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Sample records for function recovery method

  1. Methods to evaluate functional nerve recovery in adult rats: walking track analysis, video analysis and the withdrawal reflex.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, J R; Meek, M F; Robinson, P H; Gramsbergen, A

    2000-03-15

    The aim of this study was to compare different methods for the evaluation of functional nerve recovery. Three groups of adult male Wistar rats were studied. In group A, a 12-mm gap between nerve ends was bridged by an autologous nerve graft; in rats of group B we performed a crush lesion of the sciatic nerve and group C consisted of non-operated control rats. The withdrawal reflex, elicited by an electric stimulus, was used to evaluate the recovery of sensory nerve function. To investigate motor nerve recovery we analyzed the walking pattern. Three different methods were used to obtain data for footprint analysis: photographic paper with thickened film developer on the paws, normal white paper with finger paint, and video recordings. The footprints were used to calculate the sciatic function index (SFI). From the video recordings, we also analyzed stepcycles. The withdrawal reflex is a convenient and reproducible test for the evaluation of global sensory nerve recovery. Recording walking movements on video and the analysis of footplacing is a perfect although time-consuming method for the evaluation of functional aspects of motor nerve recovery. PMID:10720672

  2. Neuroplasticity and functional recovery in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tomassini, Valentina; Matthews, Paul M.; Thompson, Alan J.; Fuglø, Daniel; Geurts, Jeroen J.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Jones, Derek K.; Rocca, Maria A.; Wise, Richard G.; Barkhof, Frederik; Palace, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies that promote functional recovery is a major goal of multiple sclerosis (MS) research. Neuroscientific and methodological advances have improved our understanding of the brain’s recovery from damage, generating novel hypotheses for potential targets or modes of intervention and laying the foundation for the development of scientifically informed strategies promoting recovery in interventional studies. This Review aims to encourage the transition from characterization of recovery mechanisms to the development of strategies that promote recovery in MS. We discuss current evidence for functional reorganization that underlies recovery and its implications for development of new recovery-oriented strategies in MS. Promotion of functional recovery requires an improved understanding of recovery mechanisms modulated by interventions and the development of reliable measures of therapeutic effects. As imaging methods can be used to measure functional and structural alterations associated with recovery, this Review discusses their use as reliable markers to measure the effects of interventions. PMID:22986429

  3. A new method of measuring functional recovery after crushing the peripheral nerves in unanesthetized and unrestrained rats.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, K

    1978-02-15

    The distances between the first and fifth digits and between the second and fourth digits of the rat's hind paw were measured after crushing the sciatic nerve. The distances between the digits recovered significantly faster in weak nerve crushing than in strong crushing, and faster in distal nerve crushing than in proximal crushing. These results suggest that this method is available for evaluating the functional recovery after nerve crushing. PMID:624375

  4. Differentiation method for phase recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özcan, Meriç

    2015-03-01

    Here we consider a derivative based method for phase recovery and demonstrate a numerical method that can be described as differentiate and cross multiply operation to obtain the phase gradient. This method uses quadrature phase data that is in sine and cosine form, which is a natural outcome many interferometric measurements including that of digital holographic reconstruction. Since the differentiation is performed on trigonometric functions which are discrete, it is shown that the method of differentiation and the sampling rate are important considerations especially for the noise corrupt signals. The method is initially developed for 1D phase signals, and then later extended to 2D. Noise performance of the method is also investigated, and it is shown that for extremely noisy signals the method can be adapted to an iteration routine which recovers the phase successfully. We present simulations and the experimental results which show the validity of the approach.

  5. Recovery of microbial community structure and functioning after wildfire in semi-arid environments: optimising methods for monitoring and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Martini, Dylan; Erickson, Todd; Merritt, David; Dixon, Kingsley

    2015-04-01

    Introduction In semi-arid areas such as northern Western Australia, wildfires are a natural part of the environment and many ecosystems in these landscapes have evolved and developed a strong relationship with fire. Soil microbial communities play a crucial role in ecosystem processes by regulating the cycling of nutrients via decomposition, mineralization, and immobilization processes. Thus, the structure (e.g. soil microbial biomass) and functioning (e.g. soil microbial activity) of microbial communities, as well as their changes after ecosystem disturbance, can be useful indicators of soil quality and health recovery. In this research, we assess the impacts of fire on soil microbial communities and their recovery in a biodiverse semi-arid environment of Western Australia (Pilbara region). New methods for determining soil microbial respiration as an indicator of microbial activity and soil health are also tested. Methodology Soil samples were collected from 10 similar ecosystems in the Pilbara with analogous native vegetation, but differing levels of post-fire disturbance (i.e. 3 months, 1 year, 5, 7 and 14 years after wildfire). Soil microbial activity was measured with the Solvita test which determines soil microbial respiration rate based on the measurement of the CO2 burst of a dry soil after it is moistened. Soils were dried and re-wetted and a CO2 probe was inserted before incubation at constant conditions of 25°C during 24 h. Measurements were taken with a digital mini spectrometer. Microbial (bacteria and fungi) biomass and community composition were measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA). Results Immediately after the fire (i.e. 3 months), soil microbial activity and microbial biomass are similar to 14 years 'undisturbed' levels (53.18±3.68 ppm CO2-CO and 14.07±0.65 mg kg-1, respectively). However, after the first year post-fire, with larger plant productivity, microbial biomass and microbial activity increase rapidly, peaking after 5

  6. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; McKenzie, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

  7. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

    1995-05-30

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

  8. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Silva, Laura J.; Bray, Lane A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

  9. [The recovery of cognitive functions in the patients with organic brain disorders as a component of combined rehabilitation with the use of the method of bioacoustic correction].

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, K V; Gritsyshina, M A; Nefedova, G É

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to follow up dynamics of the recovery of cognitive functions after comprehensive medical rehabilitation of the patients with organic brain disorders using a bioacoutsic correction technique. A peculiar feature of this method is it allows for involuntary self-regulation of the functional state of the central nervous system and therefore can be used to treat patients experiencing cognitive problems. It was shown that the application of the method of bioacoustic correction promotes restoration of cognitive functions, reduces anxiety, and normalizes parameters of electroencephalograms. PMID:22993949

  10. Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Acceptability and Recovery of Cortisol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Susan K.; Lopata, Christopher; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Neilans, Erik G.; Werth, Jilynn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared cortisol concentrations yielded using three saliva collection methods (passive drool, salivette, and sorbette) in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, as well as method acceptability for a sample of children (n = 39) with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. No cortisol concentration differences were observed between…

  11. Recovery in schizophrenia: focus on neurocognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Zaytseva, Yuliya; Gurovich, Isaac Ya; Goland, Etel; Storozhakova, Yaina A

    2012-09-01

    Recovery encompasses symptom remission and functional elements such as cognition, social functioning and quality of life. Personal recovery is also important in illness management to help the person stay on track with treatment and focus on activities unrelated to taking medication that maintain mental health. In the present study we aimed to identify neurocognitive functioning in two clinically stable groups of patients with personal recovery and non-recovered patients. The results showered generalized cognitive deficits in both groups while the non-recovery group was more impaired in verbal and visual memory, acoustic and tactile gnosis and neurodynamics and executing functioning. Interestingly the recovery group demonstrated lack of programming of actions and sufficient error monitoring and self-correction whereas the non-recovery group was significantly more impaired in all executive domains. The obtained results could be beneficial in identifying a target for psychosocial treatments and specifically cognitive remediation for patients with schizophrenia to facilitate the process of recovery. PMID:22945216

  12. Phytosterols: applications and recovery methods.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P; Cabral, J M S

    2007-09-01

    Phytosterols, or plant sterols, are compounds that occur naturally and bear close structural resemblance to cholesterol, but have different side-chain configurations. Phytosterols are relevant in pharmaceuticals (production of therapeutic steroids), nutrition (anti-cholesterol additives in functional foods, anti-cancer properties), and cosmetics (creams, lipstick). Phytosterols can be obtained from vegetable oils or from industrial wastes, which gives an added value to the latter. Considerable efforts have been recently dedicated to the development of efficient processes for phytosterol isolation from natural sources. The present work aims to summarize information on the applications of phytosterols and to review recent approaches, mainly from the industry, for the large-scale recovery of phytosterols. PMID:17123816

  13. Method for improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, M.E.; Hass, G.R.; Sharpe, R.; Nestaas, E.; Ostrovsky, M.V.

    1987-11-17

    A non-thermal, single-well method is described for improved oil recovery from a hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir with essentially no natural drive in which: (a) a volume of a chemical surfactant/cosurfactant/brine mixture, greater than a volume required to fill the well bore an immediate vicinity thereto into a well penetrating the reservoir, which surfactant/cosurfactant/brine mixture is preformulated to produce a stable, low interfacial tension three-phase, hydrocarbon-microemulsion-brine system with a sample of the hydrocarbon of the reservoir; (b) a subterranean, intra-reservoir, low interfacial tension, three-phase, hydrocarbon-microemulsion-brine system is formed; and (c) the low interfacial tension, three-phase, hydrocarbon-microemulsion-brine system is produced from the same well into which the surfactant/cosurfactant/brine mixture is injected.

  14. Method for enhanced oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Comberiati, Joseph R.; Locke, Charles D.; Kamath, Krishna I.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for enhanced recovery of oil from relatively "cold" reservoirs by carbon dioxide flooding. In oil reservoirs at a temperature less than the critical temperature of 87.7.degree. F. and at a pore pressure greater than the saturation pressure of carbon dioxide at the temperature of the reservoir, the carbon dioxide remains in the liquid state which does not satisfactorily mix with the oil. However, applicants have found that carbon dioxide can be vaporized in situ in the reservoir by selectively reducing the pore pressure in the reservoir to a value less than the particular saturated vapor pressure so as to greatly enhance the mixing of the carbon dioxide with the oil.

  15. High-resolution satellite image recovery by modulation transfer function (MTF) compensation method using phase congruency estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xiaopeng; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Shaohui; Jin, Zhenhua; Du, Juan

    2013-09-01

    Satellite imagery always has low-resolution causing poor application in practice because the serious degradation in imaging is resulted in many factors such as atmospheric turbulence, cloud, and aberration of optical system. To reconstruct the degraded remote sensing images with a high quality, we designed an algorithm to estimate the system modulation transfer function (MTF) accurately. Phase congruency is employed to detect the edges and corners of the image first, then the significant edges, which are utilized to estimate the edge spread function (ESF) using inclined edge method, are picked up from above features through a certain line detection measurement. An image restoration algorithm based on total variation (TV) is introduced to deconvolute the degraded image with the estimated MTF which is derived from the ESF. The experiments show that this method is adaptive and efficient to recover the remote sensing images taken from a Chinese Satellite. The restored images with a higher resolution and higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) will improve the applications greatly.

  16. Method for enchanced recovery of petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Buinicky, E.P.; Estes, J.H.

    1980-09-23

    An enhanced oil recovery method comprising injecting an aqueous solution of ammonium salts selected from the group consisting of ammonium sulfite, ammonium bisulfite, and mixtures thereof into a petroleum-bearing earth formation, heating said injected aqueous solution to a temperature in the range of about 120/sup 0/-300/sup 0/F., or higher in the presence of said petroleum-bearing earth formation, flowing said heated aqueous solution through said petroleum bearing earth formation to drive petroleum to a recovery well, and producing increased amounts of petroleum from said earth formation through said recovery well.

  17. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1987-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  18. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

    1987-08-25

    A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  19. [Spectrum recovery methods for nonuniform sampling interferogram].

    PubMed

    Yao, Tao; Lü, Qun-Bo; Xiangli, Bin; Yuan, Yan

    2010-05-01

    The interferogram acquired by imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (IFTS) can't be used directly and must be recovered. The spectrum recovery processes based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) is the traditional method which is used widely. For some IFTS, the nonuniform sampling of the interferogram is often occurrs. When the aliasing is neglected, the spectrum recovered by traditional method is often distorted. When the spectrum recovery processes based on Fourier transform are used, the precision of the recovered spectrum can be ensured, but the real-time processing requirement can't be satisfied. In order to acquire the precise recovered spectrum of the nonuniform sampled interferogram, the interpolation method and nonuniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) method were adopted. For the oversampled interferogram and partial undersampled interferogram, the spectrum recovery methods based on interpolation and NUFFT were presented respectively, and the applicability of these two methods is given. Finally, the computer simulation was performed, and the results indicate that NUFFT method is preferable to interpolation method not for undersampled interferogram but for oversampled interferogram. PMID:20672649

  20. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Peru, Deborah A.

    1989-01-01

    A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

  1. Spectrum recovery method analysis on nonuniform sampling interference data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fengzhen; Li, Jingzhen; Cao, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Temporally and Spatially Modulated Fourier Transform Imaging Spectrometer (TSMFTIS) is a new imaging spectrometer without moving mirrors and slits. The interferogram of the target point can be consisted by sequentially arranging the interference information extracted from the same target point of the sequential images, and the spectrum can be recovered by using fast Fourier transform. In the practical application, there is nonuniform sampling in the interference data, and many researchers have carried out researches on nonuniform sampling with the fast Fourier transform algorithm. As to the issue of interference data in the nonuniform sampling, the nonuniform sampling degree's impact on the recovered spectrum precision is currently and mainly analyzed. This paper has adapted several typical nonuniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) methods, carried out spectrum recovery precision comparison on the interferogram of the nonuniform sampling point with the above methods, and further analyzed the impact of kernel function type, oversampling ratio and kernel function width's on spectrum recovery precision in the above mentioned methods. The experiment result indicates that, when the oversampling ratio is 4 and the kernel function width is 4, the spectrum recovery precision with NUFFT based on Blackman type kernel function is optimal, however, the Gaussian kernel function is stable.

  2. Data warehousing methods and processing infrastructure for brain recovery research.

    PubMed

    Gee, T; Kenny, S; Price, C J; Seghier, M L; Small, S L; Leff, A P; Pacurar, A; Strother, S C

    2010-09-01

    In order to accelerate translational neuroscience with the goal of improving clinical care it has become important to support rapid accumulation and analysis of large, heterogeneous neuroimaging samples and their metadata from both normal control and patient groups. We propose a multi-centre, multinational approach to accelerate the data mining of large samples and facilitate data-led clinical translation of neuroimaging results in stroke. Such data-driven approaches are likely to have an early impact on clinically relevant brain recovery while we simultaneously pursue the much more challenging model-based approaches that depend on a deep understanding of the complex neural circuitry and physiological processes that support brain function and recovery. We present a brief overview of three (potentially converging) approaches to neuroimaging data warehousing and processing that aim to support these diverse methods for facilitating prediction of cognitive and behavioral recovery after stroke, or other types of brain injury or disease. PMID:21175009

  3. Renal function recovery in chronic dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jay K; Folkert, Vaughn W

    2010-01-01

    Renal function recovery (RFR) from acute kidney injury requiring dialysis occurs at a high frequency. RFR from chronic dialysis, on the other hand, is an uncommon but well-recognized phenomenon, occurring at a rate of 1.0-2.4% according to data from large observational studies. The underlying etiology of renal failure is the single most important predicting factor of RFR in chronic dialysis patients. The disease types with the highest RFR rates are atheroembolic renal disease, systemic autoimmune disease, renovascular diseases, and scleroderma. The disease types with the lowest RFR rates are diabetic nephropathy and cystic kidney disease. Initial dialysis modality does not appear to influence RFR. Careful observation and history taking are needed to recognize the often nonspecific clinical and laboratory signs of RFR. When RFR is suspected in a chronic dialysis patient, a 24-hour urine urea and creatinine clearance should be measured. Based on the renal clearance, along with other clinical factors, the dialysis prescription may be gradually reduced until a complete discontinuation of dialysis. After RFR from maintenance dialysis, patients require close follow-up in an office setting for chronic kidney disease management. PMID:21166875

  4. Plasticity and functional recovery in neurology.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V S

    2005-01-01

    Experiments on patients with phantom limbs suggest that neural connections in the adult human brain are much more malleable than previously assumed. Three weeks after amputation of an arm, sensations from the ipsilateral face are referred to the phantom; this effect is caused by the sensory input from the face skin 'invading' and activating deafferented hand zones in the cortex and thalamus. Many phantom arms are 'paralysed' in a painful position. If a mirror is propped vertically in the sagittal plane and the patient looks at the reflection of his/her normal hand, this reflection appears superimposed on the 'felt' position of the phantom. Remarkably, if the real arm is moved, the phantom is felt to move as well and this sometimes relieves the painful cramps in the phantom. Mirror visual feedback (MVF) has shown promising results with chronic regional pain syndrome and hemiparesis following stroke. These results suggest two reasons for a paradigm shift in neurorehabilitation. First, there appears to be tremendous latent plasticity even in the adult brain. Second, the brain should be thought of, not as a hierarchy of organised autonomous modules, each of which delivers its output to the next level, but as a set of complex interacting networks that are in a state of dynamic equilibrium with the brain's environment. Both principles can be potentially exploited in a clinical context to facilitate recovery of function. PMID:16138492

  5. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.

    1989-04-04

    A method is described for flooding of a subterranean petroleum bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery, comprising the steps of providing at least one production well having at least one inlet within the subterranean petroleum bearing formation, and at least one injection well having at least one outlet within the subterranean petroleum bearing formation, injecting into the petroleum bearing formation through the injection well, a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution having a pH in the range of from about 8.25 to about 9.25 comprising from about 0.25 to about 5 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate, from about 0.05 to about 1.0 weight percent of petroleum recovery surfactant, and from about 1 to about 20 weight percent of sodium chloride, based on the total weight of the aqueous flooding solution, withdrawing through at least one inlet of the production wells, an oil and water mixture comprising petroleum from the subterranean petroleum bearing formation and at least a portion of the low alkaline pH sodium bicarbonate aqueous flooding solution, and separating the oil from the aqueous oil and water mixture.

  6. Recovery of hand function through mental practice: A study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ietswaart, Magdalena; Johnston, Marie; Dijkerman, H Chris; Scott, Clare L; Joice, Sara A; Hamilton, Steven; MacWalter, Ronald S

    2006-01-01

    Background The study aims to assess the therapeutic benefits of motor imagery training in stroke patients with persistent motor weakness. There is evidence to suggest that mental rehearsal of movement can produce effects normally attributed to practising the actual movements. Imagining hand movements could stimulate the redistribution of brain activity, which accompanies recovery of hand function, thus resulting in a reduced motor deficit. Methods/Design A multi-centre randomised controlled trial recruiting individuals between one and six months post-stroke (n = 135). Patients are assessed before and after a four-week evaluation period. In this trial, 45 patients daily mentally rehearse movements with their affected arm under close supervision. Their recovery is compared to 45 patients who perform closely supervised non-motor mental rehearsal, and 45 patients who are not engaged in a training program. Motor imagery training effectiveness is evaluated using outcome measures of motor function, psychological processes, and level of disability. Discussion The idea of enhancing motor recovery through the use of motor imagery rehabilitation techniques is important with potential implications for clinical practice. The techniques evaluated as part of this randomised controlled trial are informed by the current understanding in cognitive neuroscience and the trial is both of scientific and applied interest. PMID:17067370

  7. Method and apparatus for shale gas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, D.H.

    1990-05-29

    This patent describes a method for the in situ recovery of natural gas from an undisturbed shale bed formation in a condition ready for transmission through a gas pipeline to end users and substantially without the formation of liquid products. It comprises: forming a heater assembly having an elongated substantially cylindrical outer housing; providing the elongated heater assembly with an interior containing a fuel gas burner there within joined to an upwardly extending fuel gas supply line and including in the interior an upwardly extending product gas line disposed adjacent an upwardly extending combustion air line; drilling a borehole into a subterranean shale bed formation; and lowering the heater assembly into the borehole to a position surrounded by the shale bed formation with the borehole having been drilled to define a diameter relative the heater assembly housing insuring a close fit therebetween while providing a gas space therebetween.

  8. Tertiary recovery method using inverted deviated holes

    SciTech Connect

    Goodhart, M.E.

    1987-03-13

    A method is described of recovering oil and the like from a subsurface earth formation comprising the steps of: establishing a substantially vertical shaft hole extending from the surface of the earth of the subsurface earth formation, boring from the vertical shaft initially in an essentially upward direction in the formation at least one deviated hole in the formation, the deviated hole having an upper end and communicating at its lower end with the vertical shaft, forming from an upper end in the vertical shaft in an essentially downward direction an outer borehole in the subsurface earth formation in proximity with the deviated hole, the outer borehole communicating with the vertical shaft and horizontally overlapping the deviated hole, and directing recovery enhancing fluids from the surface through the upper end of the vertical shaft to the outer borehole and injecting the fluids into the formation in proximity with the deviated hole whereby the fluids injected into the earth formation in proximity with the hole facilitates drainage of oil and the like into the upwardly directed deviated hole.

  9. Waste heat recovery method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Farnia, Kh.

    1984-05-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for the recovery of sensible heat from a hot tar-free gas produced in a coal gasification process and in combined-cycle power generation. The recovered heat is utilized to generate a flow of superheated steam which may be used in the gasification plant. The apparatus includes a first boiler and a superheater fabricated from materials susceptible to damage from thermal shock when a flow of the tar-free gas having a temperature in excess of a predetermined safety temperature is introduced to the superheater when it is dry. The first boiler, filled with a flow of saturated water, initially receives the flow of gas. Within the first boiler, the gas indirectly heats the water converting it to a flow of saturated steam and reducing the gas temperature below the safety temperature. The reduced temperature gas is passed to the superheater and the saturated steam is passed to the superheater. The gas heats the saturated steam in the superheater to convert it to superheated steam and the temperature of the gas is further reduced. The gas flows to a second boiler for converting a flow of saturated water to saturated steam and further reducing the gas temperature. The saturated steam from the second boiler is passed to the superheater and the gas flows to an economizer for converting a flow of unsaturated water to saturated water for the boilers and reducing the temperature of the gas to a final temperature.

  10. Recovery of Motor Function After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Nikhil; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2016-01-01

    The human brain possesses a remarkable ability to adapt in response to changing anatomical (e.g., aging) or environmental modifications. This form of neuroplasticity is important at all stages of life but is critical in neurological disorders such as amblyopia and stroke. This review focuses upon our new understanding of possible mechanisms underlying functional deficits evidenced after adult-onset stroke. We review the functional interactions between different brain regions that may contribute to motor disability after stroke and, based on this information, possible interventional approaches to motor stroke disability. New information now points to the involvement of non-primary motor areas and their interaction with the primary motor cortex as areas of interest. The emergence of this new information is likely to impact new efforts to develop more effective neurorehabilitative interventions using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) that may be relevant to other neurological disorders such as amblyopia. PMID:22415914

  11. Vagus Nerve Stimulation during Rehabilitative Training Improves Functional Recovery after Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Seth A.; Khodaparast, Navid; Hulsey, Daniel R.; Ruiz, Andrea; Sloan, Andrew M.; Rennaker, Robert L.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) delivered during rehabilitative training enhances neuroplasticity and improves recovery in models of cortical ischemic stroke. However, VNS therapy has not been applied in a model of subcortical intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We hypothesized that VNS paired with rehabilitative training after ICH would enhance recovery of forelimb motor function beyond rehabilitative training alone. Methods Rats were trained to perform an automated, quantitative measure of forelimb function. Once proficient, rats received an intrastriatal injection of bacterial collagenase to induce ICH. Rats then underwent VNS paired with rehabilitative training (VNS+Rehab; N = 14) or rehabilitative training without VNS (Rehab; N = 12). Rehabilitative training began at least 9 days after ICH and continued for 6 weeks. Results VNS paired with rehabilitative training significantly improved recovery of forelimb function compared to rehabilitative training without VNS. The VNS+Rehab group displayed a 77% recovery of function, while the Rehab group only exhibited 29% recovery. Recovery was sustained after cessation of stimulation. Both groups performed similar amounts of trials during rehabilitative and lesion size was not different between groups. Conclusions VNS paired with rehabilitative training confers significantly improved forelimb recovery following ICH compared to rehabilitative training without VNS. PMID:25147331

  12. Wastewater heat recovery method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  13. Recovery of vestibular function following hair cell destruction by streptomycin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Nelson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Can the vestibular periphery of warm-blooded vertebrates recover functionally from severe sensory hair cell loss? Recent findings in birds suggest a mechanism for recovery but in fact no direct functional evidence has been reported. We produced vestibular hair cell lesions using the ototoxic agent streptomycin sulfate (600 mg/kg/day, 8 days, chicks, Gallus domesticus). Compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve were used as a direct measure of peripheral vestibular function. Vestibular thresholds, neural activation latencies and amplitudes were documented. Eight days of drug treatment elevated thresholds significantly (P < 0.001) and eliminated all but remnants of vestibular activity. Virtually complete physiological recovery occurred in all animals studied over a period of 70 days following treatment. Thresholds recovered within two weeks of drug treatment whereas the return of response morphologies including activation latencies and amplitudes required an additional 6-8 weeks.

  14. Enhanced oil recovery using electrical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Muhammad Moshin

    Heavy Oil Recovery is gaining much popularity because of huge consumption of oil in the modern industry. Main concern in the extraction of heavy oil is its high viscosity. Heating heavy oil by different electrical means has come out to be a promising solution for viscosity reduction. This includes the low frequency resistive heating, induction heating and high frequency microwave heating or the dielectric heating. Application of low frequency resistive heating is limited by the requirement of brine (conducting fluid) inside the reservoir while Induction heating is only applicable in the presence of ferrous elements in the reservoir. High frequency microwave heating can be used effectively for enhancing the oil productivity. Ultrasonic stimulation is another technique capable of reducing the viscosity of heavy oil without employing the heating techniques. Although many models have been presented addressing microwave heating of heavy oil but, no model has been found in the literature addressing the design of microwave sources and the experimental verification of the results. Similarly some authors have also addressed the ultrasonic stimulation of heavy oil but no one has discussed the behavior of ultrasonic waves at different power level along with the experimental verification. This thesis presents complete mathematical modeling of microwave heating, with numerical solution by considering two-dimensional radial model. In addition, the design, positioning, and orientation of the array of microwave antennas have also been considered in numerical simulations while results of some of the cases are also verified experimentally. Similarly, the Thesis discusses the ultrasonic modeling with numerical solution and experimental verification at different power levels and positioning of the ultrasonic transducer. These models present the results in the form of temperature & pressure distribution and productivity enhancement. For numerical simulations, a Finite Element Analysis

  15. Invalid phase values removal method for absolute phase recovery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jin; Mo, Rong; Sun, Huibin; Chang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaxia

    2016-01-10

    A novel approach is presented for more effectively removing invalid phase values in absolute phase recovery. The approach is based on a detailed study involving the types and cases of invalid phase values. Meanwhile, some commonalities of the existing removal algorithms also are thoroughly analyzed. It is well known that rough absolute phase and fringe order maps can very easily be obtained by temporal phase unwrapping techniques. After carefully analyzing the components and fringe order distribution of the rough fringe order map, the proposed method chiefly adopts an entirely new strategy to refine a pure fringe order map. The strategy consists of three parts: (1) the square of an image gradient, (2) subregion areas of the binary image, and (3) image decomposition and composition. In combination with the pure fringe order map and a removal criterion, the invalid phase values can be identified and filtered out from the rough absolute phase map. This new strategy not only gets rid of the limitations of traditional removal methods but also has a two-fold function. The paper also offers different metrics from the experiment to evaluate the quality of the final absolute phase. In contrast with other removal methods, experimental results have verified the feasibility, effectiveness, and superiority of the proposed method. PMID:26835776

  16. Narrative methods in a study of trauma recovery.

    PubMed

    Hall, Joanne M

    2011-01-01

    Multiple narrative perspectives can guide narrative research. The complexity of health narratives presents a significant challenge. Trauma recovery accounts are health narratives demonstrating successes as well as struggles. In this article, I describe a large-scale narrative study in which specific qualitative methods were combined to fit research aims, stories elicited, and emergent questions in the analysis process. Under my direction, an interdisciplinary team conducted this constructivist, feminist, narrative study describing the trauma recovery process. The study was focused on success or thriving in women surviving childhood maltreatment. I took an advocacy stance in favor of participants' interests, as is commensurate with a critical feminist standpoint. Through initial analyses the research team constructed a trauma recovery process termed "becoming resolute." Subanalyses were focused on key relationships, life trajectories, self-strategies, and perceptual changes. My purpose is to explain the various kinds and levels of analysis used here to provide options for others studying recovery narratives. PMID:20663939

  17. Detrimental effects of immobilization on functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Sarikcioglu, Levent; Ozkan, Olcay; Gurer, Elif Inanc

    2005-07-01

    Peripheral-nerve trauma has been a challenge to surgeons, with significant advances in the surgery of repair. Immobilization of the injured limb after repair has been the traditional method of treatment. Although peripheral-nerve regeneration has been studied extensively, the correlation between functional recovery and the immobilization period has not been well-documented. In the present study, the authors studied the effects of immobilization on axonal regeneration after sciatic crush injury. They found a detrimental effect of immobilization on the functional recovery. PMID:15971165

  18. How to Measure Recovery? Revisiting Concepts and Methods for Stroke Studies.

    PubMed

    Hommel, Marc; Detante, Olivier; Favre, Isabelle; Touzé, Emmanuel; Jaillard, Assia

    2016-10-01

    In clinical trials, assessing efficacy is based on validated scales, and the primary endpoint is usually based on a single scale. The aim of the review is to revisit the concepts and methods to design and analyze studies focused on restoration, recovery and or compensation. These studies are becoming more frequent with the development of restorative medicine. After discussing the definitions of recovery, we address the concept of recovery as the regain of lost capabilities, when the patient reaches a new equilibrium. Recovery is a dynamic process which assessment includes information from initial and final status, their difference, the difference between the final status of the patient and normality, and the speed of restoration. Finally, recovery can be assessed either for a specific function (focal restoration) or for a more global restoration. A single scale is not able to assess all the facets of a skill or a function, therefore complementary information should be collected and analyzed simultaneously to be tested in a single analysis. We are suggesting that recovery should be considered as a latent variable and therefore cannot be measured in pure form. We are also suggesting to customize the data collection and analysis according to the characteristics of the subjects, the mechanisms of action and consequences of the intervention. Moreover, recovery trials should benefit from latent variable analysis methods. Structural equation modeling is likely the best candidate for this approach applicable in pre-clinical and clinical studies. PMID:27498680

  19. Method for silicon nitride precursor solids recovery

    DOEpatents

    Crosbie, Gary M.; Predmesky, Ronald L.; Nicholson, John M.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus are provided for collecting reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow from a reaction situs, wherein the gaseous outflow includes a condensable vapor. A condensate is formed of the condensable vapor on static mixer surfaces within a static mixer heat exchanger. The entrained reaction product solids are captured in the condensate which can be collected for further processing, such as return to the reaction situs. In production of silicon imide, optionally integrated into a production process for making silicon nitride caramic, wherein reactant feed gas comprising silicon halide and substantially inert carrier gas is reacted with liquid ammonia in a reaction vessel, silicon imide reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow comprising residual carrier gas and vaporized ammonia can be captured by forming a condensate of the ammonia vapor on static mixer surfaces of a static mixer heat exchanger.

  20. METHOD FOR THE RECOVERY OF CESIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Rimshaw, S.J.

    1960-02-16

    A method is given for recovering Cs/sup 137/ from radioactive waste solutions together with extraneous impurities. Ammonium alum is precipitated in the waste solution. The alum, which carries the cesium, is separated from the supernatant liquid and then dissolved in water. The resulting aqueous solution is then provided with a source of hydroxyl ions, which precipitates aluminum as the hydroxide, and the aluminum hydroxide is separated from the resulting liquid. This liquid, which contains anionic impurities together with ammonium and cesium, is passed through an anion exchange resin bed which removes the anionic impurities. The ammonium in the effluent is removed by destructive distiilation, leaving a substantiaily pure cesium salt in the effluent.

  1. Functional Recovery of Older Hip-Fracture Patients after Interdisciplinary Intervention Follows Three Distinct Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Ming-Yueh; Shyu, Yea-Ing L.; Liang, Jersey

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effects of an interdisciplinary intervention on the trajectories of functional recovery among older patients with hip fracture during 2 years after hospitalization. Design and Methods In a randomized controlled trial with 24-month follow-up, 162 patients [greater than or equal to]60 years were enrolled after hip-fracture…

  2. Recovery of impaired muscle function in severe sciatica.

    PubMed

    Balagué, F; Nordin, M; Sheikhzadeh, A; Echegoyen, A C; Skovron, M L; Bech, H; Chassot, D; Helsen, M

    2001-06-01

    This is a prospective cohort study of patients with acute treated severe sciatica. The objectives of the study are, firstly, to describe the recovery of muscle performance by manual and isokinetic muscle testing in patients with acute severe sciatica over 1 year, and secondly, to discuss the potential clinical relevance of the isokinetic testing of the ankle for patients with acute sciatica. In clinical daily practice, muscle performance is evaluated by means of isometric manual tests. Different authors using manual muscle tests have reported the long-term outcome of the muscle function in patients with sciatica. Overall, the results are good in terms of the recovery of muscle strength. However, it is not clear whether the isometric strength is sufficiently relevant to evaluate the more complete muscle performance of the affected muscles in patients with sciatica. This study presents data on the muscle recovery measured with manual testing and isokinetic testing of patients with severe sciatica. Consecutive patients admitted to the Cantonal Hospital for conservative management of severe acute sciatica were eligible for inclusion in the study. Patients were evaluated at admission, discharge, and follow-up at 3, 6, and 12 months. All the visits included a standardized clinical examination and the completion of questionnaires. Imaging and electromyography were conducted at the first visit. Isokinetic muscle tests at 30 degrees/s and 120 degrees/s were performed at discharge and follow-up visits. Manual and isokinetic tests were performed on foot and ankle flexor and extensor muscles. Eighty-two consecutive patients (66% men), with a mean age of 43 (+/-10.3) years, entered the study. The prevalence of major muscle weakness was low, with 7% of patients unable to perform toe walking and 11% unable to walk on the heel at visit one. Moreover, motor deficit defined as a score of 4 or less (out of 5) was found in 15% of subjects at the first evaluation. Such severe deficits

  3. The optimal recovery of a function from an inaccurate information on its k-plane transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagramyan, Tigran

    2016-06-01

    We consider the optimal recovery of the β th degree of the Laplacian value on a function from the information on its k-plane transform, measured with an error. We present the error of the optimal recovery and the set of optimal methods on classes with the bounded α th degree of the Laplacian, where 0≤slant β \\lt α . As a consequence, we give one inequality for the norms of the degree of the Laplace operator and the k-plane transform. Particular cases include new inversion methods and inequalities for the classical Radon and x-ray transforms.

  4. Maximising functional recovery following hip fracture in frail seniors.

    PubMed

    Beaupre, Lauren A; Binder, Ellen F; Cameron, Ian D; Jones, C Allyson; Orwig, Denise; Sherrington, Cathie; Magaziner, Jay

    2013-12-01

    This review discusses factors affecting recovery following hip fracture in frail older people as well as interventions associated with improved functional recovery. Prefracture function, cognitive status, co-morbidities, depression, nutrition and social support impact recovery and may interact to affect post-fracture outcome. There is mounting evidence that exercise is beneficial following hip fracture with higher-intensity/duration programmes showing more promising outcomes. Pharmacologic management for osteoporosis has benefits in preventing further fractures, and interest is growing in pharmacologic treatments for post-fracture loss of muscle mass and strength. A growing body of evidence suggests that sub-populations - those with cognitive impairment, residing in nursing homes or males - also benefit from rehabilitation after hip fracture. Optimal post-fracture care may entail the use of multiple interventions; however, more work is needed to determine optimal exercise components, duration and intensity as well as exploring the impact of multimodal interventions that combine exercise, pharmacology, nutrition and other interventions. PMID:24836335

  5. Sensorimotor integration for functional recovery and the Bobath approach.

    PubMed

    Levin, Mindy F; Panturin, Elia

    2011-04-01

    Bobath therapy is used to treat patients with neurological disorders. Bobath practitioners use hands-on approaches to elicit and reestablish typical movement patterns through therapist-controlled sensorimotor experiences within the context of task accomplishment. One aspect of Bobath practice, the recovery of sensorimotor function, is reviewed within the framework of current motor control theories. We focus on the role of sensory information in movement production, the relationship between posture and movement and concepts related to motor recovery and compensation with respect to this therapeutic approach. We suggest that a major barrier to the evaluation of the therapeutic effectiveness of the Bobath concept is the lack of a unified framework for both experimental identification and treatment of neurological motor deficits. More conclusive analysis of therapeutic effectiveness requires the development of specific outcomes that measure movement quality. PMID:21628730

  6. Embedded pupil function recovery for Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Xiaoze; Zheng, Guoan; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    We develop and test a pupil function determination algorithm, termed embedded pupil function recovery (EPRY), which can be incorporated into the Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) algorithm and recover both the Fourier spectrum of sample and the pupil function of imaging system simultaneously. This EPRY-FPM algorithm eliminates the requirement of the previous FPM algorithm for a priori knowledge of the aberration in the imaging system to reconstruct a high quality image. We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of this algorithm by reconstructing high resolution, large field-of-view images of biological samples. We also illustrate that the pupil function we retrieve can be used to study the spatially varying aberration of a large field-of-view imaging system. We believe that this algorithm adds more flexibility to FPM and can be a powerful tool for the characterization of an imaging system’s aberration. PMID:24663835

  7. Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride

    DOEpatents

    Kreuzmann, A.B.

    1982-10-27

    The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions whereas the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

  8. Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride

    DOEpatents

    Kreuzmann, Alvin B.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions wherein the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

  9. Recovery in skeletal muscle contractile function after prolonged hindlimb immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, R. H.; Brimmer, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of three-month hindlimb immobilization (IM) in rats on contractile properties of slow-twitch soleus (SOL), fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus, and fast-twitch superficial region of the vastus lateralis were measured after 0, 14, 28, 60, and 90 days of recovery on excized, horizontally suspended muscles stimulated electrically to maximal twitch tension. IM caused decreases in muscle-to-body weight ratios for all muscles, with no complete recovery even after 90 days. The contractile properties of the fast-twitch muscles were less affected by IM than those of the slow-twitch SOL. The SOL isometric twitch duration was shortened, due to reduced contraction and half-relaxation time, both of which returned to control levels after 14 days of recovery. The peak tetanic tension, P(O), g/sq cm,, decreased with IM by 46 percent in the SOL, but recovered by the 28th day. The maximum shortening velocity was not altered by IM in any of the muscles. Thus, normal contractile function could recover after prolonged limb IM.

  10. Recovery of Adrenal Function in Patients with Glucocorticoids Induced Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong Ha; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Jung, Jung Hwa; Hahm, Jong Ryeal

    2016-01-01

    Background The chronic use of glucocorticoids (GC) suppresses function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and often results in secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI). The present study aimed to determine the recovery rate of adrenal function in patients with secondary AI within 1 to 2 years and to assess the factors predictive of adrenal function recovery. Methods This was a retrospective observational study that enrolled patients diagnosed with GC-induced secondary AI between 2007 and 2013. AI was defined by peak serum cortisol levels <18 µg/dL during a standard-dose short synacthen test (SST). A follow-up SST was performed after 1 to 2 years, and responders were defined as those with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated peak serum cortisol levels ≥18 µg/dL. Results Of the total 34 patients diagnosed with GC-induced secondary AI at first, 20 patients (58.8%) recovered normal adrenal function by the time of the follow-up SST (median follow-up period, 16.5 months). Although the baseline serum ACTH and cortisol levels at the first SST did not differ between responders and non-responders, the incremental cortisol response during the first SST was higher in responders than that of non-responders (7.88 vs. 3.56, P<0.01). Additionally, higher cortisol increments during the first SST were an independent predictive factor of the adrenal function recovery (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 2.46; P<0.05). Conclusion In the present study, adrenal function recovery was achieved frequently in patients with GC-induced secondary AI within 1 to 2 years. Additionally, an incremental cortisol response at the first SST may be an important predictive factor of adrenal function recovery. PMID:26676337

  11. Robotic Mirror Therapy System for Functional Recovery of Hemiplegic Arms.

    PubMed

    Beom, Jaewon; Koh, Sukgyu; Nam, Hyung Seok; Kim, Wonshik; Kim, Yoonjae; Seo, Han Gil; Oh, Byung-Mo; Chung, Sun Gun; Kim, Sungwan

    2016-01-01

    Mirror therapy has been performed as effective occupational therapy in a clinical setting for functional recovery of a hemiplegic arm after stroke. It is conducted by eliciting an illusion through use of a mirror as if the hemiplegic arm is moving in real-time while moving the healthy arm. It can facilitate brain neuroplasticity through activation of the sensorimotor cortex. However, conventional mirror therapy has a critical limitation in that the hemiplegic arm is not actually moving. Thus, we developed a real-time 2-axis mirror robot system as a simple add-on module for conventional mirror therapy using a closed feedback mechanism, which enables real-time movement of the hemiplegic arm. We used 3 Attitude and Heading Reference System sensors, 2 brushless DC motors for elbow and wrist joints, and exoskeletal frames. In a feasibility study on 6 healthy subjects, robotic mirror therapy was safe and feasible. We further selected tasks useful for activities of daily living training through feedback from rehabilitation doctors. A chronic stroke patient showed improvement in the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale and elbow flexor spasticity after a 2-week application of the mirror robot system. Robotic mirror therapy may enhance proprioceptive input to the sensory cortex, which is considered to be important in neuroplasticity and functional recovery of hemiplegic arms. The mirror robot system presented herein can be easily developed and utilized effectively to advance occupational therapy. PMID:27583794

  12. [Effects of a vitamin B complex on functional recovery after nerve injury (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, K; Mikuni, N; Sakai, Y

    1978-09-01

    Functional recovery after nerve crushing was investigated in the following manner: Under pentobarbital anesthesia the sciatic nerve of the rat was crushed at the level of the hip (proximal crush) or the thigh (distal crush). The recovery processes after the nerve crushing were followed by measuring distances between the first and fifth digits(DBD.1 approximately 5) and between the second and fourth digits (DBD.2 approximately 4) of the hind paw, and by observing changes in "behavior" scored on a scale of 10 according to the degree of behavioral disorder of the hind paw and leg. Results obtained by these methods showed good reproducibility. The DBD values and the scores for behavior recovered significantly faster after weak nerve crushing than after strong crushing, and after distal rather than after proximal crushing. When a segment of the sciatic nerve was resected, there was no recovery. These results suggest that DBD.1 approximately 5, DBD.2 approximately 4, and the behavior observed in these experiments serve as good indices for evaluating the degree of functional recovery after nerve injury in unanesthetized and unrestrained animals. Effects of a preparation of vitamins B1, B6, and B12 (B complex) on these three parameters and on weights of 9 muscles of the hind leg were also studied. These studies showed that the B complex facilitated functional recovery from nerve injury faster than its components, and that on muscle atrophy the B complex had its most effects on the soleus. It was also shown that B1 and B12 by themselves had significant facilitating effects on the functional recovery. PMID:711031

  13. Choose the best heat-recovery method for thermal oxidizers

    SciTech Connect

    Klobucar, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    Thermal oxidation is current the most economically favorable add-on method of controlling hydrocarbon air emissions of moderate to low concentration (below 10,000 ppm). This concentration range covers emissions from a wide variety of chemical process industries (CPI) sources, including dryers, reactor vents, tank vents, and coaters. Thermal oxidizer systems consist of three basic sub-systems--burner, combustion chamber, and primary heat recovery. Selecting the type of primary heat recovery is probably the most important decision in the design of a thermal oxidizer, and requires consideration of a wide range of factors. The two most widely used types of primary heat recovery--recuperative and regenerative--each have distinct advantages and disadvantages. In general, recuperative oxidizers are simpler and less costly to purchase, whereas regenerative oxidizers offer substantially lower operating costs. Selecting between recuperative and regenerative heat recovery requires balancing a number of factors, such as capital and operating costs, exhaust gas composition and temperature, and secondary heat demand. This article provides guidance on when, where, and how to use each.

  14. Geothermal Energy Production With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Allen; Darlow, Rick; Sanchez, Angel; Pierce, Michael; Sellers, Blake

    2014-12-19

    The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface heat recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power production, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.

  15. Laboratory methods for enhanced oil recovery core floods

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, E.P.; Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1994-03-01

    Current research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is investigating microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) systems for application to oil reservoirs. Laboratory corefloods are invaluable in developing technology necessary for a field application of MEOR. Methods used to prepare sandstone cores for experimentation, coreflooding techniques, and quantification of coreflood effluent are discussed in detail. A technique to quantify the small volumes of oil associated with laboratory core floods is described.

  16. Functional recovery in spinal cord injured rats using polypyrrole/iodine implants and treadmill training.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Mejia, Laura; Morales, Juan; Cruz, Guillermo J; Olayo, María-Guadalupe; Olayo, Roberto; Díaz-Ruíz, Araceli; Ríos, Camilo; Mondragón-Lozano, Rodrigo; Sánchez-Torres, Stephanie; Morales-Guadarrama, Axayacatl; Fabela-Sánchez, Omar; Salgado-Ceballos, Hermelinda

    2015-07-01

    transplant after a traumatic spinal cord injury by contusion in rats. The relevance of the present results is that polypyrrole/iodine implants were synthesized by plasma instead by conventional chemical or electrochemical methods. Synthesis by plasma modifies physicochemical properties of polypyrrole/iodine implants, which can be responsible of the histological response and functional results. Furthermore, no additional molecules or trophic factors or cells were added to the implant for obtain such results. Even more, when the implant was used together with physical rehabilitation, better functional recovery was obtained than that observed when these strategies were used by separately. PMID:26169188

  17. An efficient method of noroviruses recovery from oysters and clams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Deqing; Ma, Liping; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Lin; Su, Laijin; Li, Xinguang

    2013-03-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are widespread causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Outbreaks of NoVs caused diseases are commonly ascribed to the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The concentration and RNA extraction of NoVs are crucial steps of detecting NoVs in shellfish. This study aimed to select a simple, rapid and highly efficient recovery method of NoVs detection with real-time RT-PCR. Four methods of recovering GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs from spiked digestive tissues of oysters and clams, respectively, were compared, of them, the method involving proteinase K and PEG 8000 was found the most efficient. With this method, 9.3% and 13.1% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from oysters and 9.6% and 12.3% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from clams, respectively. This method was further used to detect NoVs in 84 oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) and 86 clams ( Ruditapes philippinarum) collected from 10 coastal cities in China from Jan. 2011 to Feb. 2012. The NoVs isolation rates were 10.47% of clams (9/86) and 7.14% of oysters (6/84). All the detected NoVs belonged to genotype GII. The NoVs recovery method selected is efficient for NoVs detection in oysters and clams.

