luminosity function. In addition, we show how the MCMC output may be used to estimate the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the luminosity function, such as the peak in the space density of quasars. The Bayesian method we develop has the advantage that it is able to place accurate constraints on the luminosity function even beyond the survey detection limits, and that it provides a natural way of estimating the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the luminosity function, including those that rely on information beyond the survey detection limits.

Brandon C. Kelly; Xiaohui Fan; Marianne Vestergaard

2008-05-19

211

From Structure to Function: Methods and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid increase in experimental data along with recent progress in computational methods has brought mod- ern biology a step closer toward solving one of the most challenging problems: prediction of protein function. Comprehen- sion of protein function at its most basic level requires understanding of molecular interactions. Currently, it is becoming universally accepted that the scale of the accumulated

Haim J. Wolfson; Maxim Shatsky; Dina Schneidman-Duhovny; Oranit Dror; Alexandra Shulman-Peleg; Buyong Ma; Ruth Nussinov

2005-01-01

212

Automatic Methods for Predicting Functionally Important Residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequence analysis is often the first guide for the prediction of residues in a protein family that may have functional significance. A few methods have been proposed which use the division of protein families into subfamilies in the search for those positions that could have some functional significance for the whole family, but at the same time which exhibit the

Antonio del Sol Mesa; Florencio Pazos; Alfonso Valencia

2003-01-01

213

Prediction of global left ventricular functional recovery in patients with heart failure undergoing surgical revascularisation, based on late gadolinium enhancement Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance  

PubMed Central

Background The new gold standard for myocardial viability assessment is late gadolinium enhancement-cardiovascular magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR); this technique has demonstrated that the transmural extent of scar predicts segmental functional recovery. We now asked how the number of viable and number of viable+normal, segments predicted recovery of global left ventricular (LV) function in patients undergoing CABG. Finally, we examined which segmental transmural threshold of scarring best predicted global LV recovery. Methods and Results Fifty patients with reduced LV ejection fraction (EF) referred for CABG were recruited, and 33 included in this analysis. Patients underwent CMR to assess LV function and viability pre-operatively at 6 days and 6 months. Mean LVEF 38% ± 11, which improved to 43% ± 12 after surgery. 21/33 patients improved EF by ?3% (EF before 38% ± 13, after 47% ± 13), 12/33 did not (EF before 39% ± 6, after 37% ± 8). The only independent predictor for global functional recovery after revascularisation was the number of viable+normal segments: Based on a segmental transmural viability cutoff of <50%, ROC analysis demonstrated ?10 viable+normal segments predicted ?3% improvement in LVEF with a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 75% (AUC = 0.9, p < 0.001). Transmural viability cutoffs of <25 and <75% and a cutoff of ?4 viable segments were less useful predictors of global LV recovery. Conclusions Based on a 50% transmural viability cutoff, patients with ?10 viable+normal segments improve global LV function post revascularisation, while patients with fewer such segments do not. LGE-CMR is a simple and powerful tool for identifying which patients with impaired LV function will benefit from CABG. Trial registration Research Ethics Committee Unique Identifier: NRES:05/Q1603/42. The study is listed on the Current Controlled Trials Registry: ISRCTN41388968. URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com PMID:20929540

2010-01-01

214

Solution Hybrid Selection Capture for the Recovery of Functional Full-Length Eukaryotic cDNAs From Complex Environmental Samples  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic microbial communities play key functional roles in soil biology and potentially represent a rich source of natural products including biocatalysts. Culture-independent molecular methods are powerful tools to isolate functional genes from uncultured microorganisms. However, none of the methods used in environmental genomics allow for a rapid isolation of numerous functional genes from eukaryotic microbial communities. We developed an original adaptation of the solution hybrid selection (SHS) for an efficient recovery of functional complementary DNAs (cDNAs) synthesized from soil-extracted polyadenylated mRNAs. This protocol was tested on the Glycoside Hydrolase 11 gene family encoding endo-xylanases for which we designed 35 explorative 31-mers capture probes. SHS was implemented on four soil eukaryotic cDNA pools. After two successive rounds of capture, >90% of the resulting cDNAs were GH11 sequences, of which 70% (38 among 53 sequenced genes) were full length. Between 1.5 and 25% of the cloned captured sequences were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified GH11 gene fragments from the captured sequences highlighted hundreds of phylogenetically diverse sequences that were not yet described, in public databases. This protocol offers the possibility of performing exhaustive exploration of eukaryotic gene families within microbial communities thriving in any type of environment. PMID:25281543

Bragalini, Claudia; Ribière, Céline; Parisot, Nicolas; Vallon, Laurent; Prudent, Elsa; Peyretaillade, Eric; Girlanda, Mariangela; Peyret, Pierre; Marmeisse, Roland; Luis, Patricia

2014-01-01

215

Solution Hybrid Selection Capture for the Recovery of Functional Full-Length Eukaryotic cDNAs From Complex Environmental Samples.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic microbial communities play key functional roles in soil biology and potentially represent a rich source of natural products including biocatalysts. Culture-independent molecular methods are powerful tools to isolate functional genes from uncultured microorganisms. However, none of the methods used in environmental genomics allow for a rapid isolation of numerous functional genes from eukaryotic microbial communities. We developed an original adaptation of the solution hybrid selection (SHS) for an efficient recovery of functional complementary DNAs (cDNAs) synthesized from soil-extracted polyadenylated mRNAs. This protocol was tested on the Glycoside Hydrolase 11 gene family encoding endo-xylanases for which we designed 35 explorative 31-mers capture probes. SHS was implemented on four soil eukaryotic cDNA pools. After two successive rounds of capture, >90% of the resulting cDNAs were GH11 sequences, of which 70% (38 among 53 sequenced genes) were full length. Between 1.5 and 25% of the cloned captured sequences were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified GH11 gene fragments from the captured sequences highlighted hundreds of phylogenetically diverse sequences that were not yet described, in public databases. This protocol offers the possibility of performing exhaustive exploration of eukaryotic gene families within microbial communities thriving in any type of environment. PMID:25281543

Bragalini, Claudia; Ribière, Céline; Parisot, Nicolas; Vallon, Laurent; Prudent, Elsa; Peyretaillade, Eric; Girlanda, Mariangela; Peyret, Pierre; Marmeisse, Roland; Luis, Patricia

2014-12-01

216

Recovery of motor and cognitive function after cerebellar lesions in a songbird – role of estrogens  

PubMed Central

In addition to its key role in complex motor function, the cerebellum is increasingly recognized to have a role in cognition. Songbirds are particularly good models for the investigation of motor and cognitive processes but little is known about the role of the songbird cerebellum in these processes. To explore cerebellar function in a songbird, we lesioned the cerebellum of adult female zebra finches and examined the effects on a spatial working memory task and on motor function during this task. There is evidence for steroid synthesis in the songbird brain and neurosteroids may have an impact on some forms of neural plasticity in adult songbirds. We therefore hypothesized that neurosteroids would affect motor and cognitive function after a cerebellar injury. We found that cerebellar lesions produced deficits in motor and cognitive aspects of a spatial task. In line with our prediction, birds in which estrogen synthesis was blocked had impaired performance in our spatial task compared with those that had estrogen synthesis blocked but estrogen replaced. There was no clear effect of estrogen replacement on motor function. We also found that lesions induced expression of the estrogen synthetic enzyme aromatase in reactive astrocytes and Bergmann glia around a cerebellar lesion. These data suggest that the cerebellum of songbirds mediates both motor and cognitive function and that estrogens may improve the recovery of cognitive aspects of cerebellar function after injury. PMID:19302157

Spence, Rory D.; Zhen, Yin; White, Stephanie; Schlinger, Barney A.; Day, Lainy B.

2010-01-01

217

Carrier recovery methods for a dual-mode modem: A design approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dual mode model with selectable QPSK or 16-QASK modulation schemes is discussed. The theoretical reasoning as well as the practical trade-offs made during the development of a modem are presented, with attention given to the carrier recovery method used for coherent demodulation. Particular attention is given to carrier recovery methods that can provide little degradation due to phase error for both QPSK and 16-QASK, while being insensitive to the amplitude characteristic of a 16-QASK modulation scheme. A computer analysis of the degradation is symbol error rate (SER) for QPSK and 16-QASK due to phase error is prresented. Results find that an energy increase of roughly 4 dB is needed to maintain a SER of 1X10(-5) for QPSK with 20 deg of phase error and 16-QASK with 7 deg phase error.

Richards, C. W.; Wilson, S. G.

1984-01-01

218

Functional recovery of odor representations in regenerated sensory inputs to the olfactory bulb  

PubMed Central

The olfactory system has a unique capacity for recovery from peripheral damage. After injury to the olfactory epithelium (OE), olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) regenerate and re-converge on target glomeruli of the olfactory bulb (OB). Thus far, this process has been described anatomically for only a few defined populations of OSNs. Here we characterize this regeneration at a functional level by assessing how odor representations carried by OSN inputs to the OB recover after massive loss and regeneration of the sensory neuron population. We used chronic imaging of mice expressing synaptopHluorin in OSNs to monitor odor representations in the dorsal OB before lesion by the olfactotoxin methyl bromide and after a 12 week recovery period. Methyl bromide eliminated functional inputs to the OB, and these inputs recovered to near-normal levels of response magnitude within 12 weeks. We also found that the functional topography of odor representations recovered after lesion, with odorants evoking OSN input to glomerular foci within the same functional domains as before lesion. At a finer spatial scale, however, we found evidence for mistargeting of regenerated OSN axons onto OB targets, with odorants evoking synaptopHluorin signals in small foci that did not conform to a typical glomerular structure but whose distribution was nonetheless odorant-specific. These results indicate that OSNs have a robust ability to reestablish functional inputs to the OB and that the mechanisms underlying the topography of bulbar reinnervation during development persist in the adult and allow primary sensory representations to be largely restored after massive sensory neuron loss. PMID:24431990

Cheung, Man C.; Jang, Woochan; Schwob, James E.; Wachowiak, Matt

2014-01-01

219

QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMPROVED RECOVERY: APPLICATION TO HEAVY OIL SANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity is needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California’s heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involves application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved

James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz; Robert A. Bridges; Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Caitlin J. Lorinovich; Silong Lu

2000-01-01

220

Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands  

SciTech Connect

Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.; Brame, Scott; Current, Caitlin J.

2003-02-07

221

Recovery after Prolonged Sleep Deprivation: Residual Effects of SlowRelease Caffeine on Recovery Sleep, Sleepiness and Cognitive Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long work schedule often results in sleep deprivation, sleepiness, impaired performance and fatigue. We investigated the residual effects of slow-release caffeine (SRC) on sleep, sleepiness and cognitive performance during a 42-hour recovery period following a 64-hour continuous wakefulness period in 16 healthy males, according to a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Three hundred milligrams of SRC or placebo was

Maurice Beaumont; Denise Batéjat; Olivier Coste; Philippe Doireau; Françoise Chauffard; Marc Enslen; Didier Lagarde; Christophe Pierard

2005-01-01

222

Adaptive psychophysical methods for nonmonotonic psychometric functions.  

PubMed

Many psychophysical tasks in current use render nonmonotonic psychometric functions; these include the oddball task, the temporal generalization task, the binary synchrony judgment task, and other forms of the same-different task. Other tasks allow for ternary responses and render three psychometric functions, one of which is also nonmonotonic, like the ternary synchrony judgment task or the unforced choice task. In all of these cases, data are usually collected with the inefficient method of constant stimuli (MOCS), because extant adaptive methods are only applicable when the psychometric function is monotonic. This article develops stimulus placement criteria for adaptive methods designed for use with nonmonotonic psychometric functions or with ternary tasks. The methods are transformations of conventional up-down rules. Simulations under three alternative psychophysical tasks prove the validity of these methods, their superiority to MOCS, and the accuracy with which they recover direct estimates of the parameters determining the psychometric functions, as well as estimates of derived quantities such as the point of subjective equality or the difference limen. Practical recommendations and worked-out examples are provided to illustrate how to use these adaptive methods in empirical research. PMID:24197504

García-Pérez, Miguel A

2014-02-01

223

PACAP stimulates functional recovery after spinal cord injury through axonal regeneration.  

PubMed

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuroprotective peptide expressed in the central nervous system. Although many studies have shown a neuroprotective effect of PACAP, the mechanism of PACAP in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) is yet to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and underlying mechanism of PACAP in a mouse SCI model where PACAP was delivered via a biodegradable hydrogel. When PACAP or saline was delivered immediately after SCI, the functional motor recovery 14 days after SCI was significantly improved in the PACAP group compared with that in the saline group. Expression levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) for collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2), a factor related to axonal regeneration, were increased in the PACAP group 14 days after SCI compared with those in the saline group. A significantly increased number of CRMP2-positive cells were observed around the injury lesion in the PACAP group, while CRMP2 co-labeling with neuronal and oligodendrocyte markers was detected in intact spinal cord. Fourteen days after SCI, anterograde tracing revealed that a significantly increased number of neuronal fibers extended caudally from the lesion epicenter in the PACAP group. These results suggest that PACAP stimulates functional motor recovery after SCI through axonal regeneration mediated by CRMP2. PMID:25074795

Tsuchida, Masashi; Nakamachi, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Kouichi; Tsuchikawa, Daisuke; Watanabe, Jun; Hori, Motohide; Yoshikawa, Akira; Imai, Nori; Kagami, Nobuyuki; Matkovits, Attila; Atsumi, Takashi; Shioda, Seiji

2014-11-01

224

Functional and Transcriptomic Recovery of Infarcted Mouse Myocardium Treated with Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells  

PubMed Central

Although bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMNC) have been extensively used in cell therapy for cardiac diseases, little mechanistic information is available to support reports of their efficacy. To address this shortcoming, we compared structural and functional recovery and associated global gene expression profiles in post-ischaemic myocardium treated with BMNC transplantation. BMNC suspensions were injected into cardiac scar tissue 10 days after experimental myocardial infarction. Six weeks later, mice undergoing BMNC therapy were found to have normalized antibody repertoire and improved cardiac performance measured by ECG, treadmill exercise time and echocardiography. After functional testing, gene expression profiles in cardiac tissue were evaluated using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Expression of more than 18% of the 11981 quantified unigenes was significantly altered in the infarcted hearts. BMNC therapy restored expression of 2099 (96.2%) of the genes that were altered by infarction but led to altered expression of 286 other genes, considered to be a side effect of the treatment. Transcriptional therapeutic efficacy, a metric calculated using a formula that incorporates both recovery and side effect of treatment, was 73%. In conclusion, our results confirm a beneficial role for bone marrow-derived cell therapy and provide new information on molecular mechanisms operating after BMNC transplantation on post ischemic heart failure in mice. PMID:21671060

Lachtermacher, Stephan; Esporcatte, Bruno L. B.; da Silva de Azevedo Fortes, Fábio; Rocha, Nazareth Novaes; Montalvão, Fabrício; Costa, Patricia C.; Belem, Luciano; Rabischoffisky, Arnaldo; Neto, Hugo C. C. Faria; Vasconcellos, Rita; Iacobas, Dumitru A.; Iacobas, Sanda; Spray, David C.; Thomas, Neil M.; Goldenberg, Regina C. S.; de Carvalho, Antonio C. Campos

2011-01-01

225

Clinical and transitional care: considerations to optimize functional recovery following hip fracture.  

PubMed

Between 30% and 40% of community-dwelling older adults in the United States fall at least once each year, and approximately 10% of these falls are associated with a major injury such as a hip fracture. Return to maximum level of functional status following surgery requires individualized rehabilitation programs and may involve multiple care transitions. Using an individual example, this article provides context for meeting rehabilitation goals during transitional care following hip fractures. Understanding recommended clinical management strategies during the acute perioperative period and the rationale for postsurgical rehabilitation decisions based on clinical assessment, program eligibility, and Medicare coverage will allow all health professionals to provide optimal guidance and maximize functional recovery for older adults with hip fractures. PMID:23675645

Eckard, Travis; Cadogan, Mary P

2013-06-01

226

Predictors of Recovery of Functional Swallow After Gastrostomy Tube Placement for Dysphagia in Stroke Patients After Inpatient Rehabilitation: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine predictors of early recovery of functional swallow in patients who had gastrostomy (percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy [PEG]) placement for dysphagia and were discharged to inpatient rehabilitation (IPR) after stroke. Methods A retrospective study of prospectively identified patients with acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke from July 2008 to August 2012 was conducted. Patients who had PEG during stroke admission and were discharged to IPR, were studied. We compared demographics, stroke characteristics, severity of dysphagia, stroke admission events and medications in patients who remained PEG-dependent after IPR with those who recovered functional swallow. Results Patients who remained PEG dependent were significantly older (73 vs. 54 years, p=0.009). Recovery of swallow was more frequent for hemorrhagic stroke patients (80% vs. 47%, p=0.079). Age, adjusting for side of stroke (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-0.98; p=0.016) and left-sided strokes, adjusting for age (OR, 15.15; 95% CI, 1.32-173.34; p=0.028) were significant predictors of swallow recovery. Patients who recovered swallowing by discharge from IPR were more likely to be discharged home compared to those who remained PEG-dependent (90% vs. 42%, p=0.009). Conclusion Younger age and left-sided stroke may be predictive factors of early recovery of functional swallow in patients who received PEG. Prospective validation is important as avoidance of unnecessary procedures could reduce morbidity and healthcare costs. PMID:25229025

Crisan, Diana; Boehme, Amelia; Dubin, Perry; Juengling, Jenifer; Schluter, Laurie A.; Albright, Karen C.; Beasley, T. Mark; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

2014-01-01

227

L-DOPS-Accelerated recovery of locomotor function in rats subjected to sensorimotor cortex ablation injury: pharmacobehavioral studies.  

PubMed

Central norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to play a beneficial role in amphetamine-facilitated recovery of behavior. To give insight into understanding the mechanism, the present studies were conducted to examine (a) the effects of L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS) combined with benserazide (BSZ; a peripheral aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor) and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), precursors of NE and dopamine (DA), respectively, on the recovery from beam-walking performance deficits in rats subjected to unilateral sensorimotor cortex ablation injury, and (b) the relationships between the behavioral recovery and the frequency of postoperative training and the size of ablation injury. It was found that the combined treatments with L-DOPS and BSZ promoted the recovery of locomotor function as early as 24 hours after injury. L-DOPA alone, however, did not facilitate behavioral recovery. The results of assay for the tissue levels of NE and its major metabolite (3-methoxy-4-hydoxyphenylethylene glycol; MHPG) in the brain using high-pressure liquid chromotography showed MHPG, but not NE, significantly increased in the cerebellum and the hippocampus. The behavioral recovery was also significantly correlated with the frequency of training subsequent to injury, but inversely with the size of cortex ablation. These results suggest that NE is likely to modulate functional recovery in this rodent model. PMID:10587012

Kikuchi, K; Nishino, K; Ohyu, H

1999-07-01

228

The Asparaginyl Endopeptidase Legumain Is Essential for Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Unlike mammals, adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating severed axons and regaining locomotor function after spinal cord injury. A key factor for this regenerative capacity is the innate ability of neurons to re-express growth-associated genes and regrow their axons after injury in a permissive environment. By microarray analysis, we have previously shown that the expression of legumain (also known as asparaginyl endopeptidase) is upregulated after complete transection of the spinal cord. In situ hybridization showed upregulation of legumain expression in neurons of regenerative nuclei during the phase of axon regrowth/sprouting after spinal cord injury. Upregulation of Legumain protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, upregulation of legumain expression was also observed in macrophages/microglia and neurons in the spinal cord caudal to the lesion site after injury. The role of legumain in locomotor function after spinal cord injury was tested by reducing Legumain expression by application of anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotides. Using two independent anti-sense morpholinos, locomotor recovery and axonal regrowth were impaired when compared with a standard control morpholino. We conclude that upregulation of legumain expression after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish is an essential component of the capacity of injured neurons to regrow their axons. Another feature contributing to functional recovery implicates upregulation of legumain expression in the spinal cord caudal to the injury site. In conclusion, we established for the first time a function for an unusual protease, the asparaginyl endopeptidase, in the nervous system. This study is also the first to demonstrate the importance of legumain for repair of an injured adult central nervous system of a spontaneously regenerating vertebrate and is expected to yield insights into its potential in nervous system regeneration in mammals. PMID:24747977

Ma, Liping; Shen, Yan-Qin; Khatri, Harsh P.; Schachner, Melitta

2014-01-01

229

The asparaginyl endopeptidase legumain is essential for functional recovery after spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish.  

PubMed

Unlike mammals, adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating severed axons and regaining locomotor function after spinal cord injury. A key factor for this regenerative capacity is the innate ability of neurons to re-express growth-associated genes and regrow their axons after injury in a permissive environment. By microarray analysis, we have previously shown that the expression of legumain (also known as asparaginyl endopeptidase) is upregulated after complete transection of the spinal cord. In situ hybridization showed upregulation of legumain expression in neurons of regenerative nuclei during the phase of axon regrowth/sprouting after spinal cord injury. Upregulation of Legumain protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, upregulation of legumain expression was also observed in macrophages/microglia and neurons in the spinal cord caudal to the lesion site after injury. The role of legumain in locomotor function after spinal cord injury was tested by reducing Legumain expression by application of anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotides. Using two independent anti-sense morpholinos, locomotor recovery and axonal regrowth were impaired when compared with a standard control morpholino. We conclude that upregulation of legumain expression after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish is an essential component of the capacity of injured neurons to regrow their axons. Another feature contributing to functional recovery implicates upregulation of legumain expression in the spinal cord caudal to the injury site. In conclusion, we established for the first time a function for an unusual protease, the asparaginyl endopeptidase, in the nervous system. This study is also the first to demonstrate the importance of legumain for repair of an injured adult central nervous system of a spontaneously regenerating vertebrate and is expected to yield insights into its potential in nervous system regeneration in mammals. PMID:24747977

Ma, Liping; Shen, Yan-Qin; Khatri, Harsh P; Schachner, Melitta

2014-01-01

230

Fractionated radiation facilitates repair and functional motor recovery after spinal cord transection in rat.  

PubMed

Previous studies suggest that motor recovery does not occur after spinal cord injury because reactive glia abort the natural repair processes. A permanent wound gap is left in the cord and the brain-cord circuitry consequently remains broken. Single-dose x-irradiation destroys reactive glia at the damage site in transected adult rat spinal cord. The wound then heals naturally, and a partially functional brain-cord circuitry is reconstructed. Timing is crucial; cell ablation is beneficial only within the third week after injury. Data presented here point to the possibility of translating these observations into a clinical therapy for preventing the paralysis following spinal cord injury in the human. The lesion site (at low thoracic level) in severed adult rat spinal cord was treated daily, over the third week postinjury, with protocols of fractionated radiation similar to those for treating human spinal cord tumors. This resulted, as with the single-dose protocol, in wound healing and restoration of some hindquarter motor function; in addition, the beneficial outcome was augmented. Of the restored hindlimb motor functions, weight-support and posture in stance was the only obvious one. Recovery of this motor function was partial to substantial and its incidence was 100% instead of about 50% obtained with the single-dose treatment. None of the hindlimbs, however, regained frequent stepping or any weight-bearing locomotion. These data indicate that the therapeutic outcome may be further augmented by tuning the radiation parameters within the critical time-window after injury. These data also indicate that dose-fractionation is an effective strategy and better than the single-dose treatment for targeting of reactive cells that abort the natural repair, suggesting that radiation therapy could be developed into a therapeutic procedure for repairing injured spinal cord. PMID:11406117

Kalderon, N; Xu, S; Koutcher, J A; Fuks, Z

2001-06-22

231

The estimation of recovery time of calf muscle oxygen saturation during exercise by using functional near infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several methods of near infrared spectroscopy such as functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and pulse oximetry have been applied for monitoring of tissue oxygenation or arterial oxygen saturation. Some vascular diseases can be diagnosed through measurements of tissue oxygenation. In this study, the temporal variation of oxygenation of calf muscle after exercise is studied by fNIRS. First, the accuracy of a low-cost fNIRS system is studied by measuring the oxygenation of a lipid phantom. Moreover, in-vivo study is performed to evaluate the precision of this system. Then, the variation of muscle oxygenation of four persons during exercise is measured and also the recovery time after walking/running is measured by this fNIRS system.

Ansari, M. A.; Shojaeifar, M.; Mohajerani, E.

2014-08-01

232

A selective inversion recovery method for the improvement of 23Na NMR spectral resolution in isolated perfused rat hearts.  

PubMed

Shift-reagent-aided 23Na NMR spectroscopy allows differentiation of the intracellular (Na(i)) and extracellular sodium (Na(o)) signals. The goal of the present study has been to develop a 23Na NMR spectroscopic method to minimize the intensity of the shift-reagent-shifted Na(o) signal and thus increase Na(i) resolution. This is achieved by a selective inversion recovery (SIR) method which enhances the resolution between the Na(i) and Na(o) peaks in shift-reagent-aided 23Na NMR spectroscopy. The application of SIR with Dy(TTHA), Tm(DOTP), or with low concentrations of Dy(PPP)2 results in both good spectral resolution and physiologically acceptable contractile function in the isolated, perfused rat heart model. PMID:8347454

Simor, T; Kim, S K; Chu, W J; Pohost, G M; Elgavish, G A

1993-01-01

233

Comparison of methods for the recovery of virus inoculated into ground beef.  

PubMed

Various methods for the recovery of virus inoculated into ground beef were investigated in an attempt to develop a sensitive system that could be used to detect viral contaminants in market foods. A 100-g sample, inoculated with poliovirus 1, was suspended in 150 to 900 ml of Eagle minimum essential medium, pH 8.5, and mixed in either plastic bags or plastic cups on a mechanical shaker. The particulate materials were removed by means of cheese cloth, glass wool, woven fiber glass, or low-speed centrifugation. Large volumes of fluid were concentrated by ultrafiltration. Microbiological contamination was controlled by high antibiotic concentrations or by filtration. Quantitative plaque-forming-unit recovery of the virus was determined by utilizing an agar overlay technique on Vero cell cultures. The data indicated that from 20 to 50% of the seeded virus could be recovered from a 100-g sample of ground beef. The glass wool and woven fiber glass methods were the most effective, with recovery of approximately 50% of the inoculated virus. PMID:4356467

Tierney, J T; Sullivan, R; Larkin, E P; Peeler, J T

1973-10-01

234

Functional quantization based stratified sampling methods  

E-print Network

In this article, we propose several quantization based stratified sampling methods to reduce the variance of a Monte-Carlo simulation. Theoretical aspects of stratification lead to a strong link between the problem of optimal $L^2$-quantization of a random variable and the variance reduction that can be achieved. We first emphasize on the consistency of quantization for designing strata in stratified sampling methods in both finite dimensional and infinite dimensional frameworks. We show that this strata design has a uniform efficiency among the class of Lipschitz continuous functionals. Then a stratified sampling algorithm based on product functional quantization is proposed for path-dependent functionals of multi-factor diffusions. The method is also available for other Gaussian processes as the Brownian bridge or an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. We derive in detail the quantization of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. The balance between the algorithmic complexity of the simulation and the variance reduction f...

