Science.gov

Sample records for function recovery method

  1. A robust functional-data-analysis method for data recovery in multichannel sensor systems.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Liao, Haitao; Upadhyaya, Belle R

    2014-08-01

    Multichannel sensor systems are widely used in condition monitoring for effective failure prevention of critical equipment or processes. However, loss of sensor readings due to malfunctions of sensors and/or communication has long been a hurdle to reliable operations of such integrated systems. Moreover, asynchronous data sampling and/or limited data transmission are usually seen in multiple sensor channels. To reliably perform fault diagnosis and prognosis in such operating environments, a data recovery method based on functional principal component analysis (FPCA) can be utilized. However, traditional FPCA methods are not robust to outliers and their capabilities are limited in recovering signals with strongly skewed distributions (i.e., lack of symmetry). This paper provides a robust data-recovery method based on functional data analysis to enhance the reliability of multichannel sensor systems. The method not only considers the possibly skewed distribution of each channel of signal trajectories, but is also capable of recovering missing data for both individual and correlated sensor channels with asynchronous data that may be sparse as well. In particular, grand median functions, rather than classical grand mean functions, are utilized for robust smoothing of sensor signals. Furthermore, the relationship between the functional scores of two correlated signals is modeled using multivariate functional regression to enhance the overall data-recovery capability. An experimental flow-control loop that mimics the operation of coolant-flow loop in a multimodular integral pressurized water reactor is used to demonstrate the effectiveness and adaptability of the proposed data-recovery method. The computational results illustrate that the proposed method is robust to outliers and more capable than the existing FPCA-based method in terms of the accuracy in recovering strongly skewed signals. In addition, turbofan engine data are also analyzed to verify the capability of the proposed method in recovering non-skewed signals. PMID:25051452

  2. Physiological functions of the effects of the different bathing method on recovery from local muscle fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recently, mist saunas have been used in the home as a new bathing style in Japan. However, there are still few reports on the effects of bathing methods on recovery from muscle fatigue. Furthermore, the effect of mist sauna bathing on human physiological function has not yet been revealed. Therefore, we measured the physiological effects of bathing methods including the mist sauna on recovery from muscle fatigue. Methods The bathing methods studied included four conditions: full immersion bath, shower, mist sauna, and no bathing as a control. Ten men participated in this study. The participants completed four consecutive sessions: a 30-min rest period, a 10-min all out elbow flexion task period, a 10-min bathing period, and a 10-min recovery period. We evaluated the mean power frequency (MNF) of the electromyogram (EMG), rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), skin blood flow (SBF), concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb), and subjective evaluation. Results We found that the MNF under the full immersion bath condition was significantly higher than those under the other conditions. Furthermore, Tre, SBF, and O2Hb under the full immersion bath condition were significantly higher than under the other conditions. Conclusions Following the results for the full immersion bath condition, the SBF and O2Hb of the mist sauna condition were significantly higher than those for the shower and no bathing conditions. These results suggest that full immersion bath and mist sauna are effective in facilitating recovery from muscle fatigue. PMID:22980588

  3. Neuroplasticity and functional recovery in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tomassini, Valentina; Matthews, Paul M.; Thompson, Alan J.; Fuglø, Daniel; Geurts, Jeroen J.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Jones, Derek K.; Rocca, Maria A.; Wise, Richard G.; Barkhof, Frederik; Palace, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies that promote functional recovery is a major goal of multiple sclerosis (MS) research. Neuroscientific and methodological advances have improved our understanding of the brain’s recovery from damage, generating novel hypotheses for potential targets or modes of intervention and laying the foundation for the development of scientifically informed strategies promoting recovery in interventional studies. This Review aims to encourage the transition from characterization of recovery mechanisms to the development of strategies that promote recovery in MS. We discuss current evidence for functional reorganization that underlies recovery and its implications for development of new recovery-oriented strategies in MS. Promotion of functional recovery requires an improved understanding of recovery mechanisms modulated by interventions and the development of reliable measures of therapeutic effects. As imaging methods can be used to measure functional and structural alterations associated with recovery, this Review discusses their use as reliable markers to measure the effects of interventions. PMID:22986429

  4. Rapid method for assessing rod function using recovery of spatial contrast thresholds following a bleach.

    PubMed

    Puell, M Cinta; Kelly, Jeremiah M F; Murray, Ian J

    2014-08-01

    Poor vision in low light is a common complaint of elderly people. This poorly understood phenomenon is likely to involve both receptoral and post receptoral mechanisms. We investigated the recovery of contrast thresholds for sine-wave gratings of low spatial frequencies and low mean luminance as a function of time in darkness after photo pigment bleaching. Thirteen subjects aged 30.4 (10.7) years took part in the study. Contrast thresholds were measured for 15min following almost complete photo pigment bleaching. The stimuli were achromatic sinusoidal gratings of 0.5, 1 and 2 cycle per degree (cpd) generated on a CRT monitor. They had mean luminance 0.01cdm(-2) and subtended 10 in diameter. The dynamics of the recovery at each spatial frequency were modelled using monophasic and biphasic exponential decay functions. The data were best modelled by a bi-phasic decay with a distinct transition point around 7min after the bleach. Both phases followed an exponential decay. The time constant (mean, standard error) for the first phase was 0.35 (0.04) minwhile for the second phase it was 5.15 (0.27) min. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). A control experiment revealed the second, slower phase was mediated by rod photoreceptors. Maximum contrast sensitivity was reached 15min after a photic bleach. The dynamics of contrast sensitivity recovery follow two phases and these may be attributed to the cone and rod systems. PMID:25016055

  5. Enhanced oil recovery methods

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, J.; Floyd, J.

    1981-09-01

    It has been estimated that there are between 30 and 50 billion bbl of oil reserves in the US which could be recovered by tertiary recovery methods, usually referred to as enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. This is oil which is already found and identified but which will remain in place unless special effort involving any one of a number of techniques are used. EOR methods include miscible fluid displacement, steam drive injection, microemulsion (surfactant) flooding, in situ combustion, polymer augmented water flooding, cyclic steam injection, alkaline (caustic) flooding, carbon dioxide augmented waterflooding, immiscible carbon dioxide displacement, and combinations of these. While each of these techniques is technically feasible under the right condition, the costs vary widely.

  6. [The role of the stabilogram biocontrol method in walking function recovery in patients with poststroke hemipareses].

    PubMed

    Chernikova, L A; Ma?ornikova, S A; Kozyreva, O V

    2006-01-01

    Effects of stability training (ST) with the method of biocontrol by stabilogram on walking function were studied in 32 patients with poststroke hemipareses with the disease duration from 1 month to 2 years. The findings evidence that biofeedback by stabilogram has a positive effect not only on static and dynamic stability of patients with poststroke hemiparesis but also on functional mobility of the patients. It improves such important gait characteristics as speed, length and symmetry of the step. PMID:17201216

  7. Differentiation method for phase recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    zcan, Meri

    2015-03-01

    Here we consider a derivative based method for phase recovery and demonstrate a numerical method that can be described as differentiate and cross multiply operation to obtain the phase gradient. This method uses quadrature phase data that is in sine and cosine form, which is a natural outcome many interferometric measurements including that of digital holographic reconstruction. Since the differentiation is performed on trigonometric functions which are discrete, it is shown that the method of differentiation and the sampling rate are important considerations especially for the noise corrupt signals. The method is initially developed for 1D phase signals, and then later extended to 2D. Noise performance of the method is also investigated, and it is shown that for extremely noisy signals the method can be adapted to an iteration routine which recovers the phase successfully. We present simulations and the experimental results which show the validity of the approach.

  8. Recovery of microbial community structure and functioning after wildfire in semi-arid environments: optimising methods for monitoring and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Martini, Dylan; Erickson, Todd; Merritt, David; Dixon, Kingsley

    2015-04-01

    Introduction In semi-arid areas such as northern Western Australia, wildfires are a natural part of the environment and many ecosystems in these landscapes have evolved and developed a strong relationship with fire. Soil microbial communities play a crucial role in ecosystem processes by regulating the cycling of nutrients via decomposition, mineralization, and immobilization processes. Thus, the structure (e.g. soil microbial biomass) and functioning (e.g. soil microbial activity) of microbial communities, as well as their changes after ecosystem disturbance, can be useful indicators of soil quality and health recovery. In this research, we assess the impacts of fire on soil microbial communities and their recovery in a biodiverse semi-arid environment of Western Australia (Pilbara region). New methods for determining soil microbial respiration as an indicator of microbial activity and soil health are also tested. Methodology Soil samples were collected from 10 similar ecosystems in the Pilbara with analogous native vegetation, but differing levels of post-fire disturbance (i.e. 3 months, 1 year, 5, 7 and 14 years after wildfire). Soil microbial activity was measured with the Solvita test which determines soil microbial respiration rate based on the measurement of the CO2 burst of a dry soil after it is moistened. Soils were dried and re-wetted and a CO2 probe was inserted before incubation at constant conditions of 25°C during 24 h. Measurements were taken with a digital mini spectrometer. Microbial (bacteria and fungi) biomass and community composition were measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA). Results Immediately after the fire (i.e. 3 months), soil microbial activity and microbial biomass are similar to 14 years 'undisturbed' levels (53.18±3.68 ppm CO2-CO and 14.07±0.65 mg kg-1, respectively). However, after the first year post-fire, with larger plant productivity, microbial biomass and microbial activity increase rapidly, peaking after 5-7 years post fire (70.70±8.94 ppm CO2-CO and 21.67±2.62 mg kg-1, respectively). Microbial activity measured with the Solvita test was significantly correlated (R Pearson > 0.7; P < 0.001) with microbial parameters analysed with PLFA such as microbial biomass, bacteria biomass or mycorrhizhal fungi. This method has proven to be reliable, fast and easy to interpret for assessment of soil microbial activity in the recovery of soil quality during the recovery after fire. Keywords Pilbara region, biodiverse ecosystems, microbial biomass, microbial respiration, Solvita test, CO2 burst.

  9. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; McKenzie, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

  10. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

    1995-05-30

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

  11. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Silva, Laura J.; Bray, Lane A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

  12. Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Acceptability and Recovery of Cortisol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Susan K.; Lopata, Christopher; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Neilans, Erik G.; Werth, Jilynn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared cortisol concentrations yielded using three saliva collection methods (passive drool, salivette, and sorbette) in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, as well as method acceptability for a sample of children (n = 39) with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. No cortisol concentration differences were observed between…

  13. Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Acceptability and Recovery of Cortisol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Susan K.; Lopata, Christopher; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Neilans, Erik G.; Werth, Jilynn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared cortisol concentrations yielded using three saliva collection methods (passive drool, salivette, and sorbette) in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, as well as method acceptability for a sample of children (n = 39) with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. No cortisol concentration differences were observed between

  14. High-resolution satellite image recovery by modulation transfer function (MTF) compensation method using phase congruency estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xiaopeng; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Shaohui; Jin, Zhenhua; Du, Juan

    2013-09-01

    Satellite imagery always has low-resolution causing poor application in practice because the serious degradation in imaging is resulted in many factors such as atmospheric turbulence, cloud, and aberration of optical system. To reconstruct the degraded remote sensing images with a high quality, we designed an algorithm to estimate the system modulation transfer function (MTF) accurately. Phase congruency is employed to detect the edges and corners of the image first, then the significant edges, which are utilized to estimate the edge spread function (ESF) using inclined edge method, are picked up from above features through a certain line detection measurement. An image restoration algorithm based on total variation (TV) is introduced to deconvolute the degraded image with the estimated MTF which is derived from the ESF. The experiments show that this method is adaptive and efficient to recover the remote sensing images taken from a Chinese Satellite. The restored images with a higher resolution and higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) will improve the applications greatly.

  15. Method for enhanced oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Comberiati, Joseph R. (Morgantown, WV); Locke, Charles D. (Morgantown, WV); Kamath, Krishna I. (Chicago, IL)

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for enhanced recovery of oil from relatively "cold" reservoirs by carbon dioxide flooding. In oil reservoirs at a temperature less than the critical temperature of 87.7.degree. F. and at a pore pressure greater than the saturation pressure of carbon dioxide at the temperature of the reservoir, the carbon dioxide remains in the liquid state which does not satisfactorily mix with the oil. However, applicants have found that carbon dioxide can be vaporized in situ in the reservoir by selectively reducing the pore pressure in the reservoir to a value less than the particular saturated vapor pressure so as to greatly enhance the mixing of the carbon dioxide with the oil.

  16. Method for testing vapor recovery lines

    SciTech Connect

    Tuma, J.E.

    1993-06-22

    A method for testing the integrity of the vapor recovery unit of a gasoline station dispensing station where the vapor recovery unit has phase 11 capability is described, comprising the steps of: sealing the vapor recovery unit from the dispensing station at the point most proximal to the dispensing station; sealing the vapor recovery unit from the gasoline reservoir; installing means for drawing a vacuum in the riser of the vapor recovery unit; sealing the vent of the vapor recovery unit; drawing a vacuum in the sealed vapor recovery unit until the vacuum reaches a predetermined level; and monitoring the vacuum pressure relative to the predetermined level in the modified vapor recovery unit for a preselected period of time to determine whether the vapor recovery unit is leaking.

  17. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1987-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  18. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

    1987-08-25

    A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  19. Actinide Recovery Method for Large Soil Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nichols, S.

    1998-11-01

    A new Actinide Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides in very large soil samples. Diphonix Resin(r) is used eliminate soil matrix interferences and preconcentrate actinides after soil leaching or soil fusion. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin(r). After the resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be easily loaded onto small extraction-chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin(r), U-TEVA Resin(r) or TRU Resin(r) (Eichrom Industries). This method enables the application of small, selective extraction-columns to recover actinides from very large soil samples with high selectivity, consistent tracer recoveries and minimal liquid waste.

  20. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Peru, Deborah A.

    1989-01-01

    A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

  1. Influence of bilateral sequential total knee arthroplasty on functional recovery

    PubMed Central

    Maniar, Rajesh N; Baviskar, Jayesh V; Singhi, Tushar; Maniar, Parul; Nayak, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Main concerns of patients undergoing bilateral surgery is the quantum of pain and the progress of functional recovery. We studied functional recovery in terms of pain, range of motion (ROM), SF12, WOMAC scores and a unique TUG (timed up and go) test for patients undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty (U/L-TKA) and sequential bilateral total knee arthroplasty (B/L-TKA). Materials and Methods: Three groups of 77 consecutive patients (91 knees) were retrospectively compared. They were B/L TKA group (28 knees: 14 patients), Unilateral TKA group with contralateral knee nonoperated i.e., U/L-TKA group (42 knees) and Unilateral TKA with contralateral TKA already done i.e., U/L + C/L TKA group (21 knees). Patients were assessed preoperatively and on postoperative days 3, 5, 14, 42, 90 and 1 year. Results: The WOMAC score was statistically better preoperatively in the U/L + C/L TKA group, and SF12 MCS score was statistically better preoperatively in the B/L-TKA group. The TUG test time in the B/L-TKA group was statistically longer on days 3 and 5 as compared to other groups and became comparable by day 14. The TUG score became better than the preoperative value by day 42 in the B/L-TKA group, which took 90 days in other groups. Conclusion: The early functional recovery of bilateral TKA patient lags behind that of unilateral TKA patient for the first 5 days, becomes equal by the 14th day and remains equal till 1 year after surgery. Bilateral TKA patients regain their preoperative functional status by 6 weeks against 3 months for unilateral TKA. The operative status of the contralateral knee makes no difference to early functional recovery after unilateral TKA. With bilateral TKA, there is no difference in pain and ROM parameters. PMID:23532139

  2. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.

    1989-04-04

    A method is described for flooding of a subterranean petroleum bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery, comprising the steps of providing at least one production well having at least one inlet within the subterranean petroleum bearing formation, and at least one injection well having at least one outlet within the subterranean petroleum bearing formation, injecting into the petroleum bearing formation through the injection well, a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution having a pH in the range of from about 8.25 to about 9.25 comprising from about 0.25 to about 5 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate, from about 0.05 to about 1.0 weight percent of petroleum recovery surfactant, and from about 1 to about 20 weight percent of sodium chloride, based on the total weight of the aqueous flooding solution, withdrawing through at least one inlet of the production wells, an oil and water mixture comprising petroleum from the subterranean petroleum bearing formation and at least a portion of the low alkaline pH sodium bicarbonate aqueous flooding solution, and separating the oil from the aqueous oil and water mixture.

  3. Method for recovery of waste water residues

    SciTech Connect

    Grudinin, V.P.; Bukhteev, B.M.; Dergunova, T.V.

    1984-11-06

    A method for recovery of waste water residues containing the activated sludge biomass, fibre and bark comprising the steps of treating these with alkali solution having a concentration of 5-80 g/l on the Na/sub 2/O basis at a temperature of 20/sup 0/-70/sup 0/ C. and dewatering the reaction mixture obtained, the alkali filtrate decanted containing the activated sludge alkali hydrolysis products being used to dissolve the melt in the course of preparing the alkali pulping liquor, and the dewatered alkali mass being added, in an amount of up to 40 percent by mass, to the fibred mass composition for the manufacture of cardboard and wood-fibre board.

  4. RPC gas recovery by open loop method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Avinash; Kalmani, S. D.; Mondal, N. K.; Satyanarayana, B.

    2009-05-01

    RPC detectors require to be flushed with small but continuous flow of gas mixture. Dealing with large number of detectors, gas consumption to very large volumes. Gas flow is a running expense and constituent gases are too expensive to be treated as consumables. Exhaust gas mixture from detectors is a potential environmental hazard if discharged directly into the atmosphere. Storage of gases on a large scale also leads to inventory- and safety-related problems. A solution to these problems is the recovery and reuse of exhaust gas mixture from RPC detectors. Close loop method employs recirculation of exhausted gas mixture after purification, analysis and addition of top-up quantities. In open loop method, under consideration here, individual component gases are separated from gas mixture and reused as source. During open loop process, gases liquefiable at low pressures are separated from ones liquefiable at high pressure. The gas phase components within each group are successively separated by either fractional condensation or gravity separation. Gas mixture coming from RPC exhaust is first desiccated by passage through molecular sieve adsorbent type (3A+4A). Subsequent scrubbing over basic activated alumina removes toxic and acidic contaminants such as S 2F 10 produced during corona (arcing) discharge. In the first stage of separation isobutane and freon are concentrated by diffusion and liquefied by fractional condensation by cooling upto -30 C. Liquefied gases are returned to source tanks. In the second stage of separation, argon and sulphur hexafluoride, the residual gases, are concentrated by settling due to density difference. SF 6 is stored for recovery by condensation at high pressure while argon is further purified by thermal cracking of crossover impurities at 1000 C followed by wet scrubbing.

  5. Skin barrier function recovery after diamond microdermabrasion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hei Sung; Lim, Sook Hee; Song, Ji Youn; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Lee, Ji Ho; Park, Jong Gap; Kim, Hyung Ok; Park, Young Min

    2009-10-01

    Microdermabrasion is a popular method for facial rejuvenation and is performed worldwide. Despite its extensive usage, there are few publications on skin barrier change after microdermabrasion and none concerning diamond microdermabrasion. Our object was to see changes in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), hydration and erythema of the face following diamond microdermabrasion. Twenty-eight patients were included in this spilt face study. TEWL, stratum corneum hydration and the degree of erythema were measured from the right and left sides of the face (forehead and cheek) at baseline. One side of the face was treated with diamond microdermabrasion and the other side was left untreated. Measurements were taken right after the procedure and repeated at set time intervals. Diamond microdermabrasion was associated with a statistically significant increase in TEWL immediately after the procedure and at 24 h. However, on day 2, levels of TEWL were back to baseline. An increase in hydration and erythema was observed right after microdermabrasion, but both returned to baseline on day 1. The results show that skin barrier function of the forehead and cheek recovers within 2 days of diamond microdermabrasion. Diamond microdermabrasion performed on a weekly basis, as presently done, is expected to allow sufficient time for the damaged skin to recover its barrier function in most parts of the face. PMID:19785706

  6. Promoting Kidney Function Recovery in Patients with AKI Requiring RRT.

    PubMed

    Cerd, Jorge; Liu, Kathleen D; Cruz, Dinna N; Jaber, Bertrand L; Koyner, Jay L; Heung, Michael; Okusa, Mark D; Faubel, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    AKI requiring RRT is associated with high mortality, morbidity, and long-term consequences, including CKD and ESRD. Many patients never recover kidney function; in others, kidney function improves over a period of many weeks or months. Methodologic constraints of the available literature limit our understanding of the recovery process and hamper adequate intervention. Current management strategies have focused on acute care and short-term mortality, but new data indicate that long-term consequences of AKI requiring RRT are substantial. Promotion of kidney function recovery is a neglected focus of research and intervention. This lack of emphasis on recovery is illustrated by the relative paucity of research in this area and by the lack of demonstrated effective management strategies. In this article the epidemiologic implications of kidney recovery after AKI requiring RRT are discussed, the available literature and its methodologic constraints are reviewed, and strategies to improve the understanding of factors that affect kidney function recovery are proposed. Measures to promote kidney function recovery are a serious unmet need, with a great potential to improve short- and long-term patient outcomes. PMID:26138260

  7. Recovery of function after closed femoral shortening.

    PubMed

    Barker, K L; Simpson, A H R W

    2004-11-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study documents the muscle strength and baseline function of 18 patients undergoing closed femoral shortening for discrepancy in limb length. Patients were studied for two years following surgery. Function was measured by a self-reported questionnaire, timed tests of performance and measurements of muscle strength and power. After two years, the self-reported function and ability to complete timed functional tests had returned to or improved on the pre-operative values. Muscle strength remained slightly below the pre-operative value and was more marked in the quadriceps than the hamstrings. This study suggests that small decreases in muscle strength and power following closed femoral shortening do not adversely affect the patients' ability to perform everyday activities. PMID:15568534

  8. Socioeconomic Status, Functional Recovery, and Long-Term Mortality among Patients Surviving Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Alter, David A.; Franklin, Barry; Ko, Dennis T.; Austin, Peter C.; Lee, Douglas S.; Oh, Paul I.; Stukel, Therese A.; Tu, Jack V.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between socio-economic status (SES), functional recovery and long-term mortality following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Background The extent to which SES mortality disparities are explained by differences in functional recovery following AMI is unclear. Methods We prospectively examined 1368 patients who survived at least one-year following an index AMI between 1999 and 2003 in Ontario, Canada. Each patient was linked to administrative data and followed over 9.6 years to track mortality. All patients underwent medical chart abstraction and telephone interviews following AMI to identify individual-level SES, clinical factors, processes of care (i.e., use of, and adherence, to evidence-based medications, physician visits, invasive cardiac procedures, referrals to cardiac rehabilitation), as well as changes in psychosocial stressors, quality of life, and self-reported functional capacity. Results As compared with their lower SES counterparts, higher SES patients experienced greater functional recovery (1.80 ml/kg/min average increase in peak V02, P<0.001) after adjusting for all baseline clinical factors. Post-AMI functional recovery was the strongest modifiable predictor of long-term mortality (Adjusted HR for each ml/kg/min increase in functional capacity: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.87–0.94, P<0.001) irrespective of SES (P = 0.51 for interaction between SES, functional recovery, and mortality). SES-mortality associations were attenuated by 27% after adjustments for functional recovery, rendering the residual SES-mortality association no longer statistically significant (Adjusted HR: 0.84; 95% CI:0.70–1.00, P = 0.05). The effects of functional recovery on SES-mortality associations were not explained by access inequities to physician specialists or cardiac rehabilitation. Conclusions Functional recovery may play an important role in explaining SES-mortality gradients following AMI. PMID:23755180

  9. Optogenetic neuronal stimulation promotes functional recovery after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Michelle Y.; Wang, Eric H.; Woodson, Wyatt J.; Wang, Stephanie; Sun, Guohua; Lee, Alex G.; Arac, Ahmet; Fenno, Lief E.; Deisseroth, Karl; Steinberg, Gary K.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and research efforts have focused on promoting functional recovery after stroke. Brain stimulation strategies are particularly promising because they allow direct manipulation of the target areas excitability. However, elucidating the cell type and mechanisms mediating recovery has been difficult because existing stimulation techniques nonspecifically target all cell types near the stimulated site. To circumvent these barriers, we used optogenetics to selectively activate neurons that express channelrhodopsin 2 and demonstrated that selective neuronal stimulations in the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (iM1) can promote functional recovery. Stroke mice that received repeated neuronal stimulations exhibited significant improvement in cerebral blood flow and the neurovascular coupling response, as well as increased expression of activity-dependent neurotrophins in the contralesional cortex, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, and neurotrophin 3. Western analysis also indicated that stimulated mice exhibited a significant increase in the expression of a plasticity marker growth-associated protein 43. Moreover, iM1 neuronal stimulations promoted functional recovery, as stimulated stroke mice showed faster weight gain and performed significantly better in sensory-motor behavior tests. Interestingly, stimulations in normal nonstroke mice did not alter motor behavior or neurotrophin expression, suggesting that the prorecovery effect of selective neuronal stimulations is dependent on the poststroke environment. These results demonstrate that stimulation of neurons in the stroke hemisphere is sufficient to promote recovery. PMID:25136109

  10. Traumatic brain injury: improving functional recovery.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, A. S.

    1989-01-01

    Most physical injuries in this country are the result of motorized vehicle accidents. Head trauma accounts for one fourth of all trauma deaths, and the cost to treat patients with head trauma is $83 billion. The author discusses injury patterns, methods of resuscitating patients with head injuries, surgical management and monitoring, and the clinical course and prospects for rehabilitation. An interdisciplinary approach to the management of such patients is encouraged, and the medical and surgical interventions undertaken at one institution are reviewed. PMID:2695652

  11. Wastewater heat recovery method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  12. Recovery of vestibular function following hair cell destruction by streptomycin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Nelson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Can the vestibular periphery of warm-blooded vertebrates recover functionally from severe sensory hair cell loss? Recent findings in birds suggest a mechanism for recovery but in fact no direct functional evidence has been reported. We produced vestibular hair cell lesions using the ototoxic agent streptomycin sulfate (600 mg/kg/day, 8 days, chicks, Gallus domesticus). Compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve were used as a direct measure of peripheral vestibular function. Vestibular thresholds, neural activation latencies and amplitudes were documented. Eight days of drug treatment elevated thresholds significantly (P < 0.001) and eliminated all but remnants of vestibular activity. Virtually complete physiological recovery occurred in all animals studied over a period of 70 days following treatment. Thresholds recovered within two weeks of drug treatment whereas the return of response morphologies including activation latencies and amplitudes required an additional 6-8 weeks.

  13. Long-Term Functional Recovery after Facial Nerve Transection and Repair in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Caroline A.; Knox, Christopher; Hunter, Daniel A.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Hohman, Marc H.; Hadlock, Tessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The rodent model is commonly used to study facial nerve injury. Because of the exceptional regenerative capacity of the rodent facial nerve, it is essential to consider the timing when studying facial nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Short-term functional recovery data following transection and repair of the facial nerve has been documented by our laboratory. However, because of the limitations of the head fixation device, there is a lack of long-term data following facial nerve injury. The objective of this study was to elucidate the long-term time course and functional deficit following facial nerve transection and repair in a rodent model. Methods Adult rats were divided into group 1 (controls) and group 2 (experimental). Group 1 animals underwent head fixation, followed by a facial nerve injury, and functional testing was performed from day 7 to day 70. Group 2 animals underwent facial nerve injury, followed by delayed head fixation, and then underwent functional testing from months 6 to 8. Results There was no statistical difference between the average whisking amplitudes in group 1 and group 2 animals. Conclusion Functional whisking recovery 6 months after facial nerve injury is comparable to recovery within 1 to 4 months of transection and repair, thus the ideal window for evaluating facial nerve recovery falls within the 4 months after injury. PMID:25629206

  14. Psychosocial Treatments to Promote Functional Recovery in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Robert S.; Glynn, Shirley M.; Horan, William P.; Marder, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    A number of psychosocial treatments are available for persons with schizophrenia that include social skills training, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive remediation, and social cognition training. These treatments are reviewed and discussed in terms of how they address key components of functional recovery such as symptom stability, independent living, work functioning, and social functioning. We also review findings on the interaction between pharmacological and psychosocial treatments and discuss future directions in pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. Overall, these treatments provide a range of promising approaches to helping patients achieve better outcomes far beyond symptom stabilization. PMID:19176470

  15. Enhanced oil recovery using electrical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Muhammad Moshin

    Heavy Oil Recovery is gaining much popularity because of huge consumption of oil in the modern industry. Main concern in the extraction of heavy oil is its high viscosity. Heating heavy oil by different electrical means has come out to be a promising solution for viscosity reduction. This includes the low frequency resistive heating, induction heating and high frequency microwave heating or the dielectric heating. Application of low frequency resistive heating is limited by the requirement of brine (conducting fluid) inside the reservoir while Induction heating is only applicable in the presence of ferrous elements in the reservoir. High frequency microwave heating can be used effectively for enhancing the oil productivity. Ultrasonic stimulation is another technique capable of reducing the viscosity of heavy oil without employing the heating techniques. Although many models have been presented addressing microwave heating of heavy oil but, no model has been found in the literature addressing the design of microwave sources and the experimental verification of the results. Similarly some authors have also addressed the ultrasonic stimulation of heavy oil but no one has discussed the behavior of ultrasonic waves at different power level along with the experimental verification. This thesis presents complete mathematical modeling of microwave heating, with numerical solution by considering two-dimensional radial model. In addition, the design, positioning, and orientation of the array of microwave antennas have also been considered in numerical simulations while results of some of the cases are also verified experimentally. Similarly, the Thesis discusses the ultrasonic modeling with numerical solution and experimental verification at different power levels and positioning of the ultrasonic transducer. These models present the results in the form of temperature & pressure distribution and productivity enhancement. For numerical simulations, a Finite Element Analysis based simulator has been used. Main focus was on the design and orientation of the array of microwave and ultrasonic sources and the validation of results with experiments. Results showed a good fit between the numerical simulations and the experimental procedures proving the efficiency of microwave and ultrasonic sources. It has also been found that microwaves and ultrasonic waves are beneficial for specific reservoir characterizations.

  16. Transcranial brain stimulation to promote functional recovery after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Raffin, Estelle; Siebner, Hartwig R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) is increasingly used to enhance the recovery of function after stroke. The purpose of this review is to highlight and discuss some unresolved questions that need to be addressed to better understand and exploit the potential of NIBS as a therapeutic tool. Recent findings Recent meta-analyses showed that the treatment effects of NIBS in patients with stroke are rather inconsistent across studies and the evidence for therapeutic efficacy is still uncertain. This raises the question of how NIBS can be developed further to improve its therapeutic efficacy. Summary This review addressed six questions: How does NIBS facilitate the recovery of function after stroke? Which brain regions should be targeted by NIBS? Is there a particularly effective NIBS modality that should be used? Does the location of the stroke influence the therapeutic response? How often should NIBS be repeated? Is the functional state of the brain during or before NIBS relevant to therapeutic efficacy of NIBS? We argue that these questions need to be tackled to obtain sufficient mechanistic understanding of how NIBS facilitates the recovery of function. This knowledge will be critical to fully unfold the therapeutic effects of NIBS and will pave the way towards adaptive NIBS protocols, in which NIBS is tailored to the individual patient. PMID:24296641

  17. Novel methods to study aphasia recovery after stroke.

    PubMed

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2013-01-01

    The neural mechanisms that support aphasia recovery are not yet fully understood. It has been argued that the functional reorganization of language networks after left-hemisphere stroke may engage perilesional left brain areas as well as homologous right-hemisphere regions. In this chapter, we summarize how noninvasive brain stimulation can be used to elucidate mechanisms of plasticity in language networks and enhance language recovery after stroke. We first outline some basic principles of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We then present evidence from studies in healthy volunteers for a causal role of the right hemisphere in different language functions. Finally, we review recent studies that used TMS or tDCS to promote language recovery after stroke. Most of these studies applied noninvasive brain stimulation over contralateral right-hemisphere areas to suppress maladaptive plasticity. However, some studies also suggest that right-hemisphere regions may beneficially contribute to recovery in some patients. More recently, some investigators have targeted perilesional brain regions to promote neurorehabilitation. In sum, these studies indicate that language recovery after stroke may integrate left- as well as right-hemisphere brain regions to a different degree over the time course of recovery. Although the results of these preliminary studies provide some evidence that noninvasive brain stimulation may promote aphasia recovery, the reported effect sizes are not striking. Future studies on larger patient collectives are needed to explore whether noninvasive brain stimulation can enhance language functions at a level that is clinically relevant. PMID:23859969

  18. Renal Function Recovery and HIV Viral Suppression Following Tenofovir Discontinuation for Renal Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Romo, Francine Touzard; Aziz, Mariam; Livak, Britt; Huesgen, Emily; Colton, Ben; Flanigan, Timothy P.; Max, Blake; Kessler, Harold

    2015-01-01

    Background Tenofovir associated nephrotoxicity (TDFN) is well recognized. This study describes the trend of renal function recovery and virologic consequences after cessation of tenofovir (TDF) for suspected TDFN. Methods This was a retrospective chart review of 241 patients who underwent HLA-B*5701 allele testing between January 2007-December 2010. Demographics and clinical characteristics were compared at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 month between patients that continued and discontinued TDF. Factors associated with renal function recovery were assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Results Eighty patients were identified with TDFN; 84% male, 74% African American (AA) with a median age of 55 years, and median length of TDF use for 122 weeks. Renal recovery at 12 months differed in those who stopped versus (vs.) continued TDF (83% vs. 57% p=0.03). In a crude analysis, baseline chronic kidney disease was negatively associated with renal recovery (p=0.01). An adjusted analysis showed that those who stopped TDF had 3.76 higher odds of renal recovery compared to those who did not stop TDF (95% CI: 1.26-11.27, p=0.02). There were no significant differences in virologic response after switching TDF to an alternative agent. Conclusion In this mostly AA male population with suspected TDFN, discontinuation of TDF was strongly associated with renal function recovery without affecting viral suppression. PMID:26097776

  19. New recovery method for sequential decoder buffer overflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, Kaneyasu; Yamashita, Atsushi; Katch, Tadayoshi; Ageno, Yuzo

    A new recovery method for the buffer overflow of the Fano sequential decoder, which utilizes a systematic code, and its test results are presented. The buffer overflow is an unavoidable problem in the Fano sequential decoder. The new method provides a quick recovery by using a path metric. This features in a quick search of the correct information bit-sequence, to make the decoder resynchronize the encoder. A flexible sequential decoder is realized to evaluate this method. This decoder gets a coding gain of 5.3 dB at 10,000 bit error rate when rate-1/2, constraint length 35 and 3-bit quantization of the code symbols are used. Test results prove this recovery method is effective.

  20. Renal Function Recovery with Total Artificial Heart Support.

    PubMed

    Quader, Mohammed A; Goodreau, Adam M; Shah, Keyur B; Katlaps, Gundars; Cooke, Richard; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna F; Wolfe, Luke G; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure patients requiring total artificial heart (TAH) support often have concomitant renal insufficiency (RI). We sought to quantify renal function recovery in patients supported with TAH at our institution. Renal function data at 30, 90, and 180 days after TAH implantation were analyzed for patients with RI, defined as hemodialysis supported or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m. Between January 2008 and December 2013, 20 of the 46 (43.5%) TAH recipients (age 51 ± 9 years, 85% men) had RI, mean preoperative eGFR of 48 ± 7 ml/min/1.73 m. Renal function recovery was noted at each follow-up interval: increment in eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m) at 30, 90, and 180 days was 21 ± 35 (p = 0.1), 16.5 ± 18 (p = 0.05), and 10 ± 9 (p = 0.1), respectively. Six patients (30%) required preoperative dialysis. Of these, four recovered renal function, one remained on dialysis, and one died. Six patients (30%) required new-onset dialysis. Of these, three recovered renal function and three died. Overall, 75% (15 of 20) of patients' renal function improved with TAH support. Total artificial heart support improved renal function in 75% of patients with pre-existing significant RI, including those who required preoperative dialysis. PMID:26418207

  1. Narrative methods in a study of trauma recovery.

    PubMed

    Hall, Joanne M

    2011-01-01

    Multiple narrative perspectives can guide narrative research. The complexity of health narratives presents a significant challenge. Trauma recovery accounts are health narratives demonstrating successes as well as struggles. In this article, I describe a large-scale narrative study in which specific qualitative methods were combined to fit research aims, stories elicited, and emergent questions in the analysis process. Under my direction, an interdisciplinary team conducted this constructivist, feminist, narrative study describing the trauma recovery process. The study was focused on success or thriving in women surviving childhood maltreatment. I took an advocacy stance in favor of participants' interests, as is commensurate with a critical feminist standpoint. Through initial analyses the research team constructed a trauma recovery process termed "becoming resolute." Subanalyses were focused on key relationships, life trajectories, self-strategies, and perceptual changes. My purpose is to explain the various kinds and levels of analysis used here to provide options for others studying recovery narratives. PMID:20663939

  2. Functional Recovery of Older Hip-Fracture Patients after Interdisciplinary Intervention Follows Three Distinct Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Ming-Yueh; Shyu, Yea-Ing L.; Liang, Jersey

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effects of an interdisciplinary intervention on the trajectories of functional recovery among older patients with hip fracture during 2 years after hospitalization. Design and Methods In a randomized controlled trial with 24-month follow-up, 162 patients [greater than or equal to]60 years were enrolled after hip-fracture…

  3. Functional Recovery of Older Hip-Fracture Patients after Interdisciplinary Intervention Follows Three Distinct Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Ming-Yueh; Shyu, Yea-Ing L.; Liang, Jersey

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effects of an interdisciplinary intervention on the trajectories of functional recovery among older patients with hip fracture during 2 years after hospitalization. Design and Methods In a randomized controlled trial with 24-month follow-up, 162 patients [greater than or equal to]60 years were enrolled after hip-fracture

  4. Method for silicon nitride precursor solids recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Crosbie, G.M.; Predmesky, R.L.; Nicholson, J.M.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus are provided for collecting reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow from a reaction situs, wherein the gaseous outflow includes a condensable vapor. A condensate is formed of the condensable vapor on static mixer surfaces within a static mixer heat exchanger. The entrained reaction product solids are captured in the condensate which can be collected for further processing, such as return to the reaction situs. In production of silicon imide, optionally integrated into a production process for making silicon nitride ceramic, wherein reactant feed gas comprising silicon halide and substantially inert carrier gas is reacted with liquid ammonia in a reaction vessel, silicon imide reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow comprising residual carrier gas and vaporized ammonia can be captured by forming a condensate of the ammonia vapor on static mixer surfaces of a static mixer heat exchanger. 3 figs.

  5. Method for silicon nitride precursor solids recovery

    DOEpatents

    Crosbie, Gary M.; Predmesky, Ronald L.; Nicholson, John M.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus are provided for collecting reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow from a reaction situs, wherein the gaseous outflow includes a condensable vapor. A condensate is formed of the condensable vapor on static mixer surfaces within a static mixer heat exchanger. The entrained reaction product solids are captured in the condensate which can be collected for further processing, such as return to the reaction situs. In production of silicon imide, optionally integrated into a production process for making silicon nitride caramic, wherein reactant feed gas comprising silicon halide and substantially inert carrier gas is reacted with liquid ammonia in a reaction vessel, silicon imide reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow comprising residual carrier gas and vaporized ammonia can be captured by forming a condensate of the ammonia vapor on static mixer surfaces of a static mixer heat exchanger.

  6. A combined method of silver recovery from zinc cakes

    SciTech Connect

    Otrozhdenova, L.A.; Malinovskaya, N.D.; Maksimov, I.I.; Khodov, N.D.; Kuznetzov, O.K.

    1995-12-31

    While processing zinc cakes with application of Weltz-technology silver remains unrecovered and goes into clinker. In order to prevent it the elaboration of effective silver recovery methods from zinc cakes before their weltzing becomes necessary. A combined method of zinc cakes treatment with leaching and flotation in a closed water circuit has been worked out. The technological scheme envisages the use of sulphgydril collectors in combination and comprises a series of consecutive operations: leaching, filtration, precipitation (cementing) and flotation. Total silver recovery is approximately 94%. The technology elaborated has been realized in a project by which the construction of a new shop is under way now.

  7. Physiological response to water immersion: a method for sport recovery?

    PubMed

    Wilcock, Ian M; Cronin, John B; Hing, Wayne A

    2006-01-01

    Recovery from exercise can be an important factor in performance during repeated bouts of exercise. In a tournament situation, where athletes may compete numerous times over a few days, enhancing recovery may provide a competitive advantage. One method that is gaining popularity as a means to enhance post-game or post-training recovery is immersion in water. Much of the literature on the ability of water immersion as a means to improve athletic recovery appears to be based on anecdotal information, with limited research on actual performance change. Water immersion may cause physiological changes within the body that could improve recovery from exercise. These physiological changes include intracellular-intravascular fluid shifts, reduction of muscle oedema and increased cardiac output (without increasing energy expenditure), which increases blood flow and possible nutrient and waste transportation through the body. Also, there may be a psychological benefit to athletes with a reduced cessation of fatigue during immersion. Water temperature alters the physiological response to immersion and cool to thermoneutral temperatures may provide the best range for recovery. Further performance-orientated research is required to determine whether water immersion is beneficial to athletes. PMID:16937951

  8. Maximising functional recovery following hip fracture in frail seniors.

    PubMed

    Beaupre, Lauren A; Binder, Ellen F; Cameron, Ian D; Jones, C Allyson; Orwig, Denise; Sherrington, Cathie; Magaziner, Jay

    2013-12-01

    This review discusses factors affecting recovery following hip fracture in frail older people as well as interventions associated with improved functional recovery. Prefracture function, cognitive status, co-morbidities, depression, nutrition and social support impact recovery and may interact to affect post-fracture outcome. There is mounting evidence that exercise is beneficial following hip fracture with higher-intensity/duration programmes showing more promising outcomes. Pharmacologic management for osteoporosis has benefits in preventing further fractures, and interest is growing in pharmacologic treatments for post-fracture loss of muscle mass and strength. A growing body of evidence suggests that sub-populations - those with cognitive impairment, residing in nursing homes or males - also benefit from rehabilitation after hip fracture. Optimal post-fracture care may entail the use of multiple interventions; however, more work is needed to determine optimal exercise components, duration and intensity as well as exploring the impact of multimodal interventions that combine exercise, pharmacology, nutrition and other interventions. PMID:24836335

  9. Biphasic microtiter method for campylobacter recovery and enumeration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a biphasic method for recovery and enumeration of campylobacters. The biphasic system was composed of 96-well microtiter plates containing Campy-Line Agar (CLA) prepared 2X for all ingredients except for 1X agar (0.1 ml per well). Samples of pure Campylobacter spp. isolates, post-chi...

  10. Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride

    DOEpatents

    Kreuzmann, Alvin B. (Cincinnati, OH)

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions wherein the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

  11. Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride

    DOEpatents

    Kreuzmann, A.B.

    1982-10-27

    The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions whereas the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

  12. Apparatus and method for improving spin recovery on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, II (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Previous research on airplane spinning and recovery has shown that at potential spin conditions (high angles of attack with rotation) the horizontal tail, depending upon its location, can create a wake about the vertical tail and rudder which can adversely affect airplane spin and recovery characteristics. Many methods of altering the tail geometry to modify these interference effects were investigated for improving airplane spin and recovery characteristics. Examples of changes includes relocation of the horizontal tail, increasing control surface travel, and use of a 'flip tail' that can be rotated to extreme angles for spin recovery. A device is provided which improves the spin recovery characteristics of aircraft which involves attaching the horizontal tail of the aircraft to the aircraft such that a gap remains between the root end of each horizontal tail section and the fuselage or vertical tail of the aircraft. The gaps measure between about 15 and 30 percent of the tail semispan. The gaps may be covered by shields which are released should a spin occur.

  13. Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.

    2007-10-01

    Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields that are developed using water flooding and thermal steam treatment are considered. The results of pilot testing of processes based on these methods carried out at West Siberian and Chinese oil fields are analysed. The attention is focused on the processes that make use of surfactant blends and alkaline buffer solutions and thermotropic gel-forming systems.

  14. Cortical recovery of swallowing function in wound botulism

    PubMed Central

    Teismann, Inga K; Steinstraeter, Olaf; Warnecke, Tobias; Zimmermann, Julian; Ringelstein, Erich B; Pantev, Christo; Dziewas, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    Background Botulism is a rare disease caused by intoxication leading to muscle weakness and rapidly progressive dysphagia. With adequate therapy signs of recovery can be observed within several days. In the last few years, brain imaging studies carried out in healthy subjects showed activation of the sensorimotor cortex and the insula during volitional swallowing. However, little is known about cortical changes and compensation mechanisms accompanying swallowing pathology. Methods In this study, we applied whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) in order to study changes in cortical activation in a 27-year-old patient suffering from wound botulism during recovery from dysphagia. An age-matched group of healthy subjects served as control group. A self-paced swallowing paradigm was performed and data were analyzed using synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM). Results The first MEG measurement, carried out when the patient still demonstrated severe dysphagia, revealed strongly decreased activation of the somatosensory cortex but a strong activation of the right insula and marked recruitment of the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC). In the second measurement performed five days later after clinical recovery from dysphagia we found a decreased activation in these two areas and a bilateral cortical activation of the primary and secondary sensorimotor cortex comparable to the results seen in a healthy control group. Conclusion These findings indicate parallel development to normalization of swallowing related cortical activation and clinical recovery from dysphagia and highlight the importance of the insula and the PPC for the central coordination of swallowing. The results suggest that MEG examination of swallowing can reflect short-term changes in patients suffering from neurogenic dysphagia. PMID:18462489

  15. Recovery of Adrenal Function in Patients with Glucocorticoids Induced Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong Ha; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Jung, Jung Hwa; Hahm, Jong Ryeal

    2016-01-01

    Background The chronic use of glucocorticoids (GC) suppresses function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and often results in secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI). The present study aimed to determine the recovery rate of adrenal function in patients with secondary AI within 1 to 2 years and to assess the factors predictive of adrenal function recovery. Methods This was a retrospective observational study that enrolled patients diagnosed with GC-induced secondary AI between 2007 and 2013. AI was defined by peak serum cortisol levels <18 µg/dL during a standard-dose short synacthen test (SST). A follow-up SST was performed after 1 to 2 years, and responders were defined as those with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated peak serum cortisol levels ≥18 µg/dL. Results Of the total 34 patients diagnosed with GC-induced secondary AI at first, 20 patients (58.8%) recovered normal adrenal function by the time of the follow-up SST (median follow-up period, 16.5 months). Although the baseline serum ACTH and cortisol levels at the first SST did not differ between responders and non-responders, the incremental cortisol response during the first SST was higher in responders than that of non-responders (7.88 vs. 3.56, P<0.01). Additionally, higher cortisol increments during the first SST were an independent predictive factor of the adrenal function recovery (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 2.46; P<0.05). Conclusion In the present study, adrenal function recovery was achieved frequently in patients with GC-induced secondary AI within 1 to 2 years. Additionally, an incremental cortisol response at the first SST may be an important predictive factor of adrenal function recovery. PMID:26676337

  16. Glycerol accelerates recovery of barrier function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fluhr, J W; Gloor, M; Lehmann, L; Lazzerini, S; Distante, F; Berardesca, E

    1999-11-01

    Two studies were performed to evaluate the influence of glycerol on the recovery of damaged stratum corneum barrier function. Measurements of transepidermal water loss and capacitance were conducted in a 3-day follow-up after tape stripping (study 1) and a 7-day follow-up after a barrier damage due to a repeated washing with sodium lauryl sulphate. In study 1 a faster barrier repair (transepidermal water loss) was monitored in glycerol-treated sites. Significant differences between glycerol open vs. untreated and glycerol occluded vs. untreated were observed at day 3. Stratum corneum hydration showed significantly higher values in the sites treated with glycerol+occlusion, compared with all other sites. In study 2 a faster barrier repair was seen in glycerol-treated sites, with significant differences against untreated and base-treated sites 7 days after the end of the treatment. Stratum corneum hydration showed highest values in the glycerol treated sites after 3 days of treatment. Glycerol creates a stimulus for barrier repair and improves the stratum corneum hydration; stratum corneum hydration is not strictly related to barrier homeostasis and can be optimized by different mechanisms and pathways. The observed effects were based on the modulation of barrier repair and were not biased by the humectant effect of glycerol. As the glycerol-induced recovery of barrier function and stratum corneum hydration were observed even 7 days after the end of treatment, glycerol can be regarded as a barrier stabilizing and moisturizing compound. PMID:10598752

  17. Method of Weighted Temperature Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kot, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    A method of weighted temperature function is proposed for approximate solution of boundary-value problems of nonstationary heat conduction on the basis of identical-equality systems for the indicated function. This method was investigated in solving symmetric problems formulated in the general form with the first-, second-, and third-kind boundary conditions. The data obtained point to the high efficiency and convergence of the method of weighted temperature function.

  18. Laboratory methods for enhanced oil recovery core floods

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, E.P.; Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1994-03-01

    Current research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is investigating microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) systems for application to oil reservoirs. Laboratory corefloods are invaluable in developing technology necessary for a field application of MEOR. Methods used to prepare sandstone cores for experimentation, coreflooding techniques, and quantification of coreflood effluent are discussed in detail. A technique to quantify the small volumes of oil associated with laboratory core floods is described.

  19. Geothermal Energy Production With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Allen; Darlow, Rick; Sanchez, Angel; Pierce, Michael; Sellers, Blake

    2014-12-19

    The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface heat recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power production, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.

  20. Recovery of function after brain injury in man.

    PubMed

    Teuber, H L

    1975-01-01

    Late after-effects of cerebral trauma are difficult to study because patients tend to be seen for persisting symptoms, and not simply for their lesions. We have tried to avoid this bias by recalling periodically, over the years, 520 men with known brain injuries incurred in World War II or in Korea or Vietnam. These men are seen irrespective of clinical need and all undergo intensive behavioural and neurological assessment, which still continues. For such groups, recovery is impressive, though one third shows persistent intellectual loss. In addition, some tasks reveal specific deficits enduring unchanged, after th first 2-3 yr, for the 20-30 yr of follow-up (e.g. visual field defects, certain auditory discrimination losses, trouble on various complex perceptual tasks). These lasting deficits are linked to the site and size of focal injury, often representing remnants of more severe initially-present disorders. The extent of recovery is correlated with age at the time of trauma, the youngest faring best. Extension of such studies to cases of early brain damage (birth to five years), as indicated by hemiparesis, shows the familiar 'escape' of language after early left-hemisphere lesions but this is achieved at a price, the price being borne by non-verbal functions that normally depend on the integrity of the right hemisphere. PMID:1045991

  1. Landmarks in erectile function recovery after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Weyne, Emmanuel; Castiglione, Fabio; Van der Aa, Frank; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Albersen, Maarten

    2015-05-01

    The description of the nerve-sparing technique of radical prostatectomy by Walsh was one of the major breakthroughs in the surgical treatment of prostate cancer in the 20(th) century. However, despite this advance and consequent technological refinements to nerve-sparing surgery, a large proportion of men still suffer from erectile dysfunction (ED) as a complication of prostatectomy. A plethora of therapeutic approaches have been proposed to optimize erectile function recovery in these patients. Several preclinical and translational studies have shown benefits of therapies including PDE5 inhibitor (PDE5I) treatment, immunomodulation, neurotrophic factor administration, and regenerative techniques, such as stem cell therapy, in animal models. However, most of these approaches have either failed to translate to clinical use or have yet to be studied in human subjects. Penile rehabilitation with PDE5Is is currently the most commonly used clinical strategy, in spite of the absence of solid clinical evidence to support its use. PMID:25868558

  2. Functional recovery in spinal cord injured rats using polypyrrole/iodine implants and treadmill training.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Mejia, Laura; Morales, Juan; Cruz, Guillermo J; Olayo, Mara-Guadalupe; Olayo, Roberto; Daz-Ruz, Araceli; Ros, Camilo; Mondragn-Lozano, Rodrigo; Snchez-Torres, Stephanie; Morales-Guadarrama, Axayacatl; Fabela-Snchez, Omar; Salgado-Ceballos, Hermelinda

    2015-07-01

    Currently, there is no universally accepted treatment for traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), a pathology that can cause paraplegia or quadriplegia. Due to the complexity of TSCI, more than one therapeutic strategy may be necessary to regain lost functions. Therefore, the present study proposes the use of implants of mesoparticles (MPs) of polypyrrole/iodine (PPy/I) synthesized by plasma for neuroprotection promotion and functional recovery in combination with treadmill training (TT) for neuroplasticity promotion and maintenance of muscle tone. PPy/I films were synthesized by plasma and pulverized to obtain MPs. Rats with a TSCI produced by the NYU impactor were divided into four groups: Vehicle (saline solution); MPs (PPy/I implant); Vehicle-TT (saline solution + TT); and MPs-TT (PPy/I implant + TT). The vehicle or MPs (30 ?L) were injected into the lesion site 48 h after a TSCI. Four days later, TT was carried out 5 days a week for 2 months. Functional recovery was evaluated weekly using the BBB motor scale for 9 weeks and tissue protection using histological and morphometric analysis thereafter. Although the MPs of PPy/I increased nerve tissue preservation (P = 0.03) and promoted functional recovery (P = 0.015), combination with TT did not produce better neuroprotection, but significantly improved functional results (P = 0.000) when comparing with the vehicle group. So, use these therapeutic strategies by separately could stimulate specific mechanisms of neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, but when using together they could mainly potentiate different mechanisms of neuronal plasticity in the preserved spinal cord tissue after a TSCI and produce a significant functional recovery. The implant of mesoparticles of polypyrrole/iodine into the injured spinal cord displayed good integration into the nervous tissue without a response of rejection, as well as an increased in the amount of preserved tissue and a better functional recovery than the group without transplant after a traumatic spinal cord injury by contusion in rats. The relevance of the present results is that polypyrrole/iodine implants were synthesized by plasma instead by conventional chemical or electrochemical methods. Synthesis by plasma modifies physicochemical properties of polypyrrole/iodine implants, which can be responsible of the histological response and functional results. Furthermore, no additional molecules or trophic factors or cells were added to the implant for obtain such results. Even more, when the implant was used together with physical rehabilitation, better functional recovery was obtained than that observed when these strategies were used by separately. PMID:26169188

  3. Characterization of Engineered L1 Retrotransposition Events: The Recovery Method.

    PubMed

    Cano, David; Morell, Santiago; Pulgarin, Andres J; Amador, Suyapa; Garcia-Pérez, Jose L

    2016-01-01

    Long Interspersed Element class 1 retrotransposons (LINE-1 or L1) are abundant Transposable Elements in mammalian genomes and their mobility continues to impact the human genome. The development of engineered retrotransposition assays has been instrumental to understand how these elements are regulated and to identify domains involved in the process of retrotransposition. Additionally, the modification of a retrotransposition indicator cassette has allowed developing straightforward approaches to characterize the site of new L1 insertions in cultured cells. In this chapter, we describe a method termed "L1-recovery" that has been used to characterize the site of insertion on engineered L1 retrotransposition events in cultured mammalian cells. Notably, the recovery assay is based on a genetic strategy and avoids the use of PCR and thus reduces to a minimum the appearance of false positives/artifacts. PMID:26895054

  4. An efficient method of noroviruses recovery from oysters and clams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Deqing; Ma, Liping; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Lin; Su, Laijin; Li, Xinguang

    2013-03-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are widespread causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Outbreaks of NoVs caused diseases are commonly ascribed to the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The concentration and RNA extraction of NoVs are crucial steps of detecting NoVs in shellfish. This study aimed to select a simple, rapid and highly efficient recovery method of NoVs detection with real-time RT-PCR. Four methods of recovering GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs from spiked digestive tissues of oysters and clams, respectively, were compared, of them, the method involving proteinase K and PEG 8000 was found the most efficient. With this method, 9.3% and 13.1% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from oysters and 9.6% and 12.3% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from clams, respectively. This method was further used to detect NoVs in 84 oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) and 86 clams ( Ruditapes philippinarum) collected from 10 coastal cities in China from Jan. 2011 to Feb. 2012. The NoVs isolation rates were 10.47% of clams (9/86) and 7.14% of oysters (6/84). All the detected NoVs belonged to genotype GII. The NoVs recovery method selected is efficient for NoVs detection in oysters and clams.

  5. Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation

    DOEpatents

    Sisemore, Clyde J. (Livermore, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

  6. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOEpatents

    Easterly, C.E.; Vass, A.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1997-01-28

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  7. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOEpatents

    Easterly, Clay E. (Knoxville, TN); Vass, Arpad A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  8. Functional Task Test: 2. Spaceflight-Induced Cardiovascular Change and Recovery During NASA's Functional Task Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Tiffany; Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, Michael; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of the functional task test (FTT) is to correlate spaceflight-induced physiological adaptations with changes in performance of high priority exploration mission-critical tasks. This presentation will focus on the recovery from fall/stand test (RFST), which measures the cardiovascular response to the transition from the prone posture (simulated fall) to standing in normal gravity, as well as heart rate (HR) during 11 functional tasks. As such, this test describes some aspects of spaceflight-induced cardiovascular deconditioning and the course of recovery in Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. The sensorimotor and neuromuscular components of the FTT are described in two separate abstracts: Functional Task Test 1 and 3.

  9. Methods for improved recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Yousef, A E; Ryser, E T; Marth, E H

    1988-01-01

    Method of homogenization (Waring blender versus stomacher), type of diluent (tryptose broth [TB] versus aqueous 2% trisodium citrate), and temperature of diluent (20 versus 40 degrees C) were compared for recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from freshly made and ripened Colby cheese. By using direct plating on McBride listeria agar, significantly higher numbers of L. monocytogenes were recovered when cheese samples were (i) homogenized for 2 min with the blender rather than the stomacher (P less than 0.01), (ii) diluted in trisodium citrate rather than TB (P less than 0.01), and (iii) diluted in diluents at 40 rather than 20 degrees C (P less than 0.05). Based on these results, a new diluent/enrichment medium was developed by adding 2% trisodium citrate to TB (TBC). Despite superior results with the blender, biosafety concerns led to use of the stomacher for homogenization of cheese samples; hence, the stomaching time was increased to 3 min. Results obtained by direct plating indicated that recovery of L. monocytogenes from Colby cheese and from curd samples taken during manufacture of brick cheese increased when samples were diluted 1:10 in TBC at 45 degrees C and stomached for 3 min, as compared with similarly treated samples diluted in TB at 25 degrees C. A similar comparison of both diluents for recovery of L. monocytogenes from cold-pack cheese food yielded bacterial counts which were not significantly different. Recovery of L. monocytogenes from cold-enriched (at 4 degrees C for up to 8 weeks) samples of Colby cheese and cold-pack cheese food was generally similar for samples homogenized in TBC or TB. PMID:3145706

  10. Extensive remyelination of the CNS leads to functional recovery

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, I. D.; Brower, A.; Kondo, Y.; Curlee, J. F.; Schultz, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Remyelination of the CNS in multiple sclerosis is thought to be important to restore conduction and protect axons against degeneration. Yet the role that remyelination plays in clinical recovery of function remains unproven. Here, we show that cats fed an irradiated diet during gestation developed a severe neurologic disease resulting from extensive myelin vacuolation and subsequent demyelination. Despite the severe myelin degeneration, axons remained essentially intact. There was a prompt endogenous response by cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage to the demyelination, with remyelination occurring simultaneously. Cats that were returned to a normal diet recovered slowly so that by 34 months they were neurologically normal. Histological examination of the CNS at this point showed extensive remyelination that was especially notable in the optic nerve where almost the entire nerve was remyelinated. Biochemical analysis of the diet and tissues from affected cats showed no dietary deficiencies or toxic accumulations. Thus, although the etiology of this remarkable disease remains unknown, it shows unequivocally that where axons are preserved remyelination is the default pathway in the CNS in nonimmune-mediated demyelinating disease. Most importantly, it confirms the clinical relevance of remyelination and its ability to restore function. PMID:19342494

  11. Neurogenic bladder following myelopathies: Has it any correlation with neurological and functional recovery?

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Nitin; Gupta, Anupam; Taly, Arun B.; Khanna, Meeka; Kumar, Sushruth Nagesh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To observe neurogenic bladder pattern in patients with myelopathy by performing urodynamic study (UDS) and to observe whether it has any correlation with functional and neurological recovery. Patients and Methods: This prospective study was conducted with 90 patients with myelopathy, both traumatic and non-traumatic (males = 65) in a university tertiary research hospital in India between January 2011 and December 2013. Mean age was 33.5 ± 13.2 years (range 15-65 years), mean duration of injury was 82.63 ± 88.3 days (range 14-365 days) and mean length of stay (LOS) in the rehabilitation unit 42.5 ± 23.3 days (range 14-130 days). The urodynamic study was performed in all the patients to assess the neurogenic bladder pattern. Management was based on the UDS findings. Functional recovery was assessed using Barthel index (BI) scores and spinal cord independence measures (SCIM) scores. Neurological recovery was assessed using ASIA impairment scale (AIS). We tried to correlate neurogenic bladder patterns with recovery. Results: Fifty patients (55.6%) had overactive detrusor with 25 each had detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) and synergic sphincter. Thirty-eight patients had hypoactive/acontractile detrusor and two had normal studies. No significant correlation observed between neurogenic bladder pattern and change in BI scores (P = 0.696), SCIM scores (P = 0.135) or change in ASIA status (P = 0.841) in the study. Conclusions: More than half of the patients with myelopathies had overactive detrusor with or without dyssynergic sphincter according to the urodynamic study. Neurogenic bladder patterns had no significant correlation with functional and neurological recovery in these patients. PMID:25540531

  12. Assessment of functional recovery of sciatic nerve in rats submitted to low-level laser therapy with different fluences. An experimental study: laser in functional recovery in rats.

    PubMed

    Marcolino, Alexandre Marcio; Barbosa, Rafael Incio; das Neves, Lais Mara Siqueira; Mazzer, Nilton; de Jesus Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto; de Cssia Registro Fonseca, Marisa

    2013-12-01

    Peripheral nerve lesions caused sensory and motor deficits along the distribution of the injured nerve. Numerous researches have been carried out to enhance and/or accelerate the recovery of such lesions. The objective of this study was to assess the functional recovery of sciatic nerve in rats subjected to different fluences of low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Thirty-six animals were randomly divided into four groups: one consisting of sham rats and three others irradiated with progressive fluencies of 10J/cm(2), 40J/cm(2) and 80J/cm(2) of laser AsGaAl (830nm) for 21 consecutive days. They were evaluated by the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI) method. The crush injury was performed by using a portable device with dead weight of 5,000g whose load was applied for 10min. A digital camera was used to record the footprints left on the acrylic track, before surgery and after, on the 7th, 14th, and 21st days. The results also showed that on the 7th day, there was a difference between the groups irradiated with 40J/cm(2), when compared with the sham group (p??0.05). It was possible to observe that the LLLT at fluency of 40J/cm(2) and 80J/cm(2) had a positive influence on the acceleration of the functional nerve recovery. PMID:24426674

  13. Multimodal imaging of recovery of functional networks associated with reversal of paradoxical herniation after cranioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Heier, Linda A.; Schiff, Nicholas D.

    2010-01-01

    Cranioplasty following decompressive craniectomy is reported to result in improved blood flow, cerebral metabolism, and concomitant neurological recovery. We used multimodal functional imaging technology in a patient with marked neurological recovery after cranioplasty, specifically, imaging of functional MRI resting state networks, auditory responses, and cerebral metabolism before and after cranioplasty. Significant functional changes observed in the images correlated with the subjects neurological recovery. Our results suggest a link between recovery of cerebral metabolism and intrinsic brain mechanisms of cerebral vascular integration and resting state networks identified with functional MRI following cranioplasty. PMID:21724116

  14. Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, David O. (Albuquerque, NM); Montoya, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Wayland, Jr., James R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the CSAMT technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (a) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (b) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the connate water of the production field; (c) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (d) mathematically comparing the maps from step (a) and step (c) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

  15. Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1984-03-30

    A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (1) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (2) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the conate water of the production field; (3) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (4) mathematically comparing the maps from step (1) and step (3) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

  16. Single well tracer method to evaluate enhanced recovery

    DOEpatents

    Sheely, Jr., Clyde Q.; Baldwin, Jr., David E.

    1978-01-01

    Data useful to evaluate the effectiveness of or to design an enhanced recovery process (the recovery process involving mobilizing and moving hydrocarbons through a hydrocarbon-bearing subterranean formation from an injection well to a production well by injecting a mobilizing fluid into the injection well) are obtained by a process which comprises sequentially: determining hydrocarbon saturation in the formation in a volume in the formation near a well bore penetrating the formation, injecting sufficient of the mobilizing fluid to mobilize and move hydrocarbons from a volume in the formation near the well bore penetrating the formation, and determining by the single well tracer method a hydrocarbon saturation profile in a volume from which hydrocarbons are moved. The single well tracer method employed is disclosed by U.S. Pat. No. 3,623,842. The process is useful to evaluate surfactant floods, water floods, polymer floods, CO.sub.2 floods, caustic floods, micellar floods, and the like in the reservoir in much less time at greatly reduced costs, compared to conventional multi-well pilot test.