  18. Stimulus electrodiagnosis and motor and functional evaluations during ulnar nerve recovery

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Luciane F. R. M.; Oliveira, Nuno M. L.; Pelet, Danyelle C. S.; Cunha, Agnes F. S.; Grecco, Marco A. S.; Souza, Luciane A. P. S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Distal ulnar nerve injury leads to impairment of hand function due to motor and sensorial changes. Stimulus electrodiagnosis (SE) is a method of assessing and monitoring the development of this type of injury. OBJECTIVE: To identify the most sensitive electrodiagnostic parameters to evaluate ulnar nerve recovery and to correlate these parameters (Rheobase, Chronaxie, and Accommodation) with motor function evaluations. METHOD: A prospective cohort study of ten patients submitted to ulnar neurorrhaphy and evaluated using electrodiagnosis and motor assessment at two moments of neural recovery. A functional evaluation using the DASH questionnaire (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand) was conducted at the end to establish the functional status of the upper limb. RESULTS: There was significant reduction only in the Chronaxie values in relation to time of injury and side (with and without lesion), as well as significant correlation of Chronaxie with the motor domain score. CONCLUSION: Chronaxie was the most sensitive SE parameter for detecting differences in neuromuscular responses during the ulnar nerve recovery process and it was the only parameter correlated with the motor assessment. PMID:26786072

  19. Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation

    DOEpatents

    Sisemore, Clyde J.

    1980-01-01

    A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

  20. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOEpatents

    Easterly, C.E.; Vass, A.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1997-01-28

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  1. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOEpatents

    Easterly, Clay E.; Vass, Arpad A.; Tyndall, Richard L.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  2. Intermittent hypoxia induces functional recovery following cervical spinal injury

    PubMed Central

    Vinit, Stéphane; Lovett-Barr, Mary Rachael; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory-related complications are the leading cause of death in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Few effective SCI treatments are available after therapeutic interventions are performed in the period shortly after injury (e.g. spine stabilization and prevention of further spinal damage). In this review we explore the capacity to harness endogenous spinal plasticity induced by intermittent hypoxia to optimize function of surviving (spared) neural pathways associated with breathing. Two primary questions are addressed: 1) does intermittent hypoxia induce plasticity in spinal synaptic pathways to respiratory motor neurons following experimental SCI? and 2) can this plasticity improve respiratory function? In normal rats, intermittent hypoxia induces serotonin-dependent plasticity in spinal pathways to respiratory motor neurons. Early experiments suggest that intermittent hypoxia also enhances respiratory motor output in experimental models of cervical SCI, (cervical hemisection) and that the capacity to induce functional recovery is greater with longer durations post-injury. Available evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia-induced spinal plasticity has considerable therapeutic potential to treat respiratory insufficiency following chronic cervical spinal injury. PMID:19651247

  3. Inosine promotes recovery of skilled motor function in a model of focal brain injury.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin M; Lunga, Precious; Story, David; Harris, Neil; Le Belle, Janel; James, Michael F; Pickard, John D; Fawcett, James W

    2007-04-01

    Recovery of function following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is partly through neuronal plasticity. However plasticity is limited in the adult CNS compared with young animals. In order to test whether treatments that enhance CNS plasticity might improve functional recovery after TBI, a new rat head injury model was developed, in which a computer-controlled impactor produced full thickness lesions of the forelimb region of the sensorimotor cortex. Behavioural deficits were seen in several sensorimotor tasks, most of which recovered spontaneously by 21 days. However, skilled paw reaching behaviour, a task that requires corticospinal function, was only approximately 40% recovered by 28 days. In order to promote plasticity inosine was infused into the lateral ventricles for 28 days. This treatment produced an almost complete recovery of skilled paw reaching ability, associated with sprouting of the uninjured corticospinal axons across the midline into the territory of the lesioned pathway. In the cervical spinal cord the number of corticospinal axons originating from the uninjured cortex that innervated the contralateral cervical cord was five times that of controls, and in the red nucleus the number of contralaterally projecting axons was four times control values. Inosine treatment did not affect recovery in unskilled behavioural tasks, most of which recovered to normal levels by 28 days without treatment. Animals were placed in an enriched environment as an alternative method to promote plasticity. This resulted in more rapid recovery in several tasks including skilled paw function, but by 28 days normally housed animals had caught up to the same level of improvement. PMID:17293357

  4. Renal functional reserve and renal recovery after acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aashish; Mucino, Marìa Jimena; Ronco, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Renal functional reserve (RFR) represents the capacity of the kidney to increase glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in response to certain physiological or pathological stimuli or conditions. Once baseline GFR is determined, RFR can be assessed clinically after an oral protein load or intravenous amino acid infusion. In clinical practice, baseline GFR displays variable levels due to diet or other factors. RFR is the difference between peak 'stress' GFR induced by the test (p.o. or i.v.) and the baseline GFR. In clinical scenarios where hyperfiltration is present (high baseline GFR due to pregnancy, hypertension or diabetic nephropathy, in solitary kidney or kidney donors), RFR may be fully or partially used to achieve normal or supranormal renal function. Since commonly used renal function markers, such as GFR, may remain within normal ranges until 50% of nephrons are lost or in patients with a single remnant kidney, the RFR test may represent a sensitive and early way to assess the functional decline in the kidney. RFR assessment may become an important tool to evaluate the ability of the kidney to recover completely or partially after a kidney attack. In case of healing with a defect and progressive fibrosis, recovery may appear complete clinically, but a reduced RFR may be a sign of a maladaptive repair or subclinical loss of renal mass. Thus, a reduction in RFR may represent the equivalent of renal frailty or susceptibility to insults. The main aim of this article is to review the concept of RFR, its utility in different clinical scenarios, and future perspective for its use. PMID:25343829

  5. Functional Task Test: 2. Spaceflight-Induced Cardiovascular Change and Recovery During NASA's Functional Task Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Tiffany; Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, Michael; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of the functional task test (FTT) is to correlate spaceflight-induced physiological adaptations with changes in performance of high priority exploration mission-critical tasks. This presentation will focus on the recovery from fall/stand test (RFST), which measures the cardiovascular response to the transition from the prone posture (simulated fall) to standing in normal gravity, as well as heart rate (HR) during 11 functional tasks. As such, this test describes some aspects of spaceflight-induced cardiovascular deconditioning and the course of recovery in Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. The sensorimotor and neuromuscular components of the FTT are described in two separate abstracts: Functional Task Test 1 and 3.

  6. Recovery of partial differential operators on classes of periodic functions with mixed smoothness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balgimbayeva, Sholpan

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of optimal linear recovery for mixed partial differential operator A on the unit ball SBpθ r(Tn) of the Nikol'skii-Besov space of periodic functions with mixed smoothness. We find error bounds sharp in order for optimal linear recovery of operator A on class SBpθ r(Tn) . As information IMδ(f ) about the functions f from class SBpθ r(Tn) we shall use Fourier coefficients with numbers from step "hyperbolic" cross. As the linear method using the information about Fourier coefficients, we shall consider action of the mixed partial differential operator A on the special "private" sum of decomposition on system (type as wavelets) trigonometric polynomials.

  7. Factors affecting recovery of postoperative bowel function after pediatric laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Michelet, Daphnée; Andreu-Gallien, Juliette; Skhiri, Alia; Bonnard, Arnaud; Nivoche, Yves; Dahmani, Souhayl

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Laparoscopic pediatric surgery allows a rapid postoperative rehabilitation and hospital discharge. However, the optimal postoperative pain management preserving advantages of this surgical technique remains to be determined. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the postoperative recovery of bowel function after laparoscopic surgery in children. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis of factors affecting recovery of bowel function in children and infants undergoing laparoscopic surgery between January 1, 2009 and September 30, 2009, was performed. Factors included were: Age, weight, extent of surgery (extensive, regional or local), chronic pain (sickle cell disease or chronic intestinal inflammatory disease), American Society of Anaesthesiologists status, postoperative analgesia (ketamine, morphine, nalbuphine, paracetamol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], nefopam, regional analgesia) both in the Postanesthesia Care Unit and in the surgical ward; and surgical complications. Data analysis used classification and regression tree analysis (CART) with a 10-fold cross validation. Results: One hundred and sixty six patients were included in the analysis. Recovery of bowel function depended upon: The extent of surgery, the occurrence of postoperative surgical complications, the administration of postoperative morphine in the surgical ward, the coadministration of paracetamol and NSAIDs and/or nefopam in the surgical ward and the emergency character of the surgery. The CART method generated a decision tree with eight terminal nodes. The percentage of explained variability of the model and the cross validation were 58% and 49%, respectively. Conclusion: Multimodal analgesia using nonopioid analgesia that allows decreasing postoperative morphine consumption should be considered for the speed of bowel function recovery after laparoscopic pediatric surgery.

  8. Recovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video discusses the recovery events that occur in high-power rocketry and the various devices used in safely recovering the rocket. The video includes a discussion of black powder and ejection...

  9. [Recovery].

    PubMed

    Estingoy, Pierrette; Gilliot, Élodie; Parisot, Clément

    2015-01-01

    The historical fatalism of the impossibility of recovering from psychosis eased from the 1970s with the shaping of the idea of a possible recovery. Recovery is today the objective for the patient and caregivers. The key to achieving this lies in the encounter with Others. A collective approach, on the level of the institution, must be established. The aim is to create opportunities for the patient to express their doubts and feelings. PMID:26363659

  10. Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, David O.; Montoya, Paul C.; Wayland, Jr., James R.

    1987-01-01

    A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the CSAMT technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (a) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (b) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the connate water of the production field; (c) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (d) mathematically comparing the maps from step (a) and step (c) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

  11. Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1984-03-30

    A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (1) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (2) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the conate water of the production field; (3) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (4) mathematically comparing the maps from step (1) and step (3) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

  12. 20 CFR 340.4 - Methods of recovery of amounts recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.4 Methods of recovery of amounts recoverable. An amount recoverable may be recovered by any one or a combination of the methods described in §§ 340.5, 340.6, 340.7... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of recovery of amounts...

  13. Single well tracer method to evaluate enhanced recovery

    DOEpatents

    Sheely, Jr., Clyde Q.; Baldwin, Jr., David E.

    1978-01-01

    Data useful to evaluate the effectiveness of or to design an enhanced recovery process (the recovery process involving mobilizing and moving hydrocarbons through a hydrocarbon-bearing subterranean formation from an injection well to a production well by injecting a mobilizing fluid into the injection well) are obtained by a process which comprises sequentially: determining hydrocarbon saturation in the formation in a volume in the formation near a well bore penetrating the formation, injecting sufficient of the mobilizing fluid to mobilize and move hydrocarbons from a volume in the formation near the well bore penetrating the formation, and determining by the single well tracer method a hydrocarbon saturation profile in a volume from which hydrocarbons are moved. The single well tracer method employed is disclosed by U.S. Pat. No. 3,623,842. The process is useful to evaluate surfactant floods, water floods, polymer floods, CO.sub.2 floods, caustic floods, micellar floods, and the like in the reservoir in much less time at greatly reduced costs, compared to conventional multi-well pilot test.

  14. Hydrogeophysical methods for analyzing aquifer storage and recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Minsley, B.J.; Ajo-Franklin, J.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Morgan, F.D.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrogeophysical methods are presented that support the siting and monitoring of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) systems. These methods are presented as numerical simulations in the context of a proposed ASR experiment in Kuwait, although the techniques are applicable to numerous ASR projects. Bulk geophysical properties are calculated directly from ASR flow and solute transport simulations using standard petrophysical relationships and are used to simulate the dynamic geophysical response to ASR. This strategy provides a quantitative framework for determining site-specific geophysical methods and data acquisition geometries that can provide the most useful information about the ASR implementation. An axisymmetric, coupled fluid flow and solute transport model simulates injection, storage, and withdrawal of fresh water (salinity {approx}500 ppm) into the Dammam aquifer, a tertiary carbonate formation with native salinity approximately 6000 ppm. Sensitivity of the flow simulations to the correlation length of aquifer heterogeneity, aquifer dispersivity, and hydraulic permeability of the confining layer are investigated. The geophysical response using electrical resistivity, time-domain electromagnetic (TEM), and seismic methods is computed at regular intervals during the ASR simulation to investigate the sensitivity of these different techniques to changes in subsurface properties. For the electrical and electromagnetic methods, fluid electric conductivity is derived from the modeled salinity and is combined with an assumed porosity model to compute a bulk electrical resistivity structure. The seismic response is computed from the porosity model and changes in effective stress due to fluid pressure variations during injection/recovery, while changes in fluid properties are introduced through Gassmann fluid substitution.

  15. Catecholaminergic based therapies for functional recovery after TBI.

    PubMed

    Osier, Nicole D; Dixon, C Edward

    2016-06-01

    Among the many pathophysiologic consequences of traumatic brain injury are changes in catecholamines, including dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. In the context of TBI, dopamine is the one most extensively studied, though some research exploring epinephrine and norepinephrine have also been published. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence surrounding use of drugs that target the catecholaminergic system on pathophysiological and functional outcomes of TBI using published evidence from pre-clinical and clinical brain injury studies. Evidence of the effects of specific drugs that target catecholamines as agonists or antagonists will be discussed. Taken together, available evidence suggests that therapies targeting the catecholaminergic system may attenuate functional deficits after TBI. Notably, it is fairly common for TBI patients to be treated with catecholamine agonists for either physiological symptoms of TBI (e.g. altered cerebral perfusion pressures) or a co-occuring condition (e.g. shock), or cognitive symptoms (e.g. attentional and arousal deficits). Previous clinical trials are limited by methodological limitations, failure to replicate findings, challenges translating therapies to clinical practice, the complexity or lack of specificity of catecholamine receptors, as well as potentially counfounding effects of personal and genetic factors. Overall, there is a need for additional research evidence, along with a need for systematic dissemination of important study details and results as outlined in the common data elements published by the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke. Ultimately, a better understanding of catecholamines in the context of TBI may lead to therapeutic advancements. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:Brain injury and recovery. PMID:26711850

  16. Atorvastatin activates autophagy and promotes neurological function recovery after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shuang; Zhang, Zhong-ming; Shen, Zhao-liang; Gao, Kai; Chang, Liang; Guo, Yue; Li, Zhuo; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ai-mei

    2016-01-01

    Atorvastatin, a lipid-lowering medication, provides neuroprotective effects, although the precise mechanisms of action remain unclear. Our previous studies confirmed activated autophagy following spinal cord injury, which was conducive to recovery of neurological functions. We hypothesized that atorvastatin could also activate autophagy after spinal cord injury, and subsequently improve recovery of neurological functions. A rat model of spinal cord injury was established based on the Allen method. Atorvastatin (5 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected at 1 and 2 days after spinal cord injury. At 7 days post-injury, western blot assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining results showed increased Beclin-1 and light chain 3B gene and protein expressions in the spinal cord injury + atorvastatin group. Additionally, caspase-9 and caspase-3 expression was decreased, and the number of TUNEL-positive cells was reduced. Compared with the spinal cord injury + saline group, Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale scores significantly increased in the spinal cord injury + atorvastatin group at 14–42 days post-injury. These findings suggest that atorvastatin activated autophagy after spinal cord injury, inhibited apoptosis, and promoted recovery of neurological function. PMID:27482228

  17. Atorvastatin activates autophagy and promotes neurological function recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuang; Zhang, Zhong-Ming; Shen, Zhao-Liang; Gao, Kai; Chang, Liang; Guo, Yue; Li, Zhuo; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ai-Mei

    2016-06-01

    Atorvastatin, a lipid-lowering medication, provides neuroprotective effects, although the precise mechanisms of action remain unclear. Our previous studies confirmed activated autophagy following spinal cord injury, which was conducive to recovery of neurological functions. We hypothesized that atorvastatin could also activate autophagy after spinal cord injury, and subsequently improve recovery of neurological functions. A rat model of spinal cord injury was established based on the Allen method. Atorvastatin (5 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected at 1 and 2 days after spinal cord injury. At 7 days post-injury, western blot assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining results showed increased Beclin-1 and light chain 3B gene and protein expressions in the spinal cord injury + atorvastatin group. Additionally, caspase-9 and caspase-3 expression was decreased, and the number of TUNEL-positive cells was reduced. Compared with the spinal cord injury + saline group, Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale scores significantly increased in the spinal cord injury + atorvastatin group at 14-42 days post-injury. These findings suggest that atorvastatin activated autophagy after spinal cord injury, inhibited apoptosis, and promoted recovery of neurological function. PMID:27482228

  18. Recovery methods of the dragonfly from irregular initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melfi, James; Leonardo, Anthony; Wang, Jane

    We release dragonflies from a magnetic tether in a wide range of initial orientations, which results in them utilizing multiple methods to regain their typical flight orientation. Special focus is placed on dropping them while upside down, as the recovery method used is a purely rolling motion. Filming this stereotypical motion with a trio of high speed cameras at 4000 fps, we capture detailed body and wing kinematics data to determine how the dragonfly generates this motion. By replaying the flights within a computer simulation, we can isolate the significant changes to wing kinematics, and find that it is an asymmetry in the wing pitch which generates the roll. Further investigation demonstrates that this choice is highly dependent upon the state of the dragonfly, and as such our results indicate the dragonfly both tracks its current state, and changes its mid-flight control mechanisms accordingly.

  19. Neuromotor recovery from stroke: computational models at central, functional, and muscle synergy level

    PubMed Central

    Casadio, Maura; Tamagnone, Irene; Summa, Susanna; Sanguineti, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Computational models of neuromotor recovery after a stroke might help to unveil the underlying physiological mechanisms and might suggest how to make recovery faster and more effective. At least in principle, these models could serve: (i) To provide testable hypotheses on the nature of recovery; (ii) To predict the recovery of individual patients; (iii) To design patient-specific “optimal” therapy, by setting the treatment variables for maximizing the amount of recovery or for achieving a better generalization of the learned abilities across different tasks. Here we review the state of the art of computational models for neuromotor recovery through exercise, and their implications for treatment. We show that to properly account for the computational mechanisms of neuromotor recovery, multiple levels of description need to be taken into account. The review specifically covers models of recovery at central, functional and muscle synergy level. PMID:23986688

  20. Combined geophysical methods for mapping infiltration pathways at the Aurora Water Aquifer recharge and recovery site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasper, Cameron A.

    Although aquifer recharge and recovery systems are a sustainable, decentralized, low cost, and low energy approach for the reclamation, treatment, and storage of post- treatment wastewater, they can suffer from poor infiltration rates and the development of a near-surface clogging layer within infiltration ponds. One such aquifer recharge and recovery system, the Aurora Water site in Colorado, U.S.A, functions at about 25% of its predicted capacity to recharge floodplain deposits by flooding infiltration ponds with post-treatment wastewater extracted from river bank aquifers along the South Platte River. The underwater self-potential method was developed to survey self-potential signals at the ground surface in a flooded infiltration pond for mapping infiltration pathways. A method for using heat as a groundwater tracer within the infiltration pond used an array of in situ high-resolution temperature sensing probes. Both relatively positive and negative underwater self-potential anomalies are consistent with observed recovery well pumping rates and specific discharge estimates from temperature data. Results from electrical resistivity tomography and electromagnetics surveys provide consistent electrical conductivity distributions associated with sediment textures. A lab method was developed for resistivity tests of near-surface sediment samples. Forward numerical modeling synthesizes the geophysical information to best match observed self- potential anomalies and provide permeability distributions, which is important for effective aquifer recharge and recovery system design, and optimization strategy development.

  1. Prognostic Factors Predicting Early Recovery of Pre-fracture Functional Mobility in Elderly Patients With Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daegu; Jo, Jae Yong; Jung, Ji Sun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prognostic factors predicting the recovery of pre-fracture functional mobility, we evaluated this by the use of ambulatory assistive devices in short-term follow-up. Methods Five hundred and fifty-three elderly patients who had undergone hip fracture operations from January 2006 to June 2013 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Clinical characteristics and predicted factors affecting functional recovery, such as the delay of rehabilitation after the operation, were reviewed. The functional status of the gait was classified as either a bedridden state, wheelchair-bound state, walker gait, single cane gait, and self-gait without any ambulatory assistance device. When this functional grade in patients who recovered after the surgery was compared to before the surgery, this state was considered 'functional recovery'. Results One hundred and ninety-two patients (34.7%) showed recovery of preoperative mobility in the first month after their operation. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified that the following four factors were significantly associated with a deterioration of functional recovery: old age (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-0.97), delays in rehabilitation after operation (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.98), the presence of cognitive dysfunction (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.18-0.71), and trochanteric fracturing (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.36-0.94). Conclusion We found that old age, cognitive dysfunction, trochanteric fracture type, and delay of rehabilitation were associated with the deterioration of functional recovery after a hip fracture operation in the short-term. Therefore, early rehabilitation was required to acquire functional recovery after a hip fracture operation in the short-term. PMID:25566483

  2. Vagus nerve stimulation during rehabilitative training enhances recovery of forelimb function after ischemic stroke in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Hays, Seth A; Ruiz, Andrea; Bethea, Thelma; Khodaparast, Navid; Carmel, Jason B; Rennaker, Robert L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2016-07-01

    Advanced age is associated with a higher incidence of stroke and worse functional outcomes. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with rehabilitative training has emerged as a potential method to improve recovery after brain injury but to date has only been evaluated in young rats. Here, we evaluated whether VNS paired with rehabilitative training would improve recovery of forelimb function after ischemic lesion of the motor cortex in rats 18 months of age. Rats were trained to perform the isometric pull task, an automated, quantitative measure of volitional forelimb strength. Once proficient, rats received an ischemic lesion of the motor cortex and underwent rehabilitative training paired with VNS for 6 weeks. VNS paired with rehabilitative training significantly enhances recovery of forelimb function after lesion. Rehabilitative training without VNS results in a 34% ± 19% recovery, whereas VNS paired with rehabilitative training yields a 98% ± 8% recovery of prelesion of forelimb function. VNS does not significantly reduce lesion size. These findings demonstrate that VNS paired with rehabilitative training enhances motor recovery in aged subjects in a model of stroke and may suggest that VNS therapy may effectively translate to elderly stroke patients. PMID:27255820

  3. Recovery after prolonged sleep deprivation: residual effects of slow-release caffeine on recovery sleep, sleepiness and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Maurice; Batéjat, Denise; Coste, Olivier; Doireau, Philippe; Chauffard, Françoise; Enslen, Marc; Lagarde, Didier; Pierard, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    A long work schedule often results in sleep deprivation, sleepiness, impaired performance and fatigue. We investigated the residual effects of slow-release caffeine (SRC) on sleep, sleepiness and cognitive performance during a 42-hour recovery period following a 64-hour continuous wakefulness period in 16 healthy males, according to a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Three hundred milligrams of SRC or placebo was given twice a day at 21:00 and 9:00 during the first 48 h of wakefulness. Recovery sleep was analysed with electroencephalography (EEG) and wrist actigraphy, daytime sleepiness with continuous EEG, sleep latency tests and actigraphy and cognitive functions with computerized tests from the NATO AGARD STRES battery. Both drug groups exhibited almost the same sleep architecture with a rebound of slow-wave sleep during both recovery nights and of REM sleep during the second night. Wakefulness level and cognitive functions were similarly impaired in both groups on the first day of recovery and partially returned to baseline on the second. To conclude, SRC appears to have no unwanted side-effects on recovery sleep, wakefulness and cognitive performance after a long period of sleep deprivation and might therefore be a useful choice over other psychostimulants for a long work schedule. PMID:15627809

  4. Androgen induced acceleration of functional recovery after rat sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Brown, Todd J.; Khan, Talat; Jones, Kathryn J.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Testosterone (T) treatment accelerates recovery from facial paralysis after facial nerve crush in hamsters. In this study, we extended those studies to another injury model and asked the following question: Will T treatment accelerate recovery from lower limb paralysis following sciatic nerve crush in the rat? METHODS: Castrated adult male rats received a right side sciatic nerve crush at the level of the sciatic notch, with the left side serving as control. Half the animals received a subcutaneous implant of a propionated form of T (TP), the others were sham-implanted. Weekly testing using the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI), a quantitative measure of locomotion, was done for 7 weeks postoperative (wpo). RESULTS: Between 3 and 5 weeks post-op, the average SFI score of the TP-treated group was higher than controls. This difference was significant at 4 wpo, indicating an accelerated degree of functional recovery. At these timepoints, the differences were attributable to the footprint or paw length and associated with calf muscle reinnervation rather than the toespreading component associated with intrinsic foot muscle rein-nervation. Beyond 5 wpo, there were no differences in the SFI scores. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that, as with facial nerve regeneration in the hamster, testosterone accelerates functional recovery from hind limb paralysis following sciatic nerve injury in the rat. While the responses of spinal motoneurons to injury can differ from those of cranial motoneurons, in this case it appears that they share a similar response to the trophic actions of androgen. This is important in the context of designing therapeutic strategies for dealing with direct trauma to motoneurons resulting from both peripheral and central nervous system trauma, such as spinal cord injury. PMID:12671219

  5. Simple functionalization strategies for enhancing nanoparticle separation and recovery with asymmetric flow field flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Mudalige, Thilak K; Qu, Haiou; Sánchez-Pomales, Germarie; Sisco, Patrick N; Linder, Sean W

    2015-02-01

    Due to the increasing use of engineered nanomaterials in consumer products, regulatory agencies and other research organizations have determined that the development of robust, reliable, and accurate methodologies to characterize nanoparticles in complex matrices is a top priority. Of particular interest are methods that can separate and determine the size of nanomaterials in samples that contain polydisperse and/or multimodal nanoparticle populations. Asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation (AF4) has shown promise for the separation of nanoparticles with wide size range distributions; however, low analyte recoveries and decreased membrane lifetimes, due to membrane fouling, have limited its application. Herein, we report straightforward strategies to minimize membrane fouling and improve nanoparticle recovery by functionalizing the surface of the nanoparticles, as well as that of the AF4 membranes. Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) were stabilized through functionalization with a phosphine molecule, whereas the surface of the membranes was coated with a negatively charged polystyrenesulfonate polymer. Improved nanoparticle separation, recoveries of 99.1 (±0.5) %, and a detection limit of 6 μg/kg were demonstrated by analyzing AuNP reference materials of different sizes (e.g., 10, 30, and 60 nm), obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Furthermore, the stability of the polymer coating and its specificity toward minimizing membrane fouling were demonstrated. PMID:25556296

  6. Gradient-based image recovery methods from incomplete Fourier measurements.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vishal M; Maleh, Ray; Gilbert, Anna C; Chellappa, Rama

    2012-01-01

    A major problem in imaging applications such as magnetic resonance imaging and synthetic aperture radar is the task of trying to reconstruct an image with the smallest possible set of Fourier samples, every single one of which has a potential time and/or power cost. The theory of compressive sensing (CS) points to ways of exploiting inherent sparsity in such images in order to achieve accurate recovery using sub-Nyquist sampling schemes. Traditional CS approaches to this problem consist of solving total-variation (TV) minimization programs with Fourier measurement constraints or other variations thereof. This paper takes a different approach. Since the horizontal and vertical differences of a medical image are each more sparse or compressible than the corresponding TV image, CS methods will be more successful in recovering these differences individually. We develop an algorithm called GradientRec that uses a CS algorithm to recover the horizontal and vertical gradients and then estimates the original image from these gradients. We present two methods of solving the latter inverse problem, i.e., one based on least-square optimization and the other based on a generalized Poisson solver. After a thorough derivation of our complete algorithm, we present the results of various experiments that compare the effectiveness of the proposed method against other leading methods. PMID:21690011

  7. Vagal Recovery From Cognitive Challenge Moderates Age-Related Deficits in Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Olga V; Kimhy, David; McKinley, Paula S; Burg, Matthew M; Schwartz, Joseph E; Lachman, Margie E; Tun, Patricia A; Ryff, Carol D; Seeman, Teresa E; Sloan, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    Decline in executive functioning (EF) is a hallmark of cognitive aging. We have previously reported that faster vagal recovery from cognitive challenge is associated with better EF. This study examined the association between vagal recovery from cognitive challenge and age-related differences in EF among 817 participants in the Midlife in the U.S. study (aged 35-86). Cardiac vagal control was measured as high-frequency heart rate variability. Vagal recovery moderated the association between age and EF (β = .811, p = .004). Secondary analyses revealed that older participants (aged 65-86) with faster vagal recovery had superior EF compared to their peers who had slower vagal recovery. In contrast, among younger (aged 35-54) and middle-aged (aged 55-64) participants, vagal recovery was not associated with EF. We conclude that faster vagal recovery from cognitive challenge is associated with reduced deficits in EF among older, but not younger individuals. PMID:26303063

  8. Vagal Recovery From Cognitive Challenge Moderates Age-Related Deficits in Executive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Olga V.; Kimhy, David; McKinley, Paula S.; Burg, Matthew M.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Lachman, Margie E.; Tun, Patricia A.; Ryff, Carol D.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Sloan, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Decline in executive functioning (EF) is a hallmark of cognitive aging. We have previously reported that faster vagal recovery from cognitive challenge is associated with better EF. This study examined the association between vagal recovery from cognitive challenge and age-related differences in EF among 817 participants in the Midlife in the U.S. study (aged 35–86). Cardiac vagal control was measured as high-frequency heart rate variability. Vagal recovery moderated the association between age and EF (β = .811, p = .004). Secondary analyses revealed that older participants (aged 65–86) with faster vagal recovery had superior EF compared to their peers who had slower vagal recovery. In contrast, among younger (aged 35–54) and middle-aged (aged 55–64) participants, vagal recovery was not associated with EF. We conclude that faster vagal recovery from cognitive challenge is associated with reduced deficits in EF among older, but not younger individuals. PMID:26303063

  9. Brain plasticity as a basis for recovery of function in humans.

    PubMed

    Bach-y-Rita, P

    1990-01-01

    One of the factors leading to the virtual neglect of the long-term potential for functional recovery following brain damage was the eclipse of plasticity concepts during the 100 years following Broca's 1861 publication on location of function. However, in the last 30 years evidence has been accumulating that demonstrates the plasticity of the brain and thus recovery potential is a subject of practical as well as theoretical interest. "Unmasking" of relatively inactive pathways, the taking over of functional representation by undamaged brain tissue, and neuronal group selection are among the mechanisms that are being explored. Human models of recovery of function include hemispherectomy patients that have regained bilateral function, facial paralysis patients who recover function (with appropriate rehabilitation) after VII-XII cranial nerve anastomosis, and patients with muscle transpositions to re-establish lost motor functions. The role of early and late rehabilitation, with attention to psychosocial and environmental factors, appears to be critical for recovery. PMID:2395525

  10. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  11. Carbohydrate vs protein supplementation for recovery of neuromuscular function following prolonged load carriage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study examined the effect of carbohydrate and whey protein supplements on recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage. Methods Ten male participants (body mass: 81.5 ± 10.5 kg, age: 28 ± 9 years, O2max: 55.0 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) completed three treadmill walking tests (2 hr, 6.5 km·h-1), carrying a 25 kg backpack consuming 500 ml of either: (1) Placebo (flavoured water) [PLA], (2) 6.4% Carbohydrate Solution [CHO] or (3) 7.0% Whey Protein Solution [PRO]. For three days after load carriage, participants consumed two 500 ml supplement boluses. Muscle performance was measured before and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after load carriage, during voluntary and electrically stimulated contractions. Results Isometric knee extension force decreased immediately after load carriage with no difference between conditions. During recovery, isometric force returned to pre-exercise values at 48 h for CHO and PRO but at 72 h for PLA. Voluntary activation decreased immediately after load carriage and returned to pre-exercise values at 24 h in all conditions (P = 0.086). During recovery, there were no differences between conditions for the change in isokinetic peak torque. Following reductions immediately after load carriage, knee extensor and flexor peak torque (60°·s-1) recovered to pre-exercise values at 72 h. Trunk extensor and flexor peak torque (15°·s-1) recovered to pre-exercise values at 24 h (P = 0.091) and 48 h (P = 0.177), respectively. Conclusion Recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage is improved with either carbohydrate or whey protein supplementation for isometric contractions but not for isokinetic contractions. PMID:20157419

  12. Arm function after stroke. An evaluation of grip strength as a measure of recovery and a prognostic indicator.

    PubMed Central

    Sunderland, A; Tinson, D; Bradley, L; Hewer, R L

    1989-01-01

    The value of strength of voluntary grip as an indicator of recovery of arm function was assessed by testing 38 recent stroke patients using a sensitive electronic dynamometer, and comparing the results with those from five other arm movement and function tests (Motricity Index, Motor Club Assessment, Nine Hole Peg Test, and Frenchay Arm Test). This procedure allowed measurement of grip in a large proportion of patients, and strength correlated highly with performance on the other tests. Measuring grip over a six month follow up period was a sensitive method of charting intrinsic neurological recovery. The presence of voluntary grip at one month indicates that there will be some functional recovery at six months. PMID:2592969

  13. Inosine improves functional recovery after experimental traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Dachir, Shlomit; Shabashov, Dalia; Trembovler, Victoria; Alexandrovich, Alexander G; Benowitz, Larry I; Shohami, Esther

    2014-03-25

    Despite years of research, no effective therapy is yet available for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The most prevalent and debilitating features in survivors of TBI are cognitive deficits and motor dysfunction. A potential therapeutic method for improving the function of patients following TBI would be to restore, at least in part, plasticity to the CNS in a controlled way that would allow for the formation of compensatory circuits. Inosine, a naturally occurring purine nucleoside, has been shown to promote axon collateral growth in the corticospinal tract (CST) following stroke and focal TBI. In the present study, we investigated the effects of inosine on motor and cognitive deficits, CST sprouting, and expression of synaptic proteins in an experimental model of closed head injury (CHI). Treatment with inosine (100 mg/kg i.p. at 1, 24 and 48 h following CHI) improved outcome after TBI, significantly decreasing the neurological severity score (NSS, p<0.04 vs. saline), an aggregate measure of performance on several tasks. It improved non-spatial cognitive performance (object recognition, p<0.016 vs. saline) but had little effect on sensorimotor coordination (rotarod) and spatial cognitive functions (Y-maze). Inosine did not affect CST sprouting in the lumbar spinal cord but did restore levels of the growth-associated protein GAP-43 in the hippocampus, though not in the cerebral cortex. Our results suggest that inosine may improve functional outcome after TBI. PMID:24502983

  14. Monitoring of thermal enhanced oil recovery processes with electromagnetic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.

    1992-09-01

    Research in applying electromagnetic methods for imaging thermal enhanced oil recovery has progressed significantly during the past eighteen months. Working together with researchers at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and supported by a group of industrial sponsors we have focused our effort on field system development and doing field surveys connected with EOR operations. Field surveys were recently completed at the Lost Hills No.3 oil field and at UC Richmond Field station. At Lost Hills, crosshole EM data sets were collected before a new phase of steam injection for EOR and again four months after the onset of steaming. The two data sets were nearly identical suggesting that very little steam had been injected into this borehole. This is in accord with the operators records which indicate injectivity problems with this particular well. At Richmond we conducted a salt water injection monitoring experiment where 50,000 gallons of salt water were injected in a shallow aquifer and crosshole EM data were collected using the injection well and several observation wells. We applied the imaging code to some of the collected data and produced an image showing that the salt water slug has propagated 8--10 m from the injector into the aquifer. This result is partially confirmed by prior calculations and well logging data. Applying the EM methods to the problem of oil field characterization essentially means extending the borehole resistivity log into the region between wells. Since the resistivity of a sedimentary environment is often directly dependent on the fluids in the rock the knowledge of the resistivity distribution within an oil field can be invaluable for finding missed or bypassed oil or for mapping the overall structure. With small modification the same methods used for mapping EOR process can be readily applied to determining the insitu resistivity structure.

  15. Thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Stahl, Charles R.; Gibson, Michael A.; Knudsen, Christian W.

    1987-01-01

    A thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus for exploiting deep well reservoirs utilizes electric downhole steam generators to provide supplemental heat to generate high quality steam from hot pressurized water which is heated at the surface. A downhole electric heater placed within a well bore for local heating of the pressurized liquid water into steam is powered by electricity from the above-ground gas turbine-driven electric generators fueled by any clean fuel such as natural gas, distillate or some crude oils, or may come from the field being stimulated. Heat recovered from the turbine exhaust is used to provide the hot pressurized water. Electrical power may be cogenerated and sold to an electric utility to provide immediate cash flow and improved economics. During the cogeneration period (no electrical power to some or all of the downhole units), the oil field can continue to be stimulated by injecting hot pressurized water, which will flash into lower quality steam at reservoir conditions. The heater includes electrical heating elements supplied with three-phase alternating current or direct current. The injection fluid flows through the heater elements to generate high quality steam to exit at the bottom of the heater assembly into the reservoir. The injection tube is closed at the bottom and has radial orifices for expanding the injection fluid to reservoir pressure.

  16. Electrical stimulation accelerates nerve regeneration and functional recovery in delayed peripheral nerve injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinghui; Zhang, Yongguang; Lu, Lei; Hu, Xueyu; Luo, Zhuojing

    2013-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate the potential of brief electrical stimulation (ES; 3 V, 20 Hz, 20 min) in improving functional recovery in delayed nerve injury repair (DNIR). The sciatic nerve of Sprague Dawley rats was transected, and the repair of nerve injury was delayed for different time durations (2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks). Brief depolarizing ES was applied to the proximal nerve stump when the transected nerve stumps were bridged with a hollow nerve conduit (5 mm in length) after delayed periods. We found that the diameter and number of regenerated axons, the thickness of myelin sheath, as well as the number of Fluoro-Gold retrograde-labeled motoneurons and sensory neurons were significantly increased by ES, suggesting that brief ES to proximal nerve stumps is capable of promoting nerve regeneration in DNIR with different delayed durations, with the longest duration of 24 weeks. In addition, the amplitude of compound muscle action potential (gastrocnemius muscle) and nerve conduction velocity were also enhanced, and gastrocnemius muscle atrophy was partially reversed by brief ES, indicating that brief ES to proximal nerve stump was able to improve functional recovery in DNIR. Furthermore, brief ES was capable of increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the spinal cord in DNIR, suggesting that BDNF-mediated neurotrophin signaling might be one of the contributing factors to the beneficial effect of brief ES on DNIR. In conclusion, the present findings indicate the potential of using brief ES as a useful method to improve functional recovery for delayed repair of peripheral nerve lesions. PMID:24118464

  17. PLANKTON RESPIRATION AND BIOMASS AS FUNCTIONAL INDICATORS OF RECOVERY IN RESTORED PRAIRIE WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reliable ecological indicators of wetland integrity are necessary for assessing recovery of restored wetlands, yet little consensus currently exists on which indicators are most appropriate. We employed indicators derived from simple, standard measures of ecosystem function selec...

  18. Factors Associated With Neurological Recovery of Brainstem Function Following Postoperative Conformal Radiation Therapy for Infratentorial Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Chitti, Ramana M.; Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping; Sanford, Robert A.; Khan, Raja B.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To identify risk factors associated with incomplete neurological recovery in pediatric patients with infratentorial ependymoma treated with postoperative conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods: The study included 68 patients (median age +- standard deviation of 2.6 +- 3.8 years) who were followed for 5 years after receiving CRT (54-59.4 Gy) and were assessed for function of cranial nerves V to VII and IX to XII, motor weakness, and dysmetria. The mean (+- standard deviation) brainstem dose was 5,487 (+-464) cGy. Patients were divided into four groups representing those with normal baseline and follow-up, those with abnormal baseline and full recovery, those with abnormal baseline and partial or no recovery, and those with progressive deficits at 12 (n = 62 patients), 24 (n = 57 patients), and 60 (n = 50 patients) months. Grouping was correlated with clinical and treatment factors. Results: Risk factors (overall risk [OR], p value) associated with incomplete recovery included gender (male vs. female, OR = 3.97, p = 0.036) and gross tumor volume (GTV) (OR/ml = 1.23, p = 0.005) at 12 months, the number of resections (>1 vs. 1; OR = 23.7, p = 0.003) and patient age (OR/year = 0.77, p = 0.029) at 24 months, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting (Yes vs. No; OR = 21.9, p = 0.001) and GTV volume (OR/ml = 1.18, p = 0.008) at 60 months. An increase in GTV correlated with an increase in the number of resections (p = 0.001) and CSF shunting (p = 0.035); the number of resections correlated with CSF shunting (p < 0.0001), and male patients were more likely to undergo multiple tumor resections (p = 0.003). Age correlated with brainstem volume (p < 0.0001). There were no differences in outcome based on the absolute or relative volume of the brainstem that received more than 54 Gy. Conclusions: Incomplete recovery of brainstem function after CRT for infratentorial ependymoma is related to surgical morbidity and the volume and the extent of tumor.

  19. Intracerebral hemorrhage in mouse models: therapeutic interventions and functional recovery

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, S. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    There has been strong pre-clinical research on mechanisms of initial cell death and tissue injury in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This data has led to the evaluation of several therapeutics for neuroprotection or the mitigation of early tissue damage. Most of these studies have been done in the rat. Also, there has been little study of the mechanisms of tissue repair and recovery. This review examines the testing of candidate therapeutics in mouse models of ICH for their effect on tissue protection and repair. This review will help the readers compare it to the extensively researched rat model of ICH and thus enhance work that are pending in mouse model. PMID:24810632

  20. Sleep's function in the spontaneous recovery and consolidation of memories.

    PubMed

    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Schulze, Claudia; Fischer, Stefan; Born, Jan

    2007-05-01

    Building on 2 previous studies (B. R. Ekstrand, 1967; B. R. Ekstrand, M. J. Sullivan, D. F. Parker, & J. N. West, 1971), the authors present 2 experiments that were aimed at characterizing the role of retroactive interference in sleep-associated declarative memory consolidation. Using an A-B, A-C paradigm with lists of word pairs in Experiment 1, the authors showed that sleep provides recovery from retroactive interference induced at encoding, whereas no such recovery was seen in several wake control conditions. Noninterfering word-pair lists were used in Experiment 2 (A-B, C-D). Sleeping after learning, in comparison with waking after learning, enhanced retention of both lists to a similar extent when encoding was less intense because of less list repetition and briefer word-pair presentations. With intense encoding, sleep-associated improvements were not seen for either list. In combination, the results indicate that the benefit of sleep for declarative memory consolidation is greater for weaker associations, regardless of whether weak associations result from retroactive interference or poor encoding. PMID:17500644

  1. Counseling the post-radical prostatectomy patients about functional recovery: high predictiveness of current status

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Andrew J.; Kent, Matthew; Mulhall, John; Sandhu, Jaspreet

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop prediction models to help counsel post-radical prostatectomy patients about functional recovery. Methods The study included 2162 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy at a major cancer center who reported urinary and erectile function at one year or at two years and at least 1 prior follow-up at 3, 6, 9, or 12 months. We created logistic regression models predicting function at one or two years on the basis of function at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months (2 years only), with the additional predictors of age, stage, grade, PSA, nerve-sparing status and baseline functional score. Results No variable other than current functional score had a consistent, statistically significant relationship with outcome. The area-under-the-curves for predicting function at 2 years based on current function alone at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months were, respectively, 0.796, 0.831, 0.882, and 0.885 for erectile function and 0.789, 0.862, 0.869 and 0.876 for urinary function. Patients using one pad at 6 months had only a 50% probability of being pad free at 2 years; this dropped to 36% for patients using 2 pads. This suggests that there is an opportunity for early identification and possible referral of patients likely to have long-term urinary dysfunction. Conclusions Assessment of urinary and erectile function in the first post-operative year is strongly predictive of long-term outcome and can guide patient counseling and decisions about rehabilitative treatments. PMID:24824411

  2. A New Method to Evaluate Streamflow Recovery After a Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzle, S. W.

    2004-12-01

    Under conditions of environmental change, occurrences of drought are expected to increase in number and severity. A river basin does not behave linearly to precipitation, and many drought indices, such as the Palmer Drought Severity Index (Palmer, 1965), are based on meteorological conditions, since they were developed for agricultural purposes rather than hydrological behavior of a river basin. A new method is presented to answer the question "When does the streamflow recover to normal conditions after a drought?", a question raised by many water managers who rely on adequate streamflow and reservoir levels, particularly municipalities, industry, power stations, and irrigation districts. The recession index is an indicator for the overall water basin conditions, and integrates all streamflow generating conditions, including the status of groundwater, wetlands, and basin wetness (or antecedent watershed conditions). The method is based on recession analysis of daily streamflow utilizing the RECESS program (Rutledge, 2004). The recession index K is calculated for all streamflow available records. Analysis of recession indices of streamflow in the Battle River Basin, a prairie watershed in central Alberta, Canada, was carried out using a minimum length of recession curves of 5 days. The analysis reveals drought years have associated low median annual K values, measured in days per log cycle, while normal to wet years have high median annual K values. The suggested method can be used to evaluate the overall status of a river basin in terms of runoff conditions by relating the latest measured recession index to the historical record. This gives an indication if, in terms of streamflow response, a river basin is still in a drought, in a phase of recovery, or fully recovered. Water managers can then predict water availability for the coming months. References: Palmer, W. C, 1965: Meteorological Drought. Res. Paper No.45, 58pp., Dept. of Commerce, Washington, D

  3. Physiological, Sensory, and Functional Measures in a Model of Wrist Muscle Injury and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lindsay; Brant, Aron; Enns, Deborah; Bryden, Pamela J.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of muscle rehabilitation modalities, it is first necessary to develop a model to test measures that would assess physiological, sensory, and functional muscle recovery. This study attempted to develop such a model for wrist injury. Subjects: Healthy male and female adults (n = 25). Methods: Subjects performed wrist muscle damage assessment, soreness, discomfort, difficulty, and functional motor task tests before and 1, 2, and 7 days after eccentric wrist muscle contractions. Wrist-related motor task tests, including the perception of discomfort and difficulty during performance, were also conducted. Results: At 24 hours post–eccentric exercises, wrist extension and flexion force declined (p < 0.05) and soreness (p < 0.05) and circumference (p < 0.05) increased; all returned to normal by 7 days post-exercise. At 24 and 48 hours post-exercise, perception of discomfort and difficulty was elevated during performance of motor tasks (p < 0.05). The completion speed of motor tasks was unaffected at any time post–eccentric exercise (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Loss of wrist muscle force, increased soreness, task discomfort, and difficulty were noted following eccentric exercise. However, subjects appeared able to compensate, such that the speed of completion of motor tasks was not slowed. Longer or more specific motor tasks may be necessary to mimic real work performance decrement and recovery. PMID:20145740

  4. Clinical characteristics of functional recovery after coronary artery bypass graft surgery in Japanese octogenarians

    PubMed Central

    Tobita, Ryo; Iwata, Kentaro; Kamisaka, Kenta; Yuguchi, Satoshi; Tahara, Masayuki; Oura, Keisuke; Morisawa, Tomoyuki; Ohhashi, Satoko; Kumamaru, Megumi; Hanafusa, Yusuke; Kato, Michitaka; Saitoh, Masakazu; Sakurada, Koji; Takahashi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to elucidate characteristics of postoperative physical functional recovery in octogenarians undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. [Subjects and Methods] This was a multi-center, retrospective study. Nine hundred and twenty-seven elective isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgeries were evaluated (746 males and 181 females, mean age: 68.6 years, range: 31–86 years). Participants were stratified according to age < 80 years (n = 840; mean age, 67.1; range, 31–79) or > 80 years (n = 87; mean age, 82.2; range, 80–86). Patient characteristics and postoperative physical functional recovery outcomes were compared between groups. [Results] There was no significant difference between groups when considering the postoperative day at which patients could sit on the edge of the bed, stand at bedside, or walk around the bed. The postoperative day at which patients could walk 100 m independently was later in octogenarians, when compared with non-octogenarians (6.1 ± 3.2 days vs. 4.9 ± 3.9 days). In octogenarians, the percentage of patients who could walk 100 m independently within 8 days after surgery was 79.5%. [Conclusion] A postoperative target time in octogenarians for independent walking, following coronary artery bypass grafting, can be set at approximately 6 days. PMID:27065553

  5. Advanced Echocardiography in Adult Zebrafish Reveals Delayed Recovery of Heart Function after Myocardial Cryoinjury

    PubMed Central

    Kossack, Mandy; Juergensen, Lonny; Fuchs, Dieter; Katus, Hugo A.; Hassel, David

    2015-01-01

    Translucent zebrafish larvae represent an established model to analyze genetics of cardiac development and human cardiac disease. More recently adult zebrafish are utilized to evaluate mechanisms of cardiac regeneration and by benefiting from recent genome editing technologies, including TALEN and CRISPR, adult zebrafish are emerging as a valuable in vivo model to evaluate novel disease genes and specifically validate disease causing mutations and their underlying pathomechanisms. However, methods to sensitively and non-invasively assess cardiac morphology and performance in adult zebrafish are still limited. We here present a standardized examination protocol to broadly assess cardiac performance in adult zebrafish by advancing conventional echocardiography with modern speckle-tracking analyses. This allows accurate detection of changes in cardiac performance and further enables highly sensitive assessment of regional myocardial motion and deformation in high spatio-temporal resolution. Combining conventional echocardiography measurements with radial and longitudinal velocity, displacement, strain, strain rate and myocardial wall delay rates after myocardial cryoinjury permitted to non-invasively determine injury dimensions and to longitudinally follow functional recovery during cardiac regeneration. We show that functional recovery of cryoinjured hearts occurs in three distinct phases. Importantly, the regeneration process after cryoinjury extends far beyond the proposed 45 days described for ventricular resection with reconstitution of myocardial performance up to 180 days post-injury (dpi). The imaging modalities evaluated here allow sensitive cardiac phenotyping and contribute to further establish adult zebrafish as valuable cardiac disease model beyond the larval developmental stage. PMID:25853735

  6. Recovery of Olfactory Function following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: A Longitudinal Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Kathleen; Catroppa, Cathy; Anderson, Vicki

    2016-04-15

    There is increasing evidence that disruption of olfactory function after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common. Olfactory dysfunction (OD) has been linked to significant functional implications in areas of health, safety, and quality of life, but longitudinal research investigating olfactory recovery is limited. This study aimed to investigate recovery trajectories for olfaction following pediatric TBI and explore predictors of early and late olfactory outcomes. The olfactory function of 37 children with TBI ages 8-16 years was assessed on average at 1.5, 8.0, and 18.0 months post-injury using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. A significant improvement in olfactory performance was seen over time in those with acute OD, however, only 16% of those with the most severe OD showed recovery to normal olfactory function, with the remainder demonstrating ongoing olfactory impairment at the 18 month follow-up. Predictors of early (0-3 month) and late (18 month) olfactory outcomes varied with site of impact, a significant predictor of later olfactory performance. In summary, while there was evidence of recovery of OD over time in pediatric TBI, the majority of children with severe OD did not show any recovery. In light of limited recovery of function for more severely affected children, the importance of appropriate education and implementation of rehabilitation management strategies is highlighted. PMID:26413938

  7. Localized and Sustained Delivery of Erythropoietin from PLGA Microspheres Promotes Functional Recovery and Nerve Regeneration in Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Jianheng; Zhang, Licheng; Long, Anhua; Zhang, Lihai; Tang, Peifu

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) has been demonstrated to exert neuroprotective effects on peripheral nerve injury recovery. Though daily intraperitoneal injection of EPO during a long period of time was effective, it was a tedious procedure. In addition, only limited amount of EPO could reach the injury sites by general administration, and free EPO is easily degraded in vivo. In this study, we encapsulated EPO in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres. Both in vitro and in vivo release assays showed that the EPO-PLGA microspheres allowed sustained release of EPO within a period of two weeks. After administration of such EPO-PLGA microspheres, the peripheral nerve injured rats had significantly better recovery compared with those which received daily intraperitoneal injection of EPO, empty PLGA microspheres, or saline treatments. This was supported by the functional, electrophysiological, and histological evaluations of the recovery done at week 8 postoperatively. We conclude that sustained delivery of EPO could be achieved by using EPO-PLGA microspheres, and such delivery method could further enhance the recovery function of EPO in nerve injury recovery. PMID:25821803

  8. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingyuan E.; Glover, Gary H.