Corlay, Sylvain

2010-01-01

235

A method for seedling recovery in Jatropha curcas after cryogenic exposure of the seeds.  

PubMed

Actually, the germplasm of Jatropha spp. is conserved as whole plants in field collections. Under this storage method, the genetic resources are exposed to disease, pest and natural hazards such as human error, drought and weather damage. Besides, field genebanks are costly to maintain and with important requirements of trained personnel. Thus, the development of efficient techniques to ensure its safe conservation and regeneration is therefore of paramount importance. In this work we describe a method for Jatropha curcas seeds cryoexposure and seedling recovery after thawed. In a first experiment, an efficient protocol for in vitro plant recovery was carried out using zygotic embryo or seeds with or without coat. In a second experiment, desiccated seeds with or without coat were exposed to liquid nitrogen and evaluated after cryoexposure. Germination percentages were variable among treatments, and seeds demonstrated tolerance to liquid nitrogen exposure under certain conditions. Seeds of J. curcas presented up to 99.6% germination after seed coat removal. Seeds with coat cultured in vitro did not germinate, and were 60% contaminated. The germination of the zygotic embryos was significantly higher in the 1/2 MS medium (93.1%) than in WPM medium (76.2%), but from zygotic embryo, abnormal seedlings reached up to 99%. Seeds with coat exposed to liquid nitrogen showed 60% germination in culture after coat removal with good plant growth, and seeds cryopreserved without coat presented 82% germination, but seedlings showed a reduced vigor and a significant increase in abnormal plants. Seeds cultured in vitro with coat did not germinate, independently of cryoexposure or not. This study reports the first successful in vitro seedling recovery methodology for Jatropha curcas seeds, after a cryopreservation treatment, and is recommended as an efficient procedure for in vitro plant recovery, when seeds are conserved in germplasm banks by low or cryotemperatures. PMID:22458240

Silva, Rafael de C; Camillo, Julcéia; Scherwinski-Pereira, Jonny E

2012-03-01

236

Neurological Functional Recovery After Thymosin Beta4 Treatment in Mice with Experimental Auto Encephalomyelitis  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we hypothesized that thymosin beta 4 (Tbeta4) is a potential therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS). To test this hypothesis, SJL/J mice (n=21) were subjected to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. EAE mice were treated with saline or Tbeta4 (6 mg/kg, n=10) every 3 days starting on the day of myelin proteolipid protein immunization for total 5 doses. Neurological function, inflammatory infiltration, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and mature oligodendrocytes were measured in the brain of EAE mice. Double immunohistochemical staining was used to detect proliferation and differentiation of OPCs. Tbeta4 was used to treat N20.1 cells (premature oligodendrocyte cell line) in vitro, and proliferation of N20.1 cells was measured by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunostaining. Tbeta4 treatment improved functional recovery after EAE. Inflammatory infiltrates were significantly reduced in the Tbeta4 treatment group compared to the saline groups (3.6±0.3/slide vs 5±0.5/slide, p<0.05). NG2+ OPCs (447.7±41.9/mm2 vs 195.2±31/mm2 in subventricular zone, 75.1±4.7/mm2 vs 41.7±3.2/mm2 in white matter), CNPase+ mature oligodendrocytes (267.5±10.3/mm2 vs 141.4±22.9/ mm2), BrdU+ with NG2+ OPCs (32.9±3.7/mm2 vs 17.9±3.6/mm2), BrdU+ with CNPase+ mature oligodendrocytes (18.2±1.7/mm2 vs 10.7±2.2/mm2) were significantly increased in the Tbeta4 treated mice compared to those of saline controls (p<0.05). These data indicate that Tbeta4 treatment improved functional recovery after EAE, possibly, via reducing inflammatory infiltrates, and stimulating oligodendrogenesis. PMID:19782721

Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zheng Gang; Morris, Dan; Li, Yi; Roberts, Cynthia; Elias, Stanton B.; Chopp, Michael

2009-01-01

237

Method of making low work function component  

DOEpatents

A method for fabricating a component is disclosed. The method includes: providing a member having an effective work function of an initial value, disposing a sacrificial layer on a surface of the member, disposing a first agent within the member to obtain a predetermined concentration of the agent at said surface of the member, annealing the member, and removing the sacrificial layer to expose said surface of the member, wherein said surface has a post-process effective work function that is different from the initial value.

Robinson, Vance (Niskayuna, NY); Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Michael, Joseph Darryl (Delmar, NY)

2011-11-15

238

Recovery of altered neuromuscular junction morphology and muscle function in mdx mice after injury.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating neuromuscular disease in which weakness, increased susceptibility to muscle injury, and inadequate repair underlie the pathology. While most attention has focused within the muscle fiber, we recently demonstrated significant alterations in the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) morphology and resulting neuromuscular transmission failure (NTF) 24 h after injury in mdx mice (murine model for DMD). Here we determine the contribution of NMJ morphology and NTF to the recovery of muscle contractile function post-injury. NMJ morphology and NTF rates were assessed day 0 (immediately after injury) and days 1, 7, 14 and 21 after quadriceps injury. Eccentric injury of the quadriceps resulted in a significant loss of maximal torque in both WT (39 ± 6 %) and mdx (76 ± 8 %) with a full recovery in WT by day 7 and in mdx by day 21. Post-injury alterations in NMJ morphology and NTF were found only in mdx, were limited to days 0 and 1, and were independent of changes in MuSK or AChR expression. Such early changes at the NMJ after injury are consistent with mechanical disruption rather than newly forming NMJs. Furthermore, we show that the dense microtubule network that underlies the NMJ is significantly reduced and disorganized in mdx compared to WT. These structural changes at the NMJ may play a role in the increased NMJ disruption and the exaggerated loss of nerve-evoked muscle force seen after injury to dystrophic muscles. PMID:24947322

Pratt, Stephen J P; Shah, Sameer B; Ward, Christopher W; Kerr, Jaclyn P; Stains, Joseph P; Lovering, Richard M

2015-01-01

239

Hypothermic continuous machine perfusion improves metabolic preservation and functional recovery in heart grafts.  

PubMed

The number of heart transplants is decreasing due to organ shortage, yet the donor pool could be enlarged by improving graft preservation. Hypothermic machine perfusion (MP) has been shown to improve kidney, liver, or lung graft preservation. Sixteen pig hearts were recovered following cardioplegia and randomized to two different groups of 4-hour preservation using either static cold storage (CS) or MP (Modified LifePort© System, Organ Recovery Systems©, Itasca, Il). The grafts then underwent reperfusion on a Langendorff for 60 min. Energetic metabolism was quantified at baseline, postpreservation, and postreperfusion by measuring lactate and high-energy phosphates. The contractility index (CI) was assessed both in vivo prior to cardioplegia and during reperfusion. Following reperfusion, the hearts preserved using CS exhibited higher lactate levels (56.63 ± 23.57 vs. 11.25 ± 3.92 ?mol/g; P < 0.001), increased adenosine monophosphate/adenosine triphosphate (AMP/ATP) ratio (0.4 ± 0.23 vs. 0.04 ± 0.04; P < 0.001), and lower phosphocreatine/creatine (PCr/Cr) ratio (33.5 ± 12.6 vs. 55.3 ± 5.8; P <0.001). Coronary flow was similar in both groups during reperfusion (107 ± 9 vs. 125 + /-9 ml/100 g/min heart; P = ns). CI decreased in the CS group, yet being well-preserved in the MP group. Compared with CS, MP resulted in improved preservation of the energy state and more successful functional recovery of heart graft. PMID:25265884

Van Caenegem, Olivier; Beauloye, Christophe; Vercruysse, Jonathan; Horman, Sandrine; Bertrand, Luc; Bethuyne, Noëlla; Poncelet, Alain J; Gianello, Pierre; Demuylder, Peter; Legrand, Eric; Beaurin, Gwen; Bontemps, Françoise; Jacquet, Luc M; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis

2014-09-29

240

ISS Contingency Attitude Control Recovery Method for Loss of Automatic Thruster Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, the attitude control issues associated with International Space Station (ISS) loss of automatic thruster control capability are discussed and methods for attitude control recovery are presented. This scenario was experienced recently during Shuttle mission STS-117 and ISS Stage 13A in June 2007 when the Russian GN&C computers, which command the ISS thrusters, failed. Without automatic propulsive attitude control, the ISS would not be able to regain attitude control after the Orbiter undocked. The core issues associated with recovering long-term attitude control using CMGs are described as well as the systems engineering analysis to identify recovery options. It is shown that the recovery method can be separated into a procedure for rate damping to a safe harbor gravity gradient stable orientation and a capability to maneuver the vehicle to the necessary initial conditions for long term attitude hold. A manual control option using Soyuz and Progress vehicle thrusters is investigated for rate damping and maneuvers. The issues with implementing such an option are presented and the key issue of closed-loop stability is addressed. A new non-propulsive alternative to thruster control, Zero Propellant Maneuver (ZPM) attitude control method is introduced and its rate damping and maneuver performance evaluated. It is shown that ZPM can meet the tight attitude and rate error tolerances needed for long term attitude control. A combination of manual thruster rate damping to a safe harbor attitude followed by a ZPM to Stage long term attitude control orientation was selected by the Anomaly Resolution Team as the alternate attitude control method for such a contingency.

Bedrossian, Nazareth; Bhatt, Sagar; Alaniz, Abran; McCants, Edward; Nguyen, Louis; Chamitoff, Greg

2008-01-01

241

Application to induction motor faults diagnosis of the amplitude recovery method combined with FFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a signal processing method - amplitude recovery method (abbreviated to ARM) - that can be used as the signal pre-processing for fast Fourier transform (FFT) in order to analyze the spectrum of the other-order harmonics rather than the fundamental frequency in stator currents and diagnose subtle faults in induction motors. In this situation, the ARM functions as a filter that can filter out the component of the fundamental frequency from three phases of stator currents of the induction motor. The filtering result of the ARM can be provided to FFT to do further spectrum analysis. In this way, the amplitudes of other-order frequencies can be extracted and analyzed independently. If the FFT is used without the ARM pre-processing and the components of other-order frequencies, compared to the fundamental frequency, are fainter, the amplitudes of other-order frequencies are not able easily to extract out from stator currents. The reason is when the FFT is used direct to analyze the original signal, all the frequencies in the spectrum analysis of original stator current signal have the same weight. The ARM is capable of separating the other-order part in stator currents from the fundamental-order part. Compared to the existent digital filters, the ARM has the benefits, including its stop-band narrow enough just to stop the fundamental frequency, its simple operations of algebra and trigonometry without any integration, and its deduction direct from mathematics equations without any artificial adjustment. The ARM can be also used by itself as a coarse-grained diagnosis of faults in induction motors when they are working. These features can be applied to monitor and diagnose the subtle faults in induction motors to guard them from some damages when they are in operation. The diagnosis application of ARM combined with FFT is also displayed in this paper with the experimented induction motor. The test results verify the rationality and feasibility of the ARM. It should be clarified that the ARM must be applied in three phases of currents in electrical machines. For a single phase of alternating current or direct current, it can do nothing. However, since three-phase electrical machines have a dominant position in the application field in modern economic society and it is natural and convenient to acquire three phases of stator currents during the three-phase electrical machines are tested, it is necessary and meaningful to develop the ARM to diagnose and guard them.

Liu, Yukun; Guo, Liwei; Wang, Qixiang; An, Guoqing; Guo, Ming; Lian, Hao

2010-11-01

242

A new method to study shape recovery of red blood cells using multiple optical trapping.  

PubMed

In this new method for studying the shape recovery of deformed red blood cells, three optical traps ("optical tweezers") induce a parachute-shaped red cell deformation, which is comparable to the deformation in small capillaries. The shape recovery is recorded, and a relaxation time is obtained for each individual red blood cell. The sensitivity of this technique for the detection of differences in relaxation times is demonstrated on subpopulations of density-separated red blood cells: "young" cells have shorter (162 ms) and "old" cells have longer (353 ms) relaxation times compared with the total population (271 ms). The relaxation time is remarkably shorter (114 ms) when the plasma surrounding the cells is replaced by a phosphate-buffered saline solution. The main advantages of this technique are the relatively short measuring and preparation time and the physiological type of deformation and shape recovery in which all relevant cell properties play a role. Therefore, especially when automated further, the technique may be a powerful tool for the study of (sub)populations of pathological red blood cells. PMID:8580310

Bronkhorst, P J; Streekstra, G J; Grimbergen, J; Nijhof, E J; Sixma, J J; Brakenhoff, G J

1995-11-01

243

Kernel method and system of functional equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduced by Knuth and subsequently developed by Banderier et al., Prodinger, and others, the kernel method is a powerful tool for solving power series equations in the form of F(z,t)=A(z,t)F(z0,t)+B(z,t) and several variations. Recently, Hou and Mansour [Q.-H. Hou, T. Mansour, Kernel Method and Linear Recurrence System, J. Comput. Appl. Math. (2007), (in press).] presented a systematic method to solve equation systems of two variables , where is a matrix, and and are vectors of rational functions in z and t. In this paper we generalize this method to another type of rational function matrices, i.e., systems of functional equations. Since the types of equation systems we are interested in arise frequently in various enumeration questions via generating functions, our tool is quite useful in solving enumeration problems. To illustrate this, we provide several applications, namely the recurrence relations with two indices, and counting descents in signed permutations.

Mansour, Toufik; Song, Chunwei

2009-02-01

244

Triptolide improves nerve regeneration and functional recovery following crush injury to rat sciatic nerve.  

PubMed

Recently, accumulating data have demonstrated that triptolide exhibits neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties. However, the role of triptolide in repair and regeneration of peripheral nerve injury (PNI) has rarely been performed. The current study was designed to observe the possible beneficial effect of triptolide on promoting peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. Rats with sciatic nerve crush injury were administered daily with triptolide for 7 days. Axonal regeneration was evaluated by morphometric analysis and Fluoro-gold retrograde tracing. Motor functional recovery was evaluated by walking track analysis, electrophysiological assessment and histological appearance of target muscles. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines within injured nerves were also determined. The results demonstrated that triptolide was capable of promoting peripheral nerve regeneration. Additionally, triptolide significantly decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines within injured nerves. These findings indicate the possibility of developing triptolide as a therapeutic agent for PNI. The neuroprotective effects of triptolide might be associated with its anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:24406146

Zhang, Yong-Guang; Sheng, Qing-Song; Wang, Hong-Kun; Lv, Li; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Jian-Mei; Xu, Hao

2014-02-21

245

Acetyl-L-carnitine treatment following spinal cord injury improves mitochondrial function correlated with remarkable tissue sparing and functional recovery.  

PubMed

We have recently documented that treatment with the alternative biofuel, acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC, 300 mg/kg), as late as 1 h after T10 contusion spinal cord injury (SCI), significantly maintained mitochondrial function 24 h after injury. Here we report that after more severe contusion SCI centered on the L1/L2 segments that are postulated to contain lamina X neurons critical for locomotion (the "central pattern generator"), ALC treatment resulted in significant improvements in acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and long-term hind limb function. Although control-injured rats were only able to achieve slight movements of hind limb joints, ALC-treated animals produced consistent weight-supported plantar steps 1 month after injury. Such landmark behavioral improvements were significantly correlated with increased tissue sparing of both gray and white matter proximal to the injury, as well as preservation of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in lamina X rostral to the injury site. These findings signify that functional improvements with ALC treatment are mediated, in part, by preserved locomotor circuitry rostral to upper lumbar contusion SCI. Based on beneficial effects of ALC on mitochondrial bioenergetics after injury, our collective evidence demonstrate that preventing mitochondrial dysfunction acutely "promotes" neuroprotection that may be associated with the milestone recovery of plantar, weight-supported stepping. PMID:22445934

Patel, S P; Sullivan, P G; Lyttle, T S; Magnuson, D S K; Rabchevsky, A G

2012-05-17

246

Why use a connectivity-based approach to study stroke and recovery of function?  

PubMed Central

The brain is organized into a set of widely distributed networks. Therefore, although structural damage from stroke is focal, remote dysfunction can occur in regions connected to the area of lesion. Historically, neuroscience has focused on local processing due in part to the absence of tools to study the function of distributed networks. In this article we discuss how a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of stroke can be attained using resting state functional connectivity BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (resting state fcMRI). Resting state fcMRI has a number of advantages over task-evoked fMRI for studying brain network reorganization in response to stroke, including the ability to image subjects with a broad range of impairments and the ability to study multiple networks simultaneously. We describe our rationale for using resting state connectivity as a tool for investigating the neural substrates of stroke recovery in a heterogeneous population of stroke patients and discuss the main questions we hope to answer, in particular whether resting state fcMRI measures in the acute phase of stroke can predict subsequent recovery. Early results suggest that disruption of inter-hemispheric connectivity in the somatomotor network and the dorsal attention network is more strongly associated with behavioral impairment in those domains than is intra-hemispheric connectivity within either the lesioned or unaffected hemisphere. We also observe in the somatomotor network an interesting interaction between corticospinal tract damage and decreased inter-hemispheric connectivity that suggests that both processes combine to contribute to neuromotor impairment after stroke. A connectivity-based approach will provide greater insight into network reorganization in the acute and chronic phases after stroke and will contribute to improving prognostic ability and the development of therapeutic interventions. PMID:22414990

Carter, Alex R.; Shulman, Gordon L.; Corbetta, Maurizio

2013-01-01

247

Prohibitin 1 gene delivery promotes functional recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury (SCI) represents a severe health problem worldwide usually associated with severe disability and reduced quality of life. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of prohibitin 1 (PHB1) in the progression of SCI in rats. Firstly, we observed that expression of PHB1 was downregulated following SCI in rats. Then, we hypothesized that PHB1 overexpression by delivery of Ad-PHB1 could result in neuroprotection and promote functional recovery following SCI. Briefly, Wistar rats received a 35-g clip-compression injury and were administered Ad-PHB1 or Ad immediately following SCI. It was found that Ad-PHB1 administration significantly improved locomotor function and increased pain tolerance in rats with SCI. Furthermore, Ad-PHB1 administration following SCI attenuated axonal degradation and increased neuron sparing. Ad-PHB1 administration following SCI reduced apoptosis through inhibiting the Bcl-2/Bax/caspase-3 pathway. Ad-PHB1 administration following SCI suppressed endoplasmic reticulum stress, evidenced by reduced mRNA levels of CCAAT enhancer binding protein homologous protein, chaperone-ucose-regulated protein 78, and X-box protein 1. Ad-PHB1 administration following SCI restored mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate formation, reduced reactive oxygen species formation, and improved mitochondrial respiration rates. Finally, Ad-PHB1 administration following SCI activated downstream signals including phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), and nuclear factor-kappaB. These data indicate that the PHB1 plays an important role in the development of SCI and might provide a therapeutic target to promote recovery from SCI. PMID:25463519

Li, L; Guo, J-D; Wang, H-D; Shi, Y-M; Yuan, Y-L; Hou, S-X

2015-02-12

248

Comparison of Functional Recovery of Manual Dexterity after Unilateral Spinal Cord Lesion or Motor Cortex Lesion in Adult Macaque Monkeys  

PubMed Central

In relation to mechanisms involved in functional recovery of manual dexterity from cervical cord injury or from motor cortical injury, our goal was to determine whether the movements that characterize post-lesion functional recovery are comparable to original movement patterns or do monkeys adopt distinct strategies to compensate the deficits depending on the type of lesion? To this aim, data derived from earlier studies, using a skilled finger task (the modified Brinkman board from which pellets are retrieved from vertical or horizontal slots), in spinal cord and motor cortex injured monkeys were analyzed and compared. Twelve adult macaque monkeys were subjected to a hemi-section of the cervical cord (n?=?6) or to a unilateral excitotoxic lesion of the hand representation in the primary motor cortex (n?=?6). In addition, in each subgroup, one half of monkeys (n?=?3) were treated for 30?days with a function blocking antibody against the neurite growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A, while the other half (n?=?3) represented control animals. The motor deficits, and the extent and time course of functional recovery were assessed. For some of the parameters investigated (wrist angle for horizontal slots and movement types distribution for vertical slots after cervical injury; movement types distribution for horizontal slots after motor cortex lesion), post-lesion restoration of the original movement patterns (“true” recovery) led to a quantitatively better functional recovery. In the motor cortex lesion groups, pharmacological reversible inactivation experiments showed that the peri-lesion territory of the primary motor cortex or re-arranged, spared domain of the lesion zone, played a major role in the functional recovery, together with the ipsilesional intact premotor cortex. PMID:23885254

Hoogewoud, Florence; Hamadjida, Adjia; Wyss, Alexander F.; Mir, Anis; Schwab, Martin E.; Belhaj-Saif, Abderraouf; Rouiller, Eric M.

2013-01-01

249

Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose- response curves and recovery of function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation- induced disruption of dopaminergic function disrupts a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of the dopaminergic system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, spatial learning and memory (Morris water maze), and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current presentation will review the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are in fact common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity. Supported by N.A.S.A. Grant NAG9-1190.

Rabin, B.; Joseph, J.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

250

Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity.

Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

2004-01-01

251

Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

2004-01-01

252

The function of ‘functional’: a mixed methods investigation  

PubMed Central

Objective The term ‘functional’ has a distinguished history, embodying a number of physiological concepts, but has increasingly come to mean ‘hysterical’. The DSM-V working group proposes to use ‘functional’ as the official diagnostic term for medically unexplained neurological symptoms (currently known as ‘conversion disorder’). This study aimed to explore the current neurological meanings of the term and to understand its resilience. Design Mixed methods were used, first interviewing the neurologists in a large UK region and then surveying all neurologists in the UK on their use of the term. Results The interviews revealed four dominant uses—‘not organic’, a physical disability, a brain disorder and a psychiatric problem—as well as considerable ambiguity. Although there was much dissatisfaction with the term, the ambiguity was also seen as useful when engaging with patients. The survey confirmed these findings, with a majority adhering to a strict interpretation of ‘functional’ to mean only ‘not organic’, but a minority employing it to mean different things in different contexts - and endorsing the view that ‘functional’ would one day be a neurological construct again. Conclusions ‘Functional’ embodies real divisions in neurologists' conceptualisation of unexplained symptoms and, perhaps, between those of patients and neurologists: its diversity of meanings allows it to be a common term while meaning different things to different people, or at different times, and thus conceal some of the conflict in a particularly contentious area. This flexibility may help explain the term's longevity. PMID:22250186

Armstrong, David; Wessely, Simon C

2012-01-01

253

Poststroke aphasia recovery assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging and a picture identification task.  

PubMed

Stroke patients often display deficits in language function, such as correctly naming objects. Our aim was to evaluate the reliability and the patterns of poststroke language recovery using a picture identification task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 4 T. Four healthy subjects and 4 subjects with left middle cerebral artery stroke with chronic (>1 year) aphasia were enrolled in the study. In each subject, 10 fMRI scans were performed over a 10-week period using a picture-identification task. The active condition involved presenting subject with a panel of 4 figures (eg, drawings of 4 animals) every 6 seconds and asking the subject to indicate which figure matched the written name in the center. The control condition was a same/different judgment task with pairs of geometric figures (squares, octagons, or combination) presented every 6 seconds. Thirty-second active/control blocks were repeated 5 times each, and responses were recorded. The stoke subjects and controls had similar demographic characteristics, including age (46 vs 53 years), personal handedness (Edinburg Handedness Inventory, 89 vs 95), familial handedness (93 vs 95), and years of education (14.3 vs 14.8). For the active condition, the controls performed better than the stroke subjects (97.7% vs 89.1%; P < .001); the 2 groups performed similarly for the control condition (99.5% vs 98.8%; P = .23). On fMRI, the controls exhibited bilateral, L > R positive blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activations in frontal and temporal language areas and symmetric retrosplenial and posterior cingulate areas and symmetric negative BOLD activations in bilateral frontotemporal language networks. In contrast, the stroke subjects exhibited positive BOLD activations predominantly in peristroke areas and negative BOLD activations in the unaffected (right) hemisphere. Both groups displayed high activation reliability (as measured by the intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) in the left frontal and temporal language areas, although in the stroke subjects the ICC in the frontal regions was spread over a much larger peristroke area. This study documents the utility of the picture-identification task for poststroke language recovery evaluation. Our data suggest that adult stroke patients use functional peristroke areas to perform language functions. PMID:20719532

Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Eaton, Kenneth; Ball, Angel L; Banks, Christi; Vannest, Jennifer; Allendorfer, Jane B; Page, Stephen; Holland, Scott K

2011-01-01

254

Comparison of the Recovery Patterns of Language and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Post-Traumatic Language Processing Deficits and in Patients with Aphasia Following a Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the…

Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

2008-01-01

255

Development and Validation of an Instrument to Predict Functional Recovery in Tibial Fracture Patients: The Somatic Pre-Occupation and Coping (SPOC) Questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the role of patients’ beliefs in their likelihood of recovery from severe physical trauma. Methods We developed and validated an instrument designed to capture the impact of patients’ beliefs on functional recovery from injury; the Somatic Pre-occupation and Coping (SPOC) questionnaire. At 6-weeks post-surgical fixation, we administered the SPOC questionnaire to 359 consecutive patients with operatively managed tibial shaft fractures. We constructed multivariable regression models to explore the association between SPOC scores and functional outcome at 1-year, as measured by return to work and short form-36 (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores. Results In our adjusted multivariable regression models that included pre-injury SF-36 scores, SPOC scores at 6-weeks post-surgery accounted for 18% of the variation in SF-36 PCS scores and 18% of SF-36 MCS scores at 1-year. In both models, 6-week SPOC scores were a far more powerful predictor of functional recovery than age, gender, fracture type, smoking status, or the presence of multi-trauma. Our adjusted analysis found that for each 14 point increment in SPOC score at 6-weeks (14 chosen on the basis of half a standard deviation of the mean SPOC score) the odds of returning to work at 1-year decreased by 40% (odds ratio = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.73). Conclusion The SPOC questionnaire is a valid measurement of illness beliefs in tibial fracture patients and is highly predictive of their long-term functional recovery. Future research should explore if these results extend to other trauma populations and if modification of unhelpful illness beliefs is feasible and would result in improved functional outcomes. PMID:22011635

Busse, Jason W.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Mandel, Scott; Sanders, David; Schemitsch, Emil; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Wai, Eugene; Walter, Stephen D.

2011-01-01

256

Effects of Balance and Gait Training on the Recovery of the Motor Function in an Animal Model of Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate the effect of balance and gait training on the recovery of the motor function in a Parkinson’s disease animal models. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 40 mice were randomly classified into four groups with 10 in each group: Group I-Normal; Group II-Parkinson’s disease and no training; Group III-Parkinson’s disease and balance training was performed; and Group IV-Parkinson’s disease and gait training. Parkinson’s disease was induced by administration of MPTP to animals in Groups II–IV. Groups III and IV did training once a day, five days a week, for four weeks. Neurobehavioral evaluation was performed through the pole and open-field tests. Immunological evaluation was performed via TH (tyrosine hydroxylase) protein expression, using western blot analysis. [Results] In the result of the pole test, Groups III and IV showed significantly greater motor function recovery than to Group II. The results of the open-field test also showed that Groups III and IV had significantly greater motor function recovery than to Group II, and Group IV showed significantly greater motor function recovery than to Group III. Using western blot analysis, we determined that the expression of TH protein in the corpus striatum was greatest in group I, followed by Groups III and IV, and that Group II had the lowest TH protein expression in the corpus striatum. [Conclusion] The results of this study showed that balance and gait training were effective at recovering the motor functions of a Parkinson’s disease animal models induced by MPTP, and that gait training was more effective than balance training. PMID:25013293

Yoon, Young-jeoi; Lee, Byung-hoon

2014-01-01

257

Nondestructive methods for recovery of biological material from human teeth for DNA extraction.  