  17. The Effects of Rehabilitation Protocol on Functional Recovery After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dragicevic-Cvjetkovic, Dragana; Jandric, Slavica; Bijeljac, Sinisa; Palija, Stanislav; Manojlovic, Slavko; Talic, Goran

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of rehabilitation protocol which corresponds to surgical technique results in optimal postoperative outcome and functional recovery of patients to a pre-injury level of activity. The aim of this paper is to show the effects of the official rehabilitation protocol in our Institute on functional recovery of patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Patients and methods: In prospective study, we evaluated 70 males after ACL reconstruction using hamstring graft. Patients were divided into two groups according to the manner of conducting the postoperative rehabilitation. Group A consisted of 35 patients that followed postoperative rehabilitation according to the rehabilitation protocol. Group B also 35 patients, which did not undergo the rehabilitation protocol. We evaluated thigh muscle circumference and modified Tegner Lysholm Score, preoperatively and postoperatively after 1,3,6 and 12 months. In the statistical analysis, the Studentov T-test was used. Results: In the first postoperative month, the difference between groups in thigh muscle circumference is statistically significant (p<0,05). This difference between groups is statistically highly significant after 3, 6, and 12 months postoperative (p<0,01). Results of the modified Tegner Lysholm Score is statistically highly significant in 1, 3 and 6 postoperative months in patients from the experimental group (p<0,01). Conclusion: The positive effects of the rehabilitation protocol results in significant increase of the thigh muscle circumference and faster functional recovery of patients after ACL reconstruction. PMID:25568570

  18. Recovery Time of Platelet Function After Aspirin Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeonghun; Kim, Jeong Kyung; Kim, Jeong Hee; Dunuu, Tsagaan; Park, Sang-Ho; Park, Sang Joon; Kang, Ji Yeon; Choi, Rak Kyeong; Hyon, Min Su

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Inappropriate antiplatelet therapy discontinuation increases the risk of thrombotic complications and bleeding after dental procedures. To determine the platelet reactivity recovery time after aspirin withdrawal in vivo, our study was conducted in patients with low-risk cardiovascular disease who can stop aspirin administration following the guidelines stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians. The time it takes for platelet activity to normalize and the diagnostic accuracy of testing methods were assessed for a residual antiplatelet activity with multiple electrode aggregometry. Our study included patients with clinically indicated hypertension preparing for a dental extraction procedure. Materials and methods A total of 212 patients not taking aspirin (control group) and 248 patients with hypertension receiving long-time aspirin treatment at a 100-mg daily dose were prospectively included in the study, which involved stopping aspirin intake before dental extraction. The residual platelet activity and dental bleeding in patients who stopped aspirin intake were analyzed and compared with those of the control group. In addition, platelet reactivity recovery time and bleeding risk in patients who stopped taking aspirin every 24 hours for 0 to 5 days (0–143 hours) before dental extraction was also assessed. Results Platelet reactivity normalized 96 hours after aspirin withdrawal. The cut-off value of 49 arbitrary units in the arachidonic acid platelet aggregation test excluded the effect of aspirin with 91% sensitivity and 66% specificity. AUC showed 0.86 (P < 0.001) diagnostic accuracy. The immediate bleeding complications in all treatment groups were similar to those seen in the control group and were successfully managed with local hemostatic measures. Conclusions The antiplatelet effects of aspirin disappeared 96 hours after aspirin withdrawal in our study, and dental extractions may be safely performed in this period when appropriate local hemostatic measures are taken. Based on these results, a shorter aspirin intake cessation period may be allowable in complex dental procedures and surgery for which a longer aspirin intake cessation period (7–10 days) is recommended based on the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines. PMID:25031665

  19. Hydrogeophysical methods for analyzing aquifer storage and recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Minsley, B.J.; Ajo-Franklin, J.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Morgan, F.D.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrogeophysical methods are presented that support the siting and monitoring of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) systems. These methods are presented as numerical simulations in the context of a proposed ASR experiment in Kuwait, although the techniques are applicable to numerous ASR projects. Bulk geophysical properties are calculated directly from ASR flow and solute transport simulations using standard petrophysical relationships and are used to simulate the dynamic geophysical response to ASR. This strategy provides a quantitative framework for determining site-specific geophysical methods and data acquisition geometries that can provide the most useful information about the ASR implementation. An axisymmetric, coupled fluid flow and solute transport model simulates injection, storage, and withdrawal of fresh water (salinity {approx}500 ppm) into the Dammam aquifer, a tertiary carbonate formation with native salinity approximately 6000 ppm. Sensitivity of the flow simulations to the correlation length of aquifer heterogeneity, aquifer dispersivity, and hydraulic permeability of the confining layer are investigated. The geophysical response using electrical resistivity, time-domain electromagnetic (TEM), and seismic methods is computed at regular intervals during the ASR simulation to investigate the sensitivity of these different techniques to changes in subsurface properties. For the electrical and electromagnetic methods, fluid electric conductivity is derived from the modeled salinity and is combined with an assumed porosity model to compute a bulk electrical resistivity structure. The seismic response is computed from the porosity model and changes in effective stress due to fluid pressure variations during injection/recovery, while changes in fluid properties are introduced through Gassmann fluid substitution.

  20. Neuromotor recovery from stroke: computational models at central, functional, and muscle synergy level

    PubMed Central

    Casadio, Maura; Tamagnone, Irene; Summa, Susanna; Sanguineti, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Computational models of neuromotor recovery after a stroke might help to unveil the underlying physiological mechanisms and might suggest how to make recovery faster and more effective. At least in principle, these models could serve: (i) To provide testable hypotheses on the nature of recovery; (ii) To predict the recovery of individual patients; (iii) To design patient-specific optimal therapy, by setting the treatment variables for maximizing the amount of recovery or for achieving a better generalization of the learned abilities across different tasks. Here we review the state of the art of computational models for neuromotor recovery through exercise, and their implications for treatment. We show that to properly account for the computational mechanisms of neuromotor recovery, multiple levels of description need to be taken into account. The review specifically covers models of recovery at central, functional and muscle synergy level. PMID:23986688

  1. Neuromotor recovery from stroke: computational models at central, functional, and muscle synergy level.

    PubMed

    Casadio, Maura; Tamagnone, Irene; Summa, Susanna; Sanguineti, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Computational models of neuromotor recovery after a stroke might help to unveil the underlying physiological mechanisms and might suggest how to make recovery faster and more effective. At least in principle, these models could serve: (i) To provide testable hypotheses on the nature of recovery; (ii) To predict the recovery of individual patients; (iii) To design patient-specific "optimal" therapy, by setting the treatment variables for maximizing the amount of recovery or for achieving a better generalization of the learned abilities across different tasks. Here we review the state of the art of computational models for neuromotor recovery through exercise, and their implications for treatment. We show that to properly account for the computational mechanisms of neuromotor recovery, multiple levels of description need to be taken into account. The review specifically covers models of recovery at central, functional and muscle synergy level. PMID:23986688

  2. Combined geophysical methods for mapping infiltration pathways at the Aurora Water Aquifer recharge and recovery site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasper, Cameron A.

    Although aquifer recharge and recovery systems are a sustainable, decentralized, low cost, and low energy approach for the reclamation, treatment, and storage of post- treatment wastewater, they can suffer from poor infiltration rates and the development of a near-surface clogging layer within infiltration ponds. One such aquifer recharge and recovery system, the Aurora Water site in Colorado, U.S.A, functions at about 25% of its predicted capacity to recharge floodplain deposits by flooding infiltration ponds with post-treatment wastewater extracted from river bank aquifers along the South Platte River. The underwater self-potential method was developed to survey self-potential signals at the ground surface in a flooded infiltration pond for mapping infiltration pathways. A method for using heat as a groundwater tracer within the infiltration pond used an array of in situ high-resolution temperature sensing probes. Both relatively positive and negative underwater self-potential anomalies are consistent with observed recovery well pumping rates and specific discharge estimates from temperature data. Results from electrical resistivity tomography and electromagnetics surveys provide consistent electrical conductivity distributions associated with sediment textures. A lab method was developed for resistivity tests of near-surface sediment samples. Forward numerical modeling synthesizes the geophysical information to best match observed self- potential anomalies and provide permeability distributions, which is important for effective aquifer recharge and recovery system design, and optimization strategy development.

  3. Recovery after prolonged sleep deprivation: residual effects of slow-release caffeine on recovery sleep, sleepiness and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Maurice; Batjat, Denise; Coste, Olivier; Doireau, Philippe; Chauffard, Franoise; Enslen, Marc; Lagarde, Didier; Pierard, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    A long work schedule often results in sleep deprivation, sleepiness, impaired performance and fatigue. We investigated the residual effects of slow-release caffeine (SRC) on sleep, sleepiness and cognitive performance during a 42-hour recovery period following a 64-hour continuous wakefulness period in 16 healthy males, according to a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Three hundred milligrams of SRC or placebo was given twice a day at 21:00 and 9:00 during the first 48 h of wakefulness. Recovery sleep was analysed with electroencephalography (EEG) and wrist actigraphy, daytime sleepiness with continuous EEG, sleep latency tests and actigraphy and cognitive functions with computerized tests from the NATO AGARD STRES battery. Both drug groups exhibited almost the same sleep architecture with a rebound of slow-wave sleep during both recovery nights and of REM sleep during the second night. Wakefulness level and cognitive functions were similarly impaired in both groups on the first day of recovery and partially returned to baseline on the second. To conclude, SRC appears to have no unwanted side-effects on recovery sleep, wakefulness and cognitive performance after a long period of sleep deprivation and might therefore be a useful choice over other psychostimulants for a long work schedule. PMID:15627809

  4. Functional Recovery Measures for Spinal Cord Injury: An Evidence-Based Review for Clinical Practice and Research

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kim; Aito, Sergio; Atkins, Michal; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Charlifue, Susan; Curt, Armin; Ditunno, John; Glass, Clive; Marino, Ralph; Marshall, Ruth; Mulcahey, Mary Jane; Post, Marcel; Savic, Gordana; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Catz, Amiram

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: The end goal of clinical care and clinical research involving spinal cord injury (SCI) is to improve the overall ability of persons living with SCI to function on a daily basis. Neurologic recovery does not always translate into functional recovery. Thus, sensitive outcome measures designed to assess functional status relevant to SCI are important to develop. Method: Evaluation of currently available SCI functional outcome measures by a multinational work group. Results: The 4 measures that fit the prespecified inclusion criteria were the Modified Barthel Index (MBI), the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the Quadriplegia Index of Function (QIF), and the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM). The MBI and the QIF were found to have minimal evidence for validity, whereas the FIM and the SCIM were found to be reliable and valid. The MBI has little clinical utility for use in the SCI population. Likewise, the FIM applies mainly when measuring burden of care, which is not necessarily a reflection of functional recovery. The QIF is useful for measuring functional recovery but only in a subpopulation of people with SCI, and substantial validity data are still required. The SCIM is the only functional recovery outcome measure designed specifically for SCI. Conclusions: The multinational work group recommends that the latest version of the SCIM (SCIM III) continue to be refined and validated and subsequently implemented worldwide as the primary functional recovery outcome measure for SCI. The QIF may continue to be developed and validated for use as a supplemental tool for the nonambulatory tetraplegic population. PMID:18581660

  5. Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1987-02-03

    A method is described for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front produced by enhanced oil recovery techniques in a production field, to allow its detection by a controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) technique, comprising the steps of: (a) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (b) injecting a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; the dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity and being soluble in the conate water of the production field; (c) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while the dopant material is moving therethrough; and (d) mathematically comparing the maps from step (a) and step (c) to determine the location of the thermal front.

  6. The effects of ADL on recovery of swallowing function in stroke patients after acute phase.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, E; Tohara, H; Hino, T; Sato, M; Hiraba, H; Abe, K; Ueda, K

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between the degree of recovery from dysphagia and changes in functional independence measure (FIM) items in stroke patients after acute phase by conducting a historical cohort study, because none explains the effects of activities of daily living (ADL) on recovery of swallowing function. Study patients included hospitalised stroke patients after acute phase in whom dysphagia was confirmed (n = 72). Change in nutritional intake method score was examined for association with age, days from stroke onset to admission, length of hospital stay and change in FIM score. Moreover, to examine characteristics of patients who were removed from tube feeding, all patients who required tube feeding at the time of admission were divided into two groups comprising those who required tube feeding at discharge and those who did not. A significant and positive association was observed between change in nutritional intake method and FIM for all items other than self-care of bathing, locomotion of stairs and problem solving. Patients who were removed from tube feeding were significantly younger than those who required tube feeding at the time of discharge (P < 0.041) and also showed significantly higher FIM scores for transfer and all cognitive FIM items at the time of admission (P < 0.05). This study demonstrated that nutritional intake methods improve in conjunction with FIM improvements in patients with dysphagia following the acute phase of stroke. Our results suggest that the age and cognitive function may influence the recovery of patient ability of oral intake. PMID:25041090

  7. Recovery of orthometric heights from ellipsoidal heights using offsets method over Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odera, Patroba Achola; Fukuda, Yoichi

    2015-12-01

    One of the most important applications of a geoid model is a recovery of orthometric heights from ellipsoidal heights (normally obtained from GNSS). The application of the geoid model for recovering orthometric heights from ellipsoidal heights is normally achieved by fitting the geoid model to a local vertical datum. The fitting procedure is usually accomplished by least squares collocation (LSC), using planar or spherical covariance functions. This procedure warps the gravimetric geoid model onto the local vertical datum, hence the local geoid model derived by this procedure, though convenient for local applications, it is not an equipotential surface. We propose offsets method for practical orthometric height recovery from a geoid model. The proposed procedure is more realistic because it does not constrain the local geoid to be coincident to the local vertical datum. We compare the performance of plannar fitting and offsets methods over Japan using a cross-validation procedure. Results show that offsets method performs better than the normally used planar fitting in the recovery of orthometric heights from ellipsoidal heights using a geoid model. The standard deviations of the differences between established and converted orthometric heights at randomly selected GPS/levelling test points over Japan are ±4 and ±3 cm for planar fitting and offsets methods, respectively. The offsets method is therefore more appropriate for converting ellipsoidal heights to orthometric heights than the planar fitting in the area of study.

  8. Social recovery and therapeutic mission.

    PubMed

    Whorley, L W

    1984-11-01

    Social recovery is defined as restoration to effective social functioning. The Social Recovery Inventory, an instrument derived from role and social exchange theories, is demonstrated as a method of measuring recovery vis--vis occupational, familial, and civic functioning. Conditions for social recovery are examined, with discussion of implications for treatment, in-service training, and administration. PMID:6526546

  9. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  10. Carbohydrate vs protein supplementation for recovery of neuromuscular function following prolonged load carriage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study examined the effect of carbohydrate and whey protein supplements on recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage. Methods Ten male participants (body mass: 81.5 ± 10.5 kg, age: 28 ± 9 years, O2max: 55.0 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) completed three treadmill walking tests (2 hr, 6.5 km·h-1), carrying a 25 kg backpack consuming 500 ml of either: (1) Placebo (flavoured water) [PLA], (2) 6.4% Carbohydrate Solution [CHO] or (3) 7.0% Whey Protein Solution [PRO]. For three days after load carriage, participants consumed two 500 ml supplement boluses. Muscle performance was measured before and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after load carriage, during voluntary and electrically stimulated contractions. Results Isometric knee extension force decreased immediately after load carriage with no difference between conditions. During recovery, isometric force returned to pre-exercise values at 48 h for CHO and PRO but at 72 h for PLA. Voluntary activation decreased immediately after load carriage and returned to pre-exercise values at 24 h in all conditions (P = 0.086). During recovery, there were no differences between conditions for the change in isokinetic peak torque. Following reductions immediately after load carriage, knee extensor and flexor peak torque (60°·s-1) recovered to pre-exercise values at 72 h. Trunk extensor and flexor peak torque (15°·s-1) recovered to pre-exercise values at 24 h (P = 0.091) and 48 h (P = 0.177), respectively. Conclusion Recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage is improved with either carbohydrate or whey protein supplementation for isometric contractions but not for isokinetic contractions. PMID:20157419

  11. [Effects of exogenous apelin-12 on functional and metabolic recovery of isolated rat heart after ischemia].

    PubMed

    Pisarenko, O I; Shulzhenko, V S; Peloge?kina, Iu A; Studneva, I M; Kkhatri, D N; Bespalova, Zh D; Az'muko, A A; Sidorova, M V; Pal'keeva, M E

    2010-01-01

    Apelin 12 (A 12) was synthesized by the automatic solid phase method with the use of Fmoc technology. The synthesized peptide was purified by preparative HPLC and identified by 1H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Effects of A 12 were studied on isolated working rat hearts perfused with Krebs buffer (KB) containing 11 mM glucose. The hearts were subjected to 35 min global ischemia followed by 30 min reperfusion. A short term infusion of A 12 in KB (35, 70, 140, 280, and 560 M) was applied prior to ischemia (A 12 I) or at onset of reperfusion (A 12 R). KB infusion without A 12 was used in control. A 12 infusion enhanced recovery of coronary flow, contractile and pump function during reperfusion with the largest augmentation of these indices in A 12 I group. Thus after infusion of 140 M A 12 recovery of coronary flow, the LVDP HR product and cardiac output were 92+/-5, 81+/-5, and 77+/-5% of the initial values, respectively, in A 12 I group, 83+/-6, 61+/-5, and 52+/-5% in A 12 R group, and 76+/-2, 42+/-2, 32+/-2% in control by the end of reperfusion. Both A 12 groups exhibited significant reduction of ischemia/reperfusion contracture compared with control. Enhanced functional recovery in A 12 I group was combined with a decrease in lactate dehydrogenase leakage in perfusate at early reperfusion (at the average by 36+/-5% compared with control, <0.05). Preischemic infusion of 140 M A 12 markedly increased myocardial ATP content and twice decreased AMP accumulation at the end of reperfusion. These alterations resulted in enhanced preservation of the total adenine nucleotide pool (to 81+/-5% of the initial value vs. 66+/-3% in control, <0.05) and better recovery of the energy charge potential (0.77+/-0.01 vs. 0.60+/-0.06 in control, <0.005) in reperfused hearts. At the end of experiment myocardial lactate and lactate/pyruvate ratio were on average 5 fold lower in A 12 I treated hearts compared with control one and did not differ significantly from initial values. This finding implies that better restoration of energy metabolism in hearts protected with A 12 before ischemia might be attributed to ameliorated glucose oxidation during reperfusion. Therefore enhanced functional recovery of ischemic heart and lesser cell membrane damage induced by A 12 were associated with maintaining high energy phosphates, particularly ATP, in reperfused myocardium. Cardioprotective mechanisms of apelin action are discussed. PMID:21118179

  12. Thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Stahl, Charles R.; Gibson, Michael A.; Knudsen, Christian W.

    1987-01-01

    A thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus for exploiting deep well reservoirs utilizes electric downhole steam generators to provide supplemental heat to generate high quality steam from hot pressurized water which is heated at the surface. A downhole electric heater placed within a well bore for local heating of the pressurized liquid water into steam is powered by electricity from the above-ground gas turbine-driven electric generators fueled by any clean fuel such as natural gas, distillate or some crude oils, or may come from the field being stimulated. Heat recovered from the turbine exhaust is used to provide the hot pressurized water. Electrical power may be cogenerated and sold to an electric utility to provide immediate cash flow and improved economics. During the cogeneration period (no electrical power to some or all of the downhole units), the oil field can continue to be stimulated by injecting hot pressurized water, which will flash into lower quality steam at reservoir conditions. The heater includes electrical heating elements supplied with three-phase alternating current or direct current. The injection fluid flows through the heater elements to generate high quality steam to exit at the bottom of the heater assembly into the reservoir. The injection tube is closed at the bottom and has radial orifices for expanding the injection fluid to reservoir pressure.

  13. Evaluation of the Curve-fitting method and the Horner-plot method for estimation of the true formation temperature using temperature recovery logging data

    SciTech Connect

    Hyodo, Masami; Takasugi, Shinji

    1995-01-26

    This paper describes the method to estimate the true formation temperature using temperature recovery logging data after the well reach to total depth (T.D.). The method designated as ''Curve-fitting method (CFM)'' is based on mathematical model proposed by Middleton (1979, 1982). The accuracy and applicability of this method are evaluated with several field data and compared advantageously with the Horner-plot method. Then, real-time data acquisition system including interpretation software has also been successfully developed. As a conclusion, the followings are confirmed: (1) The developed CFM can be applicable to the estimation of the true formation temperature even using 24 hours temperature recovery data, although the Horner-plot method might need up to 120 hours recovery data, usually. (2) Though depending upon the quality of the data and/or number of the temperature recovery logging data, it might be possible to estimate the true formation temperature using less than 24 hours recovery data. Because, the computer program of this system has the function to decide when the measurement of temperature recovery logging should be finished.

  14. Recovery of Echocardiographic Function in Children with Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Results from the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry

    PubMed Central

    Everitt, Melanie D.; Sleeper, Lynn A.; Lu, Minmin; Canter, Charles E.; Pahl, Elfriede; Wilkinson, James D.; Addonizio, Linda J.; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Rossano, Joseph; Singh, Rakesh K.; Lamour, Jacqueline; Webber, Steven A.; Colan, Steven D.; Margossian, Renee; Kantor, Paul F.; Jefferies, John L.; Lipshultz, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the incidence of and predictors for recovery of normal echocardiographic function among children with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Background Most children with idiopathic DCM have poor outcomes; however, some improve. Methods We studied children less than 18 years old in the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry who had both depressed left ventricular (LV) function (fractional shortening [FS] or ejection fraction [EF] z-score 2) at diagnosis and who had at least one follow-up echocardiogram 30 days to 2 years from the initial echocardiogram. We estimated the cumulative incidence and predictors of normalization. Results Among 868 children who met inclusion criteria, 741 (85%) had both echocardiograms. At 2 years, 22% had recovered normal LV function and size; 51% had died or undergone heart transplant (median, 3.2 months), and 27% had persistently abnormal echocardiograms. Younger age (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.95) and lower LVEDD z-score (0.75; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.84) independently predicted normalization. Nine children (9%) with normal LV function and size within 2 years of diagnosis later underwent heart transplant or died. Conclusions Despite marked LV dilation and depressed function initially, children with idiopathic DCM can recover normal LV size and function, particularly those younger and with less LV dilation at diagnosis. Investigations related to predictors for recovery, such as gene associations, serum markers, and the impact of medical therapy or ventricular unloading with assist devices are important next steps. Longer follow-up after normalization is warranted as cardiac failure can recur. Clinical Trials Registration # NCT00005391 PMID:24561146

  15. Insertion trauma and recovery of function after cochlear implantation: Evidence from objective functional measures.

    PubMed

    Pfingst, Bryan E; Hughes, Aaron P; Colesa, Deborah J; Watts, Melissa M; Strahl, Stefan B; Raphael, Yehoash

    2015-12-01

    Partial loss and subsequent recovery of cochlear implant function in the first few weeks following cochlear implant surgery has been observed in previous studies using psychophysical detection thresholds. In the current study, we explored this putative manifestation of insertion trauma using objective functional measures: electrically-evoked compound action potential (ECAP) amplitude-growth functions (ECAP amplitude as a function of stimulus level). In guinea pigs implanted in a hearing ear with good post-implant hearing and good spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) survival, consistent patterns of ECAP functions were observed. The slopes of ECAP growth functions were moderately steep on the day of implant insertion, decreased to low levels over the first few days after implantation and then increased slowly over several weeks to reach a relatively stable level. In parallel, ECAP thresholds increased over time after implantation and then recovered, although more quickly, to a relatively stable low level as did thresholds for eliciting a facial twitch. Similar results were obtained in animals deafened but treated with an adenovirus with a neurotrophin gene insert that resulted in good SGN preservation. In contrast, in animals implanted in deaf ears that had relatively poor SGN survival, ECAP slopes reached low levels within a few days after implantation and remained low. These results are consistent with the idea that steep ECAP growth functions require a healthy population of auditory nerve fibers and that cochlear implant insertion trauma can temporarily impair the function of a healthy SGN population. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:26209185

  16. PLANKTON RESPIRATION AND BIOMASS AS FUNCTIONAL INDICATORS OF RECOVERY IN RESTORED PRAIRIE WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reliable ecological indicators of wetland integrity are necessary for assessing recovery of restored wetlands, yet little consensus currently exists on which indicators are most appropriate. We employed indicators derived from simple, standard measures of ecosystem function selec...

  17. Factors Associated With Neurological Recovery of Brainstem Function Following Postoperative Conformal Radiation Therapy for Infratentorial Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Chitti, Ramana M.; Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping; Sanford, Robert A.; Khan, Raja B.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To identify risk factors associated with incomplete neurological recovery in pediatric patients with infratentorial ependymoma treated with postoperative conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods: The study included 68 patients (median age +- standard deviation of 2.6 +- 3.8 years) who were followed for 5 years after receiving CRT (54-59.4 Gy) and were assessed for function of cranial nerves V to VII and IX to XII, motor weakness, and dysmetria. The mean (+- standard deviation) brainstem dose was 5,487 (+-464) cGy. Patients were divided into four groups representing those with normal baseline and follow-up, those with abnormal baseline and full recovery, those with abnormal baseline and partial or no recovery, and those with progressive deficits at 12 (n = 62 patients), 24 (n = 57 patients), and 60 (n = 50 patients) months. Grouping was correlated with clinical and treatment factors. Results: Risk factors (overall risk [OR], p value) associated with incomplete recovery included gender (male vs. female, OR = 3.97, p = 0.036) and gross tumor volume (GTV) (OR/ml = 1.23, p = 0.005) at 12 months, the number of resections (>1 vs. 1; OR = 23.7, p = 0.003) and patient age (OR/year = 0.77, p = 0.029) at 24 months, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting (Yes vs. No; OR = 21.9, p = 0.001) and GTV volume (OR/ml = 1.18, p = 0.008) at 60 months. An increase in GTV correlated with an increase in the number of resections (p = 0.001) and CSF shunting (p = 0.035); the number of resections correlated with CSF shunting (p < 0.0001), and male patients were more likely to undergo multiple tumor resections (p = 0.003). Age correlated with brainstem volume (p < 0.0001). There were no differences in outcome based on the absolute or relative volume of the brainstem that received more than 54 Gy. Conclusions: Incomplete recovery of brainstem function after CRT for infratentorial ependymoma is related to surgical morbidity and the volume and the extent of tumor.

  18. Advanced Echocardiography in Adult Zebrafish Reveals Delayed Recovery of Heart Function after Myocardial Cryoinjury

    PubMed Central

    Kossack, Mandy; Juergensen, Lonny; Fuchs, Dieter; Katus, Hugo A.; Hassel, David

    2015-01-01

    Translucent zebrafish larvae represent an established model to analyze genetics of cardiac development and human cardiac disease. More recently adult zebrafish are utilized to evaluate mechanisms of cardiac regeneration and by benefiting from recent genome editing technologies, including TALEN and CRISPR, adult zebrafish are emerging as a valuable in vivo model to evaluate novel disease genes and specifically validate disease causing mutations and their underlying pathomechanisms. However, methods to sensitively and non-invasively assess cardiac morphology and performance in adult zebrafish are still limited. We here present a standardized examination protocol to broadly assess cardiac performance in adult zebrafish by advancing conventional echocardiography with modern speckle-tracking analyses. This allows accurate detection of changes in cardiac performance and further enables highly sensitive assessment of regional myocardial motion and deformation in high spatio-temporal resolution. Combining conventional echocardiography measurements with radial and longitudinal velocity, displacement, strain, strain rate and myocardial wall delay rates after myocardial cryoinjury permitted to non-invasively determine injury dimensions and to longitudinally follow functional recovery during cardiac regeneration. We show that functional recovery of cryoinjured hearts occurs in three distinct phases. Importantly, the regeneration process after cryoinjury extends far beyond the proposed 45 days described for ventricular resection with reconstitution of myocardial performance up to 180 days post-injury (dpi). The imaging modalities evaluated here allow sensitive cardiac phenotyping and contribute to further establish adult zebrafish as valuable cardiac disease model beyond the larval developmental stage. PMID:25853735

  19. Examining Late-Life Functional Limitation Trajectories and Their Associations With Underlying Onset, Recovery, and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Identify common trajectories of physical functional limitation and mortality among Taiwanese 50 and older as they age, link these to underlying transitions in onset, recovery, and mortality, and assess associations between trajectories and a set of risk factors. Method. Longitudinal data from 4 waves of the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Middle-Aged and Elderly in Taiwan, collected between 1996 and 2007, are analyzed using a summary measure indicating difficulty with one or more of 7 physical functions. A group-based trajectory model identifies common trajectories. Shorter term transition probabilities that underlie multiperiod trajectories are examined. Multinomial regression associates risk factors with trajectory group membership. Results. Best fitting the data is a model with 3 groups characterized as early, mid, and late onset of limitation. Roughly half the population follows the trajectory of mid onset and a quarter each of the other 2. Females and those least educated are most likely to belong to the early-onset group. Discussion. The analysis advances understanding of late-life functioning by focusing on the heterogeneity of functional limitation experience, appropriately accounting for the relation between functional limitation and mortality and linking long-term patterns with short-term changes in functional limitation. PMID:24531526

  20. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingyuan E; Glover, Gary H

    2015-09-01

    Since its inception in 1992, Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has become an indispensible tool for studying cognition in both the healthy and dysfunctional brain. FMRI monitors changes in the oxygenation of brain tissue resulting from altered metabolism consequent to a task-based evoked neural response or from spontaneous fluctuations in neural activity in the absence of conscious mentation (the "resting state"). Task-based studies have revealed neural correlates of a large number of important cognitive processes, while fMRI studies performed in the resting state have demonstrated brain-wide networks that result from brain regions with synchronized, apparently spontaneous activity. In this article, we review the methods used to acquire and analyze fMRI signals. PMID:26248581

  1. A New Method to Evaluate Streamflow Recovery After a Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzle, S. W.

    2004-12-01

    Under conditions of environmental change, occurrences of drought are expected to increase in number and severity. A river basin does not behave linearly to precipitation, and many drought indices, such as the Palmer Drought Severity Index (Palmer, 1965), are based on meteorological conditions, since they were developed for agricultural purposes rather than hydrological behavior of a river basin. A new method is presented to answer the question "When does the streamflow recover to normal conditions after a drought?", a question raised by many water managers who rely on adequate streamflow and reservoir levels, particularly municipalities, industry, power stations, and irrigation districts. The recession index is an indicator for the overall water basin conditions, and integrates all streamflow generating conditions, including the status of groundwater, wetlands, and basin wetness (or antecedent watershed conditions). The method is based on recession analysis of daily streamflow utilizing the RECESS program (Rutledge, 2004). The recession index K is calculated for all streamflow available records. Analysis of recession indices of streamflow in the Battle River Basin, a prairie watershed in central Alberta, Canada, was carried out using a minimum length of recession curves of 5 days. The analysis reveals drought years have associated low median annual K values, measured in days per log cycle, while normal to wet years have high median annual K values. The suggested method can be used to evaluate the overall status of a river basin in terms of runoff conditions by relating the latest measured recession index to the historical record. This gives an indication if, in terms of streamflow response, a river basin is still in a drought, in a phase of recovery, or fully recovered. Water managers can then predict water availability for the coming months. References: Palmer, W. C, 1965: Meteorological Drought. Res. Paper No.45, 58pp., Dept. of Commerce, Washington, D.C. Rutledge, A.T. and Mesko, 1996, Estimated hydrologic characteristics of shallow aquifer systems in the Valley and Ridge, the Blue Ridge, and the Piedmont physiographic provinces based on analysis of streamflow recession and base flow: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1422-B, 58 p. Rutledge, A.T. 2004 Program user guide for RECESS. water.usgs.gov/ogw/recess/UserManualRECESS.pdf

  2. Recent developments in functional and structural imaging of aphasia recovery after stroke.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, Marcus; Harnish, Stacy; Conway, Tim; Crosson, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional and structural neuroimaging techniques can increase our knowledge about the neural processes underlying recovery from post-stroke language impairments (aphasia). AIMS: In the present review we highlight recent developments in neuroimaging research of aphasia recovery. MAIN CONTRIBUTION: We review (a) cross-sectional findings in aphasia with regard to local brain functions and functional connectivity, (b) structural and functional imaging findings using longitudinal (intervention) paradigms, (c) new adjunct treatments that are guided by functional imaging techniques (e.g., electrical brain stimulation) and (d) studies related to the prognosis of language recovery and treatment responsiveness after stroke. CONCLUSIONS: More recent developments in data acquisition and analysis foster better understanding and more realistic modelling of the neural substrates of language recovery after stroke. Moreover, the combination of different neuroimaging protocols can provide converging evidence for neuroplastic brain remodelling during spontaneous and treatment-induced recovery. Researchers are also beginning to use sophisticated imaging analyses to improve accuracy of prognosis, which may eventually improve patient care by allowing for more efficient treatment planning. Brain stimulation techniques offer a new and exciting way to improve the recovery potential after stroke. PMID:21532927

  3. Monitoring Functional Impairment and Recovery after Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats by fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Niskanen, Juha-Pekka; Airaksinen, Antti M.; Sierra, Alejandra; Huttunen, Joanna K.; Nissinen, Jari; Karjalainen, Pasi A.; Pitknen, Asla

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The present study was designed to test a hypothesis that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to monitor functional impairment and recovery after moderate experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). Moderate TBI was induced by lateral fluid percussion injury in adult rats. The severity of brain damage and functional recovery in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) was monitored for up to 56 days using fMRI, cerebral blood flow (CBF) by arterial spin labeling, local field potential measurements (LFP), behavioral assessment, and histology. All the rats had reduced blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses during the 1st week after trauma in the ipsilateral S1. Forty percent of these animals showed recovery of the BOLD response during the 56 day follow-up. Unexpectedly, no association was found between the recovery in BOLD response and the volume of the cortical lesion or thalamic neurodegeneration. Instead, the functional recovery occurred in rats with preserved myelinated fibers in layer VI of S1. This is, to our knowledge, the first study demonstrating that fMRI can be used to monitor post-TBI functional impairment and consequent spontaneous recovery. Moreover, the BOLD response was associated with the density of myelinated fibers in the S1, rather than with neurodegeneration. The present findings encourage exploration of the usefulness of fMRI as a noninvasive prognostic biomarker for human post-TBI outcomes and therapy responses. PMID:23259713

  4. Seismic data two-step recovery approach combining sparsity-promoting and hyperbolic Radon transform methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hanchuang; Chen, Shengchang; Ren, Haoran; Liang, Donghui; Zhou, Huamin; She, Deping

    2015-06-01

    In current research of seismic data recovery problems, the sparsity-promoting method usually produces an insufficient recovery result at the locations of null traces. The HRT (hyperbolic Radon transform) method can be applied to problems of seismic data recovery with approximately hyperbolic events. Influenced by deviations of hyperbolic characteristics between real and ideal travel-time curves, some spurious events are usually introduced and the recovery effect of intermediate and far-offset traces is worse than that of near-offset traces. Sparsity-promoting recovery is primarily dependent on the sparsity of seismic data in the sparse transform domain (i.e. on the local waveform characteristics), whereas HRT recovery is severely affected by the global characteristics of the seismic events. Inspired by the above conclusion, a two-step recovery approach combining sparsity-promoting and time-invariant HRT methods is proposed, which is based on both local and global characteristics of the seismic data. Two implementation strategies are presented in detail, and the selection criteria of the relevant strategies is also discussed. Numerical examples of synthetic and real data verify that the new approach can achieve a better recovery effect by simultaneously overcoming the shortcomings of sparsity-promoting recovery and HRT recovery.

  5. 20 CFR 404.527 - Additional methods for recovery of title II benefit overpayments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Collection Standards in 31 CFR 903.2 or 903.3. (2) We have not entered into an installment payment... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional methods for recovery of title II... or Recovery of Overpayments, and Liability of a Certifying Officer § 404.527 Additional methods...

  6. Some alternate methods of energy recovery from reverse osmosis plants

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, D.B.; Singh, R.

    1982-07-01

    Only random information is available on the subject of energy recovery from reverse osmosis plants. This study includes an attempt to collect this information and bring it up to date. The equipment discussed includes classic turbines, reversed pump turbines, integrated hydroturbines and work exchangers, including integrated pump and power recovery units. A short description of each type of equipment is given, followed by advantages and disadvantages, including their state of development. Plants that are or will be using them are enumerated, as are some development possibilities.

  7. Localized and Sustained Delivery of Erythropoietin from PLGA Microspheres Promotes Functional Recovery and Nerve Regeneration in Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Jianheng; Zhang, Licheng; Long, Anhua; Zhang, Lihai; Tang, Peifu

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) has been demonstrated to exert neuroprotective effects on peripheral nerve injury recovery. Though daily intraperitoneal injection of EPO during a long period of time was effective, it was a tedious procedure. In addition, only limited amount of EPO could reach the injury sites by general administration, and free EPO is easily degraded in vivo. In this study, we encapsulated EPO in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres. Both in vitro and in vivo release assays showed that the EPO-PLGA microspheres allowed sustained release of EPO within a period of two weeks. After administration of such EPO-PLGA microspheres, the peripheral nerve injured rats had significantly better recovery compared with those which received daily intraperitoneal injection of EPO, empty PLGA microspheres, or saline treatments. This was supported by the functional, electrophysiological, and histological evaluations of the recovery done at week 8 postoperatively. We conclude that sustained delivery of EPO could be achieved by using EPO-PLGA microspheres, and such delivery method could further enhance the recovery function of EPO in nerve injury recovery. PMID:25821803

  8. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a promising strategy for peripheral nerve repair.

  9. Cold water immersion enhances recovery of submaximal muscle function after resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Llion A; Nosaka, Kazunori; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2014-10-15

    We investigated the effect of cold water immersion (CWI) on the recovery of muscle function and physiological responses after high-intensity resistance exercise. Using a randomized, cross-over design, 10 physically active men performed high-intensity resistance exercise followed by one of two recovery interventions: 1) 10 min of CWI at 10C or 2) 10 min of active recovery (low-intensity cycling). After the recovery interventions, maximal muscle function was assessed after 2 and 4 h by measuring jump height and isometric squat strength. Submaximal muscle function was assessed after 6 h by measuring the average load lifted during 6 sets of 10 squats at 80% of 1 repetition maximum. Intramuscular temperature (1 cm) was also recorded, and venous blood samples were analyzed for markers of metabolism, vasoconstriction, and muscle damage. CWI did not enhance recovery of maximal muscle function. However, during the final three sets of the submaximal muscle function test, participants lifted a greater load (P < 0.05, Cohen's effect size: 1.3, 38%) after CWI compared with active recovery. During CWI, muscle temperature decreased ?7C below postexercise values and remained below preexercise values for another 35 min. Venous blood O2 saturation decreased below preexercise values for 1.5 h after CWI. Serum endothelin-1 concentration did not change after CWI, whereas it decreased after active recovery. Plasma myoglobin concentration was lower, whereas plasma IL-6 concentration was higher after CWI compared with active recovery. These results suggest that CWI after resistance exercise allows athletes to complete more work during subsequent training sessions, which could enhance long-term training adaptations. PMID:25121612

  10. Recovery of adrenocortical function following treatment of tuberculous Addison's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Penrice, J.; Nussey, S. S.

    1992-01-01

    We report two cases of Addison's disease occurring in association with proven Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Both were treated with modern chemotherapeutic agents and were shown to have developed normal adrenal cortical function after several years. We suggest that adrenal function should be tested after modern anti-tuberculous therapy of this disease. PMID:1589379

  11. The use of recovery methods post-exercise.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Thomas; Ekblom, Bjorn

    2005-06-01

    Competitive soccer engages many of the body's systems to a major extent. The musculoskeletal, nervous, immune and metabolic systems are stressed to a point where recovery strategies post-exercise become influential in preparing for the next match. Intense activity at a 7-day training camp causes participants to experience lowered concentrations of non-killer cells and T-helper cells. Two consecutive games in 24 h produce disturbances in the testosterone-cortisol ratio. When competitive schedules are congested, the recovery process should be optimized for performance capabilities to be restored to normal as soon as possible. There is evidence that glycogen stores are reduced near to depletion at the end of a soccer game and that a diet high in carbohydrates can aid recovery. Water alone is not the best means of restoring body fluids, since carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks display better intestinal absorption and reduce urine output. Some relief from muscle soreness may be achieved by means of a warm-down. Deep-water running regimens can replace conventional physical training in the days after competition. Massage, cryotherapy and alternative therapies have not been shown to be consistently effective. It is concluded that optimizing recovery post-exercise depends on a combination of factors that incorporate a consideration of individual differences and lifestyle factors. The procedures to facilitate recovery processes should start immediately the game or training finishes. Match administrators and tournament planners should consider the stressful consequences for players in periods of congested fixtures and alleviate the physiological strain as far as possible by allowing 72 h between competitive games. This frequency of competition is unlikely to be sustainable in the long term. PMID:16195010

  12. Functionalization of micromodels with kaolinite for investigation of low salinity oil-recovery processes.

    PubMed

    Song, Wen; Kovscek, Anthony R

    2015-08-21

    Sandstone formations are ubiquitous in both aquifers and petroleum reservoirs, of which clay is a major constituent. The release of clay particles from pore surfaces as a result of reduced injection fluid salinity can greatly modify the recovery of hydrocarbons from subsurface formations by shifting the wettability properties of the rock. In this paper we demonstrate a microfluidic approach whereby kaolinite is deposited into a two-dimensional microfluidic network (micromodel) to enable direct pore-scale, real-time visualization of fluid-solid interactions with representative pore-geometry and realistic surface interactions between the reservoir fluids and the formation rock. Structural characterization of deposited kaolinite particles agrees well with natural modes of occurrence in Berea sandstones; hence, the clay deposition method developed in this work is validated. Specifically, more than 90% of the deposited clay particles formed pore-lining structures and the remainder formed pore bridging structures. Further, regions of highly concentrated clay deposition likely leading to so-called Dalmatian wetting properties were found throughout the micromodel. Two post-deposition treatments are described whereby clay is adhered to the silicon surface reversibly and irreversibly resulting in microfluidic systems that are amenable to studies on (i) the fundamental mechanisms governing the increased oil recovery during low salinity waterfloods and (ii) the effect of a mixed-wet surface on oil recovery, respectively. The reversibly functionalized platform is used to determine the conditions at which stably adhered clay particles detach. Specifically, injection brine salinity below 6000 ppm of NaCl induced kaolinite particle release from the silicon surface. Furthermore, when applied to an aged system with crude oil, the low salinity waterflood recovered an additional 14% of the original oil in place compared to waterflooding with the formation brine. PMID:26151880

  13. Congenital Cataract: Progress in Surgical Treatment and Postoperative Recovery of Visual Function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingyue; Xiao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Congenital cataract is a common cause of childhood low vision or blindness worldwide. Early surgery should be performed in sensitive vision development period to avoid vision deprivation in cases of strabismus and nystagmus development. Postoperative recovery of visual function is of great significance for these patients and should include proper postoperative aphakia correction by the application of a contact lens and secondary implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). Patients should receive amblyopic training after surgery to improve their postoperative visual acuity. Although recent advances in surgery techniques and materials have brought better postoperative visual acuity and less complications, a few postoperative complications can still hamper vision condition and vision development, including posterior capsule opacification and secondary glaucoma. Surgery in early infancy are risk factors for these two complications. Life-long follow-up is essential for these patients. Further study will continue to address the surgery timing issue and methods that prevent postoperative complications. PMID:26390798

  14. The General Weakness Syndrome Therapy (GymNAST) study: protocol for a cohort study on recovery on walking function

    PubMed Central

    Mehrholz, Jan; Mckel, Simone; Oehmichen, Frank; Pohl, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Critical illness myopathy (CIM) and polyneuropathy (CIP) are common complications of critical illness that frequently occur together. Both cause so called intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired muscle weakness. This weakness of limb muscles increases morbidity and delay rehabilitation and recovery of walking ability. Although full recovery has been reported people with severe weakness may take months to improve walking. Focused physical rehabilitation of people with ICU-acquired muscle weakness is therefore of great importance. However, although physical rehabilitation is common, detailed knowledge about the pattern and the time course of recovery of walking function are not well understood. Therefore, the aim of the General Weakness Syndrome Therapy (GymNAST) study is to describe the time course of recovery of walking function and other activities of daily living in these patients. Methods and analysis We conduct a prospective cohort study of people with ICU-acquired muscle weakness with defined diagnosis of CIM or CIP. Based on our sample size calculation, approximately 150 patients will be recruited from the ICU of our hospital in Germany. Amount and content of physical rehabilitation, clinical tests for example, muscle strength and motor function and neuropsychological assessments will be used as independent variables. The primary outcomes will include recovery of walking function and mobility. Secondary outcomes will include global motor function, activities in daily life and participation. Ethics and dissemination The study is being carried out in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki and conducted with the approval of the local medical Ethics Committee (Landesrztekammer Sachsen, Germany, reference number EK-BR-32/13-1) and with the understanding and written consent of each patient's guardian. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to the medical society and general public. PMID:25344484

  15. Improved method and test strategy for recovery of enteric viruses from shellfish.

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, T G; Moulton, E; Eckerson, D

    1980-01-01

    An improved recovery method and testing strategy were devised for recovery of low numbers of enteric viruses from each of three commercially important shellfish species. Effective recovery of virus depended as much upon details of the test strategy adopted for use of the improved method with each species as on the method itself. The most important test details involved sample composition, pool size, and method of use of cell cultures. Recovery sensitivity measured permitted detection of 25 to 3 plaque-forming units of enteroviruses and 100 to 27 plaque-forming units of reovirus through their recovery in cell culture, with effectivenesses averaging 64 and 46%, respectively. Test samples prepared by the improved recovery method were virtually cytotoxicity free. Optimal recovery of virus on 45-cm2 cell culture monolayers was obtained with 1-ml inocula adsorbed for 2 h. The most effective recovery of virus from shellfish samples was made by a sequential adsorption procedure which allowed equal exposure of an entire sample to each of two or more cell cultures. Removal of nonviral contaminants from test samples by antibiotic treatment was preferable to the use of ether or membrane filtration procedures. PMID:6243902

  16. Signal recovery technique based on a physical method of underwater acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xinyi; Wu, Guoqing; Ma, Li

    2010-09-01

    In the underwater sound channel we often use an array to receive signals from distant sources. The received signals are often mixed with environmental interference. In the complex acoustic environment, received signals are distorted greatly and elongated in time. In many practical applications such as sound communications, sound remote sensing and active sonar signals, we hope to obtain the original signal's waveform. In general theory, the received signals are the convolution of emission signals and Green's function of environment. In unknown Green's function of environment, simply relying on the array to record the information to determine the sound source signal wave propagation features and the environment is not enough. However, in certain circumstances, based on a physics method of underwater acoustics, the spread of recovery technology is successful.

  17. Methods of making functionalized nanorods

    DOEpatents

    Gur, Ilan (San Francisco, CA); Milliron, Delia (Berkeley, CA); Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Liu, Haitao (Berkeley, CA)

    2012-01-10

    A process for forming functionalized nanorods. The process includes providing a substrate, modifying the substrate by depositing a self-assembled monolayer of a bi-functional molecule on the substrate, wherein the monolayer is chosen such that one side of the bi-functional molecule binds to the substrate surface and the other side shows an independent affinity for binding to a nanocrystal surface, so as to form a modified substrate. The process further includes contacting the modified substrate with a solution containing nanocrystal colloids, forming a bound monolayer of nanocrystals on the substrate surface, depositing a polymer layer over the monolayer of nanocrystals to partially cover the monolayer of nanocrystals, so as to leave a layer of exposed nanocrystals, functionalizing the exposed nanocrystals, to form functionalized nanocrystals, and then releasing the functionalized nanocrystals from the substrate.

  18. Method of recovery of gas flow pressure based on the results of measurements in short-duration wind tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevyanko, V. A.; Kukushkin, S. V.; Latypov, A. F.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents a method of recovery of gas flow pressure from the results of measurements by a piezoelectric pressure sensor in short-duration wind tunnels. It is assumed that the measuring system is a linear dynamic object. A quasisolution of linear Volterra integral equation of the first kind is constructed based on the condition that the equation holds on average in successive intervals into which the time interval of the measurement is divided. An experimental technique for determining the normal response of the sensor (transfer function) is proposed, and an example of recovery of air flow pressure in a wind tunnel is given.

  19. The influence of functional electrical stimulation on hand motor recovery in stroke patients: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscular stimulation has been used as one potential rehabilitative treatment option to restore motor function and improve recovery in patients with paresis. Especially stroke patients who often regain only limited hand function would greatly benefit from a therapy that enhances recovery and restores movement. Multiple studies investigated the effect of functional electrical stimulation on hand paresis, the results however are inconsistent. Here we review the current literature on functional electrical stimulation on hand motor recovery in stroke patients. We discuss the impact of different parameters such as stage after stoke, degree of impairment, spasticity and treatment protocols on the functional outcome. Importantly, we outline the results from recent studies investigating the cortical effects elicited by functional electrical stimulation giving insights into the underlying mechanisms responsible for long-term treatment effects. Bringing together the findings from present research it becomes clear that both, treatment outcomes as well as the neurophysiologic mechanisms causing functional recovery, vary depending on patient characteristics. In order to develop unified treatment guidelines it is essential to conduct homogenous studies assessing the impact of different parameters on rehabilitative success. PMID:25276333

  20. The influence of functional electrical stimulation on hand motor recovery in stroke patients: a review.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Fanny; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscular stimulation has been used as one potential rehabilitative treatment option to restore motor function and improve recovery in patients with paresis. Especially stroke patients who often regain only limited hand function would greatly benefit from a therapy that enhances recovery and restores movement. Multiple studies investigated the effect of functional electrical stimulation on hand paresis, the results however are inconsistent. Here we review the current literature on functional electrical stimulation on hand motor recovery in stroke patients. We discuss the impact of different parameters such as stage after stoke, degree of impairment, spasticity and treatment protocols on the functional outcome. Importantly, we outline the results from recent studies investigating the cortical effects elicited by functional electrical stimulation giving insights into the underlying mechanisms responsible for long-term treatment effects. Bringing together the findings from present research it becomes clear that both, treatment outcomes as well as the neurophysiologic mechanisms causing functional recovery, vary depending on patient characteristics. In order to develop unified treatment guidelines it is essential to conduct homogenous studies assessing the impact of different parameters on rehabilitative success. PMID:25276333

  1. Downhole fluid injection systems, CO2 sequestration methods, and hydrocarbon material recovery methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-07-28

    Downhole fluid injection systems are provided that can include a first well extending into a geological formation, and a fluid injector assembly located within the well. The fluid injector assembly can be configured to inject a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion into the surrounding geological formation. CO2 sequestration methods are provided that can include exposing a geological formation to a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to sequester at least a portion of the CO2 from the emulsion within the formation. Hydrocarbon material recovery methods are provided that can include exposing a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to a geological formation having the hydrocarbon material therein. The methods can include recovering at least a portion of the hydrocarbon material from the formation.

  2. Downhole fluid injection systems, CO.sub.2 sequestration methods, and hydrocarbon material recovery methods

    DOEpatents

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-07-28

    Downhole fluid injection systems are provided that can include a first well extending into a geological formation, and a fluid injector assembly located within the well. The fluid injector assembly can be configured to inject a liquid CO.sub.2/H.sub.2O-emulsion into the surrounding geological formation. CO.sub.2 sequestration methods are provided that can include exposing a geological formation to a liquid CO.sub.2/H.sub.2O-emulsion to sequester at least a portion of the CO.sub.2 from the emulsion within the formation. Hydrocarbon material recovery methods are provided that can include exposing a liquid CO.sub.2/H.sub.2O-emulsion to a geological formation having the hydrocarbon material therein. The methods can include recovering at least a portion of the hydrocarbon material from the formation.

  3. Inhibition of CXCL12 signaling attenuates the postischemic immune response and improves functional recovery after stroke.

    PubMed

    Ruscher, Karsten; Kuric, Enida; Liu, Yawei; Walter, Helene L; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Englund, Elisabet; Wieloch, Tadeusz

    2013-08-01

    After stroke, brain inflammation in the ischemic hemisphere hampers brain tissue reorganization and functional recovery. Housing rats in an enriched environment (EE) dramatically improves recovery of lost neurologic functions after experimental stroke. We show here that rats housed in EE after stroke induced by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (pMCAO), showed attenuated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the ischemic core and the surrounding peri-infarct area, including a significant reduction in the stroke-induced chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its natural ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12). To mimic beneficial effects of EE, we studied the impact of inhibiting CXCL12 action on functional recovery after transient MCAO (tMCAO). Rats treated with the specific CXCL12 receptor antagonist 1-[4-(1,4,8,11-tetrazacyclotetradec-1-ylmethyl)phenyl]methyl]-1,4,8,11-tetrazacyclo-tetradecan (AMD3100) showed improved recovery compared with saline-treated rats after tMCAO, without a concomitant reduction in infarct size. This was accompanied by a reduction of infiltrating immune cells in the ischemic hemisphere, particularly cluster of differentiation 3-positive (CD3(+)) and CD3(+)/CD4(+) T cells. Spleen atrophy and delayed death of splenocytes, induced by tMCAO, was prevented by AMD3100 treatment. We conclude that immoderate excessive activation of the CXCL12 pathway after stroke contributes to depression of neurologic function after stroke and that CXCR4 antagonism is beneficial for the recovery after stroke. PMID:23632969

  4. Functional recovery of hibernating myocardium after coronary bypass surgery: Does it coincide with improvement in perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Takeishi, Y.; Tono-oka, I.; Kubota, I.; Ikeda, K.; Masakane, I.; Chiba, J.; Abe, S.; Tsuiki, K.; Komatani, A.; Yamaguchi, I. )

    1991-09-01

    To determine the relationship between functional recovery and improvement in perfusion after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), 49 patients were studied. Radionuclide angiography was performed before, 1 month after, and 6 to 12 months after CABG to evaluate regional wall motion. Exercise thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging was done before and 1 month after CABG to assess regional perfusion. Preoperative asynergy was observed in 108 segments, and 74 of them showed an improvement in wall motion 1 month after CABG (segment A). Sixty-six of these segments (89%) were associated with an improvement in perfusion. Eight segments that had not improved 1 month after CABG demonstrated a delayed recovery of wall motion 6 to 12 months after CABG (segment B). However, seven of eight segments (88%) already showed an improvement in perfusion 1 month after CABG. A total of 82 segments exhibited functional recovery after CABG and were considered hibernating segments. In the preoperative study segment B more frequently had areas of akinesis or dyskinesis than segment A (75% vs 34%, p less than 0.05). The mean percent thallium-201 uptake in segment B was lower than that in segment A (74% {plus minus} 9% vs 83% {plus minus} 8%, p less than 0.05). Functional recovery of hibernating myocardium usually coincided with an improvement in perfusion. However, delayed functional recovery after reperfusion was observed in some instances. Severe asynergy and severe thallium-201 defects were more frequently observed in these segments with delayed recovery. Hibernating myocardium might remain stunned during those recovery periods.

  5. False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method

    SciTech Connect

    Krauter, Paula; Piepel, Gregory F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matthew S.; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-02-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10x10^-3 to 1.86 CFU/cm^2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (>1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm^2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

  6. False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method

    PubMed Central

    Piepel, Greg F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10 10?3 to 1.86 CFU/cm2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (?1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions. PMID:22138998

  7. A Review of Instruments for Measuring Functional Recovery in Those Diagnosed With Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mausbach, Brent T.; Moore, Raeanne; Bowie, Christopher; Cardenas, Veronica; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    The task of judging an individual's functional recovery is not an easy one for healthcare professionals. Indeed, increasing one's accuracy in predicting one's ability to self-maintain would be of great value for determining if functional recovery has or is occurring. The purpose of this review is to examine existing measures for assessing remission/normalization of functional status among people with psychosis. Our review evaluates 8 measures of functional ability encompassing self-report, clinical, and performance-based measures. We elected to utilize a grading system to aid readers in understanding the merit of a scale for use in assessing functional recovery. In this approach, a letter grade (A, B, or C) was assigned to each of 4 domains we deemed important to professionals in electing to use specific assessments: (1) Ease of Administration, (2) Reliability, (3) Validity/Relationship to Real-World Outcomes, and (4) Sensitivity to Change/Use in Clinical Trials. Results indicated that no gold standard measure has been developed to date, but performance-based measures appear to have the most evidence for predicting concurrent self-maintenance abilities (eg, residing independently or maintaining work). More research on existing measures is needed, and greater funding for developing new measures of functional recovery is strongly recommended. PMID:19023122

  8. Method and apparatus for secondary and tertiary recovery of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Rivas, N.; Beichel, R.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes an apparatus for secondary and tertiary recovery of hydrocarbons from oil fields comprising: a. a bipropellant generator capable of producing exhaust gases at supercritical pressures and temperatures; b. transport means for carrying the exhaust gases into a well bore, at least a portion of the well bore extending into a hydrocarbon bearing formation from which hydrocarbons are to be recovered; c. means for introducing water into the transport means; and d. a water cooling jacket extending into at least the upper portion of the well bore, the center of the cooling jacket receiving the exhaust gases from the transport means, means being provided for the introduction of chemical additives through a portion of the cooling jacket. A process is described for secondary and tertiary recovery of hydrocarbons from geological formations comprising: a. providing a well bore extending at least into the strata of the geologic formation containing the hydrocarbons to be recovered; b. providing at least the upper portion of the well bore with a cooling jacket, the cooling jacket being provided with a central, open portion; c. generating gases at supercritical temperatures and pressures; d. introducing water into the supercritical gases to form steam; e. forcing the mixture of supercritical combustion gases and steam through the central open portion of the cooling jacket and the well bore into the hydrocarbon strata; and f. adding chemical additives to the mixture of combustion gases and steam below the cooling jacket.

  9. Sex Differences in Neuroanatomy of the Human Mirror Neuron System: Impact on Functional Recovery of Ischemic Hemiparetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Motaqhey, Monireh; Ghanjal, Ali; Mastri Farahani, Reza; Ghabaee, Mojdeh; Kaka, Gholamreza; Noroziyan, Mohsen; Fadaee Fathabadi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the higher activity of mirror neuron system in females, they frequently have better performance in empathy, interpersonal sensitivity, and emotional recognition compared to males. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess whether gender difference in neuroanatomy of the human mirror neuron system has any impact on functional recovery of ischemic hemiparetic patients. Patients and Methods: This single-blind clinical trial was conducted on 24 patients with cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in the age range of 45 - 60 years, referring at a rehabilitation center in Tehran, Iran, during 2013 - 2014. Sampling method was stratified random sampling. The subjects were assigned to 2 groups of 12 males and 12 females. Then, each group was randomly divided into 2 groups (totally 4 groups, n = 6 for each group): women watching functional movies, control women, men watching functional movies, and control men. Movies were shown to patients and then, they were evaluated by Timed Up and Go (TUG), Six-minute walk test (SMW), Barthel index (BI), and Berg balance scale (BBS). Results: Comparison of all variables related to functional activities of all groups before and after watching movies revealed significant differences. The highest percentage of change and improvement was observed in groups 1 and 3 watching the functional movies (P = 0.0001). Percentage of improvement in women of groups 1 and 2 was higher than men in groups 3 and 4 (P = 0.0003). The changes in group of females watching the functional movies (group 1) were significantly greater than in other groups (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The Sex differences in the neuroanatomy of the human mirror neuron system affect functional recovery of patients with hemiparesis. The improvement in studied women was found to be significantly greater than studied men. The results indicate a higher chance of recovery among hemiparetic women, especially those watching functional movies. PMID:26430528

  10. Functional Recovery following Critical Illness in Children: the Wee-cover Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Karen; Al-Harbi, Samah; Siu, Katie; Wong, Katie; Cheng, Ji; Baird, Burke; Pogorzelski, David; Timmons, Brian; Gorter, Jan-Willem; Thabane, Lehana; Khetani, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the feasibility of conducting a longitudinal prospective study to evaluate functional recovery and predictors of impaired functional recovery in critically ill children. Design Prospective pilot study. Setting Single center Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) at McMaster Childrens Hospital, Hamilton, Canada. Patients Children aged 12 months to 17 years, with at least one organ dysfunction, limited mobility or bed-rest during the first 48 hours of PICU admission, and a minimum 48 hour PICU length of stay, were eligible. Patients transferred from a neonatal intensive care unit prior to ever being discharged home, already mobilizing well or at baseline functional status at time of screening, with an English language barrier, and prior enrollment into this study were excluded. Measurements The primary outcome was feasibility, as defined by the ability to screen, enroll eligible patients, and execute the study procedures and measurements on participants. Secondary outcomes included functional status at baseline, 3 and 6 months, PICU morbidity and mortality. Functional status was measured using the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth (PEM-CY). Main results Thirty-three patients were enrolled between October 2012 and April 2013. Consent rate was 85%, follow-up rates 93% at 3 months, and 71% at 6 months. We were able to execute the study procedures and measurements, demonstrating feasibility of conducting a future longitudinal study. Functional status deteriorated following critical illness. Recovery appears to be influenced by baseline health or functional status, and severity of illness. Conclusion Longitudinal research is needed to understand how children recover after a critical illness. Our results suggest factors that may influence the recovery trajectory, and were used to inform the methodology, outcomes of interest, and appropriate sample size of a larger multi-center study evaluating functional recovery in this population. PMID:25651047

  11. Edaravone promotes functional recovery after mechanical peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Teng; Li, Zhengwei; Dong, Jianli; Nan, Feng; Li, Tao; Yu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Edaravone has been shown to reduce ischemia/reperfusion-induced peripheral nerve injury. However, the therapeutic effect of edaravone on peripheral nerve injury caused by mechanical factors is unknown. In the present study, we established a peripheral nerve injury model by crushing the sciatic nerve using hemostatic forceps, and then administered edaravone 3 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The sciatic functional index and superoxide dismutase activity of the sciatic nerve were increased, and the malondialdehyde level was decreased in animals in the edaravone group compared with those in the model group. Bcl-2 expression was increased, but Bax expression was decreased in anterior horn cells of the L4-6 spinal cord segments. These results indicated that edaravone has a neuroprotective effect following peripheral nerve injury caused by mechanical factors through alleviating free radical damage to cells and inhibiting lipid peroxidation, as well as regulating apoptosis-related protein expression. PMID:25374594

  12. Psychological Stress as a Modulator of Functional Recovery Following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado Bouchard, Sioui; Hook, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the social environment triggers changes to the psychological stress response and glucocorticoid receptor function. Considerable literature links the subsequent changes in stress resiliency to physical health. Here, converging evidence for the modulatory role of chronic psychological stress in the recovery process following spinal cord injury (SCI) is presented. Despite the considerable advances in SCI research, we are still unable to identify the causes of variability in patients’ recovery following injury. We propose that individuals’ past and present life experiences (in the form of stress exposure) may significantly modulate patients’ outcome post-SCI. We propose a theoretical model to explain the negative impact of chronic psychological stress on physical and psychological recovery. The stress experienced in life prior to SCI and also as a result of the traumatic injury, could compromise glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and function, and contribute to high levels of inflammation and apoptosis post-SCI, decreasing the tissue remaining at the injury site and undermining recovery of function. Both stress-induced glucocorticoid resistance and stress-induced epigenetic changes to the glucocorticoid receptor can modulate the nuclear factor-kappa B regulated inflammatory pathways and the Bcl-2 regulated apoptosis pathways. This model not only contributes to the theoretical understanding of the recovery process following injury, but also provides concrete testable hypotheses for future studies. PMID:24782818

  13. Laterality affects spontaneous recovery of contralateral hand motor function following motor cortex injury in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Helle, Nicole; Pizzimenti, Marc A.; Rotella, Diane L.; Hynes, Stephanie M.; Ge, Jizhi; Stilwell-Morecraft, Kimberly S.; Morecraft, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether brain laterality influences spontaneous recovery of hand motor function after controlled brain injuries to arm areas of M1 and lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) of the hemisphere contralateral to the preferred hand in rhesus monkeys. We hypothesized that monkeys with stronger hand preference would exhibit poorer recovery of skilled hand use after such brain injury. Degree of handedness was assessed using a standard dexterity board task in which subjects could use either hand to retrieve small food pellets. Fine hand/digit motor function was assessed using a modified dexterity board before and after the M1 and LPMC lesions in ten monkeys. We found a strong negative relationship between the degree of handedness and the recovery of manipulation skill, demonstrating that higher hand preference was associated with poorer recovery of hand fine motor function. We also observed that monkeys with larger lesions within M1 and LPMC had greater initial impairment of manipulation and poorer recovery of reaching skill. We conclude that monkeys with a stronger hand preference are likely to show poorer recovery of contralesional hand fine motor skill after isolated brain lesions affecting the lateral frontal motor areas. These data may be extended to suggest that humans who exhibit weak hand dominance, and perhaps individuals who use both hands for fine motor tasks, may have a more favorable potential for recovery after a unilateral stroke or brain injury affecting the lateral cortical motor areas than individuals with a high degree of hand dominance. PMID:23652723

  14. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR SAMPLING, RECOVERY, AND ENUMERATION OF BACTERIA APPLIED TO THE PHYLLOPANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining the fate and survival of genetically engineered microorganisms released into the environment requires the development and application of accurate and practical methods of detection and enumeration. everal experiments were performed to examine quantitative recovery met...

  15. Review of statistical methods used in enhanced-oil-recovery research and performance prediction. [131 references

    SciTech Connect

    Selvidge, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    Recent literature in the field of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) was surveyed to determine the extent to which researchers in EOR take advantage of statistical techniques in analyzing their data. In addition to determining the current level of reliance on statistical tools, another objective of this study is to promote by example the greater use of these tools. To serve this objective, the discussion of the techniques highlights the observed trend toward the use of increasingly more sophisticated methods and points out the strengths and pitfalls of different approaches. Several examples are also given of opportunities for extending EOR research findings by additional statistical manipulation. The search of the EOR literature, conducted mainly through computerized data bases, yielded nearly 200 articles containing mathematical analysis of the research. Of these, 21 were found to include examples of statistical approaches to data analysis and are discussed in detail in this review. The use of statistical techniques, as might be expected from their general purpose nature, extends across nearly all types of EOR research covering thermal methods of recovery, miscible processes, and micellar polymer floods. Data come from field tests, the laboratory, and computer simulation. The statistical methods range from simple comparisons of mean values to multiple non-linear regression equations and to probabilistic decision functions. The methods are applied to both engineering and economic data. The results of the survey are grouped by statistical technique and include brief descriptions of each of the 21 relevant papers. Complete abstracts of the papers are included in the bibliography. Brief bibliographic information (without abstracts) is also given for the articles identified in the initial search as containing mathematical analyses using other than statistical methods.

  16. The Role of Species Traits in Mediating Functional Recovery during Matrix Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Andrew D.; Emberson, Rowan M.; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Didham, Raphael K.