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in 1992, Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has become an indispensible tool for studying cognition in both the healthy and dysfunctional brain. FMRI monitors changes in the oxygenation of brain tissue resulting from altered metabolism consequent to a task-based evoked neural response or from spontaneous fluctuations in neural activity in the absence of conscious mentation (the “resting state”). Task-based studies have revealed neural correlates of a large number of important cognitive processes, while fMRI studies performed in the resting state have demonstrated brain-wide networks that result from brain regions with synchronized, apparently spontaneous activity. In this article, we review the methods used to acquire and analyze fMRI signals. PMID:26248581

  9. Cold water immersion enhances recovery of submaximal muscle function after resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Llion A; Nosaka, Kazunori; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2014-10-15

    We investigated the effect of cold water immersion (CWI) on the recovery of muscle function and physiological responses after high-intensity resistance exercise. Using a randomized, cross-over design, 10 physically active men performed high-intensity resistance exercise followed by one of two recovery interventions: 1) 10 min of CWI at 10°C or 2) 10 min of active recovery (low-intensity cycling). After the recovery interventions, maximal muscle function was assessed after 2 and 4 h by measuring jump height and isometric squat strength. Submaximal muscle function was assessed after 6 h by measuring the average load lifted during 6 sets of 10 squats at 80% of 1 repetition maximum. Intramuscular temperature (1 cm) was also recorded, and venous blood samples were analyzed for markers of metabolism, vasoconstriction, and muscle damage. CWI did not enhance recovery of maximal muscle function. However, during the final three sets of the submaximal muscle function test, participants lifted a greater load (P < 0.05, Cohen's effect size: 1.3, 38%) after CWI compared with active recovery. During CWI, muscle temperature decreased ∼7°C below postexercise values and remained below preexercise values for another 35 min. Venous blood O2 saturation decreased below preexercise values for 1.5 h after CWI. Serum endothelin-1 concentration did not change after CWI, whereas it decreased after active recovery. Plasma myoglobin concentration was lower, whereas plasma IL-6 concentration was higher after CWI compared with active recovery. These results suggest that CWI after resistance exercise allows athletes to complete more work during subsequent training sessions, which could enhance long-term training adaptations. PMID:25121612

  10. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a

  11. CatWalk gait analysis in assessment of functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, A; Deumens, R; Scheffel, J; O'Dey, D M; Weis, J; Joosten, E A; Führmann, T; Brook, G A; Pallua, N

    2008-08-15

    Following peripheral nerve injury repair, improved behavioural outcome may be the most important evidence of functionality of axon regeneration after any repair strategy. A range of behavioural testing paradigms have been developed for peripheral nerve injury research. Complete injury of the adult rat sciatic nerve is frequently used in combination with walking track analysis. Despite its wide-spread use, these walking track analyses are unsuitable for the simultaneous assessment of both dynamic and static gait parameters. Conversely, a novel automated gait analysis system, i.e. CatWalk can simultaneously measure dynamic as well as static gait parameters and, importantly, it's easy to control for the speed of locomotion which can strongly affect gait parameters. In a previous study, CatWalk was already successfully used to examine deficits in both dynamic and static gait parameters using the sciatic nerve lesion model with a 1cm gap characterized by absence of recovery [Deumens R, Jaken RJ, Marcus MA, Joosten EA. The CatWalk gait analysis in assessment of both dynamic and static gait changes after adult rat sciatic nerve resection. J Neurosci Methods 2007;164:120-30]. Using the sciatic nerve crush injury model (validated with the static sciatic index) and a follow-up period of 12 weeks, we now show that CatWalk can also measure behavioural recovery. In particular dynamic gait parameters, coordination measures, and the intensity of paw prints are of interest in detecting recovery as far as these parameters completely return to pre-operative values after crush injury. We conclude that CatWalk can be used as a complementary approach to other behavioural testing paradigms to assess clinically relevant behavioural benefits, with a main advantage that CatWalk demonstrates both static and dynamic gait parameters at the same time. PMID:18577402

  12. Functionalization of micromodels with kaolinite for investigation of low salinity oil-recovery processes.

    PubMed

    Song, Wen; Kovscek, Anthony R

    2015-08-21

    Sandstone formations are ubiquitous in both aquifers and petroleum reservoirs, of which clay is a major constituent. The release of clay particles from pore surfaces as a result of reduced injection fluid salinity can greatly modify the recovery of hydrocarbons from subsurface formations by shifting the wettability properties of the rock. In this paper we demonstrate a microfluidic approach whereby kaolinite is deposited into a two-dimensional microfluidic network (micromodel) to enable direct pore-scale, real-time visualization of fluid-solid interactions with representative pore-geometry and realistic surface interactions between the reservoir fluids and the formation rock. Structural characterization of deposited kaolinite particles agrees well with natural modes of occurrence in Berea sandstones; hence, the clay deposition method developed in this work is validated. Specifically, more than 90% of the deposited clay particles formed pore-lining structures and the remainder formed pore bridging structures. Further, regions of highly concentrated clay deposition likely leading to so-called Dalmatian wetting properties were found throughout the micromodel. Two post-deposition treatments are described whereby clay is adhered to the silicon surface reversibly and irreversibly resulting in microfluidic systems that are amenable to studies on (i) the fundamental mechanisms governing the increased oil recovery during low salinity waterfloods and (ii) the effect of a mixed-wet surface on oil recovery, respectively. The reversibly functionalized platform is used to determine the conditions at which stably adhered clay particles detach. Specifically, injection brine salinity below 6000 ppm of NaCl induced kaolinite particle release from the silicon surface. Furthermore, when applied to an aged system with crude oil, the low salinity waterflood recovered an additional 14% of the original oil in place compared to waterflooding with the formation brine. PMID:26151880

  13. Mutual connectivity analysis (MCA) using generalized radial basis function neural networks for nonlinear functional connectivity network recovery in resting-state functional MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Adora M.; Abidin, Anas Zainul; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Wismüller, Axel

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the applicability of a computational framework, called mutual connectivity analysis (MCA), for directed functional connectivity analysis in both synthetic and resting-state functional MRI data. This framework comprises of first evaluating non-linear cross-predictability between every pair of time series prior to recovering the underlying network structure using community detection algorithms. We obtain the non-linear cross-prediction score between time series using Generalized Radial Basis Functions (GRBF) neural networks. These cross-prediction scores characterize the underlying functionally connected networks within the resting brain, which can be extracted using non-metric clustering approaches, such as the Louvain method. We first test our approach on synthetic models with known directional influence and network structure. Our method is able to capture the directional relationships between time series (with an area under the ROC curve = 0.92 +/- 0.037) as well as the underlying network structure (Rand index = 0.87 +/- 0.063) with high accuracy. Furthermore, we test this method for network recovery on resting-state fMRI data, where results are compared to the motor cortex network recovered from a motor stimulation sequence, resulting in a strong agreement between the two (Dice coefficient = 0.45). We conclude that our MCA approach is effective in analyzing non-linear directed functional connectivity and in revealing underlying functional network structure in complex systems.

  14. Hyperforin promotes post-stroke functional recovery through interleukin (IL)-17A-mediated angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiancheng; Yao, Chengye; Chen, Jiayi; Zhang, Yujing; Yuan, Shiying; Lin, Yun

    2016-09-01

    Hyperforin, the main active ingredient of the medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum, has been shown to be neuroprotective against acute ischemic stroke. However, the long-term actions of hyperforin on the post-stroke functional recovery and underlying mechanisms have not been investigated. C57BL/6 wild-type mice or interleukin (IL)-17A knock-out mice underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (60min) followed by reperfusion for 28 days. Here, we found that delayed treatment with hyperforin significantly promoted functional recovery and increased IL-17A expression in the ischemic hemisphere at 28 days post-ischemia (dpi). IL-17A knock-out or anti-IL-17A monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment significantly attenuated the promoting effects of hyperforin on functional recovery. After screening for neurotrophic factors, we revealed that blocking IL-17A significantly decreased, whereas recombinant mouse IL-17A (rIL-17A) treatment significantly increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Our data also showed that rIL-17A treatment significantly increased CD34 expression and promoted functional recovery at 28dpi, and the promoting effects were attenuated by VEGF neutralizing antibody treatment. Furthermore, hyperforin treatment significantly increased the expression of VEGF and CD34 in the ischemic hemisphere at 28dpi, and the effects were attenuated by blocking IL-17A. Furthermore, VEGF neutralizing antibody significantly attenuated the promoting role of hyperforin on the cerebral CD34 expression. Thus, our results suggest that, in addition to the acute neuroprotection when delivered immediately after ischemic stroke, hyperforin could also promote functional recovery when delivered in the later phases of stroke recovery. Our results also reveal a previously uncharacterized property of IL-17A/VEGF signaling-induced angiogenesis in hyperforin-mediated functional recovery. PMID:27328426

  15. Remodelling of spared proprioceptive circuit involving a small number of neurons supports functional recovery

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, Edmund R.; Ishiko, Nao; Pessian, Maysam; Tolentino, Kristine; Lee-Kubli, Corinne A.; Calcutt, Nigel A.; Zou, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that limited functional recovery can be achieved by plasticity and adaptation of the remaining circuitry in partial injuries in the central nervous system, although the new circuits that arise in these contexts have not been clearly identified or characterized. We show here that synaptic contacts from dorsal root ganglions to a small number of dorsal column neurons, a caudal extension of nucleus gracilis, whose connections to the thalamus are spared in a precise cervical level 1 lesion, underwent remodeling over time. These connections support proprioceptive functional recovery in a conditioning lesion paradigm, as silencing or eliminating the remodelled circuit completely abolishes the recovered proprioceptive function of the hindlimb. Furthermore, we show that blocking repulsive Wnt signalling increases axon plasticity and synaptic connections that drive greater functional recovery. PMID:25597627

  16. Surface functionalized nanostructured ceramic sorbents for the effective collection and recovery of uranium from seawater.

    PubMed

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Pittman, Jonathan W; Warner, Marvin G; Nell, Kara M; Clubb, Donald C; Gill, Gary A; Addleman, R Shane

    2016-07-28

    The ability to collect uranium from seawater offers the potential for a nearly limitless fuel supply for nuclear energy. We evaluated the use of functionalized nanostructured sorbents for the collection and recovery of uranium from seawater. Extraction of trace minerals from seawater and brines is challenging due to the high ionic strength of seawater, low mineral concentrations, and fouling of surfaces over time. We demonstrate that rationally assembled sorbent materials that integrate high affinity surface chemistry and high surface area nanostructures into an application relevant micro/macro structure enables collection performance that far exceeds typical sorbent materials. High surface area nanostructured silica with surface chemistries composed of phosphonic acid, phosphonates, 3,4 hydroxypyridinone, and EDTA showed superior performance for uranium collection. A few phosphorous-based commercial resins, specifically Diphonix and Ln Resin, also performed well. We demonstrate an effective and environmentally benign method of stripping the uranium from the high affinity sorbents using inexpensive nontoxic carbonate solutions. The cyclic use of preferred sorbents and acidic reconditioning of materials was shown to improve performance. Composite thin films composed of the nanostructured sorbents and a porous polymer binder are shown to have excellent kinetics and good capacity while providing an effective processing configuration for trace mineral recovery from solutions. Initial work using the composite thin films shows significant improvements in processing capacity over the previously reported sorbent materials. PMID:27184739

  17. The administration of intermittent parathyroid hormone affects functional recovery from trochanteric fractured neck of femur

    PubMed Central

    Chesser, T. J. S.; Fox, R.; Harding, K.; Halliday, R.; Barnfield, S.; Willett, K.; Lamb, S.; Yau, C.; Javaid, M. K.; Gray, A. C.; Young, J.; Taylor, H.; Shah, K.; Greenwood, R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims We wished to assess the feasibility of a future randomised controlled trial of parathyroid hormone (PTH) supplements to aid healing of trochanteric fractures of the hip, by an open label prospective feasibility and pilot study with a nested qualitative sub study. This aimed to inform the design of a future powered study comparing the functional recovery after trochanteric hip fracture in patients undergoing standard care, versus those who undergo administration of subcutaneous injection of PTH for six weeks. Patients and Methods We undertook a pilot study comparing the functional recovery after trochanteric hip fracture in patients 60 years or older, admitted with a trochanteric hip fracture, and potentially eligible to be randomised to either standard care or the administration of subcutaneous PTH for six weeks. Our desired outcomes were functional testing and measures to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the study. Results A total of 724 patients were screened, of whom 143 (20%) were eligible for recruitment. Of these, 123 were approached and 29 (4%) elected to take part. However, seven patients did not complete the study. Compliance with the injections was 11 out of 15 (73%) showing the intervention to be acceptable and feasible in this patient population. Take home message: Only 4% of patients who met the inclusion criteria were both eligible and willing to consent to a study involving injections of PTH, so delivering this study on a large scale would carry challenges in recruitment and retention. Methodological and sample size planning would have to take this into account. PTH administration to patients to enhance fracture healing should still be considered experimental. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:840–5. PMID:27235530

  18. Signal recovery technique based on a physical method of underwater acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xinyi; Wu, Guoqing; Ma, Li

    2010-09-01

    In the underwater sound channel we often use an array to receive signals from distant sources. The received signals are often mixed with environmental interference. In the complex acoustic environment, received signals are distorted greatly and elongated in time. In many practical applications such as sound communications, sound remote sensing and active sonar signals, we hope to obtain the original signal's waveform. In general theory, the received signals are the convolution of emission signals and Green's function of environment. In unknown Green's function of environment, simply relying on the array to record the information to determine the sound source signal wave propagation features and the environment is not enough. However, in certain circumstances, based on a physics method of underwater acoustics, the spread of recovery technology is successful.

  19. Daidzein Augments Cholesterol Homeostasis via ApoE to Promote Functional Recovery in Chronic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunhee; Woo, Moon-Sook; Qin, Luye; Ma, Thong; Beltran, Cesar D.; Bao, Yi; Bailey, Jason A.; Corbett, Dale; Ratan, Rajiv R.; Lahiri, Debomoy K.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the world's leading cause of physiological disability, but there are currently no available agents that can be delivered early after stroke to enhance recovery. Daidzein, a soy isoflavone, is a clinically approved agent that has a neuroprotective effect in vitro, and it promotes axon growth in an animal model of optic nerve crush. The current study investigates the efficacy of daidzein on neuroprotection and functional recovery in a clinically relevant mouse model of stroke recovery. In light of the fact that cholesterols are essential lipid substrates in injury-induced synaptic remodeling, we found that daidzein enhanced the cholesterol homeostasis genetic program, including Lxr and downstream transporters, Apoe, Abca1, and Abcg1 genes in vitro. Daidzein also elevated the cholesterol homeostasis genes in the poststroke brain with Apoe, the highest expressing transporter, but did not affect infarct volume or hemispheric swelling. Despite the absence of neuroprotection, daidzein improved motor/gait function in chronic stroke and elevated synaptophysin expression. However, the daidzein-enhanced functional benefits and synaptophysin expression were abolished in Apoe-knock-out mice, suggesting the importance of daidzein-induced ApoE upregulation in fostering stroke recovery. Dissociation between daidzein-induced functional benefits and the absence of neuroprotection further suggest the presence of nonoverlapping mechanisms underlying recovery processes versus acute pathology. With its known safety in humans, early and chronic use of daidzein aimed at augmenting ApoE may serve as a novel, translatable strategy to promote functional recovery in stroke patients without adverse acute effect. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT There have been recurring translational failures in treatment strategies for stroke. One underlying issue is the disparity in outcome analysis between animal and clinical studies. The former mainly depends on acute infarct size, whereas long

  20. Apolipoprotein E Mimetic Promotes Functional and Histological Recovery in Lysolecithin-Induced Spinal Cord Demyelination in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zhen; Li, Fengqiao; Zhang, Yi Ping; Shields, Lisa B.E.; Hu, Xiaoling; Zheng, Yiyan; Yu, Panpan; Zhang, Yongjie; Cai, Jun; Vitek, Michael P.; Shields, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Considering demyelination is the pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), reducing demyelination and/or promoting remyelination is a practical therapeutic strategy to improve functional recovery for MS. An apolipoprotein E (apoE)-mimetic peptide COG112 has previously demonstrated therapeutic efficacy on functional and histological recovery in a mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of human MS. In the current study, we further investigated whether COG112 promotes remyelination and improves functional recovery in lysolecithin induced focal demyelination in the white matter of spinal cord in mice. Methods A focal demyelination model was created by stereotaxically injecting lysolecithin into the bilateral ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) of T8 and T9 mouse spinal cords. Immediately after lysolecithin injection mice were treated with COG112, prefix peptide control or vehicle control for 21 days. The locomotor function of the mice was measured by the beam walking test and Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) assessment. The nerve transmission of the VLF of mice was assessed in vivo by transcranial magnetic motor evoked potentials (tcMMEPs). The histological changes were also examined by by eriochrome cyanine staining, immunohistochemistry staining and electron microscopy (EM) method. Results The area of demyelination in the spinal cord was significantly reduced in the COG112 group. EM examination showed that treatment with COG112 increased the thickness of myelin sheaths and the numbers of surviving axons in the lesion epicenter. Locomotor function was improved in COG112 treated animals when measured by the beam walking test and BMS assessment compared to controls. TcMMEPs also demonstrated the COG112-mediated enhancement of amplitude of evoked responses. Conclusion The apoE-mimetic COG112 demonstrates a favorable combination of activities in suppressing inflammatory response, mitigating demyelination and in promoting remyelination and

  1. Cryptosporidium and giardia recoveries in natural waters by using environmental protection agency method 1623.

    PubMed

    DiGiorgio, Carol L; Gonzalez, David A; Huitt, Christopher C

    2002-12-01

    Relatively few studies have examined recoveries from source waters by using Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 with organism spike doses that are environmentally realistic and at turbidity levels commonly found in surface waters. In this study, we evaluated the filtration capacities and recovery efficiencies of the Gelman Envirochek (standard filter) and the Gelman Envirochek high-volume (HV) sampling capsules under environmental conditions. We also examined the performance of method 1623 under ambient conditions with matrix spike experiments using 10 organisms/liter. Under turbid conditions, the HV capsule filtered approximately twice the volume filtered by the standard filter, but neither could filter 10 liters without clogging. In low-turbidity waters, oocyst, but not cyst, recoveries were significantly higher when the HV capsule was used. In turbid waters, organism recoveries were lower than those in nonturbid waters and were not significantly different for the different filters. When the HV capsule was used, Cryptosporidium recoveries ranged from 36 to 75%, and Giardia recoveries ranged from 0.5 to 53%. For both organisms, recoveries varied significantly by site. Turbidity could explain variation in Giardia recoveries (r(2) = 0.80) but not variation in Cryptosporidium recoveries (r(2) = 0.16). The inconsistent recoveries across sites suggested that the background matrix of the ambient water affected recovery by method 1623. A control sample collected at the height of the winter rainy season detected one organism, highlighting the difficulty of using this method to accurately measure pathogen abundance under natural conditions. Our findings support the use of the HV filter under field conditions but suggest that designing a cost-effective and statistically valid monitoring program to evaluate sources and loads of protozoan pathogens may be difficult. PMID:12450815

  2. The influence of functional electrical stimulation on hand motor recovery in stroke patients: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscular stimulation has been used as one potential rehabilitative treatment option to restore motor function and improve recovery in patients with paresis. Especially stroke patients who often regain only limited hand function would greatly benefit from a therapy that enhances recovery and restores movement. Multiple studies investigated the effect of functional electrical stimulation on hand paresis, the results however are inconsistent. Here we review the current literature on functional electrical stimulation on hand motor recovery in stroke patients. We discuss the impact of different parameters such as stage after stoke, degree of impairment, spasticity and treatment protocols on the functional outcome. Importantly, we outline the results from recent studies investigating the cortical effects elicited by functional electrical stimulation giving insights into the underlying mechanisms responsible for long-term treatment effects. Bringing together the findings from present research it becomes clear that both, treatment outcomes as well as the neurophysiologic mechanisms causing functional recovery, vary depending on patient characteristics. In order to develop unified treatment guidelines it is essential to conduct homogenous studies assessing the impact of different parameters on rehabilitative success. PMID:25276333

  3. Downhole fluid injection systems, CO2 sequestration methods, and hydrocarbon material recovery methods

    DOEpatents

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-07-28

    Downhole fluid injection systems are provided that can include a first well extending into a geological formation, and a fluid injector assembly located within the well. The fluid injector assembly can be configured to inject a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion into the surrounding geological formation. CO2 sequestration methods are provided that can include exposing a geological formation to a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to sequester at least a portion of the CO2 from the emulsion within the formation. Hydrocarbon material recovery methods are provided that can include exposing a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to a geological formation having the hydrocarbon material therein. The methods can include recovering at least a portion of the hydrocarbon material from the formation.

  4. Resting State Alpha-band Functional Connectivity and Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Westlake, Kelly P.; Hinkley, Leighton B.; Bucci, Monica; Guggisberg, Adrian G.; Findlay, Anne M.; Byl, Nancy; Henry, Roland G.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2013-01-01

    After cerebral ischemia, disruption and subsequent reorganization of functional connections occur both locally and remote to the lesion. However, the unpredictable timing and extent of sensorimotor recovery reflects a gap in understanding of these underlying neural mechanisms. We aimed to identify plasticity of alpha-band functional neural connections within the perilesional area and the predictive value of functional connectivity with respect to motor recovery of the upper extremity after stroke. Our results show improvements in upper extremity motor recovery in relation to distributed changes in MEG-based alpha band functional connectivity, both in the perilesional area and contralesional cortex. Motor recovery was found to be predicted by increased connectivity at baseline in the ipsilesional somatosensory area, supplementary motor area, and cerebellum, contrasted with reduced connectivity of contralesional motor regions, after controlling for age, stroke onset-time and lesion size. These findings support plasticity within a widely distributed neural network and define brain regions in which the extent of network participation predicts post-stroke recovery potential PMID:22750324

  5. Functional recovery of hibernating myocardium after coronary bypass surgery: Does it coincide with improvement in perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Takeishi, Y.; Tono-oka, I.; Kubota, I.; Ikeda, K.; Masakane, I.; Chiba, J.; Abe, S.; Tsuiki, K.; Komatani, A.; Yamaguchi, I. )

    1991-09-01

    To determine the relationship between functional recovery and improvement in perfusion after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), 49 patients were studied. Radionuclide angiography was performed before, 1 month after, and 6 to 12 months after CABG to evaluate regional wall motion. Exercise thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging was done before and 1 month after CABG to assess regional perfusion. Preoperative asynergy was observed in 108 segments, and 74 of them showed an improvement in wall motion 1 month after CABG (segment A). Sixty-six of these segments (89%) were associated with an improvement in perfusion. Eight segments that had not improved 1 month after CABG demonstrated a delayed recovery of wall motion 6 to 12 months after CABG (segment B). However, seven of eight segments (88%) already showed an improvement in perfusion 1 month after CABG. A total of 82 segments exhibited functional recovery after CABG and were considered hibernating segments. In the preoperative study segment B more frequently had areas of akinesis or dyskinesis than segment A (75% vs 34%, p less than 0.05). The mean percent thallium-201 uptake in segment B was lower than that in segment A (74% {plus minus} 9% vs 83% {plus minus} 8%, p less than 0.05). Functional recovery of hibernating myocardium usually coincided with an improvement in perfusion. However, delayed functional recovery after reperfusion was observed in some instances. Severe asynergy and severe thallium-201 defects were more frequently observed in these segments with delayed recovery. Hibernating myocardium might remain stunned during those recovery periods.

  6. Thermographic evaluation of hind paw skin temperature and functional recovery of locomotion after sciatic nerve crush in rats

    PubMed Central

    Z. Sacharuk, Viviane; A. Lovatel, Gisele; Ilha, Jocemar; Marcuzzo, Simone; Severo do Pinho, Alexandre; L. Xavier, Léder; A. Zaro, Milton; Achaval, Matilde

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Peripheral nerves are often damaged by direct mechanical injury, diseases, and tumors. The peripheral nerve injuries that result from these conditions can lead to a partial or complete loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions, which in turn are related to changes in skin temperature, in the involved segments of the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in hind paw skin temperature after sciatic nerve crush in rats in an attempt to determine whether changes in skin temperature correlate with the functional recovery of locomotion. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (n = 7), sham (n = 25), and crush (n = 25). All groups were subjected to thermographic, functional, and histological assessments. RESULTS: ΔT in the crush group was different from the control and sham groups at the 1st, 3rd and 7rd postoperative days (p<0.05). The functional recovery from the crush group returned to normal values between the 3rd and 4th week post-injury, and morphological analysis of the nerve revealed incomplete regeneration at the 4th week after injury. DISCUSSION: This study is the first demonstration that sciatic nerve crush in rats induces an increase in hind paw skin temperature and that skin temperature changes do not correlate closely with functional recovery PMID:21876984

  7. Functional testing of hepatocytes following their recovery from cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Innes, G K; Fuller, B J; Hobbs, K E

    1988-02-01

    Various tests of function have been suggested for assessing hepatocytes recovered from cryopreservation. In this study we have investigated hepatocyte attachment during tissue culture and cellular density in order to assess function and compared them with two classical dye exposure tests. The ability of hepatocytes to exclude trypan blue dye (TB) and metabolize fluorescein diacetate (FDA) was demonstrated. In populations of freshly prepared hepatocytes 88.07% were able to exclude TB and 87.31% were able to metabolize FDA. However in populations of hepatocytes recovered after cryopreservation using 1.5 M dimethyl sulfoxide as cryoprotectant only 33.44% were able to exclude TB and 31.59% able to metabolize FDA. Both of these tests gave the same estimate of functional ability. Density gradient centrifugation of hepatocytes on Percoll 400 (Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden) separated two populations of hepatocytes; one (density ca.1.07 g/ml Percoll) in which most of the cells were able to exclude TB and the second (density ca. 1.02 g/ml Percoll) in which they were stained blue. The dense population was highly enriched in dye-excluding hepatocytes: freshly prepared hepatocytes, 92.4%, and cryopreserved hepatocytes, 88.66%. When samples of these cells (2 x 10(6) dye-excluding cells per dish) were tested for their ability to attach to tissue culture dishes only 17.28% of the cryopreserved hepatocytes were able to attach compared to 55.28% of the freshly prepared cells. We conclude that cryopreservation of hepatocytes produces a population of cells which are not metabolically identical to a population of freshly prepared hepatocytes even though they appear to have the same buoyant density and dye-excluding capabilities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3349809

  8. Methods of making functionalized nanorods

    DOEpatents

    Gur, Ilan; Milliron, Delia; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Liu, Haitao

    2012-01-10

    A process for forming functionalized nanorods. The process includes providing a substrate, modifying the substrate by depositing a self-assembled monolayer of a bi-functional molecule on the substrate, wherein the monolayer is chosen such that one side of the bi-functional molecule binds to the substrate surface and the other side shows an independent affinity for binding to a nanocrystal surface, so as to form a modified substrate. The process further includes contacting the modified substrate with a solution containing nanocrystal colloids, forming a bound monolayer of nanocrystals on the substrate surface, depositing a polymer layer over the monolayer of nanocrystals to partially cover the monolayer of nanocrystals, so as to leave a layer of exposed nanocrystals, functionalizing the exposed nanocrystals, to form functionalized nanocrystals, and then releasing the functionalized nanocrystals from the substrate.

  9. False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method

    SciTech Connect

    Krauter, Paula; Piepel, Gregory F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matthew S.; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-02-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10x10^-3 to 1.86 CFU/cm^2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (>1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm^2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

  10. False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method

    PubMed Central

    Piepel, Greg F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10 × 10−3 to 1.86 CFU/cm2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (≥1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions. PMID:22138998

  11. The Impact of Acute Phase Domain-Specific Cognitive Function on Post-stroke Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jihong; Lee, Gangpyo; Lee, Shi-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the cognitive function in the acute stage evaluated by domain-specific neuropsychological assessments would be an independent predictor of functional outcome after stroke. Methods Forty patients underwent 4 domain-specific neuropsychological examinations about 3 weeks after the onset of stroke. The tests included the Boston Naming Test (BNT), the construction recall test (CRT), the construction praxis test (CPT), and the verbal fluency test (VFT). The Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) at 3 months and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 6 months were investigated as functional outcome after stroke. Functional improvement was assessed using the change in K-MBI during the first 3 months and subjects were dichotomized into 'good status' and 'poor status' according to mRS at 6 months. The domain-specific cognitive function along with other possible predictors for functional outcome was examined using regression analysis. Results The z-score of CPT (p=0.044) and CRT (p<0.001) were independent predictors for functional improvement measured by the change in K-MBI during the first 3 months after stroke. The z-score of CPT (p=0.049) and CRT (p=0.048) were also independent predictors of functional status at post-stroke 6 months assessed by mRS. Conclusion Impairment in visuospatial construction and memory within one month after stroke can be an independent prognostic factor of functional outcome. Domain-specific neuropsychological assessments could be considered in patients with stroke in the acute phase to predict long-term functional outcome. PMID:27152270

  12. A Review of Instruments for Measuring Functional Recovery in Those Diagnosed With Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mausbach, Brent T.; Moore, Raeanne; Bowie, Christopher; Cardenas, Veronica; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    The task of judging an individual's functional recovery is not an easy one for healthcare professionals. Indeed, increasing one's accuracy in predicting one's ability to self-maintain would be of great value for determining if functional recovery has or is occurring. The purpose of this review is to examine existing measures for assessing remission/normalization of functional status among people with psychosis. Our review evaluates 8 measures of functional ability encompassing self-report, clinical, and performance-based measures. We elected to utilize a grading system to aid readers in understanding the merit of a scale for use in assessing functional recovery. In this approach, a letter grade (A, B, or C) was assigned to each of 4 domains we deemed important to professionals in electing to use specific assessments: (1) Ease of Administration, (2) Reliability, (3) Validity/Relationship to Real-World Outcomes, and (4) Sensitivity to Change/Use in Clinical Trials. Results indicated that no “gold standard” measure has been developed to date, but performance-based measures appear to have the most evidence for predicting concurrent self-maintenance abilities (eg, residing independently or maintaining work). More research on existing measures is needed, and greater funding for developing new measures of functional recovery is strongly recommended. PMID:19023122

  13. Intraoperative Neural Response Telemetry and Neural Recovery Function: a Comparative Study between Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Bettina; Hamerschmidt, Rogerio; Wiemes, Gislaine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Neural response telemetry (NRT) is a method of capturing the action potential of the distal portion of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) users, using the CI itself to elicit and record the answers. In addition, it can also measure the recovery function of the auditory nerve (REC), that is, the refractory properties of the nerve. It is not clear in the literature whether the responses from adults are the same as those from children. Objective To compare the results of NRT and REC between adults and children undergoing CI surgery. Methods Cross-sectional, descriptive, and retrospective study of the results of NRT and REC for patients undergoing IC at our service. The NRT is assessed by the level of amplitude (microvolts) and REC as a function of three parameters: A (saturation level, in microvolts), t0 (absolute refractory period, in seconds), and tau (curve of the model function), measured in three electrodes (apical, medial, and basal). Results Fifty-two patients were evaluated with intraoperative NRT (26 adults and 26 children), and 24 with REC (12 adults and 12 children). No statistically significant difference was found between intraoperative responses of adults and children for NRT or for REC's three parameters, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. Conclusion The results of intraoperative NRT and REC were not different between adults and children, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. PMID:25992145

  14. Edaravone promotes functional recovery after mechanical peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Teng; Li, Zhengwei; Dong, Jianli; Nan, Feng; Li, Tao; Yu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Edaravone has been shown to reduce ischemia/reperfusion-induced peripheral nerve injury. However, the therapeutic effect of edaravone on peripheral nerve injury caused by mechanical factors is unknown. In the present study, we established a peripheral nerve injury model by crushing the sciatic nerve using hemostatic forceps, and then administered edaravone 3 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The sciatic functional index and superoxide dismutase activity of the sciatic nerve were increased, and the malondialdehyde level was decreased in animals in the edaravone group compared with those in the model group. Bcl-2 expression was increased, but Bax expression was decreased in anterior horn cells of the L4-6 spinal cord segments. These results indicated that edaravone has a neuroprotective effect following peripheral nerve injury caused by mechanical factors through alleviating free radical damage to cells and inhibiting lipid peroxidation, as well as regulating apoptosis-related protein expression. PMID:25374594

  15. Functional Recovery following Critical Illness in Children: the “Wee-cover” Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Karen; Al-Harbi, Samah; Siu, Katie; Wong, Katie; Cheng, Ji; Baird, Burke; Pogorzelski, David; Timmons, Brian; Gorter, Jan-Willem; Thabane, Lehana; Khetani, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the feasibility of conducting a longitudinal prospective study to evaluate functional recovery and predictors of impaired functional recovery in critically ill children. Design Prospective pilot study. Setting Single center Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) at McMaster Children’s Hospital, Hamilton, Canada. Patients Children aged 12 months to 17 years, with at least one organ dysfunction, limited mobility or bed-rest during the first 48 hours of PICU admission, and a minimum 48 hour PICU length of stay, were eligible. Patients transferred from a neonatal intensive care unit prior to ever being discharged home, already mobilizing well or at baseline functional status at time of screening, with an English language barrier, and prior enrollment into this study were excluded. Measurements The primary outcome was feasibility, as defined by the ability to screen, enroll eligible patients, and execute the study procedures and measurements on participants. Secondary outcomes included functional status at baseline, 3 and 6 months, PICU morbidity and mortality. Functional status was measured using the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth (PEM-CY). Main results Thirty-three patients were enrolled between October 2012 and April 2013. Consent rate was 85%, follow-up rates 93% at 3 months, and 71% at 6 months. We were able to execute the study procedures and measurements, demonstrating feasibility of conducting a future longitudinal study. Functional status deteriorated following critical illness. Recovery appears to be influenced by baseline health or functional status, and severity of illness. Conclusion Longitudinal research is needed to understand how children recover after a critical illness. Our results suggest factors that may influence the recovery trajectory, and were used to inform the methodology, outcomes of interest, and appropriate sample size of a

  16. Sex Differences in Neuroanatomy of the Human Mirror Neuron System: Impact on Functional Recovery of Ischemic Hemiparetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Motaqhey, Monireh; Ghanjal, Ali; Mastri Farahani, Reza; Ghabaee, Mojdeh; Kaka, Gholamreza; Noroziyan, Mohsen; Fadaee Fathabadi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the higher activity of mirror neuron system in females, they frequently have better performance in empathy, interpersonal sensitivity, and emotional recognition compared to males. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess whether gender difference in neuroanatomy of the human mirror neuron system has any impact on functional recovery of ischemic hemiparetic patients. Patients and Methods: This single-blind clinical trial was conducted on 24 patients with cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in the age range of 45 - 60 years, referring at a rehabilitation center in Tehran, Iran, during 2013 - 2014. Sampling method was stratified random sampling. The subjects were assigned to 2 groups of 12 males and 12 females. Then, each group was randomly divided into 2 groups (totally 4 groups, n = 6 for each group): women watching functional movies, control women, men watching functional movies, and control men. Movies were shown to patients and then, they were evaluated by Timed Up and Go (TUG), Six-minute walk test (SMW), Barthel index (BI), and Berg balance scale (BBS). Results: Comparison of all variables related to functional activities of all groups before and after watching movies revealed significant differences. The highest percentage of change and improvement was observed in groups 1 and 3 watching the functional movies (P = 0.0001). Percentage of improvement in women of groups 1 and 2 was higher than men in groups 3 and 4 (P = 0.0003). The changes in group of females watching the functional movies (group 1) were significantly greater than in other groups (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The Sex differences in the neuroanatomy of the human mirror neuron system affect functional recovery of patients with hemiparesis. The improvement in studied women was found to be significantly greater than studied men. The results indicate a higher chance of recovery among hemiparetic women, especially those watching functional movies. PMID:26430528

  17. Prognostic value of FMRI in recovery of hand function in subcortical stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Loubinoux, Isabelle; Dechaumont-Palacin, S; Castel-Lacanal, E; De Boissezon, X; Marque, Philippe; Pariente, Jérémie; Albucher, Jean-François; Berry, Isabelle; Chollet, François

    2007-12-01

    The first objective of the study was to determine whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal was correlated with motor performance at different stages of poststroke recovery. The second objective was to assess the existence of prognostic factors for recovery in early functional MR images. Eight right-handed patients with pure motor deficit secondary to a first lacunar infarct localized on the pyramidal tract were included. This study concerned moderately impaired patients and recovery of handgrip strength and finger-tapping speed. The fMRI task was a calibrated flexion-extension movement. Ten healthy subjects served as a control group. The intensity of the activation in the "classical" motor network (ipsilesional S1M1, ipsilesional ventral premotor cortex [BA 6], contralesional cerebellum) 20 days after stroke was indicative of the performance (positive correlation). The cluster in M1 was posterior and circumscribed to BA 4p. No area was associated with bad performance (negative correlation). No correlation was found 4 and 12 months after stroke. Prognosis factors were evidenced. The higher early the activation in the ipsilesional M1 (BA 4p), S1, and insula, the better the recovery 1 year after stroke. Although the lesions partly deefferented the primary motor cortex, patients who activated the posterior primary motor cortex early had a better recovery of hand function. This suggests that there is benefit in increasing ipsilesional M1 activity shortly after stroke as a rehabilitative approach in mildly impaired patients. PMID:17389628

  18. Generalized recovery algorithm for 3D super-resolution microscopy using rotating point spread functions.

    PubMed

    Shuang, Bo; Wang, Wenxiao; Shen, Hao; Tauzin, Lawrence J; Flatebo, Charlotte; Chen, Jianbo; Moringo, Nicholas A; Bishop, Logan D C; Kelly, Kevin F; Landes, Christy F

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy with phase masks is a promising technique for 3D imaging and tracking. Due to the complexity of the resultant point spread functions, generalized recovery algorithms are still missing. We introduce a 3D super-resolution recovery algorithm that works for a variety of phase masks generating 3D point spread functions. A fast deconvolution process generates initial guesses, which are further refined by least squares fitting. Overfitting is suppressed using a machine learning determined threshold. Preliminary results on experimental data show that our algorithm can be used to super-localize 3D adsorption events within a porous polymer film and is useful for evaluating potential phase masks. Finally, we demonstrate that parallel computation on graphics processing units can reduce the processing time required for 3D recovery. Simulations reveal that, through desktop parallelization, the ultimate limit of real-time processing is possible. Our program is the first open source recovery program for generalized 3D recovery using rotating point spread functions. PMID:27488312

  19. Generalized recovery algorithm for 3D super-resolution microscopy using rotating point spread functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuang, Bo; Wang, Wenxiao; Shen, Hao; Tauzin, Lawrence J.; Flatebo, Charlotte; Chen, Jianbo; Moringo, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Logan D. C.; Kelly, Kevin F.; Landes, Christy F.

    2016-08-01

    Super-resolution microscopy with phase masks is a promising technique for 3D imaging and tracking. Due to the complexity of the resultant point spread functions, generalized recovery algorithms are still missing. We introduce a 3D super-resolution recovery algorithm that works for a variety of phase masks generating 3D point spread functions. A fast deconvolution process generates initial guesses, which are further refined by least squares fitting. Overfitting is suppressed using a machine learning determined threshold. Preliminary results on experimental data show that our algorithm can be used to super-localize 3D adsorption events within a porous polymer film and is useful for evaluating potential phase masks. Finally, we demonstrate that parallel computation on graphics processing units can reduce the processing time required for 3D recovery. Simulations reveal that, through desktop parallelization, the ultimate limit of real-time processing is possible. Our program is the first open source recovery program for generalized 3D recovery using rotating point spread functions.

  20. Generalized recovery algorithm for 3D super-resolution microscopy using rotating point spread functions

    PubMed Central

    Shuang, Bo; Wang, Wenxiao; Shen, Hao; Tauzin, Lawrence J.; Flatebo, Charlotte; Chen, Jianbo; Moringo, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Logan D. C.; Kelly, Kevin F.; Landes, Christy F.

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy with phase masks is a promising technique for 3D imaging and tracking. Due to the complexity of the resultant point spread functions, generalized recovery algorithms are still missing. We introduce a 3D super-resolution recovery algorithm that works for a variety of phase masks generating 3D point spread functions. A fast deconvolution process generates initial guesses, which are further refined by least squares fitting. Overfitting is suppressed using a machine learning determined threshold. Preliminary results on experimental data show that our algorithm can be used to super-localize 3D adsorption events within a porous polymer film and is useful for evaluating potential phase masks. Finally, we demonstrate that parallel computation on graphics processing units can reduce the processing time required for 3D recovery. Simulations reveal that, through desktop parallelization, the ultimate limit of real-time processing is possible. Our program is the first open source recovery program for generalized 3D recovery using rotating point spread functions. PMID:27488312

  1. Modifying lipid rafts promotes regeneration and functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Tassew, Nardos G; Mothe, Andrea J; Shabanzadeh, Alireza P; Banerjee, Paromita; Koeberle, Paulo D; Bremner, Rod; Tator, Charles H; Monnier, Philippe P

    2014-08-21

    Ideal strategies to ameliorate CNS damage should promote both neuronal survival and axon regeneration. The receptor Neogenin promotes neuronal apoptosis. Its ligand prevents death, but the resulting repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa)-Neogenin interaction also inhibits axonal growth, countering any prosurvival benefits. Here, we explore strategies to inhibit Neogenin, thus simultaneously enhancing survival and regeneration. We show that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and RGMa-dependent recruitment of Neogenin into lipid rafts requires an interaction between RGMa and Neogenin subdomains. RGMa or Neogenin peptides that prevent this interaction, BMP inhibition by Noggin, or reduction of membrane cholesterol all block Neogenin raft localization, promote axon outgrowth, and prevent neuronal apoptosis. Blocking Neogenin raft association influences axonal pathfinding, enhances survival in the developing CNS, and promotes survival and regeneration in the injured adult optic nerve and spinal cord. Moreover, lowering cholesterol disrupts rafts and restores locomotor function after spinal cord injury. These data reveal a unified strategy to promote both survival and regeneration in the CNS. PMID:25127134

  2. Landfill gas recovery system and method with pressure symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Zison, S.W.; Roqueta, A.