PubMed

The extraction of DNA from human skeletal remains applied to forensic, and evolutionary studies do not exclude risks, which are to be evaluated when working with unique specimens that could be damaged or even destroyed. In the present study were evaluated several nondestructive methods for recovering DNA instead of the most currently used pulverization method. Three different procedures to access inside the dental pieces (occlusal perforation, cervical perforation, and cervical cut) have been compared with the aim of recovering as many cell remains as possible to carry out a DNA extraction. Given the DNA quantitation results, a method was proposed that consists of a cervical cut to facilitate the access to the pulp cavity and a subsequent filing of the root canals down to the apex of the dental root. This methodology allows the recovery of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, with the minimum deterioration for the dental pieces. PMID:25047360

Hervella, Montserrat; Iñiguez, Maitane G; Izagirre, Neskuts; Anta, Alberto; de-la-Rúa, Concepción

2015-01-01

258

Microbiological methods for the water recovery systems test, revision 1.1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current microbiological parameters specified to verify microbiological quality of Space Station Freedom water quality include the enumeration of total bacteria, anaerobes, aerobes, yeasts and molds, enteric bacteria, gram positives, gram negatives, and E. coli. In addition, other parameters have been identified as necessary to support the Water Recovery Test activities to be conducted at the NASA/MSFC later this year. These other parameters include aerotolerant eutrophic mesophiles, legionellae, and an additional method for heterotrophic bacteria. If inter-laboratory data are to be compared to evaluate quality, analytical methods must be eliminated as a variable. Therefore, each participating laboratory must utilize the same analytical methods and procedures. Without this standardization, data can be neither compared nor validated between laboratories. Multiple laboratory participation represents a conservative approach to insure quality and completeness of data. Invariably, sample loss will occur in transport and analyses. Natural variance is a reality on any test of this magnitude and is further enhanced because biological entities, capable of growth and death, are specific parameters of interest. The large variation due to the participation of human test subjects has been noted with previous testing. The resultant data might be dismissed as 'out of control' unless intra-laboratory control is included as part of the method or if participating laboratories are not available for verification. The purpose of this document is to provide standardized laboratory procedures for the enumeration of certain microorganisms in water and wastewater specific to the water recovery systems test. The document consists of ten separate cultural methods and one direct count procedure. It is not intended nor is it implied to be a complete microbiological methods manual.

Rhoads, Tim; Kilgore, M. V., Jr.; Mikell, A. T., Jr.

1990-01-01

259

Acute Delivery of EphA4-Fc Improves Functional Recovery after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

Abstract Blocking the action of inhibitory molecules at sites of central nervous system injury has been proposed as a strategy to promote axonal regeneration and functional recovery. We have previously shown that genetic deletion or competitive antagonism of EphA4 receptor activity promotes axonal regeneration and functional recovery in a mouse model of lateral hemisection spinal cord injury. Here we have assessed the effect of blocking EphA4 activation using the competitive antagonist EphA4-Fc in a rat model of thoracic contusive spinal cord injury. Using a ledged tapered balance beam and open-field testing, we observed significant improvements in recovery of locomotor function after EphA4-Fc treatment. Consistent with functional improvement, using high-resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging at 16.4T, we found that rats treated with EphA4-Fc had a significantly increased cross-sectional area of the dorsal funiculus caudal to the injury epicenter compared with controls. Our findings indicate that EphA4-Fc promotes functional recovery following contusive spinal cord injury and provides further support for the therapeutic benefit of treatment with the competitive antagonist in acute cases of spinal cord injury. PMID:23557244

Spanevello, Mark Damien; Tajouri, Sophie Ines; Mirciov, Cornel; Kurniawan, Nyoman; Pearse, Martin John; Fabri, Louis Jerry; Owczarek, Catherine Mary; Hardy, Matthew Philip; Bradford, Rebecca Anne; Ramunno, Melanie Louise; Turnley, Ann Maree; Ruitenberg, Marc Jan

2013-01-01

260

Wave function methods for fractional electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining accurate chemical potentials is of considerable interest in various chemical and physical contexts: from small molecular charge-transfer complexes to bandgap in bulk materials such as semi-conductors. Chemical potentials are typically evaluated either by density functional theory, or, alternatively, by computationally more intensive Greens function based GW computations. To calculate chemical potentials, the ground state energy needs to be defined for fractional charges. We thus explore an extension of wave function theories to fractional charges, and investigate the ionization potential and electron affinity as the derivatives of the energy with respect to the electron number. The ultimate aim is to access the chemical potential of correlated wave function methods without the need of explicitly changing the numbers of electrons, making the approach readily applicable to bulk materials. We find that even though second order perturbation theory reduces the fractional charge error considerably compared to Hartree-Fock and standard density functionals, higher order perturbation theory is more accurate and coupled-cluster approaches are even more robust, provided the electrons are bound at the Hartree-Fock level. The success of post-HF approaches to improve over HF relies on two equally important aspects: the integer values are more accurate and the Coulomb correlation between the fractionally occupied orbital and all others improves the straight line behavior significantly as identified by a correction to Hartree-Fock. Our description of fractional electrons is also applicable to fractional spins, illustrating the ability of coupled-cluster singles and doubles to deal with two degenerate fractionally occupied orbitals, but its inadequacy for three and more fractional spins, which occur, for instance, for spherical atoms and when dissociating double bonds. Our approach explores the realm of typical wave function methods that are applied mostly in molecular chemistry, but become available to the solid state community and offer the advantage of an integrated approach: fundamental gap, relative energies, and optimal geometries can be obtained at the same level.

Steinmann, Stephan N.; Yang, Weitao

2013-08-01

261

Testing a family-centered intervention to promote functional and cognitive recovery in hospitalized older adults.  

PubMed

A comparative trial using a repeated-measures design was designed to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of the Family-Centered Function-Focused-Care (Fam-FFC) intervention, which is intended to promote functional recovery in hospitalized older adults. A family-centered resource nurse and a facility champion implemented a three-component intervention (environmental assessment and modification, staff education, individual and family education and partnership in care planning with follow-up after hospitalization for an acute illness). Control units were exposed to function-focused-care education only. Ninety-seven dyads of medical patients aged 65 and older and family caregivers (FCGs) were recruited from three medical units of a community teaching hospital. Fifty-three percent of patients were female, 89% were white, 51% were married, and 40% were widowed, and they had a mean age of 80.8 ± 7.5. Seventy-eight percent of FCGs were married, 34% were daughters, 31% were female spouses or partners, and 38% were aged 46 to 65. Patient outcomes included functional outcomes (activities of daily living (ADLs), walking performance, gait, balance) and delirium severity and duration. FCG outcomes included preparedness for caregiving, anxiety, depression, role strain, and mutuality. The intervention group demonstrated less severity and shorter duration of delirium and better ADL and walking performance but not better gait and balance performance than the control group. FCGs who participated in Fam-FFC showed a significant increase in preparedness for caregiving and a decrease in anxiety and depression from admission to 2 months after discharge but no significant differences in strain or quality of the relationship with the care recipient from FCGs in the control group. Fam-FFC is feasible and has the potential to improve outcomes for hospitalized older adults and their caregivers. PMID:25481973

Boltz, Marie; Resnick, Barbara; Chippendale, Tracy; Galvin, James

2014-12-01

262

Functional recovery of anterior semicircular canal afferents following hair cell regeneration in birds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Streptomycin sulfate (1.2 g/kg i.m.) was administered for 5 consecutive days to 5-7-day-old white Leghorn chicks; this causes damage to semicircular canal hair cells that ultimately regenerate to reform the sensory epithelium. During the recovery period, electrophysiological recordings were taken sequentially from anterior semicircular canal primary afferents using an indentation stimulus of the canal that has been shown to mimic rotational stimulation. Chicks were assigned to an early (14-18 days; n = 8), intermediate (28-34 days; n = 5), and late (38-58 days; n = 4) period based on days after treatment. Seven untreated chicks, 15-67 days old, provided control data. An absence of background and indent-induced discharge was the prominent feature of afferents in the early period: only "silent" afferents were encountered in 5/8 experiments. In several of these chicks, fascicles of afferent fibers were seen extending up to the epithelium that was void of hair cells, and intra- and extracellular biocytin labeling revealed afferent processes penetrating into the supporting cell layer of the crista. In 3/8 chicks 74 afferents could be characterized, and they significantly differed from controls (n = 130) by having a lower discharge rate and a negligible response to canal stimulation. In the intermediate period there was considerable variability in discharge properties of 121 afferents, but as a whole the number of "silent" fibers in the canal nerve diminished, the background rate increased, and a response to canal stimulation detected. Individually biocytin-labeled afferents had normal-appearing terminal specializations in the sensory epithelium by 28 days poststreptomycin. In the late period, afferents (n = 58) remained significantly different from controls in background discharge properties and response gain. The evidence suggests that a considerable amount of variability exists between chicks in the return of vestibular afferent function following ototoxic injury and that the secretory function of regenerating hair cells might become functional before their transducer function.

Boyle, Richard; Highstein, Stephen M.; Carey, John P.; Xu, Jinping

2002-01-01

263

Delayed recovery of movement-related cortical function in Parkinson's disease after striatal dopaminergic grafts.  

PubMed

Intrastriatal transplantation of dopaminergic neurones aims to repair the selective loss of nigrostriatal projections and the consequent dysfunction of striatocortical circuitries in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we have studied the effects of bilateral human embryonic dopaminergic grafts on the movement-related activation of frontal cortical areas in 4 PD patients using H2 15O positron emission tomography and a joystick movement task. At 6.5 months after transplantation, mean striatal dopamine storage capacity as measured by 18F-dopa positron emission tomography was already significantly elevated in these patients. This was associated with a modest clinical improvement on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, whereas the impaired cortical activation was unchanged. At 18 months after surgery, there was further significant clinical improvement in the absence of any additional increase in striatal 18F-dopa uptake. Rostral supplementary motor and dorsal prefrontal cortical activation during performance of joystick movements had significantly improved, however. Our data suggest that the function of the graft goes beyond that of a simple dopamine delivery system and that functional integration of the grafted neurones within the host brain is necessary to produce substantial clinical recovery in PD. PMID:11079531

Piccini, P; Lindvall, O; Björklund, A; Brundin, P; Hagell, P; Ceravolo, R; Oertel, W; Quinn, N; Samuel, M; Rehncrona, S; Widner, H; Brooks, D J

2000-11-01

264

Environmental Experience Modulates Ischemia-Induced Amyloidogenesis and Enhances Functional Recovery  

PubMed Central

Abstract In this study, we examined whether ischemia-induced amyloidogenesis could be modulated by environmental “experience,” and whether this modulation is associated with improved cognitive functioning. Rats were subjected to either global ischemia or sham surgery and then were randomly assigned to either enriched environment housing (EE) or socially paired housing (controls). After 14 days of differential environmental housing, the rats were tested in the water maze. Our results show decreased C-terminal fragments of the ?-amyloid precursor protein (?APP) and decreased amyloid beta (A?) load in the ischemic EE rats compared to the ischemic control animals. In addition, A? oligomerization was significantly decreased in the ischemic EE animals compared to the ischemic control rats. Further, significantly increased levels of neprilysin, but not insulin-degrading enzyme, amyloid-degrading enzymes, were seen in the ischemic EE rats compared to the ischemic control animals. Behavioral analyses showed that ischemic EE rats performed significantly better on the memory task compared to the ischemic control group. These results suggest that use of multi-sensory environmental enrichment following cerebral ischemia may reduce the accumulation of A? peptide in the more pathologic oligomeric form, and consequently may enhance functional recovery. PMID:19271963

Rogozinska, Magdalena; Woods, Julie

2009-01-01

265

Functional Recovery of Completely Denervated Muscle: Implications for Innervation of Tissue-Engineered Muscle  

PubMed Central

Tissue-engineered muscle has been proposed as a solution to repair volumetric muscle defects and to restore muscle function. To achieve functional recovery, engineered muscle tissue requires integration of the host nerve. In this study, we investigated whether denervated muscle, which is analogous to tissue-engineered muscle tissue, can be reinnervated and can recover muscle function using an in vivo model of denervation followed by neurotization. The outcomes of this investigation may provide insights on the ability of tissue-engineered muscle to integrate with the host nerve and acquire normal muscle function. Eighty Lewis rats were classified into three groups: a normal control group (n=16); a denervated group in which sciatic innervations to the gastrocnemius muscle were disrupted (n=32); and a transplantation group in which the denervated gastrocnemius was repaired with a common peroneal nerve graft into the muscle (n=32). Neurofunctional behavior, including extensor postural thrust (EPT), withdrawal reflex latency (WRL), and compound muscle action potential (CMAP), as well as histological evaluations using alpha-bungarotoxin and anti-NF-200 were performed at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks (n=8) after surgery. We found that EPT was improved by transplantation of the nerve grafts, but the EPT values in the transplanted animals at 12 weeks postsurgery were still significantly lower than those measured for the normal control group at 4 weeks (EPT, 155.0±38.9 vs. 26.3±13.8?g, p<0.001; WRL, 2.7±2.30 vs. 8.3±5.5?s, p=0.027). In addition, CMAP latency and amplitude significantly improved with time after surgery in the transplantation group (p<0.001, one-way analysis of variance), and at 12 weeks postsurgery, CMAP latency and amplitude were not statistically different from normal control values (latency, 0.9±0.0 vs. 1.3±0.7?ms, p=0.164; amplitude, 30.2±7.0 vs. 46.4±26.9?mV, p=0.184). Histologically, regeneration of neuromuscular junctions was seen in the transplantation group. This study indicates that transplanted nerve tissue is able to regenerate neuromuscular junctions within denervated muscle, and thus the muscle can recover partial function. However, the function of the denervated muscle remains in the subnormal range even at 12 weeks after direct nerve transplantation. These results suggest that tissue-engineered muscle, which is similarly denervated, could be innervated and become functional in vivo if it is properly integrated with the host nerve. PMID:22559300

Kang, Sung-Bum; Olson, Jennifer L.; Atala, Anthony

2012-01-01

266

Interleukins 2 and 12 produce significant recovery of cytotoxic function in dibutyltin-exposed human natural killer cells.  

PubMed

Cytotoxic function of human natural killer (NK) cells is modulated by a variety of cytokines. Interleukins (IL) 2, 12, 15, and 18 and Interferon gamma (IFNgamma) are potent stimulators of NK cell cytotoxicity. Butyltins (BTs) are used in a variety of consumer products and industrial applications. Dibutyltin (DBT) is found in plastic products, beverages stored in PVC pipes during manufacturing, and poultry products. BTs appear to increase the risk of cancer and viral infections in exposed individuals. Recently, we have demonstrated that the ability of NK cells to kill tumor cells is greatly diminished after a 1-h exposure to dibutyltin. This inhibition of tumor killing function continues even after removal of the compound. There is no significant recovery of NK cytotoxic function even when the cells are allowed to recover for 6 days. In the current study we examine the effects of NK-stimulatory cytokines on the ability of NK cells to recover from the inhibitory effects of a 1-h DBT treatment. Highly purified NK cells (>95% CD16(+)) or a lymphocyte preparation containing both T lymphocytes and NK cells were treated with 5 microM DBT and then allowed to recover for 24 h, 48 h, 4 days, and 6 days in DBT-free medium containing either no cytokine or a maximally stimulatory dose of several NK-stimulatory cytokines. Tumor killing function was tested using a radioactive chromium release assay. As seen in our previous studies there is no recovery of NK cell cytotoxic function even after a 6-day recovery period when no cytokine is present in the medium. However, there is significant recovery of NK cytotoxic function when IL2, IL12, or the combination of IL2 plus IL12 is present in the medium during the recovery period. The other cytokines tested (IL15, IL18, and IFNgamma) were unable to increase the cytotoxicity of DBT-exposed NK cells. PMID:11908935

Whalen, Margaret M; Walker, Latarchal; Loganathan, Bommanna G

2002-02-01

267

Clinical Comparison of 30-Day Mortalities and 6-Month Functional Recoveries after Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Patients with or without End-Stage Renal Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to determine 30-day mortality and 6-month functional recovery rates in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (S-ICH) patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and to compare the outcomes of these patients and S-ICH patients without ESRD. Methods The medical records of 1943 S-ICH patients from January 2000 to December 2011 were retrospectively analyzed with focus on demographic, radiological, and laboratory characteristics. Results A total of 1558 supratentorial S-ICH patients were included in the present study and 102 (6.5%) were ESRD patients. The 30-day mortality of the S-ICH patients with ESRD was 53.9%, and 29.4% achieved good functional recovery at 6 months post-S-ICH. Multivariate analysis showed that age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, pupillary abnormality, ventricular extension of hemorrhage, hemorrhagic volume, hematoma enlargement, anemia, and treatment modality were independently associated with 30-day mortality in S-ICH patients with ESRD (p<0.05), and that GCS score, volume of hemorrhage, conservative treatment, and shorter hemodialysis duration was independently associated with good functional recovery at 6 months post-S-ICH in patients with ESRD (p<0.05). Conclusion This retrospective study showed worse outcome after S-ICH in patients with ESRD than those without ESRD; 30-day mortality was four times higher and the functional recovery rate was significantly lower in S-ICH patients with ESRD than in S-ICH patients without ESRD. PMID:24278643

Kim, Kang Rae

2013-01-01

268

Method for printing functional protein microarrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Piezoelectric dispensing of proteins from borosilicate glass capillaries is a popular method of protein biochip fabrication that offers the advantages of sample recovery and noncontact with the printing substrate. However, little regard has been given to the quantitative aspects of dispensing minute volumes (1 nL or less) at the low protein concentrations (20 micrograms/mL or less) typically used in microprinting. Specifically, loss of protein sample due to nonspecific adsorption to the glass surface of the dispensing capillaries can limit the amount of protein delivered to the substrate. We demonstrate the benefits of a low ionic strength buffer containing the carrier protein BSA that effectively minimizes the ionic strength-dependent phenomenon of nonspecific protein adsorption to borosilicate glass. Over the concentration range of 20-2.5 micrograms/mL, the dispensing of a reference IgG in 10 mM PBS including 0.1% BSA resulted in the deposition of 3.6- to 44-fold more IgG compared to the deposition of IgG in standard 150 mM PBS in the absence of BSA. Furthermore, when the IgG was dispensed with carrier protein, the resulting spots exhibited a more uniform morphology. In a direct immunoassay for cholera toxin, capture antibody spots dispensed in 10 mM PBS containing 0.1% BSA produced fluorescent signals that were 2.8- to 4.3-fold more intense than antibody spots that were dispensed in 150 mM PBS without BSA. Interestingly, no differences were observed in the specific activities of the capture antibodies as a result of printing in the different buffers. The implications of these results on the future development of protein biochips are discussed.

Delehanty, James B.; Ligler, Frances S.

2003-01-01

269

Intramedullary medullocervical ependymoma--surgical treatment, functional recovery, and long-term outcome.  

PubMed

To evaluate the long-term outcome and functional recovery of intramedullary medullocervical ependymoma (IME), the clinical charts of 38 surgically treated consecutive cases of IME were reviewed. Follow-up was obtained prospectively. The mean age of the patients (19 male and 19 female) was 35.3 years (range: 11-60 years). Complete resection was achieved in 33 (86.8%) patients. Fourteen patients worsened postoperatively; five and seven of these improved to their baseline levels within 1 and 3 months, respectively. By 1 year postoperatively, 17 patients returned to work. After a mean follow-up duration of 81.5 months, 31 patients improved or stabilized, and 3 had recurrence. The means of the modified McCormick grade (mMG) scores before the operation, at discharge, 1 year after the operation, and at the most recent evaluation were 1.76, 2.13, 1.82, and 1.84, respectively. A favorable long-term outcome of the mMG was associated with a good preoperative status (mMG I) (odds ratio [OR] = 9.956, p = 0.008) and well-defined tumor boundary (OR = 7.829, p = 0.035). Improvements in the postoperative walking dysfunction and paresthesia over time were associated with the absence of preoperative walking dysfunction (p = 0.047) and paresthesia (p = 0.028), respectively. The 12-year progression/recurrence-free survival and overall survival rates were 92.0% and 93.7%, respectively. The study suggests that the goal of surgery is to stabilize the preoperative neurological function and that a favorable outcome may be achieved in patients with good preoperative statuses and well-defined tumor boundaries. Surgery should be performed as soon as possible after the diagnoses and before the neurological functions deteriorate. PMID:24077278

Li, Da; Hao, Shu-Yu; Wu, Zhen; Jia, Gui-Jun; Zhang, Li-Wei; Zhang, Jun-Ting

2013-01-01

270

Trajectories in functional recovery for patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation for unilateral hip or knee replacement.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore trajectories of recovery in patients with lower extremity joint replacements receiving post-acute rehabilitation. A retrospective cohort design was used to examine data from the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation (UDSMR®) for 7434 patients with total knee replacement (TKR) and 4765 patients with total hip replacement (THR) who received rehabilitation from 2008 to 2010. Functional Independence Measure (FIM)™ instrument ratings were obtained at admission, discharge, and 80-180 days after discharge. Random coefficient regression analyses using linear mixed models were used to estimate mean ratings for items within the four motor subscales (self-care, sphincter control, transfers, and locomotion) and the cognitive domain of the FIM instrument. Mean improvements at discharge for motor items ranged from 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14, 1.19) to 2.69 (95% CI: 2.66, 2.71) points for sphincter control and locomotion, respectively. At follow-up mean motor improvements ranged from 2.17 (95% CI: 2.15, 2.20) to 4.06 (95% CI: 4.03, 4.06) points for sphincter control and locomotion, respectively. FIM cognition yielded smaller improvements: discharge=0.47 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.48); follow-up=0.83 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.84). Persons who were younger, female, non-Hispanic white, unmarried, with fewer comorbid conditions, and who received a TKR demonstrated slightly higher functional motor ratings. Overall, patients with unilateral knee or hip replacement experienced substantial improvement in motor functioning both during and up to six months following inpatient rehabilitation. PMID:24461928

Bindawas, Saad M; Graham, James E; Karmarkar, Amol M; Chen, Nai-Wei; Granger, Carl V; Niewczyk, Paulette; DiVita, Margret A; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

2014-01-01

271

Recovery of ovary function impaired by chemotherapy using Chinese herbal medicine in a rat model.  

PubMed

The ovary is not only involved in female germ cell development and maturation, but also adjusts female endocrinology. Its function is severely impaired during chemotherapy, and premature ovarian failure may be induced. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has displayed significant potential in the treatment of female endocrine disorders; however, it is unknown whether it can recover ovarian function impaired by chemotherapy. In the present study, CHM was used to treat rat models of ovarian dysfunction impaired by chemotherapeutic drugs. Three groups were included in this study: a prevention group, a treatment group, and a prevention-treatment group. Routine gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) treatment was used as a control. The results showed that body weight, fertility, estrus days, hormone levels, and ovary weight were restored when CHM was administered in these rat models. Moreover, in the prevention-treatment group, the number of follicles at each developmental stage significantly increased compared with the prevention or treatment group. Furthermore, the number of apoptotic cells significantly decreased, and the relative mRNA expression of caspase-3 significantly decreased, in the prevention-treatment group. The results of gene expression analysis indicated that the expression of anti-Müllerianhormone (AMH) which indicates ovarian preservation was significantly up-regulated in the prevention-treatment group and was similar to normal rats. The expression of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) was significantly enhanced in both the prevention-treatment group and the GnRHa group, which suggested that the oocytes were of better quality. Finally, we found that there were no differences in body weight and fertility in the offspring conceived by the drug-treated rats, which partly indicated the safety of the medicine. In conclusion, Chinese herbal medicine showed a beneficial role in the recovery of ovary function in these rat models and has significant potential in the clinic. PMID:24831605

Xia, Tian; Fu, Yu; Gao, Hui; Zhao, Zhimei; Zhao, Liying; Han, Bing

2014-10-01

272

Modified Interior Distance Functions (Theory and Methods)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we introduced and developed the theory of Modified Interior Distance Functions (MIDF's). The MIDF is a Classical Lagrangian (CL) for a constrained optimization problem which is equivalent to the initial one and can be obtained from the latter by monotone transformation both the objective function and constraints. In contrast to the Interior Distance Functions (IDF's), which played a fundamental role in Interior Point Methods (IPM's), the MIDF's are defined on an extended feasible set and along with center, have two extra tools, which control the computational process: the barrier parameter and the vector of Lagrange multipliers. The extra tools allow to attach to the MEDF's very important properties of Augmented Lagrangeans. One can consider the MIDFs as Interior Augmented Lagrangeans. It makes MIDF's similar in spirit to Modified Barrier Functions (MBF's), although there is a fundamental difference between them both in theory and methods. Based on MIDF's theory, Modified Center Methods (MCM's) have been developed and analyzed. The MCM's find an unconstrained minimizer in primal space and update the Lagrange multipliers, while both the center and the barrier parameter can be fixed or updated at each step. The MCM's convergence was investigated, and their rate of convergence was estimated. The extension of the feasible set and the special role of the Lagrange multipliers allow to develop MCM's, which produce, in case of nondegenerate constrained optimization, a primal and dual sequences that converge to the primal-dual solutions with linear rate, even when both the center and the barrier parameter are fixed. Moreover, every Lagrange multipliers update shrinks the distance to the primal dual solution by a factor 0 less than gamma less than 1 which can be made as small as one wants by choosing a fixed interior point as a 'center' and a fixed but large enough barrier parameter. The numericai realization of MCM leads to the Newton MCM (NMCM). The approximation for the primal minimizer one finds by Newton Method followed by the Lagrange multipliers update. Due to the MCM convergence, when both the center and the barrier parameter are fixed, the condition of the MDF Hessism and the neighborhood of the primal ninimizer where Newton method is 'well' defined remains stable. It contributes to both the complexity and the numerical stability of the NMCM.

Polyak, Roman A.

1995-01-01

273

Pharmacogenetics of Modafinil After Sleep Loss: Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Genotype Modulates Waking Functions But Not Recovery Sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep loss impairs waking functions and is homeostatically compensated in recovery sleep. The mechanisms underlying the consequences of prolonged wakefulness are unknown. The stimulant modafinil may promote primarily dopaminergic neurotransmission. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the breakdown of cerebral dopamine. A functional Val158Met polymorphism reduces COMT activity, and Val\\/Val homozygous individuals presumably have lower dopaminergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex than do

S Bodenmann; S Xu; UFO Luhmann; M Arand; W Berger; HH Jung; HP Landolt

2009-01-01

274

Energy recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Institute of Atomic Energy, Kyoto University, is researching an efficient method of particle disposal from viewpoints of energy recovery, mass recovery (pumping), and prevention of both material damage and impurity mixing. At present most efforts are being made on beam direct energy conversion and plasma direct energy conversion. Beam direct energy conversion is applied to a neutral-beam injection system

Yoshikawa

1983-01-01

275

Quantitative, functional, morphological and ultrastructural recovery of platelets as predictor for cryopreservation.  