    2014-01-01

    Reversing anthropogenic impacts on habitat structure is frequently successful through restoration, but the mechanisms linking habitat change, community reassembly and recovery of ecosystem functioning remain unknown. We test for the influence of edge effects and matrix habitat restoration on the reassembly of dung beetle communities and consequent recovery of dung removal rates across tropical forest edges. Using path modelling, we disentangle the relative importance of community-weighted trait means and functional trait dispersion from total biomass effects on rates of dung removal. Community trait composition and biomass of dung beetle communities responded divergently to edge effects and matrix habitat restoration, yielding opposing effects on dung removal. However, functional dispersion—used in this study as a measure of niche complementarity—did not explain a significant amount of variation in dung removal rates across habitat edges. Instead, we demonstrate that the path to functional recovery of these altered ecosystems depends on the trait-mean composition of reassembling communities, over and above purely biomass-dependent processes that would be expected under neutral theory. These results suggest that any ability to manage functional recovery of ecosystems during habitat restoration will demand knowledge of species' roles in ecosystem processes. PMID:25502448

  17. Effect of skilled and unskilled training on nerve regeneration and functional recovery

    PubMed Central

    Pagnussat, A.S.; Michaelsen, S.M.; Achaval, M.; Ilha, J.; Hermel, E.E.S.; Back, F.P.; Netto, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    The most disabling aspect of human peripheral nerve injuries, the majority of which affect the upper limbs, is the loss of skilled hand movements. Activity-induced morphological and electrophysiological remodeling of the neuromuscular junction has been shown to influence nerve repair and functional recovery. In the current study, we determined the effects of two different treatments on the functional and morphological recovery after median and ulnar nerve injury. Adult Wistar male rats weighing 280 to 330?g at the time of surgery (N = 8-10 animals/group) were submitted to nerve crush and 1 week later began a 3-week course of motor rehabilitation involving either skilled (reaching for small food pellets) or unskilled (walking on a motorized treadmill) training. During this period, functional recovery was monitored weekly using staircase and cylinder tests. Histological and morphometric nerve analyses were used to assess nerve regeneration at the end of treatment. The functional evaluation demonstrated benefits of both tasks, but found no difference between them (P > 0.05). The unskilled training, however, induced a greater degree of nerve regeneration as evidenced by histological measurement (P < 0.05). These data provide evidence that both of the forelimb training tasks used in this study can accelerate functional recovery following brachial plexus injury. PMID:22584636

  18. A meta-analysis of functional group responses to forest recovery outside of the tropics.

    PubMed

    Spake, Rebecca; Ezard, Thomas H G; Martin, Philip A; Newton, Adrian C; Doncaster, C Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Both active and passive forest restoration schemes are used in degraded landscapes across the world to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Restoration is increasingly also being implemented in biodiversity offset schemes as compensation for loss of natural habitat to anthropogenic development. This has raised concerns about the value of replacing old-growth forest with plantations, motivating research on biodiversity recovery as forest stands age. Functional diversity is now advocated as a key metric for restoration success, yet it has received little analytical attention to date. We conducted a meta-analysis of 90 studies that measured differences in species richness for functional groups of fungi, lichens, and beetles between old-growth control and planted or secondary treatment forests in temperate, boreal, and Mediterranean regions. We identified functional-group-specific relationships in the response of species richness to stand age after forest disturbance. Ectomycorrhizal fungi averaged 90 years for recovery to old-growth values (between 45 years and unrecoverable at 95% prediction limits), and epiphytic lichens took 180 years to reach 90% of old-growth values (between 140 years and never for recovery to old-growth values at 95% prediction limits). Non-saproxylic beetle richness, in contrast, decreased as stand age of broadleaved forests increased. The slow recovery by some functional groups essential to ecosystem functioning makes old-growth forest an effectively irreplaceable biodiversity resource that should be exempt from biodiversity offsetting initiatives. PMID:26040756

  19. Integrated Treatment to Achieve Functional Recovery for First-Episode Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Marcelo; Juarez, Francisco; Ortega, Hector

    2012-01-01

    This study describes an integrated treatment approach that was implemented to enhance functional recovery in first-episode psychotic patients. Patients were randomized to two treatment conditions: either to an integrated treatment approach: pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatment, and psychoeducation (experimental group: N = 39) or to medication alone (control group: N = 34). Patients were evaluated at baseline and after one year of treatment. Functional recovery was assessed according to symptomatic and functional remission. At the end of treatment, experimental patients showed a 94.9% of symptomatic remission compared to 58.8% of the control group. Functional remission was 56.4% for the experimental group and 3.6% for the control group, while 56.4% of the experimental group met both symptomatic and functional remission criteria and were considered recovered compared to 2.9% of the control group. PMID:22970366

  20. Ear-worn body sensor network device: an objective tool for functional postoperative home recovery monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Atallah, Louis; Lo, Benny; Gray, Edward; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Patients' functional recovery at home following surgery may be evaluated by monitoring their activities of daily living. Existing tools for assessing these activities are labor-intensive to administer and rely heavily on recall. This study describes the use of a wireless ear-worn activity recognition sensor to monitor postoperative activity levels continuously using a Bayesian activity classification framework. The device was used to monitor the postoperative recovery of five patients following abdominal surgery. Activity was classified into four groups ranging from very low (level 0) to high (level 3). Overall, patients were found to be undertaking a higher proportion of level 0 activities on postoperative day 1 which was gradually replaced by higher-level activities over the next 3?days. This study demonstrates how a pervasive healthcare technology can objectively monitor functional recovery in the unsupervised home setting. This may be a useful adjunct to existing postoperative monitoring systems. PMID:21252051

  1. Effect of chewing gum on the postoperative recovery of gastrointestinal function.

    PubMed

    Ge, Wei; Chen, Gang; Ding, Yi-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction remains a source of morbidity and the major determinant of length of stay after abdominal operation. There are many different reasons for postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction such as stress response, perioperative interventions, bowel manipulation and so on. The mechanism of enhanced recovery from postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction with the help of chewing gum is believed to be the cephalic-vagal stimulation of digestion which increases the promotability of neural and humoral factors that act on different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, there were a series of randomized controlled trials to confirm the role of chewing gum in the recovery of gastrointestinal function. The results suggested that chewing gum enhanced early recovery of bowel function following abdominal surgery expect the gastrointestinal surgery. However, the effect of chewing gum in gastrointestinal surgery was controversial. PMID:26550107

  2. Effect of chewing gum on the postoperative recovery of gastrointestinal function

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Wei; Chen, Gang; Ding, Yi-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction remains a source of morbidity and the major determinant of length of stay after abdominal operation. There are many different reasons for postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction such as stress response, perioperative interventions, bowel manipulation and so on. The mechanism of enhanced recovery from postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction with the help of chewing gum is believed to be the cephalic-vagal stimulation of digestion which increases the promotability of neural and humoral factors that act on different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, there were a series of randomized controlled trials to confirm the role of chewing gum in the recovery of gastrointestinal function. The results suggested that chewing gum enhanced early recovery of bowel function following abdominal surgery expect the gastrointestinal surgery. However, the effect of chewing gum in gastrointestinal surgery was controversial. PMID:26550107

  3. Methods and functions: Breath tests.

    PubMed

    Braden, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Breath tests provide a valuable non-invasive diagnostic strategy to in vivo assess a variety of enzyme activities, organ functions or transport processes. Both the hydrogen breath tests and the (13)C-breath tests using the stable isotope (13)C as tracer are non-radioactive and safe, also in children and pregnancy. Hydrogen breath tests are widely used in clinical practice to explore gastrointestinal disorders. They are applied for diagnosing carbohydrate malassimilation, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and for measuring the orocecal transit time. (13)C-breath tests non-invasively monitor the metabolisation of a (13)C-labelled substrate. Depending on the choice of the substrate they enable the assessment of gastric bacterial Helicobacter pylori infection, gastric emptying, liver and pancreatic function as well as measurements of many other enzyme activities. The knowledge of potential pitfalls and influencing factors are important for correct interpretation of breath test results before drawing clinical conclusions. PMID:19505663

  4. Evaluating Recovery of Hydrologic Function Following Road Restoration Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, R.; Lohse, K. A.; Ferre, T. A.

    2010-12-01

    Logging roads fundamentally alter landscape processes. Their effects on erosion, land stability, and vegetation patterns are clear; however, their effects on subsurface hydrologic flow patterns are less researched and not as well understood. We present field measurements and numerical modeling to assess the impacts of logging roads and road removal approaches on hydrologic processes on the Clearwater National Forest in northern Idaho. The active road removal program and the high densities of legacy roads make the Clearwater an ideal location for this study. During the last 10 years, the Clearwater National Forest in partnership with the Nez Perce Tribe, removed over 950 km of roads. Specifically, we measured the saturated hydraulic conductivity over recontoured road treatments that range from 1 to 10 years in age. We also examined roads that have been abandoned roads for periods of 10 to 30 years and allowed to re-vegetate without active restoration treatment. We compare these results with the hydraulic conductivities of never-roaded areas. As expected, the hydraulic conductivity varied spatially for each road condition. But, the conductivity of recontoured roads was more than two times higher than that of abandoned roads. Conductivities also varied with vegetation, with higher rates associated with greater shrub and tree vegetation compared to grasses and forbs. The lowest values were found in areas with the highest percentages of non-native forbs. The observed variations in hydraulic conductivity were incorporated in a two-dimensional variably saturated flow model to assess the impacts of roads on subsurface flow paths. The results suggest even after 30 years of successful forest revegetation, roads left intact on the hillside may exert strong controls on the hydrologic function of hillsides and watersheds.

  5. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Patterns Predict Consciousness Level and Recovery Outcome in Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xuehai; Zou, Qihong; Hu, Jin; Tang, Weijun; Mao, Ying; Gao, Liang; Zhu, Jianhong; Jin, Yi; Wu, Xin; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Yaojun; Zhang, Yao; Dai, Zhengjia; Gao, Jia-Hong; Weng, Xuchu; Northoff, Georg; Giacino, Joseph T.; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    For accurate diagnosis and prognostic prediction of acquired brain injury (ABI), it is crucial to understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying loss of consciousness. However, there is no consensus on which regions and networks act as biomarkers for consciousness level and recovery outcome in ABI. Using resting-state fMRI, we assessed intrinsic functional connectivity strength (FCS) of whole-brain networks in a large sample of 99 ABI patients with varying degrees of consciousness loss (including fully preserved consciousness state, minimally conscious state, unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state, and coma) and 34 healthy control subjects. Consciousness level was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Scale and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised on the day of fMRI scanning; recovery outcome was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale 3 months after the fMRI scanning. One-way ANOVA of FCS, Spearman correlation analyses between FCS and the consciousness level and recovery outcome, and FCS-based multivariate pattern analysis were performed. We found decreased FCS with loss of consciousness primarily distributed in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCU), medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral parietal cortex. The FCS values of these regions were significantly correlated with consciousness level and recovery outcome. Multivariate support vector machine discrimination analysis revealed that the FCS patterns predicted whether patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state and coma would regain consciousness with an accuracy of 81.25%, and the most discriminative region was the PCC/PCU. These findings suggest that intrinsic functional connectivity patterns of the human posteromedial cortex could serve as a potential indicator for consciousness level and recovery outcome in individuals with ABI. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Varying degrees of consciousness loss and recovery are commonly observed in acquired brain injury patients, yet the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain elusive. Using a large sample of patients with varying degrees of consciousness loss, we demonstrate that intrinsic functional connectivity strength in many brain regions, especially in the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, significantly correlated with consciousness level and recovery outcome. We further demonstrate that the functional connectivity pattern of these regions can predict patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state and coma would regain consciousness with an accuracy of 81.25%. Our study thus provides potentially important biomarkers of acquired brain injury in clinical diagnosis, prediction of recovery outcome, and decision making for treatment strategies for patients with severe loss of consciousness. PMID:26377477

  6. Chronic psychological stress impairs recovery of muscular function and somatic sensations over a 96-hour period.

    PubMed

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Bartholomew, John B; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether chronic mental stress moderates recovery of muscular function and somatic sensations: perceived energy, fatigue, and soreness, in a 4-day period after a bout of strenuous resistance exercise. Undergraduate resistance training students (n = 31; age, 20.26 1.34 years) completed the Perceived Stress Scale and the Undergraduate Stress Questionnaire, a measure of life event stress. At a later visit, they performed an acute heavy-resistance exercise protocol (10 repetition maximum [RM] leg press test plus 6 sets: 80-100% of 10RM). Maximal isometric force (MIF), perceived energy, fatigue, and soreness were assessed in approximately 24-hour intervals after exercise. Recovery data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling growth curve analysis. Life event stress significantly moderated linear (p = 0.027) and squared (p = 0.031) recovery of MIF. This relationship held even when the model was adjusted for fitness, workload, and training experience. Perceived energy (p = 0.038), fatigue (p = 0.040), and soreness (p = 0.027) all were moderated by life stress. Mean perceived stress modulated linear and squared recovery of MIF (p < 0.001) and energy (p = 0.004) but not fatigue or soreness. In all analyses, higher stress was associated with worse recovery. Stress, whether assessed as life event stress or perceived stress, moderated the recovery trajectories of muscular function and somatic sensations in a 96-hour period after strenuous resistance exercise. Therefore, under conditions of inordinate stress, individuals may need to be more mindful about observing an appropriate length of recovery. PMID:24343323

  7. Intrinsic and therapeutic factors determining the recovery of motor function after peripheral nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Skouras, Emmanouil; Ozsoy, Umut; Sarikcioglu, Levent; Angelov, Doychin N

    2011-07-01

    Insufficient recovery after peripheral nerve injury has been attributed to (i) poor pathfinding of regrowing axons, (ii) excessive collateral axonal branching at the lesion site and (iii) polyneuronal innervation of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJ). The facial nerve transection model has been used initially to measure restoration of function after varying therapies and to examine the mechanisms underlying their effects. Since it is very difficult to control the navigation of several thousand axons, efforts concentrated on collateral branching and NMJ-polyinnervation. Treatment with antibodies against trophic factors to combat branching improved the precision of reinnervation, but had no positive effects on functional recovery. This suggested that polyneuronal reinnervation--rather than collateral branching--may be the critical limiting factor. The former could be reduced by pharmacological agents known to perturb microtubule assembly and was followed by recovery of function. Because muscle polyinnervation is activity-dependent and can be manipulated, attempts to design a clinically feasible therapy were performed by electrical stimulation or by soft tissue massage. Electrical stimulation applied to the transected facial nerve or to paralysed facial muscles did not improve vibrissal motor performance and failed to diminish polyinnervation. In contrast, gentle stroking of the paralysed muscles (vibrissal, orbicularis oculi, tongue musculature) resulted in full recovery of function. This manual stimulation was also effective after hypoglossal-facial nerve suture and after interpositional nerve grafting, but not after surgical reconstruction of the median nerve. All these findings raise hopes that clinically feasible and effective therapies could be soon designed and tested. PMID:21458252

  8. 3 CFR - Assignment of Reporting Function Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignment of Reporting Function Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of May... by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3,...

  9. Reorganization of Functional Connectivity as a Correlate of Cognitive Recovery in Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Paul, Nuria; Ordonez, Victoria E.; Demuynck, Olivier; Bajo, Ricardo; Campo, Pablo; Bilbao, Alvaro; Ortiz, Tomas; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestu, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive processes require a functional interaction between specialized multiple, local and remote brain regions. Although these interactions can be strongly altered by an acquired brain injury, brain plasticity allows network reorganization to be principally responsible for recovery. The present work evaluates the impact of brain injury on

  10. Reorganization of Functional Connectivity as a Correlate of Cognitive Recovery in Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Paul, Nuria; Ordonez, Victoria E.; Demuynck, Olivier; Bajo, Ricardo; Campo, Pablo; Bilbao, Alvaro; Ortiz, Tomas; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestu, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive processes require a functional interaction between specialized multiple, local and remote brain regions. Although these interactions can be strongly altered by an acquired brain injury, brain plasticity allows network reorganization to be principally responsible for recovery. The present work evaluates the impact of brain injury on…

  11. Abnormal recovery function of somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with primary insomnia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhaoyang; Zhan, Shuqin; Li, Ning; Ding, Yan; Wang, Yuping

    2012-08-15

    Neurobiological correlates underlying insomnia are poorly understood. The hyperarousal of the central nervous system indicates that cortical excitability may be abnormal in patients with insomnia. The purpose of the present study was to investigate changes in cortical excitability by examining the recovery function of median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in patients with primary insomia (PI). We studied the recovery function of median nerve SEPs in 12 medication-naive PI patients and in 12 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. SEPs in response to single stimulus and paired stimuli at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 20, 60, 100 and 150 ms were recorded. The recovery function of the cortical components of frontal P20 and parietal N20 showed significantly reduced suppression in PI patients as compared to healthy controls. In conclusion, this is the first study investigating changes in cortical excitability in PI patients by examining the recovery function of median nerve SEPs. The present study suggests that cortical excitability is increased in PI patients. Dysfunction of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex might contribute to the increased cortical excitability in PI patients. PMID:22424903

  12. Recovery of Olfactory Function in Postviral Olfactory Dysfunction Patients after Acupuncture Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Qi; Pang, Zhihui; Yu, Hongmeng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of traditional Chinese acupuncture (TCA) in postviral olfactory dysfunction (PVOD) patients who were refractory to standardized treatment and to compare the results with the impact observed in an observation group. Methods. Fifty patients who presented to the outpatient clinic with PVOD and were refractory to standardized treatment were included: 25 were treated with TCA and 25 patients were simply observed. A subjective olfactory test was performed using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). The effects of TCA were compared with the results obtained in the observation group. Results. Improved olfactory function was observed in eleven patients treated with TCA compared with four patients in the observation group. This study revealed significantly improved olfactory function outcomes in patients who underwent acupuncture compared with the observation group. No significant differences in olfaction recovery were found according to age, gender, or duration of disease between the two groups; however, hyposmic patients recovered at a higher rate than anosmic patients. Conclusion. TCA may aid the treatment of PVOD patients who are refractory to drugs or other therapies.

  13. Influence of Sexuality in Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Soltani, Bahram; Babaei, Parvin; Mashhadinezhad, Hossein; Ghadarjani, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major clinical condition and research is commonly done to find suitable treatment options. However, there are some degrees of spontaneous recovery after SCI and gender is said to be a contributing factor in recovery, but this is controversial. This study was done to compare the effects of sexual dimorphism on spontaneous recovery after spinal cord injury in Wistar Rats. Methods: Spinal cord lesions were made by compressing the cord at T9 level and making a spinal cord contusion. Routine care of each rat was done daily. The LSS scoring system was used to measure the locomotion of these rats and to compare the recovery rate between male and female rats. Results: The results suggested that there was no significant difference between the two sex in recovery. Conclusions: To be female does not seem to be a prognostic factor for recovery after SCI. However, this preliminary study should be repeated in other animals and in larger cohorts. PMID:26894220

  14. Alternative methods of energy recovery for the mining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Torbin, R.N. )

    1989-09-01

    When mining for certain precious metals (such as gold and silver), it is sometimes necessary to excavate to great depths (> 3000 m) below the surface, where the environment is hot and humid. Refrigeration plants are needed to produce a healthy working environment. These plants require large volumes of cooling water to be brought into and taken out of these mines. By converting the potential energy of the incoming water to electricity rather than to heat, the water stays colder. This results in cooler mine temperatures, and less need for off-site power. The objective of the project reported was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of energy recovery from the incoming cooling water used in the refrigeration systems. The economic, operational, and logistic constraints imposed by a mining operation, where ore production, not power production, is the primary concern, were addressed. The final design was an impulse turbine-generator machine rated at 300-kW output at 90:00820 m head and 40 l/s flow rate.

  15. Intramyocardial stem cell injection in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: Functional recovery and reverse remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Adam R.; Trachtenberg, Barry; Velazquez, Darcy L.; McNiece, Ian; Altman, Peter; Rouy, Didier; Mendizabal, Adam M.; Pattany, Pradip M.; Lopera, Gustavo A.; Fishman, Joel; Zambrano, Juan P.; Heldman, Alan W.; Hare, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Transcatheter, intramyocardial injections of bone marrow derived cell therapy produces reverse remodeling in large animal models of ischemic cardiomyopathy. Objective We used cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients with LV dysfunction related to remote myocardial infarction (MI) to test the hypothesis that bone marrow progenitor cell injection cause functional recovery of scarred myocardium and reverse remodeling. Methods and Results Eight patients (age 57.213.3) received transendocardial, intramyocardial injection of autologous bone marrow progenitor cells (mononuclear or mesenchymal stem cells) in LV scar and border zone. All patients tolerated the procedure with no serious adverse events. CMR at 1-year demonstrated a decrease in end-diastolic volume (208.720.4 vs. 167.47.32mL; p=0.03), a trend towards decreased end-systolic volume (142.416.5 vs. 107.67.4mL; p=0.06), decreased infarct size (p<0.05), and improved regional LV function by peak Ecc in the treated infarct zone (-8.11.0 vs. -11.41.3; p=0.04). Improvements in regional function were evident at 3 months, while the changes in chamber dimensions were not significant until 6 months. Improved regional function in the infarct zone strongly correlated with reduction of EDV (r2=0.69, p=0.04) and ESV (r2=0.83, p=0.01). Conclusions These data suggest that transcatheter, intramyocardial injections of autologous bone marrow progenitor cells improve regional contractility of a chronic myocardial scar and these changes predict subsequent reverse remodeling. The findings support the potential clinical benefits of this new treatment strategy and ongoing randomized clinical trials. PMID:21415390

  16. Gadd45b Mediates Axonal Plasticity and Subsequent Functional Recovery After Experimental Stroke in Rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Li, Long-ling; Tan, Xiao-dan; Zhang, Yan-hong; Jiang, Ying; He, Guo-qian; Chen, Qian; Li, Chang-qing

    2015-12-01

    Stroke causes devastating and irreversible losses of neurological function with subsequent slow and incomplete recovery of lost brain functions, because of the brain's limited capacity for brain plasticity. Growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 beta (Gadd45b) has recently been demonstrated as a candidate plasticity-related gene, making it an excellent candidate molecule that has therapeutic potential. Here, we examine whether in vivo blockage of Gadd45b affects axonal plasticity and subsequent functional recovery after focal brain infarction. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to cerebral ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). We adopted RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by a lentiviral vector (LV) as a means of suppressing the expression of Gadd45b. Functional recovery was assessed with a battery of tests that measured skilled forelimb reaching and forelimb balance controlling. Axonal reorganization at the level of the red nucleus was revealed by anatomical studies. Axonal regeneration was measured by elevated expression of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43). The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclic AMP (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA), and Rho-kinase (ROCK) were determined. Gadd45b-RNAi significantly inhibited axonal plasticity (axonal regeneration and axonal reorganization) after MCAO. This inhibition was paralleled by worse functional recovery performance on several behavioral measures. Gadd45b-RNAi also significantly decreased the expression levels of both BDNF and cAMP/PKA/phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) pathway and promoted ROCK expression. We conclude that Gadd45b stimulates recovery after stroke by enhancing axonal plasticity required for brain repair. Pharmacological targeting of Gadd45b provides new opportunities for stroke treatment. PMID:25324012

  17. Organism-Sediment Interactions Govern Post-Hypoxia Recovery of Ecosystem Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Van Colen, Carl; Rossi, Francesca; Montserrat, Francesc; Andersson, Maria G. I.; Gribsholt, Britta; Herman, Peter M. J.; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda; Ysebaert, Tom; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia represents one of the major causes of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning loss for coastal waters. Since eutrophication-induced hypoxic events are becoming increasingly frequent and intense, understanding the response of ecosystems to hypoxia is of primary importance to understand and predict the stability of ecosystem functioning. Such ecological stability may greatly depend on the recovery patterns of communities and the return time of the system properties associated to these patterns. Here, we have examined how the reassembly of a benthic community contributed to the recovery of ecosystem functioning following experimentally-induced hypoxia in a tidal flat. We demonstrate that organism-sediment interactions that depend on organism size and relate to mobility traits and sediment reworking capacities are generally more important than recovering species richness to set the return time of the measured sediment processes and properties. Specifically, increasing macrofauna bioturbation potential during community reassembly significantly contributed to the recovery of sediment processes and properties such as denitrification, bedload sediment transport, primary production and deep pore water ammonium concentration. Such bioturbation potential was due to the replacement of the small-sized organisms that recolonised at early stages by large-sized bioturbating organisms, which had a disproportionately stronger influence on sediment. This study suggests that the complete recovery of organism-sediment interactions is a necessary condition for ecosystem functioning recovery, and that such process requires long periods after disturbance due to the slow growth of juveniles into adult stages involved in these interactions. Consequently, repeated episodes of disturbance at intervals smaller than the time needed for the system to fully recover organism-sediment interactions may greatly impair the resilience of ecosystem functioning. PMID:23185440

  18. Meta analysis of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation promoting functional recovery of motor nerves in rats with complete spinal cord transection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Chen, Ping; Wang, Qi; Chen, Yu; Yu, Haiong; Ma, Junxiong; Guo, Mingming; Piao, Meihui; Ren, Weijian; Xiang, Liangbi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation on functional recovery of rats with complete spinal cord transection. DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online search of Medline (1989–2013), Embase (1989–2013), Cochrane library (1989–2013), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1989–2013), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1989–2013), VIP (1989–2013), Wanfang databases (1989–2013) and Chinese Clinical Trial Register was conducted to collect randomized controlled trial data regarding olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation for the treatment of complete spinal cord transection in rats. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials investigating olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation and other transplantation methods for promoting neurological functional recovery of rats with complete spinal cord transection were included in the analysis. Meta analysis was conducted using RevMan 4.2.2 software. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores of rats with complete spinal cord transection were evaluated in this study. RESULTS: Six randomized controlled trials with high quality methodology were included. Meta analysis showed that Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores were significantly higher in the olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation group compared with the control group (WMD = 3.16, 95% CI (1.68, 4.65); P < 0.00001). CONCLUSION: Experimental studies have shown that olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation can promote the functional recovery of motor nerves in rats with complete spinal cord transection. PMID:25422649

  19. No effect of fibrin sealant on drain output or functional recovery following simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may lead to anemia, blood transfusions, and increased total costs. Also, bleeding into the periarticular tissue may cause swelling and a reduction in quadriceps strength, thus impairing early functional recovery. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we analyzed the possible effect of fibrin sealant on blood loss and early functional recovery in a fast-track setting. Methods 24 consecutive patients undergoing bilateral simultaneous TKA were included. 10 mL of fibrin sealant (Evicel) was sprayed onto one knee whereas the contralateral knee had saline. Drain output, the primary outcome, was measured from knee drains removed exactly 24 h after surgery. Secondary outcomes (knee swelling, pain, strength of knee extension, and range of movement (ROM)) were evaluated up to 21 days after surgery. Results The drain output in knees treated with fibrin sealant and placebo was similar (582 mL and 576 mL, respectively). Likewise, no statistically significant differences were found between groups regarding swelling, pain, strength of knee extension, and ROM. Interpretation Fibrin sealant as a local hemostatic in TKA showed no benefit in reducing drain output or in facilitating early functional recovery when used with a tourniquet, tranexamic acid, and a femoral bone plug. PMID:23350579

  20. Estimation of signal-dependent noise level function in transform domain via a sparse recovery model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingyu; Gan, Ziqiao; Wu, Zhaoyang; Hou, Chunping

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel algorithm to estimate the noise level function (NLF) of signal-dependent noise (SDN) from a single image based on the sparse representation of NLFs. Noise level samples are estimated from the high-frequency discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of nonlocal-grouped low-variation image patches. Then, an NLF recovery model based on the sparse representation of NLFs under a trained basis is constructed to recover NLF from the incomplete noise level samples. Confidence levels of the NLF samples are incorporated into the proposed model to promote reliable samples and weaken unreliable ones. We investigate the behavior of the estimation performance with respect to the block size, sampling rate, and confidence weighting. Simulation results on synthetic noisy images show that our method outperforms existing state-of-the-art schemes. The proposed method is evaluated on real noisy images captured by three types of commodity imaging devices, and shows consistently excellent SDN estimation performance. The estimated NLFs are incorporated into two well-known denoising schemes, nonlocal means and BM3D, and show significant improvements in denoising SDN-polluted images. PMID:25781167

  1. Viewing Nature Scenes Positively Affects Recovery of Autonomic Function Following Acute-Mental Stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor. PMID:23590163

  2. Interaction between Vestibular Compensation Mechanisms and Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy: 10 Recommendations for Optimal Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Lacour, Michel; Bernard-Demanze, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    This review questions the relationships between the plastic events responsible for the recovery of vestibular function after a unilateral vestibular loss (vestibular compensation), which has been well described in animal models in the last decades, and the vestibular rehabilitation (VR) therapy elaborated on a more empirical basis for vestibular loss patients. The main objective is not to propose a catalog of results but to provide clinicians with an understandable view on when and how to perform VR therapy, and why VR may benefit from basic knowledge and may influence the recovery process. With this perspective, 10 major recommendations are proposed as ways to identify an optimal functional recovery. Among them are the crucial role of active and early VR therapy, coincidental with a post-lesion sensitive period for neuronal network remodeling, the instructive role that VR therapy may play in this functional reorganization, the need for progression in the VR therapy protocol, which is based mainly on adaptation processes, the necessity to take into account the sensorimotor, cognitive, and emotional profile of the patient to propose individual or “à la carte” VR therapies, and the importance of motivational and ecologic contexts. More than 10 general principles are very likely, but these principles seem crucial for the fast recovery of vestibular loss patients to ensure good quality of life. PMID:25610424

  3. Functional Characterization of the Frost Gene in Drosophila melanogaster: Importance for Recovery from Chill Coma

    PubMed Central

    Colinet, Herv; Fai Lee, Siu; Hoffmann, Ary

    2010-01-01

    Background Almost all animals, including insects, need to adapt to temperature fluctuations. The molecular basis of thermal adaptation is not well understood, although a number of candidate genes have been proposed. However, a functional link between candidate genes and thermal tolerance has rarely been established. The gene Frost (Fst) was first discovered when Drosophila flies were exposed to cold stress, but the biological function(s) of Fst has so far not been characterized. Because Fst is up-regulated after a cold stress, we tested whether it was essential for chill-coma recovery. Methodology/Principal Findings A marked increase in Fst expression was detected (by RT-PCR) during recovery from cold stress, peaking at 42-fold after 2 h. The GAL4/UAS system was used to knock down expression of Fst and recovery ability was assessed in transgenic adults following 12 h of chill coma at 0C. The ability to recover from cold stress (short-, medium- and long-term) was significantly altered in the transgenic adults that had Fst silenced. These findings show that Fst plays an essential role in the recovery from chill coma in both males and females. Conclusions/Significance The Frost gene is essential for cold tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster and may play an important role in thermal adaptation. PMID:20532197

  4. Defining Recovery from an Eating Disorder: Conceptualization, Validation, and Examination of Psychosocial Functioning and Psychiatric Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Harney, Megan B.; Maldonado, Christine R.; Lawson, Melissa A.; Robinson, D. Paul; Smith, Roma; Tosh, Aneesh

    2009-01-01

    Conceptually, eating disorder recovery should include physical, behavioral, and psychological components, but such a comprehensive approach has not been consistently employed. Guided by theory and recent recovery research, we identified a fully recovered group (n=20) based on physical (body mass index), behavioral (absence of eating disorder behaviors), and psychological (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire) indices, and compared them with groups of partially recovered (n=15), active eating disorder (n=53), and healthy controls (n=67). The fully recovered group was indistinguishable from controls on all eating disorder-related measures used, while the partially recovered group was less disordered than the active eating disorder group on some measures, but not on body image. Regarding psychosocial functioning, both the fully and partially recovered groups had psychosocial functioning similar to the controls, but there was a pattern of more of the partially recovered group reporting eating disorder aspects interfering with functioning. Regarding other psychopathology, the fully recovered group was no more likely than the controls to experience current Axis I pathology, but they did have elevated rates of current anxiety disorder. Results suggest that a stringent definition of recovery from an eating disorder is meaningful. Clinical implications and future directions regarding defining eating disorder recovery are discussed. PMID:19945094

  5. GDF10 is a signal for axonal sprouting and functional recovery after stroke.

    PubMed

    Li, Songlin; Nie, Esther H; Yin, Yuqin; Benowitz, Larry I; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V; Bahjat, F Rena; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P; Kawaguchi, Riki; Coppola, Giovanni; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Stroke produces a limited process of neural repair. Axonal sprouting in cortex adjacent to the infarct is part of this recovery process, but the signal that initiates axonal sprouting is not known. Growth and differentiation factor 10 (GDF10) is induced in peri-infarct neurons in mice, non-human primates and humans. GDF10 promotes axonal outgrowth in vitro in mouse, rat and human neurons through TGF?RI and TGF?RII signaling. Using pharmacogenetic gain- and loss-of-function studies, we found that GDF10 produced axonal sprouting and enhanced functional recovery after stroke; knocking down GDF10 blocked axonal sprouting and reduced recovery. RNA sequencing from peri-infarct cortical neurons revealed that GDF10 downregulated PTEN, upregulated PI3 kinase signaling and induced specific axonal guidance molecules. Using unsupervised genome-wide association analysis of the GDF10 transcriptome, we found that it was not related to neurodevelopment, but may partially overlap with other CNS injury patterns. Thus, GDF10 is a stroke-induced signal for axonal sprouting and functional recovery. PMID:26502261

  6. Regenerated Synapses in Lamprey Spinal Cord Are Sparse and Small Even After Functional Recovery From Injury

    PubMed Central

    Oliphint, Paul A.; Alieva, Naila; Foldes, Andrea E.; Tytell, Eric D.; Lau, Billy Y.-B.; Pariseau, Jenna S.; Cohen, Avis H.; Morgan, Jennifer R.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the potential importance that synapse regeneration plays in restoring neuronal function after spinal cord injury (SCI), even the most basic questions about the morphology of regenerated synapses remain unanswered. Therefore, we set out to gain a better understanding of central synapse regeneration by examining the number, distribution, molecular composition, and ultrastructure of regenerated synapses under conditions in which behavioral recovery from SCI was robust. To do so, we used the giant reticulospinal (RS) neurons of lamprey spinal cord because they readily regenerate, are easily identifiable, and contain large synapses that serve as a classic model for vertebrate excitatory neurotransmission. Using a combination of light and electron microscopy, we found that regenerated giant RS synapses regained the basic structures and presynaptic organization observed at control giant RS synapses at a time when behavioral recovery was nearly complete. However, several obvious differences remained. Most strikingly, regenerated giant RS axons produced very few synapses. In addition, presynaptic sites within regenerated axons were less complex, had fewer vesicles, and had smaller active zones than normal. In contrast, the densities of presynapses and docked vesicles were nearly restored to control values. Thus, robust functional recovery from SCI can occur even when the structures of regenerated synapses are sparse and small, suggesting that functional recovery is due to a more complex set of compensatory changes throughout the spinal network. J. Comp. Neurol. 518:28542872, 2010. PMID:20506479

  7. Interaction between Vestibular Compensation Mechanisms and Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy: 10 Recommendations for Optimal Functional Recovery.

    PubMed

    Lacour, Michel; Bernard-Demanze, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    This review questions the relationships between the plastic events responsible for the recovery of vestibular function after a unilateral vestibular loss (vestibular compensation), which has been well described in animal models in the last decades, and the vestibular rehabilitation (VR) therapy elaborated on a more empirical basis for vestibular loss patients. The main objective is not to propose a catalog of results but to provide clinicians with an understandable view on when and how to perform VR therapy, and why VR may benefit from basic knowledge and may influence the recovery process. With this perspective, 10 major recommendations are proposed as ways to identify an optimal functional recovery. Among them are the crucial role of active and early VR therapy, coincidental with a post-lesion sensitive period for neuronal network remodeling, the instructive role that VR therapy may play in this functional reorganization, the need for progression in the VR therapy protocol, which is based mainly on adaptation processes, the necessity to take into account the sensorimotor, cognitive, and emotional profile of the patient to propose individual or "à la carte" VR therapies, and the importance of motivational and ecologic contexts. More than 10 general principles are very likely, but these principles seem crucial for the fast recovery of vestibular loss patients to ensure good quality of life. PMID:25610424

  8. EVALUATION OF A CRYPTOSPORIDIUM INTERNAL STANDARD FOR DETERMINING RECOVERY WITH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY METHOD 1623

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current benchmark method for detecting Cryptosporidium oocysts in water is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Method 1623. Studies evaluating this method report that recoveries are highly variable and dependent upon laboratory, water sample, and analyst. Ther...

  9. Long-term recovery of normal sexual function in testicular cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Capogrosso, Paolo; Boeri, Luca; Ferrari, Matteo; Ventimiglia, Eugenio; La Croce, Giovanni; Capitanio, Umberto; Briganti, Alberto; Damiano, Rocco; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common solid cancer in men between the third and fourth decade of life. Due to successful treatment approaches, TC survivors (TCSs) have long life expectancy, but with numerous potential long-term sequelae, including sexual dysfunction. We investigated predictors of long-term normal sexual function (SF) recovery in TCSs. Sociodemographic, medical, and psychometric data were analyzed in 143 Caucasian-European TCSs, who underwent orchiectomy at a single institution. Health-significant comorbidities were scored with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Patients completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Statistical models tested the association between predictors (including age at surgery, body mass index, CCI, and adjuvant therapy: radiotherapy [RT], chemotherapy [CT], CT followed by retroperitoneal lymph node dissection [RPLND] and RPLND alone) and the long-term recovery of normal SF (defined as IIEF-erectile function [EF] ?26, and sexual desire [SD], intercourse satisfaction [IS] orgasmic function [OF], and overall satisfaction [OS] domain scores in the upper tertiles). At a mean follow-up of 86 months, 35 (25.5%) TCSs had erectile dysfunction (ED), with 16 (11.2%) experiencing severe ED. Median time of EF recovery was 60, 60, and 70 months after CT, RT, and RPLND, respectively. Only adjuvant RT emerged as an independent predictor of nonrecovery of normal EF (HR: 0.55, P= 0.01). Neither adjuvant CT nor CT plus RPLND or RPLND alone significantly impaired the recovery of normal erections. Adjuvant therapy was not associated with impaired recovery of normal sexuality as a whole, considering the IIEF-SD, -OF, -IS, and OS domains. PMID:26112476

  10. Sensorimotor training promotes functional recovery and somatosensory cortical map reactivation following cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marina; Brezun, Jean-Michel; Zennou-Azogui, Yoh'i; Baril, Nathalie; Xerri, Christian

    2009-12-01

    Sensorimotor activity has been shown to play a key role in functional recovery after partial spinal cord injury (SCI). Most studies in rodents have focused on the rehabilitation of hindlimb locomotor functions after thoracic or lumbar SCI, whereas forelimb motor and somatosensory abilities after cervical SCI remain largely uninvestigated, despite the high incidence of such injuries in humans. Moreover, little is known about the neurophysiological substrates of training-induced recovery in supraspinal structures. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of a training procedure combining both motor and sensory stimulation on behavioral performance and somatosensory cortical map remodeling after cervical (C4-C5) spinal hemisection in rats. This SCI severely impaired both sensory and motor capacities in the ipsilateral limbs. Without training, post-lesion motor capacities gradually improved, whereas forepaw tactile abilities remained impaired. Consistently, no stimulus-evoked responses were recorded within the forepaw representational zone in the primary somatosensory (S1) cortex at 2 months after the SCI. However, our data reveal that with training started from the 7th day post-lesion, a nearly complete recovery (characterized by an early and rapid improvement of motor functions) was associated with a gradual compensation of tactile deficits. Furthermore, the recovery of tactile abilities was correlated with the areal extent of reactivation of S1 cortex forepaw representations. Rehabilitative training promoted post-lesion adaptive plasticity, probably by enhancing endogenous activity within spared spinal and supraspinal circuits and pathways sustaining sensory and motor functions. This study highlights the beneficial effect of sensorimotor training in motor improvement and its critical influence on tactile recovery after SCI. PMID:20092578

  11. Putative neurotrophic factors and functional recovery from peripheral nerve damage in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Van der Zee, C. E.; Brakkee, J. H.; Gispen, W. H.

    1991-01-01

    1. In rats, recovery of sensory-motor function following a crush lesion of the sciatic or tibial nerve was monitored by measuring foot reflex withdrawal from a local noxious stimulation of the foot sole. 2. Putative neurotrophic compounds were tested on this functional recovery model: melanocortins (peptides derived from ACTH (corticotropin) and alpha-MSH (melanotropin], gangliosides and nimodipine were effective whereas isaxonine and TRH (thyrotropin releasing hormone) were not. 3. Structure-activity studies with melanocortins revealed a similar effectiveness of alpha-MSH, [N-Leu4, D-Phe7]-alpha-MSH, desacetyl-alpha-MSH and the ACTH analogue ORG 2766, questioning the validity of the previously suggested notion that the melanotrophic properties of these peptides are responsible for their neurotrophic effect. 4. As recovery of function after peripheral nerve damage follows a similar time course in hypophysectomized (five days post operation) and sham-operated rats, effective melanocortin therapy does not mimic an endogenous peptide signal in the repair process from pituitary origin. 5. Subcutaneous treatment with ORG 2766 (7.5 micrograms kg-1 48 h-1) facilitates recovery of function following peripheral nerve damage in young (6-7 weeks old), mature (5 month old) and old (20 month old) rats. 6. In view of the diversity in structure of the effective neurotrophic factors and the complexity of nerve repair, the present data support the notion that peripheral nerve repair may be facilitated by different humoral factors likely to be active on different aspects of the recovery process. PMID:1678980

  12. Therapeutic Validity and Effectiveness of Preoperative Exercise on Functional Recovery after Joint Replacement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hoogeboom, Thomas J.; Oosting, Ellen; Vriezekolk, Johanna E.; Veenhof, Cindy; Siemonsma, Petra C.; de Bie, Rob A.; van den Ende, Cornelia H. M.; van Meeteren, Nico L. U.

    2012-01-01

    Background Our aim was to develop a rating scale to assess the therapeutic validity of therapeutic exercise programmes. By use of this rating scale we investigated the therapeutic validity of therapeutic exercise in patients awaiting primary total joint replacement (TJR). Finally, we studied the association between therapeutic validity of preoperative therapeutic exercise and its effectiveness in terms of postoperative functional recovery. Methods (Quasi) randomised clinical trials on preoperative therapeutic exercise in adults awaiting TJR on postoperative recovery of functioning within three months after surgery were identified through database and reference screening. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk of bias and therapeutic validity. Therapeutic validity of the interventions was assessed with a nine-itemed, expert-based rating scale (scores range from 0 to 9; score ≥6 reflecting therapeutic validity), developed in a four-round Delphi study. Effects were pooled using a random-effects model and meta-regression was used to study the influence of therapeutic validity. Results Of the 7,492 articles retrieved, 12 studies (737 patients) were included. None of the included studies demonstrated therapeutic validity and two demonstrated low risk of bias. Therapeutic exercise was not associated with 1) observed functional recovery during the hospital stay (Standardised Mean Difference [SMD]: −1.19; 95%-confidence interval [CI], −2.46 to 0.08); 2) observed recovery within three months of surgery (SMD: −0.15; 95%-CI, −0.42 to 0.12); and 3) self-reported recovery within three months of surgery (SMD −0.07; 95%-CI, −0.35 to 0.21) compared with control participants. Meta-regression showed no statistically significant relationship between therapeutic validity and pooled-effects. Conclusion Preoperative therapeutic exercise for TJR did not demonstrate beneficial effects on postoperative functional recovery. However, poor therapeutic validity of the therapeutic exercise programmes may have hampered potentially beneficial effects, since none of the studies met the predetermined quality criteria. Future review studies on therapeutic exercise should address therapeutic validity. PMID:22675429

  13. Role of the Contralesional Hemisphere in Post-Stroke Recovery of Upper Extremity Motor Function.

    PubMed

    Buetefisch, Cathrin M

    2015-01-01

    Identification of optimal treatment strategies to improve recovery is limited by the incomplete understanding of the neurobiological principles of recovery. Motor cortex (M1) reorganization of the lesioned hemisphere (ipsilesional M1) plays a major role in post-stroke motor recovery and is a primary target for rehabilitation therapy. Reorganization of M1 in the hemisphere contralateral to the stroke (contralesional M1) may, however, serve as an additional source of cortical reorganization and related recovery. The extent and outcome of such reorganization depends on many factors, including lesion size and time since stroke. In the chronic phase post-stroke, contralesional M1 seems to interfere with motor function of the paretic limb in a subset of patients, possibly through abnormally increased inhibition of lesioned M1 by the contralesional M1. In such patients, decreasing contralesional M1 excitability by cortical stimulation results in improved performance of the paretic limb. However, emerging evidence suggests a potentially supportive role of contralesional M1. After infarction of M1 or its corticospinal projections, there is abnormally increased excitatory neural activity and activation in contralesional M1 that correlates with favorable motor recovery. Decreasing contralesional M1 excitability in these patients may result in deterioration of paretic limb performance. In animal stroke models, reorganizational changes in contralesional M1 depend on the lesion size and rehabilitation treatment and include long-term changes in neurotransmitter systems, dendritic growth, and synapse formation. While there is, therefore, some evidence that activity in contralesional M1 will impact the extent of motor function of the paretic limb in the subacute and chronic phase post-stroke and may serve as a new target for rehabilitation treatment strategies, the precise factors that specifically influence its role in the recovery process remain to be defined. PMID:26528236

  14. Role of the Contralesional Hemisphere in Post-Stroke Recovery of Upper Extremity Motor Function

    PubMed Central

    Buetefisch, Cathrin M.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of optimal treatment strategies to improve recovery is limited by the incomplete understanding of the neurobiological principles of recovery. Motor cortex (M1) reorganization of the lesioned hemisphere (ipsilesional M1) plays a major role in post-stroke motor recovery and is a primary target for rehabilitation therapy. Reorganization of M1 in the hemisphere contralateral to the stroke (contralesional M1) may, however, serve as an additional source of cortical reorganization and related recovery. The extent and outcome of such reorganization depends on many factors, including lesion size and time since stroke. In the chronic phase post-stroke, contralesional M1 seems to interfere with motor function of the paretic limb in a subset of patients, possibly through abnormally increased inhibition of lesioned M1 by the contralesional M1. In such patients, decreasing contralesional M1 excitability by cortical stimulation results in improved performance of the paretic limb. However, emerging evidence suggests a potentially supportive role of contralesional M1. After infarction of M1 or its corticospinal projections, there is abnormally increased excitatory neural activity and activation in contralesional M1 that correlates with favorable motor recovery. Decreasing contralesional M1 excitability in these patients may result in deterioration of paretic limb performance. In animal stroke models, reorganizational changes in contralesional M1 depend on the lesion size and rehabilitation treatment and include long-term changes in neurotransmitter systems, dendritic growth, and synapse formation. While there is, therefore, some evidence that activity in contralesional M1 will impact the extent of motor function of the paretic limb in the subacute and chronic phase post-stroke and may serve as a new target for rehabilitation treatment strategies, the precise factors that specifically influence its role in the recovery process remain to be defined. PMID:26528236

  15. Misdirection of Regenerating Axons and Functional Recovery Following Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Shirley K.; Hinkle, Marcus L.; Nicolini, Jennifer; Rambo, Lindsay N.; Rexwinkle, April M.; Rose, Sam J.; Sabatier, Manning J.; Backus, Deborah; English, Arthur W.

    2013-01-01

    Poor functional recovery found after peripheral nerve injury has been attributed to the misdirection of regenerating axons to reinnervate functionally inappropriate muscles. We applied brief electrical stimulation (ES) to the common fibular (CF) but not the tibial (Tib) nerve just prior to transection and repair of the entire rat sciatic nerve, to attempt to influence the misdirection of its regenerating axons. The specificity with which regenerating axons reinnervated appropriate targets was evaluated physiologically using compound muscle action potentials (M responses) evoked from stimulation of the two nerve branches above the injury site. Functional recovery was assayed using the timing of electromyography (EMG) activity recorded from the tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (Sol) muscles during treadmill locomotion and kinematic analysis of hindlimb locomotor movements. Selective ES of the CF nerve resulted in restored M-responses at earlier times than in unstimulated controls in both TA and Sol muscles. Stimulated CF axons reinnervated inappropriate targets to a greater extent than unstimulated Tib axons. During locomotion, functional antagonist muscles, TA and Sol, were coactivated both in stimulated rats and in unstimulated but injured rats. Hindlimb kinematics in stimulated rats were comparable to untreated rats, but significantly different from intact controls. Selective ES promotes enhanced axon regeneration but does so with decreased fidelity of muscle reinnervation. Functional recovery is neither improved nor degraded, suggesting that compensatory changes in the outputs of the spinal circuits driving locomotion may occur irrespective of the extent of misdirection of regenerating axons in the periphery. PMID:21120925

  16. IMPROVED METHOD FOR RECOVERY OF ENTERIC VIRUSES FROM WASTEWATER SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various parameters involved in recovering indigenous enteric viruses from wastewater sludges aided by buffered beef extract elution and subsequent organic flocculation concentration were examined. Conditions were optimized to yield an overall effective method for use in environme...

  17. Numerical aspects of a spline-based multiresolution recovery of the harmonic mass density out of gravity functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Volker; Wolf, Kerstin

    2008-04-01

    We show the numerical applicability of a multiresolution method based on harmonic splines on the 3-D ball which allows the regularized recovery of the harmonic part of the Earth's mass density distribution out of different types of gravity data, for example, different radial derivatives of the potential, at various positions which need not be located on a common sphere. This approximated harmonic density can be combined with its orthogonal anharmonic complement, for example, determined out of the splitting function of free oscillations, to an approximation of the whole mass density function. The applicability of the presented tool is demonstrated by several test calculations based on simulated gravity values derived from EGM96. The method yields a multiresolution in the sense that the localization of the constructed spline basis functions can be increased which yields in combination with more data a higher resolution of the resulting spline. Moreover, we show that a locally improved data situation allows a highly resolved recovery in this particular area in combination with a coarse approximation elsewhere which is an essential advantage of this method, for example, compared to polynomial approximation.

  18. The effect of memantine on functional recovery of the facial nerve after crush injury.

    PubMed

    Topdag, Murat; Topdag, Deniz Ozlem; Ila, Kadri; Muezzinoglu, Bahar; Yaprak, Busra; Ozturk, Murat; Caliskan, Sebla; Iseri, Mete

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to establish whether memantine is an alternative and effective treatment on facial nerve recovery after crush injury, and also to analyze the effective doses of this promising agent. This is a randomized controlled animal study. 40 rats underwent crush injury to left main trunk of the facial nerve, and divided into 4 groups; (1) control (saline treated), (2) 5-mg/kg memantine, (3) 10-mg/kg memantine, and (4) 20-mg/kg memantine group. Facial nerve functions were evaluated by eye reflex, and whisker movement compared to the unaffected side. They were scored on a 3-point scale. On day 28, the rats were sacrificed, and the facial nerves were dissected. The paraffin sections were studied with caspase-3 immunostaining. According to statistical data, the recovery in Group 4 began significantly earlier than the other groups on the basis of restoring eye blink reflexes and whisker movement. Groups 2 and 3 showed faster recovery than Group 1 on the basis of whisker movement. The caspase-3 positive staining was rarely detected in all groups. The KruskalWallis test revealed that Group 4 showed fewer apoptotic cells than other groups; this was statistically significant. However, the MannWhitney U test with the Bonferroni correction did not reveal any significant difference between the groups. In conclusion, this study revealed that memantine acted to restore facial nerve functions, and accelerate recovery after facial nerve injury by inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:24659363

  19. Mechanisms of recovery of visual function in adult amblyopia through a tailored action video game.

    PubMed

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Nahum, Mor; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2015-01-01

    Amblyopia is a deficit in vision that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. It was long thought to develop into a permanent deficit, unless properly treated before the end of the sensitive period for visual recovery. However, a number of studies now suggest that adults with long-standing amblyopia may at least partially recover visual acuity and stereopsis following perceptual training. Eliminating or reducing interocular suppression has been hypothesized to be at the root of these changes. Here we show that playing a novel dichoptic video game indeed results in reduced suppression, improved visual acuity and, in some cases, improved stereopsis. Our relatively large cohort of adults with amblyopia, allowed us, for the first time, to assess the link between visual function recovery and reduction in suppression. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was found between decreased suppression and improved visual function. This finding challenges the prevailing view and suggests that while dichoptic training improves visual acuity and stereopsis in adult amblyopia, reduced suppression is unlikely to be at the root of visual recovery. These results are discussed in the context of their implication on recovery of amblyopia in adults. PMID:25719537

  20. Binge Ethanol Prior to Traumatic Brain Injury Worsens Sensorimotor Functional Recovery in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vaagenes, Ian C.; Tsai, Shih-Yen; Ton, Son T.; Husak, Vicki A.; McGuire, Susan O.; OBrien, Timothy E.; Kartje, Gwendolyn L.

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) have a high blood alcohol level at the time of injury. Furthermore, drinking alcohol in a binge-like pattern is now recognized as a national problem, leading to a greater likelihood of being injured. Our objective was to determine the consequences of a binge paradigm of alcohol intoxication at the time of TBI on long-term functional outcome using a sensitive test of sensorimotor function. We trained adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats on the skilled forelimb reaching task and then administered a single binge dose of ethanol (2g/kg, i.p.) or saline for three consecutive days (for a total of 3 doses). One hour after the final ethanol dose, rats underwent a TBI to the sensorimotor cortex corresponding to the preferred reaching forelimb. Animals were then tested for seven weeks on the skilled forelimb reaching task to assess the profile of recovery. We found that the group given ethanol prior to TBI displayed a slower recovery curve with a lower recovery plateau as compared to the control group. Therefore, even a relatively short (3 day) episode of binge alcohol exposure can negatively impact long-term recovery from a TBI, underscoring this significant public health problem. PMID:25768795

  1. Compression socks and functional recovery following marathon running: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Stuart A; Till, Eloise S; Maloney, Stephen R; Harris, Gregory A

    2015-02-01

    Compression socks have become a popular recovery aid for distance running athletes. Although some physiological markers have been shown to be influenced by wearing these garments, scant evidence exists on their effects on functional recovery. This research aims to shed light onto whether the wearing of compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running can improve functional recovery, as measured by a timed treadmill test to exhaustion 14 days following marathon running. Athletes (n = 33, age, 38.5 7.2 years) participating in the 2012 Melbourne, 2013 Canberra, or 2013 Gold Coast marathons were recruited and randomized into the compression sock or placebo group. A graded treadmill test to exhaustion was performed 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after each marathon. Time to exhaustion, average and maximum heart rates were recorded. Participants were asked to wear their socks for 48 hours immediately after completion of the marathon. The change in treadmill times (seconds) was recorded for each participant. Thirty-three participants completed the treadmill protocols. In the compression group, average treadmill run to exhaustion time 2 weeks after the marathon increased by 2.6% (52 103 seconds). In the placebo group, run to exhaustion time decreased by 3.4% (-62 130 seconds), P = 0.009. This shows a significant beneficial effect of compression socks on recovery compared with placebo. The wearing of below-knee compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running has been shown to improve functional recovery as measured by a graduated treadmill test to exhaustion 2 weeks after the event. PMID:25627452

  2. COMPRESSION SOCKS AND FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY FOLLOWING MARATHON RUNNING: A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Stuart A; Till, Eloise S; Maloney, Stephen; Harris, Gregory

    2014-09-01

    Compression socks have become a popular recovery aid for distance running athletes. Although some physiological markers have been shown to be influenced by wearing these garments, scant evidence exists on their effects on functional recovery. This research aims to shed light onto whether the wearing of compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running can improve functional recovery, as measured by a timed treadmill test to exhaustion 14 days following marathon running.Athletes (n=33, age = 38.5 7.2yrs) participating in the 2012 Melbourne, 2013 Canberra or 2013 Gold Coast marathons were recruited and randomised into the compression sock or placebo group. A graded treadmill test to exhaustion was performed 2 weeks prior and 2 weeks following each marathon. Time to exhaustion, average and maximum heart rates were recorded. Participants were asked to wear their socks for 48 hours immediately after completion of the marathon. The change in treadmill times (seconds) was recorded for each participant.33 participants completed the treadmill protocols. In the compression group average treadmill run to exhaustion time 2 weeks following the marathon increased by 2.6% (52s 103s). In the placebo group run to exhaustion time decreased by 3.4% (-62s 130s). P=0.009. This shows a significant beneficial effect of compression socks on recovery compared to placebo.The wearing of below knee compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running has been shown to improve functional recovery as measured by a graduated treadmill test to exhaustion 2 weeks following the event. PMID:25187242

  3. Back to Baseline: Erectile Function Recovery after Radical Prostatectomy from the Patients Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Christian J.; Scardino, Peter T.; Eastham, James A.; Mulhall, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A variety of erectile function recovery (EFR) rates are reported post radical prostatectomy (RP), with some suggesting EFR rates over 90% [1]. Clinical experience suggests that patients view EFR as getting back to their baseline (BTB) erectile functioning (EF) without the use of medication. Aim This study explores EFR defined as BTB. Method Men pre-RP and 24 months post-RP completed the Erectile Function Domain (EFD) of the International Index of Erectile Function and one question on phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i) use. Men using a PDE5i at baseline were excluded. Main Outcome Measures At 24 m, back to baseline was defined as achieving the baseline EFD score (within 1 point or higher). Analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square, and logistic regression. Results One hundred eighty men had an average age at RP of 59 (SD = 7) years. When including men who were using a PDE5i at 24 months, 43% (N = 78, 95% CI: 3651%) returned BTB. When considering BTB without the use of a PDE5i, 22% (N = 39, 95% CI: 16% to 28%) returned BTB. When focusing on a subset of men with baseline EFD ? 24 (N = 132), 36% (N = 47, 95% CI: 28% to 44%) returned BTB at 24 months using a PDE5i and 16% (N = 21, 95% CI: 11% to 23%) without the use of aPDE5i. For this group, there was a significant difference by age (<60 years, 23% vs. ?60 years, 4%, P< 0.001), which remained a significant predictor (OR = 6.25, 95% CI: 1.88 to 50, P< 0.001) in multivariable analysis. Conclusions Twenty-two percent of the entire sample and 16% of the men with functional (EFD ? 24) baseline erections returned to BTB EF without the use of medication. Only 4% of men who were ?60 years old with functional erections pre-surgery achieved BTB EF. Although gaining partial EF is also important, men pre-RP should be educated on EFR and the chance of back to baseline EF. PMID:23551767

  4. In Vitro Ovine Embryo Production: the Study of Seasonal and Oocyte Recovery Method Effects

    PubMed Central

    Dadashpour Davachi, Navid; Zare Shahneh, Ahmad; Kohram, Hamid; Zhandi, Mahdi; Dashti, Saeed; Shamsi, Helia; Moghadam, Razieh

    2014-01-01

    Background: To current knowledge, different oocyte's recovery method and various seasons have profound impact on in vitro embryo production (IVEP). Objectives: The aim of this study was to define an efficient recovery method for oocytes harvesting from slaughterhouse material in different seasons, and their effects on IVEP yield. Materials and Methods: Ovaries from slaughtered ewes in breeding season (BS) and non-breeding season (NBS) were collected from a local abattoir. The oocytes were recovered through aspiration, centrifugation (ORC), puncture and slicing, and categorized into three classes (I, oocytes with more than three layers of cumulus cells; II, less than three layers with damaged cumulus cells; III, denuded oocytes). After cultivation in TCM 199 for 24 hours, matured oocytes were subjected to in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC). The oocyte recovery using ORC in BS and NBS was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with other recovery methods. Results: No significant dissimilarities in the proportion of oocytes reaching M-II stage were recorded when using different oocyte recovery methods in different seasons. Aspiration resulted in lower (P < 0.05) proportion of class I (BS, 60.0 2.1; NBS, 51.1 2.1) compared to ORC (BS, 82.0 1.2; NBS, 70.0 1.2), slicing (BS, 80.0 2.1; NBS, 71.0 1.4) and puncture (BS, 80.0 1.5; NBS, 72.0 2.0). Monospermy and blastocyst development rates were significantly higher using ORC than other recovery techniques in both BS and NBS. More oocytes with high quality, greater blastocyst development and oocyte recovery rates were achieved in BS. Conclusions: The results revealed that oocytes harvesting technique and season are effective in the rate of cleavage and blastocysts development, and suggest that despite same meiotic resumption rate in all treatments, it would be better to use ORC. PMID:25593733

  5. PET Demonstrates Functional Recovery after Treatment by Danhong Injection in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Yuyan; He, Yu; Yang, Jiehong; Zhao, Tao; Fu, Wei; Xing, Panke; Wan, Haitong; Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate neuroprotection of Danhong injection (DHI) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET). Method. Rats were divided into 5 groups: sham group, ischemia-reperfusion untreated (IRU) group, DHI-1 group (DHI 1?mL/kg/d), DHI-2 group (DHI 2?mL/kg/d), and DHI-4 group (DHI 4?mL/kg/d). AII the treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with DHI daily for 14 days. The therapeutic effects in terms of cerebral infarct volume, neurological function, and cerebral glucose metabolism were evaluated. Expression of TNF-? and IL-1? was detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Levels of mature neuronal marker (NeuN), glial marker (GFAP), vascular density factor (vWF), and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Compared with the IRU group, rats treated with DHI showed dose dependent reductions in cerebral infarct volume and levels of proinflammatory cytokines, improvement of neurological function, and recovery of cerebral glucose metabolism. Meanwhile, the significantly increased numbers of neurons, gliocytes, and vessels and the recovery of glucose utilization were found in the peri-infarct region after DHI treatment using immunohistochemical analysis. Conclusion. This study demonstrated the metabolic recovery after DHI treatment by micro-PET imaging with 18F-FDG and the neuroprotective effects of DHI in a rat model of cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury. PMID:24707308

  6. Function of transected or avulsed rectus muscles following recovery using an anterior orbitotomy approach

    PubMed Central

    Pineles, Stacy L.; Laursen, Jessica; Goldberg, Robert A.; Demer, Joseph L.; Velez, Federico G.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the function of muscles retrieved from a retrobulbar location using an anterior orbitotomy approach and to identify the prognostic factors favoring a good outcome. METHODS The records of all patients undergoing anterior orbitotomy for the retrieval of a transected or avulsed muscle in a retrobulbar location were reviewed. Ocular motility, before and after retrieval (with ductions scaled from ?4 to +4), was evaluated. RESULTS Record review identified 11 patients who had suffered trauma to 12 muscles (5 inferior, 6 medial, and 1 lateral rectus muscle). Ductions improved from ?4 0.4 preoperatively to ?2.7 0.9 postoperatively (P = 0.002); mean primary position deviation improved from 34? 14?-15? 9? (P < 0.001), and mean deviation in the field of action improved from 47? 20?-20? 22? (P = 0.02). Ductions improved by at least two units in three patients, all of whom had medial rectus trauma. Single binocular vision in primary gaze was achieved in 6 patients. Patients with medial rectus muscle injury and patients injured by sinus surgery had the lowest likelihood of recovering single binocular vision. CONCLUSIONS Our results are similar to historical series in which muscles were not retrieved and transpositions performed; however, muscle retrieval avoids risks associated with transposition surgeries such as anterior segment ischemia. Muscle recovery via the anterior orbitotomy approach may be reasonable to consider in those cases with a reasonable possibility of having active force generation postoperatively. PMID:22835914

  7. Atrophied cardiomyocytes and their potential for rescue and recovery of ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Heckle, Mark R; Flatt, David M; Sun, Yao; Mancarella, Salvatore; Marion, Tony N; Gerling, Ivan C; Weber, Karl T

    2016-03-01

    Cardiomyocytes must be responsive to demands placed on the heart's contractile work as a muscular pump. In turn, myocyte size is largely dependent on the workload they perform. Both hypertrophied and atrophic myocytes are found in the normal and diseased ventricle. Individual myocytes become atrophic when encumbered by fibrillar collagen, such as occurs at sites of fibrosis. The mechanisms include: (a) being immobilized and subject to disuse with ensuing protein degradation mediated by redox-sensitive, proteolytic ligases of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and (b) dedifferentiated re-expressing fetal genes induced by low intracellular triiodothyronine (T3) via thyroid hormone receptor ?1. This myocyte-selective, low T3 state is a consequence of heterocellular signaling emanating from juxtaposed scar tissue myofibroblasts and their secretome with its de novo generation of angiotensin II. In a paracrine manner, angiotensin II promotes myocyte Ca(2+) entry and subsequent Ca(2+) overload with ensuing oxidative stress that overwhelms antioxidant defenses to activate deiodinase-3 and its enzymatic degradation of T3. In the failing heart, atrophic myocytes represent an endogenous population of viable myocytes which could be rescued to augment contractile mass, reduce systolic wall stress (afterload) and recover ventricular function. Experimental studies have shown the potential for the rescue and recovery of atrophic myocytes in rebuilding the myocardium-a method complementary to today's quest in regenerating myocardium using progenitor cells. PMID:26872676

  8. Functional Motor Recovery from Motoneuron Axotomy Is Compromised in Mice with Defective Corticospinal Projections

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yuetong; Qu, Yibo; Feng, Jia; Wang, Meizhi; Han, Qi; So, Kwok-Fai; Wu, Wutian; Zhou, Libing

    2014-01-01

    Brachial plexus injury (BPI) and experimental spinal root avulsion result in loss of motor function in the affected segments. After root avulsion, significant motoneuron function is restored by re-implantation of the avulsed root. How much this functional recovery depends on corticospinal inputs is not known. Here, we studied that question using Celsr3|Emx1 mice, in which the corticospinal tract (CST) is genetically absent. In adult mice, we tore off right C5C7 motor and sensory roots and re-implanted the right C6 roots. Behavioral studies showed impaired recovery of elbow flexion in Celsr3|Emx1 mice compared to controls. Five months after surgery, a reduced number of small axons, and higher G-ratio of inner to outer diameter of myelin sheaths were observed in mutant versus control mice. At early stages post-surgery, mutant mice displayed lower expression of GAP-43 in spinal cord and of myelin basic protein (MBP) in peripheral nerves than control animals. After five months, mutant animals had atrophy of the right biceps brachii, with less newly formed neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and reduced peak-to-peak amplitudes in electromyogram (EMG), than controls. However, quite unexpectedly, a higher motoneuron survival rate was found in mutant than in control mice. Thus, following root avulsion/re-implantation, the absence of the CST is probably an important reason to hamper axonal regeneration and remyelination, as well as target re-innervation and formation of new NMJ, resulting in lower functional recovery, while fostering motoneuron survival. These results indicate that manipulation of corticospinal transmission may help improve functional recovery following BPI. PMID:25003601

  9. Functional motor recovery from motoneuron axotomy is compromised in mice with defective corticospinal projections.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuetong; Qu, Yibo; Feng, Jia; Wang, Meizhi; Han, Qi; So, Kwok-Fai; Wu, Wutian; Zhou, Libing

    2014-01-01

    Brachial plexus injury (BPI) and experimental spinal root avulsion result in loss of motor function in the affected segments. After root avulsion, significant motoneuron function is restored by re-implantation of the avulsed root. How much this functional recovery depends on corticospinal inputs is not known. Here, we studied that question using Celsr3|Emx1 mice, in which the corticospinal tract (CST) is genetically absent. In adult mice, we tore off right C5-C7 motor and sensory roots and re-implanted the right C6 roots. Behavioral studies showed impaired recovery of elbow flexion in Celsr3|Emx1 mice compared to controls. Five months after surgery, a reduced number of small axons, and higher G-ratio of inner to outer diameter of myelin sheaths were observed in mutant versus control mice. At early stages post-surgery, mutant mice displayed lower expression of GAP-43 in spinal cord and of myelin basic protein (MBP) in peripheral nerves than control animals. After five months, mutant animals had atrophy of the right biceps brachii, with less newly formed neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and reduced peak-to-peak amplitudes in electromyogram (EMG), than controls. However, quite unexpectedly, a higher motoneuron survival rate was found in mutant than in control mice. Thus, following root avulsion/re-implantation, the absence of the CST is probably an important reason to hamper axonal regeneration and remyelination, as well as target re-innervation and formation of new NMJ, resulting in lower functional recovery, while fostering motoneuron survival. These results indicate that manipulation of corticospinal transmission may help improve functional recovery following BPI. PMID:25003601

  10. Increasing functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex during the course of recovery from Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sheng; Wu, Yuanyuan; Li, Chuanfu; Park, Kyungmo; Lu, Guangming; Mohamed, Abdalla Z; Wu, Hongli; Xu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Linying; Yang, Jun; Qiu, Bensheng

    2015-01-01

    Bell's palsy (BP), a unilateral and idiopathic palsy of the facial nerve, is a common disorder generally followed by a good natural recovery. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the recovery process of BP. Thirty-seven healthy volunteers and 67 patients were studied by functional MRI (fMRI). The seed regions of bilateral ACC were first extracted from the task-state fMRI data of healthy participants performing the task of mouth opening and closing. The connectivity of bilateral ACC was calculated from resting-state fMRI data of patients in whom only resting-state fMRI data were collected. The correlation between the strength of ACC's connectivity with the duration (time course of disease) was computed by analysis of covariance. It was found that the functional connectivity of the ACC ipsilateral to the lesioned side was enforced as the duration increased. The enforced brain areas included the sensorimotor areas and the ACC contralateral to the palsy. It was suggested that enforced functional connectivity of ACC might be related to cortical reorganization, which is important in the process of BP recovery. PMID:25426823

  11. Effect of intermittent hypoxia on neuro-functional recovery post brain ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yanxiang; Liu, Zhenfang; Yan, Xianliang; Luo, Chuanming

    2015-04-01

    Intermittent hypoxia was a simulation of a high-altitude environment. Neuro-inflammation post brain ischemia was considered as a vital impact which contributed to cognitive-functional deficit. The isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was an inflammation factor secreted by microglias in neuro-inflammation. In this study, we established a high-altitude environment as the hypoxic condition. Twenty mice were selected and randomized into a hypoxia group (n?=?10) or a normoxia group (n?=?10) post three vessel occlusion-induced brain ischemia. An enhancement of cognitive-functional recovery was presented in the hypoxia group by survival neuron counting and revealed by the Morris water maze test. Meanwhile, a high level of hypoxia-inducable factor 1 (HIF-1) expression associated with a lower expression of iNOS was observed in the border between infarcts and normal tissue of the hippocampus in the hypoxia group. However, these phenomenons were blocked by HIF-1 inhibition. This suggested that the acceleration of cognitive-functional recovery induced by intermittent hypoxia may depend on HIF-1 activating. An imitation of the hypoxic condition with or without HIF-1 inhibition was operated on the BV-2 cell. A high level of HIF-1 expression associated with a lower-level expression of iNOS was performed in the hypoxic condition. These data suggested that intermittent hypoxia can accelerate cognitive function recovery through attenuating neuro-inflammation. PMID:25344154

  12. Dexamethasone enhanced functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xinhong; Yuan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone is currently used for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, but its mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Inflammation/immune response at the site of nerve lesion is known to be an essential trigger of the pathological changes that have a critical impact on nerve repair and regeneration. In this study, we observed the effects of various doses of dexamethasone on the functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model. Motor functional recovery was monitored by walking track analysis and gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio. The myelinated axon number was counted by morphometric analysis. Rats administered dexamethasone by local intramuscular injection had a higher nerve function index value, increased gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio, reduced Wallerian degeneration severity, and enhanced regenerated myelinated nerve fibers. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for CD3 expression, which is a marker for T-cell activation, and infiltration in the sciatic nerve. Dexamethasone-injected rats had fewer CD3-positive cells compared to controls. Furthermore, we found increased expression of GAP-43, which is a factor associated with development and plasticity of the nervous system, in rat nerves receiving dexamethasone. These results provide strong evidence that dexamethasone enhances sciatic nerve regeneration and function recovery in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury through immunosuppressive and potential neurotrophic effects. PMID:25839037

  13. Application of triphasic pulses with adjustable phase amplitude ratio (PAR) for cochlear ECAP recording: II. recovery functions.