    1984-09-04

    In a landfill gas recovery system, the breakthrough danger is minimized, and the system efficiency is improved, by providing pressure-equalizing low-impedance gas paths such as aggregate-filled symmetry trenches positioned within the landfill and surrounding, at least partially, the primary collection zone. The symmetry trenches may be connected to the system's low-pressure source to serve as secondary collectors. A sensing trench positioned within the landfill along the periphery of the collector's zone of influence can be used to monitor the collector pressure and to automatically maintain it at a safe level. The sensing trench can also serve as a secondary equalizing path in heterogeneous landfills. Hot spots may advantageously be tapped by auxiliary collectors whose pressure level bears a predetermined proportional relationship to the primary collector pressure.

  3. GRACE: Public Health Recovery Methods following an Environmental Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, ER; Whittle, N; Wright, L; McKeown, RE; Sprayberry, K; Heim, M; Caldwell, R; Gibson, JJ; Vena, J.

    2014-01-01

    Different approaches are necessary when Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) of environmental illness is initiated after an environmental disaster within a community. Often such events are viewed as golden scientific opportunities to do epidemiological studies. However, we believe that in such circumstances, community engagement and empowerment needs to be integrated into the public health service efforts in order for both those and any science to be successful, with special care being taken to address the immediate health needs of the community first rather than the pressing needs to answer important scientific questions. We will demonstrate how we have simultaneously provided valuable public health service, embedded generalizable scientific knowledge, and built a successful foundation for supplemental CBPR through our on-going recovery work after the chlorine gas disaster in Graniteville, South Carolina. PMID:20439226

  4. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR SAMPLING, RECOVERY, AND ENUMERATION OF BACTERIA APPLIED TO THE PHYLLOPANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining the fate and survival of genetically engineered microorganisms released into the environment requires the development and application of accurate and practical methods of detection and enumeration. everal experiments were performed to examine quantitative recovery met...

  5. The Role of Species Traits in Mediating Functional Recovery during Matrix Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Andrew D.; Emberson, Rowan M.; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Didham, Raphael K.

    2014-01-01

    Reversing anthropogenic impacts on habitat structure is frequently successful through restoration, but the mechanisms linking habitat change, community reassembly and recovery of ecosystem functioning remain unknown. We test for the influence of edge effects and matrix habitat restoration on the reassembly of dung beetle communities and consequent recovery of dung removal rates across tropical forest edges. Using path modelling, we disentangle the relative importance of community-weighted trait means and functional trait dispersion from total biomass effects on rates of dung removal. Community trait composition and biomass of dung beetle communities responded divergently to edge effects and matrix habitat restoration, yielding opposing effects on dung removal. However, functional dispersion—used in this study as a measure of niche complementarity—did not explain a significant amount of variation in dung removal rates across habitat edges. Instead, we demonstrate that the path to functional recovery of these altered ecosystems depends on the trait-mean composition of reassembling communities, over and above purely biomass-dependent processes that would be expected under neutral theory. These results suggest that any ability to manage functional recovery of ecosystems during habitat restoration will demand knowledge of species' roles in ecosystem processes. PMID:25502448

  6. Ryk controls remapping of motor cortex during functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Edmund R; Ishiko, Nao; Yu, Ting; Lu, Chin-Chun; Haimovich, Ariela; Tolentino, Kristine; Richman, Alisha; Tury, Anna; Wang, Shih-Hsiu; Pessian, Maysam; Jo, Euna; Kolodkin, Alex; Zou, Yimin

    2016-05-01

    Limited functional recovery can be achieved through rehabilitation after incomplete spinal cord injury. Eliminating the function of a repulsive Wnt receptor, Ryk, in mice and rats by either conditional knockout in the motor cortex or monoclonal antibody infusion resulted in increased corticospinal axon collateral branches with presynaptic puncta in the spinal cord and enhanced recovery of forelimb reaching and grasping function following a cervical dorsal column lesion. Using optical stimulation, we observed that motor cortical output maps underwent massive changes after injury and that hindlimb cortical areas were recruited to control the forelimb over time. Furthermore, a greater cortical area was dedicated to controlling the forelimb in Ryk conditional knockout mice than in controls (wild-type or heterozygotes). In the absence of weekly task-specific training, recruitment of ectopic cortical areas was greatly reduced and there was no significant functional recovery even in Ryk conditional knockout mice. Our study provides evidence that maximal circuit reorganization and functional recovery can be achieved by combining molecular manipulation and targeted rehabilitation. PMID:27065364

  7. A meta-analysis of functional group responses to forest recovery outside of the tropics.

    PubMed

    Spake, Rebecca; Ezard, Thomas H G; Martin, Philip A; Newton, Adrian C; Doncaster, C Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Both active and passive forest restoration schemes are used in degraded landscapes across the world to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Restoration is increasingly also being implemented in biodiversity offset schemes as compensation for loss of natural habitat to anthropogenic development. This has raised concerns about the value of replacing old-growth forest with plantations, motivating research on biodiversity recovery as forest stands age. Functional diversity is now advocated as a key metric for restoration success, yet it has received little analytical attention to date. We conducted a meta-analysis of 90 studies that measured differences in species richness for functional groups of fungi, lichens, and beetles between old-growth control and planted or secondary treatment forests in temperate, boreal, and Mediterranean regions. We identified functional-group-specific relationships in the response of species richness to stand age after forest disturbance. Ectomycorrhizal fungi averaged 90 years for recovery to old-growth values (between 45 years and unrecoverable at 95% prediction limits), and epiphytic lichens took 180 years to reach 90% of old-growth values (between 140 years and never for recovery to old-growth values at 95% prediction limits). Non-saproxylic beetle richness, in contrast, decreased as stand age of broadleaved forests increased. The slow recovery by some functional groups essential to ecosystem functioning makes old-growth forest an effectively irreplaceable biodiversity resource that should be exempt from biodiversity offsetting initiatives. PMID:26040756

  8. Review of statistical methods used in enhanced-oil-recovery research and performance prediction. [131 references

    SciTech Connect

    Selvidge, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    Recent literature in the field of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) was surveyed to determine the extent to which researchers in EOR take advantage of statistical techniques in analyzing their data. In addition to determining the current level of reliance on statistical tools, another objective of this study is to promote by example the greater use of these tools. To serve this objective, the discussion of the techniques highlights the observed trend toward the use of increasingly more sophisticated methods and points out the strengths and pitfalls of different approaches. Several examples are also given of opportunities for extending EOR research findings by additional statistical manipulation. The search of the EOR literature, conducted mainly through computerized data bases, yielded nearly 200 articles containing mathematical analysis of the research. Of these, 21 were found to include examples of statistical approaches to data analysis and are discussed in detail in this review. The use of statistical techniques, as might be expected from their general purpose nature, extends across nearly all types of EOR research covering thermal methods of recovery, miscible processes, and micellar polymer floods. Data come from field tests, the laboratory, and computer simulation. The statistical methods range from simple comparisons of mean values to multiple non-linear regression equations and to probabilistic decision functions. The methods are applied to both engineering and economic data. The results of the survey are grouped by statistical technique and include brief descriptions of each of the 21 relevant papers. Complete abstracts of the papers are included in the bibliography. Brief bibliographic information (without abstracts) is also given for the articles identified in the initial search as containing mathematical analyses using other than statistical methods.

  9. Enhanced oil recovery with hydrophobically associating polymers containing n-vinyl-pyrrolidone functionality

    SciTech Connect

    Bridgewater, J.B.; Pace, S.J.; Gardner, G.; Schulz, D.N.

    1987-12-01

    This invention relates to a method for enhanced recovery of petroleum from a subterranean oil-bearing formation. More particularly, this invention relates to secondary or tertiary recovery of oil employing a polymer-thickened aqueous drive fluid. The polymeric viscosifier for the drive fluid is selected from a class of hydrophobically associating, water soluble polymers containing one or more water soluble monomers and a water insoluble monomer group. The water soluble groups are acrylamide and a salt of acrylic acid and the water insoluble group is a higher alkylacrylamide. These polymers, when dissolved in an aqueous brine solution, have the ability to substantially increase the viscosity of the aqueous solution. The control of displacement fluid mobility results in more uniform sweep efficiency and improved oil recovery. In addition, aqueous solutions of these hydrophobically associating polymers exhibit enhanced viscosification, reduced salt sensitivity and other desirable rheological properties found useful in chemically enhanced oil recovery processes.

  10. Integrated Treatment to Achieve Functional Recovery for First-Episode Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Marcelo; Juarez, Francisco; Ortega, Hector

    2012-01-01

    This study describes an integrated treatment approach that was implemented to enhance functional recovery in first-episode psychotic patients. Patients were randomized to two treatment conditions: either to an integrated treatment approach: pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatment, and psychoeducation (experimental group: N = 39) or to medication alone (control group: N = 34). Patients were evaluated at baseline and after one year of treatment. Functional recovery was assessed according to symptomatic and functional remission. At the end of treatment, experimental patients showed a 94.9% of symptomatic remission compared to 58.8% of the control group. Functional remission was 56.4% for the experimental group and 3.6% for the control group, while 56.4% of the experimental group met both symptomatic and functional remission criteria and were considered recovered compared to 2.9% of the control group. PMID:22970366

  11. Primed Physical Therapy Enhances Recovery of Upper Limb Function in Chronic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Ackerley, Suzanne J; Byblow, Winston D; Barber, P Alan; MacDonald, Hayley; McIntyre-Robinson, Andrew; Stinear, Cathy M

    2016-05-01

    Background Recovery of upper limb function is important for regaining independence after stroke.Objective To test the effects of priming upper limb physical therapy with intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), a form of noninvasive brain stimulation.Methods Eighteen adults with first-ever chronic monohemispheric subcortical stroke participated in this randomized, controlled, triple-blinded trial. Intervention consisted of priming with real or sham iTBS to the ipsilesional primary motor cortex immediately before 45 minutes of upper limb physical therapy, daily for 10 days. Changes in upper limb function (Action Research Arm Test [ARAT]), upper limb impairment (Fugl-Meyer Scale), and corticomotor excitability, were assessed before, during, and immediately, 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Functional magnetic resonance images were acquired before and at one month after the intervention.Results Improvements in ARAT were observed after the intervention period when therapy was primed with real iTBS, but not sham, and were maintained at 1 month. These improvements were not apparent halfway through the intervention, indicating a dose effect. Improvements in ARAT at 1 month were related to balancing of corticomotor excitability and an increase in ipsilesional premotor cortex activation during paretic hand grip.Conclusions Two weeks of iTBS-primed therapy improves upper limb function at the chronic stage of stroke, for at least 1 month postintervention, whereas therapy alone may not be sufficient to alter function. This indicates a potential role for iTBS as an adjuvant to therapy delivered at the chronic stage. PMID:26180053

  12. A brain-computer interface to support functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, Troels W; Sørensen, Helge B

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) register changes in brain activity and utilize this to control computers. The most widely used method is based on registration of electrical signals from the cerebral cortex using extracranially placed electrodes also called electroencephalography (EEG). The features extracted from the EEG may, besides controlling the computer, also be fed back to the patient for instance as visual input. This facilitates a learning process. BCI allow us to utilize brain activity in the rehabilitation of patients after stroke. The activity of the cerebral cortex varies with the type of movement we imagine, and by letting the patient know the type of brain activity best associated with the intended movement the rehabilitation process may be faster and more efficient. The focus of BCI utilization in medicine has changed in recent years. While we previously focused on devices facilitating communication in the rather few patients with locked-in syndrome, much interest is now devoted to the therapeutic use of BCI in rehabilitation. For this latter group of patients, the device is not intended to be a lifelong assistive companion but rather a 'teacher' during the rehabilitation period. PMID:23859968

  13. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Patterns Predict Consciousness Level and Recovery Outcome in Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xuehai; Zou, Qihong; Hu, Jin; Tang, Weijun; Mao, Ying; Gao, Liang; Zhu, Jianhong; Jin, Yi; Wu, Xin; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Yaojun; Zhang, Yao; Dai, Zhengjia; Gao, Jia-Hong; Weng, Xuchu; Northoff, Georg; Giacino, Joseph T.; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    For accurate diagnosis and prognostic prediction of acquired brain injury (ABI), it is crucial to understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying loss of consciousness. However, there is no consensus on which regions and networks act as biomarkers for consciousness level and recovery outcome in ABI. Using resting-state fMRI, we assessed intrinsic functional connectivity strength (FCS) of whole-brain networks in a large sample of 99 ABI patients with varying degrees of consciousness loss (including fully preserved consciousness state, minimally conscious state, unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state, and coma) and 34 healthy control subjects. Consciousness level was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Scale and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised on the day of fMRI scanning; recovery outcome was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale 3 months after the fMRI scanning. One-way ANOVA of FCS, Spearman correlation analyses between FCS and the consciousness level and recovery outcome, and FCS-based multivariate pattern analysis were performed. We found decreased FCS with loss of consciousness primarily distributed in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCU), medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral parietal cortex. The FCS values of these regions were significantly correlated with consciousness level and recovery outcome. Multivariate support vector machine discrimination analysis revealed that the FCS patterns predicted whether patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state and coma would regain consciousness with an accuracy of 81.25%, and the most discriminative region was the PCC/PCU. These findings suggest that intrinsic functional connectivity patterns of the human posteromedial cortex could serve as a potential indicator for consciousness level and recovery outcome in individuals with ABI. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Varying degrees of consciousness loss and recovery are commonly observed in acquired brain injury patients, yet the

  14. Functional recovery after cervical spinal cord injury: Role of neurotrophin and glutamatergic signaling in phrenic motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Gill, Luther C; Gransee, Heather M; Sieck, Gary C; Mantilla, Carlos B

    2016-06-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) interrupts descending neural drive to phrenic motoneurons causing diaphragm muscle (DIAm) paralysis. Recent studies using a well-established model of SCI, unilateral spinal hemisection of the C2 segment of the cervical spinal cord (SH), provide novel information regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of functional recovery after SCI. Over time post-SH, gradual recovery of rhythmic ipsilateral DIAm activity occurs. Recovery of ipsilateral DIAm electromyogram (EMG) activity following SH is enhanced by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the region of the phrenic motoneuron pool. Delivery of exogenous BDNF either via intrathecal infusion or via mesenchymal stem cells engineered to release BDNF similarly enhance recovery. Conversely, recovery after SH is blunted by quenching endogenous BDNF with the fusion-protein TrkB-Fc in the region of the phrenic motoneuron pool or by selective inhibition of TrkB kinase activity using a chemical-genetic approach in TrkB(F616A) mice. Furthermore, the importance of BDNF signaling via TrkB receptors at phrenic motoneurons is highlighted by the blunting of recovery by siRNA-mediated downregulation of TrkB receptor expression in phrenic motoneurons and by the enhancement of recovery evident following virally-induced increases in TrkB expression specifically in phrenic motoneurons. BDNF/TrkB signaling regulates synaptic plasticity in various neuronal systems, including glutamatergic pathways. Glutamatergic neurotransmission constitutes the main inspiratory-related, excitatory drive to motoneurons, and following SH, spontaneous neuroplasticity is associated with increased expression of ionotropic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in phrenic motoneurons. Evidence for the role of BDNF/TrkB and glutamatergic signaling in recovery of DIAm activity following cervical SCI is reviewed. PMID:26506253

  15. Evaluation of Methods for Sampling, Recovery, and Enumeration of Bacteria Applied to the Phylloplane

    PubMed Central

    Donegan, Katherine; Matyac, Carl; Seidler, Ramon; Porteous, Arlene

    1991-01-01

    Determining the fate and survival of genetically engineered microorganisms released into the environment requires the development and application of accurate and practical methods of detection and enumeration. Several experiments were performed to examine quantitative recovery methods that are commonly used or that have potential applications. In these experiments, Erwinia herbicola and Enterobacter cloacae were applied in greenhouses to Blue Lake bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Cayuse oats (Avena sativa). Sampling indicated that the variance in bacterial counts among leaves increased over time and that this increase caused an overestimation of the mean population size by bulk leaf samples relative to single leaf samples. An increase in the number of leaves in a bulk sample, above a minimum number, did not significantly reduce the variance between samples. Experiments evaluating recovery methods demonstrated that recovery of bacteria from leaves was significantly better with stomacher blending, than with blending, sonication, or washing and that the recovery efficiency was constant over a range of sample inoculum densities. Delayed processing of leaf samples, by storage in a freezer, did not significantly lower survival and recovery of microorganisms when storage was short term and leaves were not stored in buffer. The drop plate technique for enumeration of bacteria did not significantly differ from the spread plate method. Results of these sampling, recovery, and enumeration experiments indicate a need for increased development and standardization of methods used by researchers as there are significant differences among, and also important limitations to, some of the methods used. PMID:16348404

  16. Investigating Methods of Heat Recovery from Low-Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in CHP Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    Heat recovery from low-temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells poses a number of challenges. In response to these challenges, thermodynamic assessments of proposed heat recovery methods are studied in the context of combined heat and power (CHP) for building applications. Preheating combustion air in conjunction with desiccant dehumidification and absorption cooling technologies is one of the two strategies examined in this study. The other approach integrates the PEM fuel cell with a water-loop heat pump (WLHP) for direct heat recovery. As the primary objective, energy-saving potentials of the adopted heat recovery strategies are estimated with respect to various benchmarks. The quantified energy-saving potentials are translated into effective CHP performance indices and compared with those typically specified by the manufacturers for service hot water applications. The need for developing CHP performance protocols is also discussed in light of the proposed energy recovery techniques - thereby, accomplishing the secondary objective.

  17. The Crossed Phrenic Phenomenon and Recovery of Function Following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Goshgarian, Harry G.

    2009-01-01

    This review will focus on neural plasticity and recovery of respiratory function after spinal cord injury and feature the “crossed phrenic phenomenon” (CPP) as a model for demonstrating such plasticity and recovery. A very brief summary of the earlier literature on the CPP will be followed by a more detailed review of the more recent studies. Two aspects of plasticity associated with the CPP that have been introduced in the literature recently have been spontaneous recovery of ipsilateral hemidiaphragmatic function following chronic spinal cord injury and drug-induced persistent recovery of the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm lasting long after animals have been weaned from drug treatment. The underlying mechanisms for this plasticity and resultant recovery will be discussed in this review. Moreover, two new models involving the CPP have been introduced: a mouse model which now provides for an opportunity to study CPP plasticity at a molecular level using a genetic approach and light-stimulated induction of the CPP accomplished by transfecting mammalian cells with channelrhodopsin. Both models provide an opportunity to sort out the intracellular signaling cascades that may be involved in motor recovery in the respiratory system after spinal cord injury. Finally, the review will examine developmental plasticity of the CPP and discuss how the expression of the CPP changes in neonatal rats as they mature to adults. Understanding the underlying mechanisms behind the spontaneous expression of the crossed phrenic pathway either in the developing animal or after chronic spinal cord injury in the adult animal may provide clues to initiating respiratory recovery sooner to alleviate human suffering and eventually eliminate the leading cause of death in human cases of spinal cord injury. PMID:19539790

  18. Reorganization of Functional Connectivity as a Correlate of Cognitive Recovery in Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Paul, Nuria; Ordonez, Victoria E.; Demuynck, Olivier; Bajo, Ricardo; Campo, Pablo; Bilbao, Alvaro; Ortiz, Tomas; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestu, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive processes require a functional interaction between specialized multiple, local and remote brain regions. Although these interactions can be strongly altered by an acquired brain injury, brain plasticity allows network reorganization to be principally responsible for recovery. The present work evaluates the impact of brain injury on…

  19. A meta‐analysis of functional group responses to forest recovery outside of the tropics

    PubMed Central

    Ezard, Thomas H. G.; Martin, Philip A.; Newton, Adrian C.; Doncaster, C. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Both active and passive forest restoration schemes are used in degraded landscapes across the world to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Restoration is increasingly also being implemented in biodiversity offset schemes as compensation for loss of natural habitat to anthropogenic development. This has raised concerns about the value of replacing old‐growth forest with plantations, motivating research on biodiversity recovery as forest stands age. Functional diversity is now advocated as a key metric for restoration success, yet it has received little analytical attention to date. We conducted a meta‐analysis of 90 studies that measured differences in species richness for functional groups of fungi, lichens, and beetles between old‐growth control and planted or secondary treatment forests in temperate, boreal, and Mediterranean regions. We identified functional‐group–specific relationships in the response of species richness to stand age after forest disturbance. Ectomycorrhizal fungi averaged 90 years for recovery to old‐growth values (between 45 years and unrecoverable at 95% prediction limits), and epiphytic lichens took 180 years to reach 90% of old‐growth values (between 140 years and never for recovery to old‐growth values at 95% prediction limits). Non‐saproxylic beetle richness, in contrast, decreased as stand age of broadleaved forests increased. The slow recovery by some functional groups essential to ecosystem functioning makes old‐growth forest an effectively irreplaceable biodiversity resource that should be exempt from biodiversity offsetting initiatives. PMID:26040756

  20. 3 CFR - Assignment of Reporting Function Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignment of Reporting Function Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of May... by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3,...

  1. Recruitment of Polysynaptic Connections Underlies Functional Recovery of a Neural Circuit after Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Tamvacakis, Arianna N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The recruitment of additional neurons to neural circuits often occurs in accordance with changing functional demands. Here we found that synaptic recruitment plays a key role in functional recovery after neural injury. Disconnection of a brain commissure in the nudibranch mollusc, Tritonia diomedea, impairs swimming behavior by eliminating particular synapses in the central pattern generator (CPG) underlying the rhythmic swim motor pattern. However, the CPG functionally recovers within a day after the lesion. The strength of a spared inhibitory synapse within the CPG from Cerebral Neuron 2 (C2) to Ventral Swim Interneuron B (VSI) determines the level of impairment caused by the lesion, which varies among individuals. In addition to this direct synaptic connection, there are polysynaptic connections from C2 and Dorsal Swim Interneurons to VSI that provide indirect excitatory drive but play only minor roles under normal conditions. After disconnecting the pedal commissure (Pedal Nerve 6), the recruitment of polysynaptic excitation became a major source of the excitatory drive to VSI. Moreover, the amount of polysynaptic recruitment, which changed over time, differed among individuals and correlated with the degree of recovery of the swim motor pattern. Thus, functional recovery was mediated by an increase in the magnitude of polysynaptic excitatory drive, compensating for the loss of direct excitation. Since the degree of susceptibility to injury corresponds to existing individual variation in the C2 to VSI synapse, the recovery relied upon the extent to which the network reorganized to incorporate additional synapses. PMID:27570828

  2. Recruitment of Polysynaptic Connections Underlies Functional Recovery of a Neural Circuit after Lesion.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Akira; Tamvacakis, Arianna N; Katz, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    The recruitment of additional neurons to neural circuits often occurs in accordance with changing functional demands. Here we found that synaptic recruitment plays a key role in functional recovery after neural injury. Disconnection of a brain commissure in the nudibranch mollusc, Tritonia diomedea, impairs swimming behavior by eliminating particular synapses in the central pattern generator (CPG) underlying the rhythmic swim motor pattern. However, the CPG functionally recovers within a day after the lesion. The strength of a spared inhibitory synapse within the CPG from Cerebral Neuron 2 (C2) to Ventral Swim Interneuron B (VSI) determines the level of impairment caused by the lesion, which varies among individuals. In addition to this direct synaptic connection, there are polysynaptic connections from C2 and Dorsal Swim Interneurons to VSI that provide indirect excitatory drive but play only minor roles under normal conditions. After disconnecting the pedal commissure (Pedal Nerve 6), the recruitment of polysynaptic excitation became a major source of the excitatory drive to VSI. Moreover, the amount of polysynaptic recruitment, which changed over time, differed among individuals and correlated with the degree of recovery of the swim motor pattern. Thus, functional recovery was mediated by an increase in the magnitude of polysynaptic excitatory drive, compensating for the loss of direct excitation. Since the degree of susceptibility to injury corresponds to existing individual variation in the C2 to VSI synapse, the recovery relied upon the extent to which the network reorganized to incorporate additional synapses. PMID:27570828

  3. Recovery of Olfactory Function in Postviral Olfactory Dysfunction Patients after Acupuncture Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Qi; Pang, Zhihui; Yu, Hongmeng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of traditional Chinese acupuncture (TCA) in postviral olfactory dysfunction (PVOD) patients who were refractory to standardized treatment and to compare the results with the impact observed in an observation group. Methods. Fifty patients who presented to the outpatient clinic with PVOD and were refractory to standardized treatment were included: 25 were treated with TCA and 25 patients were simply observed. A subjective olfactory test was performed using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). The effects of TCA were compared with the results obtained in the observation group. Results. Improved olfactory function was observed in eleven patients treated with TCA compared with four patients in the observation group. This study revealed significantly improved olfactory function outcomes in patients who underwent acupuncture compared with the observation group. No significant differences in olfaction recovery were found according to age, gender, or duration of disease between the two groups; however, hyposmic patients recovered at a higher rate than anosmic patients. Conclusion. TCA may aid the treatment of PVOD patients who are refractory to drugs or other therapies. PMID:27034689

  4. An expert system for screening enhanced oil recovery methods

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W.J. ); Luger, G.F. . Dept. of Computer Science); Bretz, R.E.; Osowski, J.J. . Dept. of Petroleum Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how a small expert system can be written with inexpensive shells (CLIPS and EXSHELL) and run on inexpensive personal computers. CLIPS is a forward-chaining rule-based system written in the C language. Rules are entered in a LISP-like format. EXSHELL is a backward-chaining rule-based system written in the PROLOG language. These shells were used to write a small expert system, an expert assistant, which is used to help petroleum engineers screen possible enhanced oil recovery candidate processes. Though the final candidate process is selected on the basis of an economic evaluation, the expert assistant greatly reduces the amount of work involved. The system selects the optimal collection of paths to the solutions and is easily updated as new data become available. This paper also demonstrates the utility and ease of use of these inexpensive shells, compares the approach used by each, and demonstrates the relative advantages of forward-chaining versus backward-chaining for this problem. 11 refs.

  5. Influence of Sexuality in Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Soltani, Bahram; Babaei, Parvin; Mashhadinezhad, Hossein; Ghadarjani, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major clinical condition and research is commonly done to find suitable treatment options. However, there are some degrees of spontaneous recovery after SCI and gender is said to be a contributing factor in recovery, but this is controversial. This study was done to compare the effects of sexual dimorphism on spontaneous recovery after spinal cord injury in Wistar Rats. Methods: Spinal cord lesions were made by compressing the cord at T9 level and making a spinal cord contusion. Routine care of each rat was done daily. The LSS scoring system was used to measure the locomotion of these rats and to compare the recovery rate between male and female rats. Results: The results suggested that there was no significant difference between the two sex in recovery. Conclusions: To be female does not seem to be a prognostic factor for recovery after SCI. However, this preliminary study should be repeated in other animals and in larger cohorts. PMID:26894220

  6. Organism-Sediment Interactions Govern Post-Hypoxia Recovery of Ecosystem Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Van Colen, Carl; Rossi, Francesca; Montserrat, Francesc; Andersson, Maria G. I.; Gribsholt, Britta; Herman, Peter M. J.; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda; Ysebaert, Tom; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia represents one of the major causes of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning loss for coastal waters. Since eutrophication-induced hypoxic events are becoming increasingly frequent and intense, understanding the response of ecosystems to hypoxia is of primary importance to understand and predict the stability of ecosystem functioning. Such ecological stability may greatly depend on the recovery patterns of communities and the return time of the system properties associated to these patterns. Here, we have examined how the reassembly of a benthic community contributed to the recovery of ecosystem functioning following experimentally-induced hypoxia in a tidal flat. We demonstrate that organism-sediment interactions that depend on organism size and relate to mobility traits and sediment reworking capacities are generally more important than recovering species richness to set the return time of the measured sediment processes and properties. Specifically, increasing macrofauna bioturbation potential during community reassembly significantly contributed to the recovery of sediment processes and properties such as denitrification, bedload sediment transport, primary production and deep pore water ammonium concentration. Such bioturbation potential was due to the replacement of the small-sized organisms that recolonised at early stages by large-sized bioturbating organisms, which had a disproportionately stronger influence on sediment. This study suggests that the complete recovery of organism-sediment interactions is a necessary condition for ecosystem functioning recovery, and that such process requires long periods after disturbance due to the slow growth of juveniles into adult stages involved in these interactions. Consequently, repeated episodes of disturbance at intervals smaller than the time needed for the system to fully recover organism-sediment interactions may greatly impair the resilience of ecosystem functioning. PMID:23185440

  7. Angiopoietin-1 preconditioning enhances survival and functional recovery of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xian-bao; Chen, Han; Chen, Hui-qiang; Zhu, Mei-fei; Hu, Xin-yang; Wang, Ya-ping; Jiang, Zhi; Xu, Yin-chuan; Xiang, Mei-xiang; Wang, Jian-an

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation is a promising therapy for ischemic heart diseases. However, poor cell survival after transplantation greatly limits the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) preconditioning on MSC survival and subsequent heart function improvement after transplantation. Methods: MSCs were cultured with or without 50 ng/ml Ang1 in complete medium for 24 h prior to experiments on cell survival and transplantation. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Hoechst staining were applied to evaluate MSC survival after serum deprivation in vitro, while cell survival in vivo was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUPT nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay 24 and 72 h after transplantation. Heart function and infarct size were measured four weeks later by small animal echocardiography and Masson’s trichrome staining, respectively. Results: Ang1 preconditioning induced Akt phosphorylation and increased expression of Bcl-2 and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. In comparison with non-preconditioned MSCs, Ang1-preconditioned cell survival was significantly increased while the apoptotic rate decreased in vitro. However, the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor, LY294002, abrogated the protective effect of Ang1 preconditioning. After transplantation, the Ang1-preconditioned-MSC group showed a lower death rate, smaller infarct size, and better heart functional recovery compared to the non-preconditioned-MSC group. Conclusions: Ang1 preconditioning enhances MSC survival, contributing to further improvement of heart function. PMID:22843181

  8. Intramyocardial stem cell injection in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: Functional recovery and reverse remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Adam R.; Trachtenberg, Barry; Velazquez, Darcy L.; McNiece, Ian; Altman, Peter; Rouy, Didier; Mendizabal, Adam M.; Pattany, Pradip M.; Lopera, Gustavo A.; Fishman, Joel; Zambrano, Juan P.; Heldman, Alan W.; Hare, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Transcatheter, intramyocardial injections of bone marrow derived cell therapy produces reverse remodeling in large animal models of ischemic cardiomyopathy. Objective We used cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients with LV dysfunction related to remote myocardial infarction (MI) to test the hypothesis that bone marrow progenitor cell injection cause functional recovery of scarred myocardium and reverse remodeling. Methods and Results Eight patients (age 57.2±13.3) received transendocardial, intramyocardial injection of autologous bone marrow progenitor cells (mononuclear or mesenchymal stem cells) in LV scar and border zone. All patients tolerated the procedure with no serious adverse events. CMR at 1-year demonstrated a decrease in end-diastolic volume (208.7±20.4 vs. 167.4±7.32mL; p=0.03), a trend towards decreased end-systolic volume (142.4±16.5 vs. 107.6±7.4mL; p=0.06), decreased infarct size (p<0.05), and improved regional LV function by peak Ecc in the treated infarct zone (-8.1±1.0 vs. -11.4±1.3; p=0.04). Improvements in regional function were evident at 3 months, while the changes in chamber dimensions were not significant until 6 months. Improved regional function in the infarct zone strongly correlated with reduction of EDV (r2=0.69, p=0.04) and ESV (r2=0.83, p=0.01). Conclusions These data suggest that transcatheter, intramyocardial injections of autologous bone marrow progenitor cells improve regional contractility of a chronic myocardial scar and these changes predict subsequent reverse remodeling. The findings support the potential clinical benefits of this new treatment strategy and ongoing randomized clinical trials. PMID:21415390

  9. Recovery of Vibratory Function After Vocal Fold Microflap in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Tsuyoshi; Mitchell, Joshua R.; Garrett, C. Gaelyn; Rousseau, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The purpose of this study was to evaluate the return of vibratory function and restoration of vibration amplitude and symmetry after vocal fold microflap surgery. Study Design Prospective in vivo animal model. Methods Microflap surgery was performed on 30 New Zealand white breeder rabbits. The left vocal fold received a 3-mm epithelial incision and mucosal elevation, while the contralateral vocal fold was left intact to serve as an internal control. Quantitative analysis of amplitude ratio and lateral phase difference were measured using high-speed laryngeal imaging at a frame rate of 10,000 frames per second from animals undergoing evoked phonation on postoperative days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7. Results Quantitative measures revealed a significantly reduced amplitude ratio and lateral phase difference on day 0 after microflap. These impairments of vibratory function on day 0 were associated with separation of the vocal fold’s bodycover layer. Amplitude ratio increased significantly by day 3 after microflap, with further increases in vibration amplitude on days 5 and 7. While the amplitude ratio improved significantly on day 3, lateral phase difference decreased significantly on day 3, and returned to normal on days 5 and 7. Conclusions High-speed laryngeal imaging was used to investigate the natural time course of postmicroflap recovery of vibratory function. Results revealed the restoration of vibration amplitude and lateral phase difference by days 3 to 7 after microflap. The time period of improved vibratory function observed in this study coincides with the end of the well-documented inflammatory phase of vocal fold wound repair. PMID:23901003

  10. Recovery time course in contractile function of fast and slow skeletal muscle after hindlimb immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzmann, F. A.; Kim, D. H.; Fitts, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to characterize the time course and extent of recovery in the isometric and isotonic contractile properties of fast and slow skeletal muscle following 6 wk of hindlimb immobilization. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to an immobilized group or a control group. The results of the study show that fast and slow skeletal muscles possess the ability to completely recover normal contractile function following 6 wk of hindlimb immobilization. The rate of recovery is dependent on the fiber type composition of the affected muscle.

  11. Comparison of in vivo postexercise phosphocreatine recovery and resting ATP synthesis flux for the assessment of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, N M A; Ciapaite, J; Nicolay, K; Prompers, J J

    2010-11-01

    (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been used to assess skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in vivo by measuring 1) phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery after exercise or 2) resting ATP synthesis flux with saturation transfer (ST). In this study, we compared both parameters in a rat model of mitochondrial dysfunction with the aim of establishing the most appropriate method for the assessment of in vivo muscle mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial dysfunction was induced in adult Wistar rats by daily subcutaneous injections with the complex I inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) for 2 wk. In vivo (31)P MRS measurements were supplemented by in vitro measurements of oxygen consumption in isolated mitochondria. Two weeks of DPI treatment induced mitochondrial dysfunction, as evidenced by a 20% lower maximal ADP-stimulated oxygen consumption rate in isolated mitochondria from DPI-treated rats oxidizing pyruvate plus malate. This was paralleled by a 46% decrease in in vivo oxidative capacity, determined from postexercise PCr recovery. Interestingly, no significant difference in resting, ST-based ATP synthesis flux was observed between DPI-treated rats and controls. These results show that PCr recovery after exercise has a more direct relationship with skeletal muscle mitochondrial function than the ATP synthesis flux measured with (31)P ST MRS in the resting state. PMID:20668212

  12. Resolution of hypophosphatemia is associated with recovery of hepatic function in children with fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Quirós-Tejeira, Rubén E; Molina, Ricardo A; Katzir, Lirona; Lie, Angela; Vargas, Jorge H; Ament, Marvin E; McDiarmid, Sue V; Martín, Martín G

    2005-09-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a rare but often fatal disease in children. Clinical and laboratory predictors of liver regeneration and recovery, however, have not been well established. We hypothesized that hypophosphatemia may indicate recovery of liver synthetic function in children with FHF. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with FHF who were admitted to UCLA and recovered hepatic function either spontaneously or by liver transplantation (LTx). Serum phosphate (Ph) and prothrombin time or international normalized ratio (INR) were compared over the patient's clinical course. Records of 39 children who spontaneously recovered experienced profound hypophosphatemia that resolved as liver synthetic function improved. Similar patterns were seen in the 84 children who recovered after LTx. We found that hypophosphatemia precedes the recovery of liver synthetic function in children with FHF who recovered with or without transplantation, and that Ph levels return to normal as liver synthetic function improves. These data suggest that hypophosphatemia may be a useful laboratory indicator of recovering liver function in children with FHF. PMID:16101727

  13. Omentum-Wrapped Scaffold with Longitudinally Oriented Micro-Channels Promotes Axonal Regeneration and Motor Functional Recovery in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Qing-Song; Zhao, Wei; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2011-01-01

    Background Tissue-engineered nerve scaffolds hold great potential in bridging large peripheral nerve defects. However, insufficient vascularization of nerve scaffolds limited neural tissues survival and regeneration, which hampered the successful implantation and clinical application of nerve scaffolds. The omentum possesses a high vascularization capacity and enhances regeneration and maturation of tissues and constructs to which it is applied. However, combined application of nerve scaffolds and omentum on axonal regeneration and functional recovery in the treatment of large peripheral nerve defects has rarely been investigated thus far. Methods In the present study, an omentum-wrapped collagen-chitosan scaffold was used to bridge a 15-mm-long sciatic nerve defect in rats. Rats that received nerve autografts or scaffolds alone were served as positive control or negative control, respectively. The axonal regeneration and functional recovery were examined by a combination of walking track analysis, electrophysiological assessment, Fluoro-Gold (FG) retrograde tracing, as well as morphometric analyses to both regenerated nerves and target muscles. Findings The results demonstrated that axonal regeneration and functional recovery were in the similar range between the omentum-wrapping group and the autograft group, which were significantly better than those in the scaffold alone group. Further investigation showed that the protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) were significantly higher in the omentum-wrapping group than those in the scaffold alone group in the early weeks after surgery. Conclusion These findings indicate that the omentum-wrapped scaffold is capable of enhancing axonal regeneration and functional recovery, which might be served as a potent alternative to nerve autografts. The beneficial effect of omentum-wrapping on nerve regeneration might be related with the

  14. Defining recovery from an eating disorder: Conceptualization, validation, and examination of psychosocial functioning and psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Harney, Megan B; Maldonado, Christine R; Lawson, Melissa A; Robinson, D Paul; Smith, Roma; Tosh, Aneesh

    2010-03-01

    Conceptually, eating disorder recovery should include physical, behavioral, and psychological components, but such a comprehensive approach has not been consistently employed. Guided by theory and recent recovery research, we identified a "fully recovered" group (n = 20) based on physical (body mass index), behavioral (absence of eating disorder behaviors), and psychological (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire) indices, and compared them with groups of partially recovered (n = 15), active eating disorder (n = 53), and healthy controls (n = 67). The fully recovered group was indistinguishable from controls on all eating disorder-related measures used, while the partially recovered group was less disordered than the active eating disorder group on some measures, but not on body image. Regarding psychosocial functioning, both the fully and partially recovered groups had psychosocial functioning similar to the controls, but there was a pattern of more of the partially recovered group reporting eating disorder aspects interfering with functioning. Regarding other psychopathology, the fully recovered group was no more likely than the controls to experience current Axis I pathology, but they did have elevated rates of current anxiety disorder. Results suggest that a stringent definition of recovery from an eating disorder is meaningful. Clinical implications and future directions regarding defining eating disorder recovery are discussed. PMID:19945094

  15. Defining Recovery from an Eating Disorder: Conceptualization, Validation, and Examination of Psychosocial Functioning and Psychiatric Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Harney, Megan B.; Maldonado, Christine R.; Lawson, Melissa A.; Robinson, D. Paul; Smith, Roma; Tosh, Aneesh

    2009-01-01

    Conceptually, eating disorder recovery should include physical, behavioral, and psychological components, but such a comprehensive approach has not been consistently employed. Guided by theory and recent recovery research, we identified a “fully recovered” group (n=20) based on physical (body mass index), behavioral (absence of eating disorder behaviors), and psychological (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire) indices, and compared them with groups of partially recovered (n=15), active eating disorder (n=53), and healthy controls (n=67). The fully recovered group was indistinguishable from controls on all eating disorder-related measures used, while the partially recovered group was less disordered than the active eating disorder group on some measures, but not on body image. Regarding psychosocial functioning, both the fully and partially recovered groups had psychosocial functioning similar to the controls, but there was a pattern of more of the partially recovered group reporting eating disorder aspects interfering with functioning. Regarding other psychopathology, the fully recovered group was no more likely than the controls to experience current Axis I pathology, but they did have elevated rates of current anxiety disorder. Results suggest that a stringent definition of recovery from an eating disorder is meaningful. Clinical implications and future directions regarding defining eating disorder recovery are discussed. PMID:19945094

  16. GDF10 Is a Signal for Axonal Sprouting and Functional Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, S; Nie, EH; Yin, Y; Benowitz, LI; Tung, S; Vinters, HV; Bahjat, FR; Stenzel-Poore, MP; Kawaguchi, R; Coppola, G; Carmichael, ST

    2016-01-01

    Stroke produces a limited process of neural repair. Axonal sprouting in cortex adjacent to the infarct is part of this recovery process, but the signal that initiates axonal sprouting is not known. Growth and Differentiation Factor 10 (GDF10) is induced in peri-infarct neurons in mouse, non-human primate and human. GDF10 promotes axonal outgrowth in vitro in mouse, rat and human neurons through TGFβRI/II signaling. Using pharmacogenetic gain and loss of function studies, GDF10 produces axonal sprouting and enhanced functional recovery after stroke; knocking down GDF10 blocks axonal sprouting and reduces recovery. RNA-seq from peri-infarct cortical neurons indicates that GDF10 downregulates PTEN and upregulates PI3 kinase signaling and induces specific axonal guidance molecules. Unsupervised genome-wide association analysis of the GDF10 transcriptome shows that it is not related to neurodevelopment but may partially overlap with other CNS injury patterns. GDF10 is a stroke-induced signal for axonal sprouting and functional recovery. PMID:26502261

  17. Hand motor recovery after stroke: tuning the orchestra to improve hand motor function.

    PubMed

    Fregni, Felipe; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2006-03-01

    The motor deficits after stroke are not only the manifestation of the injured brain region, but rather the expression of the ability of the rest of the brain to maintain function. After a lesion in the primary motor cortex, parallel motor circuits might be activated to generate some alternative input to the spinal motoneurons. These parallel circuits may originate from areas such as the contralateral, undamaged primary motor area, bilateral premotor areas, bilateral supplementary motor areas, bilateral somatosensory areas, cerebellum, and basal ganglia. Most importantly, the efferent, cortico-spinal output pathways must be preserved for a desired behavioral result. Most of the recovery of function after a stroke may represent actual relearning of the skills with the injured brain. The main neural mechanisms underlying this relearning process after stroke involve shifts of distributed contributions across a specific neural network (fundamentally the network engaged in skill learning in the healthy). If these notions are indeed correct, then neuromodulatory approaches, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, targeting these parallel circuits might be useful to limit injury and promote recovery after a stroke. This paper reviews the stroke characteristics that can predict a good recovery and compensations across brain areas that can be implemented after a stroke to accelerate motor function recovery. PMID:16633016

  18. Interaction between Vestibular Compensation Mechanisms and Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy: 10 Recommendations for Optimal Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Lacour, Michel; Bernard-Demanze, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    This review questions the relationships between the plastic events responsible for the recovery of vestibular function after a unilateral vestibular loss (vestibular compensation), which has been well described in animal models in the last decades, and the vestibular rehabilitation (VR) therapy elaborated on a more empirical basis for vestibular loss patients. The main objective is not to propose a catalog of results but to provide clinicians with an understandable view on when and how to perform VR therapy, and why VR may benefit from basic knowledge and may influence the recovery process. With this perspective, 10 major recommendations are proposed as ways to identify an optimal functional recovery. Among them are the crucial role of active and early VR therapy, coincidental with a post-lesion sensitive period for neuronal network remodeling, the instructive role that VR therapy may play in this functional reorganization, the need for progression in the VR therapy protocol, which is based mainly on adaptation processes, the necessity to take into account the sensorimotor, cognitive, and emotional profile of the patient to propose individual or “à la carte” VR therapies, and the importance of motivational and ecologic contexts. More than 10 general principles are very likely, but these principles seem crucial for the fast recovery of vestibular loss patients to ensure good quality of life. PMID:25610424

  19. Viewing Nature Scenes Positively Affects Recovery of Autonomic Function Following Acute-Mental Stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor. PMID:23590163

  20. Boundary treatment for the Recovery discontinuous Galerkin method with application to the Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Philip; Johnsen, Eric

    2015-11-01

    The Recovery discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is a highly accurate approach to computing diffusion problems, which achieves up to 3p+2 convergence rates on Cartesian cells, where p is the order of the polynomial basis. Based on the construction of a unique and differentiable solution across cell interfaces, Recovery DG has mostly been investigated on periodic domains. However, whether such accuracy can be sustained for Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions has not been thoroughly explored. We present boundary treatments for Recovery DG on 2D Cartesian geometry that exhibit up to 3p+2 convergence rates and are stable. We demonstrate the efficiency of Recovery DG in context with other commonly used approaches using scalar shear diffusion problems and apply it to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The extension of the method to perturbed quadrilateral cells, rather than Cartesian, will also be discussed.

  1. EVALUATION OF A CRYPTOSPORIDIUM INTERNAL STANDARD FOR DETERMINING RECOVERY WITH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY METHOD 1623

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current benchmark method for detecting Cryptosporidium oocysts in water is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Method 1623. Studies evaluating this method report that recoveries are highly variable and dependent upon laboratory, water sample, and analyst. Ther...