PubMed

Cryopreservation of platelets is of great interest, since it could extend the shelf life of therapeutic platelet concentrates and facilitate stockpiling and inventory control in blood banking. Despite the use of many cryopreservation procedures the optimal cryopreservation procedure is not defined yet. We have compared the cryopreservation of human platelets by various protocols employing controlled-rate and non-controlled-rate freezing procedures in combination with different concentrations of DMSO (6% and 10%) or 5% DMSO + 6% HES combination. After storage for 1 to 3 months, samples were thawed and analyzed. Measurements included cell recovery, platelet viability according to hypotonic shock response (HSR), platelet aggregation with ADP, morphological and ultrastructural properties of defrozen platelets. Our findings show that the application of our original procedure for controlled-rate freezing consisting of six cooling steps (cooling rate 1 degree C/min) with compensation of released heat of fusion (cooling rate 2 degrees C/min) has significantly influenced the quality of thawed platelets. At the same time, a concentration of 6% DMSO proved to be the most effective. In summary, cryopreservation of human platelets using controlled-rate freezing procedure in combination with lower (6%) DMSO concentration resulted in less damage from freezing and higher recovered function of platelets. PMID:12803111

Balint, Bela; Vuceti?, Dusan; Trajkovi?-Laki?, Zlatija; Petakov, Marijana; Bugarski, Diana; Brajuskovi?, Goran; Taseski, Jovan

2002-01-01

276

Neuropsychologic and Functional Recovery From Severe Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Without Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To test the hypothesis that neuropsychologic test results and functional outcome will be abnormal if hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is not used in patients with severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Methods: For a 1-year interval, we retrospectively identified all CO-poisoned patients who were comatose on presentation at a large, urban tertiary hospital and did not receive HBO therapy. Prospectively,

Lindell K Weaver; Ramona O Hopkins; Valerie Larson-Lohr

1996-01-01

277

TrkB kinase activity is critical for recovery of respiratory function after cervical spinal cord hemisection.  

PubMed

Neuroplasticity following spinal cord injury contributes to spontaneous recovery over time. Recent studies highlight the important role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling via the high-affinity tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) receptor subtype B (TrkB) in recovery of rhythmic diaphragm activity following unilateral spinal hemisection at C2 (C2SH). We hypothesized that TrkB kinase activity is necessary for spontaneous recovery of diaphragm activity post-C2SH. A chemical-genetic approach employing adult male TrkB(F616A) mice (n=49) was used to determine the impact of inhibiting TrkB kinase activity by the phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 inhibitor derivative 1NMPP1 on recovery of ipsilateral hemidiaphragm EMG activity. In mice, C2SH was localized primarily to white matter tracts comprising the lateral funiculus. The extent of damaged spinal cord (~27%) was similar regardless of the presence of functional recovery, consistent with spontaneous recovery reflecting neuroplasticity primarily of contralateral spared descending pathways to the phrenic motor pools. Ipsilateral hemidiaphragm EMG activity was verified as absent in all mice at 3days post-C2SH. By 2weeks after C2SH, ipsilateral hemidiaphragm EMG activity was present in 39% of vehicle-treated mice compared to 7% of 1NMPP1-treated mice (P=0.03). These data support the hypothesis that BDNF/TrkB signaling involving TrkB kinase activity plays a critical role in spontaneous recovery of diaphragm activity following cervical spinal cord injury. PMID:24910201

Mantilla, Carlos B; Greising, Sarah M; Stowe, Jessica M; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C

2014-11-01

278

Efficient recovery-based error estimation for the smoothed finite element method for smooth and singular linear elasticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An error control technique aimed to assess the quality of smoothed finite element approximations is presented in this paper. Finite element techniques based on strain smoothing appeared in 2007 were shown to provide significant advantages compared to conventional finite element approximations. In particular, a widely cited strength of such methods is improved accuracy for the same computational cost. Yet, few attempts have been made to directly assess the quality of the results obtained during the simulation by evaluating an estimate of the discretization error. Here we propose a recovery type error estimator based on an enhanced recovery technique. The salient features of the recovery are: enforcement of local equilibrium and, for singular problems a "smooth + singular" decomposition of the recovered stress. We evaluate the proposed estimator on a number of test cases from linear elastic structural mechanics and obtain efficient error estimations whose effectivities, both at local and global levels, are improved compared to recovery procedures not implementing these features.

González-Estrada, Octavio A.; Natarajan, Sundararajan; Ródenas, Juan José; Nguyen-Xuan, Hung; Bordas, Stéphane P. A.

2013-07-01

279

Myocardial oxygenation and functional recovery in infarct rat hearts transplanted with mesenchymal stem cells  

PubMed Central

Stem cell therapy for myocardial tissue repair is limited by the poor survival of transplanted cells, possibly because of inadequate supply of oxygen and nutrients. The purpose of this study was to assess the oxygenation level and functional recovery after allogenic transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). Myocardial oxygen tension (Po2) was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry using an implantable oxygen-sensing spin probe (OxySpin). MSCs incubated with OxySpins showed substantial uptake of the probe without affecting its oxygen sensitivity or calibration. The cells internalized with OxySpins were able to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, cardiomyocyte, and endothelial cell lineages. The labeled cells tested positive for CD44 and CD29 markers and negative for the hematopoietic markers CD14 and CD45. For the in vivo studies, MI was induced in rats by permanently ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. MSCs with OxySpins were transplanted in the infarct region of hearts. A significant increase in Po2 was observed in the MSC group compared with the untreated MI group (18.1 ± 2.6 vs. 13.0 ± 1.8 mmHg, n = 4, P < 0.05) at 4 wk after transplantation. Echocardiography showed a significant improvement in ejection fraction and fraction shortening, which inversely correlated with the magnitude of fibrosis in the treated hearts. The cell-transplanted hearts also showed an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor level and capillary density in the infarct region. The study established our ability to measure and correlate changes in myocardial tissue oxygenation with cardiac function in infarcted rat hearts treated with MSCs. PMID:19286938

Chacko, Simi M.; Khan, Mahmood; Kuppusamy, M. Lakshmi; Pandian, Ramasamy P.; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah; Bratasz, Anna; Rivera, Brian K.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

2009-01-01

280

Functional recovery of supersensitive dopamine receptors after intrastriatal grafts of fetal substantia nigra  

SciTech Connect

Interruption of the ascending dopamine neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway, by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion in rats, produced a significant loss of the dopamine transport complexes labeled with the phencyclidine derivative (3H)BTCP. This loss of dopamine innervation in the striatum was present at least 12 to 14 months after lesioning and was functionally manifested by ipsilateral rotation of the animals in response to amphetamine. In these same animals, in comparison to controls, there was a significant increase in the number (Bmax) of (3H)SCH 23390-labeled D-1 receptors in the striatum (36.7%) and the substantia nigra (35.1%) and a 54.4% increase in the number (Bmax) of (3H)sulpiride-labeled striatal D-2 receptors without an apparent change in affinity (Kd). Ten to twelve months after the transplantation of homologous fetal substantia nigra into the denervated striatum, there was a significant decrease in amphetamine-induced turning behavior. In these animals, there was an ingrowth of dopamine nerve terminals in the striatum as demonstrated by a return of (3H)BTCP binding. Accompanying this reinnervation was the normalization of D-1 and D-2 receptors to control values in the striatum as well as the return of D-1 receptors to prelesion densities in the substantia nigra. In a subgroup of transplanted rats, amphetamine continued to induce ipsilateral turning. In these animals both D-1 and D-2 receptors remained supersensitive. These results support the hypothesis that the functional recovery of transplanted animals is due, in part, to reinnervation of the striatum. In addition, long-term alterations in receptor density may be related to the behavioral deficits that are associated with the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat.

Dawson, T.M.; Dawson, V.L.; Gage, F.H.; Fisher, L.J.; Hunt, M.A.; Wamsley, J.K. (Univ. of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City (USA))

1991-03-01

281

Muscle Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor ? Promotes Axonal Regeneration and Functional Recovery Following Peripheral Nerve Lesion  

PubMed Central

Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) administration maintains, protects, and promotes the regeneration of both motor neurons (MNs) and skeletal muscle in a wide variety of models. Expression of CNTF receptor ? (CNTFR?), an essential CNTF receptor component, is greatly increased in skeletal muscle following neuromuscular insult. Together the data suggest that muscle CNTFR? may contribute to neuromuscular maintenance, protection, and/or regeneration in vivo. To directly address the role of muscle CNTFR?, we selectively-depleted it in vivo by using a “floxed” CNTFR? mouse line and a gene construct (mlc1f-Cre) that drives the expression of Cre specifically in skeletal muscle. The resulting mice were challenged with sciatic nerve crush. Counting of nerve axons and retrograde tracing of MNs indicated that muscle CNTFR? contributes to MN axonal regeneration across the lesion site. Walking track analysis indicated that muscle CNTFR? is also required for normal recovery of motor function. However, the same muscle CNTFR? depletion unexpectedly had no detected effect on the maintenance or regeneration of the muscle itself, even though exogenous CNTF has been shown to affect these functions. Similarly, MN survival and lesion-induced terminal sprouting were unaffected. Therefore, muscle CNTFR? is an interesting new example of a muscle growth factor receptor that, in vivo under physiological conditions, contributes much more to neuronal regeneration than to the maintenance or regeneration of the muscle itself. This novel form of muscle–neuron interaction also has implications in the therapeutic targeting of the neuromuscular system in MN disorders and following nerve injury. PMID:23504871

Lee, Nancy; Spearry, Rachel P.; Leahy, Kendra M.; Robitz, Rachel; Trinh, Dennis S.; Mason, Carter O.; Zurbrugg, Rebekah J.; Batt, Myra K.; Paul, Richard J.; Maclennan, A. John

2014-01-01

282

Whole-body vibration improves functional recovery in spinal cord injured rats.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a relatively novel form of exercise used to improve neuromuscular performance in healthy individuals. Its usefulness as a therapy for patients with neurological disorders, in particular spinal cord injury (SCI), has received little attention in clinical settings and, surprisingly, even less in animal SCI models. We performed severe compression SCI at a low-thoracic level in Wistar rats followed by daily WBV starting 7 (10 rats) or 14 (10 rats) days after injury (WBV7 and WBV14, respectively) and continued over a 12-week post-injury period. Rats with SCI but no WBV training (sham, 10 rats) and intact animals (10 rats) served as controls. Compared to sham-treated rats, WBV did not improve BBB score, plantar stepping, or ladder stepping during the 12-week period. Accordingly, WBV did not significantly alter plantar H-reflex, lesion volume, serotonergic input to the lumbar spinal cord, nor cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs to lumbar motoneurons at 12 weeks after SCI. However, compared to sham, WBV14, but not WBV7, significantly improved body weight support (rump-height index) during overground locomotion and overall recovery between 6-12 weeks and also restored the density of synaptic terminals in the lumbar spinal cord at 12 weeks. Most remarkably, WBV14 led to a significant improvement of bladder function at 6-12 weeks after injury. These findings provide the first evidence for functional benefits of WBV in an animal SCI model and warrant further preclinical investigations to determine mechanisms underpinning this noninvasive, inexpensive, and easily delivered potential rehabilitation therapy for SCI. PMID:23157611

Wirth, Felicitas; Schempf, Greta; Stein, Gregor; Wellmann, Katharina; Manthou, Marilena; Scholl, Carolin; Sidorenko, Malina; Semler, Oliver; Eisel, Leonie; Harrach, Rachida; Angelova, Srebrina; Jaminet, Patrick; Ankerne, Janina; Ashrafi, Mahak; Ozsoy, Ozlem; Ozsoy, Umut; Schubert, Harald; Abdulla, Diana; Dunlop, Sarah A; Angelov, Doychin N; Irintchev, Andrey; Schönau, Eckhard

2013-03-15

283

Novel sample preparation method for surfactant containing suppositories: effect of micelle formation on drug recovery.  

PubMed

Rectal drug delivery is currently at the focus of attention. Surfactants promote drug release from the suppository bases and enhance the formulation properties. The aim of our work was to develop a sample preparation method for HPLC analysis for a suppository base containing 95% hard fat, 2.5% Tween 20 and 2.5% Tween 60. A conventional sample preparation method did not provide successful results as the recovery of the drug failed to fulfil the validation criterion 95-105%. This was caused by the non-ionic surfactants in the suppository base incorporating some of the drug, preventing its release. As guidance for the formulation from an analytical aspect, we suggest a well defined surfactant content based on the turbidimetric determination of the CMC (critical micelle formation concentration) in the applied methanol-water solvent. Our CMC data correlate well with the results of previous studies. As regards the sample preparation procedure, a study was performed of the effects of ionic strength and pH on the drug recovery with the avoidance of degradation of the drug during the procedure. Aminophenazone and paracetamol were used as model drugs. The optimum conditions for drug release from the molten suppository base were found to be 100 mM NaCl, 20-40 mM NaOH and a 30 min ultrasonic treatment of the final sample solution. As these conditions could cause the degradation of the drugs in the solution, this was followed by NMR spectroscopy, and the results indicated that degradation did not take place. The determined CMCs were 0.08 mM for Tween 20, 0.06 mM for Tween 60 and 0.04 mM for a combined Tween 20, Tween 60 system. PMID:23727364

Kalmár, Éva; Ueno, Konomi; Forgó, Péter; Szakonyi, Gerda; Dombi, György

2013-09-01

284

Non-Invasive Methods for Estradiol Recovery from Infant Fecal Samples  

PubMed Central

While the activation of the infant hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis and the existence of a postnatal gonadotropin surge were first documented in the early 1970s, study of the longitudinal development of gonadal hormones in infancy, and the potential physiological and behavioral correlates of this development, have been hampered by reliance on infrequent serum sampling. The present study reports the validation of a non-invasive method for repeated assessment of steroid hormones in infant fecal samples. Fecal samples were collected in and excised from cotton diaper liners and extracted using methanol. Extracts were analyzed for estradiol using a diluted assay modification. Method validity was supported by a steroid recovery rate of at least 80%, a sensitivity of 0.35?pg/ml, and inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variations of less than 10 and 20%, respectively. Variation in estradiol concentration was assessed across (1) sample type (scraped vs. cut from diaper liner), (2) time of day (morning vs. afternoon/evening samples), (3) time interval between samples, and (4) time-to-assay (1?day vs. 489?days after collection). Of these characteristics, only the time interval between samples within an individual was significantly associated with estradiol concentration. This is the first report of human infant fecal estradiol levels. The results support fecal recovery as a novel and powerful non-invasive tool for longitudinal studies of human infants, expanding research opportunities for investigating development of sex-specific behaviors in infancy, and the potential effects of endocrine disruptors on development. PMID:21423388

Thompson, Amanda L.; Whitten, Patricia L.; Johnson, Michael L.; Lampl, Michelle

2010-01-01

285

Promoting recovery-oriented practice in mental health services: a quasi-experimental mixed-methods study  

PubMed Central

Background Recovery has become an increasingly prominent concept in mental health policy internationally. However, there is a lack of guidance regarding organisational transformation towards a recovery orientation. This study evaluated the implementation of recovery-orientated practice through training across a system of mental health services. Methods The intervention comprised four full-day workshops and an in-team half-day session on supporting recovery. It was offered to 383 staff in 22 multidisciplinary community and rehabilitation teams providing mental health services across two contiguous regions. A quasi-experimental design was used for evaluation, comparing behavioural intent with staff from a third contiguous region. Behavioural intent was rated by coding points of action on the care plans of a random sample of 700 patients (400 intervention, 300 control), before and three months after the intervention. Action points were coded for (a) focus of action, using predetermined categories of care; and (b) responsibility for action. Qualitative inquiry was used to explore staff understanding of recovery, implementation in services and the wider system, and the perceived impact of the intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 intervention group team leaders post-training and an inductive thematic analysis undertaken. Results A total of 342 (89%) staff received the intervention. Care plans of patients in the intervention group had significantly more changes with evidence of change in the content of patient’s care plans (OR 10.94. 95% CI 7.01-17.07) and the attributed responsibility for the actions detailed (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.68-5.18). Nine themes emerged from the qualitative analysis split into two superordinate categories. ‘Recovery, individual and practice’, describes the perception and provision of recovery orientated care by individuals and at a team level. It includes themes on care provision, the role of hope, language of recovery, ownership and multidisciplinarity. ‘Systemic implementation’, describes organizational implementation and includes themes on hierarchy and role definition, training approaches, measures of recovery and resources. Conclusions Training can provide an important mechanism for instigating change in promoting recovery-orientated practice. However, the challenge of systemically implementing recovery approaches requires further consideration of the conceptual elements of recovery, its measurement, and maximising and demonstrating organizational commitment. PMID:23764121

2013-01-01

286

LOWER COST METHODS FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY (IOR) VIA SURFACTANT FLOODING  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of the work performed in this 3-year project sponsored by DOE. The overall objective of this project is to identify new, potentially more cost-effective surfactant formulations for improved oil recovery (IOR). The general approach is to use an integrated experimental and computational chemistry effort to improve our understanding of the link between surfactant structure and performance, and from this knowledge, develop improved IOR surfactant formulations. Accomplishments for the project include: (1) completion of a literature review to assemble current and new surfactant IOR ideas, (2) Development of new atomistic-level MD (molecular dynamic) modeling methodologies to calculate IFT (interfacial tension) rigorously from first principles, (3) exploration of less computationally intensive mesoscale methods to estimate IFT, Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR), and cohesive energy density (CED) calculations, (4) experiments to screen many surfactant structures for desirable low IFT and solid adsorption behavior, and (5) further experimental characterization of the more promising new candidate formulations (based on alkyl polyglycosides (APG) and alkyl propoxy sulfate surfactants). Important findings from this project include: (1) the IFT between two pure substances may be calculated quantitatively from fundamental principles using Molecular Dynamics, the same approach can provide qualitative results for ternary systems containing a surfactant, (2) low concentrations of alkyl polyglycoside surfactants have potential for IOR (Improved Oil Recovery) applications from a technical standpoint (if formulated properly with a cosurfactant, they can create a low IFT at low concentration) and also are viable economically as they are available commercially, and (3) the alkylpropoxy sulfate surfactants have promising IFT performance also, plus these surfactants can have high optimal salinity and so may be attractive for use in higher salinity reservoirs. Alkylpropoxy sulfate surfactants are not yet available as large volume commercial products. The results presented herein can provide the needed industrial impetus for extending application (alkyl polyglycoside) or scaling up (alkylpropoxy sulfates) of these two promising surfactants for enhanced oil recovery. Furthermore, the advanced simulations tools presented here can be used to continue to uncover new types of surfactants with promising properties such as inherent low IFT and biodegradability.

William A. Goddard III; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Seung Soon Jang; Shiang-Tai Lin; Prabal Maiti; Yongfu Wu; Stefan Iglauer; Xiaohang Zhang

2004-09-01

287

Recovery of Iron/Iron Oxide Nanoparticles from Solution: Comparison of Methods and their Effects  

SciTech Connect

Most methods currently being used to recover Fe0-core/oxide-shell nanoparticles from solutions (including the solvents they are synthesized or stored in) are potentially problematic because they may alter the particle composition (e.g., depositing salts formed from solutes) or leave the particles prone to transformations during subsequent storage and handling (e.g., due to residual moisture). In this study, several methods for recovery of nanoparticles from aqueous solution were studied to determine how they affect the structure and reactivity of the recovered materials. Simple washing of the nanoparticles during vacuum filtration (i.e., “flash drying”) can leave up to ~17 weight percent residual moisture. Modeling calculations suggest this moisture is mostly capillary or matric water held between particles and particle aggregates, which can be removed by drying for short periods at relative vapor pressures below 0.9. Flash drying followed by vacuum drying, all under N2, leaves no detectable residue from precipitation of solutes (detectable by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS), no significant changes in overall particle composition or structure (determined by transmission electron microscopy, TEM), and negligible residual moisture (by thermogravimetric analysis, TGA). While this improved flash-drying protocol may be the preferred method for recovering nanoparticles for many purposes, we found that Fe0-core/oxide-shell nanoparticles still exhibit gradual aging during storage when characterized electrochemically with voltammetry.

Nurmi, James; Sarathy, Vaishnavi; Tratnyek, P. G.; Baer, Donald R.; Amonette, James E.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.

2011-05-15

288

Method for the recovery of silver from waste photographic fixer solutions  

DOEpatents

The method of the present invention is directed to the recovery of silver from spent photographic fixer solutions and for providing an effluent essentially silver-free that is suitable for discharge into commercial sewage systems. The present method involves the steps of introducing the spent photographic fixer solution into an alkaline hypochlorite solution. The oxidizing conditions of the alkaline hypochlorite solution are maintained during the addition of the fixer solution so that the silver ion complexing agents of thiosulfate and sulfite ions are effectively destroyed. Hydrazine monohydrate is then added to the oxidizing solution to form a reducing solution to effect the formation of a precipitate of silver which can be readily removed by filtration or decanting. Experimental tests indicate that greater than 99.99% of the original silver in the spent photographic fixer can be efficiently removed by practicing the present method. Also, the chemical and biological oxygen demand of the remaining effluent is significantly reduced so as to permit the discharge thereof into sewage systems at levels in compliance with federal and state environmental standards.

Posey, Franz A. (Concord, TN); Palko, Aloysius A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01

289

Method for the recovery of silver from waste photographic fixer solutions  

SciTech Connect

The method of the present invention is directed to the recovery of silver from spent photographic fixer solutions and for providing an effluent essentially silver-free that is suitable for discharge into commercial sewage systems. The present method involves the steps of introducing the spent photographic fixer solution into an alkaline hypochlorite solution. The oxidizing conditions of the alkaline hypochlorite solution are maintained during the addition of the fixer solution so that the silver ion complexing agents of thiosulfate and sulfite ions are effectively destroyed. Hydrazine monohydrate is then added to the oxidizing solution to form a reducing solution to effect the formation of a precipitate of silver which can be readily removed by filtration or decanting. Experimental tests indicate that greater than 99.99% of the original silver in the spent photographic fixer can be efficiently removed by practicing the present method. Also, the chemical and biological oxygen demand of the remaining effluent is significantly reduced so as to permit the discharge thereof into sewage systems at levels in compliance with federal and state environmental standards.

Posey, F.A.; Palko, A.A.

1984-05-01

290

Treadmill Exercise Induced Functional Recovery after Peripheral Nerve Repair Is Associated with Increased Levels of Neurotrophic Factors  

PubMed Central

Benefits of exercise on nerve regeneration and functional recovery have been reported in both central and peripheral nervous system disease models. However, underlying molecular mechanisms of enhanced regeneration and improved functional outcomes are less understood. We used a peripheral nerve regeneration model that has a good correlation between functional outcomes and number of motor axons that regenerate to evaluate the impact of treadmill exercise. In this model, the median nerve was transected and repaired while the ulnar nerve was transected and prevented from regeneration. Daily treadmill exercise resulted in faster recovery of the forelimb grip function as evaluated by grip power and inverted holding test. Daily exercise also resulted in better regeneration as evaluated by recovery of compound motor action potentials, higher number of axons in the median nerve and larger myofiber size in target muscles. Furthermore, these observations correlated with higher levels of neurotrophic factors, glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), in serum, nerve and muscle suggesting that increase in muscle derived neurotrophic factors may be responsible for improved regeneration. PMID:24618564

Park, Jae-Sung; Höke, Ahmet

2014-01-01

291

Effect of Delayed Peripheral Nerve Repair on Nerve Regeneration, Schwann Cell Function and Target Muscle Recovery  

PubMed Central

Despite advances in surgical techniques for peripheral nerve repair, functional restitution remains incomplete. The timing of surgery is one factor influencing the extent of recovery but it is not yet clearly defined how long a delay may be tolerated before repair becomes futile. In this study, rats underwent sciatic nerve transection before immediate (0) or 1, 3, or 6 months delayed repair with a nerve graft. Regeneration of spinal motoneurons, 13 weeks after nerve repair, was assessed using retrograde labeling. Nerve tissue was also collected from the proximal and distal stumps and from the nerve graft, together with the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. A dramatic decline in the number of regenerating motoneurons and myelinated axons in the distal nerve stump was observed in the 3- and 6-months delayed groups. After 3 months delay, the axonal number in the proximal stump increased 2–3 folds, accompanied by a smaller axonal area. RT-PCR of distal nerve segments revealed a decline in Schwann cells (SC) markers, most notably in the 3 and 6 month delayed repair samples. There was also a progressive increase in fibrosis and proteoglycan scar markers in the distal nerve with increased delayed repair time. The yield of SC isolated from the distal nerve segments progressively fell with increased delay in repair time but cultured SC from all groups proliferated at similar rates. MG muscle at 3- and 6-months delay repair showed a significant decline in weight (61% and 27% compared with contra-lateral side). Muscle fiber atrophy and changes to neuromuscular junctions were observed with increased delayed repair time suggestive of progressively impaired reinnervation. This study demonstrates that one of the main limiting factors for nerve regeneration after delayed repair is the distal stump. The critical time point after which the outcome of regeneration becomes too poor appears to be 3-months. PMID:23409189

Jonsson, Samuel; Wiberg, Rebecca; McGrath, Aleksandra M.; Novikov, Lev N.; Wiberg, Mikael; Novikova, Liudmila N.; Kingham, Paul J.

2013-01-01

292

Interleukin-33 treatment reduces secondary injury and improves functional recovery after contusion spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a member of the interleukin-1 cytokine family and highly expressed in the naïve mouse brain and spinal cord. Despite the fact that IL-33 is known to be inducible by various inflammatory stimuli, its cellular localization in the central nervous system and role in pathological conditions is controversial. Administration of recombinant IL-33 has been shown to attenuate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis progression in one study, yet contradictory reports also exist. Here we investigated for the first time the pattern of IL-33 expression in the contused mouse spinal cord and demonstrated that after spinal cord injury (SCI) IL-33 was up-regulated and exhibited a nuclear localization predominantly in astrocytes. Importantly, we found that treatment with recombinant IL-33 alleviated secondary damage by significantly decreasing tissue loss, demyelination and astrogliosis in the contused mouse spinal cord, resulting in dramatically improved functional recovery. We identified both central and peripheral mechanisms of IL-33 action. In spinal cord, IL-33 treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-alpha and promoted the activation of anti-inflammatory arginase-1 positive M2 microglia/macrophages, which chronically persisted in the injured spinal cord for up to at least 42 days after the treatment. In addition, IL-33 treatment showed a tendency towards reduced T-cell infiltration into the spinal cord. In the periphery, IL-33 treatment induced a shift towards the Th2 type cytokine profile and reduced the percentage and absolute number of cytotoxic, tumor necrosis factor-alpha expressing CD4+ cells in the spleen. Additionally, IL-33 treatment increased expression of T-regulatory cell marker FoxP3 and reduced expression of M1 marker iNOS in the spleen. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that IL-33 administration is beneficial after CNS trauma. Treatment with IL33 may offer a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with acute contusion SCI. PMID:25153903

Pomeshchik, Yuriy; Kidin, Iurii; Korhonen, Paula; Savchenko, Ekaterina; Jaronen, Merja; Lehtonen, Sarka; Wojciechowski, Sara; Kanninen, Katja; Koistinaho, Jari; Malm, Tarja

2015-02-01

293

Exercise facilitates the action of dietary DHA on functional recovery after brain trauma.  