    PubMed

    Bahmer, Andreas; Baumann, Uwe

    2012-03-30

    Triphasic electrical stimulation pulses with an adjustable phase amplitude ratio (PAR) can reduce stimulus artifacts in electrically evoked compound actions potentials (ECAPs) recording in the cochlea (see companion paper Bahmer and Baumann, submitted for publication). The present study describes the application of triphasic pulses in forward masking paradigms for recording recovery functions. Masking was found to be most effective using equal masker-probe PAR settings. Results were compared with data applying artifact cancellation strategy for biphasic pulses according to Miller et al. (2000). Measurements were accomplished in five subjects (S1-S5) with an equal masker-probe PAR setting, whereby more detailed test series were carried out in one subject (S1). All subjects were users of MED-EL SONATAti100 or PULSARci100 cochlear implants (Innsbruck, Austria). Parameters like asymptote level, absolute refractory period and time constant were determined by fitting exponential functions to the recovery functions. Detailed measurements collected on 11 electrode locations in subject S1 showed similar parameter profiles on basal electrode contacts for both triphasic and Miller artifact cancellation methods, whereas apical/middle electrode contacts differed in part largely. Compared to Miller's artifact cancellation method estimated asymptote levels were lower with triphasic stimulation; the estimated absolute refractory period and time constants were estimated higher on apical electrodes. Results obtained in subjects S2-S5 showed considerable variances and a proper parametrization of the recovery function was possible only very selectively for triphasic pulse stimulation. In these cases, congruencies in estimated asymptote levels and time constants were found when triphasic stimulation and biphasic stimulation according to Miller were compared. PMID:22202890

  14. Development of Advanced Nuclide Separation and Recovery Methods using Ion-Exchanhge Techniques in Nuclear Backend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Hitoshi

    The development of compact separation and recovery methods using selective ion-exchange techniques is very important for the reprocessing and high-level liquid wastes (HLLWs) treatment in the nuclear backend field. The selective nuclide separation techniques are effective for the volume reduction of wastes and the utilization of valuable nuclides, and expected for the construction of advanced nuclear fuel cycle system and the rationalization of waste treatment. In order to accomplish the selective nuclide separation, the design and synthesis of novel adsorbents are essential for the development of compact and precise separation processes. The present paper deals with the preparation of highly functional and selective hybrid microcapsules enclosing nano-adsorbents in the alginate gel polymer matrices by sol-gel methods, their characterization and the clarification of selective adsorption properties by batch and column methods. The selective separation of Cs, Pd and Re in real HLLW was further accomplished by using novel microcapsules, and an advanced nuclide separation system was proposed by the combination of selective processes using microcapsules.

  15. Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley, NJ)

    2011-03-08

    A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.

  16. Mass recovery methods for trichloroethylene in plant tissue.

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, M. C.; Werth, C. J.; Energy Systems; Univ. of Illionis

    2009-06-01

    Monitoring expenses form a significant fraction of the costs associated with remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater sites. A novel monitoring method that could result in significant cost savings is the use of plants as monitoring devices; previous work indicates that plant tissue samples, especially trunk (core) and branch samples, can be used to delineate soil and groundwater plumes at phytoremediation sites. An important factor in reducing the uncertainty associated with this sampling method is development of a technique to analyze, both consistently and accurately, the chemicals stored in plant tissue samples. The present research presents a simple, robust, and inexpensive technique to recover most of the contaminant in plant branch tissue, irrespective of the age or species of the plant. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was the chemical analyzed. A number of headspace and solvent extraction techniques in the literature were evaluated, including headspace extraction at different incubation times and temperatures and solvent extraction using hexane or hot methanol. Extraction using hot methanol was relatively fast, simple, and reliable; this method recovered more than 89% of the TCE present in branches of five different tree species.

  17. Standard test methods for the strong-base resins used in the recovery of uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, M.A.; Lombaard, L.R.

    1986-05-30

    The report describes test methods that are relevant to the ion-exchange recovery of uranium. They include tests of the physical properties of strong-base resins (relative density, particle-size distribution, and moisture content) and of their chemical properties (theoretical capacity, equilibrium capacity, kinetics of loading and elution). Included are several supporting procedures that are used in conjunction with these methods.

  18. Stimulation of autophagy promotes functional recovery in diabetic rats with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kai-liang; Zhou, Yi-fei; Wu, Kai; Tian, Nai-feng; Wu, Yao-sen; Wang, Yong-li; Chen, De-heng; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Xiang-yang; Xu, Hua-zi; Zhang, Xiao-lei

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in diabetic rats after spinal cord injury (SCI), also we determined the role of autophagy in diabetes-aggravated neurological injury in vivo and in vitro. Our results showed that diabetes decreased the survival of neurons, promoted astrocytes proliferation, increased inflammatory cells infiltration and inhibited functional recovery after SCI. Diabetes was shown to confer increased activation of apoptotic pathways, along with an increase in autophagy; similar effects were also observed in vitro in neuronal PC12 cells. Treatment with rapamycin, an autophagy activator, partially abolished the adverse effect of diabetes, suggesting that diabetes may enhance neurological damage and suppress locomotor recovery after SCI, in addition to its effects on apoptosis and autophagy. In contrast, further stimulation of autophagy improved neurological function via inhibition of apoptosis. These results explained how diabetes exacerbates SCI in cellular level and suggested autophagy stimulation to be a new therapeutic strategy for diabetic SCI. PMID:26597839

  19. Canine bone marrow stromal cells promote functional recovery in mice with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yasutaka; Tani, Kenji; Asari, Yusuke; Quintanilha, Luiz Fernando; Haraguchi, Tomoya; Momota, Yutaka; Katayama, Masaaki; Itamoto, Kazuhito; Nakazawa, Hiroshi; Taura, Yasuho

    2014-06-01

    Regenerative therapy has begun to be clinically applied in humans and dogs to treat neurological disorders, such as spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we show the therapeutic potential of transplantation of cultured canine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) into mice with SCI. Canine BMSC transplantation therapy was performed, immediately after the spinal cord was injured. Canine BMSC therapy enhanced functional recovery of the hind limbs in mice with SCI. Nestin-positive cells were observed only in the lesion of mice with SCI that received BMSCs. These results suggest that canine BMSCs promote functional recovery in mice with SCI and that migration of nestin-positive cells may contribute to the efficacy of the BMSC treatment. PMID:24561315

  20. Contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation to the understanding of mechanisms of functional recovery after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Dimyan, Michael A.; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2010-01-01

    Motor disability continues to be a major cause of morbidity after stroke. The neural underpinnings of disability and of functional recovery are still unclear. Here, we review recent evidence obtained using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) that provides new insight into these mechanisms. We briefly discuss the use of TMS in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of post-stroke motor disability. Differently from previous reviews, particular emphasis is placed in the discussion of the use of TMS as a tool to explore in detailed mechanisms of neuroplasticity during spontaneous and treatment-induced recovery of motor function. TMS can be used to acquire the understanding of these mechanisms required for the development of more rational and clinically useful interventions in stroke neurorehabilitation. PMID:19767591

  1. Development of Functional Recovery Training Device for Hemiplegic Fingers with Finger-expansion Facilitation Exercise by Stretch Reflex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yong; Iwashita, Hisashi; Kawahira, Kazumi; Hayashi, Ryota

    This paper develops a functional recovery training device to perform repetition facilitating exercise for hemiplegic finger rehabilitation. On the facilitation exercise, automatic finger expansion can be realized and facilitated by stretch reflex, where a stimulation forces is applied instantaneously on flexion finger for making strech reflex and resistance forces are applied for maintaining the strech reflex. In this paper, novel parallel mechanisms, force sensing system with high sensitivity and resistance accompanying cooperation control method are proposed for sensing, controlling and realizing the stimulation force, resistance forces, strech reflex and repetition facilitating exercise. The effectivities and performances of the device are shown by some experiments.

  2. A unified method to process biosolids samples for the recovery of bacterial, viral, and helminths pathogens.

    PubMed

    Alum, Absar; Rock, Channah; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    For land application, biosolids are classified as Class A or Class B based on the levels of bacterial, viral, and helminths pathogens in residual biosolids. The current EPA methods for the detection of these groups of pathogens in biosolids include discrete steps. Therefore, a separate sample is processed independently to quantify the number of each group of the pathogens in biosolids. The aim of the study was to develop a unified method for simultaneous processing of a single biosolids sample to recover bacterial, viral, and helminths pathogens. At the first stage for developing a simultaneous method, nine eluents were compared for their efficiency to recover viruses from a 100 gm spiked biosolids sample. In the second stage, the three top performing eluents were thoroughly evaluated for the recovery of bacteria, viruses, and helminthes. For all three groups of pathogens, the glycine-based eluent provided higher recovery than the beef extract-based eluent. Additional experiments were performed to optimize performance of glycine-based eluent under various procedural factors such as, solids to eluent ratio, stir time, and centrifugation conditions. Last, the new method was directly compared with the EPA methods for the recovery of the three groups of pathogens spiked in duplicate samples of biosolids collected from different sources. For viruses, the new method yielded up to 10% higher recoveries than the EPA method. For bacteria and helminths, recoveries were 74% and 83% by the new method compared to 34% and 68% by the EPA method, respectively. The unified sample processing method significantly reduces the time required for processing biosolids samples for different groups of pathogens; it is less impacted by the intrinsic variability of samples, while providing higher yields (P = 0.05) and greater consistency than the current EPA methods. PMID:24521413

  3. Method of enhanced oil recovery employing thickened amphoteric surfactant solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kalpakci, B.; Chan, K. S.

    1985-11-26

    A method is disclosed for recovering petroleum from a subterranean reservoir penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well comprising: injecting into the reservoir through the injection well a surfactant slug comprising an aqueous solution containing about 0.001 to about 5% by weight of an amphoteric surfactant and an effective amount of a high molecular weight homopolysaccharide gum thickener derived from fungus strains of the genus Schlerotium to provide the surfactant slug with a viscosity exceeding the viscosity of the petroleum in the reservoir; and recovering fluid from the production well.

  4. Method for recovery of energy values of oily refinery sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, R.J. Jr.; Lafser, F.A. Jr.; Yonely, C.

    1992-01-07

    This patent describes a method for disposal of oil refinery sludges containing hydrocarbons, sediment, and at least about 5 percent water by weight in an operating rotary kiln comprising a heated, rotating cylinder containing in-process mineral matter, the rotary kiln having a firing zone in which fuel is ignited. It comprises analyzing the oily refinery sludge to determine its composition, providing the oily refinery sludge as a dried bulk granular material having an energy content of at least about 4,000 BTU per pound, and charging the dried granular material to the firing zone of the rotary kiln as a bulk material and burning the bulk material therein.

  5. Method of controlling scale in oil recovery operations

    DOEpatents

    Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing highly viscous minerals from a subterranean formation by injection of an acidic, thermal vapor stream without substantial scale buildup in downstream piping, pumps and well bore. The process comprises heating the formation by injection of heat, preferably in the form of a thermal vapor stream composed of combustion gases and steam and injecting an acidic compound simultaneously with the thermal vapor stream into the formation at a temperature above the dew point of the thermal vapor stream. The acidic, thermal vapor stream increases the solubility of metal ions in connate water and thus reduces scaling in the downstream equipment during the production of viscous hydrocarbons.

  6. Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, George A.

    1986-01-01

    High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

  7. Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, G.A.

    1985-03-05

    High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

  8. Spaceflight-Induced Cardiovascular Changes and Recovery During NASA's Functional Task Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzeno, N. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    Microgravity-induced physiological changes could impair a crewmember s performance upon return to a gravity environment. The Functional Task Test (FTT) is designed to correlate these physiological changes to performance in mission-critical tasks. The Recovery from Fall/Stand Test (RFST) simulates one such task, measuring the ability to recover from a prone position and the cardiovascular response to orthostasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate spaceflight-induced cardiovascular changes during the FTT. METHODS: Five astronauts participated in the FTT before 10-15 day missions, on landing day (R+0), and one (R+1), six (R+6) and thirty (R+30) days after landing. The RFST consisted of a 2-minute prone rest followed by a 3-minute stand during which heart rate (HR, Holter) and continuous blood pressure (BP, Finometer) were measured. Spectral heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated during the RFST to approximate autonomic function. Statistical analysis was performed with two-factor repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: During RFST, HR was higher on R+0 than preflight (p<0.004). This increase in HR persisted on R+1 and R+6 during the stand portion of RFST (p<0.026). BP was well-regulated on all test days. Parasympathetic activity was diminished on R+0 (p=0.035). Sympathovagal balance tended to be affected by spaceflight (main effect, p=0.072), appearing to be slightly elevated during postflight RFST except on R+30. Additionally, analysis of HR during the functional tasks yielded a higher HR on R+0 than preflight during 8 of 11 tasks analyzed, where all tasks had HR return to preflight values by R+30 (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Spaceflight causes an increase in HR, decrease in parasympathetic activity, and increase in sympathovagal balance, which we confirmed during RFST. These spaceflight-induced changes seen in the RFST, along with the increased postflight HR in most functional tasks, can be used to assess functional performance after short-duration spaceflight.

  9. Assessments of lung digestion methods for recovery of fibers.

    PubMed

    Warheit, D B; Hwang, H C; Achinko, L

    1991-04-01

    Evaluation of the pulmonary hazards associated with exposure to fibrous materials tends to be more complicated than assessments required for particulate materials. Fibers are defined by aspect ratios and it is generally considered that physical dimensions play an important role in the pathogenesis of fiber-related lung diseases. Several digestion techniques have been used to recover fibers from exposed lung tissue for clearance studies. Because many of the digestion fluids are corrosive (e.g., bleach, KOH), it is conceivable that the dimensions of recovered fibers are modified during the tissue digestion methods to assess whether the physical dimensions of bulk samples of fibers were altered following simulated digestion processing. Aliquots of crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos, Kevlar aramid, wollastonite, polyacrylonitrile (pan)-based carbon, and glass fibers were incubated with either saline, bleach, or KOH and then filtered. Scanning electron microscopy techniques were utilized to measure the physical dimensions (i.e., lengths and diameters) of at least 160 fibers per treatment group of each fiber type. Our results showed that the lengths and diameters of glass fibers and wollastonite were altered after treatment with KOH. In addition, treatment with bleach produced a small reduction in both asbestos fiber-type diameters, and greater changes in Kevlar and wollastonite diameters and carbon fiber lengths (P less than 0.05). These results indicate that lung digestion methods should be carefully assessed for each fiber type before initiating fiber clearance studies. PMID:1851478

  10. Enhanced oil recovery method employing an aqueous polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, W.C.

    1989-06-06

    This patent describes a method for recovering petroleum from a subterranean petroleum-containing formation penetrated by at least one injection well and by at least one spaced-apart production well, both wells being in fluid communication with the formation. The method consists of: injecting a sufficient amount of an aqueous polymer solution through the injection well into the formation so as to displace the petroleum in the formation towards the production well. The aqueous polymer solution consists of: water; at least one polymer comprising from about 45 to about 65 weight percent ethylacrylate monomer residue, from about 10 to about 45 weight percent methylacrylic acid residue, and from about 10 to about 30 weight percent acrylic acid monomer residue; from about 2 to about 10 parts per 100 part of monomer of a co-surfactant system comprising: (a) at least one nonylphenol polyethylene oxide ether sulfate, wherein the polyethylene oxide adduct of the nonlyphenol polyethylene oxide either sulfate is comprised at about 20 moles of ethylene oxide monomer residue; and (b) at least one propoxylated, ethoxylated propylene glycol nonionic surfactant block polymer, wherein the ratio of ether sulfate to the block polymer is from about 1:2 to about 10:1.

  11. Delayed administration of a PTEN inhibitor BPV improves functional recovery after experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Mao, L; Jia, J; Zhou, X; Xiao, Y; Wang, Y; Mao, X; Zhen, X; Guan, Y; Alkayed, N J; Cheng, J

    2013-02-12

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) inhibitors administered prior to or immediately after experimental stroke confer acute neuroprotection. However, it remains unclear if delayed treatment with a PTEN inhibitor improves long-term functional recovery after stroke. We addressed the issue in this study. Adult male mice were subjected to 1h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by treatment with a well-established PTEN inhibitor BPV or saline daily for 14 days, starting at 24h after MCAO. Functional recovery was assessed with behavioral tests and acute infarct volumes were analyzed histologically. Delayed BPV treatment did not reduce infarction during the acute phase, but significantly improved long-term functional recovery after MCAO. Since PTEN is a critical intrinsic inhibitory factor in axonal regeneration, we further examined BPV effects on axonal densities following MCAO using bielschowsky silver staining and immunohistochemistry with antibodies against myelin basic protein. Delayed BPV treatment significantly increased axon densities in the ischemic brain at 14 days after MCAO. Moreover, PTEN expression persistently remained high in the ischemic brain over 14 days after MCAO, and BPV treatment increased post-ischemic activation of Akt and mTOR in the ischemic brain. Akt and mTOR activation are the well-established cascades downstream to PTEN inhibition and have been shown to contribute to post-injury axonal regrowth in response to PTEN inhibition. Consistently, in an in vitro neuronal ischemia model, BPV enhanced axonal outgrowth of primary cortical neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation and the enhancing effects were abolished by Akt/mTOR inhibition. In conclusion, delayed BPV treatment improved functional recovery from experimental stroke possibly via enhancing axonal growth and Akt/mTOR activation contributed to BPV-enhanced post-stroke axon growth. PMID:23219909

  12. Polysialic acid glycomimetics promote myelination and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Mehanna, Ali; Mishra, Bibhudatta; Kurschat, Nina; Schulze, Christian; Bian, Shan; Loers, Gabriele; Irintchev, Andrey; Schachner, Melitta

    2009-06-01

    alpha2,8 Polysialic acid (PSA) is a carbohydrate attached to the glycoprotein backbone of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and implicated in nervous system development and repair. Here, we investigated whether PSA can improve functional recovery after peripheral nerve lesion in adult mice. We applied a functional PSA mimicking peptide or a control peptide in a polyethylene cuff used to surgically reconnect the severed stumps of the femoral nerve before it bifurcates into the motor and sensory branches. Using video-based motion analysis to monitor motor recovery over a 3 month postoperative period, we observed a better functional outcome in the PSA mimetic-treated than in control mice receiving a control peptide or phosphate buffered saline. Retrograde tracing of regenerated motoneurons and morphometric analyses showed that motoneuron survival, motoneuron soma size and axonal diameters were not affected by treatment with the PSA mimetic. However, remyelination of regenerated axons distal to the injury site was considerably improved by the PSA mimetic indicating that effects on Schwann cells in the denervated nerve may underlie the functional effects seen in motor recovery. In line with this notion was the observation that the PSA mimetic enhanced the elongation of Schwann cell processes and Schwann cell proliferation in vitro, when compared with the control peptide. Moreover, Schwann cell proliferation in vivo was enhanced in both motor and sensory branches of the femoral nerve by application of the PSA mimetic. These effects were likely mediated by NCAM through its interaction with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), since they were not observed when the PSA mimetic was applied to NCAM-deficient Schwann cells, and since application of two different FGFR inhibitors reduced process elongation from Schwann cells in vitro. Our results indicate the potential of PSA mimetics as therapeutic agents promoting motor recovery and myelination after peripheral nerve injury. PMID:19454531

  13. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1989-11-14

    A method and apparatus or utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000{degrees}F in a burner to remove residual char nd produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capital and operating costs.

  14. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, James D. (Laramie, WY); Harak, Arnold E. (Laramie, WY)

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

  15. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1988-05-04

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Women's Voices on Recovery: A Multi-Method Study of the Complexity of Recovery from Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The current study was exploratory and used multiple methods to examine patterns of stability and change in resilient functioning across 7 years of early adulthood. Second, qualitative data were used to examine in greater detail survivors' own narratives about correlates of healing. Method: This study was longitudinal and used both…

  17. Curcumin promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junxiong; Yu, Hailong; Liu, Jun; Chen, Yu; Wang, Qi; Xiang, Liangbi

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin is capable of promoting peripheral nerve regeneration in normal condition. However, it is unclear whether its beneficial effect on nerve regeneration still exists under diabetic mellitus. The present study was designed to investigate such a possibility. Diabetes in rats was developed by a single dose of streptozotocin at 50mg/kg. Immediately after nerve crush injury, the diabetic rats were intraperitoneally administrated daily for 4 weeks with curcumin (50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 300mg/kg), or normal saline, respectively. The axonal regeneration was investigated by morphometric analysis and retrograde labeling. The functional recovery was evaluated by electrophysiological studies and behavioral analysis. Axonal regeneration and functional recovery was significantly enhanced by curcumin, which were significantly better than those in vehicle saline group. In addition, high doses of curcumin (100mg/kg and 300mg/kg) achieved better axonal regeneration and functional recovery than low dose (50mg/kg). In conclusion, curcumin is capable of promoting nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve crush injury in diabetes mellitus, highlighting its therapeutic values as a neuroprotective agent for peripheral nerve injury repair in diabetes mellitus. PMID:26552010

  18. Hydrogen-rich saline promotes motor functional recovery following peripheral nerve autografting in rats

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YONG-GUANG; SHENG, QING-SONG; WANG, ZHI-JUN; LV, LI; ZHAO, WEI; CHEN, JIAN-MEI; XU, HAO

    2015-01-01

    Despite the application of nerve grafts and considerable microsurgical innovations, the functional recovery across a long peripheral nerve gap is generally partial and unsatisfactory. Thus, additional strategies are required to improve nerve regeneration across long nerve gaps. Hydrogen possesses antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties, which could be neuroprotective in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury; however, such a possibility has not been experimentally tested in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of hydrogen-rich saline in promoting nerve regeneration after 10-mm sciatic nerve autografting in rats. The rats were randomly divided into two groups and intraperitoneally administered a daily regimen of 5 ml/kg hydrogen-rich or normal saline. Axonal regeneration and functional recovery were assessed through a combination of behavioral analyses, electrophysiological evaluations, Fluoro-Gold retrograde tracings and histomorphological observations. The data showed that rats receiving hydrogen-rich saline achieved better axonal regeneration and functional recovery than those receiving normal saline. These findings indicated that hydrogen-rich saline promotes nerve regeneration across long gaps, suggesting that hydrogen-rich saline could be used as a neuroprotective agent for peripheral nerve injury therapy. PMID:26622383

  19. [Stigmatization on the way to recovery in mental illness - the factors associated with social functioning].

    PubMed

    Podogrodzka-Niell, Magdalena; Tyszkowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Persons with mental disorders often experience stigmatization. There is a number of social factors that may affect the process of recovery and at the same time, in certain circumstances, could be a source of stigma. Mentally ill may find strength in themselves to fight against the disease or the opposite - can internalize the negative attitudes of the society and become self-stigmatized. The patient's family, on the one hand, is often the only source of social support, on the other hand, can experience a destructive influence of courtesy-stigma. Mentally ill have to face social reluctance which is reinforced by stereotypical media coverage of mental disorders. The social network of patients is poor and often limited to a family system. Negative views about persons diagnosed with mental illness are most visible in the labour market. Patients experience many types of discrimination at work,have lower employment rates and lower mean wages than healthy ones. Structural discrimination is a form of stigma which is revealed in underfunded and inefficient system of mental health care. All the social factors mentioned above are necessary for recovery (positive stimulation of functioning), but can also increase stigma and become a significant barrier in the recovery of psychiatric patients. This paper highlights the complex and ambiguous nature of the relationship between social factors and the recovery of the mentally ill basing on the data from the literature. PMID:25717489

  20. Morphological and functional recovery of the planarian photosensing system during head regeneration.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takeshi; Kumamoto, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Keiji; Umesono, Yoshihiko; Sakai, Masaki; Snchez Alvarado, Alejandro; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2004-03-01

    When exposed to light, planarians display a distinctive light avoidance behavior known as negative phototaxis. Such behavior is temporarily suppressed when animals are decapitated, and it is restored once the animals regenerate their heads. Head regeneration and the simple but reproducible phototactic response of planarians provides an opportunity to study the association between neuronal differentiation and the establishment of behavior in a simple, experimentally tractable metazoan. We have devised a phototaxis assay system to analyze light response recovery during head regeneration and determined that light evasion is markedly re-established 5 days after amputation. Immunohistological and in situ hybridization studies indicate that the photoreceptors and optic nerve connections to the brain begin by the fourth day of cephalic regeneration. To experimentally manipulate the light response recovery, we performed gene knockdown analysis using RNA interference (RNAi) on two genes (1020HH and eye53) previously reported to be expressed at 5 days after amputation and in the dorso-medial region of the brain (where the optic nerves project). Although RNAi failed to produce morphological defects in either the brain or the visual neurons, the recovery of the phototactic response normally observed in 5-day regenerates was significantly suppressed. The data suggest that 1020HH and eye53 may be involved in the functional recovery and maintenance of the visual system, and that the phototaxis assay presented here can be used to reliably quantify the negative phototactic behavior of planarians. PMID:15056922

  1. Consumer return chronology alters recovery trajectory of stream ecosystem structure and function following drought.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Justin N; Gido, Keith B; Dodds, Walter K; Bertrand, Katie N; Whiles, Matt R

    2010-04-01

    Consumers are increasingly being recognized as important drivers of ecological succession, yet it is still hard to predict the nature and direction of consumer effects in nonequilibrium environments. We used stream consumer exclosures and large outdoor mesocosms to study the impact of macroconsumers (i.e., fish and crayfish) on recovery of intermittent prairie streams after drying. In the stream, macroconsumers altered system recovery trajectory by decreasing algal and macroinvertebrate biomass, primary productivity, and benthic nutrient uptake rates. However, macroconsumer influence was transient, and differences between exclosures and controls disappeared after 35 days. Introducing and removing macroconsumers after 28 days resulted mainly in changes to macroinvertebrates. In mesocosms, a dominant consumer (the grazing minnow Phoxinus erythrogaster) reduced macroinvertebrate biomass but had little effect on algal assemblage structure and ecosystem rates during recovery. The weak effect of P. erythrogaster in mesocosms, in contrast to the strong consumer effect in the natural stream, suggests that both timing and diversity of returning consumers are important to their overall influence on stream recovery patterns. Although we found that consumers significantly altered ecosystem structure and function in a system experiencing rapid changes in abiotic and biotic factors following disturbance, consumer effects diminished over time and trajectories converged to similar states with respect to primary producers, in spite of differences in consumer colonization history. Thus, consumer impacts can be substantial in recovering ecosystems and are likely to be dependent on the disturbance regime and diversity of the consumer community. PMID:20462119

  2. A Method for Comparative Analysis of Recovery Potential in Impaired Waters Restoration Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Douglas J.; Wickham, James D.; Wade, Timothy G.; Kunert, Kelly; Thomas, John V.; Zeph, Paul

    2009-08-01

    Common decision support tools and a growing body of knowledge about ecological recovery can help inform and guide large state and federal restoration programs affecting thousands of impaired waters. Under the federal Clean Water Act (CWA), waters not meeting state Water Quality Standards due to impairment by pollutants are placed on the CWA Section 303(d) list, scheduled for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) development, and ultimately restored. Tens of thousands of 303(d)-listed waters, many with completed TMDLs, represent a restoration workload of many years. State TMDL scheduling and implementation decisions influence the choice of waters and the sequence of restoration. Strategies that compare these waters’ recovery potential could optimize the gain of ecological resources by restoring promising sites earlier. We explored ways for states to use recovery potential in restoration priority setting with landscape analysis methods, geographic data, and impaired waters monitoring data. From the literature and practice we identified measurable, recovery-relevant ecological, stressor, and social context metrics and developed a restorability screening approach adaptable to widely different environments and program goals. In this paper we describe the indicators, the methodology, and three statewide, recovery-based targeting and prioritization projects. We also call for refining the scientific basis for estimating recovery potential.

  3. A method for comparative analysis of recovery potential in impaired waters restoration planning.

    PubMed

    Norton, Douglas J; Wickham, James D; Wade, Timothy G; Kunert, Kelly; Thomas, John V; Zeph, Paul

    2009-08-01

    Common decision support tools and a growing body of knowledge about ecological recovery can help inform and guide large state and federal restoration programs affecting thousands of impaired waters. Under the federal Clean Water Act (CWA), waters not meeting state Water Quality Standards due to impairment by pollutants are placed on the CWA Section 303(d) list, scheduled for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) development, and ultimately restored. Tens of thousands of 303(d)-listed waters, many with completed TMDLs, represent a restoration workload of many years. State TMDL scheduling and implementation decisions influence the choice of waters and the sequence of restoration. Strategies that compare these waters' recovery potential could optimize the gain of ecological resources by restoring promising sites earlier. We explored ways for states to use recovery potential in restoration priority setting with landscape analysis methods, geographic data, and impaired waters monitoring data. From the literature and practice we identified measurable, recovery-relevant ecological, stressor, and social context metrics and developed a restorability screening approach adaptable to widely different environments and program goals. In this paper we describe the indicators, the methodology, and three statewide, recovery-based targeting and prioritization projects. We also call for refining the scientific basis for estimating recovery potential. PMID:19452204

  4. Intervention strategies to enhance anatomical plasticity and recovery of function after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bregman, B S; Diener, P S; McAtee, M; Dai, H N; James, C

    1997-01-01

    Taken together, our studies indicate that (a) transplants mediate recovery of skilled forelimb movement as well as locomotor activity, (b) combinations of interventions may be required to restore reflex, sensory, and locomotor function to more normal levels after SCI, and (c) that remodeling of particular pathways may contribute to recovery of rather specific aspects of motor function. In conclusion, we suggest that it seems unlikely that any single intervention strategy will be sufficient to ensure regeneration of damaged pathways and recovery of function after SCI. Clearly, work from a number of laboratories indicates that the dogma that mature CNS neurons are inherently incapable of regeneration of axons after injury is no longer tenable. The issue, rather, is to identify and reverse the conditions that limit regeneration after SCI. After SCI, a hierarchy of "intervention-strategies" may be required to restore suprasegmental control leading to recovery of function. The hierarchy may be both temporal and absolute. For example, early interventions (such as the administration of methylprednisolone within hours of the injury) may be required to interrupt the secondary injury cascade and restrict the extent of damage after SCI. At the injury site itself, interventions to minimize the secondary injury effects may be followed by interventions to alter the environment at the site of injury to provide a terrain conducive to axonal elongation. For example, one might envision strategies to downregulate the expression of molecules that limit growth and upregulate the expression of those that support growth. Early after the injury, axotomized neurons may require neurotrophic support either for their survival or to initiate and maintain a cell body response supporting axonal elongation. There may be an absolute hierarchy as well. Particular populations of neurons may have very specific requirements for regenerative growth. For example, the conditions that enhance the regenerative growth of descending motor pathways may differ from those required by ascending sensory systems. One may also want to design strategies to restrict the plasticity of some pathways (e.g., nociceptive) and enhance the growth in other pathways. The demands on the CNS for anatomic reorganization after SCI may be far less formidable than one might at first imagine. If one assumes that recovery of function will require regenerative growth of large numbers of axons over long distances in a point-to-point topographically specific fashion, the idea of recovery of function becomes daunting. On the other hand, it has been shown in many studies and in many areas of the CNS that as little as 10% of a particular pathway can often subserve substantial function. Furthermore, regrowth over relatively short distances can have major functional consequences. For example, relatively modest changes in the level of SCI can have relatively profound effects on the functional consequences of injury. This is particularly true in cervical SCI: an individual with a C5/6 SCI is dramatically more impaired than one with C7/8 injury. One might envision relatively short distance growth across the injury site to re-establish suprasegmental control. Coupled with strategies to enhance the anatomic and functional reorganization of spinal cord circuitry caudal to the level of the injury, even modest long distance growth may have sufficient functional impact. One might imagine the ability to learn to "use" even modest quantities of novel inputs in functionally useful, appropriate ways. PMID:8993704

  5. Influence of killing method on Lepidoptera DNA barcode recovery.

    PubMed

    Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie

    2015-05-01

    The global DNA barcoding initiative has revolutionized the field of biodiversity research. Such large-scale sequencing projects require the collection of large numbers of specimens, which need to be killed and preserved in a way that is both DNA-friendly and which will keep voucher specimens in good condition for later study. Factors such as time since collection, correct storage (exposure to free water and heat) and DNA extraction protocol are known to play a role in the success of downstream molecular applications. Limited data are available on the most efficient, DNA-friendly protocol for killing. In this study, we evaluate the quality of DNA barcode (cytochrome oxidase I) sequences amplified from DNA extracted from specimens collected using three different killing methods (ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing). Previous studies have suggested that chemicals, such as ethyl acetate and formaldehyde, degraded DNA and as such may not be appropriate for the collection of insects for DNA-based research. All Lepidoptera collected produced DNA barcodes of good quality, and our study found no clear difference in nucleotide signal strength, probability of incorrect base calling and phylogenetic utility among the three different treatment groups. Our findings suggest that ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing can all be used to collect specimens for DNA analysis. PMID:25229871

  6. Assessments of lung digestion methods for recovery of fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Warheit, D.B.; Hwang, H.C.; Achinko, L. )

    1991-04-01

    Evaluation of the pulmonary hazards associated with exposure to fibrous materials tends to be more complicated than assessments required for particulate materials. Fibers are defined by aspect ratios and it is generally considered that physical dimensions play an important role in the pathogenesis of fiber-related lung diseases. Several digestion techniques have been used to recover fibers from exposed lung tissue for clearance studies. Because many of the digestion fluids are corrosive (e.g., bleach, KOH), it is conceivable that the dimensions of recovered fibers are modified during the tissue digestion process, thus creating erroneous data. Accordingly, the authors evaluated two lung digestion methods to assess whether the physical dimensions of bulk samples of fibers were altered following simulated digestion processing. Aliquots of crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos, Kevlar aramid, wollastonite, polyacrylonitrile (pan)-based carbon, and glass fibers were incubated with either saline, bleach, or KOH and then filtered. Scanning electron microscopy techniques were utilized to measure the physical dimensions (i.e., lengths and diameters) of at least 160 fibers per treatment group of each fiber type. Their results showed that the lengths and diameters of glass fibers and wollastonite were altered after treatment with KOH. In addition, treatment with bleach produced a small reduction in both asbestos fiber-type diameters, and greater changes in Kevlar and wollastonite diameters and carbon fiber lengths.

  7. Mixed Methods Study of Help Seekers and Self-Changers Responding to an Online Recovery Survey

    PubMed Central

    Witbrodt, Jane; Borkman, Thomasina J.; Stunz, Aina; Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To compare self-changers (natural recovery) with help seekers on demographics, pre-recovery problem severity, and recovery beliefs and behaviors; and to augment these quantitative findings with information extracted from the qualitative stories of a subset of self-changers to explore themes in recovery paths as informed by a nascent natural recovery literature. Methods: Quantitative secondary analyses were conducted with persons who had responded to a US nationwide online survey called ‘What Is Recovery’ (WIR) and who reported a prior lifetime alcohol problem (n = 5495). Six men and six women (with longer-term recoveries) interviewed later were asked to tell their ‘recovery story from the beginning up to now’. These were coded using a narrative approach. Results: Compared with help seekers, self-changers were younger and never married: they did not differ on problem severity, gender, ethnicity or education. Self-changers identified with ‘used to have a problem’ more than in recovery/recovered, reported fewer years in that status, and reported more current, non-problematic substance use. A new concept of shadow help and shadow obstacles to help-seeking emerged from the qualitative analysis. Though self-changers believed that they had overcome their alcohol problem on their own, change actually occurred within a social context that allowed access to information, normative expectations, relationships, and other opportunities that provided important resources for change. Conclusion: Findings imply that the concept of help-seeking needs to be re-conceptualized to include the informal help we found in this study. PMID:25381088

  8. Treating to target in major depressive disorder: response to remission to functional recovery.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Roger S; Lee, Yena; Mansur, Rodrigo B

    2015-12-01

    Treating to target in chronic diseases [e.g. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)] fosters precision, consistency, and appropriateness of treatment selection and sequencing. Therapeutic target definitions/endpoints in MDD should satisfy patient-, provider-, and societal expectations. Functional recovery in depression and return to both physical and mental health are the overarching therapeutic objectives. Treating to target in MDD implies multidimensional symptomatic remission, with a particular emphasis on cognitive function and aspects of positive mental health. Several atypical antipsychotic agents (i.e. brexpiprazole, aripiprazole, quetiapine) are FDA-approved as augmentation agents in MDD. Vortioxetine, duloxetine, and psychostimulants have evidence of independent, direct, and robust effects on cognitive function in MDD. Vortioxetine is the only agent that demonstrates efficacy across multiple cognitive domains in MDD associated with functional recovery. Measurement-based care, health information technology/systems, and integrated care models (e.g. medical homes) provide requisite tools and health environments for optimal health outcomes in MDD. Achieving remission in MDD does not equate to health. Return to positive mental health as well as full functioning provide the impetus to pivot away from traditional provider-defined outcomes toward an inclusive perspective involving patient- and society-defined outcomes (i.e. optimization of human capital). As in other chronic diseases, treating to target (e.g. cognitive function) further increases the probability of achieving optimal health outcomes. PMID:26683526

  9. Loss of hsp70.1 Decreases Functional Motor Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Jung, Ji-In; Kim, Youngkyung; Lee, Jae-Seon; Yoon, Young Wook; Kim, Junesun

    2010-06-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are specifically induced by various forms of stress. Hsp70.1, a member of the hsp70 family is known to play an important role in cytoprotection from stressful insults. However, the functional role of Hsp70 in motor function after spinal cord injury (SCI) is still unclear. To study the role of hsp70.1 in motor recovery following SCI, we assessed locomotor function in hsp70.1 knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) mice via the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale, before and after spinal hemisection at T13 level. We also examined lesion size in the spinal cord using Luxol fast blue/cresyl violet staining. One day after injury, KO and WT mice showed no significant difference in the motor function due to complete paralysis following spinal hemisection. However, when it compared to WT mice, KO mice had significantly delayed and decreased functional outcomes from 4 days up to 21 days after SCI. KO mice also showed significantly greater lesion size in the spinal cord than WT mice showed at 21 days after spinal hemisection. These results suggest that Hsp70 has a protective effect against traumatic SCI and the manipulation of the hsp70.1 gene may help improve the recovery of motor function, thereby enhancing neuroprotection after SCI. PMID:20631888

  10. N-acetylcysteineamide Preserves Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Improves Functional Recovery Following Spinal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Samir P.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Pandya, Jignesh D.; Goldstein, Glenn A.; VanRooyen, Jenna L.; Yonutas, Heather M.; Eldahan, Khalid C.; Morehouse, Johnny; Magnuson, David S. K.; Rabchevsky, Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is becoming a pivotal target for neuroprotective strategies following contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and the pharmacological compounds that maintain mitochondrial function confer neuroprotection and improve long-term hindlimb function after injury. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of cell-permeating thiol, N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA), a precursor of endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH), on mitochondrial function acutely, and long-term tissue sparing and hindlimb locomotor recovery following upper lumbar contusion SCI. Some designated injured adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=120) received either Vehicle or NACA (75, 150, 300 or 600 mg/kg) at 15min and 6hrs post-injury. After 24hr the total, synaptic, and non-synaptic mitochondrial populations were isolated from a single 1.5cm spinal cord segment (centered at injury site) and assessed for mitochondrial bioenergetics. Results showed compromised total mitochondrial bioenergetics following acute SCI that was significantly improved with NACA treatment in a dose-dependent manner, with maximum effects at 300 mg/kg (n=4/group). For synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria, only 300 mg/kg NACA dosage showed efficacy. Similar dosage (300mg/kg) also maintained mitochondrial GSH near normal levels. Other designated injured rats (n=21) received continuous NACA (150 or 300mg/kg/day) treatment starting at 15min post-injury for one week to assess long-term functional recovery over 6 weeks post-injury. Locomotor testing and novel gait analyses showed significantly improved hindlimb function with NACA that were associated with increased tissue sparing at the injury site. Overall, NACA treatment significantly maintained acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and normalized GSH levels following SCI, and prolonged delivery resulted in significant tissue sparing and improved recovery of hindlimb function. PMID:24805071

  11. N-acetylcysteine amide preserves mitochondrial bioenergetics and improves functional recovery following spinal trauma.

    PubMed

    Patel, Samir P; Sullivan, Patrick G; Pandya, Jignesh D; Goldstein, Glenn A; VanRooyen, Jenna L; Yonutas, Heather M; Eldahan, Khalid C; Morehouse, Johnny; Magnuson, David S K; Rabchevsky, Alexander G

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is becoming a pivotal target for neuroprotective strategies following contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and the pharmacological compounds that maintain mitochondrial function confer neuroprotection and improve long-term hindlimb function after injury. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of cell-permeating thiol, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), a precursor of endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH), on mitochondrial function acutely, and long-term tissue sparing and hindlimb locomotor recovery following upper lumbar contusion SCI. Some designated injured adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=120) received either vehicle or NACA (75, 150, 300 or 600mg/kg) at 15min and 6h post-injury. After 24h the total, synaptic, and non-synaptic mitochondrial populations were isolated from a single 1.5cm spinal cord segment (centered at injury site) and assessed for mitochondrial bioenergetics. Results showed compromised total mitochondrial bioenergetics following acute SCI that was significantly improved with NACA treatment in a dose-dependent manner, with maximum effects at 300mg/kg (n=4/group). For synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria, only 300mg/kg NACA dosage showed efficacy. Similar dosage (300mg/kg) also maintained mitochondrial GSH near normal levels. Other designated injured rats (n=21) received continuous NACA (150 or 300mg/kg/day) treatment starting at 15min post-injury for one week to assess long-term functional recovery over 6weeks post-injury. Locomotor testing and novel gait analyses showed significantly improved hindlimb function with NACA that were associated with increased tissue sparing at the injury site. Overall, NACA treatment significantly maintained acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and normalized GSH levels following SCI, and prolonged delivery resulted in significant tissue sparing and improved recovery of hindlimb function. PMID:24805071

  12. Long-term post-injury functional recovery: Outcomes of geriatric consultation

    PubMed Central

    Tillou, Areti; Kelley-Quon, Lorraine; Burruss, Sigrid; Morley, Eric; Cryer, Henry; Cohen, Marilyn; Min, Lillian

    2013-01-01

    Importance Functional recovery is an important outcome following injury. Functional impairment is persistent in the year following injury for older trauma patients. Objective To measure the impact of routine geriatric consultation on functional outcomes in older trauma patients. Design Pretest-posttest study. The pretest control group (n=37) was retrospectively-identified (December 2006-November 2007). The posttest geriatric consultation (GC) group (n=85) was prospectively enrolled (December 2007-June 2010). We then followed both groups for 1 year after enrollment. Setting Academic Level-1 trauma center Participants Adults ? 65 years of age admitted as an activated code trauma Intervention Routine geriatric consultation Main Outcome Measure The Short Functional Status (SFS) survey of five Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) on admission and 3, 6, and 12 months post-injury. Results The unadjusted SFS (GC group only) declined from 4.6 pre-injury to 3.7 at 12 months post-injury, a decline of nearly one full ADL (p<.05). The ability to shop for personal items was the specific ADL more commonly retained by the GC compared to the control group. The GC group had a better recovery of function in the year following injury than the GC group controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, length of stay, co-morbidity, injury severity, post-discharge rehabilitation, complication, and whether surgery was performed (p<.01), a difference of 0.67 ADL abilities retained by the GC compared to the control group (95% CI 0.061.4). Conclusions and Relevance Functional recovery for older adults following injury may be improved by geriatric consultation. Early introduction of multidisciplinary care in geriatric trauma patients warrants further investigation. PMID:24284836

  13. Recovery of post stroke proximal arm function, driven by complex neuroplastic bilateral brain activation patterns and predicted by baseline motor dysfunction severity

    PubMed Central

    Pundik, Svetlana; McCabe, Jessica P.; Hrovat, Ken; Fredrickson, Alice Erica; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Feng, I Jung; Daly, Janis J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Neuroplastic changes that drive recovery of shoulder/elbow function after stroke have been poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between neuroplastic brain changes related to shoulder/elbow movement control in response to treatment and recovery of arm motor function in chronic stroke survivors.Methods: Twenty-three chronic stroke survivors were treated with 12 weeks of arm rehabilitation. Outcome measures included functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) for the shoulder/elbow components of reach and a skilled motor function test (Arm Motor Abilities Test, AMAT), collected before and after treatment.Results: We observed two patterns of neuroplastic changes that were associated with gains in motor function: decreased or increased task-related brain activation. Those with significantly better motor function at baseline exhibited a decrease in brain activation in response to treatment, evident in the ipsilesional primary motor and contralesional supplementary motor regions; in contrast, those with greater baseline motor impairment, exhibited increased brain activation in response to treatment. There was a linear relationship between greater functional gain (AMAT) and increased activation in bilateral primary motor, contralesional primary and secondary sensory regions, and contralesional lateral premotor area, after adjusting for baseline AMAT, age, and time since stroke.Conclusions: Recovery of functional reach involves recruitment of several contralesional and bilateral primary motor regions. In response to intensive therapy, the direction of functional brain change (i.e., increase or decrease in task-related brain recruitment) for shoulder/elbow reach components depends on baseline level of motor function and may represent either different phases of recovery or different patterns of neuroplasticity that drive functional recovery. PMID:26257623

  14. Effects of estrogen on functional and neurological recovery after spinal cord injury: An experimental study with rats

    PubMed Central

    Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa; Ferreira, Ricardo; dos Santos, Gustavo Bispo; da Rocha, Ivan Dias; Marcon, Raphael Martus

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the functional and histological effects of estrogen as a neuroprotective agent after a standard experimentally induced spinal cord lesion. METHODS: In this experimental study, 20 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one group with rats undergoing spinal cord injury (SCI) at T10 and receiving estrogen therapy with 17-beta estradiol (4mg/kg) immediately following the injury and after the placement of skin sutures and a control group with rats only subjected to SCI. A moderate standard experimentally induced SCI was produced using a computerized device that dropped a weight on the rat's spine from a height of 12.5 mm. Functional recovery was verified with the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scale on the 2nd, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, 35th and 42nd days after injury and by quantifying the motor-evoked potential on the 42nd day after injury. Histopathological evaluation of the SCI area was performed after euthanasia on the 42nd day. RESULTS: The experimental group showed a significantly greater functional improvement from the 28th to the 42nd day of observation compared to the control group. The experimental group showed statistically significant improvements in the motor-evoked potential compared with the control group. The results of pathological histomorphometry evaluations showed a better neurological recovery in the experimental group, with respect to the proportion and diameter of the quantified nerve fibers. CONCLUSIONS: Estrogen administration provided benefits in neurological and functional motor recovery in rats with SCI beginning at the 28th day after injury. PMID:26598084

  15. Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint arthroplasty but are considered resource intensive. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been shown to improve quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength and clinical function in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) however it has not been previously investigated as a prehabilitation modality. Methods This pilot study assessed the compliance of a home-based, NMES prehabilitation programme in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We evaluated its effect on preoperative and postoperative isometric quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength, QFM cross-sectional area (CSA) and clinical function (subjective and objective). Seventeen subjects were recruited with 14 completing the study (NMES group n = 9; Control group n = 5). Results Overall compliance with the programme was excellent (99%). Preoperative QFM strength increased by 28% (p > 0.05) with associated gains in walk, stair-climb and chair-rise times (p < 0.05). Early postoperative strength loss (approximately 50%) was similar in both groups. Only the NMES group demonstrated significant strength (53.3%, p = 0.011) and functional recovery (p < 0.05) from 6 to 12 weeks post-TKA. QFM CSA decreased by 4% in the NMES group compared to a reduction of 12% in the control group (P > 0.05) at 12 weeks postoperatively compared to baseline. There were only limited associations found between objective and subjective functional outcome instruments. Conclusions This pilot study has shown that preoperative NMES may improve recovery of quadriceps muscle strength and expedite a return to normal activities in patients undergoing TKA for OA. Recommendations for appropriate outcome instruments in future studies of prehabilitation in TKA have been provided. PMID:20540807

  16. Recovery of semantic word processing in transcortical sensory aphasia: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Roland; Huber, Walter; Drews, Eva; Specht, Karsten; Kemeny, Stefan; Reith, Wolfgang; Willmes, Klaus; Schwarz, Michael

    2002-01-01

    In a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study with normal subjects, we demonstrated regions related to conceptual-semantic word processing around the first frontal sulcus (BA 9) and the posterior parietal lobe (BA 7/40) in agreement with several previous reports. We had the possibility, using the same fMRI paradigm, to study two consecutive cases with left middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction (RC and HP) and lesions affecting either solely the pre-frontal (HP) or both the pre-frontal and posterior parietal part of the network activated in normal subjects (RC). Both patients showed transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA) on acute assessment. This contradicts classical disconnection accounts of the syndrome stating intact conceptual representations in TSA. Their recovery of language comprehension was associated with activation of a left hemispheric network. Mainly activations of left perilesional pre-frontal regions (RC), left Wernicke's area (RC and HP) or the left posterior middle and inferior temporal cortex (HP) were demonstrated in the TSA patients. The latter findings suggest that in our cases of TSA functional take-over has occurred in regions with related functions ('redundancy recovery') rather than in previously unrelated areas ('vicarious functioning'). Our data support distributed models of conceptual-semantic word processing and multiple left hemispheric representations of closely related functions. PMID:12499412

  17. Local delivery of FTY720 in PCL membrane improves SCI functional recovery by reducing reactive astrogliosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjuan; Wang, Jiaqiu; Lu, Ping; Cai, Youzhi; Wang, Yafei; Hong, Lan; Ren, Hao; Heng, Boon Chin; Liu, Hua; Zhou, Jing; Ouyang, Hongwei

    2015-09-01

    FTY720 has recently been approved as an oral drug for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, and exerts its therapeutic effect by acting as an immunological inhibitor targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor subtype (S1P1) of T cells. Recently studies demonstrated positive efficacy of this drug on spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models after systemic administration, albeit with significant adverse side effects. We hereby hypothesize that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by reducing pathological astrogliosis. The mechanistic functions of FTY720 were investigated in vitro and in vivo utilizing immunofluorescence, histology, MRI and behavioral analysis. The in vitro study showed that FTY720 can reduce astrocyte migration and proliferation activated by S1P. FTY720 can prolong internalization of S1P1 and exert antagonistic effects on S1P1. In vivo study of SCI animal models demonstrated that local delivery of FTY720 with polycaprolactone (PCL) membrane significantly decreased S1P1 expression and glial scarring compared with the control group. Furthermore, FTY720-treated groups exhibited less cavitation volume and neuron loss, which significantly improved recovery of motor function. These findings demonstrated that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by targeting the S1P1 receptor of astrocytes, provide a new therapeutic strategy for SCI treatment. PMID:26036174

  18. Accidental bilateral Q-switched neodymium laser exposure: treatment and recovery of visual function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwick, Harry; Stuck, Bruce E.; Dunlap, Weldon; Scales, David K.; Lund, David J.; Ness, James W.

    1998-05-01

    A 21 year old female was accidentally exposed in both eyes when she looked into the 10 cm exit aperture of a military laser designator emitting 1064 nm q-switched (30 ns) pulses at a 10 pulse per second rate. Steroid therapy (methylprednisolone sodium succinate) was initiated within 6 hours post exposure. Initial ophthalmoscopic observation revealed small contained macular hemorrhages in each eye. Fluorescein angiography (FA) showed minimal leakage. Visual acuity was 20/100 and 20/60 in OD and OS respectively. Contrast sensitivity in both eyes was depressed across all spatial frequencies by more than 1.5 log units. At four weeks post exposure, no significant macular scarring was apparent and visual acuity returned to 20/25 in both eyes. Contrast sensitivity had improved to normal levels with a peak at 3 cycles/degree. At one year post exposure, visual acuity was 20/13 in both eyes and measures of contrast sensitivity were within normal limits. During the course of recovery, the patient's fixation shifted from a slightly superior temporal site back to the central foveal region. The foveal lesion sites were still evident by ophthalmoscopy and Amsler grid measurements but were deemed functional when the patient placed small targets generated by the scanning laser ophthalmoscope in the lesion site for discrimination. This outcome indicates remarkable recovery of visual function and suggests that early administration of steroids may assist in preserving the natural neural recovery process of the photoreceptor matrix by minimizing intraretinal scar formation.

  19. Diffusion Tensor Imaging as a Predictor of Locomotor Function after Experimental Spinal Cord Injury and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Brian J.; Harel, Noam Y.; Kim, Chang-Yeon; Papademetris, Xenophon; Coman, Daniel; Wang, Xingxing; Hasan, Omar; Kaufman, Adam; Globinsky, Ronen; Staib, Lawrence H.; Cafferty, William B.J.; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes long-term disability with limited functional recovery linked to the extent of axonal connectivity. Quantitative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of axonal integrity has been suggested as a potential biomarker for prognostic and therapeutic evaluation after trauma, but its correlation with functional outcomes has not been clearly defined. To examine this application, female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent midthoracic laminectomy followed by traumatic spinal cord contusion of differing severities or laminectomy without contusion. Locomotor scores and hindlimb kinematic data were collected for 4 weeks post-injury. Ex vivo DTI was then performed to assess axonal integrity using tractography and fractional anisotropy (FA), a numerical measure of relative white matter integrity, at the injury epicenter and at specific intervals rostral and caudal to the injury site. Immunohistochemistry for tissue sparing was also performed. Statistical correlation between imaging data and functional performance was assessed as the primary outcome. All injured animals showed some recovery of locomotor function, while hindlimb kinematics revealed graded deficits consistent with injury severity. Standard T2 magnetic resonance sequences illustrated conventional spinal cord morphology adjacent to contusions while corresponding FA maps indicated graded white matter pathology within these adjacent regions. Positive correlations between locomotor (Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score and gait kinematics) and imaging (FA values) parameters were also observed within these adjacent regions, most strongly within caudal segments beyond the lesion. Evaluation of axonal injury by DTI provides a mechanism for functional recovery assessment in a rodent SCI model. These findings suggest that focused DTI analysis of caudal spinal cord should be studied in human cases in relationship to motor outcome to augment outcome biomarkers for clinical cases. PMID:24779685

  20. Fumarate-enriched blood cardioplegia results in complete functional recovery of immature myocardium.

    PubMed

    Pearl, J M; Hiramoto, J; Laks, H; Drinkwater, D C; Chang, P A

    1994-06-01

    Amino acid enrichment of cardioplegic solutions has been shown to improve both the metabolic and functional recovery of ischemic myocardium. However, because of the marked systemic vasodilatation involved, use of amino acid enrichment is limited to the periods of induction and reperfusion. Fumarate is a Krebs' cycle intermediate whose conversion to succinate is responsible for the generation of adenosone triphosphate and the oxidation of the reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine nucleotide which is the pathway by which aspartate exerts its effect. Fumarate may also function as a free-radical scavenger and is involved in calcium transport. To determine if fumarate-enriched blood cardioplegia would improve the functional recovery of the neonatal heart, 14 neonatal piglet hearts were isolated and placed on a blood-perfused working heart circuit. After the baseline functional and metabolic assessment was done, cold ischemic arrest was initiated with either standard blood cardioplegic solution (group I; N = 7) or fumarate-enriched (13 mmol/L) blood cardioplegic solution (group II; N = 7). Cardioplegic solution was given at a pressure of 40 mm Hg every 20 minutes for 2 hours, and topical hypothermia was used. Sixty minutes after warm whole blood reperfusion, the functional recovery at left atrial pressures of 3, 6, 9, and 12 mm Hg was 70%, 66%, 66%, and 65%, respectively, in group I, versus 102%, 106%, 105%, and 109%, respectively, in group II (p < 0.05). The tissue creatinine phosphate levels after reperfusion were significantly higher in group II hearts (15.0 +/- 1.2 mumol/g dry heart tissue) than in group I hearts (9.2 +/- 1.9 mumol/g dry heart tissue), although the adenosine triphosphate levels were not significantly different.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8010814

  1. Human Hepatocyte Growth Factor Promotes Functional Recovery in Primates after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Kazuya; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Yamane, Jun-ichi; Toyota, Fumika; Hikishima, Keigo; Nomura, Tatsuji; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Aoki, Masashi; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

    2011-01-01

    Many therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) using neurotrophic factors have focused on reducing the area damaged by secondary, post-injury degeneration, to promote functional recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes and a mediator of the inflammatory responses to tissue injury, was recently highlighted as a potent neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. We previously reported that introducing exogenous HGF into the injured rodent spinal cord using a herpes simplex virus-1 vector significantly reduces the area of damaged tissue and promotes functional recovery. However, that study did not examine the therapeutic effects of administering HGF after injury, which is the most critical issue for clinical application. To translate this strategy to human treatment, we induced a contusive cervical SCI in the common marmoset, a primate, and then administered recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) intrathecally. Motor function was assessed using an original open field scoring system focusing on manual function, including reach-and-grasp performance and hand placement in walking. The intrathecal rhHGF preserved the corticospinal fibers and myelinated areas, thereby promoting functional recovery. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed significant preservation of the intact spinal cord parenchyma. rhHGF-treatment did not give rise to an abnormal outgrowth of calcitonin gene related peptide positive fibers compared to the control group, indicating that this treatment did not induce or exacerbate allodynia. This is the first study to report the efficacy of rhHGF for treating SCI in non-human primates. In addition, this is the first presentation of a novel scale for assessing neurological motor performance in non-human primates after contusive cervical SCI. PMID:22140459

  2. The Recovery of Walking in Stroke Patients: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Sung Ho

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on walking recovery of stroke patients as it relates to the following subjects: epidemiology of walking dysfunction, recovery course of walking, and recovery mechanism of walking (neural control of normal walking, the evaluation methods for leg motor function, and motor recovery mechanism of leg). The recovery of walking

  3. Recovery From an At-Risk State: Clinical and Functional Outcomes of Putatively Prodromal Youth Who Do Not Develop Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Schlosser, Danielle A.; Jacobson, Sarah; Chen, Qiaolin; Sugar, Catherine A.; Niendam, Tara A.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The “clinical high risk” (CHR) construct was developed to identify individuals at imminent risk of developing psychosis. However, most individuals identified as CHR do not convert to psychosis, and it is unknown whether these nonconverting individuals actually recover from an at-risk state. Methods: Eighty-four prospectively identified patients meeting CHR criteria, and 58 healthy comparison subjects were followed in a 2-year longitudinal study. Analyses examined rates of conversion, clinical, and functional recovery. Proportional cause-specific hazard models were used to examine the effects of baseline and time-varying predictors on conversion and remission. Trajectories of symptoms and psychosocial functioning measures were compared across outcome groups. Results: Competing risk survival analyses estimated that 30% of CHR subjects convert to psychosis by 2 years, while 36% symptomatically remit and 30% functionally recover by 2 years. Lower levels of negative and mood/anxiety symptoms were related to increased likelihood of both symptomatic and functional recovery. CHR subjects who remitted symptomatically were more similar to healthy controls in terms of both their baseline and longitudinal symptoms and functioning than the other outcome groups. Conclusions: Nonconverting CHR cases represented a heterogeneous group. Given that nonconverted subjects who remitted symptomatically also presented initially with less severe prodromal symptomatology and showed a distinct normative trajectory of both symptoms and psychosocial functioning over time, it may be possible to refine the CHR criteria to reduce the number of “false positive” cases by eliminating those who present with less severe attenuated positive symptoms or show early improvements in terms of symptoms or functioning. PMID:21825282

  4. Effect of lacosamide on structural damage and functional recovery after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Pitknen, A; Immonen, R; Ndode-Ekane, X; Grhn, O; Sthr, T; Nissinen, J

    2014-05-01

    In a subgroup of patients, traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in the occurrence of acute epileptic seizures or even status epilepticus, which are treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Recent experimental data, however, suggest that administration of AEDs at the early post-injury phase can compromise the recovery process. The present study was designed to assess the profile of a novel anticonvulsant, lacosamide (Vimpat) on post-TBI structural, motor and cognitive outcomes. Moderate TBI was induced by lateral fluid-percussion injury in adult rats. Treatment with 0.9% saline or lacosamide (30 mg/kg, i.p.) was started at 30 min post-injury and continued at 8h intervals for 3d (total daily dose 90 mg/kg/d). Rats were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups: sham-operated controls treated with vehicle (Sham-Veh) or lacosamide (Sham-LCM) and injured animals treated with vehicle (TBI-Veh) or lacosamide (TBI-LCM). As functional outcomes we tested motor recovery with composite neuroscore and beam-walking at 2, 7, and 15 d post-injury. Cognitive recovery was tested with the Morris water-maze at 12-14 d post-TBI. To assess the structural outcome, animals underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2 d post-TBI. At 16d post-TBI, rats were perfused for histology to analyze cortical and hippocampal neurodegeneration and axonal damage. Our data show that at 2 d post-TBI, both the TBI-Veh and TBI-LCM groups were equally impaired in neuroscore. Thereafter, motor recovery occurred similarly during the first week. At 2 wk post-TBI, recovery of the TBI-LCM group lagged behind that in the TBI-VEH group (p<0.05). Performance in beam-walking did not differ between the TBI-Veh and TBI-LCM groups. Both TBI groups were similarly impaired in the Morris water-maze at 2 wk post-TBI. MRI and histology did not reveal any differences in the cortical or hippocampal damage between the TBI-Veh and TBI-LCM groups. Taken together, acute treatment with LCM had no protective effects on post-TBI structural or functional impairment. Composite neuroscore in the TBI-LCM group lagged behind that in the TBI-Veh group at 15 d post-injury, but no compromise was found in other indices of post-TBI recovery in the LCM treated animals. PMID:24636248

  5. Hierarchical Ensemble Methods for Protein Function Prediction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Protein function prediction is a complex multiclass multilabel classification problem, characterized by multiple issues such as the incompleteness of the available annotations, the integration of multiple sources of high dimensional biomolecular data, the unbalance of several functional classes, and the difficulty of univocally determining negative examples. Moreover, the hierarchical relationships between functional classes that characterize both the Gene Ontology and FunCat taxonomies motivate the development of hierarchy-aware prediction methods that showed significantly better performances than hierarchical-unaware flat prediction methods. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of hierarchical methods for protein function prediction based on ensembles of learning machines. According to this general approach, a separate learning machine is trained to learn a specific functional term and then the resulting predictions are assembled in a consensus ensemble decision, taking into account the hierarchical relationships between classes. The main hierarchical ensemble methods proposed in the literature are discussed in the context of existing computational methods for protein function prediction, highlighting their characteristics, advantages, and limitations. Open problems of this exciting research area of computational biology are finally considered, outlining novel perspectives for future research. PMID:25937954

  6. Recovery of afferent function and synaptic strength in hippocampal CA1 following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Norris, Christopher M; Scheff, Stephen W

    2009-12-01

    Cortical contusion injury can result in the partial loss of ipsilateral CA3 neurons within 48 h, leading to a proportional reduction in the number of afferent fibers to CA1 stratum radiatum. While the loss of afferent input to CA1 exhibits a remarkable, albeit incomplete, recovery over the next few weeks, little is known about the functional status of presynaptic afferents during the depletion and recovery phases following injury. Here, we prepared hippocampal slices from adult Sprague Dawley rats at 2, 7, and 14 days after lateral cortical contusion injury and measured fiber volley (FV) amplitudes extracellularly in CA1 stratum radiatum. Field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs) were also measured and plotted as a function of FV amplitude to assess relative synaptic strength of residual and/or regenerated synaptic contacts. At 2 days post-injury, FV amplitude and synaptic strength were markedly reduced in the ipsilateral, relative to the contralateral, hippocampus. FV amplitude in ipsilateral CA1 showed a complete recovery by 7 days, indicative of a post-injury sprouting response. Synaptic strength in ipsilateral CA1 also showed a dramatic recovery over this time; however, EPSP-to-FV curves remained slightly suppressed at both the 7 and 14 day time points. Despite these deficits, ipsilateral slices retained the capacity to express long-term potentiation, indicating that at least some mechanisms for synaptic plasticity remain intact, or are compensated for. These results are in agreement with anatomical evidence showing a profound deafferentation, followed by a remarkable re-enervation, of ipsilateral CA1 in the first few weeks after traumatic brain injury. Although plasticity mechanisms appear to remain intact, synaptic strength deficits in CA1 could limit information throughput in the hippocampus, leading to persistent memory dysfunction. PMID:19604098

  7. Avoidance of Profound Hypothermia During Initial Reperfusion Improves the Functional Recovery of Hearts Donated After Circulatory Death.