  2. Role of the Contralesional Hemisphere in Post-Stroke Recovery of Upper Extremity Motor Function

    PubMed Central

    Buetefisch, Cathrin M.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of optimal treatment strategies to improve recovery is limited by the incomplete understanding of the neurobiological principles of recovery. Motor cortex (M1) reorganization of the lesioned hemisphere (ipsilesional M1) plays a major role in post-stroke motor recovery and is a primary target for rehabilitation therapy. Reorganization of M1 in the hemisphere contralateral to the stroke (contralesional M1) may, however, serve as an additional source of cortical reorganization and related recovery. The extent and outcome of such reorganization depends on many factors, including lesion size and time since stroke. In the chronic phase post-stroke, contralesional M1 seems to interfere with motor function of the paretic limb in a subset of patients, possibly through abnormally increased inhibition of lesioned M1 by the contralesional M1. In such patients, decreasing contralesional M1 excitability by cortical stimulation results in improved performance of the paretic limb. However, emerging evidence suggests a potentially supportive role of contralesional M1. After infarction of M1 or its corticospinal projections, there is abnormally increased excitatory neural activity and activation in contralesional M1 that correlates with favorable motor recovery. Decreasing contralesional M1 excitability in these patients may result in deterioration of paretic limb performance. In animal stroke models, reorganizational changes in contralesional M1 depend on the lesion size and rehabilitation treatment and include long-term changes in neurotransmitter systems, dendritic growth, and synapse formation. While there is, therefore, some evidence that activity in contralesional M1 will impact the extent of motor function of the paretic limb in the subacute and chronic phase post-stroke and may serve as a new target for rehabilitation treatment strategies, the precise factors that specifically influence its role in the recovery process remain to be defined. PMID:26528236

  3. E2F4 Promotes Neuronal Regeneration and Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Sasagawa, Shota; Nishimura, Yuhei; Hayakawa, Yuka; Murakami, Soichiro; Ashikawa, Yoshifumi; Yuge, Mizuki; Okabe, Shiko; Kawaguchi, Koki; Kawase, Reiko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Mammals exhibit poor recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI), whereas non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit significant spontaneous recovery after SCI. The mechanisms underlying this difference have not been fully elucidated; therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate these mechanisms. Using comparative transcriptome analysis, we demonstrated that genes related to cell cycle were significantly enriched in the genes specifically dysregulated in zebrafish SCI. Most of the cell cycle-related genes dysregulated in zebrafish SCI were down-regulated, possibly through activation of e2f4. Using a larval zebrafish model of SCI, we demonstrated that the recovery of locomotive function and neuronal regeneration after SCI were significantly inhibited in zebrafish treated with an E2F4 inhibitor. These results suggest that activation of e2f4 after SCI may be responsible, at least in part, for the significant recovery in zebrafish. This provides novel insight into the lack of recovery after SCI in mammals and informs potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:27242526

  4. IMPROVED METHOD FOR RECOVERY OF ENTERIC VIRUSES FROM WASTEWATER SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various parameters involved in recovering indigenous enteric viruses from wastewater sludges aided by buffered beef extract elution and subsequent organic flocculation concentration were examined. Conditions were optimized to yield an overall effective method for use in environme...

  5. Fluoxetine treatment promotes functional recovery in a rat model of cervical spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Scali, Manuela; Begenisic, Tatjana; Mainardi, Marco; Milanese, Marco; Bonifacino, Tiziana; Bonanno, Giambattista; Sale, Alessandro; Maffei, Lamberto

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe condition leading to enduring motor deficits. When lesions are incomplete, promoting spinal cord plasticity might be a useful strategy to elicit functional recovery. Here we investigated whether long-term fluoxetine administration in the drinking water, a treatment recently demonstrated to optimize brain plasticity in several pathological conditions, promotes motor recovery in rats that received a C4 dorsal funiculus crush. We show that fluoxetine administration markedly improved motor functions compared to controls in several behavioral paradigms. The improved functional effects correlated positively with significant sprouting of intact corticospinal fibers and a modulation of the excitation/inhibition balance. Our results suggest a potential application of fluoxetine treatment as a non invasive therapeutic strategy for SCI-associated neuropathologies. PMID:23860568

  6. Advanced magnetic resonance neuroimaging of language function recovery after aphasic stroke: a technical review.

    PubMed

    Smits, Marion; Visch-Brink, Evy G; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke E; van der Lugt, Aad

    2012-01-01

    Two advanced magnetic resonance neuroimaging techniques, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have recently made their way into clinically oriented research and hold great promise to study the brain's adaptive changes of function and structure after aphasic stroke, respectively. Such functional and structural neuroplasticity is thought to underlie the recovery of language function, occurring spontaneously and/or in the context of therapeutic intervention. With fMRI, brain activity can be visualized. Spontaneous brain activity, present in multiple brain networks, is measured with resting-state fMRI and language-related brain activity by having the subject perform a language task during scanning (task-based fMRI). With DTI the major white matter tracts, such as the dorsal and ventral language pathways and the commissural fibers, can be visualized and quantified. Both techniques are entirely noninvasive and thus offer the unique opportunity to perform multiple assessments within the same subject. To gain more insight in functional and structural neuroplasticity after aphasic stroke, advanced magnetic resonance neuroimaging studies in specific patient populations, at several stages after stroke and in the course of language recovery, are needed. Such studies will help to clarify the influence of the many factors that play a role in the recovery of language function and are thus vital to further the development of aphasia therapy. Application of these techniques in aphasic stroke patients, however, is not without challenge. The purpose of this article is to discuss the methodologic challenges of fMRI and DTI in the assessment of language recovery after aphasic stroke. PMID:22202190

  7. Mechanisms of recovery of visual function in adult amblyopia through a tailored action video game.

    PubMed

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Nahum, Mor; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2015-01-01

    Amblyopia is a deficit in vision that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. It was long thought to develop into a permanent deficit, unless properly treated before the end of the sensitive period for visual recovery. However, a number of studies now suggest that adults with long-standing amblyopia may at least partially recover visual acuity and stereopsis following perceptual training. Eliminating or reducing interocular suppression has been hypothesized to be at the root of these changes. Here we show that playing a novel dichoptic video game indeed results in reduced suppression, improved visual acuity and, in some cases, improved stereopsis. Our relatively large cohort of adults with amblyopia, allowed us, for the first time, to assess the link between visual function recovery and reduction in suppression. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was found between decreased suppression and improved visual function. This finding challenges the prevailing view and suggests that while dichoptic training improves visual acuity and stereopsis in adult amblyopia, reduced suppression is unlikely to be at the root of visual recovery. These results are discussed in the context of their implication on recovery of amblyopia in adults. PMID:25719537

  8. Mechanisms of recovery of visual function in adult amblyopia through a tailored action video game

    PubMed Central

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Nahum, Mor; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    Amblyopia is a deficit in vision that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. It was long thought to develop into a permanent deficit, unless properly treated before the end of the sensitive period for visual recovery. However, a number of studies now suggest that adults with long-standing amblyopia may at least partially recover visual acuity and stereopsis following perceptual training. Eliminating or reducing interocular suppression has been hypothesized to be at the root of these changes. Here we show that playing a novel dichoptic video game indeed results in reduced suppression, improved visual acuity and, in some cases, improved stereopsis. Our relatively large cohort of adults with amblyopia, allowed us, for the first time, to assess the link between visual function recovery and reduction in suppression. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was found between decreased suppression and improved visual function. This finding challenges the prevailing view and suggests that while dichoptic training improves visual acuity and stereopsis in adult amblyopia, reduced suppression is unlikely to be at the root of visual recovery. These results are discussed in the context of their implication on recovery of amblyopia in adults. PMID:25719537

  9. Binge Ethanol Prior to Traumatic Brain Injury Worsens Sensorimotor Functional Recovery in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vaagenes, Ian C.; Tsai, Shih-Yen; Ton, Son T.; Husak, Vicki A.; McGuire, Susan O.; O’Brien, Timothy E.; Kartje, Gwendolyn L.

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) have a high blood alcohol level at the time of injury. Furthermore, drinking alcohol in a binge-like pattern is now recognized as a national problem, leading to a greater likelihood of being injured. Our objective was to determine the consequences of a binge paradigm of alcohol intoxication at the time of TBI on long-term functional outcome using a sensitive test of sensorimotor function. We trained adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats on the skilled forelimb reaching task and then administered a single binge dose of ethanol (2g/kg, i.p.) or saline for three consecutive days (for a total of 3 doses). One hour after the final ethanol dose, rats underwent a TBI to the sensorimotor cortex corresponding to the preferred reaching forelimb. Animals were then tested for seven weeks on the skilled forelimb reaching task to assess the profile of recovery. We found that the group given ethanol prior to TBI displayed a slower recovery curve with a lower recovery plateau as compared to the control group. Therefore, even a relatively short (3 day) episode of binge alcohol exposure can negatively impact long-term recovery from a TBI, underscoring this significant public health problem. PMID:25768795

  10. Methods for treating hydrocarbon recovery operations and industrial waters

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, N.E.S.; Asperger, R.G.

    1989-05-02

    This patent describes a method for consisting adding to the emulsion an effective demulsifying amount of a composition comprising a compound containing: an alkane triyl group of 1 to 30 carbon atoms; an alkylene group of 1 to 30 carbon atoms; and an alkali or alkaline earth metal group or an ammonium group.

  11. INFLUENCE OF CULTURE METHODS ON RECOVERY OF SALMONELLA SEROTYPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current laboratory methods were developed to obtain the greatest number of Salmonella-positive samples at an acceptable cost and different types of samples can contain different microbial competitors, nutrients, and antimicrobial inhibitors. Each of these result in turn affect a different response ...

  12. Compression socks and functional recovery following marathon running: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Stuart A; Till, Eloise S; Maloney, Stephen R; Harris, Gregory A

    2015-02-01

    Compression socks have become a popular recovery aid for distance running athletes. Although some physiological markers have been shown to be influenced by wearing these garments, scant evidence exists on their effects on functional recovery. This research aims to shed light onto whether the wearing of compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running can improve functional recovery, as measured by a timed treadmill test to exhaustion 14 days following marathon running. Athletes (n = 33, age, 38.5 ± 7.2 years) participating in the 2012 Melbourne, 2013 Canberra, or 2013 Gold Coast marathons were recruited and randomized into the compression sock or placebo group. A graded treadmill test to exhaustion was performed 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after each marathon. Time to exhaustion, average and maximum heart rates were recorded. Participants were asked to wear their socks for 48 hours immediately after completion of the marathon. The change in treadmill times (seconds) was recorded for each participant. Thirty-three participants completed the treadmill protocols. In the compression group, average treadmill run to exhaustion time 2 weeks after the marathon increased by 2.6% (52 ± 103 seconds). In the placebo group, run to exhaustion time decreased by 3.4% (-62 ± 130 seconds), P = 0.009. This shows a significant beneficial effect of compression socks on recovery compared with placebo. The wearing of below-knee compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running has been shown to improve functional recovery as measured by a graduated treadmill test to exhaustion 2 weeks after the event. PMID:25627452

  13. COMPRESSION SOCKS AND FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY FOLLOWING MARATHON RUNNING: A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Stuart A; Till, Eloise S; Maloney, Stephen; Harris, Gregory

    2014-09-01

    Compression socks have become a popular recovery aid for distance running athletes. Although some physiological markers have been shown to be influenced by wearing these garments, scant evidence exists on their effects on functional recovery. This research aims to shed light onto whether the wearing of compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running can improve functional recovery, as measured by a timed treadmill test to exhaustion 14 days following marathon running.Athletes (n=33, age = 38.5 ±7.2yrs) participating in the 2012 Melbourne, 2013 Canberra or 2013 Gold Coast marathons were recruited and randomised into the compression sock or placebo group. A graded treadmill test to exhaustion was performed 2 weeks prior and 2 weeks following each marathon. Time to exhaustion, average and maximum heart rates were recorded. Participants were asked to wear their socks for 48 hours immediately after completion of the marathon. The change in treadmill times (seconds) was recorded for each participant.33 participants completed the treadmill protocols. In the compression group average treadmill run to exhaustion time 2 weeks following the marathon increased by 2.6% (52s ±103s). In the placebo group run to exhaustion time decreased by 3.4% (-62s ±130s). P=0.009. This shows a significant beneficial effect of compression socks on recovery compared to placebo.The wearing of below knee compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running has been shown to improve functional recovery as measured by a graduated treadmill test to exhaustion 2 weeks following the event. PMID:25187242

  14. Atrophied cardiomyocytes and their potential for rescue and recovery of ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Heckle, Mark R; Flatt, David M; Sun, Yao; Mancarella, Salvatore; Marion, Tony N; Gerling, Ivan C; Weber, Karl T

    2016-03-01

    Cardiomyocytes must be responsive to demands placed on the heart's contractile work as a muscular pump. In turn, myocyte size is largely dependent on the workload they perform. Both hypertrophied and atrophic myocytes are found in the normal and diseased ventricle. Individual myocytes become atrophic when encumbered by fibrillar collagen, such as occurs at sites of fibrosis. The mechanisms include: (a) being immobilized and subject to disuse with ensuing protein degradation mediated by redox-sensitive, proteolytic ligases of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and (b) dedifferentiated re-expressing fetal genes induced by low intracellular triiodothyronine (T3) via thyroid hormone receptor β1. This myocyte-selective, low T3 state is a consequence of heterocellular signaling emanating from juxtaposed scar tissue myofibroblasts and their secretome with its de novo generation of angiotensin II. In a paracrine manner, angiotensin II promotes myocyte Ca(2+) entry and subsequent Ca(2+) overload with ensuing oxidative stress that overwhelms antioxidant defenses to activate deiodinase-3 and its enzymatic degradation of T3. In the failing heart, atrophic myocytes represent an endogenous population of viable myocytes which could be rescued to augment contractile mass, reduce systolic wall stress (afterload) and recover ventricular function. Experimental studies have shown the potential for the rescue and recovery of atrophic myocytes in rebuilding the myocardium-a method complementary to today's quest in regenerating myocardium using progenitor cells. PMID:26872676

  15. Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Shore, Lawrence; Matlin, Ramail

    2011-03-08

    A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.

  16. Economic and environmental evaluation of nitrogen removal and recovery methods from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanzi; Guo, Miao; Shah, Nilay; Stuckey, David C

    2016-09-01

    The driver for waste-based economic growth is long-term strategic design, and a paradigm-shift from waste treatment to resource recovery. This study aims to use an integrated modelling approach to evaluate the holistic economic and environmental profiles of three alternative nitrogen removal and recovery methods integrated into wastewater treatment systems, including conventional nitrification-denitrification, Anammox, and the anaerobic ion exchange route, to provide insights into N recovery system designs which are key elements in building a sustainable circular economy. Our results suggest that ion exchange is a promising technology showing high N removal-recovery efficiency from municipal wastewater and delivering competitive sustainability scores. In comparison with the well-developed conventional route, ion exchange and Anammox are undergoing significant research and development; as highlighted in sensitivity analyses, there is considerable room for process design and optimisation of ion exchange systems to achieve economically and environmentally optimal performance. PMID:27005785

  17. Increasing functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex during the course of recovery from Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sheng; Wu, Yuanyuan; Li, Chuanfu; Park, Kyungmo; Lu, Guangming; Mohamed, Abdalla Z; Wu, Hongli; Xu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Linying; Yang, Jun; Qiu, Bensheng

    2015-01-01

    Bell's palsy (BP), a unilateral and idiopathic palsy of the facial nerve, is a common disorder generally followed by a good natural recovery. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the recovery process of BP. Thirty-seven healthy volunteers and 67 patients were studied by functional MRI (fMRI). The seed regions of bilateral ACC were first extracted from the task-state fMRI data of healthy participants performing the task of mouth opening and closing. The connectivity of bilateral ACC was calculated from resting-state fMRI data of patients in whom only resting-state fMRI data were collected. The correlation between the strength of ACC's connectivity with the duration (time course of disease) was computed by analysis of covariance. It was found that the functional connectivity of the ACC ipsilateral to the lesioned side was enforced as the duration increased. The enforced brain areas included the sensorimotor areas and the ACC contralateral to the palsy. It was suggested that enforced functional connectivity of ACC might be related to cortical reorganization, which is important in the process of BP recovery. PMID:25426823

  18. Supplementary motor area deactivation impacts the recovery of hand function from severe peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ye-chen; Liu, Han-qiu; Hua, Xu-yun; Shen, Yun-dong; Xu, Wen-dong; Xu, Jian-guang; Gu, Yu-dong

    2016-01-01

    Although some patients have successful peripheral nerve regeneration, a poor recovery of hand function often occurs after peripheral nerve injury. It is believed that the capability of brain plasticity is crucial for the recovery of hand function. The supplementary motor area may play a key role in brain remodeling after peripheral nerve injury. In this study, we explored the activation mode of the supplementary motor area during a motor imagery task. We investigated the plasticity of the central nervous system after brachial plexus injury, using the motor imagery task. Results from functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that after brachial plexus injury, the motor imagery task for the affected limbs of the patients triggered no obvious activation of bilateral supplementary motor areas. This result indicates that it is difficult to excite the supplementary motor areas of brachial plexus injury patients during a motor imagery task, thereby impacting brain remodeling. Deactivation of the supplementary motor area is likely to be a serious problem for brachial plexus injury patients in terms of preparing, initiating and executing certain movements, which may be partly responsible for the unsatisfactory clinical recovery of hand function. PMID:27212933

  19. Dexamethasone enhanced functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xinhong; Yuan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone is currently used for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, but its mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Inflammation/immune response at the site of nerve lesion is known to be an essential trigger of the pathological changes that have a critical impact on nerve repair and regeneration. In this study, we observed the effects of various doses of dexamethasone on the functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model. Motor functional recovery was monitored by walking track analysis and gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio. The myelinated axon number was counted by morphometric analysis. Rats administered dexamethasone by local intramuscular injection had a higher nerve function index value, increased gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio, reduced Wallerian degeneration severity, and enhanced regenerated myelinated nerve fibers. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for CD3 expression, which is a marker for T-cell activation, and infiltration in the sciatic nerve. Dexamethasone-injected rats had fewer CD3-positive cells compared to controls. Furthermore, we found increased expression of GAP-43, which is a factor associated with development and plasticity of the nervous system, in rat nerves receiving dexamethasone. These results provide strong evidence that dexamethasone enhances sciatic nerve regeneration and function recovery in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury through immunosuppressive and potential neurotrophic effects. PMID:25839037

  20. Dexamethasone Enhanced Functional Recovery after Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xinhong; Yuan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone is currently used for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, but its mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Inflammation/immune response at the site of nerve lesion is known to be an essential trigger of the pathological changes that have a critical impact on nerve repair and regeneration. In this study, we observed the effects of various doses of dexamethasone on the functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model. Motor functional recovery was monitored by walking track analysis and gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio. The myelinated axon number was counted by morphometric analysis. Rats administered dexamethasone by local intramuscular injection had a higher nerve function index value, increased gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio, reduced Wallerian degeneration severity, and enhanced regenerated myelinated nerve fibers. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for CD3 expression, which is a marker for T-cell activation, and infiltration in the sciatic nerve. Dexamethasone-injected rats had fewer CD3-positive cells compared to controls. Furthermore, we found increased expression of GAP-43, which is a factor associated with development and plasticity of the nervous system, in rat nerves receiving dexamethasone. These results provide strong evidence that dexamethasone enhances sciatic nerve regeneration and function recovery in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury through immunosuppressive and potential neurotrophic effects. PMID:25839037

  1. Routine methods for post-transportation accident recovery of spent fuel casks

    SciTech Connect

    Shappert, L.B.; Pope, R.B. ); Best, R.E. ); Jones, R.H. , Los Gatos, CA )

    1991-01-01

    Spent fuel casks and other large radioactive material packages have been examined to determine whether the designs are adequate to allow the casks to be recovered using conventional recovery methods following a transportation accident. Casks and similar packages are typically designed with, and handled by, trunnions that support the package during transport. These trunnions are considered the best cask feature with which to grapple the cask once it is no longer in its usual shipping mode. Following a transport accident, the trunnions may be buried or entangled so that they are not readily accessible to initiate the recovery process. To evaluate the effectiveness of applying traditional recovery methods to spent fuel casks, a workshop was held in which a series of accidents involving casks were postulated; the modes of transportation considered included truck, rail, and barge. These participants knowledgeable in transport, handling, and, in some cases, recovery of large, heavy containers attended. Participants concluded that the physical recovery of a cask involved in an accident, irrespective of where the accident occurs, would be a straightforward rigging operation and that the addition of specific recovery features (e.g., additional trunnions) to the cask appears unnecessary.

  2. Routine methods for post-transportation accident recovery of spent fuel casks

    SciTech Connect

    Shappert, L.B.; Pope, R.B.; Best, R.E.; Jones, R.H.

    1991-12-31

    Spent fuel casks and other large radioactive material packages have been examined to determine whether the designs are adequate to allow the casks to be recovered using conventional recovery methods following a transportation accident. Casks and similar packages are typically designed with, and handled by, trunnions that support the package during transport. These trunnions are considered the best cask feature with which to grapple the cask once it is no longer in its usual shipping mode. Following a transport accident, the trunnions may be buried or entangled so that they are not readily accessible to initiate the recovery process. To evaluate the effectiveness of applying traditional recovery methods to spent fuel casks, a workshop was held in which a series of accidents involving casks were postulated; the modes of transportation considered included truck, rail, and barge. These participants knowledgeable in transport, handling, and, in some cases, recovery of large, heavy containers attended. Participants concluded that the physical recovery of a cask involved in an accident, irrespective of where the accident occurs, would be a straightforward rigging operation and that the addition of specific recovery features (e.g., additional trunnions) to the cask appears unnecessary.

  3. Mass recovery methods for trichloroethylene in plant tissue.

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, M. C.; Werth, C. J.; Energy Systems; Univ. of Illionis

    2009-06-01

    Monitoring expenses form a significant fraction of the costs associated with remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater sites. A novel monitoring method that could result in significant cost savings is the use of plants as monitoring devices; previous work indicates that plant tissue samples, especially trunk (core) and branch samples, can be used to delineate soil and groundwater plumes at phytoremediation sites. An important factor in reducing the uncertainty associated with this sampling method is development of a technique to analyze, both consistently and accurately, the chemicals stored in plant tissue samples. The present research presents a simple, robust, and inexpensive technique to recover most of the contaminant in plant branch tissue, irrespective of the age or species of the plant. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was the chemical analyzed. A number of headspace and solvent extraction techniques in the literature were evaluated, including headspace extraction at different incubation times and temperatures and solvent extraction using hexane or hot methanol. Extraction using hot methanol was relatively fast, simple, and reliable; this method recovered more than 89% of the TCE present in branches of five different tree species.

  4. Development of Advanced Nuclide Separation and Recovery Methods using Ion-Exchanhge Techniques in Nuclear Backend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Hitoshi

    The development of compact separation and recovery methods using selective ion-exchange techniques is very important for the reprocessing and high-level liquid wastes (HLLWs) treatment in the nuclear backend field. The selective nuclide separation techniques are effective for the volume reduction of wastes and the utilization of valuable nuclides, and expected for the construction of advanced nuclear fuel cycle system and the rationalization of waste treatment. In order to accomplish the selective nuclide separation, the design and synthesis of novel adsorbents are essential for the development of compact and precise separation processes. The present paper deals with the preparation of highly functional and selective hybrid microcapsules enclosing nano-adsorbents in the alginate gel polymer matrices by sol-gel methods, their characterization and the clarification of selective adsorption properties by batch and column methods. The selective separation of Cs, Pd and Re in real HLLW was further accomplished by using novel microcapsules, and an advanced nuclide separation system was proposed by the combination of selective processes using microcapsules.

  5. Method of controlling scale in oil recovery operations

    DOEpatents

    Krajicek, Richard W.

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing highly viscous minerals from a subterranean formation by injection of an acidic, thermal vapor stream without substantial scale buildup in downstream piping, pumps and well bore. The process comprises heating the formation by injection of heat, preferably in the form of a thermal vapor stream composed of combustion gases and steam and injecting an acidic compound simultaneously with the thermal vapor stream into the formation at a temperature above the dew point of the thermal vapor stream. The acidic, thermal vapor stream increases the solubility of metal ions in connate water and thus reduces scaling in the downstream equipment during the production of viscous hydrocarbons.

  6. Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, G.A.

    1985-03-05

    High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

  7. Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, George A.

    1986-01-01

    High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

  8. Method of enhanced oil recovery employing thickened amphoteric surfactant solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kalpakci, B.; Chan, K. S.

    1985-11-26

    A method is disclosed for recovering petroleum from a subterranean reservoir penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well comprising: injecting into the reservoir through the injection well a surfactant slug comprising an aqueous solution containing about 0.001 to about 5% by weight of an amphoteric surfactant and an effective amount of a high molecular weight homopolysaccharide gum thickener derived from fungus strains of the genus Schlerotium to provide the surfactant slug with a viscosity exceeding the viscosity of the petroleum in the reservoir; and recovering fluid from the production well.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 136 - Precision and Recovery Statements for Methods for Measuring Metals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) GUIDELINES ESTABLISHING TEST PROCEDURES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF... Metals Twenty-eight selected methods from “Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes,” EPA-600/4... Value for the Concentration, µg/L X=Mean Recovery, µg/L S=Multi-laboratory Standard Deviation, µg/L...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 136 - Precision and Recovery Statements for Methods for Measuring Metals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) GUIDELINES ESTABLISHING TEST PROCEDURES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF... Metals Twenty-eight selected methods from “Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes,” EPA-600/4... Value for the Concentration, µg/L X=Mean Recovery, µg/L S=Multi-laboratory Standard Deviation, µg/L...

  11. Assessments of lung digestion methods for recovery of fibers.

    PubMed

    Warheit, D B; Hwang, H C; Achinko, L

    1991-04-01

    Evaluation of the pulmonary hazards associated with exposure to fibrous materials tends to be more complicated than assessments required for particulate materials. Fibers are defined by aspect ratios and it is generally considered that physical dimensions play an important role in the pathogenesis of fiber-related lung diseases. Several digestion techniques have been used to recover fibers from exposed lung tissue for clearance studies. Because many of the digestion fluids are corrosive (e.g., bleach, KOH), it is conceivable that the dimensions of recovered fibers are modified during the tissue digestion methods to assess whether the physical dimensions of bulk samples of fibers were altered following simulated digestion processing. Aliquots of crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos, Kevlar aramid, wollastonite, polyacrylonitrile (pan)-based carbon, and glass fibers were incubated with either saline, bleach, or KOH and then filtered. Scanning electron microscopy techniques were utilized to measure the physical dimensions (i.e., lengths and diameters) of at least 160 fibers per treatment group of each fiber type. Our results showed that the lengths and diameters of glass fibers and wollastonite were altered after treatment with KOH. In addition, treatment with bleach produced a small reduction in both asbestos fiber-type diameters, and greater changes in Kevlar and wollastonite diameters and carbon fiber lengths (P less than 0.05). These results indicate that lung digestion methods should be carefully assessed for each fiber type before initiating fiber clearance studies. PMID:1851478

  12. Well treating method and system for stimulating recovery of fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, G.A.; Passamaneck, R.S.; Touryan, K.J.

    1988-01-12

    This patent describes a method for fracturing a subterranean earth formation to stimulate the production of fluid from the formation wherein a wellbore extends at least to the formation from a surface point. The wellbore is provided with casing means forming a substantially fluid tight interior space. The method comprises the steps of: providing perforating means for perforating the casing means at a predetermined zone of the formation to provide for flow of fluids between the formation and the wellbore and placing the perforating means at the zone, filling at least a portion of the wellbore with a compressible fracturing fluid comprised of a liquid containing dispersed quantities of gas and having a solid propant dispersed therein; raising the pressure of the fracturing fluid in the wellbore to a predetermined pressure greater than the pressure required to hydraulically extend a fracture in the formation at the zone; and actuating the perforating means to form apertures in the casing means whereby the pressurized fracturing fluid at the predetermined pressure is allowed to flow into the formation under decompression forces to fracture the formation with a quantity of the fracturing fluid and to pro fractures in the formation open with the propant.

  13. Brain-Controlled Neuromuscular Stimulation to Drive Neural Plasticity and Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Ethier, C.; Gallego, J.A.; Miller, L.E.

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that appropriately timed neuromuscular stimulation can induce neural plasticity and generate functional recovery from motor disorders. This review addresses the idea that coordinating stimulation with a patient’s voluntary effort might further enhance neurorehabilitation. Studies in cell cultures and behaving animals have delineated the rules underlying neural plasticity when single neurons are used as triggers. However, the rules governing more complex stimuli and larger networks are less well understood. We argue that functional recovery might be optimized if stimulation were modulated by a brain machine interface, to matched the details of the patient’s voluntary intent. The potential of this novel approach highlights the need for a better understanding of the complex rules underlying this form of plasticity. PMID:25827275

  14. Brain-controlled neuromuscular stimulation to drive neural plasticity and functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Ethier, C; Gallego, J A; Miller, L E

    2015-08-01

    There is mounting evidence that appropriately timed neuromuscular stimulation can induce neural plasticity and generate functional recovery from motor disorders. This review addresses the idea that coordinating stimulation with a patient's voluntary effort might further enhance neurorehabilitation. Studies in cell cultures and behaving animals have delineated the rules underlying neural plasticity when single neurons are used as triggers. However, the rules governing more complex stimuli and larger networks are less well understood. We argue that functional recovery might be optimized if stimulation were modulated by a brain machine interface, to match the details of the patient's voluntary intent. The potential of this novel approach highlights the need for a better understanding of the complex rules underlying this form of plasticity. PMID:25827275

  15. Stimulation of autophagy promotes functional recovery in diabetic rats with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kai-liang; Zhou, Yi-fei; Wu, Kai; Tian, Nai-feng; Wu, Yao-sen; Wang, Yong-li; Chen, De-heng; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Xiang-yang; Xu, Hua-zi; Zhang, Xiao-lei

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in diabetic rats after spinal cord injury (SCI), also we determined the role of autophagy in diabetes-aggravated neurological injury in vivo and in vitro. Our results showed that diabetes decreased the survival of neurons, promoted astrocytes proliferation, increased inflammatory cells infiltration and inhibited functional recovery after SCI. Diabetes was shown to confer increased activation of apoptotic pathways, along with an increase in autophagy; similar effects were also observed in vitro in neuronal PC12 cells. Treatment with rapamycin, an autophagy activator, partially abolished the adverse effect of diabetes, suggesting that diabetes may enhance neurological damage and suppress locomotor recovery after SCI, in addition to its effects on apoptosis and autophagy. In contrast, further stimulation of autophagy improved neurological function via inhibition of apoptosis. These results explained how diabetes exacerbates SCI in cellular level and suggested autophagy stimulation to be a new therapeutic strategy for diabetic SCI. PMID:26597839

  16. Comparison of different culture methods on bacterial recovery in hemodialysis fluids.

    PubMed

    Punakabutra, Napawan; Nunthapisud, Pongpun; Pisitkun, Trairak; Tiranathanagul, Khajohn; Tungsanga, Kriang; Eiam-Ong, Somchai

    2004-11-01

    To examine the culture method that could provide the highest bacterial recovery, 143 reverse osmosis water samples used in hemodialysis were collected for comparison of the media (Tryptic Soy Agar, TSA vs Reasoner's 2A Agar, R2A), the temperature (20 degrees C vs 37 degrees C), the duration of incubation (48-hour vs 7-day), and the culture technique (membrane filtration vs spread plate methods). The European Best Practice Guideline method, R2A at 20 degrees Cfor 7-day incubation provided higher bacterial recovery than the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) method, TSA at 37 degrees C for 48-hour incubation. The membrane filtration method gave better yield than the spread plate method. As such, the European Best Practice Guideline method in combination with the membrane filtration technique would be the culture method of choice for hemodialysis fluids. PMID:15825714

  17. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, James D.; Harak, Arnold E.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

  18. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1988-05-04

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Carvacrol together with TRPC1 elimination improve functional recovery after traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Peters, Maximilian; Trembovler, Victoria; Alexandrovich, Alexander; Parnas, Moshe; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Minke, Baruch; Shohami, Esther

    2012-12-10

    Death of Central Nervous System (CNS) neurons following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex process arising from a combination of factors, many of which are still unknown. It has been found that inhibition of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels constitutes an effective strategy for preventing death of CNS neurons following TBI. TRP channels are classified into seven related subfamilies, most of which are Ca(2+) permeable and involved in many cellular functions, including neuronal cell death. We hypothesized that TRP channels of the TRPC subfamily may be involved in post-TBI pathophysiology and that the compound 5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol (carvacrol), by inhibition of TRP channels, may exert neuroprotective effect after TBI. To test these suppositions, carvacrol was given to mice after TBI and its effect on their functional recovery was followed for several weeks. Our results show that neurological recovery after TBI was significantly enhanced by application of carvacrol. To better define the type of the specific channel involved, the effect of carvacrol on the extent and speed of recovery after TBI was compared among mice lacking TRPC1, TRPC3, or TRPC5, relative to wild type controls. We found that neurological recovery after TBI was significantly enhanced by combining carvacrol with TRPC1 elimination, but not by the absence of TRPC3 or TRPC5, showing a synergistic effect between carvacrol application and TRPC1 elimination. We conclude that TRPC1-sensitive mechanisms are involved in TBI pathology, and that inhibition of this channel by carvacrol enhances recovery and should be considered for further studies in animal models and humans. PMID:22994850

  20. Plasminogen deficiency causes reduced corticospinal axonal plasticity and functional recovery after stroke in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongwu; Li, Yi; Qian, Jianyong; Cui, Yisheng; Chopp, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been implicated in neurite outgrowth and neurological recovery post stroke. tPA converts the zymogen plasminogen (Plg) into plasmin. In this study, using plasminogen knockout (Plg-/-) mice and their Plg-native littermates (Plg+/+), we investigated the role of Plg in axonal remodeling and neurological recovery after stroke. Plg+/+ and Plg-/- mice (n = 10/group) were subjected to permanent intraluminal monofilament middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). A foot-fault test and a single pellet reaching test were performed prior to and on day 3 after stroke, and weekly thereafter to monitor functional deficit and recovery. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected into the left motor cortex to anterogradely label the corticospinal tract (CST). Animals were euthanized 4 weeks after stroke. Neurite outgrowth was also measured in primary cultured cortical neurons harvested from Plg+/+ and Plg-/- embryos. In Plg+/+ mice, the motor functional deficiency after stroke progressively recovered with time. In contrast, recovery in Plg-/- mice was significantly impaired compared to Plg+/+ mice (p<0.01). BDA-positive axonal density of the CST originating from the contralesional cortex in the denervated side of the cervical gray matter was significantly reduced in Plg-/- mice compared with Plg+/+ mice (p<0.05). The behavioral outcome was highly correlated with the midline-crossing CST axonal density (R2>0.82, p<0.01). Plg-/- neurons exhibited significantly reduced neurite outgrowth. Our data suggest that plasminogen-dependent proteolysis has a beneficial effect during neurological recovery after stroke, at least in part, by promoting axonal remodeling in the denervated spinal cord. PMID:24732409

  1. Required distribution of noise sources for Green's function recovery in diffusive fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsalsadati, S.; Weiss, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    In the most general sense, noise is the part of the signal of little or no interest, due to a multitude of reasons such as operator error, imperfect instrumentation, experiment design, or inescapable background interference. Considering the latter, it has been shown that Green's function can be extracted from cross-correlation of the ambient, diffusive wavefields arising from background random noise sources. Pore pressure and low-frequency electromagnetic induction are two such examples of diffusive fields. In theory, applying Green's function method in geophysical exploration requires infinity of volumetrically distributed sources; however, in the real world the number of noise sources in an area is limited, and furthermore, unevenly distributed in time, space and spectral content. Hence, quantification of the requisite noise sources that enable us to calculate Green's function acceptably well remains an open research question. The purpose of this study is to find the area of noise sources that contribute most to the Green's function estimation in diffusive systems. We call such a region the Volume of Relevance (VoR). Our analysis builds upon recent work in 1D homogeneous system where it was shown that sources located between two receivers positions are the most important ones for the purpose of Green's function recovery. Our results confirm the previous finding but we also examine the effect of heterogeneity, dimensionality and receiver location in both 1D and 2D at a fixed frequency. We demonstrate that for receivers located symmetrically across an interface between regions of contrasting diffusivity, the VoR rapidly shifts from one side of the interface to the other, and back again, as receiver separation increases. We also demonstrate that where the receiver pair is located on the interface itself, the shifting is less rapid, and for moderate to high diffusivity contrasts, the VoR remains entirely on the more diffusive side. In addition, because classical

  2. Promoting plasticity in the spinal cord with chondroitinase improves functional recovery after peripheral nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Galtrey, Clare M; Asher, Richard A; Nothias, Fatiha; Fawcett, James W

    2007-04-01

    Functional recovery after peripheral nerve repair in humans is often disappointing. A major reason for this is the inaccuracy of re-innervation of muscles and sensory structures. We hypothesized that promoting plasticity in the spinal cord, through digestion of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), might allow the CNS to compensate for inaccurate peripheral re-innervation and improve functional recovery. The median and ulnar nerves were injured and repaired to produce three grades of inaccuracy of peripheral re-innervation by (i) crush of both nerves; (ii) correct repair of median to median and ulnar to ulnar; and (iii) crossover of the median and ulnar nerves. Mapping of the motor neuron pool of the flexor carpi radialis muscle showed precise re-innervation after nerve crush, inaccurate regeneration after correct repair, more inaccurate after crossover repair. Recovery of forelimb function, assessed by skilled paw reaching, grip strength and sensory testing varied with accuracy of re-innervation. This was not due to differences in the number of regenerated axons. Single injections of ChABC into the spinal cord led to long-term changes in the extracellular matrix, with hyaluronan and neurocan being removed and not fully replaced after 8 weeks. ChABC treatment produce increased sprouting visualized by MAP1BP staining and improved functional recovery in skilled paw reaching after correct repair and in grip strength after crossover repair. There was no hyperalgesia. Enhanced plasticity in the spinal cord, therefore, allows the CNS to compensate for inaccurate motor and sensory re-innervation of the periphery, and may be a useful adjunct therapy to peripheral nerve repair. PMID:17255150

  3. Development of Functional Recovery Training Device for Hemiplegic Fingers with Finger-expansion Facilitation Exercise by Stretch Reflex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yong; Iwashita, Hisashi; Kawahira, Kazumi; Hayashi, Ryota

    This paper develops a functional recovery training device to perform repetition facilitating exercise for hemiplegic finger rehabilitation. On the facilitation exercise, automatic finger expansion can be realized and facilitated by stretch reflex, where a stimulation forces is applied instantaneously on flexion finger for making strech reflex and resistance forces are applied for maintaining the strech reflex. In this paper, novel parallel mechanisms, force sensing system with high sensitivity and resistance accompanying cooperation control method are proposed for sensing, controlling and realizing the stimulation force, resistance forces, strech reflex and repetition facilitating exercise. The effectivities and performances of the device are shown by some experiments.

  4. Women's Voices on Recovery: A Multi-Method Study of the Complexity of Recovery from Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The current study was exploratory and used multiple methods to examine patterns of stability and change in resilient functioning across 7 years of early adulthood. Second, qualitative data were used to examine in greater detail survivors' own narratives about correlates of healing. Method: This study was longitudinal and used both…

  5. Hydrogen-rich saline promotes motor functional recovery following peripheral nerve autografting in rats

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YONG-GUANG; SHENG, QING-SONG; WANG, ZHI-JUN; LV, LI; ZHAO, WEI; CHEN, JIAN-MEI; XU, HAO

    2015-01-01

    Despite the application of nerve grafts and considerable microsurgical innovations, the functional recovery across a long peripheral nerve gap is generally partial and unsatisfactory. Thus, additional strategies are required to improve nerve regeneration across long nerve gaps. Hydrogen possesses antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties, which could be neuroprotective in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury; however, such a possibility has not been experimentally tested in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of hydrogen-rich saline in promoting nerve regeneration after 10-mm sciatic nerve autografting in rats. The rats were randomly divided into two groups and intraperitoneally administered a daily regimen of 5 ml/kg hydrogen-rich or normal saline. Axonal regeneration and functional recovery were assessed through a combination of behavioral analyses, electrophysiological evaluations, Fluoro-Gold™ retrograde tracings and histomorphological observations. The data showed that rats receiving hydrogen-rich saline achieved better axonal regeneration and functional recovery than those receiving normal saline. These findings indicated that hydrogen-rich saline promotes nerve regeneration across long gaps, suggesting that hydrogen-rich saline could be used as a neuroprotective agent for peripheral nerve injury therapy. PMID:26622383

  6. Exercise promotes motor functional recovery in rats with corticospinal tract injury: anti-apoptosis mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Ting-ting; Yang, Xiao-yu; Xia, Peng; Pan, Su; Liu, Jian; Qi, Zhi-ping

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that exercise interventions can improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury, but the mechanism of action remains unclear. To investigate the mechanism, we established a unilateral corticospinal tract injury model in rats by pyramidotomy, and used a single pellet reaching task and horizontal ladder walking task as exercise interventions postoperatively. Functional recovery of forelimbs and forepaws in the rat models was noticeably enhanced after the exercises. Furthermore, TUNEL staining revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in the spinal cord of exercised rats, and western blot analysis showed that spinal cord expression of the apoptosis-related protein caspase-3 was significantly lower, and the expression of Bcl-2 was significantly higher, while the expression of Bax was not signifiantly changed after exercise, compared with the non-exercised group. Expression of these proteins decreased with time after injury, towards the levels observed in sham-operated rats, however at 4 weeks postoperatively, caspase-3 expression remained significantly greater than in sham-operated rats. The present findings indicate that a reduction in apoptosis is one of the mechanisms underlying the improvement of functional recovery by exercise interventions after corticospinal tract injury. PMID:26170828

  7. Influence of killing method on Lepidoptera DNA barcode recovery.

    PubMed

    Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie

    2015-05-01

    The global DNA barcoding initiative has revolutionized the field of biodiversity research. Such large-scale sequencing projects require the collection of large numbers of specimens, which need to be killed and preserved in a way that is both DNA-friendly and which will keep voucher specimens in good condition for later study. Factors such as time since collection, correct storage (exposure to free water and heat) and DNA extraction protocol are known to play a role in the success of downstream molecular applications. Limited data are available on the most efficient, DNA-friendly protocol for killing. In this study, we evaluate the quality of DNA barcode (cytochrome oxidase I) sequences amplified from DNA extracted from specimens collected using three different killing methods (ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing). Previous studies have suggested that chemicals, such as ethyl acetate and formaldehyde, degraded DNA and as such may not be appropriate for the collection of insects for DNA-based research. All Lepidoptera collected produced DNA barcodes of good quality, and our study found no clear difference in nucleotide signal strength, probability of incorrect base calling and phylogenetic utility among the three different treatment groups. Our findings suggest that ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing can all be used to collect specimens for DNA analysis. PMID:25229871

  8. Assessments of lung digestion methods for recovery of fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Warheit, D.B.; Hwang, H.C.; Achinko, L. )

    1991-04-01

    Evaluation of the pulmonary hazards associated with exposure to fibrous materials tends to be more complicated than assessments required for particulate materials. Fibers are defined by aspect ratios and it is generally considered that physical dimensions play an important role in the pathogenesis of fiber-related lung diseases. Several digestion techniques have been used to recover fibers from exposed lung tissue for clearance studies. Because many of the digestion fluids are corrosive (e.g., bleach, KOH), it is conceivable that the dimensions of recovered fibers are modified during the tissue digestion process, thus creating erroneous data. Accordingly, the authors evaluated two lung digestion methods to assess whether the physical dimensions of bulk samples of fibers were altered following simulated digestion processing. Aliquots of crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos, Kevlar aramid, wollastonite, polyacrylonitrile (pan)-based carbon, and glass fibers were incubated with either saline, bleach, or KOH and then filtered. Scanning electron microscopy techniques were utilized to measure the physical dimensions (i.e., lengths and diameters) of at least 160 fibers per treatment group of each fiber type. Their results showed that the lengths and diameters of glass fibers and wollastonite were altered after treatment with KOH. In addition, treatment with bleach produced a small reduction in both asbestos fiber-type diameters, and greater changes in Kevlar and wollastonite diameters and carbon fiber lengths.

  9. Consumer return chronology alters recovery trajectory of stream ecosystem structure and function following drought.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Justin N; Gido, Keith B; Dodds, Walter K; Bertrand, Katie N; Whiles, Matt R

    2010-04-01

    Consumers are increasingly being recognized as important drivers of ecological succession, yet it is still hard to predict the nature and direction of consumer effects in nonequilibrium environments. We used stream consumer exclosures and large outdoor mesocosms to study the impact of macroconsumers (i.e., fish and crayfish) on recovery of intermittent prairie streams after drying. In the stream, macroconsumers altered system recovery trajectory by decreasing algal and macroinvertebrate biomass, primary productivity, and benthic nutrient uptake rates. However, macroconsumer influence was transient, and differences between exclosures and controls disappeared after 35 days. Introducing and removing macroconsumers after 28 days resulted mainly in changes to macroinvertebrates. In mesocosms, a dominant consumer (the grazing minnow Phoxinus erythrogaster) reduced macroinvertebrate biomass but had little effect on algal assemblage structure and ecosystem rates during recovery. The weak effect of P. erythrogaster in mesocosms, in contrast to the strong consumer effect in the natural stream, suggests that both timing and diversity of returning consumers are important to their overall influence on stream recovery patterns. Although we found that consumers significantly altered ecosystem structure and function in a system experiencing rapid changes in abiotic and biotic factors following disturbance, consumer effects diminished over time and trajectories converged to similar states with respect to primary producers, in spite of differences in consumer colonization history. Thus, consumer impacts can be substantial in recovering ecosystems and are likely to be dependent on the disturbance regime and diversity of the consumer community. PMID:20462119

  10. [Stigmatization on the way to recovery in mental illness - the factors associated with social functioning].