PubMed

The abilities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and exercise to counteract cognitive decay after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is getting increasing recognition; however, the possibility that these actions can be complementary remains just as an intriguing possibility. Here we have examined the likelihood that the combination of diet and exercise has the added potential to facilitate functional recovery following TBI. Rats received mild fluid percussion injury (mFPI) or sham injury and then were maintained on a diet high in DHA (1.2% DHA) with or without voluntary exercise for 12days. We found that FPI reduced DHA content in the brain, which was accompanied by increased levels of lipid peroxidation assessed using 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (4-HHE). FPI reduced the enzymes acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (Acox1) and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 (17?-HSD4), and the calcium-independent phospholipases A2 (iPLA2), which are involved in metabolism of membrane phospholipids. FPI reduced levels of syntaxin-3 (STX-3), involved in the action of membrane DHA on synaptic membrane expansion, and also reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through its tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) receptor. These effects of FPI were optimally counteracted by the combination of DHA and exercise. Our results support the possibility that the complementary action of exercise is exerted on restoring membrane homeostasis after TBI, which is necessary for supporting synaptic plasticity and cognition. It is our contention that strategies that take advantage of the combined applications of diet and exercise may have additional effects to the injured brain. PMID:23811071

Wu, A; Ying, Z; Gomez-Pinilla, F

2013-09-17

294

Modeling of Salivary Production Recovery After Radiotherapy Using Mixed Models: Determination of Optimal Dose Constraint for IMRT Planning and Construction of Convenient Tools to Predict Salivary Function  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The mathematical relationship between the dose to the parotid glands and salivary gland production needs to be elucidated. This study, which included data from patients included in a French prospective study assessing the benefit of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (RT), sought to elaborate a convenient and original model of salivary recovery. Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and December 2004, 44 patients were included (35 with oropharyngeal and 9 with nasopharyngeal cancer). Of the 44 patients, 24 were treated with intensity-modulated RT, 17 with three-dimensional conformal RT, and 2 with two-dimensional RT. Stimulated salivary production was collected for {<=}24 months after RT. The data of salivary production, time of follow-up, and dose to parotid gland were modeled using a mixed model. Several models were developed to assess the best-fitting variable for the dose level to the parotid gland. Results: Models developed with the dose to the contralateral parotid fit the data slightly better than those with the dose to both parotids, suggesting that contralateral and ipsilateral parotid glands are not functionally equivalent even with the same dose level to the glands. The best predictive dose-value variable for salivary flow recovery was the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy. Conclusion: The results of this study show that the recommendation of a dose constraint for intensity-modulated RT planning should be established at the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy rather than the mean dose. For complete salivary production recovery after 24 months, the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy should be <33%. Our results permitted us to establish two convenient tools to predict the saliva production recovery function according to the dose received by the contralateral parotid gland.

Ortholan, Cecile [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France)], E-mail: c.ortholan@wanadoo.fr; Chamorey, Emmanuel Phar [Department of Biostatistics, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France); Benezery, Karen; Thariat, Juliette [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France); Dassonville, Olivier; Poissonnet, Gilles; Bozec, Alexandre [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France); Follana, Philippe; Peyrade, Frederique [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France); Sudaka, Anne [Department of Pathology, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France); Gerard, Jean Pierre; Bensadoun, Rene Jean [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France)

2009-01-01

295

The linear-ordered collagen scaffold-BDNF complex significantly promotes functional recovery after completely transected spinal cord injury in canine.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is still a worldwide clinical challenge for which there is no viable therapeutic method. We focused on developing combinatorial methods targeting the complex pathological process of SCI. In this study, we implanted linear-ordered collagen scaffold (LOCS) fibers with collagen binding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by tagging a collagen-binding domain (CBD) (LOCS + CBD-BDNF) in completely transected canine SCI with multisystem rehabilitation to validate its potential therapeutic effect through a long-term (38 weeks) observation. We found that LOCS + CBD-BDNF implants strikingly promoted locomotion and functional sensory recovery, with some dogs standing unassisted and transiently moving. Further histological analysis showed that administration of LOCS + CBD-BDNF reduced lesion volume, decreased collagen deposits, promoted axon regeneration and improved myelination, leading to functional recovery. Collectively, LOCS + CBD-BDNF showed striking therapeutic effect on completely transected canine SCI model and it is the first time to report such breakthrough in the war with SCI. Undoubtedly, it is a potentially promising therapeutic method for SCI paralysis or other movement disorders caused by neurological diseases in the future. PMID:25522968

Han, Sufang; Wang, Bin; Jin, Wei; Xiao, Zhifeng; Li, Xing; Ding, Wenyong; Kapur, Meghan; Chen, Bing; Yuan, Baoyu; Zhu, Tiansheng; Wang, Handong; Wang, Jing; Dong, Qun; Liang, Weibang; Dai, Jianwu

2015-02-01

296

Glial growth factor 2 promotes functional recovery with treatment initiated up to 7 days after permanent focal ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Neuregulins are a family of growth factors essential for normal cardiac and nervous system development. The EGF-like domain of neuregulins contains the active site which binds and activates signaling cascades through ErbB receptors. A neuregulin-1 gene EGF-like fragment demonstrated neuroprotection in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke model and drastically reduced infarct volume (Xu et al., 2004). Here we use a permanent MCAO rat model to initially compare two products of the neuregulin-1 gene and also assess levels of recovery with acute versus delayed time to treatment. In the initial study full-length glial growth factor 2 (GGF2) and an EGF-like domain fragment were compared with acute intravenous delivery. In a second study GGF2 only was delivered starting at 24h, 3 days or 7 days after permanent ischemia was induced. In both studies daily intravenous administration continued for 10 days. Recovery of neurological function was assessed using limb placing and body swing tests. GGF2 had similar functional improvements compared to the EGF-like domain fragment at equimolar doses, and a higher dose of GGF2 demonstrated more robust functional improvements compared to a lower dose. GGF2 improved sensorimotor recovery with all treatment paradigms, even enhancing recovery of function with a delay of 7 days to treatment. Histological assessments did not show any associated reduction in infarct volume at either 48 h or 21 days post-ischemic event. Neurorestorative effects of this kind are of great potential clinical importance, given the difficulty of delivering neuroprotective therapies within a short time after an ischemic event in human patients. If confirmed by additional work including additional data on mechanism(s) of improved outcome with verification in other stroke models, one can make a compelling case to bring GGF2 to clinical trials as a neurorestorative approach to improving outcome following stroke injury. PMID:20691195

Iaci, Jennifer F; Ganguly, Anindita; Finklestein, Seth P; Parry, Tom J; Ren, Jingmei; Saha, Subhash; Sietsma, Dana K; Srinivas, Maya; Vecchione, Andrea M; Caggiano, Anthony O

2010-12-01

297

Comparison of the effects of erythropoietin and anakinra on functional recovery and gene expression in a traumatic brain injury model  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to compare the effects of two inflammatory modulators, erythropoietin (EPO) and anakinra, on functional recovery and brain gene expression following a cortical contusion impact (CCI) injury. Dosage regimens were designed to provide serum concentrations in the range obtained with clinically approved doses. Functional recovery was assessed using both motor and spatial learning tasks and neuropathological measurements conducted in the cortex and hippocampus. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine the effect on gene expression at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days post-CCI. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to evaluate the effect on relevant functional categories. EPO and anakinra treatment resulted in significant changes in brain gene expression in the CCI model demonstrating acceptable brain penetration. At all three time points, EPO treatment resulted in significantly more differentially expressed genes than anakinra. For anakinra at 24 h and EPO at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days, the genes in the top 3 functional categories were involved in cellular movement, inflammatory response and cell-to-cell signaling. For EPO, the majority of the genes in the top 10 canonical pathways identified were associated with inflammatory and immune signaling processes. This was true for anakinra only at 24 h post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). The immunomodulation effects of EPO and anakinra did not translate into positive effects on functional behavioral and lesion studies. Treatment with either EPO or anakinra failed to induce significant beneficial effects on recovery of function or produce any significant effects on the prevention of injury induced tissue loss at 30 days post-injury. In conclusion, treatment with EPO or anakinra resulted in significant effects on gene expression in the brain without affecting functional outcome. This suggests that targeting these inflammatory processes alone may not be sufficient for preventing secondary injuries after TBI. PMID:24151467

Anderson, Gail D.; Peterson, Todd C.; Vonder Haar, Cole; Kantor, Eric D.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Hoane, Michael R.

2013-01-01

298

A fixed point method for homotopic l 0-minimization with application to MR image recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method for highly-undersampled Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) reconstruction is presented. One of the principal challenges faced in clinical MR imaging is the fundamental linear relation between net exam duration and admissible spatial resolution. Increased scan duration diminishes patient comfort while increasing the risk of susceptibility to motion artifact and limits the ability to depict many physiological events at high temporal rates. With the recent development of Compressive Sampling theory, several authors have successfully demonstrated that clinical MR images possessing a sparse representation in some transform domain can be accurately reconstructed even when sampled at rates well below the Nyquist limit by casting the recovery as a convex l I-minimization problem. While l I-based techniques offer a sizeable advantage over Nyquist-limited methods, they nonetheless require a modest degree of over-sampling above the true theoretical minimum sampling rate in order to guarantee the achievability of exact reconstruction. In this work, we present a reconstruction model based on homotopic approximation of the l 0 quasi-norm and discuss the ability of this technique to reconstruct undersampled MR images at rates even lower than are achievable than with l I-minimization and arbitrarily close to the true minimum sampling rate. A semi-implicit numerical solver is presented for efficient numerical computation of the reconstruction process and several examples depicting the capability for accurate MRI reconstructions from highly-undersampled K-space data are presented.

Trzasko, Joshua D.; Manduca, Armando

2008-03-01

299

Germanium recovery from gasification fly ash: evaluation of end-products obtained by precipitation methods.  

PubMed

In this study the purity of the germanium end-products obtained by two different precipitation methods carried out on germanium-bearing solutions was evaluated as a last step of a hydrometallurgy process for the recovery of this valuable element from the Puertollano Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) fly ash. Since H(2)S is produced as a by-product in the gas cleaning system of the Puertollano IGCC plant, precipitation of germanium as GeS(2) was tested by sulfiding the Ge-bearing solutions. The technological and hazardous issues that surround H(2)S handling conducted to investigate a novel precipitation procedure: precipitation as an organic complex by adding 1,2-dihydroxy benzene pyrocatechol (CAT) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to the Ge-bearing solutions. Relatively high purity Ge end-products (90 and 93% hexagonal-GeO(2) purity, respectively) were obtained by precipitating Ge from enriched solutions, as GeS(2) sulfiding the solutions with H(2)S, or as organic complex with CAT/CTAB mixtures and subsequent roasting of the precipitates. Both methods showed high efficiency (>99%) to precipitate selectively Ge using a single precipitation stage from germanium-bearing solutions. PMID:19200657

Arroyo, Fátima; Font, Oriol; Fernández-Pereira, Constantino; Querol, Xavier; Juan, Roberto; Ruiz, Carmen; Coca, Pilar

2009-08-15

300

Single session of brief electrical stimulation immediately following crush injury enhances functional recovery of rat facial nerve.  

PubMed

Peripheral nerve injuries lead to a variety of pathological conditions, including paresis or paralysis when the injury involves motor axons. We have been studying ways to enhance the regeneration of peripheral nerves using daily electrical stimulation (ES) following a facial nerve crush injury. In our previous studies, ES was not initiated until 24 h after injury. The current experiment tested whether ES administered immediately following the crush injury would further decrease the time for complete recovery from facial paralysis. Rats received a unilateral facial nerve crush injury and an electrode was positioned on the nerve proximal to the crush site. Animals received daily 30 min sessions of ES for 1 d (day of injury only), 2 d, 4 d, 7 d, or daily until complete functional recovery. Untreated animals received no ES. Animals were observed daily for the return of facial function. Our findings demonstrated that one session of ES was as effective as daily stimulation at enhancing the recovery of most functional parameters. Therefore, the use of a single 30 min session of ES as a possible treatment strategy should be studied in human patients with paralysis as a result of acute nerve injuries. PMID:22773203

Foecking, Eileen M; Fargo, Keith N; Coughlin, Lisa M; Kim, James T; Marzo, Sam J; Jones, Kathryn J

2012-01-01

301

Comparison of Methods for miRNA Extraction from Plasma and Quantitative Recovery of RNA from Cerebrospinal Fluid  

PubMed Central

Interest in extracellular RNA (exRNA) has intensified as evidence accumulates that these molecules may be useful as indicators of a wide variety of biological conditions. To establish specific exRNA molecules as clinically relevant biomarkers, reproducible recovery from biological samples and reliable measurements of the isolated RNA are paramount. Toward these ends, careful and rigorous comparisons of technical procedures are needed at all steps from sample handling to RNA isolation to RNA measurement protocols. In the investigations described in this methods paper, RT-qPCR was used to examine the apparent recovery of specific endogenous miRNAs and a spiked-in synthetic RNA from blood plasma samples. RNA was isolated using several widely used RNA isolation kits, with or without the addition of glycogen as a carrier. Kits examined included total RNA isolation systems that have been commercially available for several years and commonly adapted for extraction of biofluid RNA, as well as more recently introduced biofluids-specific RNA methods. Our conclusions include the following: some RNA isolation methods appear to be superior to others for the recovery of RNA from biological fluids; addition of a carrier molecule seems to be beneficial for some but not all isolation methods; and quantitative recovery of RNA is observed from increasing volumes of cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:23720669

McAlexander, Melissa A.; Phillips, Maggie J.; Witwer, Kenneth W.

2013-01-01

302

Comparative study of shell swab and shell crush methods for the recovery of Salmonella from shell eggs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Egg associated Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks have been a major cause of foodborne illness in Japan as well as in the United States and several European countries. Researchers have been attempting to develop a rapid and highly sensitive method for the recovery of microorganisms from shell eggs. ...

303

Recovery of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using three sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10, 100, or 1,000 cfu/eggshell of S. Enteritidis...

304

A comparison of results obtained by two different chromium-51 methods of determining platelet survival and recovery  

SciTech Connect

A number of different methods exist that use chromium-51 to determine platelet survival and recovery. A 1986 article in TRANSFUSION described the recommended methods for conducting such studies in the hope of standardizing methodology and permitting interlaboratory comparison of results. The results obtained with the recommended method have been compared with those of our previous method. With the new method, recovery of fresh random-donor platelets prepared in polyolefin bags was 76 +/- 6 percent with a survival of 9.3 +/- 2.8 days (n = 4). After 5 days of storage, these values were 67 +/- 8 percent and 7.8 +/- 1.9 days. Similar values were obtained for fresh and stored platelets collected on automated cell separators. However, when our previous (pre-1986) method of evaluation was used, recovery of fresh platelets in the polyolefin bags was 56 +/- 11 percent, and survival was 8.6 +/- 1.3 days. The 5-day values were 36 +/- 5 percent and 6.9 +/- 2.7 days. These values are significantly lower (p less than 0.05) than those obtained with the newer method, but they are in agreement with those previously reported for other techniques. Thus, the new method consistently gives higher values, possibly as a result of a less harmful labeling procedure.

Rock, G.; Tittley, P. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1990-06-01

305

Effects of hypothermia combined with neural stem cell transplantation on recovery of neurological function in rats with spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

The microenvironment of the injured spinal cord is hypothesized to be involved in driving the differentiation and survival of engrafted neural stem cells (NSCs). Hypothermia is known to improve the microenvironment of the injured spinal cord in a number of ways. To investigate the effect of NSC transplantation in combination with hypothermia on the recovery of rat spinal cord injury, 60 Sprague-Dawley female rats were used to establish a spinal cord hemisection model. They were divided randomly into three groups: A, spinal cord injury group; B, NSC transplantation group; and C, NSC transplantation + hypothermia group. At 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks post-injury, the motor function of all animals was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie and Besnaham locomotor scoring system and the inclined plane test. At 4 weeks post-transplantation, histological analysis and immunocytochemistry were performed. At 8 weeks post-transplantation, horseradish peroxidase nerve tracing and transmission electron microscopy were conducted to observe axonal regeneration. The outcome of hind limb motor function recovery in group C significantly surpassed that in group B at 4 weeks post-injury (P<0.05). Recovery was also observed in group A, but to a lesser degree. For the pathological sections no neural axonal were observed in group A. A few axon-like structures were observed in group B and more in group C. Horseradish peroxidase-labeled neurofibers and bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells were observed in the spinal cords of group C. Fewer of these cells were found in group B and fewer still in group A. The differences among the three groups were significant (P<0.05). Using transmission electron microscopy, newly formed nerve fibers and myelinated nerve fibers were observed in the central transverse plane in groups B and C, although these nerve fibers were not evident in group A. In conclusion, NSC transplantation promoted the recovery of hind limb function in rats, and combination treatment with hypothermia produced synergistic effects. PMID:25385306

WANG, DONG; ZHANG, JIANJUN

2015-01-01

306

Electrical stimulation impairs early functional recovery and accentuates skeletal muscle atrophy after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats.  

PubMed

Neuromuscular recovery after peripheral nerve lesion depends on the regeneration of severed axons that re-establish their functional connection with the denervated muscle. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on the neuromuscular recovery after nerve crush injury in rats. Electrical stimulation was carried out on the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle after sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model. Six ES sessions were administered every other day starting from day 3 postinjury until the end of the experiment (day 14). The sciatic functional index was calculated. Muscle excitability, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) expression, and muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) were accessed from TA muscle. Regenerated sciatic nerves were analyzed by light and confocal microscopy. Both treated (crush+ES) and untreated (crush) groups had their muscle weight and CSA decreased compared with the normal group (P < 0.05). Electrical stimulation accentuated muscle fiber atrophy more in the crush+ES than in the crush group (P < 0.05). N-CAM expression increased in both crush and crush+ES groups compared with the normal group (P < 0.05). Regenerated nerves revealed no difference between the crush and crush+ES groups. Nevertheless, functional recovery at day 14 post-injury was significantly lower in crush+ES group compared with the crush group. In addition, the crush+ES group had chronaxie values significantly higher on days 7 and 13 compared with the crush group, which indicates a decrease in muscle excitability in the crush+ES animals. The results of this study do not support a benefit of the tested protocol of ES during the period of motor nerve recovery following injury. PMID:20405500

Gigo-Benato, Davilene; Russo, Thiago Luiz; Geuna, Stefano; Domingues, Natalia Rezende Santa Rosa; Salvini, Tania Fátima; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

2010-05-01

307

Effects of hypothermia combined with neural stem cell transplantation on recovery of neurological function in rats with spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The microenvironment of the injured spinal cord is hypothesized to be involved in driving the differentiation and survival of engrafted neural stem cells (NSCs). Hypothermia is known to improve the microenvironment of the injured spinal cord in a number of ways. To investigate the effect of NSC transplantation in combination with hypothermia on the recovery of rat spinal cord injury, 60 Sprague?Dawley female rats were used to establish a spinal cord hemisection model. They were divided randomly into three groups: A, spinal cord injury group; B, NSC transplantation group; and C, NSC transplantation + hypothermia group. At 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks post?injury, the motor function of all animals was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie and Besnaham locomotor scoring system and the inclined plane test. At 4 weeks post?transplantation, histological analysis and immunocytochemistry were performed. At 8 weeks post?transplantation, horseradish peroxidase nerve tracing and transmission electron microscopy were conducted to observe axonal regeneration. The outcome of hind limb motor function recovery in group C significantly surpassed that in group B at 4 weeks post?injury (P<0.05). Recovery was also observed in group A, but to a lesser degree. For the pathological sections no neural axonal were observed in group A. A few axon?like structures were observed in group B and more in group C. Horseradish peroxidase?labeled neurofibers and bromodeoxyuridine?positive cells were observed in the spinal cords of group C. Fewer of these cells were found in group B and fewer still in group A. The differences among the three groups were significant (P<0.05). Using transmission electron microscopy, newly formed nerve fibers and myelinated nerve fibers were observed in the central transverse plane in groups B and C, although these nerve fibers were not evident in group A. In conclusion, NSC transplantation promoted the recovery of hind limb function in rats, and combination treatment with hypothermia produced synergistic effects. PMID:25385306

Wang, Dong; Zhang, Jianjun

2015-03-01

308

Methods of Theoretical Physics: II Special Functions. Bessel functions; integral representations; asymptotic expansions.  

E-print Network

; integral repre- sentations; con uent hypergeometric functions. Laplace and Fourier transforms. GibbsMethods of Theoretical Physics: II ABSTRACT Special Functions. Bessel functions; integral representations; asymptotic expansions. Examples of applications in scattering theory. Hypergeometric functions

Pope, Christopher

309

Recovery of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods.  

PubMed

This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using 3 sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10(1), 10(2), or 10(3) cfu/eggshell of Salmonella Enteritidis and allowed to dry at room temperature for 1 or 24 h. For the shell rinse groups, each inoculated egg was rinsed with buffered peptone water. These rinsed eggs were used for the shell crush with previous rinse groups, and each egg was aseptically cracked, the contents discarded, and the eggshell and membranes crushed with buffered peptone water. This same crush procedure was used for the shell crush without previous shell rinse eggs. The recovery of Salmonella 1 h after inoculation for shell rinse sampled eggs was 16% positive at 10(1), 49% at 10(2), and 93% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. For the shell crush with previous shell rinse, sampled egg recovery was 0% positive at 10(1), 3% at 10(2), and 17% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell. For the shell crush, sampled eggs had recovery of 23% positive at 10(1), 69% at 10(2), and 96% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. The recovery of Salmonella 24 h after inoculation for the shell rinse eggs was 3% positive at 10(1), 12% at 10(2), and 22% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; recovery for shell crush with previous shell rinse sampling was 2% positive at 10(1), 8% at 10(2), and 5% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; and for the shell crush sampling recovery was 2% at 10(1), 32% at 10(2), and 42% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. Eggshell crush was a more sensitive (?10 percentage points) sampling method than eggshell rinse at both 1 and 24 h, but both methods were equally optimal when the inoculum was at 10(3) and samples were collected after 1 h. Waiting 24 h after inoculation to sample significantly lowered the recovery for both the shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods by ?40 percentage points. PMID:24931964

Webb, M L; Spickler, J L; Bourassa, D V; Cox, N A; Wilson, J L; Buhr, R J

2014-08-01

310

Saturation-recovery electron paramagnetic resonance discrimination by oxygen transport (DOT) method for characterizing membrane domains.  

PubMed

The discrimination by oxygen transport (DOT) method is a dual-probe saturation-recovery electron paramagnetic resonance approach in which the observable parameter is the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of lipid spin labels, and the measured value is the bimolecular collision rate between molecular oxygen and the nitroxide moiety of spin labels. This method has proven to be extremely sensitive to changes in the local oxygen diffusion-concentration product (around the nitroxide moiety) because of the long T1 of lipid spin labels (1-10 micros) and also because molecular oxygen is a unique probe molecule. Molecular oxygen is paramagnetic, small, and has the appropriate level of hydrophobicity that allows it to partition into various supramolecular structures such as different membrane domains. When located in two different membrane domains, the spin label alone most often cannot differentiate between these domains, giving very similar (indistinguishable) conventional electron paramagnetic resonance spectra and similar T1 values. However, even small differences in lipid packing in these domains will affect oxygen partitioning and oxygen diffusion, which can be easily detected by observing the different T1s from spin labels in these two locations in the presence of molecular oxygen. The DOT method allows one not only to distinguish between the different domains, but also to obtain the value of the oxygen diffusion-concentration product in these domains, which is a useful physical characteristic of the organization of lipids in domains. Profiles of the oxygen diffusion-concentration product (the oxygen transport parameter) in coexisting domains can be obtained in situ without the need for the physical separation of the two domains. Furthermore, under optimal conditions, the exchange rate of spin-labeled molecules between the two domains could be measured. PMID:18214379

Subczynski, Witold K; Widomska, Justyna; Wisniewska, Anna; Kusumi, Akihiro

2007-01-01

311

Effects of Robot-assisted Gait Training Combined with Functional Electrical Stimulation on Recovery of Locomotor Mobility in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of robot-assisted gait training combined with functional electrical stimulation on locomotor recovery in patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects] The 20 subjects were randomly assigned into either an experimental group (n = 10) that received a combination of robot-assisted gait training and functional electrical stimulation on the ankle dorsiflexor of the affected side or a control group (n = 10) that received robot-assisted gait training only. [Methods] Both groups received the respective therapies for 30?min/day, 3 days/week for 5 weeks. The outcome was measured using the Modified Motor Assessment Scale (MMAS), Timed Up-and-Go Test (TUG), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and gait parameters through gait analysis (Vicon 370 motion analysis system, Oxford Metrics Ltd., Oxford, UK). All the variables were measured before and after training. [Results] Step length and maximal knee extension were significantly greater than those before training in the experimental group only. Maximal Knee flexion showed a significant difference between the experimental and control groups. The MMAS, BBS, and TUG scores improved significantly after training compared with before training in both groups. [Conclusion] We suggest that the combination of robot-assisted gait training and functional electrical stimulation encourages patients to actively participate in training because it facilitates locomotor recovery without the risk of adverse effects. PMID:25540505

Bae, Young-Hyeon; Ko, Young Jun; Chang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Ju Hyeok; Lee, Kyeong Bong; Park, Yoo Jung; Ha, Hyun Geun; Kim, Yun-Hee

2014-12-01

312

Incomplete recovery of mechanical and endocrine left atrial functions one month after electrical cardioversion for persistent atrial fibrillation: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Restoration of the mechanical and endocrine functions of the left atrium remains controversial after electrical cardioversion treatment for persistent atrial fibrillation. The objective of the prospective study was to describe the recovery of the endocrine and mechanical functions of the left atrium. Methods Evaluation of left atrium recovery after electrical cardioversion by the new speckle-tracking echocardiography technique and proANP measurement. Results Twenty patients suffering from persistent atrial fibrillation with no alteration of left ventricular ejection fraction were prospectively evaluated at baseline and then one month later by echocardiography, measuring left atrial volume and left atrial deformation (MPALS), as well as the proANP and BNP concentrations. One month after cardioversion 10 patients remained in sinus rhythm and 10 showed recurrent atrial fibrillation. No significant differences between the two groups in terms of clinical, echocardiographic and endocrine parameters were observed at baseline evaluation. We observed a significant reduction of left atrial volume only in the sinus group, whereas restoration of the left atrial deformation was only partial (18%) in that group. By contrast, we registered no significant changes in ANP concentration at one month in either the sinus or the atrial fibrillation groups. Conclusion These results suggest that restoration of left atrium mechanical function is only partial one month after treatment of persistent atrial fibrillation by electrical cardioversion, whereas a significant reduction of left atrial volume was noted, explaining the remaining high level of ANP in the sinus group. PMID:24559296

2014-01-01

313

Effects of Robot-assisted Gait Training Combined with Functional Electrical Stimulation on Recovery of Locomotor Mobility in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of robot-assisted gait training combined with functional electrical stimulation on locomotor recovery in patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects] The 20 subjects were randomly assigned into either an experimental group (n = 10) that received a combination of robot-assisted gait training and functional electrical stimulation on the ankle dorsiflexor of the affected side or a control group (n = 10) that received robot-assisted gait training only. [Methods] Both groups received the respective therapies for 30?min/day, 3 days/week for 5 weeks. The outcome was measured using the Modified Motor Assessment Scale (MMAS), Timed Up-and-Go Test (TUG), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and gait parameters through gait analysis (Vicon 370 motion analysis system, Oxford Metrics Ltd., Oxford, UK). All the variables were measured before and after training. [Results] Step length and maximal knee extension were significantly greater than those before training in the experimental group only. Maximal Knee flexion showed a significant difference between the experimental and control groups. The MMAS, BBS, and TUG scores improved significantly after training compared with before training in both groups. [Conclusion] We suggest that the combination of robot-assisted gait training and functional electrical stimulation encourages patients to actively participate in training because it facilitates locomotor recovery without the risk of adverse effects.