    PubMed

    White, C W; Ambrose, E; Müller, A; Li, Y; Le, H; Thliveris, J; Arora, R C; Lee, T W; Dixon, I M C; Tian, G; Nagendran, J; Hryshko, L V; Freed, D H

    2016-03-01

    The resuscitation of hearts donated after circulatory death (DCD) is gaining widespread interest; however, the method of initial reperfusion (IR) that optimizes functional recovery has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the impact of IR temperature on the recovery of myocardial function during ex vivo heart perfusion (EVHP). Eighteen pigs were anesthetized, mechanical ventilation was discontinued, and cardiac arrest ensued. A 15-min standoff period was observed and then hearts were reperfused for 3 min at three different temperatures (5°C; N = 6, 25°C; N = 5, and 35°C; N = 7) with a normokalemic adenosine-lidocaine crystalloid cardioplegia. Hearts then underwent normothermic EVHP for 6 h during which time myocardial function was assessed in a working mode. We found that IR coronary blood flow differed among treatment groups (5°C = 483 ± 53, 25°C = 722 ± 60, 35°C = 906 ± 36 mL/min, p < 0.01). During subsequent EVHP, less myocardial injury (troponin I: 5°C = 91 ± 6, 25°C = 64 ± 16, 35°C = 57 ± 7 pg/mL/g, p = 0.04) and greater preservation of endothelial cell integrity (electron microscopy injury score: 5°C = 3.2 ± 0.5, 25°C = 1.8 ± 0.2, 35°C = 1.7 ± 0.3, p = 0.01) were evident in hearts initially reperfused at warmer temperatures. IR under profoundly hypothermic conditions impaired the recovery of myocardial function (cardiac index: 5°C = 3.9 ± 0.8, 25°C = 6.2 ± 0.4, 35°C = 6.5 ± 0.6 mL/minute/g, p = 0.03) during EVHP. We conclude that the avoidance of profound hypothermia during IR minimizes injury and improves the functional recovery of DCD hearts. PMID:26780159

  8. Recovery of renal function and survival after continuous renal replacement therapy during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Paden, Matthew L.; Warshaw, Barry L.; Heard, Micheal L.; Fortenberry, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the outcome of pediatric patients supported by concomitant extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Design, Setting, and Patients Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with mortality in ECMO patients. CRRT on ECMO provides an efficient and potentially beneficial method of AKI management. Concern that concomitant CRRT use increases the risk of developing anuria and chronic renal failure (CRF) limits its use in some centers. We hypothesized that development of CRF is rare with concurrent ECMO and CRRT. Outcomes of 154 ECMO/CRRT patients cared for over 10 years at a referral pediatric medical center were evaluated. Measurements and Main Results Among 68 ECMO/CRRT survivors (44%), 45 were assigned a pRIFLE score at CRRT initiation. Seventeen patients (38%) met criteria for Risk, 15 (33%) for Injury, and 10 (22%) for Failure. Two Failure patients later met End stage criteria. Of all survivors, 18 (26%) required ongoing RRT (15 CVVH, 2 peritoneal dialysis, 1 intermittent hemodialysis) following ECMO discontinuation. Renal recovery occurred in 65 of 68 (96%) before discharge. One neonatal patient had sepsis-induced renal injury on transfer, but normal creatinine one month later. Two pediatric patients with vasculitis and primary renal disease at presentation (both meeting Failure criteria) developed end-stage renal disease. One received peritoneal dialysis and subsequent renal transplant. The other has diminished function without need for renal replacement therapy. Conclusion In the absence of primary renal disease, CRF did not occur following concurrent use of CRRT with ECMO. Concern for precipitating CRF by using CRRT during ECMO is not substantiated by this large single center experience. Consistent with previous reports, mortality is higher in patients receiving concomitant CRRT and ECMO compared to those receiving ECMO alone. Mortality is similar to patients requiring CRRT who are not on ECMO. Additional studies are warranted to determine the optimal role of CRRT use in ECMO patients. PMID:20453702

  9. The Development of Functional Overreaching Is Associated with a Faster Heart Rate Recovery in Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Aubry, Anaël; Hausswirth, Christophe; Louis, Julien; Coutts, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to investigate whether heart rate recovery (HRR) may represent an effective marker of functional overreaching (f-OR) in endurance athletes. Methods and Results Thirty-one experienced male triathletes were tested (10 control and 21 overload subjects) before (Pre), and immediately after an overload training period (Mid) and after a 2-week taper (Post). Physiological responses were assessed during an incremental cycling protocol to exhaustion, including heart rate, catecholamine release and blood lactate concentration. Ten participants from the overload group developed signs of f-OR at Mid (i.e. -2.1 ± 0.8% change in performance associated with concomitant high perceived fatigue). Additionally, only the f-OR group demonstrated a 99% chance of increase in HRR during the overload period (+8 ± 5 bpm, large effect size). Concomitantly, this group also revealed a >80% chance of decreasing blood lactate (-11 ± 14%, large), plasma norepinephrine (-12 ± 37%, small) and plasma epinephrine peak concentrations (-51 ± 22%, moderate). These blood measures returned to baseline levels at Post. HRR change was negatively correlated to changes in performance, peak HR and peak blood metabolites concentrations. Conclusion These findings suggest that i) a faster HRR is not systematically associated with improved physical performance, ii) changes in HRR should be interpreted in the context of the specific training phase, the athletes perceived level of fatigue and the performance response; and, iii) the faster HRR associated with f-OR may be induced by a decreased central command and by a lower chemoreflex activity. PMID:26488766

  10. A biomaterials approach to peripheral nerve regeneration: bridging the peripheral nerve gap and enhancing functional recovery

    PubMed Central

    Daly, W.; Yao, L.; Zeugolis, D.; Windebank, A.; Pandit, A.

    2012-01-01

    Microsurgical techniques for the treatment of large peripheral nerve injuries (such as the gold standard autograft) and its main clinically approved alternative—hollow nerve guidance conduits (NGCs)—have a number of limitations that need to be addressed. NGCs, in particular, are limited to treating a relatively short nerve gap (4 cm in length) and are often associated with poor functional recovery. Recent advances in biomaterials and tissue engineering approaches are seeking to overcome the limitations associated with these treatment methods. This review critically discusses the advances in biomaterial-based NGCs, their limitations and where future improvements may be required. Recent developments include the incorporation of topographical guidance features and/or intraluminal structures, which attempt to guide Schwann cell (SC) migration and axonal regrowth towards their distal targets. The use of such strategies requires consideration of the size and distribution of these topographical features, as well as a suitable surface for cell–material interactions. Likewise, cellular and molecular-based therapies are being considered for the creation of a more conductive nerve microenvironment. For example, hurdles associated with the short half-lives and low stability of molecular therapies are being surmounted through the use of controlled delivery systems. Similarly, cells (SCs, stem cells and genetically modified cells) are being delivered with biomaterial matrices in attempts to control their dispersion and to facilitate their incorporation within the host regeneration process. Despite recent advances in peripheral nerve repair, there are a number of key factors that need to be considered in order for these new technologies to reach the clinic. PMID:22090283

  11. The recovery time of sevoflurane and desflurane and the effects of anesthesia on mental and psychomotor functions and pain

    PubMed Central

    Ergnen, Jalan; Ergnen, Tolga; ?din, Kadir; Uzun, U?ur; Dirik, Ali; Gedikli, Gkhan; Bican, Gl?en

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inhalation anesthetics have many advantages for outpatient general anesthesia, such as minimal postoperative side-effects and rapid and full recovery. The aim of this randomized study was to compare the postoperative recovery time of sevoflurane and desflurane and to observe the effects of anesthesia on mental, psychomotor and cognitive functions and pain in outpatients undergoing arthroscopic surgery. Patients and Methods: This study included 40 American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II patients who were divided into two groups via sealed envelopes. For maintenance of anesthesia, a mixture of 66% N2O and 33% O2 and 47% desflurane was used in Group D, and a mixture of 66% N2O and 33% O2 and 12.5% sevoflurane was used in Group S. The modified Aldrete score (MAS) was evaluated postoperatively at time points determined previously. An MAS of 8 or higher was considered to indicate alertness. Mental and psychomotor functions of the patients were evaluated using the short cognitive examination (SCE), and postoperative pain levels were evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: There was no difference between the groups in terms of demographic data (P > 0.05). The mean time to reach MAS 8, eye-opening, and orientation were higher in Group S as compared to Group D (P < 0.01). The mean MAS initially and at 5 and 10 min was higher in Group D as compared to Group S (P < 0.001). The mean SCE at 5 and 15 min was higher in Group D as compared to Group S (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of VAS scores (P > 0.05). Conclusion: It has been determined that desflurane provided better quality and more rapid recovery than sevoflurane, and the return of cognitive functions in the early postoperative period was faster. In conclusion, both agents can apparently be used safely in outpatient anesthetic procedures. PMID:25886337

  12. The functional connectivity of semantic task changes in the recovery from stroke aphasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jie; Wu, Xia; Yao, Li; Li, Kun-Cheng; Shu, Hua; Dong, Qi

    2007-03-01

    Little is known about the difference of functional connectivity of semantic task between the recovery aphasic patients and normal subject. In this paper, an fMRI experiment was performed in a patient with aphasia following a left-sided ischemic lesion and normal subject. Picture naming was used as semantic activation task in this study. We compared the preliminary functional connectivity results of the recovery aphasic patient with the normal subject. The fMRI data were separated by independent component analysis (ICA) into 90 components. According to our experience and other papers, we chose a region of interest (ROI) of semantic (x=-57, y=15, z=8, r=11mm). From the 90 components, we chose one component as the functional connectivity of the semantic ROI according to one criterion. The criterion is the mean value of the voxels in the ROI. So the component of the highest mean value of the ROI is the functional connectivity of the ROI. The voxel with its value higher than 2.4 was thought as activated (p<0.05). And the functional connectivity networks of the normal subjects were t-tested as group network. From the result, we can know the semantic functional connectivity of stroke aphasic patient and normal subjects are different. The activated areas of the left inferior frontal gyrus and inferior/middle temporal gyrus are larger than the ones of normal. The activated area of the right inferior frontal gyrus is smaller than the ones of normal. The functional connectivity of stroke aphasic patient under semantic condition is different with the normal one. The focus of the stroke aphasic patient can affect the functional connectivity.

  13. Citalopram Enhances Neurovascular Regeneration and Sensorimotor Functional Recovery after Ischemic Stroke in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Espinera, Alyssa R.; Ogle, Molly E.; Gu, Xiaohuan; Wei, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) after stroke enhances motor functional recovery; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. We hypothesized that daily administration of the clinical drug citalopram would produce these functional benefits via enhancing neurovascular repair in the ischemic peri-infarct region. To test this hypothesis, focal ischemic stroke was induced in male C57/B6 mice by permanent ligation of distal branches of the middle cerebral artery to the barrel cortex and 7-min occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries. Citalopram (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected 24 hrs after stroke and daily thereafter. To label proliferating cells, bromo-deoxyuridine was injected daily beginning 3 days after stroke. Immunohistochemical and functional assays were performed to elucidate citalopram-mediated cellular and sensorimotor changes after stroke. Citalopram treatment had no significant effect on infarct formation or edema 3 days after stroke; however, citalopram-treated mice had better functional recovery than saline-treated controls 3 and 14 days after stroke in the adhesive removal test. Increased expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor was detected in the peri-infarct region 7 days after stroke in citalopram-treated animals. The number of proliferating neural progenitor cells and the distance of neuroblast migration from the sub-ventricular zone towards the ischemic cortex were significantly greater in citalopram-treated mice at 7 days after stroke. Immunohistochemical staining and co-localization analysis showed that citalopram-treated animals generated more new neurons and microvessels in the peri-infarct region 21 and 28 days after stroke. Taken together, these results suggest that citalopram promotes post-stroke sensorimotor recovery likely via enhancing neurogenesis, neural cell migration and the microvessel support in the peri-infarct region of the ischemic brain. PMID:23590907

  14. Reorganization of Motor Cortex after Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats and Implications for Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Nishibe, Mariko; Barbay, Scott; Guggenmos, David

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We report the results of controlled cortical impact (CCI) centered on the caudal forelimb area (CFA) of rat motor cortex to determine the feasibility of examining cortical plasticity in a spared cortical motor area (rostral forelimb area, RFA). We compared the effects of three CCI parameter sets (groups CCI-1, CCI-2, and CCI-3) that differed in impactor surface shape, size, and location, on behavioral recovery and RFA structural and functional integrity. Forelimb deficits in the limb contralateral to the injury were evident in all three CCI groups assessed by skilled reach and footfault tasks that persisted throughout the 35-day post-CCI assessment period. Nissl-stained coronal sections revealed that the RFA was structurally intact. Intracortical microstimulation experiments conducted at 7 weeks post-CCI demonstrated that RFA was functionally viable. However, the size of the forelimb representation decreased significantly in CCI-1 compared to the control group. Subdivided into component movement categories, there was a significant group effect for proximal forelimb movements. The RFA area reduction and reorganization are discussed in relation to possible diaschisis, and to compensatory functional behavior, respectively. Also, an inverse correlation between the anterior extent of the lesion and the size of the RFA was identified and is discussed in relation to corticocortical connectivity. The results suggest that CCI can be applied to rat CFA while sparing RFA. This CCI model can contribute to our understanding of neural plasticity in premotor cortex as a substrate for functional motor recovery. PMID:20873958

  15. Effects of Tetramethylpyrazine on Functional Recovery and Neuronal Dendritic Plasticity after Experimental Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun-Bin; Zheng, Chan-Juan; Zhang, Xuan; Chen, Juan; Liao, Wei-Jing; Wan, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has been widely used in the treatment of ischemic stroke by Chinese doctors. Here, we report the effects of TMP on functional recovery and dendritic plasticity after ischemic stroke. A classical model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established in this study. The rats were assigned into 3 groups: sham group (sham operated rats treated with saline), model group (MCAO rats treated with saline) and TMP group (MCAO rats treated with 20?mg/kg/d TMP). The neurological function test of animals was evaluated using the modified neurological severity score (mNSS) at 3?d, 7?d, and 14?d after MCAO. Animals were euthanized for immunohistochemical labeling to measure MAP-2 levels in the peri-infarct area. Golgi-Cox staining was performed to test effect of TMP on dendritic plasticity at 14?d after MCAO. TMP significantly improved neurological function at 7?d and 14?d after ischemia, increased MAP-2 level at 14?d after ischemia, and enhanced spine density of basilar dendrites. TMP failed to affect the spine density of apical dendrites and the total dendritic length. Data analyses indicate that there was significant negative correlation between mNSS and plasticity measured at 14?d after MCAO. Thus, enhanced dendritic plasticity contributes to TMP-elicited functional recovery after ischemic stroke. PMID:26379744

  16. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on recovery of function after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tazoe, Toshiki; Perez, Monica A

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of rehabilitation strategies after spinal cord injury (SCI) is to enhance the recovery of function. One possible avenue to achieve this goal is to strengthen the efficacy of the residual neuronal pathways. Noninvasive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used in patients with motor disorders as a tool to modulate activity of corticospinal, cortical, and subcortical pathways to promote functional recovery. This article reviews a series of studies published during the last decade that used rTMS in the acute and chronic stages of paraplegia and tetraplegia in humans with complete and incomplete SCI. In the studies, rTMS has been applied over the arm and leg representations of the primary motor cortex to target 3 main consequences of SCI: sensory and motor function impairments, spasticity, and neuropathic pain. Although some studies demonstrated that consecutive sessions of rTMS improve aspects of particular functions, other studies did not show similar effects. We discuss how rTMS parameters and postinjury reorganization in the corticospinal tract, motor cortical, and spinal cord circuits might be critical factors in understanding the advantages and disadvantages of using rTMS in patients with SCI. The available data highlight the limited information on the use of rTMS after SCI and the need to further understand the pathophysiology of neuronal structures affected by rTMS to maximize the potential beneficial effects of this technique in humans with SCI. PMID:25175159

  17. New method for evaluating effective recovery time and single photoelectron response in silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodzicka, Martyna; Szcz??niak, Tomasz; Moszy?ski, Marek; Szaw?owski, Marek; Grodzicki, Krystian

    2015-05-01

    The linearity of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) response depends on the number of APD cells and its effective recovery time and it is related to the intensity and duration of the detected light pulses. The aim of this study was to determine the effective recovery time on the basis of the measured SiPM response to light pulses of different durations. A closer analysis of the SiPM response to the light pulses shorter than the effective recovery time of APD cells led to a method for the evaluation of the single photoelectron response of the devices where the single photoelectron peak cannot be clearly measured. This is necessary in the evaluation of the number of fired APD cells (or the number of photoelectrons) in measurements with light pulses of various durations. Measurements were done with SiPMs manufactured by two companies: Hamamatsu and SensL.

  18. Development of on-farm oil recovery and processing methods: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.; Kilgo, M.B.

    1987-09-02

    Using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), peanut oil was extracted from ground peanuts at pressures of 2000 to 10,000 psi and temperatures of 25-120/degree/ C. Above 6000 psi, increasing the temperature to the maximum possible without heavily charring the peanuts (120/degree/C) significantly increased the initial extraction rate. Increasing the pressure at constant temperature increased the rate. At higher temperatures (75/degree/ C and above) roasting began to occur, however, this was not detrimental to the extraction rate or overall oil recovery. Decreasing the particle size increases the overall yield per batch of peanuts as seen in both the half factorial and particle size experiments. Increasing the moisture increases the amount of volatiles lost. The flow rate does not affect the solubility, percent oil recovered or volatiles lost for flow rates of 40 to 60 liters CO2/minute at STP. Recovery of peanut and rapeseed oil with a combined process of partial recovery in a screw press plus extraction of the remaining oil with SC-CO2 is technically a viable alternative to other oil recovery methods. Oil recoveries of 95% (peanuts) and 75% (rapeseed) have been demonstrated. The initial extraction rate for rapeseed was consistently lower than the rate for peanuts at the same extraction temperature and pressure. No differences in SC-CO2 extraction rates or yields were found between Dwarf Essex and Cascade varieties of rapeseed. 8 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Optimization of the purification methods for recovery of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xuecheng; Mu, Xiaosheng; Liu, Bin

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to optimize the purification of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus. Recombinant flounder growth hormone (r-fGH) was expressed by Escherichia coli in form of inclusion body or as soluble protein under different inducing conditions. The inclusion body was renatured using two recovery methods, i.e., dilution and dialysis. Thereafter, the refolded protein was purified by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography and r-fGH was obtained by cleavage of thrombin. For soluble products, r-fGH was directly purified from the lysates by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography. ELISA-receptor assay demonstrated that despite its low receptor binding activity, the r-fGH purified from refolded inclusion body had a higher yield (2.605 mg L-1) than that from soluble protein (1.964 mg L-1). Of the tested recovery methods, addition of renaturing buffer (pH 8.5) into denatured inclusion body yielded the best recovery rate (17.9%). This work provided an optimized purification method for high recovery of r-fGH, thus contributing to the application of r-fGH to aquaculture.

  20. Comparison of selected methods for recovery of Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Raphael Corrêa; Daniel, Luiz Antonio

    2015-09-01

    More precise methods are needed to recover Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts from wastewater in order to advance research related to their inactivation, removal, quantification, and species differentiation. This study applied different methods to recover the maximum number of (oo)cysts from wastewater samples using ColorSeed®. Immunomagnetic separation assisted in capturing oocysts mainly in samples with medium and low turbidity. A triple centrifugation method reached recovery rates of 85% and 20%, for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts, respectively, in raw wastewater, and 62.5 and 17.5% in secondary-treated effluent. For low turbidity-treated effluent, membrane filtration reached 67.5% recovery for Giardia cysts and 22.5% for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Simple, quick and low-cost methods do not involve much handling of the samples and could be useful, particularly in developing countries. PMID:26322766

  1. Molecular pathophysiology of cavernous nerve injury and identification of strategies for nerve function recovery after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Weyne, Emmanuel; Mulhall, John; Albersen, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Despite nerve-sparing techniques, erectile dysfunction remains commonly observed after radical prostatectomy due to neuropraxia to the cavernous nerves during surgery. Preservation and rehabilitation of erectile function after radical prostatectomy remains challenging and many men stay undertreated with the current armory of therapies available in clinical practice. In this article we provide a comprehensive overview of the pathophysiology of the nerve injury occurring during radical prostatectomy and describe different strategies aimed at enhancing neuroprotection and regeneration of the cavernous nerves in order to improve erectile function recovery. These strategies include immunomodulatory, neurotrophic, growth factor and stem cell therapy have convincingly shown improved erectile function and recovery in rat animal models after cavernous nerve injury. Furthermore we describe the rationale for penile rehabilitation with PDE5i out of a neuronal recovery point of view. Many of these strategies reviewed have the potential to optimize erectile function recovery after radical prostatectomy when translated from pre-clinical models to clinical practice. PMID:25777276

  2. Snake and Spider Toxins Induce a Rapid Recovery of Function of Botulinum Neurotoxin Paralysed Neuromuscular Junction.

    PubMed

    Duregotti, Elisa; Zanetti, Giulia; Scorzeto, Michele; Megighian, Aram; Montecucco, Cesare; Pirazzini, Marco; Rigoni, Michela

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and some animal neurotoxins (?-Bungarotoxin, ?-Btx, from elapid snakes and ?-Latrotoxin, ?-Ltx, from black widow spiders) are pre-synaptic neurotoxins that paralyse motor axon terminals with similar clinical outcomes in patients. However, their mechanism of action is different, leading to a largely-different duration of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) blockade. BoNTs induce a long-lasting paralysis without nerve terminal degeneration acting via proteolytic cleavage of SNARE proteins, whereas animal neurotoxins cause an acute and complete degeneration of motor axon terminals, followed by a rapid recovery. In this study, the injection of animal neurotoxins in mice muscles previously paralyzed by BoNT/A or /B accelerates the recovery of neurotransmission, as assessed by electrophysiology and morphological analysis. This result provides a proof of principle that, by causing the complete degeneration, reabsorption, and regeneration of a paralysed nerve terminal, one could favour the recovery of function of a biochemically- or genetically-altered motor axon terminal. These observations might be relevant to dying-back neuropathies, where pathological changes first occur at the neuromuscular junction and then progress proximally toward the cell body. PMID:26670253

  3. Silencing ephrinB3 improves functional recovery following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Zhao, Jianwu; Wang, Yang; Gao, Zhongli

    2014-05-01

    EphrinB3 may restrict axonal regeneration and recovery following traumatic injury of the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, inhibition of ephrinB3 expression may enhance the ability of the nervous system to regenerate following damage. In the present study, lentiviral expressing vectors, pGCSIL-GFP, expressing an active small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the EphB3 sequence, were used to determine the effect of inhibiting EphB3 on nerve functional recovery and regeneration. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scores and growth-associated protein, 43 kDa (GAP43) expression levels were determined at 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks following transplantation of the siRNA. It was identified that EphB3 mRNA and protein levels in the siRNA group were significantly reduced (P<0.01) in the spine compared with the control group, at four weeks following intraparenchymal administration of the siRNA into the right lumbar. BBB locomotor scores were significantly increased (P<0.05) in siRNA animals compared with the sham group, at 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks following transplantation of the siRNA. In addition, a significant increase in GAP43 expression was detected in the siRNA group compared with the control group. This preclinical study demonstrates that ephrinB3 silencing contributes to axonal growth regeneration and improves recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI). PMID:24604122

  4. Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Facilitates Wound Healing Events That Promote Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jung-Yu C.; McKeon, Robert; Goussev, Staci; Werb, Zena; Lee, Jung-Uek; Trivedi, Alpa; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes that are involved in both injury and repair mechanisms in the CNS. Pharmacological blockade of MMPs, limited to the first several days after spinal cord injury, improves locomotor recovery. This beneficial response is, however, lost when treatment is extended beyond the acutely injured cord to include wound healing and tissue remodeling. This suggests that some MMPs play a beneficial role in wound healing. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the role of MMP-2, which is actively expressed during wound healing, in white matter sparing and axonal plasticity, the formation of a glial scar, and locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury. MMP-2 increased between 7 and 14 d after injury, where it was immunolocalized in reactive astrocytes bordering the lesion epicenter. There was reduced white matter sparing and fewer serotonergic fibers, caudal to the lesion in injured MMP-2 null animals. MMP-2 deficiency also resulted in increased immunoreactivity to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and a more extensive astrocytic scar. Most importantly, locomotion in an open field, performance on a rotarod, and grid walking were significantly impaired in injured MMP-2 null mice. Our findings suggest that MMP-2 promotes functional recovery after injury by regulating the formation of a glial scar and white matter sparing and/or axonal plasticity. Thus, strategies exploiting MMPs as therapeutic targets must balance these beneficial effects during wound healing with their adverse interactions in the acutely injured spinal cord. PMID:17005848

  5. Snake and Spider Toxins Induce a Rapid Recovery of Function of Botulinum Neurotoxin Paralysed Neuromuscular Junction

    PubMed Central

    Duregotti, Elisa; Zanetti, Giulia; Scorzeto, Michele; Megighian, Aram; Montecucco, Cesare; Pirazzini, Marco; Rigoni, Michela

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and some animal neurotoxins (β-Bungarotoxin, β-Btx, from elapid snakes and α-Latrotoxin, α-Ltx, from black widow spiders) are pre-synaptic neurotoxins that paralyse motor axon terminals with similar clinical outcomes in patients. However, their mechanism of action is different, leading to a largely-different duration of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) blockade. BoNTs induce a long-lasting paralysis without nerve terminal degeneration acting via proteolytic cleavage of SNARE proteins, whereas animal neurotoxins cause an acute and complete degeneration of motor axon terminals, followed by a rapid recovery. In this study, the injection of animal neurotoxins in mice muscles previously paralyzed by BoNT/A or /B accelerates the recovery of neurotransmission, as assessed by electrophysiology and morphological analysis. This result provides a proof of principle that, by causing the complete degeneration, reabsorption, and regeneration of a paralysed nerve terminal, one could favour the recovery of function of a biochemically- or genetically-altered motor axon terminal. These observations might be relevant to dying-back neuropathies, where pathological changes first occur at the neuromuscular junction and then progress proximally toward the cell body. PMID:26670253

  6. Structural and functional shifts in zoobenthos induced by organic enrichment Implications for community recovery potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villns, A.; Perus, J.; Bonsdorff, E.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat change induced by organic enrichment is a growing concern for the sustainability of benthic communities in coastal aquatic environments. This case study describes the spatial and temporal response patterns and the recovery potential of low-diversity benthic communities to organic enrichment at two fish farm locations, during the rearing periods (15 and 20 years, respectively) and the following recovery periods (2 years). The spatial extent of disturbance differed depending on the hydromorphological characteristics of the rearing sites, but degraded macrobenthic communities close to both fish farms were recorded soon after the activity started. Continued organic enrichment resulted in high species turnover-rates and in an altered benthic community composition at both locations. After fish farm abatement, a partial recovery was detected in species richness, but abundance and biomass values were reduced and changes in structural composition remained. Alterations in benthic biological traits were observed at both fish farm locations, implying that organic enrichment might cause changes in benthic community function within low-diversity benthic communities.

  7. Methods to determine storativity of infinite confined aquifers from a recovery test.

    PubMed

    Chenaf, Djaouida; Chapuis, Robert P

    2002-01-01

    Starting from the equations of Theis and Cooper-Jacob, two new mathematical methods are proposed for interpreting the residual drawdown data for an infinite confined aquifer. Under Theis' assumptions and using the Cooper-Jacob approximation, the principal aquifer characteristics of transmissivity, pumping storativity, and recovery storativity are expressed without any correction or additional assumption. An actual case is used for illustration and confirms the validity of proposed equations and methods. PMID:12113357

  8. A Combination Therapy of Nicotinamide and Progesterone Improves Functional Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Todd C; Hoane, Michael R; McConomy, Keith S; Farin, Fred M; Bammler, Theo K; MacDonald, James W; Kantor, Eric D; Anderson, Gail D

    2015-06-01

    Neuroprotection, recovery of function, and gene expression were evaluated in an animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) after a combination treatment of nicotinamide (NAM) and progesterone (Prog). Animals received a cortical contusion injury over the sensorimotor cortex, and were treated with either Vehicle, NAM, Prog, or a NAM/Prog combination for 72?h and compared with a craniotomy only (Sham) group. Animals were assessed in a battery of behavioral, sensory, and both fine and gross motor tasks, and given histological assessments at 24?h post-injury to determine lesion cavity size, degenerating neurons, and reactive astrocytes. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine treatment-specific changes on gene expression. Our results confirm the beneficial effects of treatment with either NAM or Prog, demonstrating significant improvements in recovery of function and a reduction in lesion cavitation, degenerating neurons, and reactive astrocytes 24?h post-injury. The combination treatment of NAM and Prog led to a significant improvement in both neuroprotection at 24?h post-injury and recovery of function in sensorimotor related tasks when compared with individual treatments. The NAM/Prog-treated group was the only treatment group to show a significant reduction of cortical loss 24?h post-injury. The combination appears to affect inflammatory and immune processes, reducing expression of a significant number of genes in both pathways. Further preclinical trials using NAM and Prog as a combination treatment should be conducted to identify the window of opportunity, determine the optimal duration of treatment, and evaluate the combination in other pre-clinical models of TBI. PMID:25313690

  9. A polysialic acid mimetic peptide promotes functional recovery in a mouse model of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Marino, Philippe; Norreel, Jean-Chrtien; Schachner, Melitta; Rougon, Genevive; Amoureux, Marie-Claude

    2009-09-01

    Contrary to lower species that recapitulate some of the developmental programs, in mammals, functional recovery after spinal cord injury is impaired by a non-permissive environment and the lack of plasticity of adult neurons. The developmental plasticity associated linear homopolymer of alpha 2,8-linked sialic acid (PolySialic Acid, PSA), represents a permissive determinant that could contribute to recovery. We previously showed that a PSA cyclic mimetic peptide (PR-21) displayed PSA-like biological functions (Torregrossa, P., Buhl, L., Bancila, M., Durbec, P., Schafer, C., Schachner, M., Rougon, G., 2004. Selection of poly-alpha 2,8-sialic acid mimotopes from a random phage peptide library and analysis of their bioactivity. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 30707-30714.). In the present study we investigated the therapeutic potential of PR-21 in young adult mice after dorsal hemisection at the T9 level. We show that PR-21 fulfills several criteria for an in vivo use as it is not toxic, not immunogenic and displays good stability in biological fluids or tissue. Delivery of PR-21 to the lesion site decreased the time of the animals' return to continence, and enhanced motor functions, sensorimotor control and coordination of hindlimbs with forelimbs when compared to a control peptide. At the cellular level, PR-21 increased serotonergic axon density at and caudal to the lesion site, and decreased reactive gliosis in vivo. In an in vitro model of reactive astrocytes, PR-21 increased NCAM expression in strongly GFAP positive cells. Our data point to the unique features of a carbohydrate mimicking peptide, and support the notion that PSA can be considered as an important factor in recovery from spinal cord injury. PMID:19445935

  10. Does Phototherapy Enhance Skeletal Muscle Contractile Function and Postexercise Recovery? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Borsa, Paul A; Larkin, Kelly A; True, Jerry M

    2013-01-01

    Context Recently, researchers have shown that phototherapy administered to skeletal muscle immediately before resistance exercise can enhance contractile function, prevent exercise-induced cell damage, and improve postexercise recovery of strength and function. Objective To critically evaluate original research addressing the ability of phototherapeutic devices, such as lasers and light-emitting diodes (LEDs), to enhance skeletal muscle contractile function, reduce exercise-induced muscle fatigue, and facilitate postexercise recovery. Data Sources We searched the electronic databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Scopus, and Rehabilitation & Physical Medicine without date limitations for the following key words: laser therapy, phototherapy, fatigue, exercise, circulation, microcirculation, and photobiomodulation. Study Selection Eligible studies had to be original research published in English as full papers, involve human participants, and receive a minimum score of 7 out of 10 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Data Extraction Data of interest included elapsed time to fatigue, total number of repetitions to fatigue, total work performed, maximal voluntary isometric contraction (strength), electromyographic activity, and postexercise biomarker levels. We recorded the PEDro scores, beam characteristics, and treatment variables and calculated the therapeutic outcomes and effect sizes for the data sets. Data Synthesis In total, 12 randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. However, we excluded data from 2 studies, leaving 32 data sets from 10 studies. Twenty-four of the 32 data sets contained differences between active phototherapy and sham (placebo-control) treatment conditions for the various outcome measures. Exposing skeletal muscle to single-diode and multidiode laser or multidiode LED therapy was shown to positively affect physical performance by delaying the onset of fatigue, reducing the fatigue response, improving postexercise recovery, and protecting cells from exercise-induced damage. Conclusions Phototherapy administered before resistance exercise consistently has been found to provide ergogenic and prophylactic benefits to skeletal muscle. PMID:23672326

  11. Early Immunomodulation by Intravenously Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Functional Recovery in Spinal Cord Injured Rats

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jung Hwa; Jang, In Keun; Kim, Hyongbum; Yang, Mal Sook; Lee, Jong Eun; Kim, Hyo Eun; Eom, Yong-Woo; Lee, Doo-Hoon; Yu, Ji Hea; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyun Ok; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2011-01-01

    Although intravenous administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can enhance functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI), the underlying mechanisms have to be elucidated. In this study, we explored the mechanisms for functional recovery in SCI rats after intravenous transplantation of MSCs derived from human umbilical cord blood. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive either MSCs (1 × 106 cells/0.5 ml) or PBS into the tail vein immediately after SCI. They were then evaluated by the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale weekly for 8 weeks and by somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) 8 weeks after transplantation. MSC-treated rats showed a modest but significant improvement in BBB scores and latencies of SSEPs, compared with PBS controls. When human-specific Alu element was measured in the spinal cord, it was detected only 1 h after transplantation, suggesting transient engraftment of MSCs. Inflammatory cytokines were also determined using RT-PCR or Western blot in spinal cord extracts. In MSC-treated rats, the level of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β was decreased, but that of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased. MSCs also immediately suppressed IL-6 at 1 h posttransplantation. However, the response of IL-6, which has an immunoregulatory role, was increased 1–3 days after transplantation. In addition, we quantified microglia/macrophage stained with Iba-1 around the damaged spinal cord using immunohistochemistry. A proportion of activated microglia and macrophages in total Iba-1+ cells was significantly decreased in MSC-treated rats, compared with PBS controls. These results suggest that early immunomodulation by intravenously transplanted MSCs is a potential underlying mechanism for functional recovery after SCI.

  12. The effect of claustrum lesions on human consciousness and recovery of function.

    PubMed

    Chau, Aileen; Salazar, Andres M; Krueger, Frank; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan

    2015-11-01

    Crick and Koch proposed that the claustrum plays a crucial role in consciousness. Their proposal was based on the structure and connectivity of the claustrum that suggested it had a role in coordinating a set of diverse brain functions. Given the few human studies investigating this claim, we decided to study the effects of claustrum lesions on consciousness in 171 combat veterans with penetrating traumatic brain injuries. Additionally, we studied the effects of claustrum lesions and loss of consciousness on long-term cognitive abilities. Claustrum damage was associated with the duration, but not frequency, of loss of consciousness, indicating that the claustrum may have an important role in regaining, but not maintaining, consciousness. Total brain volume loss, but not claustrum lesions, was associated with long-term recovery of neurobehavioral functions. Our findings constrain the current understanding of the neurobehavioral functions of the claustrum and its role in maintaining and regaining consciousness. PMID:26186439

  13. Recovery of laryngeal function after intraoperative injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Hydman, Jonas; Svensson, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Loss of function in the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) during thyroid/parathyroid surgery, despite a macroscopically intact nerve, is a challenge which highlights the sensitivity and complexity of laryngeal innervation. Furthermore, the uncertain prognosis stresses a lack of capability to diagnose the reason behind the impaired function. There is a great deal of literature considering risk factors, surgical technique and mechanisms outside the nerve affecting the incidence of RLN paresis during surgery. To be able to prognosticate recovery in cases of laryngeal dysfunction and voice changes after thyroid surgery, the surgeon would first need to define the presence, location, and type of laryngeal nerve injury. There is little data describing the events within the nerve and the neurobiological reasons for the impaired function related to potential recovery and prognosis. In addition, very little data has been presented in order to clarify any differences between the transient and permanent injury of the RLN. This review aims, from an anatomical and neurobiological perspective, to provide an update on the current understandings of surgically-induced injury to the laryngeal nerves. PMID:25713777

  14. Polysialic acid glycomimetic promotes functional recovery and plasticity after spinal cord injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Mehanna, Ali; Jakovcevski, Igor; Acar, Ay?e; Xiao, Meifang; Loers, Gabriele; Rougon, Genevive; Irintchev, Andrey; Schachner, Melitta

    2010-01-01

    Regeneration after injury of the central nervous system is poor due to the abundance of molecules inhibiting axonal growth. Here we pursued to promote regeneration after thoracic spinal cord injury in young adult C57BL/6J mice using peptides which functionally mimic polysialic acid (PSA) and human natural killer cell-1 (HNK-1) glycan, carbohydrate epitopes known to promote neurite outgrowth in vitro. Subdural infusions were performed with an osmotic pump, over 2 weeks. When applied immediately after injury, the PSA mimetic and the combination of PSA and HNK-1 mimetics, but not the HNK-1 mimetic alone, improved functional recovery as assessed by locomotor rating and video-based motion analysis over a 6-week observation period. Better outcome in PSA mimetic-treated mice was associated with higher, as compared with control mice, numbers of cholinergic and glutamatergic terminals and monaminergic axons in the lumbar spinal cord, and better axonal myelination proximal to the injury site. In contrast to immediate post-traumatic application, the PSA mimetic treatment was ineffective when initiated 3 weeks after spinal cord injury. Our data suggest that PSA mimetic peptides can be efficient therapeutic tools improving, by augmenting plasticity, functional recovery when applied during the acute phase of spinal cord injury. PMID:19826404

  15. Carboxy alkyl esters of Uncaria tomentosa augment recovery of sensorineural functions following noise injury.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, O'neil W; Gearhart, Caroline A; Fulton, Sherry; Fechter, Laurence D

    2011-08-17

    This study tested the hypothesis that hydrophilic chemotypes of the medicinal vine Uncaria tomentosa (UT) would facilitate recovery of sensorineural functions following exposure to a damaging level of noise. The particular chemotypes investigated were carboxy alkyl esters (CAE) which are known to exhibit multifunctional cytoprotective properties that include: enhanced cellular DNA repair, antioxidation and anti-inflammation. Long-Evans rats were divided into four treatment groups: vehicle-control, noise-only, CAE-only and CAE+noise. The noise exposure was an 8kHz octave band of noise at 105dB SPL for 4h. Outer hair cell (OHC) function was measured with the cubic 2f(1)-f(2) distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) at the start of the study (baseline) and at time-points that corresponded to 1day, 1week and 4weeks post-noise exposure to determine within-group effects. Compound action potentials to puretone stimuli were recorded from the VIIIth craniofacial nerve at 4weeks post-noise exposure to determine between-group effects. Additionally, cytocochleograms were constructed for each row of OHCs from each group. Noise exposure produced significant sensorineural impairments. However, CAE treatment facilitated almost complete recovery of OHC function and limited the magnitude of cell loss. The loss of neural sensitivity to puretone stimuli was inhibited with CAE treatment. Therefore, it appears that the multifunctional cytoprotective capacity of CAE from UT may generalize to otoprotection from acoustic over-exposure. PMID:21762882

  16. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury?

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Blent

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury. PMID:25624828

  17. Role of Neurotrophins in Recovery of Phrenic Motor Function Following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sieck, Gary C.; Mantilla, Carlos B.

    2009-01-01

    Many individuals who sustain a cervical spinal cord injury are unable to maintain adequate ventilation due to diaphragm muscle paralysis. These patients become dependent on mechanical ventilators and this situation is associated with ongoing problems with pulmonary clearance, infections, and lung injury leading to significant morbidity and reduced life expectancy. Therefore, functional recovery of rhythmic phrenic activity and the ability to generate expulsive forces would dramatically affect the quality of life of patients with cervical spinal cord injury. Neurotrophins are very promising in that they have been shown to play an important role in modulating functional neuroplasticity. Specifically, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acting via the tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (TrkB) has been implicated in neuroplasticity following spinal cord injury. Our central hypothesis is that functional recovery of rhythmic phrenic activity after cervical spinal cord injury is enhanced by an increase in BDNF/TrkB signaling in phrenic motoneurons, providing a novel therapeutic target for patients. PMID:19703592

  18. Cardiac autonomic function during sleep: effects of alcohol dependence and evidence of partial recovery with abstinence.

    PubMed

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Willoughby, Adrian R; Baker, Fiona C; Sugarbaker, David S; Colrain, Ian M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with the development of cardiac and peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) pathology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which recovery in ANS function could be demonstrated over the first 4 months of abstinence. Fifteen alcoholics (7 women) were studied on three occasions: within a month of detoxification, at approximately 2 months post-detox, and at 4 months post-detox. Thirteen control subjects (6 women) were also studied on three occasions with inter-study intervals matching those of the alcoholics. Six alcoholics relapsed, 48.7 27.9 days following the initial PSG session. ANS function was assessed in the first part of stable non-rapid eye movement sleep. Frequency-domain power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) produced variables including: heart rate (HR), total power (TP; an index representing total HR variability), High Frequency power (HFa; an index reflecting cardiac vagal modulation), HF proportion of total power (HFprop sympathovagal balance), and HF peak frequency (HFpf; an index reflecting respiration rate). Overall, high total and high frequency variability and low sympathovagal balance and myocardial contractility are considered as desired conditions to promote cardiovascular health. At initial assessment, alcoholics had a higher HR (p < 0.001) and respiratory rate (p < 0.01), and lower vagal activity (HFa; p < 0.01) than controls. Alcoholics showed evidence of recovery in HR (p = 0.039) and HFa (p = 0.031) with 4 months of abstinence. Alcoholics with higher TP at the initial visit showed a greater improvement in TP from the initial to the 4 month follow-up session (r = 0.75, p < 0.05). Alcoholics showed substantial recovery in HR and vagal modulation of HRV with 4 months of abstinence, with evidence that the extent of recovery in HRV may be partially determined by the extent of alcohol dependence-related insult to the cardiac ANS system. These data support other studies showing recovery in a number of ANS, central nervous system, and behavioral domains with abstinence, even in those with long-term dependence. PMID:25957854

  19. Methods for incomplete Bessel function evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Frank E.; Fripiat, J. G.

    Presented here are detailed methods for evaluating the incomplete Bessel functions arising when Gaussian-type orbitals are used for systems periodic in one spatial dimension. The scheme is designed to yield these incomplete Bessel functions with an absolute accuracy of 1 10-10, for the range of integer orders 0 ? n ? 12 [a range sufficient for a basis whose members have angular momenta of up to three units (s, p, d, or f atomic functions)]. To reach this accuracy level within acceptable computation times, new rational approximations were developed to compute the special functions involved, namely, the exponential integral E1(x) and the modified Bessel functions K0(x) and K1(x), to absolute accuracy 1 10-15.

  20. Method of making low work function component

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Vance (Niskayuna, NY); Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Michael, Joseph Darryl (Delmar, NY)

    2011-11-15

    A method for fabricating a component is disclosed. The method includes: providing a member having an effective work function of an initial value, disposing a sacrificial layer on a surface of the member, disposing a first agent within the member to obtain a predetermined concentration of the agent at said surface of the member, annealing the member, and removing the sacrificial layer to expose said surface of the member, wherein said surface has a post-process effective work function that is different from the initial value.

  1. Fgf2 improves functional recoverydecreasing gliosis and increasing radial glia and neural progenitor cells after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Goldshmit, Yona; Frisca, Frisca; Pinto, Alexander R; Pbay, Alice; Tang, Jean-Kitty K Y; Siegel, Ashley L; Kaslin, Jan; Currie, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A major impediment for recovery after mammalian spinal cord injury (SCI) is the glial scar formed by proliferating reactive astrocytes. Finding factors that may reduce glial scarring, increase neuronal survival, and promote neurite outgrowth are of major importance for improving the outcome after SCI. Exogenous fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) has been shown to decrease injury volume and improve functional outcome; however, the mechanisms by which this is mediated are still largely unknown. Methods In this study, Fgf2 was administered for 2 weeks in mice subcutaneously, starting 30 min after spinal cord hemisection. Results Fgf2 treatment decreased the expression of TNF-a at the lesion site, decreased monocyte/macrophage infiltration, and decreased gliosis. Fgf2 induced astrocytes to adopt a polarized morphology and increased expression of radial markers such as Pax6 and nestin. In addition, the levels of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), expressed by glia, were markedly decreased. Furthermore, Fgf2 treatment promotes the formation of parallel glial processes, bridges, at the lesion site that enable regenerating axons through the injury site. Additionally, Fgf2 treatment increased Sox2-expressing cells in the gray matter and neurogenesis around and at the lesion site. Importantly, these effects were correlated with enhanced functional recovery of the left paretic hind limb. Conclusions Thus, early pharmacological intervention with Fgf2 following SCI is neuroprotective and creates a proregenerative environment by the modulation of the glia response. PMID:24683512

  2. Functional recovery in lumbar spine surgery: a controlled trial of health behavior change counseling to improve outcomes.

    PubMed

    Skolasky, Richard L; Riley, Lee H; Maggard, Anica M; Bedi, Saaniya; Wegener, Stephen T

    2013-09-01

    In 2001, the Institute of Medicine issued a challenge to the American health care system to improve the quality of care by focusing on six major areas: safety, effectiveness, patient-centeredness, timeliness, efficiency, and equity. The patient-centered model of care directly addresses important limits of surgical care of the lumbar spine, i.e., the lack of effective methods for increasing patient participation and engagement in post-operative follow-up. Recent evidence indicates that post-surgical outcomes are better among those with higher patient activation. We therefore developed an intervention based on the principles of motivational interviewing to increase patient activation: the Functional Recovery in Lumbar Spine Surgery Health Behavior Change Counseling (HBCC) intervention. The HBCC was designed to maximize post-operative engagement and participation in physical therapy and home exercise, to improve functional recovery, and to decrease pain in individuals undergoing elective lumbar spine surgery. From December 2009 through October 2012, 120 participants were recruited and divided into two groups: those receiving (intervention group, 60) and not receiving (control group, 60) the HBCC intervention. The current manuscript provides a detailed description of the theoretical framework and study design of the HBCC and describes the implementation of this health behavior intervention in a university-based spine service. The HBCC provides a model for conducting health behavioral research in a real-world setting. PMID:23816487

  3. Effect of mirror therapy with tDCS on functional recovery of the upper extremity of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyuk-Shin; Cha, Hyun-gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effect of mirror therapy (MT) with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the recovery of the upper extremity function of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-seven patients at least 6 months after stroke onset were divided randomly into an experimental group (14 patients) and a control group (13 patients). [Methods] All subjects received tDCS for 20?min followed by a 5?min rest. Then the experimental group received MT while the control group conducted the same exercises as the experimental group using a mirror that did not show the non-paretic upper extremity. The groups performed the same exercises for 20?min. All subjects received this intervention for 45-min three times a week for 6 weeks. [Results] After the intervention, the experimental group showed significant improvements in the box and block test (BBT), grip strength, and the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA), and a significant decrease in the Jebsen-Taylor test. The control group showed a significant increase in grip strength after the intervention, and a significant decrease in the Jebsen-Taylor test. Comparison of the result after the intervention revealed that the experimental group showed more significant increases in the BBT and grip strength than the control group. [Conclusion] These results show that MT with tDCS has a positive effect on the functional recovery of the upper extremity of stroke patients, through activating motor regions in the brain, and thus plays an important role in recovery of neuroplasticity. PMID:25995552

  4. Functional recovery of odor representations in regenerated sensory inputs to the olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Man C.; Jang, Woochan; Schwob, James E.; Wachowiak, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory system has a unique capacity for recovery from peripheral damage. After injury to the olfactory epithelium (OE), olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) regenerate and re-converge on target glomeruli of the olfactory bulb (OB). Thus far, this process has been described anatomically for only a few defined populations of OSNs. Here we characterize this regeneration at a functional level by assessing how odor representations carried by OSN inputs to the OB recover after massive loss and regeneration of the sensory neuron population. We used chronic imaging of mice expressing synaptopHluorin in OSNs to monitor odor representations in the dorsal OB before lesion by the olfactotoxin methyl bromide and after a 12 week recovery period. Methyl bromide eliminated functional inputs to the OB, and these inputs recovered to near-normal levels of response magnitude within 12 weeks. We also found that the functional topography of odor representations recovered after lesion, with odorants evoking OSN input to glomerular foci within the same functional domains as before lesion. At a finer spatial scale, however, we found evidence for mistargeting of regenerated OSN axons onto OB targets, with odorants evoking synaptopHluorin signals in small foci that did not conform to a typical glomerular structure but whose distribution was nonetheless odorant-specific. These results indicate that OSNs have a robust ability to reestablish functional inputs to the OB and that the mechanisms underlying the topography of bulbar reinnervation during development persist in the adult and allow primary sensory representations to be largely restored after massive sensory neuron loss. PMID:24431990

  5. Promoting endothelial function by S-nitrosoglutathione through the HIF-1α/VEGF pathway stimulates neurorepair and functional recovery following experimental stroke in rats

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mushfiquddin; Dhammu, Tajinder S; Matsuda, Fumiyo; Baarine, Mauhammad; Dhindsa, Tejbir Singh; Singh, Inderjit; Singh, Avtar K

    2015-01-01

    Background For stroke patients, stimulating neurorepair mechanisms is necessary to reduce morbidity and disability. Our previous studies on brain and spinal cord trauma show that exogenous treatment with the S-nitrosylating agent S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) – a nitric oxide and glutathione metabolite of the human body – stimulates neurorepair and aids functional recovery. Using a rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (IR) in this study, we tested the hypothesis that GSNO invokes the neurorepair process and improves neurobehavioral functions through the angiogenic HIF-1α/VEGF pathway. Methods Stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion in adult male rats. The injured animals were treated with saline (IR group, n=7), GSNO (0.25 mg/kg, GSNO group, n=7), and GSNO plus the HIF-1α inhibitor 2-methoxyestra-diol (2-ME) (0.25 mg/kg GSNO + 5.0 mg/kg 2-ME, GSNO + 2-ME group, n=7). The groups were studied for either 7 or 14 days to determine neurorepair mediators and functional recovery. Brain capillary endothelial cells were used to show that GSNO promotes angiogenesis and that GSNO-mediated induction of VEGF and the stimulation of angiogenesis are dependent on HIF-1α activity. Results IR injury increased the expression of neurorepair mediators HIF-1α, VEGF, and PECAM-1 and vessel markers to a limited degree that correlate well with significantly compromised neurobehavioral functions compared with sham animals. GSNO treatment of IR not only remarkably enhanced further the expression of HIF-1α, VEGF, and PECAM-1 but also improved functioning compared with IR. The GSNO group also had a higher degree of vessel density than the IR group. Increased expression of VEGF and the degree of tube formation (angiogenesis) by GSNO were reduced after the inhibition of HIF-1α by 2-ME in an endothelial cell culture model. 2-ME treatment of the GSNO group also blocked not only GSNO’s effect of reduced infarct volume, decreased neuronal loss, and enhanced expression of PECAM-1 (P<0.001), but also its improvement of motor and neurological functions (P<0.001). Conclusion GSNO stimulates the process of neurorepair, promotes angiogenesis, and aids functional recovery through the HIF-1α-dependent pathway, showing therapeutic and translational promise for stroke. PMID:25945035

  6. Ad Integrum Functional and Volumetric Recovery in Right Lobe Living Donors: Is It Really Complete 1 Year After Donor Hepatectomy?

    PubMed

    Duclos, J; Bhangui, P; Salloum, C; Andreani, P; Saliba, F; Ichai, P; Elmaleh, A; Castaing, D; Azoulay, D

    2016-01-01

    The partial liver's ability to regenerate both as a graft and remnant justifies right lobe (RL) living donor liver transplantation. We studied (using biochemical and radiological parameters) the rate, extent of, and predictors of functional and volumetric recovery of the remnant left liver (RLL) during the first year in 91 consecutive RL donors. Recovery of normal liver function (prothrombin time [PT] ≥70% of normal and total bilirubin [TB] ≤20 µmol/L), liver volumetric recovery, and percentage RLL growth were analyzed. Normal liver function was regained by postoperative day's 7, 30, and 365 in 52%, 86%, and 96% donors, respectively. Similarly, mean liver volumetric recovery was 64%, 71%, and 85%; whereas the percentage liver growth was 85%, 105%, and 146%, respectively. Preoperative PT value (p = 0.01), RLL/total liver volume (TLV) ratio (p = 0.03), middle hepatic vein harvesting (p = 0.02), and postoperative peak TB (p < 0.01) were predictors of early functional recovery, whereas donor age (p = 0.03), RLL/TLV ratio (p = 0.004), and TLV/ body weight ratio (p = 0.02) predicted early volumetric recuperation. One-year post-RL donor hepatectomy, though functional recovery occurs in almost all (96%), donors had incomplete restoration (85%) of preoperative total liver volume. Modifiable predictors of regeneration could help in better and safer donor selection, while continuing to ensure successful recipient outcomes. PMID:26280997

  7. Forced Exercise Enhances Functional Recovery after Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sookyoung; Shin, Jinhee; Hong, Yunkyung; Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Seunghoon; Park, Kanghui; Lkhagvasuren, Tserentogtokh; Lee, Sang-Rae; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Hong, Yonggeun

    2012-01-01

    Caveolin is the principal protein of caveolae and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. To investigate whether changed expression of caveolins has a pivotal role in focal cerebral ischemia, we induced middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)-reperfusion and examined expression of caveolins, inflammatory activation markers, and mediators of autophagic cell death. We also treated MCAo rats with forced exercise to determine its effects on neurological outcome. Particularly, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were used to compare the effects of hypertension on focal cerebral ischemia. All MCAo groups showed neurological deficiencies, motor dysfunction, and disruption of balancing ability; however, these pathological changes were more severe in SHR than WKY rats. Expression of caveolins was decreased in MCAo brain tissue, whereas the levels of iNOS and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) increased. Additionally, LC3-II and beclin-1 levels were elevated in the MCAo groups. Forced exercise attenuated both molecular and behavioral changes in MCAo animals, but SHR rats showed delayed functional recovery and residual molecular changes when compared to WKY rats. These results suggest that forced exercise may be beneficial for promoting functional recovery following cerebral ischemia through caveolin-dependent mechanisms or interactions between caveolins and these signaling molecules in ischemic brain regions. PMID:24961257

  8. Fabrication of pseudo-ceramide-based lipid microparticles for recovery of skin barrier function.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hoon; Park, Woo Ram; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Cho, Eun Chul; An, Eun Jung; Kim, Jin-Woong; Oh, Seong-Geun

    2012-06-01

    The recovery of skin barrier functions was investigated with pseudo-ceramide-based lipid microparticles. The microparticles were prepared by using a fluid bed technique where lipid components (a pseudo-ceramide, cholesterol and a fatty acid) were coated on a sugar seed, and a polymer was subsequently coated on the lipid microparticles. The microparticles contained large amount of pseudo-ceramide, and the pseudo-ceramide was in the form of lamellar structures mixed with other lipid components. In addition, the microparticles were stably dispersed in aqueous media or emulsion systems without any disruption of the microparticles' structures, thereby supplying sufficient amount of the pseudo-ceramide to skins for improving skin barrier functions such as preventing water loss. Such a role of the microparticles was proven by evaluating in vivo the efficacy of the lipid microparticles in reducing a trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) of impaired murine skins. As a result, the novel pseudo-ceramide-based lipid microparticles for barrier recovery may potentially be applied in the field of dermatology, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. PMID:22361356

  9. Functional and Transcriptomic Recovery of Infarcted Mouse Myocardium Treated with Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lachtermacher, Stephan; Esporcatte, Bruno L. B.; da Silva de Azevedo Fortes, Fábio; Rocha, Nazareth Novaes; Montalvão, Fabrício; Costa, Patricia C.; Belem, Luciano; Rabischoffisky, Arnaldo; Neto, Hugo C. C. Faria; Vasconcellos, Rita; Iacobas, Dumitru A.; Iacobas, Sanda; Spray, David C.; Thomas, Neil M.; Goldenberg, Regina C. S.; de Carvalho, Antonio C. Campos

    2011-01-01

    Although bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMNC) have been extensively used in cell therapy for cardiac diseases, little mechanistic information is available to support reports of their efficacy. To address this shortcoming, we compared structural and functional recovery and associated global gene expression profiles in post-ischaemic myocardium treated with BMNC transplantation. BMNC suspensions were injected into cardiac scar tissue 10 days after experimental myocardial infarction. Six weeks later, mice undergoing BMNC therapy were found to have normalized antibody repertoire and improved cardiac performance measured by ECG, treadmill exercise time and echocardiography. After functional testing, gene expression profiles in cardiac tissue were evaluated using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Expression of more than 18% of the 11981 quantified unigenes was significantly altered in the infarcted hearts. BMNC therapy restored expression of 2099 (96.2%) of the genes that were altered by infarction but led to altered expression of 286 other genes, considered to be a side effect of the treatment. Transcriptional therapeutic efficacy, a metric calculated using a formula that incorporates both recovery and side effect of treatment, was 73%. In conclusion, our results confirm a beneficial role for bone marrow-derived cell therapy and provide new information on molecular mechanisms operating after BMNC transplantation on post ischemic heart failure in mice. PMID:21671060

  10. A Method Improving the Accuracy of Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jnsson, Peter; Jonsson, Magnus P.; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O.; Hk, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching has been an established technique of quantifying the mobility of molecular species in cells and cell membranes for more than 30 years. However, under nonideal experimental conditions, the current methods of analysis still suffer from occasional problems; for example, when the signal/noise ratio is low, when there are temporal fluctuations in the illumination, or when there is bleaching during the recovery process. We here present a method of analysis that overcomes these problems, yielding accurate results even under nonideal experimental conditions. The method is based on circular averaging of each image, followed by spatial frequency analysis of the averaged radial data, and requires no prior knowledge of the shape of the bleached area. The method was validated using both simulated and experimental fluorescence recovery after photobleaching data, illustrating that the diffusion coefficient of a single diffusing component can be determined to within ?1%, even for small signal levels (100 photon counts), and that at typical signal levels (5000 photon counts) a system with two diffusion coefficients can be analyzed with <10% error. PMID:18567628

  11. Impact of Processing Method on Recovery of Bacteria from Wipes Used in Biological Surface Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Nathan D.; Filliben, James J.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental sampling for microbiological contaminants is a key component of hygiene monitoring and risk characterization practices utilized across diverse fields of application. However, confidence in surface sampling results, both in the field and in controlled laboratory studies, has been undermined by large variation in sampling performance results. Sources of variation include controlled parameters, such as sampling materials and processing methods, which often differ among studies, as well as random and systematic errors; however, the relative contributions of these factors remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the relative impacts of sample processing methods, including extraction solution and physical dissociation method (vortexing and sonication), on recovery of Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Burkholderia thailandensis and Escherichia coli) bacteria from directly inoculated wipes. This work showed that target organism had the largest impact on extraction efficiency and recovery precision, as measured by traditional colony counts. The physical dissociation method (PDM) had negligible impact, while the effect of the extraction solution was organism dependent. Overall, however, extraction of organisms from wipes using phosphate-buffered saline with 0.04% Tween 80 (PBST) resulted in the highest mean recovery across all three organisms. The results from this study contribute to a better understanding of the factors that influence sampling performance, which is critical to the development of efficient and reliable sampling methodologies relevant to public health and biodefense. PMID:22706055

  12. Solution Hybrid Selection Capture for the Recovery of Functional Full-Length Eukaryotic cDNAs From Complex Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Bragalini, Claudia; Ribire, Cline; Parisot, Nicolas; Vallon, Laurent; Prudent, Elsa; Peyretaillade, Eric; Girlanda, Mariangela; Peyret, Pierre; Marmeisse, Roland; Luis, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic microbial communities play key functional roles in soil biology and potentially represent a rich source of natural products including biocatalysts. Culture-independent molecular methods are powerful tools to isolate functional genes from uncultured microorganisms. However, none of the methods used in environmental genomics allow for a rapid isolation of numerous functional genes from eukaryotic microbial communities. We developed an original adaptation of the solution hybrid selection (SHS) for an efficient recovery of functional complementary DNAs (cDNAs) synthesized from soil-extracted polyadenylated mRNAs. This protocol was tested on the Glycoside Hydrolase 11 gene family encoding endo-xylanases for which we designed 35 explorative 31-mers capture probes. SHS was implemented on four soil eukaryotic cDNA pools. After two successive rounds of capture, >90% of the resulting cDNAs were GH11 sequences, of which 70% (38 among 53 sequenced genes) were full length. Between 1.5 and 25% of the cloned captured sequences were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified GH11 gene fragments from the captured sequences highlighted hundreds of phylogenetically diverse sequences that were not yet described, in public databases. This protocol offers the possibility of performing exhaustive exploration of eukaryotic gene families within microbial communities thriving in any type of environment. PMID:25281543

  13. NT3-chitosan elicits robust endogenous neurogenesis to enable functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Aifeng; Duan, Hongmei; Zhang, Sa; Hao, Peng; Ye, Keqiang; Sun, Yi E; Li, Xiaoguang

    2015-10-27

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) hold the key to neural regeneration through proper activation, differentiation, and maturation, to establish nascent neural networks, which can be integrated into damaged neural circuits to repair function. However, the CNS injury microenvironment is often inhibitory and inflammatory, limiting the ability of activated NSCs to differentiate into neurons and form nascent circuits. Here we report that neurotrophin-3 (NT3)-coupled chitosan biomaterial, when inserted into a 5-mm gap of completely transected and excised rat thoracic spinal cord, elicited robust activation of endogenous NSCs in the injured spinal cord. Through slow release of NT3, the biomaterial attracted NSCs to migrate into the lesion area, differentiate into neurons, and form functional neural networks, which interconnected severed ascending and descending axons, resulting in sensory and motor behavioral recovery. Our study suggests that enhancing endogenous neurogenesis could be a novel strategy for treatment of spinal cord injury. PMID:26460015

  14. Comparison of Surface Sampling Methods for Virus Recovery from Fomites ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Timothy R.; Tamayo, Francisco J.; Leckie, James O.; Boehm, Alexandria B.

    2011-01-01

    The role of fomites in infectious disease transmission relative to other exposure routes is difficult to discern due, in part, to the lack of information on the level and distribution of virus contamination on surfaces. Comparisons of studies intending to fill this gap are difficult because multiple different sampling methods are employed and authors rarely report their method's lower limit of detection. In the present study, we compare a subset of sampling methods identified from a literature review to demonstrate that sampling method significantly influences study outcomes. We then compare a subset of methods identified from the review to determine the most efficient methods for recovering virus from surfaces in a laboratory trial using MS2 bacteriophage as a model virus. Recoveries of infective MS2 and MS2 RNA are determined using both a plaque assay and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, respectively. We conclude that the method that most effectively recovers virus from nonporous fomites uses polyester-tipped swabs prewetted in either one-quarter-strength Ringer's solution or saline solution. This method recovers a median fraction for infective MS2 of 0.40 and for MS2 RNA of 0.07. Use of the proposed method for virus recovery in future fomite sampling studies would provide opportunities to compare findings across multiple studies. PMID:21821742

  15. Hindlimb Immobilization in a Wheelchair Alters Functional Recovery Following Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Caudle, Krista L.; Brown, Edward H.; Shum-Siu, Alice; Burke, Darlene A.; Magnuson, Trystan S. G.; Voor, Michael J.; Magnuson, David S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Locomotor training of rats with thoracic contusion spinal cord injuries can induce task-specific changes in stepping but rarely results in improved overground locomotion, possibly due to a ceiling effect. Thus, the authors hypothesize that incompletely injured rats maximally retrain themselves while moving about in their cages over the first few weeks postinjury. Objective To test the hypothesis using hindlimb immobilization after mild thoracic contusion spinal cord injury in adult female rats. A passive stretch protocol was included as an independent treatment. Methods Wheelchairs were used to hold the hindlimbs stationary in an extended position leaving the forelimbs free. The wheelchairs were used for 15 to 18 hours per day, 5 days per week for 8 weeks, beginning at 4 days postinjury. A 20-minute passive hindlimb stretch therapy was applied to half of the animals. Results Hindlimb locomotor function of the wheelchair group was not different from controls at 1 week postinjury but declined significantly over the next 4 weeks. Passive stretch had no influence on wheelchair animals but limited functional recovery of normally housed animals, preventing them from regaining forelimbhindlimb coordination. Following 8 weeks of wheelchair immobilization and stretch therapy, only the wheelchair group displayed an improvement in function when returned to normal housing but retained significant deficits in stepping and coordination out to 16 weeks. Conclusion Hindlimb immobilization and passive stretch may hinder or conceal the normal course of functional recovery of spinal cord injured rats. These observations have implications for the management of acute clinical spinal cord injuries. PMID:21697451

  16. Carrier recovery methods for a dual-mode modem: A design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, C. W.; Wilson, S. G.

    1984-01-01

    A dual mode model with selectable QPSK or 16-QASK modulation schemes is discussed. The theoretical reasoning as well as the practical trade-offs made during the development of a modem are presented, with attention given to the carrier recovery method used for coherent demodulation. Particular attention is given to carrier recovery methods that can provide little degradation due to phase error for both QPSK and 16-QASK, while being insensitive to the amplitude characteristic of a 16-QASK modulation scheme. A computer analysis of the degradation is symbol error rate (SER) for QPSK and 16-QASK due to phase error is prresented. Results find that an energy increase of roughly 4 dB is needed to maintain a SER of 1X10(-5) for QPSK with 20 deg of phase error and 16-QASK with 7 deg phase error.

  17. Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Willms, R. Scott

    1996-01-01

    Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes from water and from hydrocarbons. A palladium membrane, when utilized in cooperation with a nickel catalyst in a reactor, has been found to drive reactions such as water gas shift, steam reforming and methane cracking to substantial completion by removing the product hydrogen from the reacting mixture. In addition, ultrapure hydrogen is produced, thereby eliminating the need for an additional processing step.

  18. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.

    2003-02-07

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity is needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

  19. Simplified two-stage method to B-phycoerythrin recovery from Porphyridium cruentum.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Jorge; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2006-11-21

    A simplified two-stage method for B-phycoerythrin (BPE) recovery from Porphyridium cruentum was developed. The proposed method involved cell disruption by sonication and primary recovery by aqueous two-phase partition. The evaluation of two different methods of cell disruption and the effect of increasing concentration of cell homogenate from P. cruentum culture upon aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) performance was carried out to avoid the use of precipitation stages. Cell disruption by sonication proved to be superior over manual maceration since a five time increase in the concentration of B-phycoerythrin release was achieved. An increase in the concentration of crude extract from disrupted P. cruentum cells loaded to the ATPS (from 10 to 40%, w/w) proved to be suitable to increase the product purity and benefited the processing of highly concentrated disrupted extract. Kinetics studies of phase separation performed suggested the use of batch settlers with height/diameter (H/D) ratio less than one to reduce the necessary time for the phases to separate. The proposed ATPS stage comprising of 29% (w/w) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1000g/mol, 9% (w/w) potassium phosphate, tie-line length (TLL) of 45% (w/w), volume ratio (V(R)) of 4.5, pH 7.0 and 40% (w/w) crude extract loaded in a batch settler with H/D ratio of 0.5 proved to be efficient for the recovery of 90% of B-phycoerythrin at the top PEG-rich phase. The purity of B-phycoerythrin increased up to 4.0 times after the two-stage method. The results reported here demonstrate the potential implementation of a strategy to B-phycoerythrin recovery with a purity of 3.2 (estimated by the absorbance relation of 545-280nm) from P. cruentum. PMID:16860005

  20. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.; Brame, Scott; Current, Caitlin J.