    PubMed

    Podogrodzka-Niell, Magdalena; Tyszkowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Persons with mental disorders often experience stigmatization. There is a number of social factors that may affect the process of recovery and at the same time, in certain circumstances, could be a source of stigma. Mentally ill may find strength in themselves to fight against the disease or the opposite - can internalize the negative attitudes of the society and become self-stigmatized. The patient's family, on the one hand, is often the only source of social support, on the other hand, can experience a destructive influence of courtesy-stigma. Mentally ill have to face social reluctance which is reinforced by stereotypical media coverage of mental disorders. The social network of patients is poor and often limited to a family system. Negative views about persons diagnosed with mental illness are most visible in the labour market. Patients experience many types of discrimination at work,have lower employment rates and lower mean wages than healthy ones. Structural discrimination is a form of stigma which is revealed in underfunded and inefficient system of mental health care. All the social factors mentioned above are necessary for recovery (positive stimulation of functioning), but can also increase stigma and become a significant barrier in the recovery of psychiatric patients. This paper highlights the complex and ambiguous nature of the relationship between social factors and the recovery of the mentally ill basing on the data from the literature. PMID:25717489

  11. Mixed Methods Study of Help Seekers and Self-Changers Responding to an Online Recovery Survey

    PubMed Central

    Witbrodt, Jane; Borkman, Thomasina J.; Stunz, Aina; Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To compare self-changers (natural recovery) with help seekers on demographics, pre-recovery problem severity, and recovery beliefs and behaviors; and to augment these quantitative findings with information extracted from the qualitative stories of a subset of self-changers to explore themes in recovery paths as informed by a nascent natural recovery literature. Methods: Quantitative secondary analyses were conducted with persons who had responded to a US nationwide online survey called ‘What Is Recovery’ (WIR) and who reported a prior lifetime alcohol problem (n = 5495). Six men and six women (with longer-term recoveries) interviewed later were asked to tell their ‘recovery story from the beginning up to now’. These were coded using a narrative approach. Results: Compared with help seekers, self-changers were younger and never married: they did not differ on problem severity, gender, ethnicity or education. Self-changers identified with ‘used to have a problem’ more than in recovery/recovered, reported fewer years in that status, and reported more current, non-problematic substance use. A new concept of shadow help and shadow obstacles to help-seeking emerged from the qualitative analysis. Though self-changers believed that they had overcome their alcohol problem on their own, change actually occurred within a social context that allowed access to information, normative expectations, relationships, and other opportunities that provided important resources for change. Conclusion: Findings imply that the concept of help-seeking needs to be re-conceptualized to include the informal help we found in this study. PMID:25381088

  12. Treating to target in major depressive disorder: response to remission to functional recovery.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Roger S; Lee, Yena; Mansur, Rodrigo B

    2015-12-01

    Treating to target in chronic diseases [e.g. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)] fosters precision, consistency, and appropriateness of treatment selection and sequencing. Therapeutic target definitions/endpoints in MDD should satisfy patient-, provider-, and societal expectations. Functional recovery in depression and return to both physical and mental health are the overarching therapeutic objectives. Treating to target in MDD implies multidimensional symptomatic remission, with a particular emphasis on cognitive function and aspects of positive mental health. Several atypical antipsychotic agents (i.e. brexpiprazole, aripiprazole, quetiapine) are FDA-approved as augmentation agents in MDD. Vortioxetine, duloxetine, and psychostimulants have evidence of independent, direct, and robust effects on cognitive function in MDD. Vortioxetine is the only agent that demonstrates efficacy across multiple cognitive domains in MDD associated with functional recovery. Measurement-based care, health information technology/systems, and integrated care models (e.g. medical homes) provide requisite tools and health environments for optimal health outcomes in MDD. Achieving remission in MDD does not equate to health. Return to positive mental health as well as full functioning provide the impetus to pivot away from traditional provider-defined outcomes toward an inclusive perspective involving patient- and society-defined outcomes (i.e. optimization of human capital). As in other chronic diseases, treating to target (e.g. cognitive function) further increases the probability of achieving optimal health outcomes. PMID:26683526

  13. Cortical effect and functional recovery by the electromyography-triggered neuromuscular stimulation in chronic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hwa Kyung; Cho, Sang Hyun; Jeon, Hye-seon; Lee, Young-Hee; Song, Jun Chan; Jang, Sung Ho; Lee, Chu-Hee; Kwon, Yong Hyun

    2008-09-19

    We investigated the effect of electromyography (EMG)-triggered neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES; EMG-stim) on functional recovery of the hemiparetic hand and the related cortical activation pattern in chronic stroke patients. We enrolled 14 stroke patients, who were randomly assigned to the EMG-stim (n=7) or the control groups (n=7). The EMG-stim was applied to the wrist extensor of the EMG-stim group for two sessions (30 min/session) a day, five times per week for 10 weeks. Four functional tests (box and block, strength, the accuracy index, and the on/offset time of muscle contraction) and functional MRI (fMRI) were performed before and after treatment. fMRI was measured at 1.5 T in parallel with timed finger flexion-extension movements at a fixed rate. Following treatment, the EMG-stim group showed a significant improvement in all functional tests. The main cortical activation change with such functional improvement was shifted from the ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex (SMC) to the contralateral SMC. We demonstrated that 10-week EMG-stim can induce functional recovery and change of cortical activation pattern in the hemiparetic hand of chronic stroke patients. PMID:18644424

  14. N-acetylcysteine amide preserves mitochondrial bioenergetics and improves functional recovery following spinal trauma.

    PubMed

    Patel, Samir P; Sullivan, Patrick G; Pandya, Jignesh D; Goldstein, Glenn A; VanRooyen, Jenna L; Yonutas, Heather M; Eldahan, Khalid C; Morehouse, Johnny; Magnuson, David S K; Rabchevsky, Alexander G

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is becoming a pivotal target for neuroprotective strategies following contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and the pharmacological compounds that maintain mitochondrial function confer neuroprotection and improve long-term hindlimb function after injury. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of cell-permeating thiol, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), a precursor of endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH), on mitochondrial function acutely, and long-term tissue sparing and hindlimb locomotor recovery following upper lumbar contusion SCI. Some designated injured adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=120) received either vehicle or NACA (75, 150, 300 or 600mg/kg) at 15min and 6h post-injury. After 24h the total, synaptic, and non-synaptic mitochondrial populations were isolated from a single 1.5cm spinal cord segment (centered at injury site) and assessed for mitochondrial bioenergetics. Results showed compromised total mitochondrial bioenergetics following acute SCI that was significantly improved with NACA treatment in a dose-dependent manner, with maximum effects at 300mg/kg (n=4/group). For synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria, only 300mg/kg NACA dosage showed efficacy. Similar dosage (300mg/kg) also maintained mitochondrial GSH near normal levels. Other designated injured rats (n=21) received continuous NACA (150 or 300mg/kg/day) treatment starting at 15min post-injury for one week to assess long-term functional recovery over 6weeks post-injury. Locomotor testing and novel gait analyses showed significantly improved hindlimb function with NACA that were associated with increased tissue sparing at the injury site. Overall, NACA treatment significantly maintained acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and normalized GSH levels following SCI, and prolonged delivery resulted in significant tissue sparing and improved recovery of hindlimb function. PMID:24805071

  15. N-acetylcysteineamide Preserves Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Improves Functional Recovery Following Spinal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Samir P.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Pandya, Jignesh D.; Goldstein, Glenn A.; VanRooyen, Jenna L.; Yonutas, Heather M.; Eldahan, Khalid C.; Morehouse, Johnny; Magnuson, David S. K.; Rabchevsky, Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is becoming a pivotal target for neuroprotective strategies following contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and the pharmacological compounds that maintain mitochondrial function confer neuroprotection and improve long-term hindlimb function after injury. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of cell-permeating thiol, N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA), a precursor of endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH), on mitochondrial function acutely, and long-term tissue sparing and hindlimb locomotor recovery following upper lumbar contusion SCI. Some designated injured adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=120) received either Vehicle or NACA (75, 150, 300 or 600 mg/kg) at 15min and 6hrs post-injury. After 24hr the total, synaptic, and non-synaptic mitochondrial populations were isolated from a single 1.5cm spinal cord segment (centered at injury site) and assessed for mitochondrial bioenergetics. Results showed compromised total mitochondrial bioenergetics following acute SCI that was significantly improved with NACA treatment in a dose-dependent manner, with maximum effects at 300 mg/kg (n=4/group). For synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria, only 300 mg/kg NACA dosage showed efficacy. Similar dosage (300mg/kg) also maintained mitochondrial GSH near normal levels. Other designated injured rats (n=21) received continuous NACA (150 or 300mg/kg/day) treatment starting at 15min post-injury for one week to assess long-term functional recovery over 6 weeks post-injury. Locomotor testing and novel gait analyses showed significantly improved hindlimb function with NACA that were associated with increased tissue sparing at the injury site. Overall, NACA treatment significantly maintained acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and normalized GSH levels following SCI, and prolonged delivery resulted in significant tissue sparing and improved recovery of hindlimb function. PMID:24805071

  16. Brain stimulation used as biofeedback training for recovery of motor functions deteriorated by stroke.

    PubMed

    Calomeni, Mauricio Rocha; Rocha, José Antonio Martins da Silva; Silva, Alair Pedro Ribeiro da; Ribeiro, Luiz Henrique Brandão; Marques, Luciene; Siza, Maria Auxiliadora Freire; Silva, Vernon Furtado da

    2013-03-01

    According to World Health Organization, approximately 15 million people are affected by cerebrovascular accident in the world. We study the effect of brain stimulation plus an imaging procedure used as biofeedback training for recovery of motor functions impaired by CVA. Four individuals aged between 33 and 72 years were included in the study, of both genders, with hemiparesis on the left arm due to the CVA. They had their brain activity monitored by EEG. Functional tasks were evaluated according to an observational model proposed by the international classification of functioning and by runtime. The training was composed of 12 sessions of 30 minutes of stimulation by light and sound, as well as imaging procedures. Results revealed that improvements in the performance of the task, with regard to both the runtime and the functional quality of movements, are more related to the increase of effectiveness of neuronal function. PMID:23563715

  17. The role of recovery of mitochondrial structure and function in desiccation tolerance of pea seeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Cheng, Hong-Yan; Møller, Ian M; Song, Song-Quan

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial repair is of fundamental importance for seed germination. When mature orthodox seeds are imbibed and germinated, they lose their desiccation tolerance in parallel. To gain a better understanding of this process, we studied the recovery of mitochondrial structure and function in pea (Pisum sativum cv. Jizhuang) seeds with different tolerance to desiccation. Mitochondria were isolated and purified from the embryo axes of control and imbibed-dehydrated pea seeds after (re-)imbibition for various times. Recovery of mitochondrial structure and function occurred both in control and imbibed-dehydrated seed embryo axes, but at different rates and to different maximum levels. The integrity of the outer mitochondrial membrane reached 96% in all treatments. However, only the seeds imbibed for 12 h and then dehydrated recovered the integrity of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) and State 3 (respiratory state in which substrate and ADP are present) respiration (with NADH and succinate as substrate) to the control level after re-imbibition. With increasing imbibition time, the degree to which each parameter recovered decreased in parallel with the decrease in desiccation tolerance. The tolerance of imbibed seeds to desiccation increased and decreased when imbibed in CaCl(2) and methylviologen solution, respectively, and the recovery of the IMM integrity similarly improved and weakened in these two treatments, respectively. Survival of seeds after imbibition-dehydration linearly increased with the increase in ability to recover the integrity of IMM and State 3 respiration, which indicates that recovery of mitochondrial structure and function during germination has an important role in seed desiccation tolerance. PMID:21910735

  18. Pyridoxamine reduces postinjury fibrosis and improves functional recovery after acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Skrypnyk, Nataliya I; Voziyan, Paul; Yang, Haichun; de Caestecker, Christian R; Theberge, Marie-Claude; Drouin, Mathieu; Hudson, Billy; Harris, Raymond C; de Caestecker, Mark P

    2016-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and independent risk factor for death and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite promising preclinical data, there is no evidence that antioxidants reduce the severity of injury, increase recovery, or prevent CKD in patients with AKI. Pyridoxamine (PM) is a structural analog of vitamin B6 that interferes with oxidative macromolecular damage via a number of different mechanisms and is in a phase 3 clinical efficacy trial to delay CKD progression in patients with diabetic kidney disease. Because oxidative stress is implicated as one of the main drivers of renal injury after AKI, the ability of PM to interfere with multiple aspects of oxidative damage may be favorable for AKI treatment. In these studies we therefore evaluated PM treatment in a mouse model of AKI. Pretreatment with PM caused a dose-dependent reduction in acute tubular injury, long-term postinjury fibrosis, as well as improved functional recovery after ischemia-reperfusion AKI (IR-AKI). This was associated with a dose-dependent reduction in the oxidative stress marker isofuran-to-F2-isoprostane ratio, indicating that PM reduces renal oxidative damage post-AKI. PM also reduced postinjury fibrosis when administered 24 h after the initiating injury, but this was not associated with improvement in functional recovery after IR-AKI. This is the first report showing that treatment with PM reduces short- and long-term injury, fibrosis, and renal functional recovery after IR-AKI. These preclinical findings suggest that PM, which has a favorable clinical safety profile, holds therapeutic promise for AKI and, most importantly, for prevention of adverse long-term outcomes after AKI. PMID:27194713

  19. Recovery of gastrointestinal function with thoracic epidural vs. systemic analgesia following gastrointestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Shi, W-Z; Miao, Y-L; Yakoob, M Y; Cao, J-B; Zhang, H; Jiang, Y-G; Xu, L-H; Mi, W-D

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this review was to systematically assess the effect of thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) vs. systemic analgesia (SA) on the recovery of gastrointestinal (GI) function in patients following GI surgery. We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify randomized controlled trials of adult patients undergoing GI surgery, comparing the effect of two postoperative analgesia regimens. Patients postoperatively receiving local anesthesia-based TEA with or without opioids were compared to patients receiving opioid-based SA. The outcomes considered were times to GI function recovery, GI complications, and specific side effects. Twelve studies with 331 patients in the TEA group and 319 in the SA group were included. Compared to SA, TEA improved the GI recovery after GI procedures by shortening the time to first passage of flatus by 31.3 h, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): -33.2 to -29.4, P < 0.01; and shortening the time to first passage of stool by 24.1 h, 95% CIs: -27.2 to -20.9, P < 0.001. There was no difference between the groups in the incidence of anastomotic leakage and ileus. The occurrence of postoperative hypotension was relatively higher in the TEA group, risk ratio: 7.9, 95% CIs: 2.4 to 26.5, P = 0.001; other side effects (such as pruritus and vomiting) were similar in the two groups. There is evidence that TEA (compared to SA) improves the recovery of GI function after GI procedures without any increased risk of GI complications. To further confirm these effects, larger, better quality randomized controlled trials with standard outcome measurements are needed. PMID:25060245

  20. Structural and functional alterations to rat medial prefrontal cortex following chronic restraint stress and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Goldwater, Deena S.; Pavlides, Constantine; Hunter, Richard G.; Bloss, Erik B.; Hof, Patrick R.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Morrison, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic stress has been shown in animal models to result in altered dendritic morphology of pyramidal neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). It has been hypothesized that the stress-induced dendritic retractions and spine loss lead to disrupted connectivity that results in stress-induced functional impairment of mPFC. While these alterations were initially viewed as a neurodegenerative event, it has recently been established that stress induced dendritic alterations are reversible if animals are given time to recover from chronic stress. However, whether spine growth accompanies dendritic extension remains to be demonstrated. It is also not known if recovery-phase dendritic extension allows for re-establishment of functional capacity. The goal of this study, therefore, was to characterize the structural and functional effects of chronic stress and recovery on the infralimbic (IL) region of the rat mPFC. We compared neuronal morphology of layer V IL pyramidal neurons from animals subjected to 21 days of chronic restraint stress (CRS) to those that experienced CRS followed by a 21 day recovery period. Layer V pyramidal cell functional capacity was assessed by intra-IL long-term potentiation (LTP) both in the absence and presence of SKF38393, a dopamine receptor partial agonist and a known PFC LTP modulator. We found that stress-induced IL apical dendritic retraction and spine loss co-occur with receptor-mediated impairments to catecholaminergic facilitation of synaptic plasticity. We also found that while post-stress recovery did not reverse distal dendritic retraction, it did result in over-extension of proximal dendritic neuroarchitecture and spine growth as well as a full reversal of CRS-induced impairments to catecholaminergic-mediated synaptic plasticity. Our results support the hypothesis that disease-related PFC dysfunction is a consequence of network disruption secondary to altered structural and functional plasticity and that circuitry

  1. Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint arthroplasty but are considered resource intensive. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been shown to improve quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength and clinical function in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) however it has not been previously investigated as a prehabilitation modality. Methods This pilot study assessed the compliance of a home-based, NMES prehabilitation programme in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We evaluated its effect on preoperative and postoperative isometric quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength, QFM cross-sectional area (CSA) and clinical function (subjective and objective). Seventeen subjects were recruited with 14 completing the study (NMES group n = 9; Control group n = 5). Results Overall compliance with the programme was excellent (99%). Preoperative QFM strength increased by 28% (p > 0.05) with associated gains in walk, stair-climb and chair-rise times (p < 0.05). Early postoperative strength loss (approximately 50%) was similar in both groups. Only the NMES group demonstrated significant strength (53.3%, p = 0.011) and functional recovery (p < 0.05) from 6 to 12 weeks post-TKA. QFM CSA decreased by 4% in the NMES group compared to a reduction of 12% in the control group (P > 0.05) at 12 weeks postoperatively compared to baseline. There were only limited associations found between objective and subjective functional outcome instruments. Conclusions This pilot study has shown that preoperative NMES may improve recovery of quadriceps muscle strength and expedite a return to normal activities in patients undergoing TKA for OA. Recommendations for appropriate outcome instruments in future studies of prehabilitation in TKA have been provided. PMID:20540807

  2. Effects of Ankle–Foot Orthoses on Functional Recovery after Stroke: A Propensity Score Analysis Based on Japan Rehabilitation Database

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to investigate potential effects of ankle–foot orthoses (AFOs) on the functional recovery of post-acute stroke patients following rehabilitation. Subjects and Methods This study is a retrospective cohort study. Participants were in-hospital stroke patients registered in the Japan Rehabilitation Database between 2005 and 2012. A total of 1862 patients were eligible after applying exclusion criteria. Propensity score analysis was applied to adjust for potential bias and to create two comparable groups. An additional subset analysis focused on Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores on admission. Results In this sample, 30.7% of 1863 eligible patients were prescribed AFOs. Propensity score matched analysis showed that patients with AFOs had significantly higher scores than those without them for discharge FIM (mean: 91.3 vs 85.8; p=0.02), FIM gain (mean: 28.9 vs 23.5; p<0.001), and FIM efficiency (mean: 0.27 vs 0.22; p<0.001). Inverse probability weighting analysis showed similar results. In the subset analysis, patients with AFOs had significantly higher discharge FIM compared with those without them in the low admission FIM subgroup only. In addition, patients with AFOs performed independent exercise more than those without them (p<0.001). Conclusions These data suggest that stroke survivors may have better functional recovery if they are prescribed an AFO than if they are not prescribed an AFO. The use of AFOs is considered to be a feasible option to improve functional recovery of stroke rehabilitation patients. PMID:25837720

  3. Effects of estrogen on functional and neurological recovery after spinal cord injury: An experimental study with rats

    PubMed Central

    Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa; Ferreira, Ricardo; dos Santos, Gustavo Bispo; da Rocha, Ivan Dias; Marcon, Raphael Martus

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the functional and histological effects of estrogen as a neuroprotective agent after a standard experimentally induced spinal cord lesion. METHODS: In this experimental study, 20 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one group with rats undergoing spinal cord injury (SCI) at T10 and receiving estrogen therapy with 17-beta estradiol (4mg/kg) immediately following the injury and after the placement of skin sutures and a control group with rats only subjected to SCI. A moderate standard experimentally induced SCI was produced using a computerized device that dropped a weight on the rat's spine from a height of 12.5 mm. Functional recovery was verified with the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scale on the 2nd, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, 35th and 42nd days after injury and by quantifying the motor-evoked potential on the 42nd day after injury. Histopathological evaluation of the SCI area was performed after euthanasia on the 42nd day. RESULTS: The experimental group showed a significantly greater functional improvement from the 28th to the 42nd day of observation compared to the control group. The experimental group showed statistically significant improvements in the motor-evoked potential compared with the control group. The results of pathological histomorphometry evaluations showed a better neurological recovery in the experimental group, with respect to the proportion and diameter of the quantified nerve fibers. CONCLUSIONS: Estrogen administration provided benefits in neurological and functional motor recovery in rats with SCI beginning at the 28th day after injury. PMID:26598084

  4. Relationship between T-wave normalization on exercise ECG and myocardial functional recovery in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Jin; Shim, Wan Joo; Jung, Seong Won; Pak, Hui Nam; Lee, Soo Jin; Song, Woo Hyuk; Kim, Young Hoon; Seo, Hong Seog; Oh, Dong Joo; Ro, Young Moo

    2002-01-01

    Background Several studies suggested that T-wave normalization (TWN) in exercise ECG indicates the presence of viable myocardium. But the clinical implication of this phenomenon in patients with acute myocardial infarction who received proper revascularization therapy was not determined. Precisely the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between TWN in exercise ECG and myocardial functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction. Methods We studied 30 acute myocardial infarction patients with negative T waves in infarct related electrocardiographic leads and who had received successful revascularization therapy. Exercise ECG was performed 10–14days after infarct onset using Naughton protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to presence (group I; n=14) or not (group II; n=16) of TWN in exercise ECG. Exercise parameters and coronary angiographic findings were compared between groups. Baseline and follow-up (mean 11 months) regional and global left ventricular function was analyzed by echocardiography. Results Exercise parameters were similar between groups. There was no difference in baseline ejection fraction and wall motion score between group I and II (EF; 56±12% vs 52±11%, p=ns. WMS; 21±3 vs 23±4, p=ns) and it was improved at the tenth month by similar magnitude (group I/group II, EF % change=12±12% vs 7±6%, p=ns, WMS % change=6±6% vs 7±5%, p=ns). The finding of no relation between TWN and functional recovery was observed also when the patients were analysed according to infarct location and presence or absence of Q-waves. Conclusion As the exercise-induced TWN in patients with acute myocardial infarction was not related with better functional recovery of dysfunctional regional wall motion and ejection fraction, TWN does not appear to be an indicator of myocardial viability. PMID:12164089

  5. Recovery of post stroke proximal arm function, driven by complex neuroplastic bilateral brain activation patterns and predicted by baseline motor dysfunction severity

    PubMed Central

    Pundik, Svetlana; McCabe, Jessica P.; Hrovat, Ken; Fredrickson, Alice Erica; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Feng, I Jung; Daly, Janis J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Neuroplastic changes that drive recovery of shoulder/elbow function after stroke have been poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between neuroplastic brain changes related to shoulder/elbow movement control in response to treatment and recovery of arm motor function in chronic stroke survivors.Methods: Twenty-three chronic stroke survivors were treated with 12 weeks of arm rehabilitation. Outcome measures included functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) for the shoulder/elbow components of reach and a skilled motor function test (Arm Motor Abilities Test, AMAT), collected before and after treatment.Results: We observed two patterns of neuroplastic changes that were associated with gains in motor function: decreased or increased task-related brain activation. Those with significantly better motor function at baseline exhibited a decrease in brain activation in response to treatment, evident in the ipsilesional primary motor and contralesional supplementary motor regions; in contrast, those with greater baseline motor impairment, exhibited increased brain activation in response to treatment. There was a linear relationship between greater functional gain (AMAT) and increased activation in bilateral primary motor, contralesional primary and secondary sensory regions, and contralesional lateral premotor area, after adjusting for baseline AMAT, age, and time since stroke.Conclusions: Recovery of functional reach involves recruitment of several contralesional and bilateral primary motor regions. In response to intensive therapy, the direction of functional brain change (i.e., increase or decrease in task-related brain recruitment) for shoulder/elbow reach components depends on baseline level of motor function and may represent either different phases of recovery or different patterns of neuroplasticity that drive functional recovery. PMID:26257623

  6. Voluntary forced use of the impaired limb following stroke facilitates functional recovery in the rat.

    PubMed

    Livingston-Thomas, Jessica M; McGuire, Emily P; Doucette, Tracy A; Tasker, R Andrew

    2014-03-15

    Constraint induced movement therapy (CIMT), which forces use of the impaired arm following stroke, improves functional recovery. The mechanisms underlying recovery are not well understood, necessitating further investigation into how rehabilitation may affect neuroplasticity using animal models. Animal motivation and stress make modelling CIMT in animals challenging. We have shown that following focal ischemia, voluntary forced use therapy using pet activity balls could engage the impaired forelimb and result in a modest acceleration in recovery. In this study, we investigated the effects of a more intensive appetitively motivated regimen that included task specific reaching exercises. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to focal unilateral stroke using intracerebral injections of endothelin-1 or sham surgery. Three days later, stroke animals were assigned to daily rehabilitation or control therapy. Rehabilitation consisted of 30 min of generalized movement sessions in activity balls, followed by 30 min of voluntary task-specific movement using reaching boxes. Rats were tested weekly to measure forelimb deficit and recovery. After 30 days, animals were euthanized and tissue was examined for infarct volume, brain derived neurotrophic factor expression, and the presence of new neurons using doublecortin immunohistochemistry. Rehabilitation resulted in a significant acceleration of forelimb recovery in several tests, and a significant increase in the number of doublecortin-expressing cells. Furthermore, while the proportion of cells expressing BDNF in the peri-infarct region did not change, there was a shift in the cellular origin of expressed BDNF, resulting in significantly more non-neuronal, non-astrocytic BDNF, presumed to be of microglial origin. PMID:24388978

  7. Local delivery of FTY720 in PCL membrane improves SCI functional recovery by reducing reactive astrogliosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjuan; Wang, Jiaqiu; Lu, Ping; Cai, Youzhi; Wang, Yafei; Hong, Lan; Ren, Hao; Heng, Boon Chin; Liu, Hua; Zhou, Jing; Ouyang, Hongwei

    2015-09-01

    FTY720 has recently been approved as an oral drug for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, and exerts its therapeutic effect by acting as an immunological inhibitor targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor subtype (S1P1) of T cells. Recently studies demonstrated positive efficacy of this drug on spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models after systemic administration, albeit with significant adverse side effects. We hereby hypothesize that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by reducing pathological astrogliosis. The mechanistic functions of FTY720 were investigated in vitro and in vivo utilizing immunofluorescence, histology, MRI and behavioral analysis. The in vitro study showed that FTY720 can reduce astrocyte migration and proliferation activated by S1P. FTY720 can prolong internalization of S1P1 and exert antagonistic effects on S1P1. In vivo study of SCI animal models demonstrated that local delivery of FTY720 with polycaprolactone (PCL) membrane significantly decreased S1P1 expression and glial scarring compared with the control group. Furthermore, FTY720-treated groups exhibited less cavitation volume and neuron loss, which significantly improved recovery of motor function. These findings demonstrated that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by targeting the S1P1 receptor of astrocytes, provide a new therapeutic strategy for SCI treatment. PMID:26036174

  8. Accidental bilateral Q-switched neodymium laser exposure: treatment and recovery of visual function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwick, Harry; Stuck, Bruce E.; Dunlap, Weldon; Scales, David K.; Lund, David J.; Ness, James W.

    1998-05-01

    A 21 year old female was accidentally exposed in both eyes when she looked into the 10 cm exit aperture of a military laser designator emitting 1064 nm q-switched (30 ns) pulses at a 10 pulse per second rate. Steroid therapy (methylprednisolone sodium succinate) was initiated within 6 hours post exposure. Initial ophthalmoscopic observation revealed small contained macular hemorrhages in each eye. Fluorescein angiography (FA) showed minimal leakage. Visual acuity was 20/100 and 20/60 in OD and OS respectively. Contrast sensitivity in both eyes was depressed across all spatial frequencies by more than 1.5 log units. At four weeks post exposure, no significant macular scarring was apparent and visual acuity returned to 20/25 in both eyes. Contrast sensitivity had improved to normal levels with a peak at 3 cycles/degree. At one year post exposure, visual acuity was 20/13 in both eyes and measures of contrast sensitivity were within normal limits. During the course of recovery, the patient's fixation shifted from a slightly superior temporal site back to the central foveal region. The foveal lesion sites were still evident by ophthalmoscopy and Amsler grid measurements but were deemed functional when the patient placed small targets generated by the scanning laser ophthalmoscope in the lesion site for discrimination. This outcome indicates remarkable recovery of visual function and suggests that early administration of steroids may assist in preserving the natural neural recovery process of the photoreceptor matrix by minimizing intraretinal scar formation.

  9. Human Hepatocyte Growth Factor Promotes Functional Recovery in Primates after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Kazuya; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Yamane, Jun-ichi; Toyota, Fumika; Hikishima, Keigo; Nomura, Tatsuji; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Aoki, Masashi; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

    2011-01-01

    Many therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) using neurotrophic factors have focused on reducing the area damaged by secondary, post-injury degeneration, to promote functional recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes and a mediator of the inflammatory responses to tissue injury, was recently highlighted as a potent neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. We previously reported that introducing exogenous HGF into the injured rodent spinal cord using a herpes simplex virus-1 vector significantly reduces the area of damaged tissue and promotes functional recovery. However, that study did not examine the therapeutic effects of administering HGF after injury, which is the most critical issue for clinical application. To translate this strategy to human treatment, we induced a contusive cervical SCI in the common marmoset, a primate, and then administered recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) intrathecally. Motor function was assessed using an original open field scoring system focusing on manual function, including reach-and-grasp performance and hand placement in walking. The intrathecal rhHGF preserved the corticospinal fibers and myelinated areas, thereby promoting functional recovery. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed significant preservation of the intact spinal cord parenchyma. rhHGF-treatment did not give rise to an abnormal outgrowth of calcitonin gene related peptide positive fibers compared to the control group, indicating that this treatment did not induce or exacerbate allodynia. This is the first study to report the efficacy of rhHGF for treating SCI in non-human primates. In addition, this is the first presentation of a novel scale for assessing neurological motor performance in non-human primates after contusive cervical SCI. PMID:22140459

  10. Association of home care needs and functional recovery among community-dwelling elderly hip fracture patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Chu; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Lin, Yu-Te; Ku, Yan-Chiou; Wang, Ruey-Hsia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the home care needs and task difficulty of community-dwelling aged hip fracture and the association of functional recovery with care received. A cohort of hip fracture patients admitted to orthopedic wards for surgery was collected from August 2009 to December 2010. Patients transferred to long-term care facilities after surgery were excluded. Functional status (feeding, clothing, grooming, bathing, getting in/out of bed, walking, toileting, standing up/sitting down, and walking up/down stairs) and task difficulty for caregivers were recorded at discharge, one week and one month after discharge. In total, 116 patients (mean age: 79.4 ± 8.5 years, 51.7% males) were enrolled. The mean age of primary caregivers was 53.4 ± 14.2 years, and most were daughters or sons (54.3%), spouses (34.5%) or foreign workers (11.0%). The most common care needs were wound care (95.7%), medical visits (94.8%), cleaning and maintaining living quarters (92.2%) and vigilance to ensure patient safety (92.2%). The care needs and task difficulty significantly correlated with physical function before, one week and one month after discharge (r=-0.530, p<0.001; r=-0.326, p=0.001; r=-0.432, p<0.001; r=-0.684, p<0.001; and r=-0.475, p<0.001, respectively). The complex and taxing home care needs of community-dwelling elderly hip fracture patients were significantly associated with functional recovery. Comprehensive geriatric assessment and related special medical services may greatly help caregivers and promote the practice of aging in place. Further study is needed to develop appropriate caregiver education to promote the functional recovery of elderly hip fracture patients at home. PMID:23746577

  11. Predictors of 30-Day Mortality and 90-Day Functional Recovery after Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage : Hospital Based Multivariate Analysis in 585 Patients

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to identify independent predictors of mortality and functional recovery in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH) and to improve functional outcome in these patients. Methods Data were collected retrospectively on 585 patients with supratentorial PICH admitted to the Stroke Unit at our hospital between 1st January 2004 and the 31st July 2008. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the associations between all selected variables and 30-day mortality and 90-day functional recoveries after PICH was evaluated. Results Ninety-day functional recovery was achieved in 29.1% of the 585 patients and 30-day mortality in 15.9%. Age (OR=7.384, p=0.000), limb weakness (OR=6.927, p=0.000), and hematoma volume (OR=5.293, p=0.000) were found to be powerful predictors of 90-day functional recovery. Furthermore, initial consciousness (OR=3.013, p=0.014) hematoma location (lobar, OR=2.653, p=0.003), ventricular extension of blood (OR=2.077, p=0.013), leukocytosis (OR=2.048, p=0.008), alcohol intake (drinker, OR=1.927, p=0.023), and increased serum aminotransferase (OR=1.892, p=0.035) were found to be independent predictors of 90-day functional recovery after PICH. On the other hand, a pupillary abnormality (OR=4.532, p=0.000) and initial unconsciousness (OR=3.362, p=0.000) were found to be independent predictors of 30-day mortality after PICH. Conclusion The predictors of mortality and functional recovery after PICH identified during this analysis may assist during clinical decision-making, when advising patients or family members about the prognosis of PICH and when planning intervention trials. PMID:19609417

  12. The Recovery of Walking in Stroke Patients: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Sung Ho

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on walking recovery of stroke patients as it relates to the following subjects: epidemiology of walking dysfunction, recovery course of walking, and recovery mechanism of walking (neural control of normal walking, the evaluation methods for leg motor function, and motor recovery mechanism of leg). The recovery of walking…

  13. Avoidance of Profound Hypothermia During Initial Reperfusion Improves the Functional Recovery of Hearts Donated After Circulatory Death.

    PubMed

    White, C W; Ambrose, E; Müller, A; Li, Y; Le, H; Thliveris, J; Arora, R C; Lee, T W; Dixon, I M C; Tian, G; Nagendran, J; Hryshko, L V; Freed, D H

    2016-03-01

    The resuscitation of hearts donated after circulatory death (DCD) is gaining widespread interest; however, the method of initial reperfusion (IR) that optimizes functional recovery has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the impact of IR temperature on the recovery of myocardial function during ex vivo heart perfusion (EVHP). Eighteen pigs were anesthetized, mechanical ventilation was discontinued, and cardiac arrest ensued. A 15-min standoff period was observed and then hearts were reperfused for 3 min at three different temperatures (5°C; N = 6, 25°C; N = 5, and 35°C; N = 7) with a normokalemic adenosine-lidocaine crystalloid cardioplegia. Hearts then underwent normothermic EVHP for 6 h during which time myocardial function was assessed in a working mode. We found that IR coronary blood flow differed among treatment groups (5°C = 483 ± 53, 25°C = 722 ± 60, 35°C = 906 ± 36 mL/min, p < 0.01). During subsequent EVHP, less myocardial injury (troponin I: 5°C = 91 ± 6, 25°C = 64 ± 16, 35°C = 57 ± 7 pg/mL/g, p = 0.04) and greater preservation of endothelial cell integrity (electron microscopy injury score: 5°C = 3.2 ± 0.5, 25°C = 1.8 ± 0.2, 35°C = 1.7 ± 0.3, p = 0.01) were evident in hearts initially reperfused at warmer temperatures. IR under profoundly hypothermic conditions impaired the recovery of myocardial function (cardiac index: 5°C = 3.9 ± 0.8, 25°C = 6.2 ± 0.4, 35°C = 6.5 ± 0.6 mL/minute/g, p = 0.03) during EVHP. We conclude that the avoidance of profound hypothermia during IR minimizes injury and improves the functional recovery of DCD hearts. PMID:26780159

  14. Comparison of methods for determining the hydrologic recovery time after forest disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, T.; Green, M.; Ohte, N.; Urakawa, R.; Endo, I.; Scanlon, T. M.; Sebestyen, S. D.; McGuire, K. J.; Katsuyama, M.; Fukuzawa, K.; Tague, C.; Hiraoka, M.; Fukushima, K.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in forest hydrology changes after forest disturbance vary among catchments. Although studies have summarized the initial runoff changes following forest disturbance, the estimates of long-term recovery time are less frequently reported. To understand the mechanisms of long-term recovery processes and to predict the long-term changes in streamflow after forest disturbance, it is important to compare recovery times after disturbance. However, there is no clear consensus regarding the best methodology for such research, especially for watershed studies that were not designed as paired watersheds. We compared methods of determining the hydrologic recovery time to determine if there is a common method for sites in any hydroclimatic setting. We defined the hydrologic recovery time to be the time of disturbance to the time when hydrological factors first recovered to pre-disturbance levels. We acquired data on long-term rainfall and runoff at 16 sites in northeastern USA and Japan that had at least 10 years (and up to 50 years) of post disturbance data. The types of disturbance include harvesting, diseases and insect damages. We compared multiple indices of hydrological response including annual runoff, annual runoff ratio (annual runoff/annual rainfall), annual loss (annual rainfall-annual runoff), fiftieth-percentile annual flow, and seasonal water balance. The results showed that comparing annual runoff to a reference site was most robust at constraining the recovery time, followed by using pre-disturbance data as reference data and calculating the differences in annual runoff from pre-disturbance levels. However, in case of small disturbance at sites without reference data or long-term pre-disturbance data, the inter-annual variation of rainfall makes the effect of disturbance unclear. We found that annual loss had smaller inter-annual variation, and defining recovery time with annual loss was best in terms of matching the results from paired watersheds. The

  15. Function of transected or avulsed rectus muscles following recovery using an anterior orbitotomy approach

    PubMed Central

    Pineles, Stacy L.; Laursen, Jessica; Goldberg, Robert A.; Demer, Joseph L.; Velez, Federico G.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the function of muscles retrieved from a retrobulbar location using an anterior orbitotomy approach and to identify the prognostic factors favoring a good outcome. METHODS The records of all patients undergoing anterior orbitotomy for the retrieval of a transected or avulsed muscle in a retrobulbar location were reviewed. Ocular motility, before and after retrieval (with ductions scaled from −4 to +4), was evaluated. RESULTS Record review identified 11 patients who had suffered trauma to 12 muscles (5 inferior, 6 medial, and 1 lateral rectus muscle). Ductions improved from −4 ± 0.4 preoperatively to −2.7 ± 0.9 postoperatively (P = 0.002); mean primary position deviation improved from 34Δ ± 14Δ-15Δ ± 9Δ (P < 0.001), and mean deviation in the field of action improved from 47Δ ± 20Δ-20Δ ± 22Δ (P = 0.02). Ductions improved by at least two units in three patients, all of whom had medial rectus trauma. Single binocular vision in primary gaze was achieved in 6 patients. Patients with medial rectus muscle injury and patients injured by sinus surgery had the lowest likelihood of recovering single binocular vision. CONCLUSIONS Our results are similar to historical series in which muscles were not retrieved and transpositions performed; however, muscle retrieval avoids risks associated with transposition surgeries such as anterior segment ischemia. Muscle recovery via the anterior orbitotomy approach may be reasonable to consider in those cases with a reasonable possibility of having active force generation postoperatively. PMID:22835914

  16. The Development of Functional Overreaching Is Associated with a Faster Heart Rate Recovery in Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Aubry, Anaël; Hausswirth, Christophe; Louis, Julien; Coutts, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to investigate whether heart rate recovery (HRR) may represent an effective marker of functional overreaching (f-OR) in endurance athletes. Methods and Results Thirty-one experienced male triathletes were tested (10 control and 21 overload subjects) before (Pre), and immediately after an overload training period (Mid) and after a 2-week taper (Post). Physiological responses were assessed during an incremental cycling protocol to exhaustion, including heart rate, catecholamine release and blood lactate concentration. Ten participants from the overload group developed signs of f-OR at Mid (i.e. -2.1 ± 0.8% change in performance associated with concomitant high perceived fatigue). Additionally, only the f-OR group demonstrated a 99% chance of increase in HRR during the overload period (+8 ± 5 bpm, large effect size). Concomitantly, this group also revealed a >80% chance of decreasing blood lactate (-11 ± 14%, large), plasma norepinephrine (-12 ± 37%, small) and plasma epinephrine peak concentrations (-51 ± 22%, moderate). These blood measures returned to baseline levels at Post. HRR change was negatively correlated to changes in performance, peak HR and peak blood metabolites concentrations. Conclusion These findings suggest that i) a faster HRR is not systematically associated with improved physical performance, ii) changes in HRR should be interpreted in the context of the specific training phase, the athletes perceived level of fatigue and the performance response; and, iii) the faster HRR associated with f-OR may be induced by a decreased central command and by a lower chemoreflex activity. PMID:26488766

  17. The functional connectivity of semantic task changes in the recovery from stroke aphasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jie; Wu, Xia; Yao, Li; Li, Kun-Cheng; Shu, Hua; Dong, Qi

    2007-03-01

    Little is known about the difference of functional connectivity of semantic task between the recovery aphasic patients and normal subject. In this paper, an fMRI experiment was performed in a patient with aphasia following a left-sided ischemic lesion and normal subject. Picture naming was used as semantic activation task in this study. We compared the preliminary functional connectivity results of the recovery aphasic patient with the normal subject. The fMRI data were separated by independent component analysis (ICA) into 90 components. According to our experience and other papers, we chose a region of interest (ROI) of semantic (x=-57, y=15, z=8, r=11mm). From the 90 components, we chose one component as the functional connectivity of the semantic ROI according to one criterion. The criterion is the mean value of the voxels in the ROI. So the component of the highest mean value of the ROI is the functional connectivity of the ROI. The voxel with its value higher than 2.4 was thought as activated (p<0.05). And the functional connectivity networks of the normal subjects were t-tested as group network. From the result, we can know the semantic functional connectivity of stroke aphasic patient and normal subjects are different. The activated areas of the left inferior frontal gyrus and inferior/middle temporal gyrus are larger than the ones of normal. The activated area of the right inferior frontal gyrus is smaller than the ones of normal. The functional connectivity of stroke aphasic patient under semantic condition is different with the normal one. The focus of the stroke aphasic patient can affect the functional connectivity.

  18. Citalopram Enhances Neurovascular Regeneration and Sensorimotor Functional Recovery after Ischemic Stroke in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Espinera, Alyssa R.; Ogle, Molly E.; Gu, Xiaohuan; Wei, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) after stroke enhances motor functional recovery; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. We hypothesized that daily administration of the clinical drug citalopram would produce these functional benefits via enhancing neurovascular repair in the ischemic peri-infarct region. To test this hypothesis, focal ischemic stroke was induced in male C57/B6 mice by permanent ligation of distal branches of the middle cerebral artery to the barrel cortex and 7-min occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries. Citalopram (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected 24 hrs after stroke and daily thereafter. To label proliferating cells, bromo-deoxyuridine was injected daily beginning 3 days after stroke. Immunohistochemical and functional assays were performed to elucidate citalopram-mediated cellular and sensorimotor changes after stroke. Citalopram treatment had no significant effect on infarct formation or edema 3 days after stroke; however, citalopram-treated mice had better functional recovery than saline-treated controls 3 and 14 days after stroke in the adhesive removal test. Increased expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor was detected in the peri-infarct region 7 days after stroke in citalopram-treated animals. The number of proliferating neural progenitor cells and the distance of neuroblast migration from the sub-ventricular zone towards the ischemic cortex were significantly greater in citalopram-treated mice at 7 days after stroke. Immunohistochemical staining and co-localization analysis showed that citalopram-treated animals generated more new neurons and microvessels in the peri-infarct region 21 and 28 days after stroke. Taken together, these results suggest that citalopram promotes post-stroke sensorimotor recovery likely via enhancing neurogenesis, neural cell migration and the microvessel support in the peri-infarct region of

  19. Impact of obesity on recovery and pulmonary functions of obese women undergoing major abdominal gynecological surgeries.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Ahmed A M; Abdelazim, Ibrahim A

    2016-06-01

    To determine impact of obesity on recovery parameters and pulmonary functions of women undergoing major abdominal gynecological surgeries. Eighty women undergoing major gynecological surgeries were included in this study. Anesthesia was induced by remifentanil bolus, followed by propofol and cisatracurium to facilitate oro-tracheal intubation and was maintained by balanced anesthesia of remifentanil intravenous infusion and sevoflurane in oxygen and air. Time from discontinuation of maintenance anesthesia to fully awake were recorded at 1-min intervals and time from discontinuation of anesthesia until patient was transferred to post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and discharged from PACU was also recorded. Pulmonary function tests were performed before surgery and repeated 4 h, days 1, 2 and 3 post-operative for evaluation of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and peak expiratory flow rate. Occurrence of post-operative complications, re-admission to ICU, hospital stay and morbidities were also recorded. Induction of anesthesia using remifentanil bolus injection resulted in significant decrease of heart rate and arterial pressures compared to pre-operative and pre-induction values. Recovery times were significantly shorter in obese compared to morbidly obese women. Post-operative pulmonary function tests showed significant deterioration compared to pre-operative measures but showed progressive improvement through first 3 post-operative days. Hospital stay was significantly shorter for obese compared to morbid obese women. Obesity delays recovery from general anesthesia, adversely affects pulmonary functions and increases post-operative complications. Remifentanil infusion and sevoflurane could be appropriate combination for obese and morbidly obese women undergoing major surgeries. PMID:26072156

  20. New method for evaluating effective recovery time and single photoelectron response in silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodzicka, Martyna; Szczęśniak, Tomasz; Moszyński, Marek; Szawłowski, Marek; Grodzicki, Krystian

    2015-05-01

    The linearity of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) response depends on the number of APD cells and its effective recovery time and it is related to the intensity and duration of the detected light pulses. The aim of this study was to determine the effective recovery time on the basis of the measured SiPM response to light pulses of different durations. A closer analysis of the SiPM response to the light pulses shorter than the effective recovery time of APD cells led to a method for the evaluation of the single photoelectron response of the devices where the single photoelectron peak cannot be clearly measured. This is necessary in the evaluation of the number of fired APD cells (or the number of photoelectrons) in measurements with light pulses of various durations. Measurements were done with SiPMs manufactured by two companies: Hamamatsu and SensL.

  1. Development of on-farm oil recovery and processing methods: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.; Kilgo, M.B.