Bae, Young-hyeon; Ko, Young Jun; Chang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Ju Hyeok; Lee, Kyeong Bong; Park, Yoo Jung; Ha, Hyun Geun; Kim, Yun-Hee

2014-01-01

314

Long-term functional recovery after first ischemic stroke: The Northern Manhattan Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Several factors predict functional status after stroke, but most studies have included hospitalized patients with limited follow-up. We hypothesized that ischemic stroke patients experience functional decline over 5 years independent of recurrent stroke and other risk factors. Methods In the population-based Northern Manhattan Study, incident ischemic stroke patients ?40 years were prospectively followed using the Barthel index (BI) at 6 months and annually to 5 years. Baseline stroke severity was categorized as mild (NIH Stroke Scale <6), moderate (6–13), and severe (?14). Follow-up was censored at death, recurrent stroke, or myocardial infarction. Generalized Estimating Equations provided odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for predictors of favorable (BI?95) versus unfavorable (BI<95) functional status, after adjusting for demographic and medical risk factors. Results Of 525 patients, mean age was 68.6±12.4 years, 45.5% were male, 54.7% Hispanic, 54.7% had Medicaid/no insurance, and 35.1% had moderate stroke. The proportion with BI?95 declined over time (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.84–0.99). Changes in BI by insurance status were confirmed by a significant interaction term (? for interaction=?0.167, p=0.034); those with Medicaid/no insurance declined (OR 0.84, p=0.003), whereas those with Medicare/private insurance did not (OR 0.99, p=0.92). Conclusions The proportion of patients with functional independence after stroke declines annually for up to 5 years, and these effects are greatest for those with Medicaid or no health insurance. This decline is independent of age, stroke severity, and other predictors of functional decline, and occurs even among those without recurrent stroke or myocardial infarction. PMID:19556535

Dhamoon, Mandip S.; Moon, Yeseon Park; Paik, Myunghee C.; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.

2010-01-01

315

Enhanced recovery and purification of P(3HB-co-3HHx) from recombinant Cupriavidus necator using alkaline digestion method.  

PubMed

A simple, efficient and economical method for the recovery of P(3HB-co-3HHx) was developed using various chemicals and parameters. The initial content of P(3HB-co-3HHx) in bacterial cells was 50-60 wt%, whereas the monomer composition of 3HHx used in this experiments was 3-5 mol%. It was found that sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was the most effective chemical for the recovery of biodegradable polymer. High polyhydroxyalkanoate purity and recovery yield both in the range of 80-90 wt% were obtained when 10-30 mg/ml of cells were incubated in NaOH at the concentration of 0.1 M for 60-180 min at 30 °C and polished using 20 % (v/v) of ethanol. PMID:22569781

Anis, Siti Nor Syairah; Nurhezreen, M I; Sudesh, K; Amirul, A A

2012-06-01

316

Recovery Discontinuous Galerkin Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov Method for All-Speed Flows  

SciTech Connect

A novel numerical algorithm (rDG-JFNK) for all-speed fluid flows with heat conduction and viscosity is introduced. The rDG-JFNK combines the Discontinuous Galerkin spatial discretization with the implicit Runge-Kutta time integration under the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov framework. We solve fully-compressible Navier-Stokes equations without operator-splitting of hyperbolic, diffusion and reaction terms, which enables fully-coupled high-order temporal discretization. The stability constraint is removed due to the L-stable Explicit, Singly Diagonal Implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) scheme. The governing equations are solved in the conservative form, which allows one to accurately compute shock dynamics, as well as low-speed flows. For spatial discretization, we develop a “recovery” family of DG, exhibiting nearly-spectral accuracy. To precondition the Krylov-based linear solver (GMRES), we developed an “Operator-Split”-(OS) Physics Based Preconditioner (PBP), in which we transform/simplify the fully-coupled system to a sequence of segregated scalar problems, each can be solved efficiently with Multigrid method. Each scalar problem is designed to target/cluster eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix associated with a specific physics.

HyeongKae Park; Robert Nourgaliev; Vincent Mousseau; Dana Knoll

2008-07-01

317

A brief review of methods for terminal functionalization of DNA.  

PubMed

The functionalized DNA has been widely developed and played a more and more important role in life science and material science during last decades. Therefore, methods to effectively endue DNA new functions by modifying DNA have been developed quickly. In this review, we will give an introduction in the methods for covalent terminal functionalization of DNA, including solid-phase functionalization and solution coupling functionalization, mainly on the technical aspect. The application of these functionalized DNA will be also introduced. PMID:24270065

Dong, Yuanchen; Liu, Dongsheng; Yang, Zhongqiang

2014-05-15

318

Survival, regeneration and functional recovery of motoneurons after delayed reimplantation of avulsed spinal root in adult rat.  

PubMed

We have established that extensive reinnervation and functional recovery follow immediate reimplantation of avulsed ventral roots in adult rats. In the present study, we examined the consequences of reimplantation delayed for 2 weeks after avulsion of the C6 spinal root. Twelve and 20 weeks after delayed reimplantation, 57% and 53% of the motoneurons in the injured spinal segment survived. More than 80% of surviving motoneurons regenerated axons into the reimplanted spinal root. Cholinesterase-silver staining revealed axon terminals on endplates in the denervated muscles. The biceps muscles in reimplanted animals had atrophied less than those in animals with avulsion only, as indicated by muscle wet weight and histological appearance. After electrical stimulation of the motor cortex or the C6 spinal root, typical EMG signals were recorded in biceps of reimplanted animals. The latency of the muscle potential at 20 weeks was similar to that of sham-operated controls. Behavioral recovery was demonstrated by a grooming test and ipsilateral forepaw movements were well coordinated in both voluntary and automatic activities. These results demonstrate that ventral root reimplantation can protect severed motoneurons, enable the severed motoneurons to regenerate axons, and enhance the recovery of forelimb function even when it is delayed for 2 weeks after avulsion. PMID:15698622

Gu, Huai-Yu; Chai, Hong; Zhang, Jian-Yi; Yao, Zhi-Bin; Zhou, Li-Hua; Wong, Wai-Man; Bruce, Iain C; Wu, Wu-Tian

2005-03-01

319

Angiotensin II and ischemic preconditioning synergize to improve mitochondrial function while showing additive effects on ventricular postischemic recovery.  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that the cardioprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) against sustained ischemia/reperfusion can be replicated by angiotensin II (Ang II). However, it is not clear whether IPC and Ang II-induced preconditioning (APC) act through similar mechanisms or synergize to enhance cardioprotection. In this study, Langendorff-perfused rat hearts were subjected to IPC, APC, or their combination (IPC/APC) followed by ischemia/reperfusion. IPC, and less potently APC, significantly increased the percent recoveries of the left ventricular developed pressure, the first derivative of developed pressure, and the rate pressure product compared with control. Furthermore, the postischemic recovery of the heart was significantly higher for IPC/APC compared with IPC or APC. The improvements in cardiac function by IPC, APC, and IPC/APC were associated with similar reductions in lactate dehydrogenase release and infarct size. However, a significant improvement in mitochondrial respiration was observed with IPC/APC. The postischemic recovery observed with APC and IPC/APC was inhibited by treatment with losartan, an Ang II type-1 receptor blocker, during the preconditioning phase but not by chelerythrine, a pan-PKC inhibitor. Both drugs, however, abolished the enhanced mitochondrial respiration by IPC/APC. Altogether, these results indicate that APC and IPC interact through mechanisms that enhance cardioprotection by affecting cardiac function and mitochondrial respiration. PMID:24705171

Nuñez, Rebeca E; Castro, Miriam; Javadov, Sabzali; Escobales, Nelson

2014-08-01

320

A fully Galerkin method for the recovery of stiffness and damping parameters in Euler-Bernoulli beam models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fully Sinc-Galerkin method for recovering the spatially varying stiffness and damping parameters in Euler-Bernoulli beam models is presented. The forward problems are discretized with a sinc basis in both the spatial and temporal domains thus yielding an approximate solution which converges exponentially and is valid on the infinite time interval. Hence the method avoids the time-stepping which is characteristic of many of the forward schemes which are used in parameter recovery algorithms. Tikhonov regularization is used to stabilize the resulting inverse problem, and the L-curve method for determining an appropriate value of the regularization parameter is briefly discussed. Numerical examples are given which demonstrate the applicability of the method for both individual and simultaneous recovery of the material parameters.

Smith, R. C.; Bowers, K. L.

1991-01-01

321

Assessing forelimb function after unilateral cervical spinal cord injury: novel forelimb tasks predict lesion severity and recovery.  

PubMed

Cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) can cause devastating neurological deficits, including impairment or loss of upper limb and hand function. Recently there has been increasing interest in cervical spinal cord injury models because the majority of spinal cord injuries are at cervical levels. Here we examined spontaneous functional recovery of adult rats with either laminectomy or lateral hemisection of the cervical spinal cord at C3-C4. Behavioral tests were carried out, including the forelimb locomotor scale (FLS), a postural instability test (PIT), a pasta-handling test that has been used to assess forepaw digit function and latency to eat, forelimb use during vertical-lateral wall exploration in a cylindrical enclosure, and vibrissae-elicited forelimb placing tests. In addition, a forelimb step-alternation test was developed to assess functional recovery at 12 weeks post-injury. All tests detected cSCI-induced deficits relative to laminectomy. Interestingly, the severity of deficits in the forelimb step-alternation test was associated with more extensive spinal damage, greater impairment, and less recovery in the FLS and other tests. For the pasta-handling test we found that rats with a milder cervical injury (alternators) were more likely to use both forepaws together compared to rats with a more severe injury (non-alternators). In addition, using the PIT, we detected enhanced function of the good limb, suggesting that neural plasticity on the unaffected side of the spinal cord may have occurred to compensate for deficits in the impaired forelimb. These outcome measures should be useful for investigating neural events associated with cSCI, and for developing novel treatment strategies. PMID:22022897

Khaing, Zin Z; Geissler, Sydney A; Jiang, Shan; Milman, Brian D; Aguilar, Sandra V; Schmidt, Christine E; Schallert, Timothy

2012-02-10

322

Strength Recovery Following Rhythmic or Sustained Exercise as a Function of Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relative rates of strength recovery subsequent to bouts of rhythmic or sustained isometric exercise were investigated. The 72 undergraduates who served as subjects were tested seven times within the framework of a repeated measures design. Each testing session involved two bouts of either rhythmic or sustained isometric exercise separated by a…

Kearney, Jay T.

323

Integrated modelling of functional and structural connectivity of river corridors for1 European otter recovery2  

E-print Network

otter recovery2 3 K. Van Looy1 , J. Piffady1 , C. Cavillon1 , T. Tormos1,2 , P. Landry3 and Y. Souchon1 measure. With this approach, the European otter colonization of the Loire river30 basin over 25 years reveals the importance of the36 river network density to the otter colonization and locates conservation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

324

Neurovascular recovery via co-transplanted neural and vascular progenitors leads to improved functional restoration after ischemic stroke in rats.  

PubMed

The concept of the "neurovascular unit," emphasizing the interactions between neural and vascular components in the brain, raised the notion that neural progenitor cell (NPC) transplantation therapy aimed at neural repair may be insufficient for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Here, we demonstrate that enhanced neurovascular recovery via cotransplantation of NPCs and embryonic stem cell-derived vascular progenitor cells (VPCs) in a rat stroke model is correlated with improved functional recovery after stroke. We found that cotransplantation promoted the survival, migration, differentiation, and maturation of neuronal and vascular cells derived from the cotransplanted progenitors. Furthermore, it triggered an increased generation of VEGF-, BDNF-, and IGF1-expressing neural cells derived from the grafted NPCs. Consistently, compared with transplantation of NPCs alone, cotransplantation more effectively improved the neurobehavioral deficits and attenuated the infarct volume. Thus, cotransplantation of NPCs and VPCs represents a more effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of stroke than transplantation of NPCs alone. PMID:25068125

Li, Jia; Tang, Yaohui; Wang, Yongting; Tang, Rongbiao; Jiang, Weifang; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Gao, Wei-Qiang

2014-07-01

325

Modelling early recovery patterns after paediatric traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo describe the range of early recovery patterns seen in children admitted for inpatient rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury and to build simple predictive models of expected recovery.Patients103 consecutive paediatric admissions to a neurological rehabilitation facility after closed head injury.MethodsChildren's recoveries were defined by repeated scores on the WeeFIM (a validated paediatric measure of functional independence) assembled into recovery trajectories.

Rob J Forsyth; Cynthia F Salorio; James R Christensen

2010-01-01

326

Protein kinase C-? activation promotes recovery of mitochondrial function and cell survival following oxidant injury in renal cells  

PubMed Central

We demonstrated that nonselective PKC activation promotes mitochondrial function in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC) following toxicant injury. However, the specific PKC isozyme mediating this effect is unknown. This study investigated the role of PKC-? in the recovery of mitochondrial functions in oxidant-injured RPTC. Wild-type PKC-? (wtPKC-?) and inactive PKC-? mutants were overexpressed in RPTC to selectively increase or block PKC-? activation. Oxidant (tert-butyl hydroperoxidel; TBHP) exposure activated PKC-? in RPTC but decreased PKC-? levels in mitochondria following treatment. Uncoupled and state 3 respirations and activities of complexes I and IV in TBHP-injured cells decreased to 55, 44, 49, and 65% of controls, respectively. F0F1-ATPase activity and ATP content in injured RPTC decreased to 59 and 60% of controls, respectively. Oxidant exposure increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by 210% and induced mitochondrial fragmentation and 52% RPTC lysis. Overexpressing wtPKC-? did not block TBHP-induced ROS production but improved respiration and complex I activity, restored complex IV and F0F1-ATPase activities, promoted recovery of ATP content, blocked mitochondrial fragmentation, and reduced RPTC lysis to 14%. In contrast, inhibiting PKC-? 1) induced mitochondrial hyperpolarization and fragmentation; 2) blocked increases in ROS production; 3) prevented recovery of respiratory complexes and F0F1-ATPase activities, respiration, and ATP content; and 4) exacerbated TBHP-induced RPTC lysis. We conclude that 1) activation of PKC-? prevents mitochondrial hyperpolarization and fragmentation, decreases cell death, and promotes recovery of mitochondrial respiration and ATP content following oxidant injury in RPTC; and 2) respiratory complexes I and IV and F0F1-ATPase are targets of active PKC-?. PMID:22674023

Bakajsova, Diana

2012-01-01

327

Maitake beta-glucan promotes recovery of leukocytes and myeloid cell function in peripheral blood from paclitaxel hematotoxicity.  

PubMed

Bone marrow myelotoxicity is a major limitation of chemotherapy. While granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment is effective, alternative approaches to support hematopoietic recovery are sought. We previously found that a beta-glucan extract from maitake mushroom Grifola frondosa (MBG) enhanced colony forming unit-granulocyte monocyte (CFU-GM) activity of mouse bone marrow and human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), stimulated G-CSF production and spared HPC from doxorubicin toxicity in vitro. This investigation assessed the effects of MBG on leukocyte recovery and granulocyte/monocyte function in vivo after dose intensive paclitaxel (Ptx) in a normal mouse. After a cumulative dose of Ptx (90-120 mg/kg) given to B6D2F1mice, daily oral MBG (4 or 6 mg/kg), intravenous G-CSF (80 microg/kg) or Ptx alone were compared for effects on the dynamics of leukocyte recovery in blood, CFU-GM activity in bone marrow and spleen, and granulocyte/monocyte production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Leukocyte counts declined less in Ptx + MBG mice compared to Ptx-alone (p = 0.024) or Ptx + G-CSF treatment (p = 0.031). Lymphocyte levels were higher after Ptx + MBG but not Ptx + G-CSF treatment compared to Ptx alone (p < 0.01). MBG increased CFU-GM activity in bone marrow and spleen (p < 0.001, p = 0.002) 2 days after Ptx. After two additional days (Ptx post-day 4), MBG restored granulocyte/monocyte ROS response to normal levels compared to Ptx-alone and increased ROS response compared to Ptx-alone or Ptx + G-CSF (p < 0.01, both). The studies indicate that oral MBG promoted maturation of HPC to become functionally active myeloid cells and enhanced peripheral blood leukocyte recovery after chemotoxic bone marrow injury. PMID:20140432

Lin, Hong; de Stanchina, Elisa; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Hong, Feng; Seidman, Andrew; Fornier, Monica; Xiao, Wei-Lie; Kennelly, Edward J; Wesa, Kathleen; Cassileth, Barrie R; Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna

2010-06-01

328

Maitake beta-glucan promotes recovery of leukocytes and myeloid cell function in peripheral blood from paclitaxel hematotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow myelotoxicity is a major limitation of chemotherapy. While granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment is effective, alternative approaches to support hematopoietic recovery are sought. We previously found that a beta-glucan extract from maitake mushroom Grifola frondosa (MBG) enhanced colony forming unit-granulocyte monocyte (CFU-GM) activity of mouse bone marrow and human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), stimulated G-CSF production and spared HPC from doxorubicin toxicity in vitro. This investigation assessed the effects of MBG on leukocyte recovery and granulocyte/monocyte function in vivo after dose intensive paclitaxel (Ptx) in a normal mouse. After a cumulative dose of Ptx (90–120 mg/kg) given to B6D2F1 mice, daily oral MBG (4 or 6 mg/kg), intravenous G-CSF (80 ?g/kg) or Ptx alone were compared for effects on the dynamics of leukocyte recovery in blood, CFU-GM activity in bone marrow and spleen, and granulocyte/monocyte production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Leukocyte counts declined less in Ptx + MBG mice compared to Ptx-alone (p = 0.024) or Ptx + G-CSF treatment (p = 0.031). Lymphocyte levels were higher after Ptx + MBG but not Ptx + G-CSF treatment compared to Ptx alone (p < 0.01). MBG increased CFU-GM activity in bone marrow and spleen (p < 0.001, p = 0.002) 2 days after Ptx. After two additional days (Ptx post-day 4), MBG restored granulocyte/monocyte ROS response to normal levels compared to Ptx-alone and increased ROS response compared to Ptx-alone or Ptx + G-CSF (p < 0.01, both). The studies indicate that oral MBG promoted maturation of HPC to become functionally active myeloid cells and enhanced peripheral blood leukocyte recovery after chemotoxic bone marrow injury. PMID:20140432

Lin, Hong; de Stanchina, Elisa; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Hong, Feng; Seidman, Andrew; Fornier, Monica; Xiao, Wei-Lie; Kennelly, Edward J.; Wesa, Kathleen; Cassileth, Barrie R.

2011-01-01

329

Transforming mental health services: a participatory mixed methods study to promote and evaluate the implementation of recovery-oriented services.  

PubMed

BackgroundSince 2007, the Mental Health Commission of Canada has worked collaboratively across all provinces to publish a framework and strategy for recovery and well-being. This federal document is now mandated as policy for implementation between 2012 and 2017. The proposed strategies have been written into provincial health plans, hospital accreditation standards, and annual objectives of psychiatric departments and community organizations. The core premise is: to empower persons with mental illness and their families to become participants in designing their own care, while meeting the needs of a diverse Canadian population. However, recovery principles do not come with an implementation guide to fit the variability of different local contexts. How can policy recommendations and accreditation standards be effectively tailored to support a diversity of stakeholder values? To our knowledge, there is little evidence indicating the most effective manner to accelerate the uptake of recovery-oriented services among providers in a given/particular mental health treatment setting.Methods/DesignThis three-year Canadian Institute of Health Research Partnership in Health System Improvement and The Rx&D Health Research Foundation (HRF) Fostering Canadian Innovation in Research study (2013 to 2017) proposed participatory approaches to implementing recovery principles in a department of psychiatry serving a highly diverse Canadian and immigrant population. This project will be conducted in overlapping and recursive phases: I) Conduct formative research to (a) measure the current knowledge and attitudes toward recovery and recovery-oriented practices among service providers, while concurrently (b) exploring the experiential knowledge of recovery of service-users and family members; II) Collaborate with service-users and the network-identified opinion leaders among providers to tailor Recovery-in-Action Initiatives to fit the needs and resources of a Department of Psychiatry; and III) Conduct a systematic theory-based evaluation of changes in attitudes and practices within the service-user/service-provider partnership group relative to the overall provider network of the department and identify the barriers and supports within the local context.DiscussionOur anticipated outcome is a participatory toolkit to tailor recovery-oriented services, which will be disseminated to the Mental Health Commission of Canada and Accreditation Canada at the federal level, agencies at the provincial levels, and local end-of-knowledge users. PMID:25204812

Park, Melissa M; Zafran, Hiba; Stewart, Janet; Salsberg, Jon; Ells, Carolyn; Rouleau, Suzanne; Estein, Orly; Valente, Thomas W

2014-09-10

330

Vcsa1 Acts as a Marker of Erectile Function Recovery After Gene Therapeutic and Pharmacological Interventions  

PubMed Central

Purpose We identified molecular markers of erectile function, particularly those responding to erectile dysfunction treatment. Materials and Methods Sprague-Dawley retired breeder rats were intracorporeally injected with pVAX-hSlo, pSMAA-hSlo or the control plasmid pVAX. One week later the intracorporeal pressure-to-blood pressure ratio and gene expression were determined by microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Rat corporeal cells were transfected in vitro with pVAX-hSlo, pSMAA-hSlo or pVAX and the change in gene expression was determined. We also determined whether Vcsa1 expression was changed after pharmacotherapy using tadalafil. Results Animals treated with vectors expressing hSlo had significantly improved erectile function compared to that in controls, accompanied by changed expression of a subset of genes. Vcsa1 was one of the genes that was most changed in expression (the third of approximately 31,000 with greater than 10-fold up-regulation). Changes in gene expression were different than those observed in corporeal cells transfected in vitro, distinguishing gene expression changes that were a direct effect of hSlo over expression. When tadalafil was administered in retired breeder rats, the Vcsa1 transcript increased 4-fold in corporeal tissue compared to that in untreated controls. Conclusions Our study identifies a set of genes that are changed in response to improved erectile function, rather than as a direct effect of treatment. We noted Vcsa1 may act as marker of the restoration of erectile function after gene transfer and pharmacotherapy. PMID:19375734

Calenda, Giulia; Tong, Yuehong; Tar, Moses; Lowe, Daniel; Siragusa, Joseph; Melman, Arnold; Davies, Kelvin P.

2010-01-01

331

Low-Dose Candesartan Enhances Molecular Mediators of Neuroplasticity and Subsequent Functional Recovery After Ischemic Stroke in Rats.  

PubMed

We have previously reported that angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockade with candesartan exerts neurovascular protection after experimental cerebral ischemia. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a low, subhypotensive dose of candesartan enhances neuroplasticity and subsequent functional recovery through enhanced neurotrophic factor expression in rats subjected to ischemia reperfusion injury. Male Wistar rats (290-300 g) underwent 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and received candesartan (0.3 mg/kg) or saline at reperfusion and then once every 24 h for 7 days. Functional deficits were assessed in a blinded manner at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after MCAO. Animals were sacrificed 14-day post-stroke and the brains perfused for infarct size by cresyl violet. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the expression of growth factors and synaptic proteins. Candesartan-treated animals showed a significant reduction in the infarct size [t (13)?=?-5.5, P?=?0.0001] accompanied by functional recovery in Bederson [F (1, 13)?=?7.9, P?=?0.015], beam walk [F (1, 13)?=?6.7, P?=?0.023], grip strength [F (1, 13)?=?15.2, P?=?0.0031], and rotarod performance [F (1, 14)?=?29.8, P?functional recovery after ischemic stroke. PMID:25084762

Ishrat, Tauheed; Pillai, Bindu; Soliman, Sahar; Fouda, Abdelrahman Y; Kozak, Anna; Johnson, Maribeth H; Ergul, Adviye; Fagan, Susan C

2014-08-01

332

Assessing the recovery of functional diversity after sustained sediment screening at an aggregate dredging site in the North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of dredging the seabed for aggregate on benthic functional diversity were assessed using a suite of suitable indices on a recovering macrofaunal assemblage. Recovery was assessed as the return of a dredged assemblage to a state found in neighbouring undisturbed (reference) sites. In situ sediment screening was permitted during dredging operations; a difference in the sedimentary profile of the seabed between dredged and undisturbed reference sites was also observed. At sites of relatively high and low dredging intensity the sediment appeared more homogenous than reference sites after the selective removal of the coarser component. Initial assessment of the macrofaunal assemblage using univariate analytical techniques suggested a recovery of functional diversity at the low dredging intensity site after two years (according to the Infaunal Trophic Index, Taxonomic Distinctness index and Rao's Quadratic Entropy coefficient). However, multivariate analyses of the same data and of all indices except Taxonomic Distinctness indicated that assemblages at both high and low dredging intensity sites remained statistically indistinguishable from each other yet markedly different to the assemblage present in the reference area during the four-year study. The study concluded that recovery of functional diversity to a level found in a neighbouring undredged habitat had not occurred at either dredged site five years after the cessation of dredging. It is thought that the damage by dredging to functional diversity and to the capacity of the macrofaunal assemblage to recover is immediate and not so dependent on dredging intensity. The cumulative and wider ranging effects of sediment screening cannot be ignored or dismissed as a contributing factor to the similarities observed. The wider significance of these findings on the regulation of dredging activities is discussed.

Barrio Froján, Christopher R. S.; Cooper, Keith M.; Bremner, Julie; Defew, Emma C.; Wan Hussin, Wan M. R.; Paterson, David M.