    2003-02-07

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

  1. FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY FOLLOWING MOTOR CORTEX LESIONS IN NON-HUMAN PRIMATES: EXPERIMENTAL IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN STROKE PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Warren G.; Pizzimenti, Marc A.; Morecraft, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses selected classical works and contemporary research on recovery of contralesional fine hand motor function following lesions to motor areas of the cerebral cortex in non-human primates. Findings from both the classical literature and contemporary studies show that lesions of cortical motor areas induce paresis initially, but are followed by remarkable recovery of fine hand/digit motor function that depends on lesion size and post-lesion training. Indeed, in recent work where considerable quantification of fine digit function associated with grasping and manipulating small objects has been observed, very favorable recovery is possible with minimal forced use of the contralesional limb. Studies of the mechanisms underlying recovery have shown that following small lesions of the digit areas of primary motor cortex (M1), there is expansion of the digit motor representations into areas of M1 that did not produce digit movements prior to the lesion. However, after larger lesions involving the elbow, wrist and digit areas of M1, no such expansion of the motor representation was observed, suggesting that recovery was due to other cortical or subcortical areas taking over control of hand/digit movements. Recently, we showed that one possible mechanism of recovery after lesion to the arm areas of M1 and lateral premotor cortex is enhancement of corticospinal projections from the medially located supplementary motor area (M2) to spinal cord laminae containing neurons which have lost substantial input from the lateral motor areas and play a critical role in reaching and digit movements. Because human stroke and brain injury patients show variable, and usually poorer, recovery of hand motor function than that of nonhuman primates after motor cortex damage, we conclude with a discussion of implications of this work for further experimentation to improve recovery of hand function in human stroke patients. PMID:21960307

  2. Pronounced species divergence in corticospinal tract reorganization and functional recovery after lateralized spinal cord injury favors primates.

    PubMed

    Friedli, Lucia; Rosenzweig, Ephron S; Barraud, Quentin; Schubert, Martin; Dominici, Nadia; Awai, Lea; Nielson, Jessica L; Musienko, Pavel; Nout-Lomas, Yvette; Zhong, Hui; Zdunowski, Sharon; Roy, Roland R; Strand, Sarah C; van den Brand, Rubia; Havton, Leif A; Beattie, Michael S; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C; Bzard, Erwan; Bloch, Jocelyne; Edgerton, V Reggie; Ferguson, Adam R; Curt, Armin; Tuszynski, Mark H; Courtine, Grgoire

    2015-08-26

    Experimental and clinical studies suggest that primate species exhibit greater recovery after lateralized compared to symmetrical spinal cord injuries. Although this observation has major implications for designing clinical trials and translational therapies, advantages in recovery of nonhuman primates over other species have not been shown statistically to date, nor have the associated repair mechanisms been identified. We monitored recovery in more than 400 quadriplegic patients and found that functional gains increased with the laterality of spinal cord damage. Electrophysiological analyses suggested that corticospinal tract reorganization contributes to the greater recovery after lateralized compared with symmetrical injuries. To investigate underlying mechanisms, we modeled lateralized injuries in rats and monkeys using a lateral hemisection, and compared anatomical and functional outcomes with patients who suffered similar lesions. Standardized assessments revealed that monkeys and humans showed greater recovery of locomotion and hand function than did rats. Recovery correlated with the formation of corticospinal detour circuits below the injury, which were extensive in monkeys but nearly absent in rats. Our results uncover pronounced interspecies differences in the nature and extent of spinal cord repair mechanisms, likely resulting from fundamental differences in the anatomical and functional characteristics of the motor systems in primates versus rodents. Although rodents remain essential for advancing regenerative therapies, the unique response of the primate corticospinal tract after injury reemphasizes the importance of primate models for designing clinically relevant treatments. PMID:26311729

  3. Potential contribution of fish restocking to the recovery of deteriorated coral reefs: an alternative restoration method?

    PubMed

    Obolski, Uri; Hadany, Lilach; Abelson, Avigdor

    2016-01-01

    Counteracting the worldwide trend of coral reef degeneration is a major challenge for the scientific community. A crucial management approach to minimizing stress effects on healthy reefs and helping the recovery of disturbed reefs is reef protection. However, the current rapid decline of the world's reefs suggests that protection might be insufficient as a viable stand-alone management approach for some reefs. We thus suggest that the ecological restoration of coral reefs (CRR) should be considered as a valid component of coral reef management, in addition to protection, if the applied method is economically applicable and scalable. This theoretical study examines the potential applicability and outcomes of restocking grazers as a restoration tool for coral reef recovery-a tool that has not been applied so far in reef restoration projects. We studied the effect of restocking grazing fish as a restoration method using a mathematical model of degrading reefs, and analyzed the financial outcomes of the restocking intervention. The results suggest that applying this restoration method, in addition to protection, can facilitate reef recovery. Moreover, our analysis suggests that the restocking approach almost always becomes profitable within several years. Considering the relatively low cost of this restoration approach and the feasibility of mass production of herbivorous fish, we suggest that this approach should be considered and examined as an additional viable restoration tool for coral reefs. PMID:26966666

  4. Methods for Functional Assessment After C7 Spinal Cord Hemisection in the Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Nout, Yvette S.; Ferguson, Adam R.; Strand, Sarah C.; Moseanko, Rod; Hawbecker, Stephanie; Zdunowski, Sharon; Nielson, Jessica L.; Roy, Roland R.; Zhong, Hui; Rosenzweig, Ephron S.; Brock, John H.; Courtine, Grgoire; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Tuszynski, Mark H.; Beattie, Michael S.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Reliable outcome measures are essential for preclinical modeling of spinal cord injury (SCI) in primates. Measures need to be sensitive to both increases and decreases in function in order to demonstrate potential positive or negative effects of therapeutics. Objectives To develop behavioral tests and analyses to assess recovery of function after SCI in the nonhuman primate. Methods In all, 24 male rhesus macaques were subjected to complete C7 lateral hemisection. The authors scored recovery of function in an open field and during hand tasks in a restraining chair. In addition, EMG analyses were performed in the open field, during hand tasks, and while animals walked on a treadmill. Both control and treated monkeys that received candidate therapeutics were included in this report to determine whether the behavioral assays were capable of detecting changes in function over a wide range of outcomes. Results The behavioral assays are shown to be sensitive to detecting a wide range of motor functional outcomes after cervical hemisection in the nonhuman primate. Population curves on recovery of function were similar across the different tasks; in general, the population recovers to about 50% of baseline performance on measures of forelimb function. Conclusions The behavioral outcome measures that the authors developed in this preclinical nonhuman primate model of SCI can detect a broad range of motor recovery. A set of behavioral assays is an essential component of a model that will be used to test efficacies of translational candidate therapies for SCI. PMID:22331214

  5. Unexpected Recovery of Function after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: The Limits of Early Neuroimaging-Based Outcome Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Edlow, Brian L.; Giacino, Joseph T.; Hirschberg, Ronald E.; Gerrard, Jason; Wu, Ona; Hochberg, Leigh R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prognostication in the early stage of traumatic coma is a common challenge in the neuro-intensive care unit. We report the unexpected recovery of functional milestones (i.e., consciousness, communication, and community reintegration) in a 19-year-old man who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury. The early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, at the time, suggested a poor prognosis. Methods During the first year of the patients recovery, MRI with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and T2*-weighted imaging was performed on day 8 (coma), day 44 (minimally conscious state), day 198 (post-traumatic confusional state), and day 366 (community reintegration). Mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the corpus callosum, cerebral hemispheric white matter and thalamus were compared with clinical assessments using the Disability Rating Scale (DRS). Results Extensive diffusion restriction in the corpus callosum and bihemispheric white matter was observed on day 8, with ADC values in a range typically associated with neurotoxic injury (230 to 400 10?6 mm2/sec). T2*-weighted MRI revealed widespread hemorrhagic axonal injury in the cerebral hemispheres, corpus callosum, and brainstem. Despite the presence of severe axonal injury on early MRI, the patient regained the ability to communicate and perform activities of daily living independently at one year post-injury (DRS = 8). Conclusions MRI data should be interpreted with caution when prognosticating for patients in traumatic coma. Recovery of consciousness and community reintegration are possible even when extensive traumatic axonal injury is demonstrated by early MRI. PMID:23860665

  6. Neurological Functional Recovery After Thymosin Beta4 Treatment in Mice with Experimental Auto Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zheng Gang; Morris, Dan; Li, Yi; Roberts, Cynthia; Elias, Stanton B.; Chopp, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we hypothesized that thymosin beta 4 (Tbeta4) is a potential therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS). To test this hypothesis, SJL/J mice (n=21) were subjected to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. EAE mice were treated with saline or Tbeta4 (6 mg/kg, n=10) every 3 days starting on the day of myelin proteolipid protein immunization for total 5 doses. Neurological function, inflammatory infiltration, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and mature oligodendrocytes were measured in the brain of EAE mice. Double immunohistochemical staining was used to detect proliferation and differentiation of OPCs. Tbeta4 was used to treat N20.1 cells (premature oligodendrocyte cell line) in vitro, and proliferation of N20.1 cells was measured by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunostaining. Tbeta4 treatment improved functional recovery after EAE. Inflammatory infiltrates were significantly reduced in the Tbeta4 treatment group compared to the saline groups (3.60.3/slide vs 50.5/slide, p<0.05). NG2+ OPCs (447.741.9/mm2 vs 195.231/mm2 in subventricular zone, 75.14.7/mm2 vs 41.73.2/mm2 in white matter), CNPase+ mature oligodendrocytes (267.510.3/mm2 vs 141.422.9/ mm2), BrdU+ with NG2+ OPCs (32.93.7/mm2 vs 17.93.6/mm2), BrdU+ with CNPase+ mature oligodendrocytes (18.21.7/mm2 vs 10.72.2/mm2) were significantly increased in the Tbeta4 treated mice compared to those of saline controls (p<0.05). These data indicate that Tbeta4 treatment improved functional recovery after EAE, possibly, via reducing inflammatory infiltrates, and stimulating oligodendrogenesis. PMID:19782721

  7. Mildronate treatment improves functional recovery following middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Svalbe, Baiba; Zvejniece, Liga; Vavers, Edijs; Pugovics, Osvalds; Muceniece, Ruta; Liepinsh, Edgars; Dambrova, Maija

    2011-09-12

    Mildronate (3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium) propionate) is an inhibitor of l-carnitine biosynthesis and an anti-ischemic drug. In the present study, we investigated the effects of mildronate in rats following focal cerebral ischemia. Male Wistar rats were subjected to transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 90min, followed by the intraperitoneal administration of mildronate at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg 2h after reperfusion and then daily for an additional 14days. The beam-walking, rota-rod and cylinder tests were used to assess sensorimotor function, and vibrissae-evoked forelimb-placing and limb-placing tests examined responses to tactile and proprioceptive stimulation. Following behavioural testing, the infarct volume was measured. The cerebellar concentrations of l-carnitine, ?-butyrobetaine (GBB) and mildronate were also measured. The results showed that saline-treated MCAO rats had minor or no spontaneous recovery in sensorimotor and proprioceptive function up to 14days post-stroke. Treatment with mildronate at a dose of 200mg/kg was found to accelerate recovery of motor and proprioceptive deficits in limb-placing, cylinder and beam-walking tests. Analysis of rat cerebellar tissue extracts revealed that l-carnitine and GBB concentrations changed with mildronate treatment; the concentration of l-carnitine was significantly decreased by mildronate treatment, whereas the concentration of GBB was significantly increased. Cerebellar concentrations of mildronate also increased in a dose-dependent manner following systemic administration. Infarct size did not differ among the experimental groups on post-stroke day 14. The present study suggests that mildronate treatment improves the functional outcome in MCAO rats without influencing infarct size. PMID:21420440

  8. The estimation of recovery time of calf muscle oxygen saturation during exercise by using functional near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, M. A.; Shojaeifar, M.; Mohajerani, E.

    2014-08-01

    Several methods of near infrared spectroscopy such as functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and pulse oximetry have been applied for monitoring of tissue oxygenation or arterial oxygen saturation. Some vascular diseases can be diagnosed through measurements of tissue oxygenation. In this study, the temporal variation of oxygenation of calf muscle after exercise is studied by fNIRS. First, the accuracy of a low-cost fNIRS system is studied by measuring the oxygenation of a lipid phantom. Moreover, in-vivo study is performed to evaluate the precision of this system. Then, the variation of muscle oxygenation of four persons during exercise is measured and also the recovery time after walking/running is measured by this fNIRS system.

  9. Functional motor recovery is improved due to local placement of GDNF microspheres after delayed nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Wood, Matthew D; Gordon, Tessa; Kemp, Stephen W P; Liu, Edward H; Kim, Howard; Shoichet, Molly S; Borschel, Gregory H

    2013-05-01

    The majority of bioengineering strategies to promote peripheral nerve regeneration after injury have focused on therapies to bridge large nerve defects while fewer therapies are being developed to treat other nerve injuries, such as nerve transection. We constructed delivery systems using fibrin gels containing either free GDNF or polylactide-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres with GDNF to treat delayed nerve repair, where ELISA verified GDNF release. We determined the formulation of microspheres containing GDNF that optimized nerve regeneration and functional recovery in a rat model of delayed nerve repair. Experimental groups underwent delayed nerve repair and treatment with GDNF microspheres in fibrin glue at the repair site or control treatments (empty microspheres or free GDNF without microspheres). Contractile muscle force, muscle mass, and MUNE were measured 12 weeks following treatment, where GDNF microspheres (2 weeks formulation) were superior compared to either no GDNF or short-term release of free GDNF to nerve. Nerve histology distal to the repair site demonstrated increased axon counts and fiber diameters due to GDNF microspheres (2 weeks formulation). GDNF microspheres partially reversed the deleterious effects of chronic nerve injury, and recovery was slightly favored with the 2 weeks formulation compared to the 4 weeks formulation. PMID:23239194

  10. Investigating pyrolysis/incineration as a method of resource recovery from solid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Bobby J.; Lemay, Christopher S.

    1993-01-01

    Pyrolysis/incineration (P/I) is a physicochemical method for the generation of recoverable resources from solid waste materials such as inedible plant biomass (IPB), paper, plastics, cardboard, etc. P/I permits the collection of numerous gases with a minimal amount of solid residue. Pyrolysis, also known as starved air incineration, is usually conducted at relatively high temperatures (greater than 500 deg C) in the absence of oxygen. Incineration is conducted at lower temperatures in the presence of oxygen. The primary purpose of this study was to design, construct, and test a model P/I. The system design includes safety requirements for temperature and pressure. The objectives of this study were: (1) to design and construct a P/I system for incorporation with the Hybrid Regenerative Water Recovery System; (2) to initiate testing of the P/I system; (3) to collect and analyze P/I system data; (4) to consider test variables; and (5) to determine the feasibility of P/I as an effective method of resource recovery. A P/I system for the recovery of reuseable resources from solid waste materials was designed, constructed, and tested. Since a large amount of inedible plant biomass (IPB) will be generated in a space-based habitat on the lunar surface and Mars, IPB was the primary waste material tested in the system. Analysis of the effluent gases was performed to determine which gases could be used in a life support system.

  11. A Neurodynamic Optimization Method for Recovery of Compressive Sensed Signals With Globally Converged Solution Approximating to l0 Minimization.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chengan; Yang, Qingshan

    2015-07-01

    Finding the optimal solution to the constrained l0 -norm minimization problems in the recovery of compressive sensed signals is an NP-hard problem and it usually requires intractable combinatorial searching operations for getting the global optimal solution, unless using other objective functions (e.g., the l1 norm or lp norm) for approximate solutions or using greedy search methods for locally optimal solutions (e.g., the orthogonal matching pursuit type algorithms). In this paper, a neurodynamic optimization method is proposed to solve the l0 -norm minimization problems for obtaining the global optimum using a recurrent neural network (RNN) model. For the RNN model, a group of modified Gaussian functions are constructed and their sum is taken as the objective function for approximating the l0 norm and for optimization. The constructed objective function sets up a convexity condition under which the neurodynamic system is guaranteed to obtain the globally convergent optimal solution. An adaptive adjustment scheme is developed for improving the performance of the optimization algorithm further. Extensive experiments are conducted to test the proposed approach in this paper and the output results validate the effectiveness of the new method. PMID:25122603

  12. Effects of a virtual reality-based exercise program on functional recovery in stroke patients: part 1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Hee

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of a virtual reality exercise program using the Interactive Rehabilitation and Exercise System (IREX) on the recovery of motor and cognitive function and the performance of activities of daily living in stroke patients. [Subjects] The study enrolled 10 patients diagnosed with stroke who received occupational therapy at the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of Hospital A between January and March 2014. [Methods] The patients took part in the virtual reality exercise program for 30 minutes each day, three times per week, for 4 weeks. Then, the patients were re-evaluated to determine changes in upper extremity function, cognitive function, and performance of activities of daily living 4 weeks after the baseline assessment. [Results] In the experimental group, there were significant differences in the Korea-Mini Mental Status Evaluation, Korean version of the modified Barthel index, and Fugl-Meyer assessment scores between the baseline and endpoint. [Conclusion] The virtual reality exercise program was effective for restoring function in stroke patients. Further studies should develop systematic protocols for rehabilitation training with a virtual reality exercise program. PMID:26180287

  13. Effects of a virtual reality-based exercise program on functional recovery in stroke patients: part 1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of a virtual reality exercise program using the Interactive Rehabilitation and Exercise System (IREX) on the recovery of motor and cognitive function and the performance of activities of daily living in stroke patients. [Subjects] The study enrolled 10 patients diagnosed with stroke who received occupational therapy at the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of Hospital A between January and March 2014. [Methods] The patients took part in the virtual reality exercise program for 30 minutes each day, three times per week, for 4 weeks. Then, the patients were re-evaluated to determine changes in upper extremity function, cognitive function, and performance of activities of daily living 4 weeks after the baseline assessment. [Results] In the experimental group, there were significant differences in the Korea-Mini Mental Status Evaluation, Korean version of the modified Barthel index, and Fugl-Meyer assessment scores between the baseline and endpoint. [Conclusion] The virtual reality exercise program was effective for restoring function in stroke patients. Further studies should develop systematic protocols for rehabilitation training with a virtual reality exercise program. PMID:26180287

  14. 3 CFR - Assignment of Function Under Section 601 of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignment of Function Under Section 601 of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents... 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the function of the President under section 601,...

  15. Warren County, New Jersey, resource recovery facility plant acceptance test; Methods and results

    SciTech Connect

    Nobles, W.C.; Clemons, C.W.; Schuetzenduebel, W.G. )

    1990-01-01

    Plant acceptance testing was conducted at the Warren County Resource Recovery Facility. The test was conducted to prove the capability of the facility to meet guaranteed performance requirements. The municipal solid waste (MSW) processing rate guarantee and the electric power production guarantee varied depending on the heating value of the test MSW. Therefore, an integral part of the test was the determination of fuel heating value. This was accomplished by the boiler as calorimeter (BAC) test method. This paper describes each facet of the plant acceptance test (except the environmental compliance test which was performed separately). The test methods are described, and test results are presented and compared with the performance guarantees.

  16. A mathematical model of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) method for mixed type rock

    SciTech Connect

    Sitnikov, A.A.; Eremin, N.A.; Ibattulin, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with the microbial enhanced oil recovery method. It covers: (1) Mechanism of microbial influence on the reservoir was analyzed; (2) The main groups of metabolites affected by the hydrodynamic characteristics of the reservoir were determined; (3) The criterions of use of microbial influence method on the reservoir are defined. The mathematical model of microbial influence on the reservoir was made on this basis. The injection of molasse water solution with Clostridium bacterias into the mixed type of rock was used in this model. And the results of calculations were compared with experimental data.

  17. A method for seedling recovery in Jatropha curcas after cryogenic exposure of the seeds.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rafael de C; Camillo, Julcéia; Scherwinski-Pereira, Jonny E

    2012-03-01

    Actually, the germplasm of Jatropha spp. is conserved as whole plants in field collections. Under this storage method, the genetic resources are exposed to disease, pest and natural hazards such as human error, drought and weather damage. Besides, field genebanks are costly to maintain and with important requirements of trained personnel. Thus, the development of efficient techniques to ensure its safe conservation and regeneration is therefore of paramount importance. In this work we describe a method for Jatropha curcas seeds cryoexposure and seedling recovery after thawed. In a first experiment, an efficient protocol for in vitro plant recovery was carried out using zygotic embryo or seeds with or without coat. In a second experiment, desiccated seeds with or without coat were exposed to liquid nitrogen and evaluated after cryoexposure. Germination percentages were variable among treatments, and seeds demonstrated tolerance to liquid nitrogen exposure under certain conditions. Seeds of J. curcas presented up to 99.6% germination after seed coat removal. Seeds with coat cultured in vitro did not germinate, and were 60% contaminated. The germination of the zygotic embryos was significantly higher in the 1/2 MS medium (93.1%) than in WPM medium (76.2%), but from zygotic embryo, abnormal seedlings reached up to 99%. Seeds with coat exposed to liquid nitrogen showed 60% germination in culture after coat removal with good plant growth, and seeds cryopreserved without coat presented 82% germination, but seedlings showed a reduced vigor and a significant increase in abnormal plants. Seeds cultured in vitro with coat did not germinate, independently of cryoexposure or not. This study reports the first successful in vitro seedling recovery methodology for Jatropha curcas seeds, after a cryopreservation treatment, and is recommended as an efficient procedure for in vitro plant recovery, when seeds are conserved in germplasm banks by low or cryotemperatures. PMID:22458240

  18. Method for printing functional protein microarrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delehanty, James B.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2003-01-01

    Piezoelectric dispensing of proteins from borosilicate glass capillaries is a popular method of protein biochip fabrication that offers the advantages of sample recovery and noncontact with the printing substrate. However, little regard has been given to the quantitative aspects of dispensing minute volumes (1 nL or less) at the low protein concentrations (20 micrograms/mL or less) typically used in microprinting. Specifically, loss of protein sample due to nonspecific adsorption to the glass surface of the dispensing capillaries can limit the amount of protein delivered to the substrate. We demonstrate the benefits of a low ionic strength buffer containing the carrier protein BSA that effectively minimizes the ionic strength-dependent phenomenon of nonspecific protein adsorption to borosilicate glass. Over the concentration range of 20-2.5 micrograms/mL, the dispensing of a reference IgG in 10 mM PBS including 0.1% BSA resulted in the deposition of 3.6- to 44-fold more IgG compared to the deposition of IgG in standard 150 mM PBS in the absence of BSA. Furthermore, when the IgG was dispensed with carrier protein, the resulting spots exhibited a more uniform morphology. In a direct immunoassay for cholera toxin, capture antibody spots dispensed in 10 mM PBS containing 0.1% BSA produced fluorescent signals that were 2.8- to 4.3-fold more intense than antibody spots that were dispensed in 150 mM PBS without BSA. Interestingly, no differences were observed in the specific activities of the capture antibodies as a result of printing in the different buffers. The implications of these results on the future development of protein biochips are discussed.

  19. Method for printing functional protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Delehanty, James B; Ligler, Frances S

    2003-02-01

    Piezoelectric dispensing of proteins from borosilicate glass capillaries is a popular method of protein biochip fabrication that offers the advantages of sample recovery and noncontact with the printing substrate. However, little regard has been given to the quantitative aspects of dispensing minute volumes (1 nL or less) at the low protein concentrations (20 micrograms/mL or less) typically used in microprinting. Specifically, loss of protein sample due to nonspecific adsorption to the glass surface of the dispensing capillaries can limit the amount of protein delivered to the substrate. We demonstrate the benefits of a low ionic strength buffer containing the carrier protein BSA that effectively minimizes the ionic strength-dependent phenomenon of nonspecific protein adsorption to borosilicate glass. Over the concentration range of 20-2.5 micrograms/mL, the dispensing of a reference IgG in 10 mM PBS including 0.1% BSA resulted in the deposition of 3.6- to 44-fold more IgG compared to the deposition of IgG in standard 150 mM PBS in the absence of BSA. Furthermore, when the IgG was dispensed with carrier protein, the resulting spots exhibited a more uniform morphology. In a direct immunoassay for cholera toxin, capture antibody spots dispensed in 10 mM PBS containing 0.1% BSA produced fluorescent signals that were 2.8- to 4.3-fold more intense than antibody spots that were dispensed in 150 mM PBS without BSA. Interestingly, no differences were observed in the specific activities of the capture antibodies as a result of printing in the different buffers. The implications of these results on the future development of protein biochips are discussed. PMID:12613260

  20. A selective inversion recovery method for the improvement of 23Na NMR spectral resolution in isolated perfused rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Simor, T; Kim, S K; Chu, W J; Pohost, G M; Elgavish, G A

    1993-01-01

    Shift-reagent-aided 23Na NMR spectroscopy allows differentiation of the intracellular (Na(i)) and extracellular sodium (Na(o)) signals. The goal of the present study has been to develop a 23Na NMR spectroscopic method to minimize the intensity of the shift-reagent-shifted Na(o) signal and thus increase Na(i) resolution. This is achieved by a selective inversion recovery (SIR) method which enhances the resolution between the Na(i) and Na(o) peaks in shift-reagent-aided 23Na NMR spectroscopy. The application of SIR with Dy(TTHA), Tm(DOTP), or with low concentrations of Dy(PPP)2 results in both good spectral resolution and physiologically acceptable contractile function in the isolated, perfused rat heart model. PMID:8347454

  1. Two is More Than One: How to Combine Brain Stimulation Rehabilitative Training for Functional Recovery?

    PubMed Central

    Koganemaru, Satoko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that non-invasive brain stimulation has an additional effect in combination with rehabilitative therapy to enhance functional recovery than either therapy alone. The combination enhances use-dependent plasticity induced by repetitive training. The neurophysiological mechanism of the effects of this combination is based on associative plasticity. However, these effects were not reported in all cases. We propose a list of possible strategies to achieve an effective association between rehabilitative training with brain stimulation for plasticity: (1) control of temporal aspect between stimulation and task execution; (2) the use of a shaped task for the combination; (3) the appropriate stimulation of neuronal circuits where use-dependent plastic changes occur; and (4) phase synchronization between rhythmically patterned brain stimulation and task-related patterned activities of neurons. To better utilize brain stimulation in neuro-rehabilitation, it is important to develop more effective techniques to combine them. PMID:26617497

  2. Measuring functional recovery in older patients discharged from intensive care units: is advanced technology an option?

    PubMed

    Balas, Michele C; Bonasera, Stephen J; Cohen, Marlene Z; Hertzog, Melody; Sisson, Joseph H; Potter, Jane F; Fitch, Abby; Burke, William J

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine if older patients discharged from intensive care units (ICU) would be willing to use mobile phone and sensor technology (aka "mobile monitoring") to measure their functional recovery in the posthospitalization period. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 older ICU patients and/or their surrogates 24 to 48 hr prior to hospital discharge. While 11 respondents reported they would agree to participate in a future study involving mobile monitoring, an equal number reported they would not participate. Numerous contextual factors were found to affect older adults' willingness to participate including the belief the research would ultimately benefit themselves or other older adults, concerns about loss of privacy, perception that the research is feasible and valuable, and lack of skills using the technology. Future studies using the mobile monitoring technique with older survivors of a serious illness will require substantial recruitment and educational efforts. PMID:24652873

  3. Transcriptome analyses reveal molecular mechanisms underlying functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongmei; Ge, Weihong; Zhang, Aifeng; Xi, Yue; Chen, Zhihua; Luo, Dandan; Cheng, Yin; Fan, Kevin S; Horvath, Steve; Sofroniew, Michael V; Cheng, Liming; Yang, Zhaoyang; Sun, Yi E; Li, Xiaoguang

    2015-10-27

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is considered incurable because axonal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely challenging, due to harsh CNS injury environment and weak intrinsic regeneration capability of CNS neurons. We discovered that neurotrophin-3 (NT3)-loaded chitosan provided an excellent microenvironment to facilitate nerve growth, new neurogenesis, and functional recovery of completely transected spinal cord in rats. To acquire mechanistic insight, we conducted a series of comprehensive transcriptome analyses of spinal cord segments at the lesion site, as well as regions immediately rostral and caudal to the lesion, over a period of 90 days after SCI. Using weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA), we established gene modules/programs corresponding to various pathological events at different times after SCI. These objective measures of gene module expression also revealed that enhanced new neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and reduced inflammatory responses were keys to conferring the effect of NT3-chitosan on regeneration. PMID:26460053

  4. Enhanced regeneration and functional recovery after spinal root avulsion by manipulation of the proteoglycan receptor PTP?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Heng; Wong, Connie; Li, Wen; Ruven, Carolin; He, Liumin; Wu, Xiaoli; Lang, Bradley T.; Silver, Jerry; Wu, Wutian

    2015-01-01

    Following root avulsion, spinal nerves are physically disconnected from the spinal cord. Severe motoneuron death and inefficient axon regeneration often result in devastating motor dysfunction. Newly formed axons need to extend through inhibitory scar tissue at the CNS-PNS transitional zone before entering into a pro-regenerative peripheral nerve trajectory. CSPGs are dominant suppressors in scar tissue and exert inhibition via neuronal receptors including PTP?. Previously, a small peptide memetic of the PTP? wedge region named ISP (Intracellular Sigma Peptide) was generated, and its capabilities to target PTP? and relieve CSPG inhibition were validated. Here, we demonstrate that after ventral root avulsion and immediate re-implantation, modulation of PTP? by systemic delivery of ISP remarkably enhanced regeneration. ISP treatment reduced motoneuron death, increased the number of axons regenerating across scar tissue, rebuilt healthy neuromuscular junctions and enhanced motor functional recovery. Our study shows that modulation of PTP? is a potential therapeutic strategy for root avulsion. PMID:26464223

  5. A functional analysis of verbal delay in preschool children: Implications for prevention and total recovery

    PubMed Central

    Drash, Philip W.; Tudor, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Delays in acquiring age-appropriate verbal repertoires in preschool children with no known organic etiology may be explained by defective or absent behavior-environmental contingencies. This paper presents six possible behavioral paradigms that describe verbal episodes between parents and their preschool children and how these interactions may inhibit or prevent the acquisition of verbal behavior. These paradigms are contrasted with parent-child interactions that typically result in age-appropriate verbal repertoires. Identifying the reinforcement contingencies that produce delays in acquisition of verbal behavior could lead to the development of more effective behavioral programs for remediating nonorganic language delay. Recommendations for prevention, treatment and total recovery from functional verbal delay and associated mental retardation are presented. The relation between contingency-shaped and rule-governed behavior in the shaping of verbal behavior is discussed. PMID:22477077

  6. Oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs by steam injection methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, J.C.; Miller, M.A.

    1995-05-01

    Oil recovery by steam injection is a proven, successful technology for nonfractured reservoirs, but has received only limited study for fractured reservoirs. Preliminary studies suggest recovery efficiencies in fractured reservoirs may be increased by as much as 50% with the application of steam relative to that of low temperature processes. The key mechanisms enhancing oil production at high temperature are the differential thermal expansion between oil and the pore volume, and the generation of gases within matrix blocks. Other mechanisms may also contribute to increased production. These mechanisms are relatively independent of oil gravity, making steam injection into naturally fractured reservoirs equally attractive to light and heavy oil deposits. The objectives of this research program are to quantify the amount of oil expelled by these recovery mechanisms and to develop a numerical model for predicting oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs during steam injection. The experimental study consists of constructing and operating several apparatuses to isolate each of these mechanisms. The first measures thermal expansion and capillary imbibition rates at relatively low temperature, but for various lithologies and matrix block shapes. The second apparatus measures the same parameters, but at high temperatures and for only one shape. A third experimental apparatus measures the maximum gas saturations that could build up within a matrix block. A fourth apparatus measures thermal conductivity and diffusivity of porous media. The numerical study consists of developing transfer functions for oil expulsion from matrix blocks to fractures at high temperatures and incorporating them, along with the energy equation, into a dual porosity thermal reservoir simulator. This simulator can be utilized to make predictions for steam injection processes in naturally-fractured reservoirs. Analytical models for capillary imbibition have also been developed.

  7. Recovery of postischemic contractile function is depressed by antegrade warm continuous blood cardioplegia.

    PubMed

    Misare, B D; Krukenkamp, I B; Lazer, Z P; Levitsky, S

    1993-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of warm antegrade continuous blood cardioplegia in the setting of an acute coronary arterial occlusion, we instrumented 19 Yorkshire swine to quantitate left ventricular global, systolic, diastolic, and regional mechanics. Data were acquired before and after 10 minutes of mid-left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion followed by 60 minutes of aortic crossclamping. Cardiac arrest was induced by the antegrade infusion of 20 ml/kg of warm (37 degrees C) or cold (4 degrees C) oxygenated blood cardioplegic solution followed by either continuous warm (75 ml/min, n = 9) or intermittent cold (10 ml/kg every 20 minutes, n = 10) cardioplegic reinfusions. Left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion was released 20 minutes after aortic crossclamping and resulted in warm-arrested hearts developing a 139% increase in global oxygen consumption compared with values obtained with the left anterior descending coronary artery occluded (p < 0.02). Recovery of global left ventricle contractility, quantitated by the linear preload recruitable stroke-work relationship, was significantly worse after warm cardioplegia (52.4% +/- 5.1% versus 68.0% +/- 5.9%, warm versus cold, p < 0.05). Similarly, left anterior descending coronary artery regional ischemic zone contractility recovered 34.5% +/- 7.3% of control function with cold cardioplegia, whereas warm cardioplegia resulted in -11.36% +/- 7.46% functional recovery indicative of dyssynchronous contraction (p < 0.05). Diastolic compliance, calculated with an exponential end-diastolic pressure-versus-volume relationship, was not changed postischemically in either group. These data suggest that warm antegrade blood cardioplegia may potentiate acute ischemic injury and provide inadequate myocardial protection. PMID:8419707

  8. Acetyl salicylic acid locally enhances functional recovery after sciatic nerve transection in rat.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Rahim; Amini, Keyvan; Abdollahi-Pirbazari, Mehdi; Yousefi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Local effect of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) on peripheral nerve regeneration was studied using a rat sciatic nerve transection model. Forty-five male healthy White Wistar rats were divided into three experimental groups (n = 15), randomly: Sham-operation (SHAM), control (SIL), and ASA-treated (SIL/ASA) groups. In SHAM group after anesthesia left sciatic nerve was exposed through a gluteal muscle incision and after homeostasis the muscle was sutured. In SIL group the left sciatic nerve was exposed the same way and transected proximal to tibio-peroneal bifurcation leaving a 10-mm gap. Proximal and distal stumps were each inserted into a silicone tube and filled with 10 ?l phosphate buffered solution. In SIL/ASA group defect was bridged using a silicone tube filled with 10 ?l acetyl salisylic acid (0.1 mg/ml). Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of five animals each and were studied 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery. Data were analyzed statistically by factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Bonferroni test for pair-wise comparisons. Functional study confirmed faster and better recovery of regenerated axons in SIL/ASA than in SIL group (p < 0.05). Gastrocnemius muscle mass in SIL/ASA was significantly more than in SIL group. Morphometric indices of regenerated fibers showed that the number and diameter of the myelinated fibers in SIL/ASA were significantly higher than in control group. In immuohistochemistry, location of reactions to S-100 in SIL/ASA was clearly more positive than in SIL group. Response to local treatment of ASA demonstrates that it influences and improves functional recovery of peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:24140781

  9. Why use a connectivity-based approach to study stroke and recovery of function?

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Alex R.; Shulman, Gordon L.; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The brain is organized into a set of widely distributed networks. Therefore, although structural damage from stroke is focal, remote dysfunction can occur in regions connected to the area of lesion. Historically, neuroscience has focused on local processing due in part to the absence of tools to study the function of distributed networks. In this article we discuss how a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of stroke can be attained using resting state functional connectivity BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (resting state fcMRI). Resting state fcMRI has a number of advantages over task-evoked fMRI for studying brain network reorganization in response to stroke, including the ability to image subjects with a broad range of impairments and the ability to study multiple networks simultaneously. We describe our rationale for using resting state connectivity as a tool for investigating the neural substrates of stroke recovery in a heterogeneous population of stroke patients and discuss the main questions we hope to answer, in particular whether resting state fcMRI measures in the acute phase of stroke can predict subsequent recovery. Early results suggest that disruption of inter-hemispheric connectivity in the somatomotor network and the dorsal attention network is more strongly associated with behavioral impairment in those domains than is intra-hemispheric connectivity within either the lesioned or unaffected hemisphere. We also observe in the somatomotor network an interesting interaction between corticospinal tract damage and decreased inter-hemispheric connectivity that suggests that both processes combine to contribute to neuromotor impairment after stroke. A connectivity-based approach will provide greater insight into network reorganization in the acute and chronic phases after stroke and will contribute to improving prognostic ability and the development of therapeutic interventions. PMID:22414990

  10. Lingo-1 inhibited by RNA interference promotes functional recovery of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Juan; Qu, Chuan-Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Fu, Pei-Cai; Guo, Shou-Gang; Tang, Rong-Hua

    2014-12-01

    Lingo-1 is a negative regulator of myelination. Repairment of demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS)/experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), requires activation of the myelination program. In this study, we observed the effect of RNA interference on Lingo-1 expression, and the impact of Lingo-1 suppression on functional recovery and myelination/remyelination in EAE mice. Lentiviral vectors encoding Lingo-1 short hairpin RNA (LV/Lingo-1-shRNA) were constructed to inhibit Lingo-1 expression. LV/Lingo-1-shRNA of different titers were transferred into myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced EAE mice by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection. Meanwhile, lentiviral vectors carrying nonsense gene sequence (LVCON053) were used as negative control. The Lingo-1 expression was detected and locomotor function was evaluated at different time points (on days 1,3,7,14,21, and 30 after ICV injection). Myelination was investigated by luxol fast blue (LFB) staining.LV/Lingo-1-shRNA administration via ICV injection could efficiently down-regulate the Lingo-1 mRNA and protein expression in EAE mice on days 7,14,21, and 30 (P?function score in the LV/Lingo-1-shRNA treated groups were significantly lower than the untreated or LVCON053 group from day 7 on. The 5 10(8) TU/mL LV/Lingo-1-shRNA group achieved the best functional improvement (0.87??0.11 vs. 3.05??0.13, P?functional recovery and enhance myelination/remyelination. Antagonism of Lingo-1 by RNA interference is, therefore, a promising approach for the treatment of demyelinating diseases, such as MS/EAE. PMID:25045138

  11. [Evaluation of recovery methods of Shigella species from fresh marine fish and shellfishes].

    PubMed

    Shimotori, S; Kojima, F; Harushima, H; Amako, K

    1990-10-01

    Recovery experiments of Shigella strains from fresh marine fish and shellfishes, including fresh sea urchin, which have been artificially contaminated with the strains, were performed using the improved Shigella broth-enrichment method and the culture method reported by Mehlman et al. All of the 43 Shigella stock cultures strains tested were recovered easily by the enrichment method from sea urchin individuals inoculated with a small number of viable cells of each strain. That is, a total of 24 strains (56%) were recovered from sea urchin individuals inoculated with less than 10 viable cells per one individual, and the other 19 strains were also recovered when 10 to 1,000 cells of each strain were inoculated. Recovery of Shigella strains from fish and shellfishes by the enrichment method was hardly affected by the number of contaminated bacteria (SPC, standard plate counts) in these materials. In order to confirm reliability of the enrichment method, similar experiments were performed using S. flexneri strain B as the inoculum and more fish and shellfishes as the samples (24 specimens of fresh sea urchins, 11 specimens of fresh oysters and 5 other specimens including prawns). Except for one oyster specimen which showed an especially high SPC value, the inoculum was able to be recovered from most of the materials inoculated with less than 10 viable cells, and all of the tested samples became Shigella positive when they were inoculated with up to 1,000 viable cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2258650

  12. Modified Interior Distance Functions (Theory and Methods)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polyak, Roman A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we introduced and developed the theory of Modified Interior Distance Functions (MIDF's). The MIDF is a Classical Lagrangian (CL) for a constrained optimization problem which is equivalent to the initial one and can be obtained from the latter by monotone transformation both the objective function and constraints. In contrast to the Interior Distance Functions (IDF's), which played a fundamental role in Interior Point Methods (IPM's), the MIDF's are defined on an extended feasible set and along with center, have two extra tools, which control the computational process: the barrier parameter and the vector of Lagrange multipliers. The extra tools allow to attach to the MEDF's very important properties of Augmented Lagrangeans. One can consider the MIDFs as Interior Augmented Lagrangeans. It makes MIDF's similar in spirit to Modified Barrier Functions (MBF's), although there is a fundamental difference between them both in theory and methods. Based on MIDF's theory, Modified Center Methods (MCM's) have been developed and analyzed. The MCM's find an unconstrained minimizer in primal space and update the Lagrange multipliers, while both the center and the barrier parameter can be fixed or updated at each step. The MCM's convergence was investigated, and their rate of convergence was estimated. The extension of the feasible set and the special role of the Lagrange multipliers allow to develop MCM's, which produce, in case of nondegenerate constrained optimization, a primal and dual sequences that converge to the primal-dual solutions with linear rate, even when both the center and the barrier parameter are fixed. Moreover, every Lagrange multipliers update shrinks the distance to the primal dual solution by a factor 0 less than gamma less than 1 which can be made as small as one wants by choosing a fixed interior point as a 'center' and a fixed but large enough barrier parameter. The numericai realization of MCM leads to the Newton MCM (NMCM). The approximation for the primal minimizer one finds by Newton Method followed by the Lagrange multipliers update. Due to the MCM convergence, when both the center and the barrier parameter are fixed, the condition of the MDF Hessism and the neighborhood of the primal ninimizer where Newton method is 'well' defined remains stable. It contributes to both the complexity and the numerical stability of the NMCM.

  13. Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity.

  14. Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose- response curves and recovery of function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, B.; Joseph, J.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation- induced disruption of dopaminergic function disrupts a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of the dopaminergic system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, spatial learning and memory (Morris water maze), and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current presentation will review the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are in fact common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity. Supported by N.A.S.A. Grant NAG9-1190.

  15. Preserved recovery of cardiac function following ischemia-reperfusion in mice lacking SIRT3.

    PubMed

    Koentges, Christoph; Pfeil, Katharina; Meyer-Steenbuck, Maximilian; Lother, Achim; Hoffmann, Michael M; Odening, Katja E; Hein, Lutz; Bode, Christoph; Bugger, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Lack of the mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) impairs mitochondrial function and increases the susceptibility to induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Because these alterations contribute to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, we hypothesized that SIRT3 deficiency may increase cardiac injury following myocardial IR. Hearts of 10-week-old mice were perfused in the isolated working mode and subjected to 17.5 min of global no-flow ischemia, followed by 30 min of reperfusion. Measurements before ischemia revealed a decrease in cardiac power (-20%) and rate pressure product (-15%) in SIRT3(-/-) mice. Mitochondrial state 3 respiration (-15%), ATP synthesis (-39%), and ATP/O ratios (-29%) were decreased in hearts of SIRT3(-/-) mice. However, percent recovery of cardiac power (WT 94% 9%; SIRT3(-/-) 89% 9%) and rate pressure product (WT 89% 16%; SIRT3(-/-) 96% 3%) following IR was similar in both groups. Myocardial infarct size was not increased in SIRT3(-/-) mice following permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Left ventricular pressure and dP/dtmax, and mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis were not different between groups following LAD ligation. Thus, despite pre-existing defects in cardiac function and mitochondrial respiratory capacity in SIRT3(-/-) mice, SIRT3 deficiency does not additionally impair cardiac function following IR or following myocardial infarction. PMID:26524632

  16. Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bone marrow stromal cell transplantation enhances recovery of motor function after lacunar stroke in rats.

    PubMed

    Shichinohe, Hideo; Yamauchi, Tomohiro; Saito, Hisayasu; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to clarify if the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) significantly improve functional outcome after lacunar stroke when stereotactically transplanted into the brain. Ouabain, a Na/K ATPase pump inhibitor, was stereotactically injected into the right striatum of Wistar rats. One week later, the superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled rat BMSCs (n=7) or vehicle (n=8) were stereotactically transplanted into the left striatum. Using rotarod test, motor function was serially evaluated through the experiment. A 7.0-T MR apparatus was employed to serially monitor the migration of BMSCs in the host brain. Histological analysis was performed at 7 weeks after ouabain injection, i.e., 6 weeks after BMSC transplantation. Ouabain injection yielded the reproducible, focal lesion in the right striatum, causing continuous motor dysfunction throughout the experiment. BMSC transplantation significantly enhanced the recovery of motor function after ouabain injection. MR imaging demonstrated that the BMSCs aggressively migrated towards the lesion through the corpus callosum. Histological analysis supported the findings on MRI. The BMSCs significantly enhanced the neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) on both sides. Some of them also expressed neuronal or astrocytic phenotypes in the neocortex, SVZ, corpus callosum, and peri-lesion area. These findings strongly suggest that the BMSCs may serve therapeutic impacts on lacunar stroke when stereotactically transplanted at clinically relevant timing. PMID:24129484

  18. Application to induction motor faults diagnosis of the amplitude recovery method combined with FFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yukun; Guo, Liwei; Wang, Qixiang; An, Guoqing; Guo, Ming; Lian, Hao

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a signal processing method - amplitude recovery method (abbreviated to ARM) - that can be used as the signal pre-processing for fast Fourier transform (FFT) in order to analyze the spectrum of the other-order harmonics rather than the fundamental frequency in stator currents and diagnose subtle faults in induction motors. In this situation, the ARM functions as a filter that can filter out the component of the fundamental frequency from three phases of stator currents of the induction motor. The filtering result of the ARM can be provided to FFT to do further spectrum analysis. In this way, the amplitudes of other-order frequencies can be extracted and analyzed independently. If the FFT is used without the ARM pre-processing and the components of other-order frequencies, compared to the fundamental frequency, are fainter, the amplitudes of other-order frequencies are not able easily to extract out from stator currents. The reason is when the FFT is used direct to analyze the original signal, all the frequencies in the spectrum analysis of original stator current signal have the same weight. The ARM is capable of separating the other-order part in stator currents from the fundamental-order part. Compared to the existent digital filters, the ARM has the benefits, including its stop-band narrow enough just to stop the fundamental frequency, its simple operations of algebra and trigonometry without any integration, and its deduction direct from mathematics equations without any artificial adjustment. The ARM can be also used by itself as a coarse-grained diagnosis of faults in induction motors when they are working. These features can be applied to monitor and diagnose the subtle faults in induction motors to guard them from some damages when they are in operation. The diagnosis application of ARM combined with FFT is also displayed in this paper with the experimented induction motor. The test results verify the rationality and feasibility of the ARM. It should be clarified that the ARM must be applied in three phases of currents in electrical machines. For a single phase of alternating current or direct current, it can do nothing. However, since three-phase electrical machines have a dominant position in the application field in modern economic society and it is natural and convenient to acquire three phases of stator currents during the three-phase electrical machines are tested, it is necessary and meaningful to develop the ARM to diagnose and guard them.

  19. ISS Contingency Attitude Control Recovery Method for Loss of Automatic Thruster Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Bhatt, Sagar; Alaniz, Abran; McCants, Edward; Nguyen, Louis; Chamitoff, Greg

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the attitude control issues associated with International Space Station (ISS) loss of automatic thruster control capability are discussed and methods for attitude control recovery are presented. This scenario was experienced recently during Shuttle mission STS-117 and ISS Stage 13A in June 2007 when the Russian GN&C computers, which command the ISS thrusters, failed. Without automatic propulsive attitude control, the ISS would not be able to regain attitude control after the Orbiter undocked. The core issues associated with recovering long-term attitude control using CMGs are described as well as the systems engineering analysis to identify recovery options. It is shown that the recovery method can be separated into a procedure for rate damping to a safe harbor gravity gradient stable orientation and a capability to maneuver the vehicle to the necessary initial conditions for long term attitude hold. A manual control option using Soyuz and Progress vehicle thrusters is investigated for rate damping and maneuvers. The issues with implementing such an option are presented and the key issue of closed-loop stability is addressed. A new non-propulsive alternative to thruster control, Zero Propellant Maneuver (ZPM) attitude control method is introduced and its rate damping and maneuver performance evaluated. It is shown that ZPM can meet the tight attitude and rate error tolerances needed for long term attitude control. A combination of manual thruster rate damping to a safe harbor attitude followed by a ZPM to Stage long term attitude control orientation was selected by the Anomaly Resolution Team as the alternate attitude control method for such a contingency.

  20. Investigation of the nanoscale elastic recovery of a polymer using an atomic force microscopy-based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Yanquan; Yan, Yongda; Hu, Zhenjiang; Zhao, Xuesen

    2016-01-01

    An atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based method to reveal the elastic recovery behavior of a polymer material after the nanoscratching process is presented. The machined depth during scratching is obtained by monitoring the position of the piezoceramic tube (PZT) of the AFM system. By comparison with the measured depth of the nanogroove, the elastic recovery of the machined depth can be achieved. Experiments are also undertaken to study the effects of the scratching velocity and the applied normal load on the elastic recovery of the machined depth when scratching on polycarbonate (PC). Results show that the elastic recovery rate has a logarithmically proportional relationship to the scratching velocity, while it has little change with the variation of the applied normal load. In addition, the constitutive model of the polymer material is also used to verify the obtained conclusions, indicating that this is a potential method for measuring the elastic recovery of the material under the mechanical process on the nanoscale.

  1. Long-term respiratory function recovery in patients with stage I lung cancer receiving video-assisted thoracic surgery versus thoracotomy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and thoracotomy are standard treatment methods for early lung cancer. We compared their effects on the long-term recovery of pulmonary function in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods We retrospectively reviewed 203 patients with early NSCLC who underwent VATS or thoracotomy at Seoul University Hospital from January 2005 to December 2010. Two matched groups (VATS and thoracotomy) each consisting of 60 patients were created via propensity score matching according to TNM stage, age, sex, smoking history, lung disease history, and preoperative pulmonary function. Results There were no significant differences in the recovery of forced expiratory volume in 1 second, the forced vital capacity (FVC), or the peak flow rate (PFR), presented as the postoperative value/predicted value, between the VATS and thoracotomy groups during the 12-month follow-up period. The standardized functional loss ratio [(measured postoperative value predicted postoperative value)/(predicted postoperative value 100)] did not differ between the two groups at 6 and 12 months. In an intragroup analysis, the postoperative FVC in the thoracotomy group remained below predicted postoperative value during the follow-up period and did not reach the predicted postoperative FVC (6 months/12 months: 6.58%/2.43%). The analgesic requirements and pain procedures were similar in the VATS and thoracotomy groups during the 12-month follow-up period. Conclusions There were no significant differences in pulmonary function recovery during the late postoperative period in NSCLC patients receiving VATS versus thoracotomy. We suggest that the volume of the resected lung and preoperative lung function are the main determinants of late recovery, rather than postoperative pain.

  2. Missing Pieces Functional, Social, and Environmental Barriers to Recovery for Vulnerable Older Adults Transitioning From Hospital to Home

    PubMed Central

    Greysen, S. Ryan; Hoi-Cheung, Doug; Garcia, Veronica; Kessell, Eric; Sarkar, Urmimala; Goldman, Lauren; Schneidermann, Michelle; Critchfield, Jeffrey; Pierluissi, Edgar; Kushel, Margot

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent interventions to improve transitions in care for older adults focus on hospital discharge processes. Limited data exists on patient concerns for care at home after discharge, particularly for vulnerable older adults. Design We used in-depth, in-person interviews to describe barriers to recovery at home after leaving the hospital for vulnerable, older adults. We purposefully sampled by age, gender, race, and English proficiency to ensure a wide breadth of experiences. Interviews were independently coded by two investigators using the constant comparative method. Thematic analysis was performed by the entire research team with diverse backgrounds in primary care, hospital medicine, geriatrics, and nursing. Setting and Participants We interviewed vulnerable older adults (low income/health literacy, and/or Limited English Proficiency) who were enrolled in a larger discharge interventional study within 30 days of discharge from an urban public hospital. All participants were interviewed in their native language (English, Spanish, or Chinese). Results We interviewed 24 patients: mean age 63 (5584), 66% male, 67% Non-white, 16% Spanish-speaking, 16% Chinese-speaking. We identified an overarching theme of missing pieces in the plan for post-discharge recovery at home from which three specific sub-themes emerged: (1) functional limitations and difficulty with mobility and self-care tasks; (2) social isolation and lack of support from family and friends; (3) challenges from poverty and the built environment at home. In contrast, patients described mostly supportive experiences with traditional focuses of transition care such as following prescribed medication and diet regimens. Conclusion Hospital-based discharge interventions that focus on traditional aspects of care may overlook social and functional gaps in post-discharge care at home for vulnerable older adults. Post-discharge interventions that address these challenges may be necessary to reduce readmissions in this population. PMID:24934494

  3. Effect of Vacuum Sealed Drainage on Recovery of Gastrointestinal Function in Gastric Cancer Patients after Radical Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui-ying; Wang, Chun-mei

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims to explore the effect of vacuum sealed drainage on the recovery of gastrointestinal function in gastric patients after radical gastrectomy. Methods One hundred and twenty patients who received radical for gastric cancer were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the control group received continuous gastrointestinal decompression to drain the gastric juices after radical gastrectomy, whereas patients in the treatment group received vacuum sealed drainage. The postoperative variables between the two groups were compared, including time of bowel sound reoccurrence, time of the first flatus, indwelling time of gastric tube, days of hospitalization, and complications, such as anastomotic leakage, intestinal obstruction, wound infection, pulmonary infection, fever, and pharyngitis. SPSS 13.0 was used to analyze the data. Results Significant differences in the following variables were observed in patients between the two groups: time of bowel sound reoccurrence, time of the first flatus, indwelling time of gastric tube, and length of hospitalization of the patients. The value of each of these variables was much smaller in the treatment group than in the control group (P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the incidence of anastomotic leakage, intestinal obstruction, and wound infection among patients between the two groups (P>0.05). However, a significant differences were observed in the incidence of pulmonary infection, fever, and pharyngitis among the patients between the two groups (P<0.05), with much lower incidence of the variables in the treatment group than in the control group. Conclusions Vacuum sealed drainage used in gastric cancer patients after radical gastrectomy can accelerate the recovery of gastrointestinal function and reduce postoperative complications. Moreover, it shortens the indwelling time of the gastric tube, thereby making the patients feel comfortable without the disturbance from the gastric tube. PMID:23691488

  4. Microscale Electrode Implantation during Nerve Repair: Effects on Nerve Morphology, Electromyography, and Recovery of Muscle Contractile Function

    PubMed Central

    Urbanchek, Melanie G; Wei, Benjamin; Egeland, Brent M; Abidian, Mohammad R; Kipke, Daryl R; Cederna, Paul S

    2011-01-01

    Background Our goal is to develop a peripheral nerve electrode with long-term stability and fidelity for use in nerve-machine interfaces. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) use silicon probes that contain multi-channel actuators, sensors, and electronics. We tested the null hypothesis that implantation of MEMS probes do not have a detrimental effect on peripheral nerve function or regeneration. Methods A rat hindlimb, peroneal nerve model was utilized in all experimental groups: a) intact nerve (Control, n= 10); b) nerve division and repair (Repair, n= 9); and c) Nerve division, insertion of MEMS probe, and repair (Repair + Probe, n=9). Nerve morphology, nerve to muscle compound action potential (CMAP) studies, walking tracks, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle function tests were evaluated following an 80 day recovery. Results Repair and Repair + Probe showed no differences in axon count, axon size, percent non-neural area, CMAP amplitude, latency, muscle mass, muscle force, or walking track scores. Though there was some local fibrosis around each MEMS probe, this did not lead to measurable detrimental effects in any anatomic or functional outcome measurements. Conclusions The lack of a significant difference between Repair and Repair + Probe groups in histology, CMAP, walking tracks, and muscle force suggests that MEMS electrodes are compatible with regenerating axons and show promise for establishing chemical and electrical interfaces with peripheral nerves. PMID:21921739

  5. Correlation functions in the holographic replica method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yanwen

    2012-12-01

    Disorder has long been a difficult subject in condensed matter systems and the The replica method is a well-known tool in this field. Implementing the replica method the AdS/CFT correspondence has been proposed and discussed in literatures. We point out, for any CFT that has a holographic dual and to the leading order of the large- N expansion, the corrections due to the presence of random disorder to any connected correlation functions vanish identically, provided that the disorder strength is normalized as discussed in literatures and that the symmetry among replicas is unbroken. Same must hold true to any observables that are determined by the connected correlation functions through a linear relation. This behavior resembles strongly that of a free theory where disorder is coupled to the fundamental field. We demonstrate this by both the means of holographic principle and field theory analysis in a toy model. We also propose ways of evaluating the non-zero sub-leading effects perturbatively in terms of the disorder strength and discuss a novel possibility of defining a new holographic dual if we adopt a different normalization for the disorder strength.

  6. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred W.; Bridges, Robert A.; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.; Lorinovich, Caitlin J.; Lu, Silong

    2003-02-07

    This project involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field, California. Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contained approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley.

  7. Evaluation of asphalt cement extraction and recovery methods. Final report Oct 80-Jun 82

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, D.E.; Paul, H.R.

    1982-07-01

    The quality of recovered asphalt cement is studied which may be attributable to the method used for extraction or to the Abson recovery. Variables of these procedures such as the time an asphalt cement was exposed to extraction solvent, the total quantity of asphalt cement recovered, the total quantity of extraction solvent, and both the type and quantity of fines in the extracted mix samples were isolated to determine their influence on tested asphalt cement properties. Also examined was the testing variation within one operator and between two operators.

  8. Cardiomyocyte Mineralocorticoid Receptor Activation Impairs Acute Cardiac Functional Recovery After Ischemic Insult.

    PubMed

    Bienvenu, Laura A; Reichelt, Melissa E; Morgan, James; Fletcher, Elizabeth K; Bell, James R; Rickard, Amanda J; Delbridge, Lea M; Young, Morag J

    2015-11-01

    Loss of mineralocorticoid receptor signaling selectively in cardiomyocytes can ameliorate cardiac fibrotic and inflammatory responses caused by excess mineralocorticoids. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of cardiomyocyte mineralocorticoid receptor signaling in ischemia-reperfusion injury and recovery and to identify a role of mineralocorticoid receptor modulation of cardiac function. Wild-type and cardiomyocyte mineralocorticoid receptor knockout mice (8 weeks) were uninephrectomized and maintained on (1) high salt (0.9% NaCl, 0.4% KCl) or (2) high salt plus deoxycorticosterone pellet (0.3 mg/d, 0.9% NaCl, 0.4% KCl). After 8 weeks of treatment, hearts were isolated and subjected to 20 minutes of global ischemia plus 45 minutes of reperfusion. Mineralocorticoid excess increased peak contracture during ischemia regardless of genotype. Recovery of left ventricular developed pressure and rates of contraction and relaxation post ischemia-reperfusion were greater in knockout versus wild-type hearts. The incidence of arrhythmic activity during early reperfusion was significantly higher in wild-type than in knockout hearts. Levels of autophosphorylated Ca(2+)/calmodulin protein kinase II (Thr287) were elevated in hearts from wild-type versus knockout mice and associated with increased sodium hydrogen exchanger-1 expression. These findings demonstrate that cardiomyocyte-specific mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent signaling contributes to electromechanical vulnerability in acute ischemia-reperfusion via a mechanism involving Ca(2+)/calmodulin protein kinase II activation in association with upstream alteration in expression regulation of the sodium hydrogen exchanger-1. PMID:26351032

  9. The delayed administration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate improves recovery of function after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Stuart W; Virmani, Sharad; Simkins, Robert M; Stein, Donald G

    2003-09-01

    The goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), a pro-excitatory neurosteroid, could facilitate recovery of function in male rats after delayed treatment following TBI. DHEAS has been found to play a major role in brain development and aging by influencing the migration of neurons, arborization of dendrites, and formation of new synapses. These characteristics make it suitable as a potential treatment to enhance neural repair in response to CNS injury. In our study, behavioral tests were conducted concurrently with DHEAS administration (0, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) starting seven days post-injury (PI). These assays included 10 days of Morris Water Maze testing (MWM; 7d PI), 10 days of Greek-Cross (GC; 21d PI), Tactile Adhesive Removal task (TAR; PI days: 6, 13, 20, 27, 34), and spontaneous motor behavior testing (SMB; PI days: 2, 4, 6, 12, 19, 26, 33). Brain-injured rats showed an improvement in performance in all tasks after 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg DHEAS. The most effective dose of DHEAS in the MWM was 10 mg/kg, while in the GC it was 20 mg/kg, in TAR 5 mg/kg, and all doses, except for vehicle, were effective at reducing injury-induced SMB hyperactivity. In no task did DHEAS-treated animals perform worse than the injured controls. In addition, DHEAS had no significant effects on behavioral performance in the sham-operates. These results can be interpreted to demonstrate that after a 7-day delay, the chronic administration of DHEAS to injured rats significantly improves behavioral recovery on both sensorimotor and cognitive tasks. PMID:14577864

  10. Effects of Massage on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness, Swelling, and Recovery of Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Zainuddin, Zainal; Newton, Mike; Sacco, Paul; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2005-01-01

    Context: Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) describes muscle pain and tenderness that typically develop several hours postexercise and consist of predominantly eccentric muscle actions, especially if the exercise is unfamiliar. Although DOMS is likely a symptom of eccentric-exerciseinduced muscle damage, it does not necessarily reflect muscle damage. Some prophylactic or therapeutic modalities may be effective only for alleviating DOMS, whereas others may enhance recovery of muscle function without affecting DOMS. Objective: To test the hypothesis that massage applied after eccentric exercise would effectively alleviate DOMS without affecting muscle function. Design: We used an arm-to-arm comparison model with 2 independent variables (control and massage) and 6 dependent variables (maximal isometric and isokinetic voluntary strength, range of motion, upper arm circumference, plasma creatine kinase activity, and muscle soreness). A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t tests were used to examine differences in changes of the dependent variable over time (before, immediately and 30 minutes after exercise, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, and 14 days postexercise) between control and massage conditions. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten healthy subjects (5 men and 5 women) with no history of upper arm injury and no experience in resistance training. Intervention(s): Subjects performed 10 sets of 6 maximal isokinetic (90s?1) eccentric actions of the elbow flexors with each arm on a dynamometer, separated by 2 weeks. One arm received 10 minutes of massage 3 hours after eccentric exercise; the contralateral arm received no treatment. Main Outcome Measure(s): Maximal voluntary isometric and isokinetic elbow flexor strength, range of motion, upper arm circumference, plasma creatine kinase activity, and muscle soreness. Results: Delayed-onset muscle soreness was significantly less for the massage condition for peak soreness in extending the elbow joint and palpating the brachioradialis muscle (P < .05). Soreness while flexing the elbow joint (P = .07) and palpating the brachialis muscle (P = .06) was also less with massage. Massage treatment had significant effects on plasma creatine kinase activity, with a significantly lower peak value at 4 days postexercise (P < .05), and upper arm circumference, with a significantly smaller increase than the control at 3 and 4 days postexercise (P < .05). However, no significant effects of massage on recovery of muscle strength and ROM were evident. Conclusions: Massage was effective in alleviating DOMS by approximately 30% and reducing swelling, but it had no effects on muscle function. PMID:16284637

  11. Potential contribution of fish restocking to the recovery of deteriorated coral reefs: an alternative restoration method?

    PubMed Central

    Obolski, Uri; Hadany, Lilach

    2016-01-01

    Counteracting the worldwide trend of coral reef degeneration is a major challenge for the scientific community. A crucial management approach to minimizing stress effects on healthy reefs and helping the recovery of disturbed reefs is reef protection. However, the current rapid decline of the world’s reefs suggests that protection might be insufficient as a viable stand-alone management approach for some reefs. We thus suggest that the ecological restoration of coral reefs (CRR) should be considered as a valid component of coral reef management, in addition to protection, if the applied method is economically applicable and scalable. This theoretical study examines the potential applicability and outcomes of restocking grazers as a restoration tool for coral reef recovery—a tool that has not been applied so far in reef restoration projects. We studied the effect of restocking grazing fish as a restoration method using a mathematical model of degrading reefs, and analyzed the financial outcomes of the restocking intervention. The results suggest that applying this restoration method, in addition to protection, can facilitate reef recovery. Moreover, our analysis suggests that the restocking approach almost always becomes profitable within several years. Considering the relatively low cost of this restoration approach and the feasibility of mass production of herbivorous fish, we suggest that this approach should be considered and examined as an additional viable restoration tool for coral reefs. PMID:26966666

  12. Functional recovery of anterior semicircular canal afferents following hair cell regeneration in birds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Richard; Highstein, Stephen M.; Carey, John P.; Xu, Jinping

    2002-01-01

    Streptomycin sulfate (1.2 g/kg i.m.) was administered for 5 consecutive days to 5-7-day-old white Leghorn chicks; this causes damage to semicircular canal hair cells that ultimately regenerate to reform the sensory epithelium. During the recovery period, electrophysiological recordings were taken sequentially from anterior semicircular canal primary afferents using an indentation stimulus of the canal that has been shown to mimic rotational stimulation. Chicks were assigned to an early (14-18 days; n = 8), intermediate (28-34 days; n = 5), and late (38-58 days; n = 4) period based on days after treatment. Seven untreated chicks, 15-67 days old, provided control data. An absence of background and indent-induced discharge was the prominent feature of afferents in the early period: only "silent" afferents were encountered in 5/8 experiments. In several of these chicks, fascicles of afferent fibers were seen extending up to the epithelium that was void of hair cells, and intra- and extracellular biocytin labeling revealed afferent processes penetrating into the supporting cell layer of the crista. In 3/8 chicks 74 afferents could be characterized, and they significantly differed from controls (n = 130) by having a lower discharge rate and a negligible response to canal stimulation. In the intermediate period there was considerable variability in discharge properties of 121 afferents, but as a whole the number of "silent" fibers in the canal nerve diminished, the background rate increased, and a response to canal stimulation detected. Individually biocytin-labeled afferents had normal-appearing terminal specializations in the sensory epithelium by 28 days poststreptomycin. In the late period, afferents (n = 58) remained significantly different from controls in background discharge properties and response gain. The evidence suggests that a considerable amount of variability exists between chicks in the return of vestibular afferent function following ototoxic injury and that the secretory function of regenerating hair cells might become functional before their transducer function.

  13. Cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis in endotoxemia is not accompanied by mitochondrial function recovery.