    1987-09-02

    Using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), peanut oil was extracted from ground peanuts at pressures of 2000 to 10,000 psi and temperatures of 25-120/degree/ C. Above 6000 psi, increasing the temperature to the maximum possible without heavily charring the peanuts (120/degree/C) significantly increased the initial extraction rate. Increasing the pressure at constant temperature increased the rate. At higher temperatures (75/degree/ C and above) roasting began to occur, however, this was not detrimental to the extraction rate or overall oil recovery. Decreasing the particle size increases the overall yield per batch of peanuts as seen in both the half factorial and particle size experiments. Increasing the moisture increases the amount of volatiles lost. The flow rate does not affect the solubility, percent oil recovered or volatiles lost for flow rates of 40 to 60 liters CO2/minute at STP. Recovery of peanut and rapeseed oil with a combined process of partial recovery in a screw press plus extraction of the remaining oil with SC-CO2 is technically a viable alternative to other oil recovery methods. Oil recoveries of 95% (peanuts) and 75% (rapeseed) have been demonstrated. The initial extraction rate for rapeseed was consistently lower than the rate for peanuts at the same extraction temperature and pressure. No differences in SC-CO2 extraction rates or yields were found between Dwarf Essex and Cascade varieties of rapeseed. 8 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Optimization of the purification methods for recovery of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xuecheng; Mu, Xiaosheng; Liu, Bin

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to optimize the purification of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus. Recombinant flounder growth hormone (r-fGH) was expressed by Escherichia coli in form of inclusion body or as soluble protein under different inducing conditions. The inclusion body was renatured using two recovery methods, i.e., dilution and dialysis. Thereafter, the refolded protein was purified by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography and r-fGH was obtained by cleavage of thrombin. For soluble products, r-fGH was directly purified from the lysates by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography. ELISA-receptor assay demonstrated that despite its low receptor binding activity, the r-fGH purified from refolded inclusion body had a higher yield (2.605 mg L-1) than that from soluble protein (1.964 mg L-1). Of the tested recovery methods, addition of renaturing buffer (pH 8.5) into denatured inclusion body yielded the best recovery rate (17.9%). This work provided an optimized purification method for high recovery of r-fGH, thus contributing to the application of r-fGH to aquaculture.

  3. Comparison of selected methods for recovery of Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Raphael Corrêa; Daniel, Luiz Antonio

    2015-09-01

    More precise methods are needed to recover Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts from wastewater in order to advance research related to their inactivation, removal, quantification, and species differentiation. This study applied different methods to recover the maximum number of (oo)cysts from wastewater samples using ColorSeed®. Immunomagnetic separation assisted in capturing oocysts mainly in samples with medium and low turbidity. A triple centrifugation method reached recovery rates of 85% and 20%, for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts, respectively, in raw wastewater, and 62.5 and 17.5% in secondary-treated effluent. For low turbidity-treated effluent, membrane filtration reached 67.5% recovery for Giardia cysts and 22.5% for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Simple, quick and low-cost methods do not involve much handling of the samples and could be useful, particularly in developing countries. PMID:26322766

  4. Impact of the sampling method and chilling on the Salmonella recovery from pig carcasses.

    PubMed

    Vanantwerpen, Gerty; De Zutter, Lieven; Berkvens, Dirk; Houf, Kurt

    2016-09-01

    Differences in recovery of Salmonella on pig carcasses using non-destructive and destructive sampling methods is not well understood in respect to the chilling processes applied in slaughterhouses. Therefore, in two slaughterhouses, four strains at two different concentrations were inoculated onto pork skin. Inoculated skin samples were sampled before and after chilling with two sampling methods: swabbing and destruction. Both slaughterhouses were visited three times and all tests were performed in triplicate. All samples were analysed using the ISO-method and recovered isolates were confirmed by PFGE. The chilling system (fast or conventional cooling) nor the sampling step (before and after chilling) did not significantly influence the recovery of Salmonella. However, swabbing after chilling leads to an underestimation of the real number of contaminated carcasses. Therefore, destructive sampling is the more designated sampling method after chilling. PMID:27236225

  5. Recovery of functional DNA inserts by electroendosmotic elution during gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, H V; Kitzis, A; Berthollet, T; Hamard, G; Beldjord, C; Benarous, R

    1988-01-01

    In contrast to all previous preparative electrophoresis apparatus which used a pump, electroendosmotic elution uses bound electrical charges at the end of the separating gel to generate a buffer flow. The electroendosmotic flow increased with increasing currents and decreasing buffer concentrations: its exact characteristics for the built apparatus were determined. The electroendosmotic device was able to separate two DNA fragments differing in size by only 5% with a recovery over 95%. As demonstrated in practical examples of recovery and uses of DNA inserts, up to 10 micrograms of DNA per band can be loaded at a time. The recovered DNA can be used directly for nick-translation, ligation... without further treatment. The performances of the method are expected to improve still further if the charge density and pores of the electroendosmotic medium can be "made-to-order" to provide a better flow profile of the eluting buffer. Images PMID:2833722

  6. Snake and Spider Toxins Induce a Rapid Recovery of Function of Botulinum Neurotoxin Paralysed Neuromuscular Junction

    PubMed Central

    Duregotti, Elisa; Zanetti, Giulia; Scorzeto, Michele; Megighian, Aram; Montecucco, Cesare; Pirazzini, Marco; Rigoni, Michela

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and some animal neurotoxins (β-Bungarotoxin, β-Btx, from elapid snakes and α-Latrotoxin, α-Ltx, from black widow spiders) are pre-synaptic neurotoxins that paralyse motor axon terminals with similar clinical outcomes in patients. However, their mechanism of action is different, leading to a largely-different duration of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) blockade. BoNTs induce a long-lasting paralysis without nerve terminal degeneration acting via proteolytic cleavage of SNARE proteins, whereas animal neurotoxins cause an acute and complete degeneration of motor axon terminals, followed by a rapid recovery. In this study, the injection of animal neurotoxins in mice muscles previously paralyzed by BoNT/A or /B accelerates the recovery of neurotransmission, as assessed by electrophysiology and morphological analysis. This result provides a proof of principle that, by causing the complete degeneration, reabsorption, and regeneration of a paralysed nerve terminal, one could favour the recovery of function of a biochemically- or genetically-altered motor axon terminal. These observations might be relevant to dying-back neuropathies, where pathological changes first occur at the neuromuscular junction and then progress proximally toward the cell body. PMID:26670253

  7. Structural and functional shifts in zoobenthos induced by organic enrichment — Implications for community recovery potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villnäs, A.; Perus, J.; Bonsdorff, E.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat change induced by organic enrichment is a growing concern for the sustainability of benthic communities in coastal aquatic environments. This case study describes the spatial and temporal response patterns and the recovery potential of low-diversity benthic communities to organic enrichment at two fish farm locations, during the rearing periods (15 and 20 years, respectively) and the following recovery periods (2 years). The spatial extent of disturbance differed depending on the hydromorphological characteristics of the rearing sites, but degraded macrobenthic communities close to both fish farms were recorded soon after the activity started. Continued organic enrichment resulted in high species turnover-rates and in an altered benthic community composition at both locations. After fish farm abatement, a partial recovery was detected in species richness, but abundance and biomass values were reduced and changes in structural composition remained. Alterations in benthic biological traits were observed at both fish farm locations, implying that organic enrichment might cause changes in benthic community function within low-diversity benthic communities.

  8. Hierarchical Ensemble Methods for Protein Function Prediction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Protein function prediction is a complex multiclass multilabel classification problem, characterized by multiple issues such as the incompleteness of the available annotations, the integration of multiple sources of high dimensional biomolecular data, the unbalance of several functional classes, and the difficulty of univocally determining negative examples. Moreover, the hierarchical relationships between functional classes that characterize both the Gene Ontology and FunCat taxonomies motivate the development of hierarchy-aware prediction methods that showed significantly better performances than hierarchical-unaware “flat” prediction methods. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of hierarchical methods for protein function prediction based on ensembles of learning machines. According to this general approach, a separate learning machine is trained to learn a specific functional term and then the resulting predictions are assembled in a “consensus” ensemble decision, taking into account the hierarchical relationships between classes. The main hierarchical ensemble methods proposed in the literature are discussed in the context of existing computational methods for protein function prediction, highlighting their characteristics, advantages, and limitations. Open problems of this exciting research area of computational biology are finally considered, outlining novel perspectives for future research. PMID:25937954

  9. The Functional Context Method of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Harry A.

    1967-01-01

    The functional context method of instruction for radio repair training is described. Although limited to electronics here, it is applicable in other types of training. The basic premise of the method is twofold: the context of the material to be learned must be meaningful to the learner and must, at the same time, be directly relevant to the goals…

  10. A Combination Therapy of Nicotinamide and Progesterone Improves Functional Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Todd C; Hoane, Michael R; McConomy, Keith S; Farin, Fred M; Bammler, Theo K; MacDonald, James W; Kantor, Eric D; Anderson, Gail D

    2015-06-01

    Neuroprotection, recovery of function, and gene expression were evaluated in an animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) after a combination treatment of nicotinamide (NAM) and progesterone (Prog). Animals received a cortical contusion injury over the sensorimotor cortex, and were treated with either Vehicle, NAM, Prog, or a NAM/Prog combination for 72 h and compared with a craniotomy only (Sham) group. Animals were assessed in a battery of behavioral, sensory, and both fine and gross motor tasks, and given histological assessments at 24 h post-injury to determine lesion cavity size, degenerating neurons, and reactive astrocytes. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine treatment-specific changes on gene expression. Our results confirm the beneficial effects of treatment with either NAM or Prog, demonstrating significant improvements in recovery of function and a reduction in lesion cavitation, degenerating neurons, and reactive astrocytes 24 h post-injury. The combination treatment of NAM and Prog led to a significant improvement in both neuroprotection at 24 h post-injury and recovery of function in sensorimotor related tasks when compared with individual treatments. The NAM/Prog-treated group was the only treatment group to show a significant reduction of cortical loss 24 h post-injury. The combination appears to affect inflammatory and immune processes, reducing expression of a significant number of genes in both pathways. Further preclinical trials using NAM and Prog as a combination treatment should be conducted to identify the window of opportunity, determine the optimal duration of treatment, and evaluate the combination in other pre-clinical models of TBI. PMID:25313690

  11. Effect of melatonin on the functional recovery from experimental traumatic compression of the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Schiaveto-de-Souza, A.; da-Silva, C.A.; Defino, H.L.A.; Bel, E.A.Del

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is an extremely severe condition with no available effective therapies. We examined the effect of melatonin on traumatic compression of the spinal cord. Sixty male adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated animals and animals with 35 and 50% spinal cord compression with a polycarbonate rod spacer. Each group was divided into two subgroups, each receiving an injection of vehicle or melatonin (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) 5 min prior to and 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after injury. Functional recovery was monitored weekly by the open-field test, the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor scale and the inclined plane test. Histological changes of the spinal cord were examined 35 days after injury. Motor scores were progressively lower as spacer size increased according to the motor scale and inclined plane test evaluation at all times of assessment. The results of the two tests were correlated. The open-field test presented similar results with a less pronounced difference between the 35 and 50% compression groups. The injured groups presented functional recovery that was more evident in the first and second weeks. Animals receiving melatonin treatment presented more pronounced functional recovery than vehicle-treated animals as measured by the motor scale or inclined plane. NADPH-d histochemistry revealed integrity of the spinal cord thoracic segment in sham-operated animals and confirmed the severity of the lesion after spinal cord narrowing. The results obtained after experimental compression of the spinal cord support the hypothesis that melatonin may be considered for use in clinical practice because of its protective effect on the secondary wave of neuronal death following the primary wave after spinal cord injury. PMID:23579633

  12. A Combination Therapy of Nicotinamide and Progesterone Improves Functional Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Todd C.; McConomy, Keith S.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Kantor, Eric D.; Anderson, Gail D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Neuroprotection, recovery of function, and gene expression were evaluated in an animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) after a combination treatment of nicotinamide (NAM) and progesterone (Prog). Animals received a cortical contusion injury over the sensorimotor cortex, and were treated with either Vehicle, NAM, Prog, or a NAM/Prog combination for 72 h and compared with a craniotomy only (Sham) group. Animals were assessed in a battery of behavioral, sensory, and both fine and gross motor tasks, and given histological assessments at 24 h post-injury to determine lesion cavity size, degenerating neurons, and reactive astrocytes. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine treatment-specific changes on gene expression. Our results confirm the beneficial effects of treatment with either NAM or Prog, demonstrating significant improvements in recovery of function and a reduction in lesion cavitation, degenerating neurons, and reactive astrocytes 24 h post-injury. The combination treatment of NAM and Prog led to a significant improvement in both neuroprotection at 24 h post-injury and recovery of function in sensorimotor related tasks when compared with individual treatments. The NAM/Prog-treated group was the only treatment group to show a significant reduction of cortical loss 24 h post-injury. The combination appears to affect inflammatory and immune processes, reducing expression of a significant number of genes in both pathways. Further preclinical trials using NAM and Prog as a combination treatment should be conducted to identify the window of opportunity, determine the optimal duration of treatment, and evaluate the combination in other pre-clinical models of TBI. PMID:25313690

  13. The effect of claustrum lesions on human consciousness and recovery of function.

    PubMed

    Chau, Aileen; Salazar, Andres M; Krueger, Frank; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan

    2015-11-01

    Crick and Koch proposed that the claustrum plays a crucial role in consciousness. Their proposal was based on the structure and connectivity of the claustrum that suggested it had a role in coordinating a set of diverse brain functions. Given the few human studies investigating this claim, we decided to study the effects of claustrum lesions on consciousness in 171 combat veterans with penetrating traumatic brain injuries. Additionally, we studied the effects of claustrum lesions and loss of consciousness on long-term cognitive abilities. Claustrum damage was associated with the duration, but not frequency, of loss of consciousness, indicating that the claustrum may have an important role in regaining, but not maintaining, consciousness. Total brain volume loss, but not claustrum lesions, was associated with long-term recovery of neurobehavioral functions. Our findings constrain the current understanding of the neurobehavioral functions of the claustrum and its role in maintaining and regaining consciousness. PMID:26186439

  14. Cardiac autonomic function during sleep: effects of alcohol dependence and evidence of partial recovery with abstinence

    PubMed Central

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Willoughby, Adrian R.; Baker, Fiona C.; Sugarbaker, David S.; Colrain, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with the development of cardiac and peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) pathology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which recovery in ANS function could be demonstrated over the first 4 months of abstinence. Fifteen alcoholics (7 women) were studied on three occasions: within a month of detoxification, at approximately 2 months post-detox, and at 4 months post-detox. Thirteen control subjects (6 women) were also studied on three occasions with inter-study intervals matching those of the alcoholics. Six alcoholics relapsed, 48.7 ± 27.9 days following the initial PSG session. ANS function was assessed in the first part of stable non-rapid eye movement sleep. Frequency-domain power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) produced variables including: heart rate (HR), total power (TP; an index representing total HR variability), High Frequency power (HFa; an index reflecting cardiac vagal modulation), HF proportion of total power (HFprop sympathovagal balance), and HF peak frequency (HFpf; an index reflecting respiration rate). Overall, high total and high frequency variability and low sympathovagal balance and myocardial contractility are considered as desired conditions to promote cardiovascular health. At initial assessment, alcoholics had a higher HR (p < 0.001) and respiratory rate (p < 0.01), and lower vagal activity (HFa; p < 0.01) than controls. Alcoholics showed evidence of recovery in HR (p = 0.039) and HFa (p = 0.031) with 4 months of abstinence. Alcoholics with higher TP at the initial visit showed a greater improvement in TP from the initial to the 4-month follow-up session (r = 0.75, p < 0.05). Alcoholics showed substantial recovery in HR and vagal modulation of HRV with 4 months of abstinence, with evidence that the extent of recovery in HRV may be partially determined by the extent of alcohol dependence-related insult to the cardiac ANS system. These data support other studies

  15. Cardiac autonomic function during sleep: effects of alcohol dependence and evidence of partial recovery with abstinence.

    PubMed

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Willoughby, Adrian R; Baker, Fiona C; Sugarbaker, David S; Colrain, Ian M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with the development of cardiac and peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) pathology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which recovery in ANS function could be demonstrated over the first 4 months of abstinence. Fifteen alcoholics (7 women) were studied on three occasions: within a month of detoxification, at approximately 2 months post-detox, and at 4 months post-detox. Thirteen control subjects (6 women) were also studied on three occasions with inter-study intervals matching those of the alcoholics. Six alcoholics relapsed, 48.7 ± 27.9 days following the initial PSG session. ANS function was assessed in the first part of stable non-rapid eye movement sleep. Frequency-domain power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) produced variables including: heart rate (HR), total power (TP; an index representing total HR variability), High Frequency power (HFa; an index reflecting cardiac vagal modulation), HF proportion of total power (HFprop sympathovagal balance), and HF peak frequency (HFpf; an index reflecting respiration rate). Overall, high total and high frequency variability and low sympathovagal balance and myocardial contractility are considered as desired conditions to promote cardiovascular health. At initial assessment, alcoholics had a higher HR (p < 0.001) and respiratory rate (p < 0.01), and lower vagal activity (HFa; p < 0.01) than controls. Alcoholics showed evidence of recovery in HR (p = 0.039) and HFa (p = 0.031) with 4 months of abstinence. Alcoholics with higher TP at the initial visit showed a greater improvement in TP from the initial to the 4 month follow-up session (r = 0.75, p < 0.05). Alcoholics showed substantial recovery in HR and vagal modulation of HRV with 4 months of abstinence, with evidence that the extent of recovery in HRV may be partially determined by the extent of alcohol dependence-related insult to the cardiac ANS system. These data support other studies

  16. Role of Neurotrophins in Recovery of Phrenic Motor Function Following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sieck, Gary C.; Mantilla, Carlos B.

    2009-01-01

    Many individuals who sustain a cervical spinal cord injury are unable to maintain adequate ventilation due to diaphragm muscle paralysis. These patients become dependent on mechanical ventilators and this situation is associated with ongoing problems with pulmonary clearance, infections, and lung injury leading to significant morbidity and reduced life expectancy. Therefore, functional recovery of rhythmic phrenic activity and the ability to generate expulsive forces would dramatically affect the quality of life of patients with cervical spinal cord injury. Neurotrophins are very promising in that they have been shown to play an important role in modulating functional neuroplasticity. Specifically, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acting via the tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (TrkB) has been implicated in neuroplasticity following spinal cord injury. Our central hypothesis is that functional recovery of rhythmic phrenic activity after cervical spinal cord injury is enhanced by an increase in BDNF/TrkB signaling in phrenic motoneurons, providing a novel therapeutic target for patients. PMID:19703592

  17. Carboxy alkyl esters of Uncaria tomentosa augment recovery of sensorineural functions following noise injury.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, O'neil W; Gearhart, Caroline A; Fulton, Sherry; Fechter, Laurence D

    2011-08-17

    This study tested the hypothesis that hydrophilic chemotypes of the medicinal vine Uncaria tomentosa (UT) would facilitate recovery of sensorineural functions following exposure to a damaging level of noise. The particular chemotypes investigated were carboxy alkyl esters (CAE) which are known to exhibit multifunctional cytoprotective properties that include: enhanced cellular DNA repair, antioxidation and anti-inflammation. Long-Evans rats were divided into four treatment groups: vehicle-control, noise-only, CAE-only and CAE+noise. The noise exposure was an 8kHz octave band of noise at 105dB SPL for 4h. Outer hair cell (OHC) function was measured with the cubic 2f(1)-f(2) distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) at the start of the study (baseline) and at time-points that corresponded to 1day, 1week and 4weeks post-noise exposure to determine within-group effects. Compound action potentials to puretone stimuli were recorded from the VIIIth craniofacial nerve at 4weeks post-noise exposure to determine between-group effects. Additionally, cytocochleograms were constructed for each row of OHCs from each group. Noise exposure produced significant sensorineural impairments. However, CAE treatment facilitated almost complete recovery of OHC function and limited the magnitude of cell loss. The loss of neural sensitivity to puretone stimuli was inhibited with CAE treatment. Therefore, it appears that the multifunctional cytoprotective capacity of CAE from UT may generalize to otoprotection from acoustic over-exposure. PMID:21762882

  18. Polysialic Acid Glycomimetic Promotes Functional Recovery and Plasticity After Spinal Cord Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mehanna, Ali; Jakovcevski, Igor; Acar, Ayşe; Xiao, Meifang; Loers, Gabriele; Rougon, Geneviève; Irintchev, Andrey; Schachner, Melitta

    2009-01-01

    Regeneration after injury of the central nervous system is poor due to the abundance of molecules inhibiting axonal growth. Here we pursued to promote regeneration after thoracic spinal cord injury in young adult C57BL/6J mice using peptides which functionally mimic polysialic acid (PSA) and human natural killer cell-1 (HNK-1) glycan, carbohydrate epitopes known to promote neurite outgrowth in vitro. Subdural infusions were performed with an osmotic pump, over 2 weeks. When applied immediately after injury, the PSA mimetic and the combination of PSA and HNK-1 mimetics, but not the HNK-1 mimetic alone, improved functional recovery as assessed by locomotor rating and video-based motion analysis over a 6-week observation period. Better outcome in PSA mimetic-treated mice was associated with higher, as compared with control mice, numbers of cholinergic and glutamatergic terminals and monaminergic axons in the lumbar spinal cord, and better axonal myelination proximal to the injury site. In contrast to immediate post-traumatic application, the PSA mimetic treatment was ineffective when initiated 3 weeks after spinal cord injury. Our data suggest that PSA mimetic peptides can be efficient therapeutic tools improving, by augmenting plasticity, functional recovery when applied during the acute phase of spinal cord injury. PMID:19826404

  19. Recovery of laryngeal function after intraoperative injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Hydman, Jonas; Svensson, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Loss of function in the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) during thyroid/parathyroid surgery, despite a macroscopically intact nerve, is a challenge which highlights the sensitivity and complexity of laryngeal innervation. Furthermore, the uncertain prognosis stresses a lack of capability to diagnose the reason behind the impaired function. There is a great deal of literature considering risk factors, surgical technique and mechanisms outside the nerve affecting the incidence of RLN paresis during surgery. To be able to prognosticate recovery in cases of laryngeal dysfunction and voice changes after thyroid surgery, the surgeon would first need to define the presence, location, and type of laryngeal nerve injury. There is little data describing the events within the nerve and the neurobiological reasons for the impaired function related to potential recovery and prognosis. In addition, very little data has been presented in order to clarify any differences between the transient and permanent injury of the RLN. This review aims, from an anatomical and neurobiological perspective, to provide an update on the current understandings of surgically-induced injury to the laryngeal nerves. PMID:25713777

  20. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent

    2012-09-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury. PMID:25624828

  1. Recovery of Protective Activity in Rabies Virus Vaccines Concentrated and Purified by Four Different Methods

    PubMed Central

    Aasletad, H. G.; Wiktor, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    Rabies vaccines concentrated by ultrafiltration, zinc acetate precipitation, ammonium sulfate precipitation, or aluminum phosphate gel adsorption were compared with respect to recovery of protective activity and purity, as measured by protective activity per mg of protein. Vaccine obtained by ammonium sulfate precipitation had a better recovery rate and a higher purity than those prepared by the other methods. Potent vaccines were also obtained by the zinc acetate precipitation and aluminum phosphate gel adsorption methods, whereas ultrafiltration was the least satisfactory method from the standpoint of vaccine purity. Chromatography of virus concentrated by ultrafiltration on a cellulose ion exchange column reduced the level of nonviral proteins. The protective activity data obtained for the vaccines examined in these experiments were found to correlate with the vaccine's complement fixation titer per mg of protein. PMID:5057372

  2. Interhemispheric Cerebral Blood Flow Balance during Recovery of Motor Hand Function after Ischemic Stroke—A Longitudinal MRI Study Using Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Missimer, John; Schroth, Gerhard; Hess, Christian W.; Sturzenegger, Matthias; Wang, Danny J. J.; Weder, Bruno; Federspiel, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background Unilateral ischemic stroke disrupts the well balanced interactions within bilateral cortical networks. Restitution of interhemispheric balance is thought to contribute to post-stroke recovery. Longitudinal measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes might act as surrogate marker for this process. Objective To quantify longitudinal CBF changes using arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL) and interhemispheric balance within the cortical sensorimotor network and to assess their relationship with motor hand function recovery. Methods Longitudinal CBF data were acquired in 23 patients at 3 and 9 months after cortical sensorimotor stroke and in 20 healthy controls using pulsed ASL. Recovery of grip force and manual dexterity was assessed with tasks requiring power and precision grips. Voxel-based analysis was performed to identify areas of significant CBF change. Region-of-interest analyses were used to quantify the interhemispheric balance across nodes of the cortical sensorimotor network. Results Dexterity was more affected, and recovered at a slower pace than grip force. In patients with successful recovery of dexterous hand function, CBF decreased over time in the contralesional supplementary motor area, paralimbic anterior cingulate cortex and superior precuneus, and interhemispheric balance returned to healthy control levels. In contrast, patients with poor recovery presented with sustained hypoperfusion in the sensorimotor cortices encompassing the ischemic tissue, and CBF remained lateralized to the contralesional hemisphere. Conclusions Sustained perfusion imbalance within the cortical sensorimotor network, as measured with task-unrelated ASL, is associated with poor recovery of dexterous hand function after stroke. CBF at rest might be used to monitor recovery and gain prognostic information. PMID:25191858

  3. Recovery of motor and cognitive function after cerebellar lesions in a songbird – role of estrogens

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Rory D.; Zhen, Yin; White, Stephanie; Schlinger, Barney A.; Day, Lainy B.

    2010-01-01

    In addition to its key role in complex motor function, the cerebellum is increasingly recognized to have a role in cognition. Songbirds are particularly good models for the investigation of motor and cognitive processes but little is known about the role of the songbird cerebellum in these processes. To explore cerebellar function in a songbird, we lesioned the cerebellum of adult female zebra finches and examined the effects on a spatial working memory task and on motor function during this task. There is evidence for steroid synthesis in the songbird brain and neurosteroids may have an impact on some forms of neural plasticity in adult songbirds. We therefore hypothesized that neurosteroids would affect motor and cognitive function after a cerebellar injury. We found that cerebellar lesions produced deficits in motor and cognitive aspects of a spatial task. In line with our prediction, birds in which estrogen synthesis was blocked had impaired performance in our spatial task compared with those that had estrogen synthesis blocked but estrogen replaced. There was no clear effect of estrogen replacement on motor function. We also found that lesions induced expression of the estrogen synthetic enzyme aromatase in reactive astrocytes and Bergmann glia around a cerebellar lesion. These data suggest that the cerebellum of songbirds mediates both motor and cognitive function and that estrogens may improve the recovery of cognitive aspects of cerebellar function after injury. PMID:19302157

  4. Effect of mirror therapy with tDCS on functional recovery of the upper extremity of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyuk-Shin; Cha, Hyun-gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effect of mirror therapy (MT) with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the recovery of the upper extremity function of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-seven patients at least 6 months after stroke onset were divided randomly into an experimental group (14 patients) and a control group (13 patients). [Methods] All subjects received tDCS for 20 min followed by a 5 min rest. Then the experimental group received MT while the control group conducted the same exercises as the experimental group using a mirror that did not show the non-paretic upper extremity. The groups performed the same exercises for 20 min. All subjects received this intervention for 45-min three times a week for 6 weeks. [Results] After the intervention, the experimental group showed significant improvements in the box and block test (BBT), grip strength, and the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA), and a significant decrease in the Jebsen-Taylor test. The control group showed a significant increase in grip strength after the intervention, and a significant decrease in the Jebsen-Taylor test. Comparison of the result after the intervention revealed that the experimental group showed more significant increases in the BBT and grip strength than the control group. [Conclusion] These results show that MT with tDCS has a positive effect on the functional recovery of the upper extremity of stroke patients, through activating motor regions in the brain, and thus plays an important role in recovery of neuroplasticity. PMID:25995552

  5. Effect of mirror therapy with tDCS on functional recovery of the upper extremity of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyuk-Shin; Cha, Hyun-Gyu

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effect of mirror therapy (MT) with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the recovery of the upper extremity function of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-seven patients at least 6 months after stroke onset were divided randomly into an experimental group (14 patients) and a control group (13 patients). [Methods] All subjects received tDCS for 20 min followed by a 5 min rest. Then the experimental group received MT while the control group conducted the same exercises as the experimental group using a mirror that did not show the non-paretic upper extremity. The groups performed the same exercises for 20 min. All subjects received this intervention for 45-min three times a week for 6 weeks. [Results] After the intervention, the experimental group showed significant improvements in the box and block test (BBT), grip strength, and the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA), and a significant decrease in the Jebsen-Taylor test. The control group showed a significant increase in grip strength after the intervention, and a significant decrease in the Jebsen-Taylor test. Comparison of the result after the intervention revealed that the experimental group showed more significant increases in the BBT and grip strength than the control group. [Conclusion] These results show that MT with tDCS has a positive effect on the functional recovery of the upper extremity of stroke patients, through activating motor regions in the brain, and thus plays an important role in recovery of neuroplasticity. PMID:25995552

  6. A combined scoring method to assess behavioral recovery after mouse spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Pajoohesh-Ganji, Ahdeah; Byrnes, Kimberly R.; Fatemi, Gita; Faden, Alan I.

    2010-01-01

    Although the rat has been the predominant rodent used to investigate the pathophysiology and treatment of experimental spinal cord injury (SCI), the increasing availability of transgenic animals has led to greater use of mouse models. However, behavioral assessment after SCI in mice has been less extensively investigated than in rats and few studies have critically examined the correlation between behavioral tests and injury severity or tissue damage. The present study characterized hind-limb functional performance in C57Bl/6 mice after contusion SCI at T9 using the weight drop method. A number of behavioral tests were examined with regard to variability, inter-rater reliability, and correlation to injury severity and white matter sparing. Mice were subjected to sham, mild-moderate or moderate-severe SCI and evaluated at day 1 and weekly up to 42 days using the Basso mouse scale (BMS), ladder climb, grid walk, inclined plane, plantar test and tail flick tests. The ladder climb and grid walk tests proved sub-optimal for use in mice, but modifications enhanced their predictive value with regard to injury severity. The inclined plane, plantar test and tail flick test showed far too much variability to have meaningful predictive value. The BMS score proved reliable, as previously reported, but a combined score (BLG) using BMS, Ladder climb (modified), and Grip walk (modified grid walk) provided better separation across injury levels and less variability than the individual tests. These data provide support for use of a combined scoring method to follow motor recovery in mice after SCI contusion injury. PMID:20188770

  7. How does the milk removal method affect teat tissue and teat recovery in dairy ewes?

    PubMed

    Alejandro, Manuel; Roca, Amparo; Romero, Gema; Díaz, Jose Ramon

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study how machine milking (MM) carried out in suitable conditions affects teat wall thickness and teat canal length and their return after milking to pre-milking conditions, in comparison with other milk extraction methods considered biological referents: lamb suckling (LS), milk removal by catheter (RC) and hand milking (HM). Three Latin square experiments were designed, using 11 ewes in the first experiment (LS), 13 in the second (RC) and 12 in the third (HM). Each of the Latin squares was divided into two periods: in the first, the left gland of each animal was machine milked and the corresponding treatment (LS, RC and HM) was applied to the right gland. Subsequently, in the second period the extraction methods were interchanged. During the experimental period, 4 sampling days were carried out (2 in each experimental period), where ultrasound scans were taken before (B) and immediately after milking (A) and at 1 (1 h), 2 (2 h), 3 (3 h), 4 (4 h), 6 (6 h), 8 (8 h) and 10 (10 h) hours after milking finished. Teat wall thickness (TWT), teat wall area (TWA), teat end area (TEWA) and teat canal length (TCL) were measured in all the ultrasound images. MM increased TWT after milking compared with RC. TWT, TWA, TEWA and TCL were lower (P<0.05) in HM than in MM. No significant differences (P>0.05) were found between LS and MM for any variable. The extraction method affected the recovery time of the variables, with total teat recovery at 6 h after RC and 4 h after HM. In the case of LS, the TEWA and TCL values were recovered sooner, as of 3 h. Teat recovery time after MM was similar to the extraction method with which it was compared in each experiment. Thus, considering the similar increase in wall thickness and their recovery time compared with the reference methods, it was concluded that machine milking, carried out in optimum conditions and respecting the time interval between milkings usually applied on sheep farms (8-12 h), would not

  8. Functional and Transcriptomic Recovery of Infarcted Mouse Myocardium Treated with Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lachtermacher, Stephan; Esporcatte, Bruno L. B.; da Silva de Azevedo Fortes, Fábio; Rocha, Nazareth Novaes; Montalvão, Fabrício; Costa, Patricia C.; Belem, Luciano; Rabischoffisky, Arnaldo; Neto, Hugo C. C. Faria; Vasconcellos, Rita; Iacobas, Dumitru A.; Iacobas, Sanda; Spray, David C.; Thomas, Neil M.; Goldenberg, Regina C. S.; de Carvalho, Antonio C. Campos

    2011-01-01

    Although bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMNC) have been extensively used in cell therapy for cardiac diseases, little mechanistic information is available to support reports of their efficacy. To address this shortcoming, we compared structural and functional recovery and associated global gene expression profiles in post-ischaemic myocardium treated with BMNC transplantation. BMNC suspensions were injected into cardiac scar tissue 10 days after experimental myocardial infarction. Six weeks later, mice undergoing BMNC therapy were found to have normalized antibody repertoire and improved cardiac performance measured by ECG, treadmill exercise time and echocardiography. After functional testing, gene expression profiles in cardiac tissue were evaluated using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Expression of more than 18% of the 11981 quantified unigenes was significantly altered in the infarcted hearts. BMNC therapy restored expression of 2099 (96.2%) of the genes that were altered by infarction but led to altered expression of 286 other genes, considered to be a side effect of the treatment. Transcriptional therapeutic efficacy, a metric calculated using a formula that incorporates both recovery and side effect of treatment, was 73%. In conclusion, our results confirm a beneficial role for bone marrow-derived cell therapy and provide new information on molecular mechanisms operating after BMNC transplantation on post ischemic heart failure in mice. PMID:21671060

  9. Early renal function recovery and long-term graft survival in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Susan S; Cantarovich, Marcelo; Mucsi, Istvan; Baran, Dana; Paraskevas, Steven; Tchervenkov, Jean

    2016-05-01

    Following kidney transplantation (KTx), renal function improves gradually until a baseline eGFR is achieved. Whether or not a recipient achieves the best-predicted eGFR after KTx may have important implications for immediate patient management, as well as for long-term graft survival. The aim of this cohort study was to calculate the renal function recovery (RFR) based on recipient and donor eGFR and to evaluate the association between RFR and long-term death-censored graft failure (DCGF). We studied 790 KTx recipients between January 1990 and August 2014. The last donor SCr prior to organ procurement was used to estimate donor GFR. Recipient eGFR was calculated using the average of the best three SCr values observed during the first 3 months post-KTx. RFR was defined as the ratio of recipient eGFR to half the donor eGFR. 53% of recipients had an RFR ≥1. There were 127 death-censored graft failures (16%). Recipients with an RFR ≥1 had less DCGF compared with those with an RFR <1 (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.37-0.85; P = 0.006). Transplant era, acute rejection, ECD and DGF were also significant determinants of graft failure. Early recovery of predicted eGFR based on donor eGFR is associated with less DCGF after KTx. PMID:26988072

  10. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy promotes the improvement and recovery of renal function in a preclinical model.

    PubMed

    Urt, Antônio Filho; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Hermeto, Larissa Correa; Pesarini, João Renato; David, Natan de; Cantero, Wilson de Barros; Falcão, Gustavo; Marks, Guido; Antoniolli-Silva, Andréia Conceição Milan Brochado

    2016-06-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is an extremely important public health issue in need of novel therapies. The present study aimed to evaluate the capacity of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy to promote the improvement and recovery of renal function in a preclinical model. Wistar rats were used as the experimental model, and our results show that cisplatin (5mg/kg) can efficiently induce ARF, as measured by changes in biochemical (urea and creatinine) and histological parameters. MSC therapy performed 24h after the administration of chemotherapy resulted in normalized plasma urea and creatinine levels 30 and 45d after the onset of kidney disease. Furthermore, MSC therapy significantly reduced histological changes (intratubular cast formation in protein overload nephropathy and tubular hydropic degeneration) in this ARF model. Thus, considering that current therapies for ARF are merely palliative and that MSC therapy can promote the improvement and recovery of renal function in this model system, we suggest that innovative/alternative therapies involving MSCs should be considered for clinical studies in humans to treat ARF. PMID:27275667

  11. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy promotes the improvement and recovery of renal function in a preclinical model

    PubMed Central

    Urt-Filho, Antônio; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Hermeto, Larissa Correa; Pesarini, João Renato; de David, Natan; Cantero, Wilson de Barros; Falcão, Gustavo; Marks, Guido; Antoniolli-Silva, Andréia Conceição Milan Brochado

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Acute renal failure (ARF) is an extremely important public health issue in need of novel therapies. The present study aimed to evaluate the capacity of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy to promote the improvement and recovery of renal function in a preclinical model. Wistar rats were used as the experimental model, and our results show that cisplatin (5mg/kg) can efficiently induce ARF, as measured by changes in biochemical (urea and creatinine) and histological parameters. MSC therapy performed 24h after the administration of chemotherapy resulted in normalized plasma urea and creatinine levels 30 and 45d after the onset of kidney disease. Furthermore, MSC therapy significantly reduced histological changes (intratubular cast formation in protein overload nephropathy and tubular hydropic degeneration) in this ARF model. Thus, considering that current therapies for ARF are merely palliative and that MSC therapy can promote the improvement and recovery of renal function in this model system, we suggest that innovative/alternative therapies involving MSCs should be considered for clinical studies in humans to treat ARF. PMID:27275667

  12. In vivo imaging of functional disruption, recovery and alteration in rat olfactory circuitry after lesion.

    PubMed

    Cross, Donna J; Flexman, Jennifer A; Anzai, Yoshimi; Morrow, Thomas J; Maravilla, Kenneth R; Minoshima, Satoshi

    2006-09-01

    Compensatory changes following disruption of neuronal circuitry have been indicated by previous imaging studies of stroke and other brain injury, but evidence of the pathways involved in such dynamic changes has not been shown in vivo. We imaged rats before and after lesion-induced disruption of the lateral olfactory tract to investigate the subsequent recovery and/or reorganization of functional neuronal circuitry. Serial magnetic resonance imaging was performed following intranasal administration of a paramagnetic track tracer Mn(2+). Images were analyzed using statistical mapping techniques in the stereotactic coordinate system. At 1 week post-lesion, Mn(2+) transport caudal to lesion was reduced as expected, and more importantly, increased transport through the anterior commissure was seen. At 4 weeks post-lesion, there was recovery of transport caudal to lesion, and increased transport through the anterior commissure extended to the contralateral olfactory cortex. Correlation analysis of regional Mn(2+) transport indicated that contralateral enhancement was not simply due to septal window spillover. This study demonstrates for the first time in vivo evidence of compensatory changes in functional neuronal activity to a contralateral pathway through the commissure following brain injury. PMID:16859928

  13. Promoting endothelial function by S-nitrosoglutathione through the HIF-1α/VEGF pathway stimulates neurorepair and functional recovery following experimental stroke in rats

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mushfiquddin; Dhammu, Tajinder S; Matsuda, Fumiyo; Baarine, Mauhammad; Dhindsa, Tejbir Singh; Singh, Inderjit; Singh, Avtar K

    2015-01-01

    Background For stroke patients, stimulating neurorepair mechanisms is necessary to reduce morbidity and disability. Our previous studies on brain and spinal cord trauma show that exogenous treatment with the S-nitrosylating agent S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) – a nitric oxide and glutathione metabolite of the human body – stimulates neurorepair and aids functional recovery. Using a rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (IR) in this study, we tested the hypothesis that GSNO invokes the neurorepair process and improves neurobehavioral functions through the angiogenic HIF-1α/VEGF pathway. Methods Stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion in adult male rats. The injured animals were treated with saline (IR group, n=7), GSNO (0.25 mg/kg, GSNO group, n=7), and GSNO plus the HIF-1α inhibitor 2-methoxyestra-diol (2-ME) (0.25 mg/kg GSNO + 5.0 mg/kg 2-ME, GSNO + 2-ME group, n=7). The groups were studied for either 7 or 14 days to determine neurorepair mediators and functional recovery. Brain capillary endothelial cells were used to show that GSNO promotes angiogenesis and that GSNO-mediated induction of VEGF and the stimulation of angiogenesis are dependent on HIF-1α activity. Results IR injury increased the expression of neurorepair mediators HIF-1α, VEGF, and PECAM-1 and vessel markers to a limited degree that correlate well with significantly compromised neurobehavioral functions compared with sham animals. GSNO treatment of IR not only remarkably enhanced further the expression of HIF-1α, VEGF, and PECAM-1 but also improved functioning compared with IR. The GSNO group also had a higher degree of vessel density than the IR group. Increased expression of VEGF and the degree of tube formation (angiogenesis) by GSNO were reduced after the inhibition of HIF-1α by 2-ME in an endothelial cell culture model. 2-ME treatment of the GSNO group also blocked not only GSNO’s effect of reduced infarct volume

  14. Impact of Processing Method on Recovery of Bacteria from Wipes Used in Biological Surface Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Nathan D.; Filliben, James J.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental sampling for microbiological contaminants is a key component of hygiene monitoring and risk characterization practices utilized across diverse fields of application. However, confidence in surface sampling results, both in the field and in controlled laboratory studies, has been undermined by large variation in sampling performance results. Sources of variation include controlled parameters, such as sampling materials and processing methods, which often differ among studies, as well as random and systematic errors; however, the relative contributions of these factors remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the relative impacts of sample processing methods, including extraction solution and physical dissociation method (vortexing and sonication), on recovery of Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Burkholderia thailandensis and Escherichia coli) bacteria from directly inoculated wipes. This work showed that target organism had the largest impact on extraction efficiency and recovery precision, as measured by traditional colony counts. The physical dissociation method (PDM) had negligible impact, while the effect of the extraction solution was organism dependent. Overall, however, extraction of organisms from wipes using phosphate-buffered saline with 0.04% Tween 80 (PBST) resulted in the highest mean recovery across all three organisms. The results from this study contribute to a better understanding of the factors that influence sampling performance, which is critical to the development of efficient and reliable sampling methodologies relevant to public health and biodefense. PMID:22706055

  15. A Method Improving the Accuracy of Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Peter; Jonsson, Magnus P.; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O.; Höök, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching has been an established technique of quantifying the mobility of molecular species in cells and cell membranes for more than 30 years. However, under nonideal experimental conditions, the current methods of analysis still suffer from occasional problems; for example, when the signal/noise ratio is low, when there are temporal fluctuations in the illumination, or when there is bleaching during the recovery process. We here present a method of analysis that overcomes these problems, yielding accurate results even under nonideal experimental conditions. The method is based on circular averaging of each image, followed by spatial frequency analysis of the averaged radial data, and requires no prior knowledge of the shape of the bleached area. The method was validated using both simulated and experimental fluorescence recovery after photobleaching data, illustrating that the diffusion coefficient of a single diffusing component can be determined to within ∼1%, even for small signal levels (100 photon counts), and that at typical signal levels (5000 photon counts) a system with two diffusion coefficients can be analyzed with <10% error. PMID:18567628

  16. Method of making low work function component

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Vance; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2011-11-15

    A method for fabricating a component is disclosed. The method includes: providing a member having an effective work function of an initial value, disposing a sacrificial layer on a surface of the member, disposing a first agent within the member to obtain a predetermined concentration of the agent at said surface of the member, annealing the member, and removing the sacrificial layer to expose said surface of the member, wherein said surface has a post-process effective work function that is different from the initial value.

  17. Recovery of Missing Persons in Cyprus: Heavy Equipment Methods and Techniques for Complex Well Excavations.

    PubMed

    Ceker, Deren; Stevens, William D

    2015-11-01

    This technical note presents the methods and techniques developed by the Bi-communal Forensic Team (BCFT) of the Committee on Missing Persons in Cyprus (CMP) used to excavate and exhume the remains of missing persons, many of whom were buried in deep wells at sites across the island of Cyprus during the conflict period of the 1960s and 1970s. A total of 493 Turkish Cypriots and 1508 Greek Cypriots were officially reported missing by the two communities as a result of the conflict. Since the team's formation, in 2005, the BCFT has excavated 114 wells, resulting in the recovery of 195 missing individuals from 35 of these well excavations. The standard excavation approach used by the BCFT, especially for deep well recovery, consists of "ramp," "pocket," and "pool" components. These excavation features enable CMP archaeologists to excavate deep wells safely and efficiently while simultaneously permitting time for thorough documentation and unimpeded recovery of human remains. The team uses three variants of this approach to cope with the variety of geological, physical, and hydrological contexts faced in Cyprus' wells, including hard and soft landforms, the presence or absence of water, and limitations imposed by surrounding infrastructure. The "terracing", "double-ramp", and "single-ramp" variations are detailed with respect to the environmental contexts which prescribe their use. The BCFT's general procedures for human remains recovery and standard well safety protocols conclude the article. PMID:26250595

  18. NT3-chitosan elicits robust endogenous neurogenesis to enable functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Aifeng; Duan, Hongmei; Zhang, Sa; Hao, Peng; Ye, Keqiang; Sun, Yi E; Li, Xiaoguang

    2015-10-27

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) hold the key to neural regeneration through proper activation, differentiation, and maturation, to establish nascent neural networks, which can be integrated into damaged neural circuits to repair function. However, the CNS injury microenvironment is often inhibitory and inflammatory, limiting the ability of activated NSCs to differentiate into neurons and form nascent circuits. Here we report that neurotrophin-3 (NT3)-coupled chitosan biomaterial, when inserted into a 5-mm gap of completely transected and excised rat thoracic spinal cord, elicited robust activation of endogenous NSCs in the injured spinal cord. Through slow release of NT3, the biomaterial attracted NSCs to migrate into the lesion area, differentiate into neurons, and form functional neural networks, which interconnected severed ascending and descending axons, resulting in sensory and motor behavioral recovery. Our study suggests that enhancing endogenous neurogenesis could be a novel strategy for treatment of spinal cord injury. PMID:26460015

  19. Comparison of Surface Sampling Methods for Virus Recovery from Fomites ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Timothy R.; Tamayo, Francisco J.; Leckie, James O.; Boehm, Alexandria B.