2011-05-01

333

Neurogenesis of Retinal Ganglion Cells Is Not Essential to Visual Functional Recovery after Optic Nerve Injury in Adult Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Zebrafish central nervous system (CNS) possesses a strong neural regeneration ability to restore visual function completely after optic nerve injury (ONI). However, whether neurogenesis of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) contributes to functional recovery remains controversial. Our quantitative analysis of RGCs in different ONI models showed that almost all RGCs survived in optic nerve crush (ONC) model; while over 90% of RGCs survived in the first 2 weeks with 75% remaining after 7 weeks in optic nerve transection (ONT) model. Retrograde labeling from tectum revealed a surprising regeneration rate, with over 90% and over 50% of RGCs regrowing axons to tectum at the first week in ONC and ONT model respectively. In the latter one, the number of regenerative RGCs after 4 weeks had no significant difference from the control group. As for neurogenesis, newborn RGCs were rarely detected either by double retrograde labeling or BrdU marker. Since few RGCs died, microglia number showed a temporary increase at 3 days post injury (dpi) and a decrease at 14 dpi. Finally, myelin structure within retina kept integrity and optomotor response (OMR) test demonstrated visual functional restoration at 5 weeks post injury (wpi). In conclusion, our results have directly shown that RGC survival and axon regrowth are responsible for functional recovery after ONI in adult zebrafish. PMID:23437359

Zou, Suqi; Tian, Chen; Ge, Shuchao; Hu, Bing

2013-01-01

334

Differential recovery of behavioral status and brain function assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging after mild traumatic brain injury in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The relationship between cerebral integrity, recovery of brain function, and neurologic status after mild traumatic brain injury is incompletely characterized.\\u000aDESIGN: Prospective and randomized study in rodents.\\u000aSETTING: University laboratory.\\u000aSUBJECTS: Male Wistar rats (290-310 g).\\u000aINTERVENTIONS: In rats, quantitative diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion weighted imaging (PWI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were performed

Nils Henninger; Kenneth M. Sicard; Zhixin Li; Praveen P. Kulkarni; Stephan Dutzmann; Christian Urbanek; Stefan Schwab; Marc Fisher

2007-01-01

335

Selective recovery of molybdenum from spent HDS catalyst using oxidative soda ash leach/carbon adsorption method.  

PubMed

The petroleum refining industry makes extensive use of hydroprocessing catalysts. These catalysts contain environmentally critical and economically valuable metals such as Mo, V, Ni and Co. In the present study, a simple hydrometallurgical processing of spent hydrodesulphurization (HDS) catalyst for the recovery of molybdenum using sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide mixture was investigated. Recovery of molybdenum was largely dependent on the concentrations of Na2CO3 and H2O2 in the reaction medium, which in turn controls the pH of leach liquor and the presence of Al and Ni as impurities. Under the optimum leaching conditions (40 g L(-1) Na2CO3, 6 vol.% H2O2, room temperature, 1h) about 85% recovery of Mo was achieved. The leach liquor was processed by the carbon adsorption method, which selectively adsorbs Mo at pH around 0.75. Desorption of Mo was selective at 15 vol.% NH4OH. With a single stage contact, it was found possible to achieve >99%, adsorption and desorption efficiency. Using this method, recovery of molybdenum as MoO3 product of 99.4% purity was achieved. PMID:16860466

Park, Kyung Ho; Mohapatra, D; Reddy, B Ramachandra

2006-11-16

336

Identification of potential sites for aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) in coastal areas using ASR performance estimation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance of freshwater aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) systems in brackish or saline aquifers is negatively affected by lateral flow, density effects, and/or dispersive mixing, causing ambient groundwater to enter ASR wells during recovery. Two recently published ASR performance estimation methods are applied in a Dutch coastal area, characterized by brackish-to-saline groundwater and locally high lateral-flow velocities. ASR performance of existing systems in the study area show good agreement with the predicted performance using the two methods, provided that local vertical anisotropy ratios are limited (<3). Deviations between actual and predicted ASR performance may originate from simplifications in the conceptual model and uncertainties in the hydrogeological and hydrochemical input. As the estimation methods prove suitable to predict ASR performance, feasibility maps are generated for different scales of ASR to identify favorable ASR sites. Successful small-to-medium-scale ASR varies spatially in the study area, emphasizing the relevance of reliable a priori spatial mapping.

Zuurbier, Koen G.; Bakker, Mark; Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan; Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

2013-09-01

337

Green's function methods in heavy ion shielding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytic solution to the heavy ion transport in terms of Green's function is used to generate a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of the computer code is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique extending Green's function over the solution domain. The computer code can also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments.

Wilson, John W.; Costen, Robert C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Badavi, Francis F.

1993-01-01

338

Green's function methods in heavy ion shielding  

SciTech Connect

An analytic solution to the heavy ion transport in terms of Green's function is used to generate a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of the computer code is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique extending Green's function over the solution domain. The computer code can also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments.

Wilson, J.W.; Costen, R.C.; Shinn, J.L.; Badavi, F.F.

1993-03-01

339

Superiority of C-11 acetate compared with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose in predicting myocardial functional recovery by positron emission tomography in patients with acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In patients with chronic coronary artery disease, preservation of myocardial oxidative metabolism measured by positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-acetate is a more accurate predictor of subsequent myocardial functional recovery than is maintenance of glucose metabolism estimated with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. However, whether measurements of myocardial oxidative metabolism are more accurate than measurements of glucose metabolism in predicting functional recovery in patients

Patricia J. Rubin; Dong Soo Lee; Víctor G. Dávila-Román; Edward M. Geltman; Kenneth B. Schechtman; Steven R. Bergmann; Robert J. Gropler

1996-01-01

340

Targeting mitochondrial oxidants may facilitate recovery of renal function during infant sepsis  

PubMed Central

Sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (SAKI) is a frequent complication of infant sepsis that approximately doubles the mortality rate. The poor prognosis of these patients is a result of care that is mainly supportive, nontargeted, and usually begun only after symptoms of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome are observed. Preclinical studies from relevant rodent models of SAKI suggest that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants may be a new mode of therapy that could promote recovery. PMID:25148376

Sims, CR; MacMillan-Crow, LA; Mayeux, PR

2014-01-01

341

Targeting mitochondrial oxidants may facilitate recovery of renal function during infant sepsis.  

PubMed

Sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (SAKI) is a frequent complication of infant sepsis that approximately doubles the mortality rate. The poor prognosis of these patients is a result of care that is mainly supportive, nontargeted, and usually begun only after symptoms of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome are observed. Preclinical studies from relevant rodent models of SAKI suggest that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants may be a new mode of therapy that could promote recovery. PMID:25148376

Sims, C R; MacMillan-Crow, L A; Mayeux, P R

2014-12-01

342

Early preservation of mitochondrial bioenergetics supports both structural and functional recovery after neurotrauma.  

PubMed

N-acetylcysteine, a precursor to the potent antioxidant glutathione, has been investigated as a potential therapeutic agent for several decades; however, inconsistent efficacy has been reported for diseases of the central nervous system, postulated to result from restricted passage of this molecule across the blood-brain/spinal cord barriers and cellular membranes, resulting in low bioavailability. The amide form of N-acetylcysteine (NACA) overcomes these limitations while maintaining a high antioxidant potential, and shows promise for combating secondary pathogenesis attributed to oxidative stress. Neurotrauma precipitates a rapid and prolonged disruption of mitochondrial bioenergetics, whereby the production of reactive oxygen species overwhelms the endogenous antioxidant capacity of the cells. Two noteworthy papers from collaborative teams have recently been published in Experimental Neurology, in which NACA was applied to rodent models of traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, respectively. Using sensitive methods to measure respiratory rates in isolated mitochondrial populations, treatment with NACA was shown to maintain mitochondrial function and boost antioxidant reserves, which corresponded with improvements in structural and functional outcomes in both studies. This commentary aims to highlight key findings from this research in a broader context, with an emphasis on methodological advances, future research possibilities, and potential applicability to brain and/or spinal cord injured patients. PMID:25079371

Semple, Bridgette D

2014-11-01

343

A novel technology for biosorption and recovery hexavalent chromium in wastewater by bio-functional magnetic beads.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to develop an applied technique for the removal and recovery of heavy metal in wastewater. It is novel that the Cr(VI) could be adsorbed and recovered by bio-functional magnetic beads. Furthermore, the magnetic separation technology would make their separation more convenient. The beads were constituted by the powder of Rhizopus cohnii and Fe(3)O(4) particles coated with alginate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The parameters effecting Cr(VI) removal were obtained: the optimum pH 1.0 and optimum temperature 28 degrees C. The biosorption took place mainly in form of Cr(VI) and R. cohnii biomass played a key role in Cr(VI) adsorption. The model of Langmuir isotherm and Lagergren could be better used to fit the sorption process and kinetics, respectively. The beads still maintained predominant characteristics of adsorption, recovery and magnetism after five cycles for adsorption-desorption. The mechanism of adsorption was gained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), raman spectroscopy (RS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The groups of -NH(3)(+), -NH(2)(+)-, and NH- played an important role in the Cr(VI) adsorption. Consequently, the beads exhibited the superior performances in Cr(VI) cleanup, separation and recovery and the perspective potential in application. PMID:18221868

Li, Huidong; Li, Zhao; Liu, Ting; Xiao, Xiao; Peng, Zhihui; Deng, Le

2008-09-01

344

Basic concepts of activity-based interventions for improved recovery of motor function after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition that affects a large number of individuals. Historically, the recovery process after an SCI has been slow and with limited success. Recently, a number of advances have been made in the strategies used for rehabilitation, resulting in marked improved recovery, even after a complete SCI. Several rehabilitative interventions, that is, assisted motor training, spinal cord epidural stimulation, and/or administration of pharmacologic agents, alone or in combination, have produced remarkable recovery in motor function in both humans and animals. The success with each of these interventions appears to be related to the fact that the spinal cord is smart, in that it can use ensembles of sensory information to generate appropriate motor responses without input from supraspinal centers, a property commonly referred to as central pattern generation. This ability of the spinal cord reflects a level of automaticity, that is, the ability of the neural circuitry of the spinal cord to interpret complex sensory information and to make appropriate decisions to generate successful postural and locomotor tasks. Herein, we provide a brief review of some of the neurophysiologic rationale for the success of these interventions. PMID:22920448

Roy, Roland R; Harkema, Susan J; Edgerton, V Reggie

2012-09-01

345

Recovery of hand function with robot-assisted therapy in acute stroke patients: a randomized-controlled trial.  

PubMed

In the last few years, not many studies on the use of robot-assisted therapy to recover hand function in acute stroke patients have been carried out. This randomized-controlled observer trial is aimed at evaluating the effects of intensive robot-assisted hand therapy compared with intensive occupational therapy in the early recovery phases after stroke with a 3-month follow-up. Twenty acute stroke patients at their first-ever stroke were enrolled and randomized into two groups. The experimental treatment was performed using the Amadeo Robotic System. Control treatment, instead, was carried out using occupational therapy executed by a trained physiotherapist. All participants received 20 sessions of treatment for 4 consecutive weeks (5 days/week). The following clinical scales, Fugl-Meyer Scale (FM), Medical Research Council Scale for Muscle Strength (hand flexor and extensor muscles) (MRC), Motricity Index (MI) and modified Ashworth Scale for wrist and hand muscles (MAS), were performed at baseline (T0), after 20 sessions (end of treatment) (T1) and at the 3-month follow-up (T2). The Barthel Index was assessed only at T0 and T1. Evidence of a significant improvement was shown by the Friedman test for the FM [experimental group (EG): P=0.0039, control group (CG): P<0.0001], Box and Block Test (EG: P=0.0185, CG: P=0.0086), MI (EG: P<0.0001, CG: P=0.0303) and MRC (EG: P<0.0001, CG: P=0.001) scales. These results provide further support to the generalized therapeutic impact of intensive robot-assisted treatment on hand recovery functions in individuals with acute stroke. The robotic rehabilitation treatment may contribute toward the recovery of hand motor function in acute stroke patients. The positive results obtained through the safe and reliable robotic rehabilitation treatment reinforce the recommendation to extend it to a larger clinical practice. PMID:24769557

Sale, Patrizio; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Lombardi, Valentina; Galafate, Daniele; Massimiani, Maria P; Posteraro, Federico; Damiani, Carlo; Franceschini, Marco

2014-09-01

346

Effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on functional and strength recovery of handgrip in patients affected by epicondylitis.  

PubMed

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is effective in the treatment of tendinopathy. We designed a prospective observational clinical study to assess the correlation between clinical and functional measures and recovery of strength after ESWT for epicondylitis. We analyzed 26 patients. We measured progressive improvement in visual analogue scale values (p < 0.0005) and Mayo Elbow Performance Index scores (p = 0.004) for the pathologic limb. Monitoring of handgrip failed to reveal changes in values at any follow-up (p > 0.05). We found no correlation between degree of clinical function and muscle deficit during follow-up. After ESWT, there was a tendency toward a decrease in grip strength, especially in the dominant limb. This could be related to the effects of ESWT, which reduces spasticity in painful hypertonic muscles. These data may be useful in defining the expectations for function during ESWT for epicondylitis, particularly for elite athletes. PMID:25308950

Notarnicola, Angela; Quagliarella, Livio; Sasanelli, Nicola; Maccagnano, Giuseppe; Fracella, Maria Rosaria; Forcignanò, Maria Immacolata; Moretti, Biagio

2014-12-01

347

Thromboembolism as a Cause of Renal Artery Occlusion and Acute Kidney Injury: The Recovery of Kidney Function after Two Weeks  

PubMed Central

Thromboembolic occlusion is a rare cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). It may lead to permanent loss of renal function. Our patient, who had dilated cardiomyopathy and prosthetic aortic valve, presented with AKI due to thromboembolic arterial occlusion of a solitary functioning kidney. After 2 weeks delay, local intra-arterial thrombolytic treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator was performed without sufficient effect. However, a subsequent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting was successful. Diuresis began immediately, and renal function was fully recovered after 2 weeks. Although there had been no evident arterial circulation in the kidney, we think that minor flow through subtotal occlusion of the main renal artery made the hibernation of kidney tissue possible and contributed to the recovery. Thus, even after prolonged ischemia, revascularization can be useful. PMID:24847350

Koivuviita, Niina; Tertti, Risto; Heiro, Maija; Manner, Ilkka; Metsärinne, Kaj

2014-01-01

348

Forward-masking recovery and the assumptions of the temporal masking curve method of inferring cochlear compression.  

PubMed

The temporal masking curve (TMC) method is a behavioral technique for inferring human cochlear compression. The method relies on the assumptions that in the absence of compression, forward-masking recovery is independent of masker level and probe frequency. The present study aimed at testing the validity of these assumptions. Masking recovery was investigated for eight listeners with sensorineural hearing loss carefully selected to have absent or nearly absent distortion product otoacoustic emissions. It is assumed that for these listeners basilar membrane responses are linear, hence that masking recovery is independent of basilar membrane compression. TMCs for probe frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6?kHz were available for these listeners from a previous study. The dataset included TMCs for masker frequencies equal to the probe frequencies plus reference TMCs measured using a high-frequency probe and a low, off-frequency masker. All of the TMCs were fitted using linear regression, and the resulting slope and intercept values were taken as indicative of masking recovery and masker level, respectively. Results for on-frequency TMCs suggest that forward-masking recovery is generally independent of probe frequency and of masker level and hence that it would be reasonable to use a reference TMC for a high-frequency probe to infer cochlear compression at lower frequencies. Results further show, however, that reference TMCs were sometimes shallower than corresponding on-frequency TMCs for identical probe frequencies, hence that compression could be overestimated in these cases. We discuss possible reasons for this result and the conditions when it might occur. PMID:25534365

Pérez-González, Patricia; Johannesen, Peter T; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A

2014-01-01

349

Forward-Masking Recovery and the Assumptions of the Temporal Masking Curve Method of Inferring Cochlear Compression  

PubMed Central

The temporal masking curve (TMC) method is a behavioral technique for inferring human cochlear compression. The method relies on the assumptions that in the absence of compression, forward-masking recovery is independent of masker level and probe frequency. The present study aimed at testing the validity of these assumptions. Masking recovery was investigated for eight listeners with sensorineural hearing loss carefully selected to have absent or nearly absent distortion product otoacoustic emissions. It is assumed that for these listeners basilar membrane responses are linear, hence that masking recovery is independent of basilar membrane compression. TMCs for probe frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6?kHz were available for these listeners from a previous study. The dataset included TMCs for masker frequencies equal to the probe frequencies plus reference TMCs measured using a high-frequency probe and a low, off-frequency masker. All of the TMCs were fitted using linear regression, and the resulting slope and intercept values were taken as indicative of masking recovery and masker level, respectively. Results for on-frequency TMCs suggest that forward-masking recovery is generally independent of probe frequency and of masker level and hence that it would be reasonable to use a reference TMC for a high-frequency probe to infer cochlear compression at lower frequencies. Results further show, however, that reference TMCs were sometimes shallower than corresponding on-frequency TMCs for identical probe frequencies, hence that compression could be overestimated in these cases. We discuss possible reasons for this result and the conditions when it might occur. PMID:25534365

Pérez-González, Patricia; Johannesen, Peter T.

2014-01-01

350

Protection of ovarian function by two distinct methods of ovarian shielding for young female patients who receive total body irradiation.  

PubMed

To prevent ovarian dysfunction due to total body irradiation, we started ovarian shielding at our center (Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University (SMC-JMU)) with a long source axis distance, which is different from the original method used at the University of Tokyo Hospital (UTH). We retrospectively analyzed the outcome of eight patients with a median age of 20.5 years from SMC-JMU and compared the results with the published data for eight patients with a median age of 22 years from UTH. The recovery of ovarian function was observed in five and six patients, respectively. The cumulative incidence of ovarian recovery, while treating relapse and death without ovarian recovery as competing risks, was 68.8 % at 2 years after transplantation in the total population, and there was no statistically significant difference between the two institutions (p?=?0.85). Age and the history of previous chemotherapy did not affect the incidence of ovarian recovery. Two patients from each center had a relapse of leukemia. Overall, among the 11 patients who have survived without relapse, only one has not achieved ovarian recovery. In conclusion, ovarian shielding with both methods strongly protected ovarian function. However, we should continue to monitor the relapse rate among patients who undergo this procedure. PMID:23892927

Kanda, Yoshinobu; Wada, Hidenori; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Kawamura, Koji; Ishihara, Yuko; Sakamoto, Kana; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Sato, Miki; Machishima, Tomohito; Terasako-Saito, Kiriko; Kimura, Shun-Ichi; Nakasone, Hideki; Kikuchi, Misato; Yamazaki, Rie; Kanda, Junya; Kako, Shinichi; Nishida, Junji; Tsunoda, Hidekazu; Omori, Yoshio; Nakazawa, Masanori; Tanaka, Osamu

2014-02-01

351

Methods for assisting recovery of damaged brain and spinal cord using arrays of X-Ray microplanar beams  

DOEpatents

A method of assisting recovery of an injury site of brain or spinal cord injury includes providing a therapeutic dose of X-ray radiation to the injury site through an array of parallel microplanar beams. The dose at least temporarily removes regeneration inhibitors from the irradiated regions. Substantially unirradiated cells surviving between the microplanar beams migrate to the in-beam irradiated portion and assist in recovery. The dose may be administered in dose fractions over several sessions, separated in time, using angle-variable intersecting microbeam arrays (AVIMA). Additional doses may be administered by varying the orientation of the microplanar beams. The method may be enhanced by injecting stem cells into the injury site.

Dilmanian, F. Avraham (Yaphank, NY); McDonald, III, John W. (Baltimore, MD)

2007-12-04

352

Quantitative Evaluation of E1 Endoglucanase Recovery from Tobacco Leaves Using the Vacuum Infiltration-Centrifugation Method  

PubMed Central

As a production platform for recombinant proteins, plant leaf tissue has many advantages, but commercialization of this technology has been hindered by high recovery and purification costs. Vacuum infiltration-centrifugation (VI-C) is a technique to obtain extracellularly-targeted products from the apoplast wash fluid (AWF). Because of its selective recovery of secreted proteins without homogenizing the whole tissue, VI-C can potentially reduce downstream production costs. Lab scale experiments were conducted to quantitatively evaluate the VI-C method and compared to homogenization techniques in terms of product purity, concentration, and other desirable characteristics. From agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, up to 81% of a truncated version of E1 endoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus was recovered with VI-C versus homogenate extraction, and average purity and concentration increases of 4.2-fold and 3.1-fold, respectively, were observed. Formulas were developed to predict recovery yields of secreted protein obtained by performing multiple rounds of VI-C on the same leaf tissue. From this, it was determined that three rounds of VI-C recovered 97% of the total active recombinant protein accessible to the VI-C procedure. The results suggest that AWF recovery is an efficient process that could reduce downstream processing steps and costs for plant-made recombinant proteins. PMID:24971334

Kingsbury, Nathaniel J.; McDonald, Karen A.

2014-01-01

353

Method of applying sanitizers and sample preparation affects recovery of native microflora and Salmonella on whole cantaloupe surfaces.  

PubMed

Standardized methods for applying sanitizer treatments to cantaloupes and for recovering surviving native microflora or Salmonella on inoculated cantaloupe after sanitizing are lacking. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to compare four methods for applying sanitizers (dipping, dipping with rotation, dipping with agitation, and dipping with rubbing) using 200 ppm of chlorine or 5% H2O2, two recovery methods (homogenization of rind plugs in a stomacher or blender), and five selective recovery media for Salmonella. Whole cantaloupes were submerged in a cocktail of five strains of Salmonella (each at approximately 2 x 10(8) CFU/ml) for 10 min and allowed to dry for 1 h inside a biosafety cabinet and stored at 20 degrees C for approximately 23 h before sanitizing. The recovery of Salmonella from whole cantaloupe without sanitizing averaged 5.09 log CFU/cm2 by blending and 4.30 log CFU/cm2 by homogenization in a stomacher for the five selective agar media. Microbial populations (Salmonella or the indigenous aerobic mesophilic bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., and yeast and mold) were not significantly (P > 0.05) reduced by treating with water regardless of the treatment method used. Sanitizing with chlorine or H2O2 by dipping, with or without rotation for 2 min, also did not reduce microbial populations. However, populations of all classes of native microflora and Salmonella were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by sanitizer treatments (2 min) applied with agitation or by rubbing. In general, sanitizer treatments applied by rubbing resulted in greater log reductions (by up to 1.7 log unit) than for treatments applied with agitation. Populations of native microflora and Salmonella recovered from cantaloupe were higher (by up to 1.8 log unit) by blending compared to homogenization in a stomacher. In most instances, selective media used did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) for recovery of Salmonella after washing treatments. PMID:15151239

Ukuku, Dike O; Fett, William F

2004-05-01

354

Neuroprotective effects of the Buyang Huanwu decoction on functional recovery in rats following spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Background The Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD) is a traditional Chinese herbal prescription and has been used in China to treat spinal cord injury (SCI) for hundreds of years. Clinical trials have shown that BYHWD improves the outcome of SCI in clinical trials, but the mechanisms are not known. This study observed the neuroprotective effects of BYHWD on spinal nerve cells after SCI and investigated possible mechanisms. Materials and methods Forty female Wistar rats were randomized equally to four groups treated by sham injury, SCI, BYHWD, or methylprednisolone (MP). The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) score was used to evaluate hind-limb locomotor function. Neuron apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining and caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression were evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Results In the sham group, walking was mildly abnormal after anesthesia but recovered completely in 2 days. The BBB score in the SCI model group was significantly different from that in the sham group. The BBB scores of rats in both the BYHWD and MP groups were significantly higher than scores of rats in the SCI group. BYHWD had an antiapoptosis effect, as shown by significant decreases in expression of caspase-3 and Bax and increase in Bcl-2 expression. Conclusion BYHWD treatment restored hind-limb motor function of rats with SCI. The neuroprotective effect of BYHWD was associated with modulation of the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. PMID:25329497

Xian-Hui, Dong; Xiao-Ping, He; Wei-Juan, Gao

2014-10-20

355

Iteration of Complex Functions and Newton's Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses some common iterations of complex functions. The presentation is such that similar processes can easily be implemented and understood by undergraduate students. The aim is to illustrate some of the beauty of complex dynamics in an informal setting, while providing a couple of results that are not otherwise readily available in…

Dwyer, Jerry; Barnard, Roger; Cook, David; Corte, Jennifer

2009-01-01

356

MIMIC Methods for Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three multiple indicators-multiple causes (MIMIC) methods, namely, the standard MIMIC method (M-ST), the MIMIC method with scale purification (M-SP), and the MIMIC method with a pure anchor (M-PA), were developed to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. In a series of simulations, it appeared that all three methods

Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin

2010-01-01

357

Effects of intravenous administration of allogenic bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells on functional recovery and brain repair markers in experimental ischemic stroke  

PubMed Central

Introduction Stem cell therapy can promote good recovery from stroke. Several studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are safe and effective. However, more information regarding appropriate cell type is needed from animal model. This study was targeted at analyzing the effects in ischemic stroke of acute intravenous (i.v.) administration of allogenic bone marrow- (BM-MSC) and adipose-derived-stem cells (AD-MSC) on functional evaluation results and brain repair markers. Methods Allogenic MSC (2 × 106 cells) were administered intravenously 30 minutes after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) to rats. Infarct volume and cell migration and implantation were analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and immunohistochemistry. Function was evaluated by the Rogers and rotarod tests, and cell proliferation and cell-death were also determined. Brain repair markers were analyzed by confocal microscopy and confirmed by western blot. Results Compared to infarct group, function had significantly improved at 24 h and continued at 14 d after i.v. administration of either BM-MSC or AD-MSC. No reduction in infarct volume or any migration/implantation of cells into the damaged brain were observed. Nevertheless, cell death was reduced and cellular proliferation significantly increased in both treatment groups with respect to the infarct group. At 14 d after MSC administration vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), synaptophysin (SYP), oligodendrocyte (Olig-2) and neurofilament (NF) levels were significantly increased while those of glial fiibrillary acid protein (GFAP) were decreased. Conclusions i.v. administration of allogenic MSC - whether BM-MSC or AD-MSC, in pMCAO infarct was associated with good functional recovery, and reductions in cell death as well as increases in cellular proliferation, neurogenesis, oligodendrogenesis, synaptogenesis and angiogenesis markers at 14 days post-infarct. PMID:23356495

2013-01-01

358

Computer method for identification of boiler transfer functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Iterative computer aided procedure was developed which provides for identification of boiler transfer functions using frequency response data. Method uses frequency response data to obtain satisfactory transfer function for both high and low vapor exit quality data.

Miles, J. H.

1972-01-01

359

Changes in collagen metabolism account for ventricular functional recovery following beta-blocker therapy in patients with chronic heart failure.  