    PubMed

    Vanasco, Virginia; Saez, Trinidad; Magnani, Natalia D; Pereyra, Leonardo; Marchini, Timoteo; Corach, Alejandra; Vaccaro, Mara Ins; Corach, Daniel; Evelson, Pablo; Alvarez, Silvia

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis emerges as a compensatory mechanism involved in the recovery process in endotoxemia and sepsis. The aim of this work was to analyze the time course of the cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis process occurring during endotoxemia, with emphasis on the quantitative analysis of mitochondrial function. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (45 days old) were ip injected with LPS (10 mg/kg). Measurements were performed at 0-24 h after LPS administration. PGC-1? and mtTFA expression for biogenesis and p62 and LC3 expression for autophagy were analyzed by Western blot; mitochondrial DNA levels by qPCR, and mitochondrial morphology by transmission electron microscopy. Mitochondrial function was evaluated as oxygen consumption and respiratory chain complex activity. PGC-1? and mtTFA expression significantly increased in every time point analyzed, and mitochondrial mass was increased by 20% (P<0.05) at 24 h. p62 expression was significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner. LC3-II expression was significantly increased at all time points analyzed. Ultrastructurally, mitochondria displayed several abnormalities (internal vesicles, cristae disruption, and swelling) at 6 and 18 h. Structures compatible with fusion/fission processes were observed at 24 h. A significant decrease in state 3 respiration was observed in every time point analyzed (LPS 6h: 20%, P<0.05). Mitochondrial complex I activity was found decreased by 30% in LPS-treated animals at 6 and 24h. Complex II and complex IV showed decreased activity only at 24 h. The present results show that partial restoration of cardiac mitochondrial architecture is not accompanied by improvement of mitochondrial function in acute endotoxemia. The key implication of our study is that cardiac failure due to bioenergetic dysfunction will be overcome by therapeutic interventions aimed to restore cardiac mitochondrial function. PMID:25224040

  14. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    PubMed Central

    Carmel, Jason B.; Martin, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal systemwith its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay. PMID:24994971

  15. Ethanol Extract of Chinese Propolis Facilitates Functional Recovery of Locomotor Activity after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Masaki; Fukumitsu, Hidefumi; Soumiya, Hitomi; Furukawa, Shoei

    2011-01-01

    An ethanol extract of Chinese propolis (EECP) was given intraperitoneally to rats suffering from hemitransection of half of their spinal cord (left side) at the level of the 10th thoracic vertebra to examine the effects of the EECP on the functional recovery of locomotor activity and expression of mRNAs of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and neurotrophic factors in the injury site. Daily administration of EECP after the spinal cord injury ameliorated the locomotor function, which effect was accompanied by a reduced lesion size. Furthermore, the EECP suppressed iNOS gene expression, thus reducing NO generation, and also increased the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 mRNAs in the lesion site, suggesting that the EECP reduced the inflammatory and apoptotic circumstances through attenuation of iNOS mRNA expression and facilitation of mRNA expression of neurotrophins in the injured spinal cord. These results suggest that Chinese propolis may become a promising tool for wide use in the nervous system for reducing the secondary neuronal damage following primary physical injury. PMID:20953390

  16. Enhanced Functional Recovery in MRL/MpJ Mice after Spinal Cord Dorsal Hemisection

    PubMed Central

    Thuret, Sandrine; Thallmair, Michaela; Horky, Laura L.; Gage, Fred H.

    2012-01-01

    Adult MRL/MpJ mice have been shown to possess unique regeneration capabilities. They are able to heal an ear-punched hole or an injured heart with normal tissue architecture and without scar formation. Here we present functional and histological evidence for enhanced recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI) in MRL/MpJ mice. A control group (C57BL/6 mice) and MRL/MpJ mice underwent a dorsal hemisection at T9 (thoracic vertebra 9). Our data show that MRL/MpJ mice recovered motor function significantly faster and more completely. We observed enhanced regeneration of the corticospinal tract (CST). Furthermore, we observed a reduced astrocytic response and fewer micro-cavities at the injury site, which appear to create a more growth-permissive environment for the injured axons. Our data suggest that the reduced astrocytic response is in part due to a lower lesion-induced increase of cell proliferation post-SCI, and a reduced astrocytic differentiation of the proliferating cells. Interestingly, we also found an increased number of proliferating microglia, which could be involved in the MRL/MpJ spinal cord repair mechanisms. Finally, to evaluate the molecular basis of faster spinal cord repair, we examined the difference in gene expression changes in MRL/MpJ and C57BL/6 mice after SCI. Our microarray data support our histological findings and reveal a transcriptional profile associated with a more efficient spinal cord repair in MRL/MpJ mice. PMID:22348029

  17. Oct4-induced oligodendrocyte progenitor cells enhance functional recovery in spinal cord injury model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Beom; Lee, Hyunah; Arazo-Bravo, Marcos J; Hwang, Kyujin; Nam, Donggyu; Park, Myung Rae; Zaehres, Holm; Park, Kook In; Lee, Seok-Jin

    2015-12-01

    The generation of patient-specific oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) holds great potential as an expandable cell source for cell replacement therapy as well as drug screening in spinal cord injury or demyelinating diseases. Here, we demonstrate that induced OPCs (iOPCs) can be directly derived from adult mouse fibroblasts by Oct4-mediated direct reprogramming, using anchorage-independent growth to ensure high purity. Homogeneous iOPCs exhibit typical small-bipolar morphology, maintain their self-renewal capacity and OPC marker expression for more than 31 passages, share high similarity in the global gene expression profile to wild-type OPCs, and give rise to mature oligodendrocytes and astrocytes invitro and invivo. Notably, transplanted iOPCs contribute to functional recovery in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model without tumor formation. This study provides a simple strategy to generate functional self-renewing iOPCs and yields insights for the in-depth study of demyelination and regenerative medicine. PMID:26497893

  18. Inhibition of LINGO-1 promotes functional recovery after experimental spinal cord demyelination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Yi Ping; Pepinsky, Blake; Huang, Guanrong; Shields, Lisa B E; Shields, Christopher B; Mi, Sha

    2015-04-01

    Blocking LINGO-1 has been shown to enhance remyelination in the rat lysolecithin-induced focal spinal cord demyelination model. We used transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potentials (tcMMEPs) to assess the effect of blocking LINGO-1 on recovery of axonal function in a mouse lysolecithin model at 1, 2 and 4weeks after injury. The role of LINGO-1 was assessed using LINGO-1 knockout (KO) mice and in wild-type mice after intraperitoneal administration of anti-LINGO-1 antagonist monoclonal antibody (mAb3B5). Response rates (at 2 and 4weeks) and amplitudes (at 4weeks) were significantly increased in LINGO-1 KO and mAb3B5-treated mice compared with matched controls. The latency of potentials at 4weeks was significantly shorter in mAb3B5-treated mice compared with controls. Lesion areas in LINGO-1 KO and mAb3B5-treated mice were reduced significantly compared with matched controls. The number of remyelinated axons within the lesions was increased and the G-ratios of the axons were decreased in both LINGO-1 KO and mAb3B5-treated mice compared with matched controls. These data provide morphometric and functional evidence of enhancement of remyelination associated with antagonism of LINGO-1. PMID:25681574

  19. A novel method for the photographic recovery of fingermark impressions from ammunition cases using digital imaging.

    PubMed

    Porter, Glenn; Ebeyan, Robert; Crumlish, Charles; Renshaw, Adrian

    2015-03-01

    The photographic preservation of fingermark impression evidence found on ammunition cases remains problematic due to the cylindrical shape of the deposition substrate preventing complete capture of the impression in a single image. A novel method was developed for the photographic recovery of fingermarks from curved surfaces using digital imaging. The process involves the digital construction of a complete impression image made from several different images captured from multiple camera perspectives. Fingermark impressions deposited onto 9-mm and 0.22-caliber brass cartridge cases and a plastic 12-gauge shotgun shell were tested using various image parameters, including digital stitching method, number of images per 360° rotation of shell, image cropping, and overlap. The results suggest that this method may be successfully used to recover fingermark impression evidence from the surfaces of ammunition cases or other similar cylindrical surfaces. PMID:25537854

  20. Synergistic effects of low-level laser and mesenchymal stem cells on functional recovery in rats with crushed sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen-Chia; Wang, John; Chen, Shyh-Chang; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2016-02-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been proposed to exert beneficial effects on peripheral nerve regeneration after a peripheral nerve injury, but the functional recovery in the denervated limb is still limited. In this study, we used low-level laser therapy (LLLT) as an adjunct therapy for MSC transplantation on the functional recovery of crushed sciatic nerve in rats. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in 48 Sprague-Dawley rats by crushing the unilateral sciatic nerve, using a vessel clamp. The animals with crushed injury were randomly divided into four groups: control group, with no treatment; MSC group, treated with MSC alone; LLLT group, treated with LLLT alone; and MSCLLLT group, treated with a combination of MSC and LLLT. The sciatic function index (SFI), vertical activity of locomotion (VA) and ankle angle (AA) of rats were examined for functional assessments after treatment. Electrophysiological, morphological and S100 immunohistochemical studies were also conducted. The MSCLLLT group showed a greater recovery in SFI, VA and AA, with significant difference from MSC, LLLT and control groups (p?function and expression of S100 immunoreactivity, as well as fewer inflammatory cells and less vacuole formation were also demonstrated after nerve crush injury in the MSCLLLT group when compared with the groups receiving a single treatment (p?functional recovery than a conventional treatment of MSC or LLLT alone. LLLT has a synergistic effect in providing greater functional recovery with MSC transplantation after nerve crush injury. Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23468370

  1. Microbiological methods for the water recovery systems test, revision 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, Tim; Kilgore, M. V., Jr.; Mikell, A. T., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Current microbiological parameters specified to verify microbiological quality of Space Station Freedom water quality include the enumeration of total bacteria, anaerobes, aerobes, yeasts and molds, enteric bacteria, gram positives, gram negatives, and E. coli. In addition, other parameters have been identified as necessary to support the Water Recovery Test activities to be conducted at the NASA/MSFC later this year. These other parameters include aerotolerant eutrophic mesophiles, legionellae, and an additional method for heterotrophic bacteria. If inter-laboratory data are to be compared to evaluate quality, analytical methods must be eliminated as a variable. Therefore, each participating laboratory must utilize the same analytical methods and procedures. Without this standardization, data can be neither compared nor validated between laboratories. Multiple laboratory participation represents a conservative approach to insure quality and completeness of data. Invariably, sample loss will occur in transport and analyses. Natural variance is a reality on any test of this magnitude and is further enhanced because biological entities, capable of growth and death, are specific parameters of interest. The large variation due to the participation of human test subjects has been noted with previous testing. The resultant data might be dismissed as 'out of control' unless intra-laboratory control is included as part of the method or if participating laboratories are not available for verification. The purpose of this document is to provide standardized laboratory procedures for the enumeration of certain microorganisms in water and wastewater specific to the water recovery systems test. The document consists of ten separate cultural methods and one direct count procedure. It is not intended nor is it implied to be a complete microbiological methods manual.

  2. Comparison of the Recovery Patterns of Language and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Post-Traumatic Language Processing Deficits and in Patients with Aphasia Following a Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the

  3. Recovery of metals from waste printed circuit boards by a mechanical method using a water medium.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chenlong; Wen, Xuefeng; Shi, Changsheng; Zhao, Yuemin; Wen, Baofeng; He, Yaqun

    2009-07-15

    Research on the recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCB) is at the forefront of environmental pollution prevention and resource recycling. To effectively crush waste PCB and to solve the problem of secondary pollution from fugitive odors and dust created during the crushing process, a wet impacting crusher was employed to achieve comminution liberation of the PCB in a water medium. The function of water in the crushing process was analyzed. When using slippery hammerheads, a rotation speed of 1470 rpm, a water flow of 6m(3)/h and a sieve plate aperture of 2.2mm, 95.87% of the crushed product was sized less than 1mm. 94.30% of the metal was in this grade of product. Using smashed material graded -1mm for further research, a Falcon concentrator was used to recover the metal from the waste PCB. Engineering considerations were the liberation degree, the distribution ratio of the metal and a way to simplify the technology. The separation mechanism for fine particles of different densities in a Falcon concentrator was analyzed in detail and the separation process in the segregation and separation zones was deduced. Also, the magnitude of centrifugal acceleration, the back flow water pressure and the feed slurry concentration, any of which might affect separation results, were studied. A recovery model was established using Design-Expert software. Separating waste PCB, crushed to -1mm, with the Falcon separator gave a concentrated product graded 92.36% metal with a recovery of 97.05%. To do this the reverse water pressure was 0.05 MPa, the speed transducer frequency was set at 30 Hz and the feed density was 20 g/l. A flow diagram illustrating the new technique of wet impact crushing followed by separation with a Falcon concentrator is provided. The technique will prevent environmental pollution from waste PCB and allow the effective recovery of resources. Water was used as the medium throughout the whole process. PMID:19121892

  4. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Predict Functional Recovery in Tibial Fracture Patients: The Somatic Pre-Occupation and Coping (SPOC) Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Busse, Jason W.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Mandel, Scott; Sanders, David; Schemitsch, Emil; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Wai, Eugene; Walter, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the role of patients’ beliefs in their likelihood of recovery from severe physical trauma. Methods We developed and validated an instrument designed to capture the impact of patients’ beliefs on functional recovery from injury; the Somatic Pre-occupation and Coping (SPOC) questionnaire. At 6-weeks post-surgical fixation, we administered the SPOC questionnaire to 359 consecutive patients with operatively managed tibial shaft fractures. We constructed multivariable regression models to explore the association between SPOC scores and functional outcome at 1-year, as measured by return to work and short form-36 (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores. Results In our adjusted multivariable regression models that included pre-injury SF-36 scores, SPOC scores at 6-weeks post-surgery accounted for 18% of the variation in SF-36 PCS scores and 18% of SF-36 MCS scores at 1-year. In both models, 6-week SPOC scores were a far more powerful predictor of functional recovery than age, gender, fracture type, smoking status, or the presence of multi-trauma. Our adjusted analysis found that for each 14 point increment in SPOC score at 6-weeks (14 chosen on the basis of half a standard deviation of the mean SPOC score) the odds of returning to work at 1-year decreased by 40% (odds ratio = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.73). Conclusion The SPOC questionnaire is a valid measurement of illness beliefs in tibial fracture patients and is highly predictive of their long-term functional recovery. Future research should explore if these results extend to other trauma populations and if modification of unhelpful illness beliefs is feasible and would result in improved functional outcomes. PMID:22011635

  5. Kinetic quantitation of cerebral PET-FDG studies without concurrent blood sampling: statistical recovery of the arterial input function.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, F; Kirrane, J; Muzi, M; O'Sullivan, J N; Spence, A M; Mankoff, D A; Krohn, K A

    2010-03-01

    Kinetic quantitation of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) studies via compartmental modeling usually requires the time-course of the radio-tracer concentration in the arterial blood as an arterial input function (AIF). For human and animal imaging applications, significant practical difficulties are associated with direct arterial sampling and as a result there is substantial interest in alternative methods that require no blood sampling at the time of the study. A fixed population template input function derived from prior experience with directly sampled arterial curves is one possibility. Image-based extraction, including requisite adjustment for spillover and recovery, is another approach. The present work considers a hybrid statistical approach based on a penalty formulation in which the information derived from a priori studies is combined in a Bayesian manner with information contained in the sampled image data in order to obtain an input function estimate. The absolute scaling of the input is achieved by an empirical calibration equation involving the injected dose together with the subject's weight, height and gender. The technique is illustrated in the context of (18)F -Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET studies in humans. A collection of 79 arterially sampled FDG blood curves are used as a basis for a priori characterization of input function variability, including scaling characteristics. Data from a series of 12 dynamic cerebral FDG PET studies in normal subjects are used to evaluate the performance of the penalty-based AIF estimation technique. The focus of evaluations is on quantitation of FDG kinetics over a set of 10 regional brain structures. As well as the new method, a fixed population template AIF and a direct AIF estimate based on segmentation are also considered. Kinetics analyses resulting from these three AIFs are compared with those resulting from radially sampled AIFs. The proposed penalty-based AIF extraction method is found to achieve significant improvements over the fixed template and the segmentation methods. As well as achieving acceptable kinetic parameter accuracy, the quality of fit of the region of interest (ROI) time-course data based on the extracted AIF, matches results based on arterially sampled AIFs. In comparison, significant deviation in the estimation of FDG flux and degradation in ROI data fit are found with the template and segmentation methods. The proposed AIF extraction method is recommended for practical use. PMID:19709971

  6. A non-iterative method for the electrical impedance tomography based on joint sparse recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ok Kyun; Kang, Hyeonbae; Ye, Jong Chul; Lim, Mikyoung

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a non-iterative method for the inverse conductivity problem of recovering multiple small anomalies from the boundary measurements. When small anomalies are buried in a conducting object, the electric potential values inside the object can be expressed by integrals of densities with a common sparse support on the location of anomalies. Based on this integral expression, we formulate the reconstruction problem of small anomalies as a joint sparse recovery and present an efficient non-iterative recovery algorithm of small anomalies. Furthermore, we also provide a slightly modified algorithm to reconstruct an extended anomaly. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm over the linearized method and the multiple signal classification algorithm by numerical simulations. This work is supported by the Korean Ministry of Education, Sciences and Technology through NRF grant No. NRF-2010-0017532 (to H K), the Korean Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning; through NRF grant No. NRF-2013R1A1A3012931 (to M L), the R&D Convergence Program of NST (National Research Council of Science & Technology) of Republic of Korea (Grant CAP-13-3-KERI) (to O K L and J C Y).

  7. Impaired Cerebrovascular Function in Coronary Artery Disease Patients and Recovery Following Cardiac Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Anazodo, Udunna C.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Suskin, Neville; Ssali, Tracy; Wang, Danny J. J.; St. Lawrence, Keith S.

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) poses a risk to the cerebrovascular function of older adults and has been linked to impaired cognitive abilities. Using magnetic resonance perfusion imaging, we investigated changes in resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia in 34 CAD patients and 21 age-matched controls. Gray matter volume (GMV) images were acquired and used as a confounding variable to separate changes in structure from function. Compared to healthy controls, CAD patients demonstrated reduced CBF in the superior frontal, anterior cingulate (AC), insular, pre- and post-central gyri, middle temporal, and superior temporal regions. Subsequent analysis of these regions demonstrated decreased CVR in the AC, insula, post-central and superior frontal regions. Except in the superior frontal and precentral regions, regional reductions in CBF and CVR were identified in brain areas where no detectable reductions in GMV were observed, demonstrating that these vascular changes were independent of brain atrophy. Because aerobic fitness training can improve brain function, potential changes in regional CBF were investigated in the CAD patients after completion of a 6-months exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program. Increased CBF was observed in the bilateral AC, as well as recovery of CBF in the dorsal aspect of the right AC, where the magnitude of increased CBF was roughly equal to the reduction in CBF at baseline compared to controls. These exercise-related improvements in CBF in the AC is intriguing given the role of this area in cognitive processing and regulation of cardiovascular autonomic control. PMID:26779011

  8. Recovery of function after lesions in the superior temporal sulcus in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, D S; Wurtz, R H

    1991-09-01

    1. Ibotenic acid lesions in the monkey's middle temporal area (MT) and the medial superior temporal area (MST) in the superior temporal sulcus (STS) have previously been shown to produce a deficit in initiation of smooth-pursuit eye movements to moving visual targets. The deficits, however, recovery within a few days. In the present experiments we investigated the factors that influence that recovery. 2. We tested two aspects of the monkey's ability to use motion information to acquire moving targets. We used eye-position error as a measure of the monkey's ability to make accurate initial saccades to the moving target. We measured eye speed within the first 100 ms after the saccade to evaluate the monkey's initial smooth pursuit. 3. We determined that pursuit recovery was not dependent specifically on the use of neurotoxic lesions. Although the rate of recovery was slightly altered by replacing the usual neurotoxin (ibotenic acid) with another neurotoxin [alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)] or with an electrolytic lesion, pursuit recovery still occurred within a period of days to weeks. 4. There was a relationship between the size and location of the lesion and the recovery time. The time to recovery for eye-position error and initial eye speed increased with the fraction of MT removed. Whether the rate of recovery and size of lesions within regions on the anterior bank were related was unresolved. 5. We found that a large AMPA lesion within the STS that removed all of MT and nearly all of MST drastically altered the rate of recovery. Recovery was incomplete more than 7 mo after the lesion. Even with this lesion, however, the monkey's ability to use motion information for pursuit was not completely eliminated. 6. The large lesion also included parts of areas V1, V2, V3, and V4, but analysis of the visual fields associated with this lesion indicated that these areas probably did not have a substantial effect on recovery. 7. We tested whether visual motion experience of the monkey after a lesion was necessary for recovery by limiting the monkey's experience either by using a mask or by using 4-Hz stroboscopic illumination. In one monkey the eye-position error component of pursuit was prolonged to greater than 2 wk, but recovery of eye speed was not. Reduced motion experience had little effect on recovery in the other two monkeys. These results suggest that such visual motion experience is not necessary for the recovery of pursuit.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1753278

  9. Using ecological function to develop recovery criteria for depleted species: sea otters and kelp forests in the Aleutian archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Bodkin, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Recovery criteria for depleted species or populations normally are based on demographic measures, the goal being to maintain enough individuals over a sufficiently large area to assure a socially tolerable risk of future extinction. Such demographically based recovery criteria may be insufficient to restore the functional roles of strongly interacting species. We explored the idea of developing a recovery criterion for sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in the Aleutian archipelago on the basis of their keystone role in kelp forest ecosystems. We surveyed sea otters and rocky reef habitats at 34 island-time combinations. The system nearly always existed in either a kelp-dominated or deforested phase state, which was predictable from sea otter density. We used a resampling analysis of these data to show that the phase state at any particular island can be determined at 95% probability of correct classification with information from as few as six sites. When sea otter population status (and thus the phase state of the kelp forest) was allowed to vary randomly among islands, just 15 islands had to be sampled to estimate the true proportion that were kelp dominated (within 10%) with 90% confidence. We conclude that kelp forest phase state is a more appropriate, sensitive, and cost-effective measure of sea otter recovery than the more traditional demographically based metrics, and we suggest that similar approaches have broad potential utility in establishing recovery criteria for depleted populations of other functionally important species.

  10. Initial Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Data Acquired from Soyuz Landings: Establishing a Functional Performance Recovery Time Constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kofman, I. S.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stenger, M. B.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; Lee, S. M. C.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Feiveson, A. H.; Fisher, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Testing of crew responses following long-duration flights has not been previously possible until a minimum of more than 24 hours after landing. As a result, it has not been possible to determine the trend of the early recovery process, nor has it been possible to accurately assess the full impact of the decrements associated with long-duration flight. To overcome these limitations, both the Russian and U.S. programs have implemented joint testing at the Soyuz landing site. This International Space Station research effort has been identified as the functional Field Test, and represents data collect on NASA, Russian, European Space Agency, and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency crews. RESEARCH The primary goal of this research is to determine functional abilities associated with long-duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible on the day of landing (typically within 1 to 1.5 hours). This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements. To date, a total of 15 subjects have participated in a 'pilot' version of the full 'field test'. The full version of the 'field test' will assess functional sensorimotor measurements included hand/eye coordination, standing from a seated position (sit-to-stand), walking normally without falling, measurement of dynamic visual acuity, discriminating different forces generated with the hands (both strength and ability to judge just noticeable differences of force), standing from a prone position, coordinated walking involving tandem heel-to-toe placement (tested with eyes both closed and open), walking normally while avoiding obstacles of differing heights, and determining postural ataxia while standing (measurement of quiet stance). Sensorimotor performance has been obtained using video records, and data from body worn inertial sensors. The cardiovascular portion of the investigation has measured blood pressure and heart rate during a timed stand test in conjunction with postural ataxia testing (quiet stance sway) as well as cardiovascular responses during sensorimotor testing on all of the above measures. We have also collected motion sickness data associated with each of the postflight tests. When possible rudimentary cerebellar assessment was undertaken. In addition to the immediate post-landing collection of data, postflight data has been acquired twice more within 24 hours after landing and measurements continue until sensorimotor and cardiovascular responses have returned to preflight normative values (approximately 60 days postflight). SUMMARY The level of functional deficit observed in the crew tested to date is more severe than expected, clearly triggered by the acquisition of gravity loads immediately after landing when the demands for crew intervention in response to emergency operations will be greatest. Measureable performance parameters such as ability to perform a seat egress, recover from a fall or the ability to see clearly when walking, and related physiologic data (orthostatic responses) are required to provide an evidence base for characterizing programmatic risks and the degree of variability among crewmembers for exploration missions where the crew will be unassisted after landing. Overall, these early functional and related physiologic measurements will allow the estimation of nonlinear sensorimotor and cardiovascular recovery trends that have not been previously captured.

  11. Effects of dexmedetomidine on anesthesia recovery period and postoperative cognitive function of patients after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lingling; Zhang, Hong; Mi, Weidong; Wang, Tao; He, Yan; Zhang, Xu; Ma, Xin; Li, Hongzhao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of dexmedetomidine on anesthesia recovery period and postoperative cognitive function of patients after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion. Methods: A total of 40 elective patients who would undergo robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion. They were randomly divided into two groups in a double-blind manner. After pneumoperitoneum established, all patients adopted 40° trendelenberg position. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and bispectral index (BIS) of each patient were recorded at four moments respectively, namely the end of surgery (T0), palinesthesia (T1), extubation (T2), 10 min after extubation (T3). Results: In the dexmedetomidine group, the mean arterial pressure and heart rate decreased at T1 and T2 compared with controls (P<0.05); in addition, the delirium rating scale was lower than the latter (P<0.05) while Ramsay sedation score was significantly higher (P<0.05). POCD was observed on 28 patients, containing 17 controls and 11 dexmedetomidine individuals, one day after operation, and 21 patients (12 controls, 9 dexmedetomidine people) five days after operation. One- and five-day after operation, the levels of TNF-α, NSE and IL-6 in the dexmedetomidine group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05), and serum SOD significantly increased in the former (P<0.05). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine had a neuroprotective effect on anesthesia recovery and postoperative period of the elderly patients undergone robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy, which might be related to the reduction of inflammatory reaction induced by dexmedetomidine. PMID:26379954

  12. Hennepin County Resource Recovery Facility plant acceptance test -- methods and results

    SciTech Connect

    Nobles, W.C.; Clemons, C.W.; Schuetzenduebel, W.G. )

    1993-01-01

    Plant acceptance testing was conducted at the Hennepin County, Minn., Resource Recovery Facility on December 14--21, 1989. The test was conducted to prove the capability of the facility to meet guaranteed performance requirements. The Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) processing rate guarantee and electric power production guarantee depends on the heating value of the test MSW. Therefore, an integral part of the test was the determination of fuel heating value. This was accomplished by the boiler as calorimeter (BAC) test method. This article describes each facet of the plant acceptance test (except the environmental compliance test, performed separately). Test methods and results are presented and compared with performance guarantees. Results showed the facility, owned by General Electric Capital, exceeded all contractual performance guarantees.

  13. T cell memory in the injured facial motor nucleus: Relation to functional recovery following facial nerve crush

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Grace K.; Pastrana, Marlon; Huang, Zhi; Petitto, John M.

    2012-01-01

    T cells have the ability to mount a memory response to a previously encountered antigen such that re-exposure to the antigen results in a response that is greater in magnitude and function. Following facial nerve transection, T cells have been shown to traffic to injured motor neurons in the facial motor nucleus (FMN) and may have the ability to promote neuronal survival and functional recovery. Previously, we demonstrated that early exposure to neuronal injury on one side of the brain during young adulthood elicited a T cell response that was greater in magnitude following exposure to the same form of injury on the contralateral side later in adulthood. Whether the T cell memory response to neuronal injury influenced functional recovery following nerve crush injury was unknown. In the current study, we tested the hypotheses that (1) transection of the right facial nerve in sensitized mice would result in faster recovery of the whisker response when the contralateral facial nerve is crushed 10 weeks later, and (2) the early recovery would be associated with an increase in the magnitude of the T cell response in the contralateral FMN following crush injury in sensitized mice. The onset of modest recovery in sensitized mice occurred between 3 and 5 days following crush injury of the contralateral facial nerve, approximately 1.5 days earlier than nave mice, and was associated with more than a two-fold increase in the magnitude of the T cell response in the contralateral FMN following crush injury. There was no difference between groups in the number of days to full recovery. Further study of how T cell memory influences neuroregeneration may have important implications for translational research. PMID:18687384

  14. Sensory experience during locomotion promotes recovery of function in adult visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Megumi; Stryker, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Recovery from sensory deprivation is slow and incomplete in adult visual cortex. In this study, we show that visual stimulation during locomotion, which increases the gain of visual responses in primary visual cortex, dramatically enhances recovery in the mouse. Excitatory neurons regained normal levels of response, while narrow-spiking (inhibitory) neurons remained less active. Visual stimulation or locomotion alone did not enhance recovery. Responses to the particular visual stimuli viewed by the animal during locomotion recovered, while those to another normally effective stimulus did not, suggesting that locomotion promotes the recovery only of the neural circuits that are activated concurrent with the locomotion. These findings may provide an avenue for improving recovery from amblyopia in humans.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02798.001. PMID:24970838

  15. Multipotent hair follicle stem cells promote repair of spinal cord injury and recovery of walking function.

    PubMed

    Amoh, Yasuyuki; Li, Lingna; Katsuoka, Kensei; Hoffman, Robert M

    2008-06-15

    The mouse hair follicle is an easily accessible source of actively growing, pluripotent adult stem cells. C57BL transgenic mice, labeled with the fluorescent protein GFP, afforded follicle stem cells whose fate could be followed when transferred to recipient animals. These cells appear to be relatively undifferentiated since they are positive for the stem cell markers nestin and CD34 but negative for the keratinocyte marker keratin 15. These hair follicle stem cells can differentiate into neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells and melanocytes in vitro. Implanting hair follicle stem cells into the gap region of severed sciatic or tibial nerves greatly enhanced the rate of nerve regeneration and restoration of nerve function. The transplanted follicle cells transdifferentiated mostly into Schwann cells, which are known to support neuron regrowth. The treated mice regained the ability to walk essentially normally. In the present study, we severed the thoracic spinal chord of C57BL/6 immunocompetent mice and transplanted GFP-expressing hair follicle stem cells to the injury site. Most of the transplanted cells also differentiated into Schwann cells that apparently facilitated repair of the severed spinal cord. The rejoined spinal cord reestablished extensive hind-limb locomotor performance. These results suggest that hair follicle stem cells can promote the recovery of spinal cord injury. Thus, hair follicle stem cells provide an effective accessible, autologous source of stem cells for the promising treatment of peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury. PMID:18583926

  16. Doxycycline-regulated GDNF expression promotes axonal regeneration and functional recovery in transected peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Shakhbazau, Antos; Mohanty, Chandan; Shcharbin, Dzmitry; Bryszewska, Maria; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Alant, Jacob; Midha, Rajiv

    2013-12-28

    Increased production of neurotrophic factors (NTFs) is one of the key responses seen following peripheral nerve injury, making them an attractive choice for pro-regenerative gene therapies. However, the downside of over-expression of certain NTFs, including glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), was earlier found to be the trapping and misdirection of regenerating axons, the so-called 'candy-store' effect. We report a proof-of-principle study on the application of conditional GDNF expression system in injured peripheral nerve. We engineered Schwann cells (SCs) using dendrimers or lentiviral transduction with the vector providing doxycycline-regulated GDNF expression. Injection of GDNF-modified cells into the injured peripheral nerve followed by time-restricted administration of doxycycline demonstrated that GDNF expression in SCs can also be controlled locally in the peripheral nerves of the experimental animals. Cell-based GDNF therapy was shown to increase the extent of axonal regeneration, while controlled deactivation of GDNF effectively prevented trapping of regenerating axons in GDNF-enriched areas, and was associated with improved functional recovery. PMID:24140746

  17. Exercise facilitates the action of dietary DHA on functional recovery after brain trauma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Aiguo; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The abilities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and exercise to counteract cognitive decay after TBI is getting increasing recognition; however, the possibility that these actions can be complementary remains just as an intriguing possibility. Here we have examined the likelihood that the combination of diet and exercise has the added potential to facilitate functional recovery following TBI. Rats received mild fluid percussion injury (mFPI) or sham injury and then were maintained on a diet high in DHA (1.2% DHA) with or without voluntary exercise for 12 days. We found that FPI reduced DHA content in the brain, which was accompanied by increased levels of lipid peroxidation assessed using 4-HHE. FPI reduced the enzymes Acox1 and 17 -HSD4, and the calcium-independent phospholipases A2 (iPLA2), which are involved in metabolism of membrane phospholipids. FPI reduced levels of syntaxin-3 (STX-3), involved in the action of membrane DHA on synaptic membrane expansion, and also reduced BDNF signaling through its TrkB receptor. These effects of FPI were optimally counteracted by the combination of DHA and exercise. Our results support the possibility that the complementary action of exercise is exerted on restoring membrane homeostasis after TBI, which is necessary for supporting synaptic plasticity and cognition. It is our contention that strategies that take advantage of the combined applications of diet and exercise may have additional effects to the injured brain. PMID:23811071

  18. Overexpression of Sox11 Promotes Corticospinal Tract Regeneration after Spinal Injury While Interfering with Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zimei; Reynolds, Ashley; Kirry, Adam; Nienhaus, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic neurons, peripheral neurons, and CNS neurons in zebrafish respond to axon injury by initiating pro-regenerative transcriptional programs that enable axons to extend, locate appropriate targets, and ultimately contribute to behavioral recovery. In contrast, many long-distance projection neurons in the adult mammalian CNS, notably corticospinal tract (CST) neurons, display a much lower regenerative capacity. To promote CNS repair, a long-standing goal has been to activate pro-regenerative mechanisms that are normally missing from injured CNS neurons. Sox11 is a transcription factor whose expression is common to a many types of regenerating neurons, but it is unknown whether suboptimal Sox11 expression contributes to low regenerative capacity in the adult mammalian CNS. Here we show in adult mice that dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGs) and CST neurons fail to upregulate Sox11 after spinal axon injury. Furthermore, forced viral expression of Sox11 reduces axonal dieback of DRG axons, and promotes CST sprouting and regenerative axon growth in both acute and chronic injury paradigms. In tests of forelimb dexterity, however, Sox11 overexpression in the cortex caused a modest but consistent behavioral impairment. These data identify Sox11 as a key transcription factor that can confer an elevated innate regenerative capacity to CNS neurons. The results also demonstrate an unexpected dissociation between axon growth and behavioral outcome, highlighting the need for additional strategies to optimize the functional output of stimulated neurons. PMID:25698749

  19. Acupuncture-mediated inhibition of inflammation facilitates significant functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Choi, Doo C; Lee, Jee Y; Moon, Youn J; Kim, Shin W; Oh, Tae H; Yune, Tae Y

    2010-09-01

    Here, we first demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of acupuncture after SCI. Acupuncture applied at two specific acupoints, Shuigou (GV26) and Yanglingquan (GB34) significantly alleviated apoptotic cell death of neurons and oligodendrocytes, thereby leading to improved functional recovery after SCI. Acupuncture also inhibited caspase-3 activation and reduced the size of lesion cavity and extent of loss of axons. We also found that the activation of both p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and resident microglia after injury are significantly attenuated by acupuncture. In addition, acupuncture significantly reduced the expression or activation of pro-nerve growth factor, proinflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, nitric oxide synthase, cycloxygenase-2, and matrix metalloprotease-9 after SCI. Thus, our results suggest that the neuroprotection by acupuncture may be partly mediated via inhibition of inflammation and microglial activation after SCI and acupuncture can be used as a potential therapeutic tool for treating acute spinal injury in human. PMID:20382225

  20. Gains in upper extremity function after stroke via recovery or compensation: Potential differential effects on amount of real-world limb use.

    PubMed

    Lum, Peter S; Mulroy, Sara; Amdur, Richard L; Requejo, Philip; Prilutsky, Boris I; Dromerick, Alexander W

    2009-01-01

    In terms of integration of the paretic upper extremity in activities of daily living (ADLs), outcome is poor after stroke. Furthermore, amount of real-world arm use appears only weakly correlated with laboratory motor function scales. Therefore, amount of arm use may depend critically on the location, extent, and type of functional gains, which can be quantified with comprehensive kinematic and EMG analysis of ADL performance. Gains in upper extremity function can occur via compensation or recovery of premorbid movement and EMG patterns, and traditional treatment approaches encourage adoption of compensatory strategies early in the postacute period that can inhibit potential recovery. A new treatment approach called Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program (ASAP) focuses on impairment reduction coupled with repetitive, task-specific training of the paretic arm during ADLs. We present pilot data that show recovery in subjects who received the ASAP, while a usual care control subject showed increased use of compensation over the same period. Finally, we discuss the advantages of data reduction methods such as principal components analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling, which can potentially distill large kinematic and EMG data sets into the key latent variables that predict amount of real-world use. PMID:19740730

  1. Delayed Imatinib Treatment for Acute Spinal Cord Injury: Functional Recovery and Serum Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Anja; Hao, Jingxia; Wellfelt, Katrin; Josephson, Anna; Svensson, Camilla I.; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Zsuzsanna; Eriksson, Ulf; Abrams, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract With no currently available drug treatment for spinal cord injury, there is a need for additional therapeutic candidates. We took the approach of repositioning existing pharmacological agents to serve as acute treatments for spinal cord injury and previously found imatinib to have positive effects on locomotor and bladder function in experimental spinal cord injury when administered immediately after the injury. However, for imatinib to have translational value, it needs to have sustained beneficial effects with delayed initiation of treatment, as well. Here, we show that imatinib improves hind limb locomotion and bladder recovery when initiation of treatment was delayed until 4 h after injury and that bladder function was improved with a delay of up to 24 h. The treatment did not induce hypersensitivity. Instead, imatinib-treated animals were generally less hypersensitive to either thermal or mechanical stimuli, compared with controls. In an effort to provide potential biomarkers, we found serum levels of three cytokines/chemokines—monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3α, and keratinocyte chemoattractant/growth-regulated oncogene (interleukin 8)—to increase over time with imatinib treatment and to be significantly higher in injured imatinib-treated animals than in controls during the early treatment period. This correlated to macrophage activation and autofluorescence in lymphoid organs. At the site of injury in the spinal cord, macrophage activation was instead reduced by imatinib treatment. Our data strengthen the case for clinical trials of imatinib by showing that initiation of treatment can be delayed and by identifying serum cytokines that may serve as candidate markers of effective imatinib doses. PMID:25914996

  2. Functional recovery of supersensitive dopamine receptors after intrastriatal grafts of fetal substantia nigra

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, T.M.; Dawson, V.L.; Gage, F.H.; Fisher, L.J.; Hunt, M.A.; Wamsley, J.K. )

    1991-03-01

    Interruption of the ascending dopamine neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway, by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion in rats, produced a significant loss of the dopamine transport complexes labeled with the phencyclidine derivative (3H)BTCP. This loss of dopamine innervation in the striatum was present at least 12 to 14 months after lesioning and was functionally manifested by ipsilateral rotation of the animals in response to amphetamine. In these same animals, in comparison to controls, there was a significant increase in the number (Bmax) of (3H)SCH 23390-labeled D-1 receptors in the striatum (36.7%) and the substantia nigra (35.1%) and a 54.4% increase in the number (Bmax) of (3H)sulpiride-labeled striatal D-2 receptors without an apparent change in affinity (Kd). Ten to twelve months after the transplantation of homologous fetal substantia nigra into the denervated striatum, there was a significant decrease in amphetamine-induced turning behavior. In these animals, there was an ingrowth of dopamine nerve terminals in the striatum as demonstrated by a return of (3H)BTCP binding. Accompanying this reinnervation was the normalization of D-1 and D-2 receptors to control values in the striatum as well as the return of D-1 receptors to prelesion densities in the substantia nigra. In a subgroup of transplanted rats, amphetamine continued to induce ipsilateral turning. In these animals both D-1 and D-2 receptors remained supersensitive. These results support the hypothesis that the functional recovery of transplanted animals is due, in part, to reinnervation of the striatum. In addition, long-term alterations in receptor density may be related to the behavioral deficits that are associated with the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat.

  3. Low tidal volume with PEEP and recruitment expedite the recovery of pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Xin; Cui, Yinghua; Wang, Changsong; Guo, Lei; Sun, Bo; Shi, Jinghui; Lin, Ziwei; Zhao, Nana; Wang, Weiwei; Fu, Songbin; Li, Enyou

    2015-01-01

    The potentially harmful effects of short-term mechanical ventilation during surgery have been examined in recent years. An optimal strategy for mechanical ventilation of patients during non-laparoscopic abdominal surgery must be devised. A total of 63 patients undergoing elective open abdominal surgery with more than 2 h of ventilation time were selected for this randomized, open-label, clinical study. They were divided into three ventilation groups: high volume of 9 ml/kg IBW (ideal body weight) with ZEEP (zero end-expiratory pressure); low volume of 7 ml/kg IBW with 8 cm H2O PEEP (positive end expiratory pressure); and low volume of 7 ml/kg IBW with 8 cm H2O PEEP and recruitment. Intraoperative PaO2/FiO2 ratio and pulmonary compliance and postoperative pulmonary function were measured. There were no significant differences in intraoperative PaO2/FiO2 ratio among the three groups (P=0.31). The pulmonary compliance of three groups showed different changes over time (group effect over time P=0.0006). There were no significant differences in FEV1 or FVC among the three groups (P=0.32 and 0.09, respectively), but both of these measurements showed different changes over time (group effect over time P<0.001). On the first postoperative day, the low volume with high PEEP and recruitment group had significantly higher FEV1 than the other two groups (mean ± SD): 1.52±0.37 versus 0.95±0.38 (P<0.001) and 1.52±0.37 versus 0.95±0.34 (P<0.001), respectively. Low tidal volume with PEEP and recruitment showed advantages in maintaining the pulmonary compliance and expediting the recovery of the 1st postoperative day’s pulmonary function in patients undergoing non-laparoscopic abdominal surgery. PMID:26823746

  4. Brief repetitive ischemia: effect on norepinephrine release, arrhythmias, and functional recovery in isolated perfused rat heart.

    PubMed

    Feng, J; Chahine, R; Yamaguchi, N; Lamontagne, D; Nadeau, R

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine norepinephrine release, functional recovery, and incidence of arrhythmias following multiple episodes of brief (5 min) ischemia and to compare these variables with those obtained after continuous ischemia (30 min) in isolated rat hearts perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit solution. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), and cardiac rhythm were continuously recorded. The amount of norepinephrine in perfusate was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The data showed no increases in LVEDP during the six successive 5-min periods of ischemia interrupted by 5-min reperfusion. The six repetitive periods of reperfusion after repetitive 5-min periods of ischemia were associated with a restoration of left ventricular diastolic function and preservation of reactive hyperemia (23.3 +/- 1.5 mL/min vs. baseline 16.5 +/- 1.3 mL/min; p < 0.05). The incidences of ventricular fibrillation (VF) (10/10) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) (10/10) upon reperfusion in the continuous ischemia group were higher than those in the repetitive ischemia group (VF, 2/10; VT, 3/10; p < 0.05). Norepinephrine washout upon reperfusion after 30-min continuous ischemia was 58.2 +/- 17.4 ng/g of heart, but no increase in norepinephrine washout was observed after brief repetitive ischemic episodes (11.2 +/- 2.4 ng/g of heart) (p < 0.05). Our results show a substantial release of norepinephrine only after 30 min of continuous ischemia, in the isolated rat heart. PMID:9047046

  5. Myocardial oxygenation and functional recovery in infarct rat hearts transplanted with mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Simi M.; Khan, Mahmood; Kuppusamy, M. Lakshmi; Pandian, Ramasamy P.; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah; Bratasz, Anna; Rivera, Brian K.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2009-01-01

    Stem cell therapy for myocardial tissue repair is limited by the poor survival of transplanted cells, possibly because of inadequate supply of oxygen and nutrients. The purpose of this study was to assess the oxygenation level and functional recovery after allogenic transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). Myocardial oxygen tension (Po2) was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry using an implantable oxygen-sensing spin probe (OxySpin). MSCs incubated with OxySpins showed substantial uptake of the probe without affecting its oxygen sensitivity or calibration. The cells internalized with OxySpins were able to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, cardiomyocyte, and endothelial cell lineages. The labeled cells tested positive for CD44 and CD29 markers and negative for the hematopoietic markers CD14 and CD45. For the in vivo studies, MI was induced in rats by permanently ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. MSCs with OxySpins were transplanted in the infarct region of hearts. A significant increase in Po2 was observed in the MSC group compared with the untreated MI group (18.1 2.6 vs. 13.0 1.8 mmHg, n = 4, P < 0.05) at 4 wk after transplantation. Echocardiography showed a significant improvement in ejection fraction and fraction shortening, which inversely correlated with the magnitude of fibrosis in the treated hearts. The cell-transplanted hearts also showed an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor level and capillary density in the infarct region. The study established our ability to measure and correlate changes in myocardial tissue oxygenation with cardiac function in infarcted rat hearts treated with MSCs. PMID:19286938

  6. The RFad Method--a new fatigue recovery time assessment for industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Silva e Santos, Marcello; Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez; Moreira, Sergio Bastos

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study about fatigue recovery time assessment processes in work activities. It came about due to a demand presented by an automotive industry giant, in need of updating existing cycle time sheets and TAKT time parameters. The company decided to hire an Ergonomics Laboratory with ties to a major Brazilian University in order to evaluate current conditions and establish a new method to either calculate recovery times or validate existing assessment criteria, based in the ergonomics evaluation of the work activities. It is clear that there has been evident evolution in the industrial sector in the past two decades. It brought up fast modernization of industrial processes, not only in production but also in terms of management systems. Due to improved computer and robotics systems, combined with overall operational advancements - like the use of lighter hand tools and more effective hoist systems - most work activities have had its physical effort requirements reduced in the past decades. Thus, compensation factors built into production times need to be reviewed in order to avoid unnecessary costs associated to them. By using ergonomics considerations, we prevent simply removing the physical variables built in rest time calculations without taking on account, for example, additional cognitive load represented by the use of more sophisticated pieces of equipment. PMID:22316952

  7. Early constraint-induced movement therapy promotes functional recovery and neuronal plasticity in a subcortical hemorrhage model rat.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Akimasa; Misumi, Sachiyo; Ueda, Yoshitomo; Shimizu, Yuko; Cha-Gyun, Jung; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Ishida, Kazuto; Hida, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) promotes functional recovery of impaired forelimbs after hemiplegic strokes, including intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We used a rat model of subcortical hemorrhage to compare the effects of delivering early or late CIMT after ICH. The rat model was made by injecting collagenase into the globus pallidus near the internal capsule, and then forcing rats to use the affected forelimb for 7 days starting either 1 day (early CIMT) or 17 days (late CIMT) after the lesion. Recovery of forelimb function in the skilled reaching test and the ladder stepping test was found after early-CIMT, while no significant recovery was shown after late CIMT or in the non-CIMT controls. Early CIMT was associated with greater numbers of ΔFosB-positive cells in the ipsi-lesional sensorimotor cortex layers II-III and V. Additionally, we found expression of the growth-related genes brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and growth-related protein 43 (GAP-43), and abundant dendritic arborization of pyramidal neurons in the sensorimotor area. Similar results were not detected in the contra-lesional cortex. In contrast to early CIMT, late CIMT failed to induce any changes in plasticity. We conclude that CIMT induces molecular and morphological plasticity in the ipsi-lesional sensorimotor cortex and facilitates better functional recovery when initiated immediately after hemorrhage. PMID:25700666

  8. Folic Acid Enhances Early Functional Recovery in a Piglet Model of Pediatric Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    Naim, Maryam Y.; Friess, Stuart; Smith, Colin; Ralston, Jill; Ryall, Karen; Helfaer, Mark A.; Margulies, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    For stroke and spinal cord injury, folic acid supplementation has been shown to enhance neurodevelopment and to provide neuroprotection. We hypothesized that folic acid would reduce brain injury and improve neurological outcome in a neonatal piglet model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), using 4 experimental groups of 3- to 5-day-old female piglets. Two groups were intubated, anesthetized and had moderate brain injury induced by rapid axial head rotation without impact. One group of injured (Inj) animals received folic acid (Fol; 80 μg/kg) by intraperitoneal (IP) injection 15 min following injury, and then daily for 6 days (Inj + Fol; n = 7). The second group of injured animals received an IP injection of saline (Sal) at the same time points (Inj + Sal; n = 8). Two uninjured (Uninj) control groups (Uninj + Fol, n = 8; Uninj + Sal, n = 7) were intubated, anesthetized and received folic acid (80 μg/kg) or saline by IP injection at the same time points as the injured animals following a sham procedure. Animals underwent neurobehavioral and cognitive testing on days 1 and 4 following injury to assess behavior, memory, learning and problem solving. Serum folic acid and homocysteine levels were collected prior to injury and again before euthanasia. The piglets were euthanized 6 days following injury, and their brains were perfusion fixed for histological analysis. Folic acid levels were significantly higher in both Fol groups on day 6. Homocysteine levels were not affected by treatment. On day 1 following injury, the Inj + Fol group showed significantly more exploratory interest, and better motor function, learning and problem solving compared to the Inj + Sal group. Inj + Fol animals had a significantly lower cognitive composite dysfunction score compared to all other groups on day 1. These functional improvements were not seen on day 4 following injury. Axonal injury measured by β-amyloid precursor protein staining 6 days after injury was not affected by treatment. These results suggest that folic acid may enhance early functional recovery in this piglet model of pediatric head injury. This is the first study to describe the application of complex functional testing to assess an intervention outcome in a swine model of TBI. PMID:21212637

  9. Folic acid enhances early functional recovery in a piglet model of pediatric head injury.

    PubMed

    Naim, Maryam Y; Friess, Stuart; Smith, Colin; Ralston, Jill; Ryall, Karen; Helfaer, Mark A; Margulies, Susan S

    2010-01-01

    For stroke and spinal cord injury, folic acid supplementation has been shown to enhance neurodevelopment and to provide neuroprotection. We hypothesized that folic acid would reduce brain injury and improve neurological outcome in a neonatal piglet model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), using 4 experimental groups of 3- to 5-day-old female piglets. Two groups were intubated, anesthetized and had moderate brain injury induced by rapid axial head rotation without impact. One group of injured (Inj) animals received folic acid (Fol; 80 ?g/kg) by intraperitoneal (IP) injection 15 min following injury, and then daily for 6 days (Inj + Fol; n = 7). The second group of injured animals received an IP injection of saline (Sal) at the same time points (Inj + Sal; n = 8). Two uninjured (Uninj) control groups (Uninj + Fol, n = 8; Uninj + Sal, n = 7) were intubated, anesthetized and received folic acid (80 ?g/kg) or saline by IP injection at the same time points as the injured animals following a sham procedure. Animals underwent neurobehavioral and cognitive testing on days 1 and 4 following injury to assess behavior, memory, learning and problem solving. Serum folic acid and homocysteine levels were collected prior to injury and again before euthanasia. The piglets were euthanized 6 days following injury, and their brains were perfusion fixed for histological analysis. Folic acid levels were significantly higher in both Fol groups on day 6. Homocysteine levels were not affected by treatment. On day 1 following injury, the Inj + Fol group showed significantly more exploratory interest, and better motor function, learning and problem solving compared to the Inj + Sal group. Inj + Fol animals had a significantly lower cognitive composite dysfunction score compared to all other groups on day 1. These functional improvements were not seen on day 4 following injury. Axonal injury measured by ?-amyloid precursor protein staining 6 days after injury was not affected by treatment. These results suggest that folic acid may enhance early functional recovery in this piglet model of pediatric head injury. This is the first study to describe the application of complex functional testing to assess an intervention outcome in a swine model of TBI. PMID:21212637

  10. Recovery From Disablement: What Functional Abilities Do Rehabilitation Professionals Value the Most?

    PubMed Central

    Rist, Pamela M.; Freas, Damean W.; Maislin, Greg; Stineman, Margaret G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether rehabilitation clinicians representing different therapeutic disciplines would choose to recover from profound disability differently. Design Applying recovery preference exploration as a data-collection tool, clinicians imagined recovery from complete disability in each of the 18 activities assessed on the FIM instrument. We hypothesized that recovery-choice pathways would vary among the disciplines because of differences in training and practice focus. We compared each clinicians preference for imagined recovery of the ability to perform each FIM activity relative to the other 17. Item-level preferences were explored by discipline. The mean absolute difference (MAD) in the medians of the 18 FIM recovery preference values between each of the disciplines was used to quantify overall differences. Setting Inpatient rehabilitation unit within a larger tertiary care urban hospital of an academic medical center. Participants Ninety-three clinicians actively providing care to patients in an inpatient rehabilitation setting classified into 5 groups anticipated to have similar types of practices: physicians and medical students (physician group), nurses, occupational and recreational therapists (occupational therapy [OT] group), physical therapists (physical therapy [PT] group), and neuropsychologists and social workers (psychology group). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Relative recovery preferences in 18 FIM activities. Results The MAD value between the 2 groups with the least similar recovery values (physician and psychology groups) was 1.78 times larger than the MAD value between the 2 groups with the most similar recovery values (PT and OT groups). Conclusions There were subtle differences in recovery choice pathways that may logically relate to differences in the cognitive processes used in clinical decision making among the therapeutic discipline groups. PMID:18597736

  11. Method and apparatus for recovery of energy from blast furnace exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect

    Shirato, T.

    1981-06-02

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for recovering energy from a blast furnace exhaust gas by utilizing an axial-flow turbine. According to the method of the present invention, a blast furnace exhaust gas is first passed through a wet scrubber to remove dusts and form a saturated gas, and low temperature water is sprayed to the saturated gas to add condensed mists to the gas. According to this method, adhesion of dusts to a turbine can be effectively prevented. When large nozzles and large moving blades are used for the turbine for use in practising this method, adhesion of dusts and erosion of nozzles and moving blades can be effectively prevented. This energy recovery method can be practised very advantageously by using an axial-flow turbine in which the gas flow-out direction at the nozzle outlet is made in agreement with the gas flow-out direction at the moving blade outlet to always impart to the gas a swirling speed around the axial center of the turbine, so that the dusts and mists are shaken off from the gas.

  12. Biomaterial-based interventions for neuronal regeneration and functional recovery in rodent model of spinal cord injury: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Vibhor; Konakondla, Sanjay; Nicholas, Joyce; Varma, Abhay; Kindy, Mark; Wen, Xuejun

    2013-01-01

    Context There is considerable interest in translating laboratory advances in neuronal regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI). A multimodality approach has been advocated for successful functional neuronal regeneration. With this goal in mind several biomaterials have been employed as neuronal bridges either to support cellular transplants, to release neurotrophic factors, or to do both. A systematic review of this literature is lacking. Such a review may provide insight to strategies with a high potential for further investigation and potential clinical application. Objective To systematically review the design strategies and outcomes after biomaterial-based multimodal interventions for neuronal regeneration in rodent SCI model. To analyse functional outcomes after implantation of biomaterial-based multimodal interventions and to identify predictors of functional outcomes. Methods A broad PubMed, CINHAL, and a manual search of relevant literature databases yielded data from 24 publications; 14 of these articles included functional outcome information. Studies reporting behavioral data in rat model of SCI and employing biodegradable polymer-based multimodal intervention were included. For behavioral recovery, studies using severe injury models (transection or severe clip compression (>16.9 g) or contusion (50 g/cm)) were categorized separately from those investigating partial injury models (hemisection or moderate-to-severe clip compression or contusion). Results The cumulative mean improvements in Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores after biomaterial-based interventions are 5.93 (95% CI = 2.41 − 9.45) and 4.44 (95% CI = 2.65 – 6.24) for transection and hemisection models, respectively. Factors associated with improved outcomes include the type of polymer used and a follow-up period greater than 6 weeks. Conclusion The functional improvement after implantation of biopolymer-based multimodal implants is modest. The relationship with neuronal regeneration and functional outcome, the effects of inflammation at the site of injury, the prolonged survival of supporting cells, the differentiation of stem cells, the effective delivery of neurotrophic factors, and longer follow-up periods are all topics for future elucidation. Future investigations should strive to further define specific factors associated with improved functional outcomes in clinically relevant models. PMID:23809587

  13. Method for efficient recovery of high-purity polycarbonates from electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Weeden, George S; Soepriatna, Nicholas H; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

    2015-02-17

    More than one million tons of polycarbonates from waste electrical and electronic equipment are consigned to landfills at an increasing rate of 3-5% per year. Recycling the polymer waste should have a major environmental impact. Pure solvents cannot be used to selectively extract polycarbonates from mixtures of polymers with similar properties. In this study, selective mixed solvents are found using guidelines from Hansen solubility parameters, gradient polymer elution chromatography, and solubility tests. A room-temperature sequential extraction process using two mixed solvents is developed to recover polycarbonates with high yield (>95%) and a similar purity and molecular weight distribution as virgin polycarbonates. The estimated cost of recovery is less than 30% of the cost of producing virgin polycarbonates from petroleum. This method would potentially reduce raw materials from petroleum, use 84% less energy, reduce emission by 1-6 tons of CO2 per ton of polycarbonates, and reduce polymer accumulation in landfills and associated environmental hazards. PMID:25625790

  14. Modified miniprep method for the rapid recovery of episomes from transfected breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bowers, M T; Ramachandran, S; Yu, B W

    1999-02-01

    Episomal vectors such as pCEP4 are useful in expression cloning because they can replicate in both prokaryotes and eukaryotic cells. We have found a rapid and efficient means of extracting them from transfected MCF-10A nonmalignant human breast epithelial cells. We show that a plasmid miniprep protocol, modified by the addition of an extraction that eliminates a DNase activity, can consistently harvest pCEP4 episomes from the transfected cells (516 +/- 112 pg/harvest, mean +/- standard deviation; n = 11). The quality of the episomal DNA obtained in this manner was verified by PCR, Southern blot and the retransformation of Escherichia coli. This simple method enables the efficient recovery of episomes and is applicable in the expression cloning of potential oncogenes using host MCF-10A cells. PMID:10023539

  15. Method for enhancing selectivity and recovery in the fractional flotation of particles in a flotation column

    DOEpatents

    Klunder, Edgar B. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2011-08-09

    The method relates to particle separation from a feed stream. The feed stream is injected directly into the froth zone of a vertical flotation column in the presence of a counter-current reflux stream. A froth breaker generates a reflux stream and a concentrate stream, and the reflux stream is injected into the froth zone to mix with the interstitial liquid between bubbles in the froth zone. Counter-current flow between the plurality of bubbles and the interstitial liquid facilitates the attachment of higher hydrophobicity particles to bubble surfaces as lower hydrophobicity particles detach. The height of the feed stream injection and the reflux ratio may be varied in order to optimize the concentrate or tailing stream recoveries desired based on existing operating conditions.

  16. Sensitivity, variability, and recovery of functional and structural endpoints of an aquatic community exposed to herbicides.

    PubMed

    Knauer, Katja; Hommen, Udo

    2012-04-01

    A mesocosm study with three photosystem-II inhibitors and an equipotent mixture was performed to address the value of functional and structural endpoints in evaluating the impact of herbicides on aquatic systems. The herbicides atrazine, diuron, and isoproturon were dosed in the ratio of their relative potencies as HC30 for the single substance treatments and as 1/3 HC30 for the mixture treatment to obtain comparable effect concentrations. To investigate the effects of the three herbicides and their mixture on photosynthesis of the whole system, the physical-chemical parameters pH, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity were monitored. To address effects on photosynthesis more specifically, the photosynthetic efficiency of phytoplankton and three submersed macrophytes (Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Potamogeton lucens) were investigated applying in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator for their activity. As a structural endpoint, the species abundance and community structure of the phytoplankton community was determined. Effects were continuously monitored over a five week period of constant exposure, and during a 3 month post-exposure period. The sensitivity, expressed as maximum effect during constant exposure, was higher for the structural parameters (total and single species abundances and PRC) than for the functional parameters. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for the physical-chemical parameters was below 10%, for the photosynthesis measurement of the phytoplankton and macrophytes below 10 and 30%, respectively. Structural parameters, however, yielded higher variability with mean CVs for phytoplankton abundance data and single sensitive species reaching up to 96%. Effects on the phytoplankton photosynthesis measured via in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence were constant during the exposure period; whereas macrophytes recovered quickly from photosynthesis inhibition despite constant exposure. Effects on total system photosynthesis, determined via physical-chemical parameters, lasted for a shorter period than for the phytoplankton photosynthesis demonstrating the importance of the macrophytes for total primary production. Thus, the evaluation of effects on communities in model ecosystems such as micro- and mesocosms should not be based on structural endpoints only due to their comparably high inherent variability. Instead, we recommend complementing the risk assessment with data obtained from sensitive functional endpoints addressing the specific mode of action of the respective compound for the most sensitive group of organisms to avoid over-estimation of the recovery potential of the aquatic system. PMID:22153306

  17. Function-Triggering Antibodies to the Adhesion Molecule L1 Enhance Recovery after Injury of the Adult Mouse Femoral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Guseva, Daria; Loers, Gabriele; Schachner, Melitta

    2014-01-01

    L1 is among the few adhesion molecules that favors repair after trauma in the adult central nervous system of vertebrates by promoting neuritogenesis and neuronal survival, among other beneficial features. In the peripheral nervous system, L1 is up-regulated in Schwann cells and regrowing axons after nerve damage, but the functional consequences of this expression remain unclear. Our previous study of L1-deficient mice in a femoral nerve injury model showed an unexpected improved functional recovery, attenuated motoneuronal cell death, and enhanced Schwann cell proliferation, being attributed to the persistent synthesis of neurotrophic factors. On the other hand, transgenic mice over-expressing L1 in neurons led to improved remyelination, but not improved functional recovery. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the monoclonal L1 antibody 557 that triggers beneficial L1 functions in vitro would trigger these also in femoral nerve repair. We analyzed femoral nerve regeneration in C57BL/6J mice that received this antibody in a hydrogel filled conduit connecting the cut and sutured nerve before its bifurcation, leading to short-term release of antibody by diffusion. Video-based quantitative analysis of motor functions showed improved recovery when compared to mice treated with conduits containing PBS in the hydrogel scaffold, as a vehicle control. This improved recovery was associated with attenuated motoneuron loss, remyelination and improved precision of preferential motor reinnervation. We suggest that function-triggering L1 antibodies applied to the lesion site at the time of injury over a limited time period will not only be beneficial in peripheral, but also central nervous system regeneration. PMID:25393007

  18. Function of the nucleus accumbens in motor control during recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Masahiro; Kato, Kenji; Kunieda, Takeharu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Miyamoto, Susumu; Onoe, Hirotaka; Isa, Tadashi; Nishimura, Yukio

    2015-10-01

    Motivation facilitates recovery after neuronal damage, but its mechanism is elusive. It is generally thought that the nucleus accumbens (NAc) regulates motivation-driven effort but is not involved in the direct control of movement. Using causality analysis, we identified the flow of activity from the NAc to the sensorimotor cortex (SMC) during the recovery of dexterous finger movements after spinal cord injury at the cervical level in macaque monkeys. Furthermore, reversible pharmacological inactivation of the NAc during the early recovery period diminished high-frequency oscillatory activity in the SMC, which was accompanied by a transient deficit of amelioration in finger dexterity obtained by rehabilitation. These results demonstrate that during recovery after spinal damage, the NAc up-regulates the high-frequency activity of the SMC and is directly involved in the control of finger movements. PMID:26430122

  19. Comparison of three DNA extraction methods for recovery of soil protist DNA.

    PubMed

    Santos, Susana S; Nielsen, Tue Kjærgaard; Hansen, Lars H; Winding, Anne

    2015-08-01

    The use of molecular methods to investigate protist communities in soil is in rapid development this decade. Molecular analysis of soil protist communities is usually dependant on direct genomic DNA extraction from soil and inefficient or differential DNA extraction of protist DNA can lead to bias in downstream community analysis. Three commonly used soil DNA extraction methods have been tested on soil samples from three European Long-Term Observatories (LTOs) with different land-use and three protist cultures belonging to different phylogenetic groups in different growth stages. The methods tested were: ISOm-11063 (a version of the ISO-11063 method modified to include a FastPrep ®-24 mechanical lysis step), GnS-GII (developed by the GenoSol platform to extract soil DNA in large-scale soil surveys) and a commercial DNA extraction kit - Power Lyzer™ PowerSoil® DNA Isolation Kit (MoBio). DNA yield and quality were evaluated along with DNA suitability for amplification of 18S rDNA fragments by PCR. On soil samples, ISOm-11063 yields significantly higher DNA for two of the three soil samples, however, MoBio extraction favors DNA quality. This method was also more effective to recover copies of 18S rDNA numbers from all soil types. In addition and despite the lower yields, higher DNA quality was observed with DNA extracted from protist cultures with the MoBio method. Likewise, a bead-beating step shows to be a good solution for DNA extraction of soil protists, since the recovery of DNA from protist cultures and from the different soil samples with the ISOm method proved to be efficient in recovering PCR-amplifiable DNA. This study showed that soil DNA extraction methods provide biased results towards the cyst stages of protist organism. PMID:25966645

  20. Effect of Delayed Peripheral Nerve Repair on Nerve Regeneration, Schwann Cell Function and Target Muscle Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Samuel; Wiberg, Rebecca; McGrath, Aleksandra M.; Novikov, Lev N.; Wiberg, Mikael; Novikova, Liudmila N.; Kingham, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques for peripheral nerve repair, functional restitution remains incomplete. The timing of surgery is one factor influencing the extent of recovery but it is not yet clearly defined how long a delay may be tolerated before repair becomes futile. In this study, rats underwent sciatic nerve transection before immediate (0) or 1, 3, or 6 months delayed repair with a nerve graft. Regeneration of spinal motoneurons, 13 weeks after nerve repair, was assessed using retrograde labeling. Nerve tissue was also collected from the proximal and distal stumps and from the nerve graft, together with the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. A dramatic decline in the number of regenerating motoneurons and myelinated axons in the distal nerve stump was observed in the 3- and 6-months delayed groups. After 3 months delay, the axonal number in the proximal stump increased 2–3 folds, accompanied by a smaller axonal area. RT-PCR of distal nerve segments revealed a decline in Schwann cells (SC) markers, most notably in the 3 and 6 month delayed repair samples. There was also a progressive increase in fibrosis and proteoglycan scar markers in the distal nerve with increased delayed repair time. The yield of SC isolated from the distal nerve segments progressively fell with increased delay in repair time but cultured SC from all groups proliferated at similar rates. MG muscle at 3- and 6-months delay repair showed a significant decline in weight (61% and 27% compared with contra-lateral side). Muscle fiber atrophy and changes to neuromuscular junctions were observed with increased delayed repair time suggestive of progressively impaired reinnervation. This study demonstrates that one of the main limiting factors for nerve regeneration after delayed repair is the distal stump. The critical time point after which the outcome of regeneration becomes too poor appears to be 3-months. PMID:23409189

  1. Interleukin-33 treatment reduces secondary injury and improves functional recovery after contusion spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Pomeshchik, Yuriy; Kidin, Iurii; Korhonen, Paula; Savchenko, Ekaterina; Jaronen, Merja; Lehtonen, Sarka; Wojciechowski, Sara; Kanninen, Katja; Koistinaho, Jari; Malm, Tarja

    2015-02-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a member of the interleukin-1 cytokine family and highly expressed in the nave mouse brain and spinal cord. Despite the fact that IL-33 is known to be inducible by various inflammatory stimuli, its cellular localization in the central nervous system and role in pathological conditions is controversial. Administration of recombinant IL-33 has been shown to attenuate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis progression in one study, yet contradictory reports also exist. Here we investigated for the first time the pattern of IL-33 expression in the contused mouse spinal cord and demonstrated that after spinal cord injury (SCI) IL-33 was up-regulated and exhibited a nuclear localization predominantly in astrocytes. Importantly, we found that treatment with recombinant IL-33 alleviated secondary damage by significantly decreasing tissue loss, demyelination and astrogliosis in the contused mouse spinal cord, resulting in dramatically improved functional recovery. We identified both central and peripheral mechanisms of IL-33 action. In spinal cord, IL-33 treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-alpha and promoted the activation of anti-inflammatory arginase-1 positive M2 microglia/macrophages, which chronically persisted in the injured spinal cord for up to at least 42 days after the treatment. In addition, IL-33 treatment showed a tendency towards reduced T-cell infiltration into the spinal cord. In the periphery, IL-33 treatment induced a shift towards the Th2 type cytokine profile and reduced the percentage and absolute number of cytotoxic, tumor necrosis factor-alpha expressing CD4+ cells in the spleen. Additionally, IL-33 treatment increased expression of T-regulatory cell marker FoxP3 and reduced expression of M1 marker iNOS in the spleen. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that IL-33 administration is beneficial after CNS trauma. Treatment with IL33 may offer a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with acute contusion SCI. PMID:25153903

  2. Electroacupuncture promotes the recovery of motor neuron function in the anterior horn of the injured spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-hui; Lv, Jian-guo; Wang, Hui; Nie, Hui-yong

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture has been shown to lessen the inflammatory reaction after acute spinal cord injury and reduce secondary injury. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, a rat model of spinal cord injury was established by compressing the T8–9 segments using a modified Nystrom method. Twenty-four hours after injury, Zusanli (ST36), Xuanzhong (GB39), Futu (ST32) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) were stimulated with electroacupuncture. Rats with spinal cord injury alone were used as controls. At 2, 4 and 6 weeks after injury, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity at the site of injury, the number of medium and large neurons in the spinal cord anterior horn, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) mRNA expression, and Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale scores were greater in the electroacupuncture group compared with the control group. These results demonstrate that electroacupuncture increases AChE activity, up-regulates GDNF mRNA expression, and promotes the recovery of motor neuron function in the anterior horn after spinal cord injury. PMID:26889195

  3. Electroacupuncture promotes the recovery of motor neuron function in the anterior horn of the injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Hui; Lv, Jian-Guo; Wang, Hui; Nie, Hui-Yong

    2015-12-01

    Acupuncture has been shown to lessen the inflammatory reaction after acute spinal cord injury and reduce secondary injury. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, a rat model of spinal cord injury was established by compressing the T8-9 segments using a modified Nystrom method. Twenty-four hours after injury, Zusanli (ST36), Xuanzhong (GB39), Futu (ST32) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) were stimulated with electroacupuncture. Rats with spinal cord injury alone were used as controls. At 2, 4 and 6 weeks after injury, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity at the site of injury, the number of medium and large neurons in the spinal cord anterior horn, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) mRNA expression, and Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale scores were greater in the electroacupuncture group compared with the control group. These results demonstrate that electroacupuncture increases AChE activity, up-regulates GDNF mRNA expression, and promotes the recovery of motor neuron function in the anterior horn after spinal cord injury. PMID:26889195

  4. Transplantated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Embryonic Stem Cells Promote Muscle Regeneration and Accelerate Functional Recovery of Injured Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ninagawa, Nana Takenaka; Isobe, Eri; Hirayama, Yuri; Murakami, Rumi; Komatsu, Kazumi; Nagai, Masataka; Kobayashi, Mami; Kawabata, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We previously established that mesenchymal stem cells originating from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells (E-MSCs) showed markedly higher potential for differentiation into skeletal muscles in vitro than common mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Further, the E-MSCs exhibited a low risk for teratoma formation. Here we evaluate the potential of E-MSCs for differentiation into skeletal muscles in vivo and reveal the regeneration and functional recovery of injured muscle by transplantation. E-MSCs were transplanted into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle 24 h following direct clamping. After transplantation, the myogenic differentiation of E-MSCs, TA muscle regeneration, and re-innervation were morphologically analyzed. In addition, footprints and gaits of each leg under spontaneous walking were measured by CatWalk XT, and motor functions of injured TA muscles were precisely analyzed. Results indicate that >60% of transplanted E-MSCs differentiated into skeletal muscles. The cross-sectional area of the injured TA muscles of E-MSC–transplanted animals increased earlier than that of control animals. E-MSCs also promotes re-innervation of the peripheral nerves of injured muscles. Concerning function of the TA muscles, we reveal that transplantation of E-MSCs promotes the recovery of muscles. This is the first report to demonstrate by analysis of spontaneous walking that transplanted cells can accelerate the functional recovery of injured muscles. Taken together, the results show that E-MSCs have a high potential for differentiation into skeletal muscles in vivo as well as in vitro. The transplantation of E-MSCs facilitated the functional recovery of injured muscles. Therefore, E-MSCs are an efficient cell source in transplantation. PMID:23914336

  5. Simultaneous bilateral versus unilateral computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty: a prospective comparison of early postoperative pain and functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Gautam M; Mullaji, Arun; Bhayde, Sagar; Chandra Vadapalli, Ramesh; Desai, Devanshu

    2010-06-01

    Whether simultaneous bilateral TKAs (SBTKAs) are more painful and the postoperative functional recovery slower compared to staged bilateral TKAs or unilateral TKAs are issues that frequently concerns patients. The purpose of the current study was to compare the early postoperative pain, function and recovery in simultaneous bilateral versus unilateral computer-assisted TKA. In this prospective study, 50 consecutive patients undergoing unilateral computer-assisted total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) were compared with 50 consecutive patients undergoing SBTKAs in terms of pain, length of hospital stay and rehabilitative milestones during the immediate postoperative period. The mean visual analogue pain scores, mean knee range of motion, straight leg raising and extensor lag were equal in both the groups at the time of discharge. Patients in the SBTKA group lagged behind the unilateral group in stick walking by approximately 24 h. The results of this study demonstrate excellent pain relief and functional recovery with simultaneous bilateral computer-assisted TKAs comparable to unilateral TKAs. Patients eligible for bilateral TKAs can undergo them simultaneously without excessive pain or slower functional outcome. PMID:19786351

  6. Treadmill exercise induced functional recovery after peripheral nerve repair is associated with increased levels of neurotrophic factors.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Sung; Hke, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Benefits of exercise on nerve regeneration and functional recovery have been reported in both central and peripheral nervous system disease models. However, underlying molecular mechanisms of enhanced regeneration and improved functional outcomes are less understood. We used a peripheral nerve regeneration model that has a good correlation between functional outcomes and number of motor axons that regenerate to evaluate the impact of treadmill exercise. In this model, the median nerve was transected and repaired while the ulnar nerve was transected and prevented from regeneration. Daily treadmill exercise resulted in faster recovery of the forelimb grip function as evaluated by grip power and inverted holding test. Daily exercise also resulted in better regeneration as evaluated by recovery of compound motor action potentials, higher number of axons in the median nerve and larger myofiber size in target muscles. Furthermore, these observations correlated with higher levels of neurotrophic factors, glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), in serum, nerve and muscle suggesting that increase in muscle derived neurotrophic factors may be responsible for improved regeneration. PMID:24618564

  7. Green's function methods in heavy ion shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Costen, Robert C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Badavi, Francis F.

    1993-01-01

    An analytic solution to the heavy ion transport in terms of Green's function is used to generate a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of the computer code is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique extending Green's function over the solution domain. The computer code can also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments.

  8. Promoting recovery-oriented practice in mental health services: a quasi-experimental mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recovery has become an increasingly prominent concept in mental health policy internationally. However, there is a lack of guidance regarding organisational transformation towards a recovery orientation. This study evaluated the implementation of recovery-orientated practice through training across a system of mental health services. Methods The intervention comprised four full-day workshops and an in-team half-day session on supporting recovery. It was offered to 383 staff in 22 multidisciplinary community and rehabilitation teams providing mental health services across two contiguous regions. A quasi-experimental design was used for evaluation, comparing behavioural intent with staff from a third contiguous region. Behavioural intent was rated by coding points of action on the care plans of a random sample of 700 patients (400 intervention, 300 control), before and three months after the intervention. Action points were coded for (a) focus of action, using predetermined categories of care; and (b) responsibility for action. Qualitative inquiry was used to explore staff understanding of recovery, implementation in services and the wider system, and the perceived impact of the intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 intervention group team leaders post-training and an inductive thematic analysis undertaken. Results A total of 342 (89%) staff received the intervention. Care plans of patients in the intervention group had significantly more changes with evidence of change in the content of patients care plans (OR 10.94. 95% CI 7.01-17.07) and the attributed responsibility for the actions detailed (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.68-5.18). Nine themes emerged from the qualitative analysis split into two superordinate categories. Recovery, individual and practice, describes the perception and provision of recovery orientated care by individuals and at a team level. It includes themes on care provision, the role of hope, language of recovery, ownership and multidisciplinarity. Systemic implementation, describes organizational implementation and includes themes on hierarchy and role definition, training approaches, measures of recovery and resources. Conclusions Training can provide an important mechanism for instigating change in promoting recovery-orientated practice. However, the challenge of systemically implementing recovery approaches requires further consideration of the conceptual elements of recovery, its measurement, and maximising and demonstrating organizational commitment. PMID:23764121

  9. LOWER COST METHODS FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY (IOR) VIA SURFACTANT FLOODING

    SciTech Connect

    William A. Goddard III; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Seung Soon Jang; Shiang-Tai Lin; Prabal Maiti; Yongfu Wu; Stefan Iglauer; Xiaohang Zhang

    2004-09-01

    This report provides a summary of the work performed in this 3-year project sponsored by DOE. The overall objective of this project is to identify new, potentially more cost-effective surfactant formulations for improved oil recovery (IOR). The general approach is to use an integrated experimental and computational chemistry effort to improve our understanding of the link between surfactant structure and performance, and from this knowledge, develop improved IOR surfactant formulations. Accomplishments for the project include: (1) completion of a literature review to assemble current and new surfactant IOR ideas, (2) Development of new atomistic-level MD (molecular dynamic) modeling methodologies to calculate IFT (interfacial tension) rigorously from first principles, (3) exploration of less computationally intensive mesoscale methods to estimate IFT, Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR), and cohesive energy density (CED) calculations, (4) experiments to screen many surfactant structures for desirable low IFT and solid adsorption behavior, and (5) further experimental characterization of the more promising new candidate formulations (based on alkyl polyglycosides (APG) and alkyl propoxy sulfate surfactants). Important findings from this project include: (1) the IFT between two pure substances may be calculated quantitatively from fundamental principles using Molecular Dynamics, the same approach can provide qualitative results for ternary systems containing a surfactant, (2) low concentrations of alkyl polyglycoside surfactants have potential for IOR (Improved Oil Recovery) applications from a technical standpoint (if formulated properly with a cosurfactant, they can create a low IFT at low concentration) and also are viable economically as they are available commercially, and (3) the alkylpropoxy sulfate surfactants have promising IFT performance also, plus these surfactants can have high optimal salinity and so may be attractive for use in higher salinity reservoirs. Alkylpropoxy sulfate surfactants are not yet available as large volume commercial products. The results presented herein can provide the needed industrial impetus for extending application (alkyl polyglycoside) or scaling up (alkylpropoxy sulfates) of these two promising surfactants for enhanced oil recovery. Furthermore, the advanced simulations tools presented here can be used to continue to uncover new types of surfactants with promising properties such as inherent low IFT and biodegradability.

  10. Method for the recovery of silver from waste photographic fixer solutions

    DOEpatents

    Posey, Franz A. (Concord, TN); Palko, Aloysius A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    The method of the present invention is directed to the recovery of silver from spent photographic fixer solutions and for providing an effluent essentially silver-free that is suitable for discharge into commercial sewage systems. The present method involves the steps of introducing the spent photographic fixer solution into an alkaline hypochlorite solution. The oxidizing conditions of the alkaline hypochlorite solution are maintained during the addition of the fixer solution so that the silver ion complexing agents of thiosulfate and sulfite ions are effectively destroyed. Hydrazine monohydrate is then added to the oxidizing solution to form a reducing solution to effect the formation of a precipitate of silver which can be readily removed by filtration or decanting. Experimental tests indicate that greater than 99.99% of the original silver in the spent photographic fixer can be efficiently removed by practicing the present method. Also, the chemical and biological oxygen demand of the remaining effluent is significantly reduced so as to permit the discharge thereof into sewage systems at levels in compliance with federal and state environmental standards.

  11. Recovery of Iron/Iron Oxide Nanoparticles from Solution: Comparison of Methods and their Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmi, James; Sarathy, Vaishnavi; Tratnyek, P. G.; Baer, Donald R.; Amonette, James E.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.

    2011-05-15

    Most methods currently being used to recover Fe0-core/oxide-shell nanoparticles from solutions (including the solvents they are synthesized or stored in) are potentially problematic because they may alter the particle composition (e.g., depositing salts formed from solutes) or leave the particles prone to transformations during subsequent storage and handling (e.g., due to residual moisture). In this study, several methods for recovery of nanoparticles from aqueous solution were studied to determine how they affect the structure and reactivity of the recovered materials. Simple washing of the nanoparticles during vacuum filtration (i.e., flash drying) can leave up to ~17 weight percent residual moisture. Modeling calculations suggest this moisture is mostly capillary or matric water held between particles and particle aggregates, which can be removed by drying for short periods at relative vapor pressures below 0.9. Flash drying followed by vacuum drying, all under N2, leaves no detectable residue from precipitation of solutes (detectable by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS), no significant changes in overall particle composition or structure (determined by transmission electron microscopy, TEM), and negligible residual moisture (by thermogravimetric analysis, TGA). While this improved flash-drying protocol may be the preferred method for recovering nanoparticles for many purposes, we found that Fe0-core/oxide-shell nanoparticles still exhibit gradual aging during storage when characterized electrochemically with voltammetry.

  12. Recovery Discontinuous Galerkin Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov Method for all-speed flows

    SciTech Connect

    HyeongKae Park; Robert Nourgaliev; Vincent Mousseau; Dana Knoll

    2008-07-01

    There is an increasing interest to develop the next generation simulation tools for the advanced nuclear energy systems. These tools will utilize the state-of-art numerical algorithms and computer science technology in order to maximize the predictive capability, support advanced reactor designs, reduce uncertainty and increase safety margins. In analyzing nuclear energy systems, we are interested in compressible low-Mach number, high heat flux flows with a wide range of Re, Ra, and Pr numbers. Under these conditions, the focus is placed on turbulent heat transfer, in contrast to other industries whose main interest is in capturing turbulent mixing. Our objective is to develop singlepoint turbulence closure models for large-scale engineering CFD code, using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) or Large Eddy Simulation (LES) tools, requireing very accurate and efficient numerical algorithms. The focus of this work is placed on fully-implicit, high-order spatiotemporal discretization based on the discontinuous Galerkin method solving the conservative form of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The method utilizes a local reconstruction procedure derived from weak formulation of the problem, which is inspired by the recovery diffusion flux algorithm of van Leer and Nomura [?] and by the piecewise parabolic reconstruction [?] in the finite volume method. The developed methodology is integrated into the Jacobianfree Newton-Krylov framework [?] to allow a fully-implicit solution of the problem.

  13. WSO Leadership in Stroke Medicine Award Lecture Vienna, September 26, 2008: functional imaging correlates to disturbance and recovery of language function.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2009-04-01

    Disturbance of neurologic function in disorders of the central nervous system is expressed as an altered activation pattern in functional networks used by specific tasks and can be studied by functional imaging modalities, e.g., positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Language, a complex brain function, is based on the interplay of a distributed network in which partial functions are executed in various centers, the primary language areas. These areas are hierarchically organized and activated according to the complexity of the specific language task. The specialization of different centers and the lateralization of integrative functions into the dominant (usually left) hemisphere are achieved by collateral and transcallosal inhibition of secondary language areas that are not used normally for performance of a specific language task. Changes in the interaction within the functional network of language are important for the recovery from aphasia after stroke. In particular, studies of changes in the activation patterns during speech tasks have demonstrated that patients with favorable recovery predominantly activate structures in the ipsilateral hemisphere, but some activation was also seen in the right hemisphere. Increased activation within the right hemisphere may be a marker of failed or faulty recovery attempts in the sense of maladaptive plasticity or the breakdown of normal interhemispheric control within the distributed neural network. The role of activation in the right hemisphere for residual language performance can be investigated by combining repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with functional imaging [e.g., positron emission tomography (PET)]. These studies suggested a less effective compensatory potential of right-sided network areas. Overactivation of right language homologues may represent a maladaptive strategy by paradoxical functional facilitation as a result of decreased transcallosal inhibition attributable to damage of specialized and lateralized speech areas. Suppression of this paradoxical activation might therefore improve aphasic deficits. PMID:19383055

  14. Prostatic fascia and recovery of sexual function after radical prostatectomy: Is it a "Veil of Aphrodite" or "Veil of mystery"!

    PubMed

    Mandhani, Anil

    2009-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is one of the most controversial aspects associated with radical prostatectomy. Since Walsh's description of neurovascular bundle there have been number of articles describing various modification to the technique of bilateral nerve sparing to augment the recovery of sexual function. There is a very thin line between performing an ideal nerve sparing and giving equally good oncological outcome in terms of negative surgical margin. "Veil of Aphrodite" nerve sparing technique was conceptualized by Menon et al. Lately other related terms have emerged in the literature e.g., "high anterior release, "curtain dissection," or "incremental nerve sparing. Does veil technique of radical prostatectomy help improve recovery of sexual function? Do mere presence of nerves in veil account for potency? Are these nerve parasympathetic? This short review tries to find the answer of these questions in contemporary world literature. PMID:19468450

  15. Functional lateralization in cingulate cortex predicts motor recovery after basal ganglia stroke.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Chen, Zengai; Su, Xin; Zhang, Xiaoliu; Wang, Ping; Zhu, Yajing; Xu, Qun; Xu, Jianrong; Tong, Shanbao

    2016-02-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) is involved in higher order motor control such as movement planning and execution of complex motor synergies. Neuroimaging study on stroke patients specifically with BG lesions would help to clarify the consequence of BG damage on motor control. In this paper, we performed a longitudinal study in the stroke patients with lesions in BG regions across three motor recovery stages, i.e., less than 2week (Session 1), 1-3m (Session 2) and more than 3m (Session 3). The patients showed an activation shift from bilateral hemispheres during early sessions (<3m) to the ipsilesional cortex in late session (>3m), suggesting a compensation effect from the contralesional hemisphere during motor recovery. We found that the lateralization of cerebellum(CB) for affected hand task correlated with patients' concurrent Fugl-Meyer index (FMI) in Session 2. Moreover, the cingulate cortex lateralization index in Session 2 was shown to significantly correlate with subsequent FMI change between Session 3 and Session 2, which serves as a prognostic marker for motor recovery. Our findings consolidated the close interactions between BG and CB during the motor recovery after stroke. The dominance of activation in contralateral cingulate cortex was associated with a better motor recovery, suggesting the important role of ipsilesional attention modulation in the early stage after BG stroke. PMID:26742641

  16. 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin drives Hsp70 expression but fails to improve morphological or functional recovery in injured skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Cory W; Otis, Jeffrey S

    2015-12-01

    The stress inducible 70 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) is instrumental to efficient morphological and functional recovery following skeletal muscle injury because of its roles in protein quality control and molecular signalling. Therefore, in attempt to improve recovery, Hsp70 expression was increased with 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) prior to and following an intramuscular injection of barium chloride (BaCl2 ) into the tibialis anterior (TA) of healthy young mice. To assess recovery, regenerating fibre cross-sectional area (CSA) of the TA and invivo peak isometric torque produced by the anterior crural muscles (TA, extensor digitorum longus and extensor hallucis muscles) were analyzed for up to 3weeks after the injury. Because treatment of 17-AAG and Hsp70 are known to influence inflammatory and myogenic signalling, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and myogenin content were also assessed. This study reports that 17-AAG was effective at up-regulating Hsp70 expression, increasing content fivefold in the uninjured muscle. However, this significant increase in Hsp70 content did not enhance morphological or functional recovery following the injury, as the return of regenerating fibre CSA and invivo peak isometric torque did not differ compared to that of the injured muscle from the vehicle treated mice. Treatment with 17-AAG also altered TNF-? and myogenin content, increasing both to a greater extent after the injury. Together, these findings demonstrate that although 17-AAG may alter molecular makers of regeneration, it does not improve recovery following BaCl2 -induced skeletal muscle injury in healthy young mice. PMID:26277605

  17. Methods for assessing mitochondrial function in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Perry, Christopher G R; Kane, Daniel A; Lanza, Ian R; Neufer, P Darrell

    2013-04-01

    A growing body of research is investigating the potential contribution of mitochondrial function to the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Numerous in vitro, in situ, and in vivo methodologies are available to examine various aspects of mitochondrial function, each requiring an understanding of their principles, advantages, and limitations. This review provides investigators with a critical overview of the strengths, limitations and critical experimental parameters to consider when selecting and conducting studies on mitochondrial function. In vitro (isolated mitochondria) and in situ (permeabilized cells/tissue) approaches provide direct access to the mitochondria, allowing for study of mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox function under defined substrate conditions. Several experimental parameters must be tightly controlled, including assay media, temperature, oxygen concentration, and in the case of permeabilized skeletal muscle, the contractile state of the fibers. Recently developed technology now offers the opportunity to measure oxygen consumption in intact cultured cells. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides the most direct way of assessing mitochondrial function in vivo with interpretations based on specific modeling approaches. The continuing rapid evolution of these technologies offers new and exciting opportunities for deciphering the potential role of mitochondrial function in the etiology and treatment of diabetes. PMID:23520284

  18. Methods for Assessing Mitochondrial Function in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Daniel A.; Lanza, Ian R.; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research is investigating the potential contribution of mitochondrial function to the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Numerous in vitro, in situ, and in vivo methodologies are available to examine various aspects of mitochondrial function, each requiring an understanding of their principles, advantages, and limitations. This review provides investigators with a critical overview of the strengths, limitations and critical experimental parameters to consider when selecting and conducting studies on mitochondrial function. In vitro (isolated mitochondria) and in situ (permeabilized cells/tissue) approaches provide direct access to the mitochondria, allowing for study of mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox function under defined substrate conditions. Several experimental parameters must be tightly controlled, including assay media, temperature, oxygen concentration, and in the case of permeabilized skeletal muscle, the contractile state of the fibers. Recently developed technology now offers the opportunity to measure oxygen consumption in intact cultured cells. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides the most direct way of assessing mitochondrial function in vivo with interpretations based on specific modeling approaches. The continuing rapid evolution of these technologies offers new and exciting opportunities for deciphering the potential role of mitochondrial function in the etiology and treatment of diabetes. PMID:23520284

  19. Recovery of atrial systolic function after pharmacological conversion of chronic atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm: a Doppler echocardiographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Jovi?, A.; Troskot, R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the time course of the recovery of atrial mechanical function after pharmacological cardioversion of chronic atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 21 patients (12 male, 9 female, aged 37-77 years) with chronic atrial fibrillation (< 6 months) were followed up by serial transmitral pulsed Doppler echocardiography. Echocardiographic studies were performed within the first 24 hours and on day 8, 15, and 30 after cardioversion. RESULTS: There was a significant increase (mean (SD)) in the peak A-wave velocity (from 0.35 (0.10) on day 1 to 0.50 (1.73) on day 8, and thereafter a gradual increase to 0.61 (0.14) m/s on day 30). Similarly, integrated late atrial velocities increased from 4.50 (1.46) on day 1 to 5.61 (1.73) on day 8 and 5.97 (1.47) cm/s2 on day 30. The atrial contribution to total transmitral flow increased significantly from 26 (7)% immediately after conversion of atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm to 34 (7)% on day 30, indicating the haemodynamic benefit of the restoration of sinus rhythm. Left atrial diameter decreased but not significantly, from 4.11 (0.37) to 3.98 (0.34) cm (P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that restoration of atrial mechanical function after pharmacological cardioversion in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation is slow and gradual, as it is after electrical DC restoration of sinus rhythm. This time course may have important implications for determining how long treatment with anticoagulants and antiarrhythmic agents needs to continue in individual patients. It will also influence the clinical assessment of the haemodynamic benefit of restoring sinus rhythm in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. Images PMID:9038694

  20. Comparison of the effects of erythropoietin and anakinra on functional recovery and gene expression in a traumatic brain injury model

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gail D.; Peterson, Todd C.; Vonder Haar, Cole; Kantor, Eric D.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Hoane, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the effects of two inflammatory modulators, erythropoietin (EPO) and anakinra, on functional recovery and brain gene expression following a cortical contusion impact (CCI) injury. Dosage regimens were designed to provide serum concentrations in the range obtained with clinically approved doses. Functional recovery was assessed using both motor and spatial learning tasks and neuropathological measurements conducted in the cortex and hippocampus. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine the effect on gene expression at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days post-CCI. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to evaluate the effect on relevant functional categories. EPO and anakinra treatment resulted in significant changes in brain gene expression in the CCI model demonstrating acceptable brain penetration. At all three time points, EPO treatment resulted in significantly more differentially expressed genes than anakinra. For anakinra at 24 h and EPO at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days, the genes in the top 3 functional categories were involved in cellular movement, inflammatory response and cell-to-cell signaling. For EPO, the majority of the genes in the top 10 canonical pathways identified were associated with inflammatory and immune signaling processes. This was true for anakinra only at 24 h post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). The immunomodulation effects of EPO and anakinra did not translate into positive effects on functional behavioral and lesion studies. Treatment with either EPO or anakinra failed to induce significant beneficial effects on recovery of function or produce any significant effects on the prevention of injury induced tissue loss at 30 days post-injury. In conclusion, treatment with EPO or anakinra resulted in significant effects on gene expression in the brain without affecting functional outcome. This suggests that targeting these inflammatory processes alone may not be sufficient for preventing secondary injuries after TBI. PMID:24151467

  1. Effect of vitamin B12 on functional recovery and histopathologic changes of tibial nerve-crushed rats.

    PubMed

    Tamaddonfard, E; Farshid, A A; Samadi, F; Eghdami, K

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested a neuroprotective effect for vitamin B12. The present study investigated the effects of vitamin B12, diclofenac and celecoxib in separate and combined treatments on functional recovery of crushed tibial nerve in rats. In ketamine plus xylazin anesthetized rats, right tibial nerve was crushed using a small hemoatatic forceps. Footprints were recorded 1 day before and on days 7, 14 and 21 after induction of nerve injury. Tibial functional index (TFI) was used to evaluate the recovery of tibial nerve function. Histological changes of tibial nerve were investigated by light microscopy. The recovery of TFI values were significantly accelerated with 10 consecutive days treatments with 0.1 and 0.5?mg/kg of vitamin B12, 5?mg/kg of diclofenac and 1 and 5?mg/kg of celecoxib. The severity of Wallerian degeneration was reduced by above-mentioned doses of vitamin B12, diclofenac and celecoxib. Documented effects were observed when 0.1?mg/kg of vitamin B12 was concurrently used with 1?mg/kg of diclofenac and or 0.2?mg/kg of celecoxib. In the present study, vitamin B12, celecoxib and diclofenac (at a high dose) showed neuroprotective effects. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 pathways may be involved in neuroprotective effect of vitamin B12. PMID:24470311

  2. Modeling of Salivary Production Recovery After Radiotherapy Using Mixed Models: Determination of Optimal Dose Constraint for IMRT Planning and Construction of Convenient Tools to Predict Salivary Function

    SciTech Connect

    Ortholan, Cecile Chamorey, Emmanuel Phar; Benezery, Karen; Thariat, Juliette; Dassonville, Olivier; Poissonnet, Gilles; Bozec, Alexandre; Follana, Philippe; Peyrade, Frederique; Sudaka, Anne; Gerard, Jean Pierre; Bensadoun, Rene Jean

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The mathematical relationship between the dose to the parotid glands and salivary gland production needs to be elucidated. This study, which included data from patients included in a French prospective study assessing the benefit of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (RT), sought to elaborate a convenient and original model of salivary recovery. Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and December 2004, 44 patients were included (35 with oropharyngeal and 9 with nasopharyngeal cancer). Of the 44 patients, 24 were treated with intensity-modulated RT, 17 with three-dimensional conformal RT, and 2 with two-dimensional RT. Stimulated salivary production was collected for {<=}24 months after RT. The data of salivary production, time of follow-up, and dose to parotid gland were modeled using a mixed model. Several models were developed to assess the best-fitting variable for the dose level to the parotid gland. Results: Models developed with the dose to the contralateral parotid fit the data slightly better than those with the dose to both parotids, suggesting that contralateral and ipsilateral parotid glands are not functionally equivalent even with the same dose level to the glands. The best predictive dose-value variable for salivary flow recovery was the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy. Conclusion: The results of this study show that the recommendation of a dose constraint for intensity-modulated RT planning should be established at the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy rather than the mean dose. For complete salivary production recovery after 24 months, the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy should be <33%. Our results permitted us to establish two convenient tools to predict the saliva production recovery function according to the dose received by the contralateral parotid gland.

  3. Germanium recovery from gasification fly ash: evaluation of end-products obtained by precipitation methods.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Fátima; Font, Oriol; Fernández-Pereira, Constantino; Querol, Xavier; Juan, Roberto; Ruiz, Carmen; Coca, Pilar

    2009-08-15

    In this study the purity of the germanium end-products obtained by two different precipitation methods carried out on germanium-bearing solutions was evaluated as a last step of a hydrometallurgy process for the recovery of this valuable element from the Puertollano Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) fly ash. Since H(2)S is produced as a by-product in the gas cleaning system of the Puertollano IGCC plant, precipitation of germanium as GeS(2) was tested by sulfiding the Ge-bearing solutions. The technological and hazardous issues that surround H(2)S handling conducted to investigate a novel precipitation procedure: precipitation as an organic complex by adding 1,2-dihydroxy benzene pyrocatechol (CAT) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to the Ge-bearing solutions. Relatively high purity Ge end-products (90 and 93% hexagonal-GeO(2) purity, respectively) were obtained by precipitating Ge from enriched solutions, as GeS(2) sulfiding the solutions with H(2)S, or as organic complex with CAT/CTAB mixtures and subsequent roasting of the precipitates. Both methods showed high efficiency (>99%) to precipitate selectively Ge using a single precipitation stage from germanium-bearing solutions. PMID:19200657

  4. Method of managing interference during delay recovery on a train system

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Susanna P.; Evans, John A.

    2005-12-27

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  5. Surface recovery and stripping methods to quantify percutaneous absorption of caffeine in humans.

    PubMed

    Chambin-Remoussenard, O; Treffel, P; Bechtel, Y; Agache, P

    1993-11-01

    The percutaneous absorption of caffeine from two vehicles, an emulsion and an acetone solution, was quantified by in vivo techniques in humans. A surface recovery technique over a 6-h application and a stripping method after a 30-min application were performed on the volar aspect of the forearm on 12 volunteers. Caffeine was assessed by HPLC. Two phases were distinguished in the percutaneous absorption of caffeine: a higher filling up of the stratum corneum with the oil-in-water emulsion than with the acetone solution, which was then followed by a steady-state flux corresponding to the penetration in the living tissues. The permeability constants (Kp) with emulsion and acetone were 1.59 x 10(-4) and 9.53 x 10(-8) cm/h, respectively. The stripping method showed concentrations of caffeine in stratum corneum that were five times higher with emulsion (212 ng/cm2) than with acetone (37 ng/cm2). With acetone as a vehicle, approximately 40% of caffeine of the cornfield layer was found around the treated area. This sizeable lateral spread within the stratum corneum was not observed with the emulsion. PMID:8289121

  6. Active subnetwork recovery with a mechanism-dependent scoring function; with application to angiogenesis and organogenesis studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The learning active subnetworks problem involves finding subnetworks of a bio-molecular network that are active in a particular condition. Many approaches integrate observation data (e.g., gene expression) with the network topology to find candidate subnetworks. Increasingly, pathway databases contain additional annotation information that can be mined to improve prediction accuracy, e.g., interaction mechanism (e.g., transcription, microRNA, cleavage) annotations. We introduce a mechanism-based approach to active subnetwork recovery which exploits such annotations. We suggest that neighboring interactions in a network tend to be co-activated in a way that depends on the “correlation” of their mechanism annotations. e.g., neighboring phosphorylation and de-phosphorylation interactions may be more likely to be co-activated than neighboring phosphorylation and covalent bonding interactions. Results Our method iteratively learns the mechanism correlations and finds the most likely active subnetwork. We use a probabilistic graphical model with a Markov Random Field component which creates dependencies between the states (active or non-active) of neighboring interactions, that incorporates a mechanism-based component to the function. We apply a heuristic-based EM-based algorithm suitable for the problem. We validated our method’s performance using simulated data in networks downloaded from GeneGO against the same approach without the mechanism-based component, and two other existing methods. We validated our methods performance in correctly recovering (1) the true interaction states, and (2) global network properties of the original network against these other methods. We applied our method to networks generated from time-course gene expression studies in angiogenesis and lung organogenesis and validated the findings from a biological perspective against current literature. Conclusions The advantage of our mechanism-based approach is best seen in networks composed of connected regions with a large number of interactions annotated with a subset of mechanisms, e.g., a regulatory region of transcription interactions, or a cleavage cascade region. When applied to real datasets, our method recovered novel and biologically meaningful putative interactions, e.g., interactions from an integrin signaling pathway using the angiogenesis dataset, and a group of regulatory microRNA interactions in an organogenesis network. PMID:23432934

  7. Recovery actions in PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) for the Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP): Volume 1, Development of the data-based method

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, L M; Whitehead, D W; Graves, N L

    1987-06-01

    In a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for a nuclear power plant, the analyst identifies a set of potential core damage events consisting of equipment failures and human errors and their estimated probabilities of occurrence. If operator recovery from an event within some specified time is considered, then the probability of this recovery can be included in the PRA. This report provides PRA analysts with an improved methodology for including recovery actions in a PRA. A recovery action can be divided into two distinct phases: a Diagnosis Phase (realizing that there is a problem with a critical parameter and deciding upon the correct course of action) and an Action Phase (physically accomplishing the required action). In this methodology, simulator data are used to estimate recovery probabilities for the diagnosis phase. Different time-reliability curves showing the probability of failure of diagnosis as a function of time from the compelling cue for the event are presented. These curves are based on simulator exercises, and the actions are grouped based upon their operational similarities. This is an improvement over existing diagnosis models that rely greatly upon subjective judgment to obtain such estimates. The action phase is modeled using estimates from available sources. The methodology also includes a recommendation on where and when to apply the recovery action in the PRA process.

  8. Iteration of Complex Functions and Newton's Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Jerry; Barnard, Roger; Cook, David; Corte, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses some common iterations of complex functions. The presentation is such that similar processes can easily be implemented and understood by undergraduate students. The aim is to illustrate some of the beauty of complex dynamics in an informal setting, while providing a couple of results that are not otherwise readily available in

  9. Chondroitinase ABC reduces time to muscle reinnervation and improves functional recovery after sciatic nerve transection in rats

    PubMed Central

    To, Bao Ngoc; Rose, Samuel; Nicolini, Jennifer; English, Arthur W.

    2012-01-01

    Application of chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) to injured peripheral nerves improves axon regeneration, but it is not known whether functional recovery is also improved. Recordings of EMG activity [soleus (Sol) M response and H reflexes] evoked by nerve stimulation and of Sol and tibialis anterior (TA) EMG activity and hindlimb and foot kinematics during slope walking were made to determine whether ChABC treatment of the sciatic nerve at the time of transection improves functional recovery. Recovery of evoked EMG responses began as multiple small responses with a wide range of latencies that eventually coalesced into one or two more distinctive and consistent responses (the putative M response and the putative H reflex) in both groups. Both the initial evoked responses and the time course of their maturation returned sooner in the ChABC group than in the untreated (UT) group. The reinnervated Sol and TA were coactivated during treadmill locomotion during downslope, level, and upslope walking throughout the study period in both UT and ChABC-treated rats. By 10 wk after nerve transection and repair, locomotor activity in Sol, but not TA, had returned to its pretransection pattern. There was an increased reliance on central control of Sol activation across slopes for both groups as interpreted from elevated prestance Sol EMG activity that was no longer modulated with slope. Limb length and orientation during locomotion were similar to those observed prior to nerve injury during upslope walking only in the ChABC-treated rats. Thus treatment of cut nerves with ChABC leads to improvements in functional recovery. PMID:22049333

  10. Effects of hypothermia combined with neural stem cell transplantation on recovery of neurological function in rats with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Jianjun

    2015-03-01

    The microenvironment of the injured spinal cord is hypothesized to be involved in driving the differentiation and survival of engrafted neural stem cells (NSCs). Hypothermia is known to improve the microenvironment of the injured spinal cord in a number of ways. To investigate the effect of NSC transplantation in combination with hypothermia on the recovery of rat spinal cord injury, 60 Sprague?Dawley female rats were used to establish a spinal cord hemisection model. They were divided randomly into three groups: A, spinal cord injury group; B, NSC transplantation group; and C, NSC transplantation + hypothermia group. At 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks post?injury, the motor function of all animals was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie and Besnaham locomotor scoring system and the inclined plane test. At 4 weeks post?transplantation, histological analysis and immunocytochemistry were performed. At 8 weeks post?transplantation, horseradish peroxidase nerve tracing and transmission electron microscopy were conducted to observe axonal regeneration. The outcome of hind limb motor function recovery in group C significantly surpassed that in group B at 4 weeks post?injury (P<0.05). Recovery was also observed in group A, but to a lesser degree. For the pathological sections no neural axonal were observed in group A. A few axon?like structures were observed in group B and more in group C. Horseradish peroxidase?labeled neurofibers and bromodeoxyuridine?positive cells were observed in the spinal cords of group C. Fewer of these cells were found in group B and fewer still in group A. The differences among the three groups were significant (P<0.05). Using transmission electron microscopy, newly formed nerve fibers and myelinated nerve fibers were observed in the central transverse plane in groups B and C, although these nerve fibers were not evident in group A. In conclusion, NSC transplantation promoted the recovery of hind limb function in rats, and combination treatment with hypothermia produced synergistic effects. PMID:25385306

  11. Effects of hypothermia combined with neural stem cell transplantation on recovery of neurological function in rats with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    WANG, DONG; ZHANG, JIANJUN

    2015-01-01

    The microenvironment of the injured spinal cord is hypothesized to be involved in driving the differentiation and survival of engrafted neural stem cells (NSCs). Hypothermia is known to improve the microenvironment of the injured spinal cord in a number of ways. To investigate the effect of NSC transplantation in combination with hypothermia on the recovery of rat spinal cord injury, 60 Sprague-Dawley female rats were used to establish a spinal cord hemisection model. They were divided randomly into three groups: A, spinal cord injury group; B, NSC transplantation group; and C, NSC transplantation + hypothermia group. At 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks post-injury, the motor function of all animals was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie and Besnaham locomotor scoring system and the inclined plane test. At 4 weeks post-transplantation, histological analysis and immunocytochemistry were performed. At 8 weeks post-transplantation, horseradish peroxidase nerve tracing and transmission electron microscopy were conducted to observe axonal regeneration. The outcome of hind limb motor function recovery in group C significantly surpassed that in group B at 4 weeks post-injury (P<0.05). Recovery was also observed in group A, but to a lesser degree. For the pathological sections no neural axonal were observed in group A. A few axon-like structures were observed in group B and more in group C. Horseradish peroxidase-labeled neurofibers and bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells were observed in the spinal cords of group C. Fewer of these cells were found in group B and fewer still in group A. The differences among the three groups were significant (P<0.05). Using transmission electron microscopy, newly formed nerve fibers and myelinated nerve fibers were observed in the central transverse plane in groups B and C, although these nerve fibers were not evident in group A. In conclusion, NSC transplantation promoted the recovery of hind limb function in rats, and combination treatment with hypothermia produced synergistic effects. PMID:25385306

  12. Plasticity of subcortical pathways promote recovery of skilled hand function in rats after corticospinal and rubrospinal tract injuries.

    PubMed

    García-Alías, Guillermo; Truong, Kevin; Shah, Prithvi K; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2015-04-01

    The corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts are the predominant tracts for controlling skilled hand function. Injuries to these tracts impair grasping but not gross motor functions such as overground locomotion. The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not, after damage to both the corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts, other spared subcortical motor pathway can mediate the recovery of skilled hand function. Adult rats received a bilateral injury to the corticospinal tract at the level of the medullar pyramids and a bilateral ablation of the rubrospinal axons at C4. One group of rats received, acutely after injury, two injections of chondroitinase-ABC at C7, and starting at 7days post-injury were enrolled in daily reaching and grasping rehabilitation (CHASE group, n=5). A second group of rats received analogous injections of ubiquitous penicillinase, and did not undergo rehabilitation (PEN group, n=5). Compared to rats in the PEN group, CHASE rats gradually recovered the ability to reach and grasp over 42days after injury. Overground locomotion was mildly affected after injury and both groups followed similar recovery. Since the reticulospinal tract plays a predominant role in motor control, we further investigated whether or not plasticity of this pathway could contribute to the animal's recovery. Reticulospinal axons were anterogradely traced in both groups of rats. The density of reticulospinal processes in both the normal and ectopic areas of the grey ventral matter of the caudal segments of the cervical spinal cord was greater in the CHASE than PEN group. The results indicate that after damage to spinal tracts that normally mediate the control of reaching and grasping in rats other complementary spinal tracts can acquire the role of those damaged tracts and promote task-specific recovery. PMID:25666586

  13. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells expressing the Shh transgene promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yijia; Wu, Dou; Zhang, Ruiping; Shuang, Weibing; Sun, Jiping; Hao, Haihu; An, Qijun; Liu, Qiang

    2014-06-24

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most disabling diseases. Cell-based gene therapy is becoming a major focus for the treatment of SCI. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a promising stem cell type useful for repairing SCI. However, the effects of BMSCs transplants are likely limited because of low transplant survival after SCI. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a multifunctional growth factor which can facilitate neuronal and BMSCs survival, promote axonal growth, prevent activation of the astrocyte lineage, and enhance the delivery of neurotrophic factors in BMSCs. However, treatment of SCI with Shh alone also has limited effects on recovery, because the protein is cleared quickly. In this study, we investigated the use of BMSCs overexpressing the Shh transgene (Shh-BMSCs) in the treatment of rats with SCI, which could stably secrete Shh and thereby enhance the effects of BMSCs, in an attempt to combine the advantages of Shh and BMSCs and so to promote functional recovery. After Shh-BMSCs treatment of SCI via the subarachnoid, we detected significantly greater damage recovery compared with that seen in rats treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and BMSCs. Use of Shh-BMSCs increased the expression and secretion of Shh, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), improved the behavioral function, enhanced the BMSCs survival, promoted the expression level of neurofilament 200 (NF200), and reduced the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Thus, our results indicated that Shh-BMSCs enhanced recovery of neurological function after SCI in rats and could be a potential valuable therapeutic intervention for SCI in humans. PMID:24837681

  14. Alcoholics' Recovery from Cerebral Impairment as a Function of Duration of Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, G. B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examined the time-course of recovery from cerebral impairment due to heavy drinking. Results suggest that treatment programs that use a preliminary "drying-out" period should consider lengthening this period to three weeks to ensure that patients are maximally responsive to psychotherapy. (Author)

  15. Challenges in postdischarge function and recovery: the case of fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Aasvang, E K; Luna, I E; Kehlet, H

    2015-12-01

    This narrative review updates the recent advances in our understanding of the multifactorial pathogenesis for reduced postdischarge physical and cognitive function after fast-track surgery, using total hip and knee arthroplasty as surgical models. Relevant factors discussed include the surgical stress responses and potential methods for controlling postsurgical inflammation, pain, and cognitive dysfunction. The continuation of moderate to severe pain in up to 30% of patients for 2-4 weeks calls for better understanding of the underlying mechanisms and development of effective multimodal opioid-sparing analgesic regimens. The need for the development of effective physiotherapy programmes on a patient-specific basis is discussed, along with the need for optimal assessment of postoperative function to guide rehabilitation. Other relevant factors discussed include the role of orthostatic intolerance, sleep disturbances, and blood management, and specific patient populations at risk for adverse outcomes, including psychiatric disorders, to identify and guide future interventions for optimizing functional postdischarge outcomes after fast-track surgery. PMID:26209853

  16. Secretion and absorption (methods and functions).

    PubMed

    Lankisch, Paul Georg

    2009-01-01

    With the development and wide availability of endoscopic procedures, the importance of secretion and absorption tests for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases has decreased. Still, only in about half of the patients with abdominal complaints an organic cause can be established by imaging techniques and/or conventional laboratory tests. In the other patients diagnosis may partly be clarified by gastrointestinal function tests. This chapter focuses on indications, practical performance and interpretation of tests of gastrointestinal secretion and absorption (for breath tests compare chapter 5). Some tests of gastrointestinal secretion and absorption are so old that the original publications can no longer be located, particularly since the tests have been modified over the years. They are still included in this chapter if there is no more modern test available for measurement of a specific function. If not otherwise specified, the descriptions of how the tests are conducted stem from the author's own experience. PMID:19505662

  17. Neural reconstruction methods of restoring bladder function

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Amaya, Sandra M.; Barbe, Mary F.; de Groat, William C.; Brown, Justin M.; Tuite, Gerald F.; Corcos, Jacques; Fecho, Susan B.; Braverman, Alan S.; Ruggieri, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    During the past century, diverse studies have focused on the development of surgical strategies to restore function of a decentralized bladder after spinal cord or spinal root injury via repair of the original roots or by transferring new axonal sources. The techniques included end-to-end sacral root repairs, transfer of roots from other spinal segments to sacral roots, transfer of intercostal nerves to sacral roots, transfer of various somatic nerves to the pelvic or pudendal nerve, direct reinnervation of the detrusor muscle, or creation of an artificial reflex pathway between the skin and the bladder via the central nervous system. All of these surgical techniques have demonstrated specific strengths and limitations. The findings made to date already indicate appropriate patient populations for each procedure, but a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of each technique to restore urinary function after bladder decentralization is required to guide future research and potential clinical application. PMID:25666987

  18. Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F

    2014-03-04

    A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

  19. 3D hand pose estimation using Kinect enhanced with recovery method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanyadit, Santawat; Madarasami, Suthep

    2013-07-01

    We present an improved approach to another previous work on 3D hand tracking that also uses the Microsoft Kinect sensor. The previous implementation tracks the position, orientation, and full articulation from marker-less visual observations provided by Kinect. As an optimization problem, the objective of hand tracking is to minimize the difference between a hand gesture depth image obtained from Kinect and a hypothesized 3-D hand model. The previous method of relied heavily on the best current frame result, skin detection data, and depth data, often resulting in a "losttrack state" with unrecoverable error, especially when the hand moved faster than the per-frame processing speed. To recover from the lost track state, we use the skeleton joint data from Kinect to determine hand position, instead of relying on skin data. This joint data is also used to limit the search range of our Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), allowing for a more efficient search. Consequently, the fewer generations required to obtain a result enables us to achieve higher frame-rate processing. The computationally intensive step in matching the observed hand depth with the hypothesized hand pose is accelerated using a GPGPU processor. The proposed method also improves reliability by adding a recovery mechanism for quick hand movements, eliminating the need for manual hand position initialization by a user. Our method does not depend on skin color detection and, therefore, avoids errors common in incorrect or extra skin detection. Thus, a user need not hide arm skin by wearing long-sleeve clothing, for example.

  20. Quadratic function approaching method for magnetotelluric soundingdata inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Liangjun, Yan; Wenbao, Hu; Zhang, Keni

    2004-04-05

    The quadratic function approaching method (QFAM) is introduced for magnetotelluric sounding (MT) data inversion. The method takes the advantage of that quadratic function has single extreme value, which avoids leading to an inversion solution for local minimum and ensures the solution for global minimization of an objective function. The method does not need calculation of sensitivity matrix and not require a strict initial earth model. Examples for synthetic data and field measurement data indicate that the proposed inversion method is effective.

  1. Ligustilide treatment promotes functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord injury via preventing ROS production

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Weidong; Yu, Aixi; Liu, Danli; Shen, Jun; Xu, Zhigao

    2015-01-01

    Ligustilide from traditional Chinese medicine extract, angelica sinensis is one of the main active components, and has many pharmacological activities related to the effectiveness. This study sought to determine whether neuro-protection of ligustilide promotes functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI) via preventing ROS production. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced using operation for model SCI. Furthermore, Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scale and footprint analysis of gait was used to assess the neuro-protection of ligustilide on SCI. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production levels were measured by monoclonal enzyme immunoassay kit. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression, activator protein-1 (AP-1) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein expressions were detected using Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and western blot analyses, respectively. Interestingly, treatment with ligustilide significantly increased BBB scale and reduced recovery of coordination in SCI rats. After SCI, the iROS, PGE(2), IL-1β, TNF-α production levels and iNOS gene expression were significantly suppressed in SCI rats. These results suggest that the neuro-protection of ligustilide promotes functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord injury via preventing ROS production. PMID:26722386

  2. Modulating Astrocyte Transition after Stroke to Promote Brain Rescue and Functional Recovery: Emerging Targets Include Rho Kinase.

    PubMed

    Abeysinghe, Hima Charika S; Phillips, Ellie L; Chin-Cheng, Heung; Beart, Philip M; Roulston, Carli L

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a common and serious condition, with few therapies. Whilst previous focus has been directed towards biochemical events within neurons, none have successfully prevented the progression of injury that occurs in the acute phase. New targeted treatments that promote recovery after stroke might be a better strategy and are desperately needed for the majority of stroke survivors. Cells comprising the neurovascular unit, including blood vessels and astrocytes, present an alternative target for supporting brain rescue and recovery in the late phase of stroke, since alteration in the unit also occurs in regions outside of the lesion. One of the major changes in the unit involves extensive morphological transition of astrocytes resulting in altered energy metabolism, decreased glutamate reuptake and recycling, and retraction of astrocyte end feed from both blood vessels and neurons. Whilst globally inhibiting transitional change in astrocytes after stroke is reported to result in further damage and functional loss, we discuss the available evidence to suggest that the transitional activation of astrocytes after stroke can be modulated for improved outcomes. In particular, we review the role of Rho-kinase (ROCK) in reactive gliosis and show that inhibiting ROCK after stroke results in reduced scar formation and improved functional recovery. PMID:26927079

  3. Assessing forelimb function after unilateral cervical spinal cord injury: novel forelimb tasks predict lesion severity and recovery.

    PubMed

    Khaing, Zin Z; Geissler, Sydney A; Jiang, Shan; Milman, Brian D; Aguilar, Sandra V; Schmidt, Christine E; Schallert, Timothy

    2012-02-10

    Cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) can cause devastating neurological deficits, including impairment or loss of upper limb and hand function. Recently there has been increasing interest in cervical spinal cord injury models because the majority of spinal cord injuries are at cervical levels. Here we examined spontaneous functional recovery of adult rats with either laminectomy or lateral hemisection of the cervical spinal cord at C3-C4. Behavioral tests were carried out, including the forelimb locomotor scale (FLS), a postural instability test (PIT), a pasta-handling test that has been used to assess forepaw digit function and latency to eat, forelimb use during vertical-lateral wall exploration in a cylindrical enclosure, and vibrissae-elicited forelimb placing tests. In addition, a forelimb step-alternation test was developed to assess functional recovery at 12 weeks post-injury. All tests detected cSCI-induced deficits relative to laminectomy. Interestingly, the severity of deficits in the forelimb step-alternation test was associated with more extensive spinal damage, greater impairment, and less recovery in the FLS and other tests. For the pasta-handling test we found that rats with a milder cervical injury (alternators) were more likely to use both forepaws together compared to rats with a more severe injury (non-alternators). In addition, using the PIT, we detected enhanced function of the good limb, suggesting that neural plasticity on the unaffected side of the spinal cord may have occurred to compensate for deficits in the impaired forelimb. These outcome measures should be useful for investigating neural events associated with cSCI, and for developing novel treatment strategies. PMID:22022897

  4. Methods And Tools For The Evaluation Of Monitored Natural Recovery Of Contaminated Sediment: Lake Hartwell Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) Office of Research and Development (ORD) has been conducting research to develop methods and tools for the evaluation of monitored natural recovery (MNR) of contami...

  5. Recovery of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using three sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10, 100, or 1,000 cfu/eggshell of S. Enteritidis...

  6. Effectiveness of the Preservation Protocol within EPA Method 200.8 for Soluble and Particulate Lead Recovery in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the effectiveness of the sample preservation protocol outlined in Method 200.8 in recovering lead from water samples. Lead recoveries were studied in various water samples spiked with lead by evaluating lead sorption and desorption f...

  7. Comparative study of shell swab and shell crush methods for the recovery of Salmonella from shell eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg associated Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks have been a major cause of foodborne illness in Japan as well as in the United States and several European countries. Researchers have been attempting to develop a rapid and highly sensitive method for the recovery of microorganisms from shell eggs. ...

  8. A novel method for furfural recovery via gas stripping assisted vapor permeation by a polydimethylsiloxane membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Song; Guan, Yu; Cai, Di; Li, Shufeng; Qin, Peiyong; Karim, M. Nazmul; Tan, Tianwei

    2015-03-01

    Furfural is an important platform chemical with a wide range of applications. However, due to the low concentration of furfural in the hydrolysate, the conventional methods for furfural recovery are energy-intensive and environmentally unfriendly. Considering the disadvantages of pervaporation (PV) and distillation in furfural separation, a novel energy-efficient `green technique', gas stripping assisted vapor permeation (GSVP), was introduced in this work. In this process, the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane was prepared by employing water as solvent. Coking in pipe and membrane fouling was virtually non-existent in this new process. In addition, GSVP was found to achieve the highest pervaporation separation index of 216200 (permeate concentration of 71.1 wt% and furfural flux of 4.09 kgm-2h-1) so far, which was approximately 2.5 times higher than that found in pervaporation at 95C for recovering 6.0 wt% furfural from water. Moreover, the evaporation energy required for GSVP decreased by 35% to 44% relative to that of PV process. Finally, GSVP also displayed more promising potential in industrial application than PV, especially when coupled with the hydrolysis process or fermentation in biorefinery industry.

  9. A novel method for furfural recovery via gas stripping assisted vapor permeation by a polydimethylsiloxane membrane

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Song; Guan, Yu; Cai, Di; Li, Shufeng; Qin, Peiyong; Karim, M. Nazmul; Tan, Tianwei

    2015-01-01

    Furfural is an important platform chemical with a wide range of applications. However, due to the low concentration of furfural in the hydrolysate, the conventional methods for furfural recovery are energy-intensive and environmentally unfriendly. Considering the disadvantages of pervaporation (PV) and distillation in furfural separation, a novel energy-efficient ‘green technique’, gas stripping assisted vapor permeation (GSVP), was introduced in this work. In this process, the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane was prepared by employing water as solvent. Coking in pipe and membrane fouling was virtually non-existent in this new process. In addition, GSVP was found to achieve the highest pervaporation separation index of 216200 (permeate concentration of 71.1 wt% and furfural flux of 4.09 kgm−2h−1) so far, which was approximately 2.5 times higher than that found in pervaporation at 95°C for recovering 6.0 wt% furfural from water. Moreover, the evaporation energy required for GSVP decreased by 35% to 44% relative to that of PV process. Finally, GSVP also displayed more promising potential in industrial application than PV, especially when coupled with the hydrolysis process or fermentation in biorefinery industry. PMID:25819091

  10. Recovery of alkali and alumina from Bayer red mud by the calcification-carbonation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiao-feng; Zhang, Ting-an; Wang, Yan-xiu; Lü, Guo-zhi; Zhang, Wei-guang

    2016-03-01

    Red mud produced in the Bayer process is a hazardous solid waste because of its high alkalinity; however, it is rich in valuable components such as titanium, iron, and aluminum. In this study, a novel calcification-carbonation method was developed to recover alkali and alumina from Bayer red mud under mild reaction conditions. Batch experiments were performed to evaluate the potential effects of important parameters such as temperature, amount of CaO added, and CO2 partial pressure on the recovery of alkali and alumina. The results showed that 95.2% alkali and 75.0% alumina were recovered from red mud with decreases in the mass ratios of Na2O to Fe2O3 and of Al2O3 to Fe2O3 from 0.42 and 0.89 to 0.02 and 0.22, respectively. The processed red mud with less than 0.5wt% Na2O can potentially be used as a construction material.

  11. The method of quartz damage recovery in the photomask repair process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namkung, Hoon; Kim, MunSik; Park, EuiSang; Jung, HoYong; Kim, SangPyo; Yim, DongGyu

    2015-07-01

    As the pattern size became gradually smaller, the defect detectability of the photomask inspection tool was more improved. For these reasons, we have to repair various defects more precisely. By improving the mask yield through the repair process, we can reduce the cost of mask fabrication. In this study, we studied the defect called quartz damage which distorts the AIMSTM (Arial Image Measurement System) intensity of the repaired pattern and causes the scrap of the photomask. The quartz damage is generally observed when the abnormal defects like particles were repaired in the poor repairing condition. The quartz damage occasionally results in repair errors and affects the AIMS intensity. Currently there is no clear solution for recovering the quartz damage. As a result, it is very difficult to get the high quality photomask if the quartz damage is generated on the photomask. Therefore, it is important to find a method of recovering the quartz damage for producing the high quality photomask. In this paper, we demonstrated that the quartz damage can be recovered through the TEOS (Tetraethoxysilane) gas deposition. Also we investigated the effect on the recovery of the quartz damage of various parameters such as the type and the depth of the quartz damage as well as the repair conditions of the TEOS gas deposition.

  12. A novel method for furfural recovery via gas stripping assisted vapor permeation by a polydimethylsiloxane membrane.

    PubMed

    Hu, Song; Guan, Yu; Cai, Di; Li, Shufeng; Qin, Peiyong; Karim, M Nazmul; Tan, Tianwei

    2015-01-01

    Furfural is an important platform chemical with a wide range of applications. However, due to the low concentration of furfural in the hydrolysate, the conventional methods for furfural recovery are energy-intensive and environmentally unfriendly. Considering the disadvantages of pervaporation (PV) and distillation in furfural separation, a novel energy-efficient 'green technique', gas stripping assisted vapor permeation (GSVP), was introduced in this work. In this process, the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane was prepared by employing water as solvent. Coking in pipe and membrane fouling was virtually non-existent in this new process. In addition, GSVP was found to achieve the highest pervaporation separation index of 216200 (permeate concentration of 71.1?wt% and furfural flux of 4.09?kg m(-2) h(-1)) so far, which was approximately 2.5 times higher than that found in pervaporation at 95C for recovering 6.0?wt% furfural from water. Moreover, the evaporation energy required for GSVP decreased by 35% to 44% relative to that of PV process. Finally, GSVP also displayed more promising potential in industrial application than PV, especially when coupled with the hydrolysis process or fermentation in biorefinery industry. PMID:25819091

  13. A new method of remote sensing image recovery based on WWC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xifang; Wu, Feng; Tao, ChunKan

    2008-12-01

    By analyzing the multi-resolution characteristics of wavelet series, the frequency distribution of detail and approximation coefficients is deduced. It is concluded that the frequency of detail coefficients in low levels is higher than that in high levels, and the frequency of approximation coefficients is the lowest. According to this conclusion, this paper proposes a new method of remote sensing image recovery based on Weighted Wavelet Coefficient (WWC), namely, removing the cloud and mist from the remote sensing images using weighted wavelet coefficient algorithm. Suppose the image is decomposed by ? levels with wavelet transform. By choosing reasonable level number l, the scenery information is mainly distributed to 1~l levels where detail coefficients have lower frequency and cloud and mist noise information are distributed mainly to l~n; levels where detail coefficients have relatively higher frequency. Approximation coefficients will also include cloud information. Detail coefficients in low levels and high levels and approximation coefficients are weighted with different factors. The scenery information is enhanced by increasing detail coefficients in low levels with a weight great than 1. The cloud and mist noise is weakened by decreasing detail coefficients in high levels with a weight less than 1. Approximation coefficients are weighted appropriately if including cloud. It is also proposed that the information entropy is taken as a criterion for choosing the number of the demarcation levels and the weighted factors. We have confirmed that our new algorithm is better than homomorphism filtering and Retinex algorithm by experiments.

  14. Rates of post-fire vegetation recovery and fuel accumulation as a function of burn severity and time-since-burn in four western U.S. ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation recovery and fuel accumulation rates following wildfire are useful measures of ecosystem resilience, yet few studies have quantified these variables over 10 years post-fire. Conventional wisdom is that recovery time to pre-fire condition will be slower as a function of burn severity, as i...

  15. Optimal swab processing recovery method for detection of bioterrorism-related Francisella tularensis by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Walker, Roblena E; Petersen, Jeannine M; Stephens, Kenyatta W; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2010-10-01

    Francisella tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia, is regarded as a potential bioterrorism agent. The advent of bioterrorism has heightened awareness of the need for validated methods for processing environmental samples. In this study we determined the optimal method for processing environmental swabs for the recovery and subsequent detection of F. tularensis by the use of real-time PCR assays. Four swab processing recovery methods were compared: heat, sonication, vortexing, and the Swab Extraction Tube System (SETS). These methods were evaluated using cotton, foam, polyester and rayon swabs spiked with six pathogenic strains of F. tularensis. Real-time PCR analysis using a multi-target 5'nuclease assay for F. tularensis showed that the use of the SETS method resulted in the best limit of detection when evaluated using multiple strains of F. tularensis. We demonstrated also that the efficiency of F. tularensis recovery from swab specimens was not equivalent for all swab processing methodologies and, thus, that this variable can affect real-time PCR assay sensitivity. The effectiveness of the SETS method was independent of the automated DNA extraction method and real-time PCR platforms used. In conclusion, diagnostic laboratories can now potentially incorporate the SETS method into specimen processing protocols for the rapid and efficient detection of F. tularensis by real-time PCR during laboratory bioterrorism-related investigations. PMID:20654658

  16. Whey proteins are more efficient than casein in the recovery of muscle functional properties following a casting induced muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Martin, Vincent; Ratel, Sbastien; Siracusa, Julien; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Combaret, Lydie; Guillet, Christelle; Dardevet, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whey supplementation, as compared to the standard casein diet, on the recovery of muscle functional properties after a casting-induced immobilization period. After an initial (I0) evaluation of the contractile properties of the plantarflexors (isometric torque-frequency relationship, concentric power-velocity relationship and a fatigability test), the ankle of 20 male adult rats was immobilized by casting for 8 days. During this period, rats were fed a standard diet with 13% of casein (CAS). After cast removal, rats received either the same diet or a diet with 13% of whey proteins (WHEY). A control group (n = 10), non-immobilized but pair-fed to the two other experimental groups, was also studied and fed with the CAS diet. During the recovery period, contractile properties were evaluated 7 (R7), 21 (R21) and 42 days (R42) after cast removal. The immobilization procedure induced a homogeneous depression of average isometric force at R7 (CAS: - 19.0 8.2%; WHEY: - 21.7 8.4%; P<0.001) and concentric power (CAS: - 26.8 16.4%, P<0.001; WHEY: - 13.5 21.8%, P<0.05) as compared to I0. Conversely, no significant alteration of fatigability was observed. At R21, isometric force had fully recovered in WHEY, especially for frequencies above 50 Hz, whereas it was still significantly depressed in CAS, where complete recovery occurred only at R42. Similarly, recovery of concentric power was faster at R21 in the 500-700/s range in the WHEY group. These results suggest that recovery kinetics varied between diets, the diet with the whey proteins promoting a faster recovery of isometric force and concentric power output as compared to the casein diet. These effects were more specifically observed at force level and movement velocities that are relevant for functional abilities, and thus natural locomotion. PMID:24069411

  17. Recovery of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Webb, M L; Spickler, J L; Bourassa, D V; Cox, N A; Wilson, J L; Buhr, R J

    2014-08-01

    This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using 3 sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10(1), 10(2), or 10(3) cfu/eggshell of Salmonella Enteritidis and allowed to dry at room temperature for 1 or 24 h. For the shell rinse groups, each inoculated egg was rinsed with buffered peptone water. These rinsed eggs were used for the shell crush with previous rinse groups, and each egg was aseptically cracked, the contents discarded, and the eggshell and membranes crushed with buffered peptone water. This same crush procedure was used for the shell crush without previous shell rinse eggs. The recovery of Salmonella 1 h after inoculation for shell rinse sampled eggs was 16% positive at 10(1), 49% at 10(2), and 93% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. For the shell crush with previous shell rinse, sampled egg recovery was 0% positive at 10(1), 3% at 10(2), and 17% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell. For the shell crush, sampled eggs had recovery of 23% positive at 10(1), 69% at 10(2), and 96% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. The recovery of Salmonella 24 h after inoculation for the shell rinse eggs was 3% positive at 10(1), 12% at 10(2), and 22% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; recovery for shell crush with previous shell rinse sampling was 2% positive at 10(1), 8% at 10(2), and 5% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; and for the shell crush sampling recovery was 2% at 10(1), 32% at 10(2), and 42% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. Eggshell crush was a more sensitive (?10 percentage points) sampling method than eggshell rinse at both 1 and 24 h, but both methods were equally optimal when the inoculum was at 10(3) and samples were collected after 1 h. Waiting 24 h after inoculation to sample significantly lowered the recovery for both the shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods by ?40 percentage points. PMID:24931964

  18. Effects of Robot-assisted Gait Training Combined with Functional Electrical Stimulation on Recovery of Locomotor Mobility in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Ko, Young Jun; Chang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Ju Hyeok; Lee, Kyeong Bong; Park, Yoo Jung; Ha, Hyun Geun; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of robot-assisted gait training combined with functional electrical stimulation on locomotor recovery in patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects] The 20 subjects were randomly assigned into either an experimental group (n = 10) that received a combination of robot-assisted gait training and functional electrical stimulation on the ankle dorsiflexor of the affected side or a control group (n = 10) that received robot-assisted gait training only. [Methods] Both groups received the respective therapies for 30?min/day, 3 days/week for 5 weeks. The outcome was measured using the Modified Motor Assessment Scale (MMAS), Timed Up-and-Go Test (TUG), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and gait parameters through gait analysis (Vicon 370 motion analysis system, Oxford Metrics Ltd., Oxford, UK). All the variables were measured before and after training. [Results] Step length and maximal knee extension were significantly greater than those before training in the experimental group only. Maximal Knee flexion showed a significant difference between the experimental and control groups. The MMAS, BBS, and TUG scores improved significantly after training compared with before training in both groups. [Conclusion] We suggest that the combination of robot-assisted gait training and functional electrical stimulation encourages patients to actively participate in training because it facilitates locomotor recovery without the risk of adverse effects. PMID:25540505

  19. Effects of Robot-assisted Gait Training Combined with Functional Ele