PubMed

While beta blockade improves left ventricular (LV) function in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), the mechanisms are not well known. This study aimed to examine whether changes in myocardial collagen metabolism account for LV functional recovery following beta-blocker therapy in 62 CHF patients with reduced ejection fraction (EF). LV function was echocardiographically measured at baseline and 1, 6, and 12 months after bisoprolol therapy along with serum markers of collagen metabolism including C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (CITP) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. Deceleration time of mitral early velocity (DcT) increased even in the early phase, but LVEF gradually improved throughout the study period. Heart rate (HR) was reduced from the early stage, and CITP gradually decreased. LVEF and DcT increased more so in patients with the larger decreases in CITP (r = -0.33, p < 0.05; r = -0.28, p < 0.05, respectively), and HR (r = -0.31, p < 0.05; r = -0.38, p < 0.05, respectively). In addition, there were greater decreases in CITP, MMP-2 and HR from baseline to 1, 6, or 12 months in patients with above-average improvement in LVEF than in those with below-average improvement in LVEF. Similar results were obtained in terms of DcT. There was no significant correlation between the changes in HR and CITP. In conclusion, improvement in LV systolic/diastolic function was greatest in patients with the larger inhibition of collagen degradation. Changes in myocardial collagen metabolism are closely related to LV functional recovery somewhat independently from HR reduction. PMID:25351137

Fukui, Miho; Goda, Akiko; Komamura, Kazuo; Nakabo, Ayumi; Masaki, Mitsuru; Yoshida, Chikako; Hirotani, Shinichi; Lee-Kawabata, Masaaki; Tsujino, Takeshi; Mano, Toshiaki; Masuyama, Tohru

2014-10-29

360

QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMPROVED RECOVERY: APPLICATION TO HEAVY OIL SANDS  

SciTech Connect

Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity has the potential to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involves application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation, particularly in heavy oil sands. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field. Observations of lateral variability and vertical sequences observed in Temblor Formation outcrops has led to a better understanding of reservoir geology in West Coalinga Field. Based on the characteristics of stratigraphic bounding surfaces in the outcrops, these surfaces were identified in the subsurface using cores and logs. The bounding surfaces were mapped and then used as reference horizons in the reservoir modeling. Facies groups and facies tracts were recognized from outcrops and cores of the Temblor Formation and were applied to defining the stratigraphic framework and facies architecture for building 3D geological models. The following facies tracts were recognized: incised valley, estuarine, tide- to wave-dominated shoreline, diatomite, and subtidal. A new minipermeameter probe, which has important advantages over previous methods of measuring outcrop permeability, was developed during this project. The device, which measures permeability at the distal end of a small drillhole, avoids surface weathering effects and provides a superior seal compared with previous methods for measuring outcrop permeability. The new probe was used successfully for obtaining a high-quality permeability data set from an outcrop in southern Utah. Results obtained from analyzing the fractal structure of permeability data collected from the southern Utah outcrop and from core permeability data provided by Chevron from West Coalinga Field were used in distributing permeability values in 3D reservoir models. Spectral analyses and the Double Trace Moment method (Lavallee et al., 1991) were used to analyze the scaling and multifractality of permeability data from cores from West Coalinga Field. T2VOC, which is a numerical flow simulator capable of modeling multiphase, multi-component, nonisothermal flow, was used to model steam injection and oil production for a portion of section 36D in West Coalinga Field. The layer structure and permeability distributions of different models, including facies group, facies tract, and fractal permeability models, were incorporated into the numerical flow simulator. The injection and production histories of wells in the study area were modeled, including shutdowns and the occasional conversion of production wells to steam injection wells. The framework provided by facies groups provides a more realistic representation of the reservoir conditions than facies tracts, which is revealed by a comparison of the history-matching for the oil production. Permeability distributions obtained using the fractal results predict the high degree of heterogeneity within the reservoir sands of West Coalinga Field. The modeling results indicate that predictions of oil production are strongly influenced by the geologic framework and by the boundary conditions. The permeability data collected from the southern Utah outcrop, support a new concept for representing natural heterogeneity, which is called the fractal/facies concept. This hypothesis is one of the few potentially simplifying concepts to emerge from recent studies of geological heterogeneity. Further investigation of this concept should be done to more fully apply fractal analysis to reservoir modeling and simulation. Additional outcrop permeability data sets and further analysis of the data from distinct facies will be needed in order to fully develop

James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz; Ronald W. Falta; Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Scott E. Brame; Robert A. Bridges

2002-10-30

361

A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery  

E-print Network

and wastewater treatment Ivan Ivanov, Lijiao Ren, Michael Siegert, Bruce E. Logan* Department of Civil Wastewater treatment Energy consumption Coulombic efficiency a b s t r a c t Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are potential candidates for sustainable wastewater treatment as they allow for recovery

362

Means and method for the recovery of expansion work in a vapor compression cycle device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of substantially all of the work associated with the expansion of a multi-component working fluid mixture in a vapor compression cycle device is enabled by conveying working fluid in a liquid phase from a condenser to a coldest portion of an evaporator assembly in a countercurrent heat exchange relationship with fluid flowing through the evaporator assembly.

Vakil

1981-01-01

363

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Volumetric and Functional Recovery of the Remnant Liver After Major Liver Resection with Prior Portal Vein Embolization Recovery After PVE and Liver Resection  

E-print Network

# 2009 The Author(s). This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Introduction Portal vein embolization is an accepted method to increase the future remnant liver preoperatively. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preoperative portal vein embolization on liver volume and function 3 months after major liver resection. Materials and methods This is a retrospective case-control study. Data were collected of patients who underwent portal vein embolization prior to (extended) right hemihepatectomy and of control patients who underwent the same type of resection

Jacomina W. Van Den Esschert; Wilmar De Graaf; Krijn P. Van Lienden; Roelof J. Bennink

2009-01-01

364

Neural reconstruction methods of restoring bladder function  

PubMed Central

During the past century, diverse studies have focused on the development of surgical strategies to restore function of a decentralized bladder after spinal cord or spinal root injury via repair of the original roots or by transferring new axonal sources. The techniques included end-to-end sacral root repairs, transfer of roots from other spinal segments to sacral roots, transfer of intercostal nerves to sacral roots, transfer of various somatic nerves to the pelvic or pudendal nerve, direct reinnervation of the detrusor muscle, or creation of an artificial reflex pathway between the skin and the bladder via the central nervous system. All of these surgical techniques have demonstrated specific strengths and limitations. The findings made to date already indicate appropriate patient populations for each procedure, but a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of each technique to restore urinary function after bladder decentralization is required to guide future research and potential clinical application. PMID:25666987

Gomez-Amaya, Sandra M.; Barbe, Mary F.; de Groat, William C.; Brown, Justin M.; Tuite, Gerald F.; Corcos, Jacques; Fecho, Susan B.; Braverman, Alan S.; Ruggieri, Michael R.

2015-01-01

365

Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F

2014-03-04

366

Boundary Element Methods for Functionally Graded Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) possess a smooth variation of material properties due to continuous change in microstructural details. For example, the material gradation may change gradually from a pure ceramic to a pure metal. This work focuses on potential (both steady state and transient) and elasticity problems for inhomogeneous materials. The Green\\'s function(GF) for these materials (e.g. exponentially graded) are expressed as the GF for the homogeneous material plus additional terms due to material gradation. The numerical implementations are performed using a Galerkin (rather than collocation) approximation. A number of examples have been carried out. The results of some specific test problems agree within plotting accuracy with available analytical solutions.

Paulino, Glaucio

2002-05-28

367

Neutralizing Endogenous VEGF Following Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Modulates Microvascular Plasticity but not Tissue Sparing or Functional Recovery  

PubMed Central

Acute loss of spinal cord vascularity followed by an endogenous adaptive angiogenic response with concomitant microvascular dysfunction is a hallmark of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Recently, the potent vasoactive factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has received much attention as a putative therapeutic for the treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders, including SCI. Exogenous VEGF exerts both protective and destabilizing effects on microvascular elements and tissue following SCI but the role of endogenous VEGF is unclear. In the present study, we systemically applied a potent and well characterized soluble VEGF antagonist to adult C57Bl/6 mice post-SCI to elucidate the relative contribution of VEGF on the acute evolving microvascular response and its impact on functional recovery. While the VEGF Trap did not alter vascular density in the injury epicenter or penumbra, an overall increase in the number of Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin-B4 bound microvessels was observed, suggesting a VEGF-dependency to more subtle aspects of endothelial plasticity post-SCI. Neutralizing endogenous VEGF neither attenuated nor exacerbated chronic histopathology or functional recovery. These results support the idea that overall, endogenous VEGF is not neuroprotective or detrimental following traumatic SCI. Furthermore, they suggest that angiogenesis in traumatically injured spinal tissue is regulated by multiple effectors and is not limited by endogenous VEGF activation of affected spinal microvessels. PMID:19442162

Benton, Richard L.; Maddie, Melissa A.; Gruenthal, Mark J.; Hagg, Theo; Whittemore, Scott R.

2010-01-01

368

Subacute Intranasal Administration of Tissue Plasminogen Activator Promotes Neuroplasticity and Improves Functional Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and long-term disability worldwide. To date, there are no effective pharmacological treatments for TBI. Recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the effective drug for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. In addition to its thrombolytic effect, tPA is also involved in neuroplasticity in the central nervous system. However, tPA has potential adverse side effects when administered intravenously including brain edema and hemorrhage. Here we report that tPA, administered by intranasal delivery during the subacute phase after TBI, provides therapeutic benefit. Animals with TBI were treated intranasally with saline or tPA initiated 7 days after TBI. Compared with saline treatment, subacute intranasal tPA treatment significantly 1) improved cognitive (Morris water maze test) and sensorimotor (footfault and modified neurological severity score) functional recovery in rats after TBI, 2) reduced the cortical stimulation threshold evoking ipsilateral forelimb movement, 3) enhanced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and axonal sprouting of the corticospinal tract originating from the contralesional cortex into the denervated side of the cervical gray matter, and 4) increased the level of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Our data suggest that subacute intranasal tPA treatment improves functional recovery and promotes brain neurogenesis and spinal cord axonal sprouting after TBI, which may be mediated, at least in part, by tPA/plasmin-dependent maturation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. PMID:25184365

Meng, Yuling; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Yanlu; Liu, Zhongwu; An, Aaron; Mahmood, Asim; Xiong, Ye

2014-01-01

369

Intravenous administration of Honokiol provides neuroprotection and improves functional recovery after traumatic brain injury through cell cycle inhibition.  

PubMed

Recently, increasing evidence has shown that cell cycle activation is a key factor of neuronal death and neurological dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aims to investigate the effects of Honokiol, a cell cycle inhibitor, on attenuating the neuronal damage and facilitating functional recovery after TBI in rats, in an attempt to unveil its underlying molecular mechanisms in TBI. This study suggested that delayed intravenous administration of Honokiol could effectively ameliorate TBI-induced sensorimotor and cognitive dysfunctions. Meanwhile, Honokiol treatment could also reduce the lesion volume and increase the neuronal survival in the cortex and hippocampus. The neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in the cortex and hippocampus were further significantly attenuated by Honokiol treatment. In addition, the expression of cell cycle-related proteins, including cyclin D1, CDK4, pRb and E2F1, was significantly increased and endogenous cell cycle inhibitor p27 was markedly decreased at different time points after TBI. And these changes were significantly reversed by post-injury Honokiol treatment. Furthermore, the expression of some of the key cell cycle proteins such as cyclin D1 and E2F1 and the associated apoptosis in neurons were both remarkably attenuated by Honokiol treatment. These results show that delayed intravenous administration of Honokiol could effectively improve the functional recovery and attenuate the neuronal cell death, which is probably, at least in part, attributed to its role as a cell cycle inhibitior. This might give clues to developing attractive therapies for future clinical trials. PMID:24973706

Wang, Haiquan; Liao, Zhengbu; Sun, Xiaochuan; Shi, Quanhong; Huo, Gang; Xie, Yanfeng; Tang, Xiaolan; Zhi, Xinggang; Tang, Zhaohua

2014-11-01

370

Efficient resampling methods for nonsmooth estimating functions  

PubMed Central

Summary We propose a simple and general resampling strategy to estimate variances for parameter estimators derived from nonsmooth estimating functions. This approach applies to a wide variety of semiparametric and nonparametric problems in biostatistics. It does not require solving estimating equations and is thus much faster than the existing resampling procedures. Its usefulness is illustrated with heteroscedastic quantile regression and censored data rank regression. Numerical results based on simulated and real data are provided. PMID:17925303

ZENG, DONGLIN

2009-01-01

371

Plasma and urine renalase levels and activity during the recovery of renal function in kidney transplant recipients.  

PubMed

Renalase is a recently described enzyme secreted by the kidney into both plasma and urine, where it was suggested to degrade catecholamines contributing to blood pressure control. While there is a controversy regarding the relationship between renal function and plasma renalase levels, there is virtually no data in humans on plasma renalase activity as well as on both urine renalase levels and activity. We prospectively examined the time course of plasma and urine renalase levels and activity in 26 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving a cadaver kidney transplant (cadaver kidney recipients [CKR]) before surgery and during the recovery of renal function up to day 90 post transplant. The relationship with sympathetic and renal dopaminergic activities was also evaluated. The recovery of renal function in CKR closely predicted decreases in plasma renalase levels (r = 0.88; P < 0.0001), urine renalase levels (r = 0.75; P < 0.0001) and urine renalase activity (r = 0.56; P < 0.03), but did not predict changes in plasma renalase activity (r = -0.02; NS). Plasma norepinephrine levels positively correlated with plasma renalase levels (r = 0.64, P < 0.002) as well as with urine renalase levels and activity (r = 0.47 P < 0.02; r = 0.71, P < 0.0005, respectively) and negatively correlated with plasma renalase activity (r = -0.57, P < 0.002). By contrast, plasma epinephrine levels positively correlated with plasma renalase activity (r = 0.67, P < 0.0001) and negatively correlated with plasma renalase levels (r = -0.62, P < 0.003). A significant negative relationship was observed between urine dopamine output and urine renalase levels (r = -0.48; P < 0.03) but not with urine renalase activity (r = -0.33, NS). We conclude that plasma and urine renalase levels closely depend on renal function and sympathetic nervous system activity. It is suggested that epinephrine-mediated activation of circulating renalase may occur in renal transplant recipients with good recovery of renal function. The increase in plasma renalase activity observed in ESRD patients and renal transplant recipients can be explained on the basis of reduced inhibition of the circulating enzyme. PMID:24599883

Quelhas-Santos, Janete; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Fernandes-Cerqueira, Cátia; Simões-Silva, Liliana; Ferreira, Inês; Carvalho, Catarina; Coentrão, Luís; Vaz, Raquel; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Pestana, Manuel

2014-04-01

372

Development of a method to recovery and amplification DNA by real-time PCR from commercial vegetable oils.  

PubMed

This study describes the design of a suitable DNA isolation method from commercial vegetable oils for the application of DNA markers for food safety and traceability. Firstly, a comparative study was made of eight methods for the recovery of high quality DNA from olive, sunflower and palm oils, and a CTAB-based method was selected. In order to optimize this method, the effect of the organic compounds and several components in the lysis buffer and the lysis and precipitation time were evaluated. For the purpose of overcoming the limitations detected in spectrophotometric and PCR DNA yield evaluations, the performance of the extraction protocols during the optimization processes was evaluated using qPCR. The suggested DNA extraction optimized is less time consuming than other conventional DNA extraction methods, uses a reduced oil volume and is cheaper than available commercial kits. Additionally, the applicability of this method has been successfully assayed in ten commercial vegetable oils and derivatives. PMID:24731357

Ramos-Gómez, Sonia; Busto, María D; Perez-Mateos, Manuel; Ortega, Natividad

2014-09-01

373

Conserved Dopamine Neurotrophic Factor-Transduced Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Axon Regeneration and Functional Recovery of Injured Sciatic Nerve  

PubMed Central

Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a common disease that often results in axonal degeneration and the loss of neurons, ultimately leading to limited nerve regeneration and severe functional impairment. Currently, there are no effective treatments for PNI. In the present study, we transduced conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in collagen tubes to investigate their regenerative effects on rat peripheral nerves in an in vivo transection model. Scanning electron microscopy of the collagen tubes demonstrated their ability to be resorbed in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of the CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after application of CDNF-MSCs. Quantitative analysis of neurofilament 200 (NF200) and S100 immunohistochemistry showed significant enhancement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration in the group receiving CDNF-MSCs (CDNF-MSCs group) compared with the control groups. Myelination thickness, axon diameter and the axon-to fiber diameter ratio (G-ratio) were significantly higher in the CDNF-MSCs group at 8 and 12 weeks after nerve transection surgery. After surgery, the sciatic functional index, target muscle weight, wet weight ratio of gastrocnemius muscle and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracing demonstrated functional recovery. Light and electron microscopy confirmed successful regeneration of the sciatic nerve. The greater numbers of HRP-labeled neuron cell bodies and increased sciatic nerve index values (SFI) in the CDNF-MSCs group suggest that CDNF exerts neuroprotective effects in vivo. We also observed higher target muscle weights and a significant improvement in muscle atrophism in the CDNF-MSCs group. Collectively, these findings indicate that CDNF gene therapy delivered by MSCs is capable of promoting nerve regeneration and functional recovery, likely because of the significant neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of CDNF and the superior environment offered by MSCs and collagen tubes. PMID:25343619

Liu, Yi; Nie, Lin; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Yuan-Qiang; Wang, Shuai-Shuai; Cheng, Lei

2014-01-01

374

A new practical method for the determination of static formation temperatures in geothermal and petroleum wells using a numerical method based on rational polynomial functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new practical method based on rational polynomial (RP) functions to estimate the static formation temperatures (SFT) in geothermal and petroleum boreholes is described. Thermal recovery processes involved during borehole drilling and completion operations were represented by mathematical asymptotic trends. Measurements of bottom-hole temperature and shut-in times (at least three or more) have been used both to obtain a mathematical function that describes the thermal recovery process of drilled boreholes, and to estimate the SFT. Using build-up temperature logs, the SFT have been reliably estimated with precision and accuracy. With these results, it was successfully demonstrated that the new RP method provides a practical tool for the reliable prediction of SFT in geothermal and petroleum boreholes.

Wong-Loya, J. A.; Andaverde, J.; Santoyo, E.

2012-12-01

375

Basic Concepts in Understanding Recovery of Function in Vestibular Reflex Networks during Vestibular Compensation  

PubMed Central

Unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions produce a syndrome of oculomotor and postural deficits with the symptoms at rest, the static symptoms, partially or completely normalizing shortly after the lesion due to a process known as vestibular compensation. The symptoms are thought to result from changes in the activity of vestibular sensorimotor reflexes. Since the vestibular nuclei must be intact for recovery to occur, many investigations have focused on studying these neurons after lesions. At present, the neuronal plasticity underlying early recovery from the static symptoms is not fully understood. Here we propose that knowledge of the reflex identity and input–output connections of the recorded neurons is essential to link the responses to animal behavior. We further propose that the cellular mechanisms underlying vestibular compensation can be sorted out by characterizing the synaptic responses and time course for change in morphologically defined subsets of vestibular reflex projection neurons. Accordingly, this review focuses on the perspective gained by performing electrophysiological and immunolabeling studies on a specific subset of morphologically defined, glutamatergic vestibular reflex projection neurons, the principal cells of the chick tangential nucleus. Reference is made to pertinent findings from other studies on vestibular nuclei neurons, but no comprehensive review of the literature is intended since broad reviews already exist. From recording excitatory and inhibitory spontaneous synaptic activity in principal cells, we find that the rebalancing of excitatory synaptic drive bilaterally is essential for vestibular compensation to proceed. This work is important for it defines for the first time the excitatory and inhibitory nature of the changing synaptic inputs and the time course for changes in a morphologically defined subset of vestibular reflex projection neurons during early stages of vestibular compensation. PMID:22363316

Peusner, Kenna D.; Shao, Mei; Reddaway, Rebecca; Hirsch, June C.

2012-01-01

376

Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibition Attenuates Cerebral Vasospasm and Improves Functional Recovery after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebral vasospasm is an independent predictor of poor outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP (NO-cGMP) vasodilatory pathway is strongly implicated in its pathophysiology. Preliminary studies suggest that phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) – an enzyme that degrades cGMP – may play a role, as the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil was found to reduce vasospasm after SAH. However, several questions that are critical when considering translational studies remain unanswered. Objective To elucidate the mechanism of action of sildenafil against vasospasm, and to assess whether sildenafil attenuates SAH-induced neuronal cell death, improves functional outcome after SAH, or causes significant physiological side effects when administered at therapeutically relevant doses. Methods SAH was induced via endovascular perforation in male C57BL6 mice. Beginning two hours later, mice received sildenafil citrate (0.7, 2 or 5mg/kg P.O. BID) or vehicle. Neurological outcome was assessed daily. Vasospasm was determined on post-SAH Day 3. Brain PDE5 expression and activity, cGMP content, neuronal cell death, arterial blood pressure (BP), and intracranial pressure (ICP) were examined. Results We found that PDE5 activity (but not expression) is increased after SAH, leading to decreased cGMP levels. Sildenafil attenuates this increase in PDE5 activity and restores cGMP levels after SAH. Post-SAH initiation of sildenafil was found to reduce vasospasm, decrease neuronal cell death, and markedly improve neurological outcome, without causing significant physiological side effects. Conclusion Sildenafil–an FDA-approved drug with a proven track record of safety in humans –is a promising new therapy for vasospasm and neurological deficits following SAH. PMID:21796010

Han, Byung Hee; Vellimana, Ananth Kesav; Zhou, Meng-Liang; Milner, Eric; Zipfel, Gregory Joseph

2014-01-01

377

A Method for Comparative Analysis of Recovery Potential in Impaired Waters Restoration Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common decision support tools and a growing body of knowledge about ecological recovery can help inform and guide large state\\u000a and federal restoration programs affecting thousands of impaired waters. Under the federal Clean Water Act (CWA), waters not\\u000a meeting state Water Quality Standards due to impairment by pollutants are placed on the CWA Section 303(d) list, scheduled\\u000a for Total Maximum Daily

Douglas J. Norton; James D. Wickham; Timothy G. Wade; Kelly Kunert; John V. Thomas; Paul Zeph

2009-01-01

378

Contribution of the Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Contralesional Primary Sensorimotor Cortex to Motor Recovery after Subcortical Stroke  

PubMed Central

It remains uncertain if the contralesional primary sensorimotor cortex (CL_PSMC) contributes to motor recovery after stroke. Here we investigated longitudinal changes in the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the CL_PSMC and their association with motor recovery. Thirteen patients who had experienced subcortical stroke underwent a series of resting-state fMRI and clinical assessments over a period of 1 year at 5 time points, i.e., within the first week, at 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year after stroke onset. Thirteen age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were recruited as controls. The CL_PSMC was defined as a region centered at the voxel that had greatest activation during hand motion task. The dynamic changes in the rsFCs of the CL_PSMC within the whole brain were evaluated and correlated with the Motricity Index (MI) scores. Compared with healthy controls, the rsFCs of the CL_PSMC with the bilateral PSMC were initially decreased, then gradually increased, and finally restored to the normal level 1 year later. Moreover, the dynamic change in the inter-hemispheric rsFC between the bilateral PSMC in these patients was positively correlated with the MI scores. However, the intra-hemispheric rsFC of the CL_PSMC was not correlated with the MI scores. This study shows dynamic changes in the rsFCs of the CL_PSMC after stroke and suggests that the increased inter-hemispheric rsFC between the bilateral PSMC may facilitate motor recovery in stroke patients. However, generalization of our findings is limited by the small sample size of our study and needs to be confirmed. PMID:24416273

Xu, Huijuan; Qin, Wen; Chen, Hai; Jiang, Lin; Li, Kuncheng; Yu, Chunshui

2014-01-01

379

Contribution of the resting-state functional connectivity of the contralesional primary sensorimotor cortex to motor recovery after subcortical stroke.  

PubMed

It remains uncertain if the contralesional primary sensorimotor cortex (CL_PSMC) contributes to motor recovery after stroke. Here we investigated longitudinal changes in the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the CL_PSMC and their association with motor recovery. Thirteen patients who had experienced subcortical stroke underwent a series of resting-state fMRI and clinical assessments over a period of 1 year at 5 time points, i.e., within the first week, at 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year after stroke onset. Thirteen age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were recruited as controls. The CL_PSMC was defined as a region centered at the voxel that had greatest activation during hand motion task. The dynamic changes in the rsFCs of the CL_PSMC within the whole brain were evaluated and correlated with the Motricity Index (MI) scores. Compared with healthy controls, the rsFCs of the CL_PSMC with the bilateral PSMC were initially decreased, then gradually increased, and finally restored to the normal level 1 year later. Moreover, the dynamic change in the inter-hemispheric rsFC between the bilateral PSMC in these patients was positively correlated with the MI scores. However, the intra-hemispheric rsFC of the CL_PSMC was not correlated with the MI scores. This study shows dynamic changes in the rsFCs of the CL_PSMC after stroke and suggests that the increased inter-hemispheric rsFC between the bilateral PSMC may facilitate motor recovery in stroke patients. However, generalization of our findings is limited by the small sample size of our study and needs to be confirmed. PMID:24416273

Xu, Huijuan; Qin, Wen; Chen, Hai; Jiang, Lin; Li, Kuncheng; Yu, Chunshui

2014-01-01

380

Differential effects of post-natal development, animal strain and long term recovery on the restoration of neuromuscular function after neuromyotoxic injury in rat.  

PubMed

We have analysed the effect of long term recovery, post-natal development and animal strain on the extent of restoration of neuromuscular function after neuromyotoxic injury in the rat (Rattus norvegicus). Muscle isometric contractile properties of soleus muscle in response to nerve stimulation were measured in situ in snake venom injured muscles and compared to contralateral uninjured muscles. We show here that neuromuscular function was not fully recovered until 24 weeks after injury in young adult (2-3 month old) Wistar rats. Moreover, the level of functional recovery 3 weeks after injury induced in juvenile rats (1 month old) was not globally different from that in younger adult, adult (10 month old) and older adult (24 month old) Wistar rats. Furthermore, the level of recovery of some contractile parameters differed between Wistar and Sprague-Dawley strains 3 weeks after injury. In conclusion, a very long time (>12 weeks) is required for full neuromuscular recovery following neuromyotoxic injury of young adult rats. Moreover, neuromuscular recovery during post-natal development is not markedly different from that during adult stage in the Wistar rat strain. Finally, some rat strain differences are observed in the recovery after injury of young adult rats. PMID:16426897

Vignaud, A; Caruelle, J P; Martelly, I; Ferry, A

2006-05-01

381

Concerning a constant source function method of radiative transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The derivation of the escape probability method of radiative transfer (EPM) is reconsidered. The usual procedure of taking the source function through the integral for the specific intensity leads, in the first instance, to an approximation (to be referred to as the constant source function method or CSFM) wherein the net radiative bracket rho(r) is equated to the net radiative

F. E. Irons

1991-01-01

382

A PENALTY FUNCTION METHOD FOR CONSTRAINED MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION  

E-print Network

A PENALTY FUNCTION METHOD FOR CONSTRAINED MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION By Ajith Gunaratne­000 A PENALTY FUNCTION METHOD FOR CONSTRAINED MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION AJITH GUNARATNE AND ZHIJUN WU FOR MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION 1 that the new iterate can satisfy the constraints [3]. Depending

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