    2011-01-01

    The role of fomites in infectious disease transmission relative to other exposure routes is difficult to discern due, in part, to the lack of information on the level and distribution of virus contamination on surfaces. Comparisons of studies intending to fill this gap are difficult because multiple different sampling methods are employed and authors rarely report their method's lower limit of detection. In the present study, we compare a subset of sampling methods identified from a literature review to demonstrate that sampling method significantly influences study outcomes. We then compare a subset of methods identified from the review to determine the most efficient methods for recovering virus from surfaces in a laboratory trial using MS2 bacteriophage as a model virus. Recoveries of infective MS2 and MS2 RNA are determined using both a plaque assay and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, respectively. We conclude that the method that most effectively recovers virus from nonporous fomites uses polyester-tipped swabs prewetted in either one-quarter-strength Ringer's solution or saline solution. This method recovers a median fraction for infective MS2 of 0.40 and for MS2 RNA of 0.07. Use of the proposed method for virus recovery in future fomite sampling studies would provide opportunities to compare findings across multiple studies. PMID:21821742

  20. Effect of oscillating electrical field stimulation on motor function recovery and myelin regeneration after spinal cord injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Da-Sheng; Jing, Jue-Hua; Qian, Jun; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oscillating electrical field stimulation on motor function recovery and myelin regeneration in rats with spinal cord injury. [Subjects and Methods] A rat model of spinal cord injury was constructed by using the Allen weight-drop method. These rats were randomly divided into normal, spinal cord injury, and spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation groups. The experimental group received the intervention with oscillating electrical field stimulation, and the control group received the intervention with an electrical field stimulator without oscillating electrical field stimulation. Each group was then randomly divided into seven subgroups according to observation time (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks). Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan score and inclined plate test score evaluation, motor evoked potential detection, and histological observation were performed. [Results] In the first 2 weeks of oscillating electrical field stimulation, the oscillating electrical field stimulation and inclined plate test scores of spinal cord injury group and spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group were not significantly different. In the fourth week, the scores of the spinal cord injury group were significantly lower than those of the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group. The motor evoked potential incubation period in the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group at the various time points was shorter than that in the spinal cord injury group. In the sixth week, the relative area of myelin in the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group was evidently larger than that in the spinal cord injury group. [Conclusion] Oscillating electrical field stimulation could effectively improve spinal cord conduction function and promote motor function recovery in rats with spinal cord injury, as well as promote myelin

  1. Effect of oscillating electrical field stimulation on motor function recovery and myelin regeneration after spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Da-Sheng; Jing, Jue-Hua; Qian, Jun; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oscillating electrical field stimulation on motor function recovery and myelin regeneration in rats with spinal cord injury. [Subjects and Methods] A rat model of spinal cord injury was constructed by using the Allen weight-drop method. These rats were randomly divided into normal, spinal cord injury, and spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation groups. The experimental group received the intervention with oscillating electrical field stimulation, and the control group received the intervention with an electrical field stimulator without oscillating electrical field stimulation. Each group was then randomly divided into seven subgroups according to observation time (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks). Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan score and inclined plate test score evaluation, motor evoked potential detection, and histological observation were performed. [Results] In the first 2 weeks of oscillating electrical field stimulation, the oscillating electrical field stimulation and inclined plate test scores of spinal cord injury group and spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group were not significantly different. In the fourth week, the scores of the spinal cord injury group were significantly lower than those of the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group. The motor evoked potential incubation period in the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group at the various time points was shorter than that in the spinal cord injury group. In the sixth week, the relative area of myelin in the spinal cord injury + oscillating electrical field stimulation group was evidently larger than that in the spinal cord injury group. [Conclusion] Oscillating electrical field stimulation could effectively improve spinal cord conduction function and promote motor function recovery in rats with spinal cord injury, as well as promote myelin

  2. Carrier recovery methods for a dual-mode modem: A design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, C. W.; Wilson, S. G.

    1984-01-01

    A dual mode model with selectable QPSK or 16-QASK modulation schemes is discussed. The theoretical reasoning as well as the practical trade-offs made during the development of a modem are presented, with attention given to the carrier recovery method used for coherent demodulation. Particular attention is given to carrier recovery methods that can provide little degradation due to phase error for both QPSK and 16-QASK, while being insensitive to the amplitude characteristic of a 16-QASK modulation scheme. A computer analysis of the degradation is symbol error rate (SER) for QPSK and 16-QASK due to phase error is prresented. Results find that an energy increase of roughly 4 dB is needed to maintain a SER of 1X10(-5) for QPSK with 20 deg of phase error and 16-QASK with 7 deg phase error.

  3. The Asparaginyl Endopeptidase Legumain Is Essential for Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Liping; Shen, Yan-Qin; Khatri, Harsh P.; Schachner, Melitta

    2014-01-01

    Unlike mammals, adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating severed axons and regaining locomotor function after spinal cord injury. A key factor for this regenerative capacity is the innate ability of neurons to re-express growth-associated genes and regrow their axons after injury in a permissive environment. By microarray analysis, we have previously shown that the expression of legumain (also known as asparaginyl endopeptidase) is upregulated after complete transection of the spinal cord. In situ hybridization showed upregulation of legumain expression in neurons of regenerative nuclei during the phase of axon regrowth/sprouting after spinal cord injury. Upregulation of Legumain protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, upregulation of legumain expression was also observed in macrophages/microglia and neurons in the spinal cord caudal to the lesion site after injury. The role of legumain in locomotor function after spinal cord injury was tested by reducing Legumain expression by application of anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotides. Using two independent anti-sense morpholinos, locomotor recovery and axonal regrowth were impaired when compared with a standard control morpholino. We conclude that upregulation of legumain expression after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish is an essential component of the capacity of injured neurons to regrow their axons. Another feature contributing to functional recovery implicates upregulation of legumain expression in the spinal cord caudal to the injury site. In conclusion, we established for the first time a function for an unusual protease, the asparaginyl endopeptidase, in the nervous system. This study is also the first to demonstrate the importance of legumain for repair of an injured adult central nervous system of a spontaneously regenerating vertebrate and is expected to yield insights into its potential in nervous system regeneration in mammals. PMID:24747977

  4. Hindlimb Immobilization in a Wheelchair Alters Functional Recovery Following Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Caudle, Krista L.; Brown, Edward H.; Shum-Siu, Alice; Burke, Darlene A.; Magnuson, Trystan S. G.; Voor, Michael J.; Magnuson, David S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Locomotor training of rats with thoracic contusion spinal cord injuries can induce task-specific changes in stepping but rarely results in improved overground locomotion, possibly due to a ceiling effect. Thus, the authors hypothesize that incompletely injured rats maximally retrain themselves while moving about in their cages over the first few weeks postinjury. Objective To test the hypothesis using hindlimb immobilization after mild thoracic contusion spinal cord injury in adult female rats. A passive stretch protocol was included as an independent treatment. Methods Wheelchairs were used to hold the hindlimbs stationary in an extended position leaving the forelimbs free. The wheelchairs were used for 15 to 18 hours per day, 5 days per week for 8 weeks, beginning at 4 days postinjury. A 20-minute passive hindlimb stretch therapy was applied to half of the animals. Results Hindlimb locomotor function of the wheelchair group was not different from controls at 1 week postinjury but declined significantly over the next 4 weeks. Passive stretch had no influence on wheelchair animals but limited functional recovery of normally housed animals, preventing them from regaining forelimb–hindlimb coordination. Following 8 weeks of wheelchair immobilization and stretch therapy, only the wheelchair group displayed an improvement in function when returned to normal housing but retained significant deficits in stepping and coordination out to 16 weeks. Conclusion Hindlimb immobilization and passive stretch may hinder or conceal the normal course of functional recovery of spinal cord injured rats. These observations have implications for the management of acute clinical spinal cord injuries. PMID:21697451

  5. Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Willms, R. Scott

    1996-01-01

    Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes from water and from hydrocarbons. A palladium membrane, when utilized in cooperation with a nickel catalyst in a reactor, has been found to drive reactions such as water gas shift, steam reforming and methane cracking to substantial completion by removing the product hydrogen from the reacting mixture. In addition, ultrapure hydrogen is produced, thereby eliminating the need for an additional processing step.

  6. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, J.W.; Molz, F.J.; Brame, S.E.; Falta, R.W.

    2003-02-07

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

  7. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.

    2003-02-07

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity is needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

  8. FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY FOLLOWING MOTOR CORTEX LESIONS IN NON-HUMAN PRIMATES: EXPERIMENTAL IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN STROKE PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Warren G.; Pizzimenti, Marc A.; Morecraft, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses selected classical works and contemporary research on recovery of contralesional fine hand motor function following lesions to motor areas of the cerebral cortex in non-human primates. Findings from both the classical literature and contemporary studies show that lesions of cortical motor areas induce paresis initially, but are followed by remarkable recovery of fine hand/digit motor function that depends on lesion size and post-lesion training. Indeed, in recent work where considerable quantification of fine digit function associated with grasping and manipulating small objects has been observed, very favorable recovery is possible with minimal forced use of the contralesional limb. Studies of the mechanisms underlying recovery have shown that following small lesions of the digit areas of primary motor cortex (M1), there is expansion of the digit motor representations into areas of M1 that did not produce digit movements prior to the lesion. However, after larger lesions involving the elbow, wrist and digit areas of M1, no such expansion of the motor representation was observed, suggesting that recovery was due to other cortical or subcortical areas taking over control of hand/digit movements. Recently, we showed that one possible mechanism of recovery after lesion to the arm areas of M1 and lateral premotor cortex is enhancement of corticospinal projections from the medially located supplementary motor area (M2) to spinal cord laminae containing neurons which have lost substantial input from the lateral motor areas and play a critical role in reaching and digit movements. Because human stroke and brain injury patients show variable, and usually poorer, recovery of hand motor function than that of nonhuman primates after motor cortex damage, we conclude with a discussion of implications of this work for further experimentation to improve recovery of hand function in human stroke patients. PMID:21960307

  9. Functional recovery from sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat correlates with individual differences in responses to chronic intermittent stress.

    PubMed

    van Meeteren, N L; Brakkee, J H; Helders, P J; Wiegant, V M; Gispen, W H

    1997-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to monitor the influence of chronic stress on functional recovery from a sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat. Male Wistar rats underwent standard unilateral sciatic nerve crush. Subsequently, chronic stress was induced during the recovery phase using a daily 30 min shock box session where rats received three electric footshocks each session (0.5 sec, 1 mA). Reduced body weight gain, adrenal gland hypertrophy, and thymus involution indicated that the stress rats were chronically stressed. Evaluation of sensorimotor function revealed significant differences in recovery between control and stress groups. Correlational analysis of individual stress rats indicated that recovery of the walking pattern was negatively correlated with adrenal gland and medulla enlargement, thymus involution, and plasma levels of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone 45 min following the final stress session. In control rats, the index of sciatic nerve function (SF index, expressed as the difference between the injured paw and the intact contralateral paw as a percentage) was significantly correlated with adrenal medulla weight only. The present study reveals that chronic intermittent footshock stress impedes sensorimotor recovery following a sciatic nerve crush lesion and that the consequences of chronic intermittent stress are individually determined. We suggest that the quality of functional locomotor recovery after nerve crush lesion is related to the adaptive capacity or coping style of the individual rat. PMID:9210522

  10. Recovery of language function in Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia following right basal ganglia hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boram; Moon, Hyun Im; Lim, Sung Hee; Cho, Hyesuk; Choi, Hyunjoo; Pyun, Sung-Bom

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated language recovery patterns and the mechanisms of crossed bilingual aphasia following a subcortical stroke. In particular, Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia has not been reported. A 47-year-old, right-handed man was diagnosed with an extensive right basal ganglia hemorrhage. He was bilingual, fluent in both Korean and Japanese. After his stroke, the patient presented with crossed aphasia. We investigated changes in the Korean (L1) and Japanese (L2) language recovery patterns. Both Korean and Japanese versions of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) were completed one month after the stroke, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed using picture-naming tasks. The WAB showed a paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia, with an aphasia quotient (AQ) of 32 for Korean and 50.6 for Japanese, with Broca's aphasia. The patient scored better in the Japanese version of all domains of the tests. The fMRI study showed left lateralized activation in both language tasks, especially in the inferior frontal gyrus. After six months of language therapy targeting L1, the Korean-WAB score improved significantly, while the Japanese-WAB score showed slight improvement. In this case, the subcortical lesion contributed to crossed bilingual aphasia more highly affecting L1 due to loss of the cortico-subcortical control mechanism in the dominant hemisphere. The paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia disappeared after lengthy language therapy targeting L1, and the therapy effect did not transfer to L2. Language recovery in L1 might have been accomplished by reintegrating language networks, including the contralesional language homologue area in the left hemisphere. PMID:26853846

  11. Intrathecal Morphine Attenuates Recovery of Function after a Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Georgina; Woller, Sarah; Puga, Denise; Hoy, Kevin; Balden, Robyn; Grau, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Prior work has shown that a high dose (20 mg/kg) of systemic morphine, required to produce significant analgesia in the acute phase of a contusion injury, undermines the long-term health of treated subjects and increases lesion size. Moreover, a single dose of systemic morphine in the early stage of injury (24 h post-injury) led to symptoms of neuropathic pain 3 weeks later, in the chronic phase. The present study examines the locus of the effects using intrathecal morphine administration. Subjects were treated with one of three doses (0, 30, or 90 μg) of intrathecal morphine 24 h after a moderate contusion injury. The 90-μg dose produced significant analgesia when subjects were exposed to noxious stimuli (thermal and incremented shock) below the level of injury. Yet, despite analgesic efficacy, intrathecal morphine significantly attenuated the recovery of locomotor function and increased lesion size rostral to the injury site. A single dose of 30 or 90 μg of intrathecal morphine also decreased weight gain, and more than doubled the incidence of mortality and autophagia when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Morphine is one of the most effective pharmacological agents for the treatment of neuropathic pain and, therefore, is indispensable for the spinally injured. Treatment can, however, adversely affect the recovery process. A morphine-induced attenuation of recovery may result from increases in immune cell activation and, subsequently, pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the contused spinal cord. PMID:19388818

  12. Longitudinal Assessment of Motor Recovery of Contralateral Hand after Basal Ganglia Infarction Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yue; Zhang, Quan; Yu, Chunshui; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ning; Zuo, Shanhuai; Zhang, Ningnannan

    2016-01-01

    We used functional fMRI to study the brain activation during active finger movements at different time points during the recovery phase following basal ganglia infarction. Four hemiplegic patients with basal ganglia infarction were serially evaluated at different time points spanning the acute and chronic phase using fMRI. To evaluate motor recovery, the patients were asked to perform functional tasks arranged in a block design manner with their hand. On follow-up (chronic phase), three patients achieved significant recovery of motor function of affected limbs. Activation of bilateral sensorimotor cortex (SMC) was observed in two of these patients, while activation of cerebellum was observed in all patients. No remarkable recovery of motor function was noted in one patient with left basal ganglia infarction. In this patient, the activation domain was located in SMC of both sides in acute phase and in ipsilateral SMC in chronic phase. Contralateral SMC appears to be involved in the functional rehabilitation following basal ganglia infarction. The cerebellum may act as an intermediary during functional recovery following basal ganglia infarction. The activation domain associated with active finger movement may be bilateral in acute phase; one patient was ipsilateral in the chronic stage. PMID:27069924

  13. Longitudinal Assessment of Motor Recovery of Contralateral Hand after Basal Ganglia Infarction Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yue; Zhang, Quan; Yu, Chunshui; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ning; Zuo, Shanhuai; Zhang, Ningnannan

    2016-01-01

    We used functional fMRI to study the brain activation during active finger movements at different time points during the recovery phase following basal ganglia infarction. Four hemiplegic patients with basal ganglia infarction were serially evaluated at different time points spanning the acute and chronic phase using fMRI. To evaluate motor recovery, the patients were asked to perform functional tasks arranged in a block design manner with their hand. On follow-up (chronic phase), three patients achieved significant recovery of motor function of affected limbs. Activation of bilateral sensorimotor cortex (SMC) was observed in two of these patients, while activation of cerebellum was observed in all patients. No remarkable recovery of motor function was noted in one patient with left basal ganglia infarction. In this patient, the activation domain was located in SMC of both sides in acute phase and in ipsilateral SMC in chronic phase. Contralateral SMC appears to be involved in the functional rehabilitation following basal ganglia infarction. The cerebellum may act as an intermediary during functional recovery following basal ganglia infarction. The activation domain associated with active finger movement may be bilateral in acute phase; one patient was ipsilateral in the chronic stage. PMID:27069924

  14. Watering, fertilization, and slurry inoculation promote recovery of biological crust function in degraded soils.

    PubMed

    Maestre, Fernando T; Martín, Noelia; Díez, Beatriz; López-Poma, Rosario; Santos, Fernando; Luque, Ignacio; Cortina, Jordi

    2006-10-01

    Biological soil crusts are very sensitive to human-induced disturbances and are in a degraded state in many areas throughout their range. Given their importance in the functioning of arid and semiarid ecosystems, restoring these crusts may contribute to the recovery of ecosystem functionality in degraded areas. We conducted a factorial microcosm experiment to evaluate the effects of inoculation type (discrete fragments vs slurry), fertilization (control vs addition of composted sewage sludge), and watering frequency (two vs five times per week) on the cyanobacterial composition, nitrogen fixation, chlorophyll content, and net CO2 exchange rate of biological soil crusts inoculated on a semiarid degraded soil from SE Spain. Six months after the inoculation, the highest rates of nitrogen fixation and chlorophyll a content were found when the biological crusts were inoculated as slurry, composted sewage sludge was added, and the microcosms were watered five times per week. Net CO2 exchange rate increased when biological crusts were inoculated as slurry and the microcosms were watered five times per week. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints and phylogenetic analyses indicated that most of the cyanobacterial species already present in the inoculated crust had the capability to spread and colonize the surface of the surrounding soil. These analyses showed that cyanobacterial communities were less diverse when the microcosms were watered five times per week, and that watering frequency (followed in importance by the addition of composted sewage sludge and inoculation type) was the treatment that most strongly influenced their composition. Our results suggest that the inoculation of biological soil crusts in the form of slurry combined with the addition of composted sewage sludge could be a suitable technique to accelerate the recovery of the composition and functioning of biological soil crusts in drylands. PMID:16710791

  15. Solving functional flow equations with pseudospectral methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchardt, J.; Knorr, B.

    2016-07-01

    We apply pseudospectral methods to integrate functional flow equations with high accuracy, extending earlier work on functional fixed point equations [J. Borchardt and B. Knorr, Phys. Rev. D 91, 105011 (2015)]. The advantages of our method are illustrated with the help of two classes of models: first, to make contact with literature, we investigate flows of the O (N ) model in three dimensions, for N =1 , 4 and in the large N limit. For the case of a fractal dimension, d =2.4 , and N =1 , we follow the flow along a separatrix from a multicritical fixed point to the Wilson-Fisher fixed point over almost 13 orders of magnitude. As a second example, we consider flows of bounded quantum-mechanical potentials, which can be considered as a toy model for Higgs inflation. Such flows pose substantial numerical difficulties, and represent a perfect test bed to exemplify the power of pseudospectral methods.

  16. Unexpected Recovery of Function after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: The Limits of Early Neuroimaging-Based Outcome Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Edlow, Brian L.; Giacino, Joseph T.; Hirschberg, Ronald E.; Gerrard, Jason; Wu, Ona; Hochberg, Leigh R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prognostication in the early stage of traumatic coma is a common challenge in the neuro-intensive care unit. We report the unexpected recovery of functional milestones (i.e., consciousness, communication, and community reintegration) in a 19-year-old man who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury. The early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, at the time, suggested a poor prognosis. Methods During the first year of the patient’s recovery, MRI with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and T2*-weighted imaging was performed on day 8 (coma), day 44 (minimally conscious state), day 198 (post-traumatic confusional state), and day 366 (community reintegration). Mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the corpus callosum, cerebral hemispheric white matter and thalamus were compared with clinical assessments using the Disability Rating Scale (DRS). Results Extensive diffusion restriction in the corpus callosum and bihemispheric white matter was observed on day 8, with ADC values in a range typically associated with neurotoxic injury (230 to 400 × 10−6 mm2/sec). T2*-weighted MRI revealed widespread hemorrhagic axonal injury in the cerebral hemispheres, corpus callosum, and brainstem. Despite the presence of severe axonal injury on early MRI, the patient regained the ability to communicate and perform activities of daily living independently at one year post-injury (DRS = 8). Conclusions MRI data should be interpreted with caution when prognosticating for patients in traumatic coma. Recovery of consciousness and community reintegration are possible even when extensive traumatic axonal injury is demonstrated by early MRI. PMID:23860665

  17. Functional motor recovery is improved due to local placement of GDNF microspheres after delayed nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Wood, Matthew D; Gordon, Tessa; Kemp, Stephen W P; Liu, Edward H; Kim, Howard; Shoichet, Molly S; Borschel, Gregory H

    2013-05-01

    The majority of bioengineering strategies to promote peripheral nerve regeneration after injury have focused on therapies to bridge large nerve defects while fewer therapies are being developed to treat other nerve injuries, such as nerve transection. We constructed delivery systems using fibrin gels containing either free GDNF or polylactide-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres with GDNF to treat delayed nerve repair, where ELISA verified GDNF release. We determined the formulation of microspheres containing GDNF that optimized nerve regeneration and functional recovery in a rat model of delayed nerve repair. Experimental groups underwent delayed nerve repair and treatment with GDNF microspheres in fibrin glue at the repair site or control treatments (empty microspheres or free GDNF without microspheres). Contractile muscle force, muscle mass, and MUNE were measured 12 weeks following treatment, where GDNF microspheres (2 weeks formulation) were superior compared to either no GDNF or short-term release of free GDNF to nerve. Nerve histology distal to the repair site demonstrated increased axon counts and fiber diameters due to GDNF microspheres (2 weeks formulation). GDNF microspheres partially reversed the deleterious effects of chronic nerve injury, and recovery was slightly favored with the 2 weeks formulation compared to the 4 weeks formulation. PMID:23239194

  18. Local Administration of AAV-BDNF to Subventricular Zone Induces Functional Recovery in Stroke Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Seong-Jin; Tseng, Kuan-Yin; Shen, Hui; Harvey, Brandon K.; Airavaara, Mikko; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Migration of new neuroprogenitor cells (NPCs) from the subventricular zone (SVZ) plays an important role in neurorepair after injury. Previous studies have shown that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) enhances the migration of NPCs from SVZ explants in neonatal mice in vitro. The purpose of this study was to identify the role of BDNF in SVZ cells using AAV-BDNF in an animal model of stroke. BDNF protein production after AAV‐BDNF infection was verified in primary neuronal culture. AAV-BDNF or AAV-RFP was injected into the left SVZ region of adult rats at 14 days prior to right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). SVZ tissues were collected from the brain and placed in Metrigel cultures 1 day after MCAo. Treatment with AAV-BDNF significantly increased the migration of SVZ cells in the stroke brain in vitro. In another set of animals, AAV-GFP was co-injected with AAV-BDNF or AAV-RFP to label cells in left SVZ prior to right MCAo. Local administration of AAV-BDNF significantly enhanced recovery of locomotor function and migration of GFP-positive cells from the SVZ toward the lesioned hemisphere in stroke rats. Our data suggest that focal administration of AAV-BDNF to the SVZ increases behavioral recovery post stroke, possibly through the enhancement of migration of cells from SVZ in stroke animals. Regional manipulation of BDNF expression through AAV may be a novel approach for neurorepair in stroke brains. PMID:24312581

  19. The estimation of recovery time of calf muscle oxygen saturation during exercise by using functional near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, M. A.; Shojaeifar, M.; Mohajerani, E.

    2014-08-01

    Several methods of near infrared spectroscopy such as functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and pulse oximetry have been applied for monitoring of tissue oxygenation or arterial oxygen saturation. Some vascular diseases can be diagnosed through measurements of tissue oxygenation. In this study, the temporal variation of oxygenation of calf muscle after exercise is studied by fNIRS. First, the accuracy of a low-cost fNIRS system is studied by measuring the oxygenation of a lipid phantom. Moreover, in-vivo study is performed to evaluate the precision of this system. Then, the variation of muscle oxygenation of four persons during exercise is measured and also the recovery time after walking/running is measured by this fNIRS system.

  20. Investigating pyrolysis/incineration as a method of resource recovery from solid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Bobby J.; Lemay, Christopher S.

    1993-01-01

    Pyrolysis/incineration (P/I) is a physicochemical method for the generation of recoverable resources from solid waste materials such as inedible plant biomass (IPB), paper, plastics, cardboard, etc. P/I permits the collection of numerous gases with a minimal amount of solid residue. Pyrolysis, also known as starved air incineration, is usually conducted at relatively high temperatures (greater than 500 deg C) in the absence of oxygen. Incineration is conducted at lower temperatures in the presence of oxygen. The primary purpose of this study was to design, construct, and test a model P/I. The system design includes safety requirements for temperature and pressure. The objectives of this study were: (1) to design and construct a P/I system for incorporation with the Hybrid Regenerative Water Recovery System; (2) to initiate testing of the P/I system; (3) to collect and analyze P/I system data; (4) to consider test variables; and (5) to determine the feasibility of P/I as an effective method of resource recovery. A P/I system for the recovery of reuseable resources from solid waste materials was designed, constructed, and tested. Since a large amount of inedible plant biomass (IPB) will be generated in a space-based habitat on the lunar surface and Mars, IPB was the primary waste material tested in the system. Analysis of the effluent gases was performed to determine which gases could be used in a life support system.

  1. Recovery of waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium from water samples by the membrane-filter dissolution method.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R; Fayer, R

    1997-01-01

    The cellulose-acetate membrane (CAM)-filter dissolution method implemented into a Millipore Glass Microanalysis system was used for recovery of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts seeded into 25 l of drinking water in polyethylene carboy aspirator bottles. CAM-entrapped oocysts were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. From 65 to 94 oocysts/l (mean 75 oocysts/l), 34.7% overall of the inoculated oocysts, were unrecovered as determined after the water had been drained from the bottle, rinsed with 1 l of eluting fluid (EF), and CAM-filtered. Efficiency rates of oocyst recovery ranged from 24.0% to 64.0% (mean 44.1%), without the use of EF and from 72.1% to 82.3% (mean 78.8%) when EF was used. To ensure a high recovery efficiency of Cryptosporidium oocysts from sampled water by the CAM-filter dissolution method, it is recommended that 1 l of EF per 25 l of water be used. PMID:9039693

  2. Method for recovery of viscous hydrocarbons by electromagnetic heating in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Sresty, G.C.; Bridges, J.E.; Dev, H.; Snow, R.H.

    1984-12-04

    A method of electromagnetic heating in situ recovers liquid hydrocarbons from an earth formation containing viscous hydrocarbonaceous liquid and water in an inorganic matrix where the formation is substantially impermeable to fluids under native conditions. A block of earth formation is substantially uniformly heated with electromagnetic power to a temperature at which the viscous hydrocarbonaceous liquid is relatively fluid and a portion of the water vaporizes to water vapor at a pressure sufficient to overcome the capillary pressure of the liquid in the matrix. Water vapor thereupon escaping from the block under such pressure is recovered with hydrocarbonaceous liquid driven thereby. The magnitude of the electromagnetic power is controlled to limit the current recovery ratio of water vapor to hydrocarboneous liquid below a predetermined limit assuring substantial recovery of the hydrocarbonaceous liquid prior to the driving off of substantially all the water.

  3. Dissolved air flotation and centrifugation as methods for oil recovery from ruptured microalgal cells.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Schenk, Peer M

    2016-10-01

    Solvent-free microalgal lipid recovery is highly desirable for safer, more sustainable and more economical microalgal oil production. Dispersed air flotation and centrifugation were evaluated for the ability to separate oil and debris from a slurry mixture of osmotically fractured Chaetoceros muelleri cells with and without utilizing collectors. Microalgal oil partially phase-separated as a top layer and partially formed an oil-in-water emulsion. Although collectors, such as sodium dodecyl sulphate enhanced selective flotation, by just adjusting the pH and cell concentration of the mixture, up to 78% of the lipids were recovered in the froth. Using centrifugation of fractured microalgal slurry resulted in removal of 60% cell debris and up to 68.5% of microalgal oil was present in the supernatant. Both methods, centrifugation and flotation provided options for separation of microalgal oil from C. muelleri slurry with similar fatty acid recoveries of 57% and 60%, respectively. PMID:27393833

  4. A Neurodynamic Optimization Method for Recovery of Compressive Sensed Signals With Globally Converged Solution Approximating to l0 Minimization.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chengan; Yang, Qingshan

    2015-07-01

    Finding the optimal solution to the constrained l0 -norm minimization problems in the recovery of compressive sensed signals is an NP-hard problem and it usually requires intractable combinatorial searching operations for getting the global optimal solution, unless using other objective functions (e.g., the l1 norm or lp norm) for approximate solutions or using greedy search methods for locally optimal solutions (e.g., the orthogonal matching pursuit type algorithms). In this paper, a neurodynamic optimization method is proposed to solve the l0 -norm minimization problems for obtaining the global optimum using a recurrent neural network (RNN) model. For the RNN model, a group of modified Gaussian functions are constructed and their sum is taken as the objective function for approximating the l0 norm and for optimization. The constructed objective function sets up a convexity condition under which the neurodynamic system is guaranteed to obtain the globally convergent optimal solution. An adaptive adjustment scheme is developed for improving the performance of the optimization algorithm further. Extensive experiments are conducted to test the proposed approach in this paper and the output results validate the effectiveness of the new method. PMID:25122603

  5. A mathematical model of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) method for mixed type rock

    SciTech Connect

    Sitnikov, A.A.; Eremin, N.A.; Ibattulin, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with the microbial enhanced oil recovery method. It covers: (1) Mechanism of microbial influence on the reservoir was analyzed; (2) The main groups of metabolites affected by the hydrodynamic characteristics of the reservoir were determined; (3) The criterions of use of microbial influence method on the reservoir are defined. The mathematical model of microbial influence on the reservoir was made on this basis. The injection of molasse water solution with Clostridium bacterias into the mixed type of rock was used in this model. And the results of calculations were compared with experimental data.

  6. Effect of exosomes derived from multipluripotent mesenchymal stromal cells on functional recovery and neurovascular plasticity in rats after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanlu; Chopp, Michael; Meng, Yuling; Katakowski, Mark; Xin, Hongqi; Mahmood, Asim; Xiong, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Object Transplanted multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) improve functional recovery in rats after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we test a novel hypothesis that systemic administration of cell-free exosomes generated from MSCs promotes functional recovery and neurovascular remodeling in rats after TBI. Methods Wistar rats were subjected to TBI followed by tail vein injection of 100 μg protein of exosomes derived from MSCs or an equal volume of vehicle phosphate-buffered saline (n = 8/group) 24 hours later. To evaluate cognitive and sensorimotor functional recovery, the modified Morris water maze, neurological severity score and footfault tests were performed. Animals were sacrificed at 35 days after TBI. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed for measurements of lesion volume, neurovascular remodeling (angiogenesis and neurogenesis), and neuroinflammation. Results Compared with saline-treated controls, exosome-treated TBI rats showed significant improvement in spatial learning at 34-35 days measured by the Morris water maze test (p < 0.05), and sensorimotor functional recovery, i.e., reduced neurological deficits and footfault frequency, observed at 14-35 days post injury (p < 0.05). Exosome treatment significantly increased the number of newborn endothelial cells in the lesion boundary zone and dentate gyrus, and significantly increased the number of newborn immature and mature neurons in the dentate gyrus as well as reduced neuroinflammation. Conclusions We, for the first time, demonstrate that MSC-generated exosomes effectively improve functional recovery, at least in part, by promoting endogenous angiogenesis and neurogenesis and reducing inflammation in rats after TBI. Thus, MSC-generated exosomes may provide a novel cell-free therapy for TBI and possibly other neurological diseases. PMID:25594326

  7. Density-functional expansion methods: Grand challenges

    PubMed Central

    Giese, Timothy J.; York, Darrin M.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the source of errors in semiempirical density functional expansion (VE) methods. In particular, we show that VE methods are capable of well-reproducing their standard Kohn-Sham density functional method counterparts, but suffer from large errors upon using one or more of these approximations: the limited size of the atomic orbital basis, the Slater monopole auxiliary basis description of the response density, and the one- and two-body treatment of the core-Hamiltonian matrix elements. In the process of discussing these approximations and highlighting their symptoms, we introduce a new model that supplements the second-order density-functional tight-binding model with a self-consistent charge-dependent chemical potential equalization correction; we review our recently reported method for generalizing the auxiliary basis description of the atomic orbital response density; and we decompose the first-order potential into a summation of additive atomic components and many-body corrections, and from this examination, we provide new insights and preliminary results that motivate and inspire new approximate treatments of the core-Hamiltonian. PMID:27293378

  8. Effects of a virtual reality-based exercise program on functional recovery in stroke patients: part 1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of a virtual reality exercise program using the Interactive Rehabilitation and Exercise System (IREX) on the recovery of motor and cognitive function and the performance of activities of daily living in stroke patients. [Subjects] The study enrolled 10 patients diagnosed with stroke who received occupational therapy at the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of Hospital A between January and March 2014. [Methods] The patients took part in the virtual reality exercise program for 30 minutes each day, three times per week, for 4 weeks. Then, the patients were re-evaluated to determine changes in upper extremity function, cognitive function, and performance of activities of daily living 4 weeks after the baseline assessment. [Results] In the experimental group, there were significant differences in the Korea-Mini Mental Status Evaluation, Korean version of the modified Barthel index, and Fugl-Meyer assessment scores between the baseline and endpoint. [Conclusion] The virtual reality exercise program was effective for restoring function in stroke patients. Further studies should develop systematic protocols for rehabilitation training with a virtual reality exercise program. PMID:26180287

  9. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Treatment Following Spinal Cord Injury Improves Mitochondrial Function Correlated with Remarkable Tissue Sparing and Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Samir P.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Lyttle, Travis S.; Magnuson, David S. K.; Rabchevsky, Alexander G.

    2012-01-01

    We have recently documented that treatment with the alternative biofuel, acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC, 300 mg/kg), as late as 1 hr after T10 contusion spinal cord injury (SCI), significantly maintained mitochondrial function 24 hrs after injury. Here we report that following more severe contusion SCI centered on the L1/L2 segments that are postulated to contain lamina X neurons critical for locomotion (the “central pattern generator”), ALC treatment resulted in significant improvements in acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and long-term hindlimb function. While control-injured rats were only able to achieve slight movements of hindlimb joints, ALC-treated animals produced consistent weight-supported plantar steps one month after injury. Such landmark behavioral improvements were significantly correlated with increased tissue sparing of both gray and white matter proximal to the injury, as well as preservation of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in lamina X rostral to the injury site. These findings signify that functional improvements with ALC treatment are mediated, in part, by preserved locomotor circuitry rostral to upper lumbar contusion SCI. Based on beneficial effects of ALC on mitochondrial bioenergetics after injury, our collective evidence demonstrate that preventing mitochondrial dysfunction acutely “promotes” neuroprotection that may be associated with the milestone recovery of plantar, weight-supported stepping. PMID:22445934

  10. Oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs by steam injection methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, J.C.; Miller, M.A.

    1995-05-01

    Oil recovery by steam injection is a proven, successful technology for nonfractured reservoirs, but has received only limited study for fractured reservoirs. Preliminary studies suggest recovery efficiencies in fractured reservoirs may be increased by as much as 50% with the application of steam relative to that of low temperature processes. The key mechanisms enhancing oil production at high temperature are the differential thermal expansion between oil and the pore volume, and the generation of gases within matrix blocks. Other mechanisms may also contribute to increased production. These mechanisms are relatively independent of oil gravity, making steam injection into naturally fractured reservoirs equally attractive to light and heavy oil deposits. The objectives of this research program are to quantify the amount of oil expelled by these recovery mechanisms and to develop a numerical model for predicting oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs during steam injection. The experimental study consists of constructing and operating several apparatuses to isolate each of these mechanisms. The first measures thermal expansion and capillary imbibition rates at relatively low temperature, but for various lithologies and matrix block shapes. The second apparatus measures the same parameters, but at high temperatures and for only one shape. A third experimental apparatus measures the maximum gas saturations that could build up within a matrix block. A fourth apparatus measures thermal conductivity and diffusivity of porous media. The numerical study consists of developing transfer functions for oil expulsion from matrix blocks to fractures at high temperatures and incorporating them, along with the energy equation, into a dual porosity thermal reservoir simulator. This simulator can be utilized to make predictions for steam injection processes in naturally-fractured reservoirs. Analytical models for capillary imbibition have also been developed.

  11. Anterior thalamic nuclei lesions and recovery of function: Relevance to cognitive thalamus.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple-Alford, John C; Harland, Bruce; Loukavenko, Elena A; Perry, Brook; Mercer, Stephanie; Collings, David A; Ulrich, Katharina; Abraham, Wickliffe C; McNaughton, Neil; Wolff, Mathieu

    2015-07-01

    Injury to the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) and their neural connections is the most consistent neuropathology associated with diencephalic amnesia. ATN lesions in rats produce memory impairments that support a key role for this region within an extended hippocampal system of complex overlapping neural connections. Environmental enrichment is a therapeutic tool that produces substantial, although incomplete, recovery of memory function after ATN lesions, even after the lesion-induced deficit has become established. Similarly, the neurotrophic agent cerebrolysin, also counters the negative effects of ATN lesions. ATN lesions substantially reduce c-Fos expression and spine density in the retrosplenial cortex, and reduce spine density on CA1 neurons; only the latter is reversed by enrichment. We discuss the implications of this evidence for the cognitive thalamus, with a proposal that there are genuine interactions among different but allied thalamo-cortical systems that go beyond a simple summation of their separate effects. PMID:25637779

  12. Transcriptome analyses reveal molecular mechanisms underlying functional recovery after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Hongmei; Ge, Weihong; Zhang, Aifeng; Xi, Yue; Chen, Zhihua; Luo, Dandan; Cheng, Yin; Fan, Kevin S.; Horvath, Steve; Sofroniew, Michael V.; Cheng, Liming; Yang, Zhaoyang; Sun, Yi E.; Li, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is considered incurable because axonal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely challenging, due to harsh CNS injury environment and weak intrinsic regeneration capability of CNS neurons. We discovered that neurotrophin-3 (NT3)-loaded chitosan provided an excellent microenvironment to facilitate nerve growth, new neurogenesis, and functional recovery of completely transected spinal cord in rats. To acquire mechanistic insight, we conducted a series of comprehensive transcriptome analyses of spinal cord segments at the lesion site, as well as regions immediately rostral and caudal to the lesion, over a period of 90 days after SCI. Using weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA), we established gene modules/programs corresponding to various pathological events at different times after SCI. These objective measures of gene module expression also revealed that enhanced new neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and reduced inflammatory responses were keys to conferring the effect of NT3-chitosan on regeneration. PMID:26460053

  13. A functional analysis of verbal delay in preschool children: Implications for prevention and total recovery

    PubMed Central

    Drash, Philip W.; Tudor, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Delays in acquiring age-appropriate verbal repertoires in preschool children with no known organic etiology may be explained by defective or absent behavior-environmental contingencies. This paper presents six possible behavioral paradigms that describe verbal episodes between parents and their preschool children and how these interactions may inhibit or prevent the acquisition of verbal behavior. These paradigms are contrasted with parent-child interactions that typically result in age-appropriate verbal repertoires. Identifying the reinforcement contingencies that produce delays in acquisition of verbal behavior could lead to the development of more effective behavioral programs for remediating nonorganic language delay. Recommendations for prevention, treatment and total recovery from functional verbal delay and associated mental retardation are presented. The relation between contingency-shaped and rule-governed behavior in the shaping of verbal behavior is discussed. PMID:22477077

  14. Two is More Than One: How to Combine Brain Stimulation Rehabilitative Training for Functional Recovery?

    PubMed Central

    Koganemaru, Satoko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that non-invasive brain stimulation has an additional effect in combination with rehabilitative therapy to enhance functional recovery than either therapy alone. The combination enhances use-dependent plasticity induced by repetitive training. The neurophysiological mechanism of the effects of this combination is based on associative plasticity. However, these effects were not reported in all cases. We propose a list of possible strategies to achieve an effective association between rehabilitative training with brain stimulation for plasticity: (1) control of temporal aspect between stimulation and task execution; (2) the use of a shaped task for the combination; (3) the appropriate stimulation of neuronal circuits where use-dependent plastic changes occur; and (4) phase synchronization between rhythmically patterned brain stimulation and task-related patterned activities of neurons. To better utilize brain stimulation in neuro-rehabilitation, it is important to develop more effective techniques to combine them. PMID:26617497

  15. Transcriptome analyses reveal molecular mechanisms underlying functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongmei; Ge, Weihong; Zhang, Aifeng; Xi, Yue; Chen, Zhihua; Luo, Dandan; Cheng, Yin; Fan, Kevin S; Horvath, Steve; Sofroniew, Michael V; Cheng, Liming; Yang, Zhaoyang; Sun, Yi E; Li, Xiaoguang

    2015-10-27

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is considered incurable because axonal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely challenging, due to harsh CNS injury environment and weak intrinsic regeneration capability of CNS neurons. We discovered that neurotrophin-3 (NT3)-loaded chitosan provided an excellent microenvironment to facilitate nerve growth, new neurogenesis, and functional recovery of completely transected spinal cord in rats. To acquire mechanistic insight, we conducted a series of comprehensive transcriptome analyses of spinal cord segments at the lesion site, as well as regions immediately rostral and caudal to the lesion, over a period of 90 days after SCI. Using weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA), we established gene modules/programs corresponding to various pathological events at different times after SCI. These objective measures of gene module expression also revealed that enhanced new neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and reduced inflammatory responses were keys to conferring the effect of NT3-chitosan on regeneration. PMID:26460053

  16. Enhanced regeneration and functional recovery after spinal root avulsion by manipulation of the proteoglycan receptor PTPσ

    PubMed Central

    Li, Heng; Wong, Connie; Li, Wen; Ruven, Carolin; He, Liumin; Wu, Xiaoli; Lang, Bradley T.; Silver, Jerry; Wu, Wutian

    2015-01-01

    Following root avulsion, spinal nerves are physically disconnected from the spinal cord. Severe motoneuron death and inefficient axon regeneration often result in devastating motor dysfunction. Newly formed axons need to extend through inhibitory scar tissue at the CNS-PNS transitional zone before entering into a pro-regenerative peripheral nerve trajectory. CSPGs are dominant suppressors in scar tissue and exert inhibition via neuronal receptors including PTPσ. Previously, a small peptide memetic of the PTPσ wedge region named ISP (Intracellular Sigma Peptide) was generated, and its capabilities to target PTPσ and relieve CSPG inhibition were validated. Here, we demonstrate that after ventral root avulsion and immediate re-implantation, modulation of PTPσ by systemic delivery of ISP remarkably enhanced regeneration. ISP treatment reduced motoneuron death, increased the number of axons regenerating across scar tissue, rebuilt healthy neuromuscular junctions and enhanced motor functional recovery. Our study shows that modulation of PTPσ is a potential therapeutic strategy for root avulsion. PMID:26464223

  17. Uncoupling PSD-95 interactions leads to rapid recovery of cortical function after focal stroke

    PubMed Central

    Srejic, Luka R; Hutchison, William D; Aarts, Michelle M

    2013-01-01

    Since the most significant ischemic sequelae occur within hours of stroke, it is necessary to understand how neuronal function changes during this time. While histologic and behavioral models show the extent of stroke-related damage, only in vivo recordings can illustrate changes in brain activity during stroke and validate effectiveness of neuroprotective compounds. Spontaneous and evoked field potentials (fEPs) were recorded in the deep layers of the cortex with a linear microelectrode array for 3 hours after focal stroke in anesthetized rats. Tat-NR2B9c peptide, which confers neuroprotection by uncoupling the PSD-95 protein from N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), was administered 5 minutes before ischemia. Evoked field potentials were completely suppressed within 3 minutes of infarct in all ischemic groups. Evoked field potential recovery after stroke in rats treated with Tat-NR2B9c (83% of baseline) was greater compared with stroke-only (61% of baseline) or control peptide (Tat-NR2B-AA; 67% of baseline) groups (P<0.001). Electroencephalography (EEG) power was higher in Tat-NR2B9c-treated animals at both 20 minutes and 1 hour (50% and 73% of baseline, respectively) compared with stroke-only and Tat-NR2B-AA-treated rats (P<0.05). Tat-NR2B9c significantly reduces stroke-related cortical dysfunction as evidenced by greater recovery of fEPs and EEG power; illustrating the immediate effects of the compound on poststroke brain function. PMID:24022623

  18. Short-term galvanic vestibular stimulation promotes functional recovery and neurogenesis in unilaterally labyrinthectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Shaabani, Moslem; Lotfi, Yones; Karimian, Seyed Morteza; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Hooshmandi, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Current experimental research on the therapeutic effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) has mainly focused on neurodegenerative disorders. However, it primarily stimulates the vestibular nuclei and could be potentially effective in modulating imbalance between them in the case of unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). Fifty male Wistar rats (180-220g) were used in 5 groups of 10: intact, sham, right-UL (RUL; without intervention), and two other right-UL groups with GVS intervention [one group treated with low rate GVS (GVS.LF; 6-7Hz), and the other treated with high rate GVS (GVS.HF; 17-18Hz)]. The UL models were prepared by intratympanic injection of sodium arsanilate. GVS protocols were implemented 30min/day and continued for 14 days via ring-shaped copper electrodes inserted subcutaneously over each mastoid. Functional recovery was assessed by several postural tests including support surface area, landing and air-righting reflexes, and rotarod procedure. Immunohistochemical investigations were performed on ipsi- and contra-lesional medial vestibular nuclei (MVN) using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and Ki67, as markers of cell proliferation. Behavioral evaluations showed significant functional recovery of GVS-treated groups compared to RUL group. The percent of marked cells with BrdU and Ki67 were significantly higher in the ipsilesional MVN of both GVS-treated groups compared with other groups. Our findings confirmed the effectiveness of GVS-intervention in accelerating static and dynamic vestibular compensation. This could be explained by the cell proliferation in ipsilesional MVN cells and rapid rebalancing of the VNs and the modulation of their motor outputs. Therefore, GVS could be promising for rehabilitating patients with unilateral vestibular weakness. PMID:27444558

  19. Acetyl salicylic acid locally enhances functional recovery after sciatic nerve transection in rat.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Rahim; Amini, Keyvan; Abdollahi-Pirbazari, Mehdi; Yousefi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Local effect of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) on peripheral nerve regeneration was studied using a rat sciatic nerve transection model. Forty-five male healthy White Wistar rats were divided into three experimental groups (n = 15), randomly: Sham-operation (SHAM), control (SIL), and ASA-treated (SIL/ASA) groups. In SHAM group after anesthesia left sciatic nerve was exposed through a gluteal muscle incision and after homeostasis the muscle was sutured. In SIL group the left sciatic nerve was exposed the same way and transected proximal to tibio-peroneal bifurcation leaving a 10-mm gap. Proximal and distal stumps were each inserted into a silicone tube and filled with 10 μl phosphate buffered solution. In SIL/ASA group defect was bridged using a silicone tube filled with 10 μl acetyl salisylic acid (0.1 mg/ml). Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of five animals each and were studied 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery. Data were analyzed statistically by factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Bonferroni test for pair-wise comparisons. Functional study confirmed faster and better recovery of regenerated axons in SIL/ASA than in SIL group (p < 0.05). Gastrocnemius muscle mass in SIL/ASA was significantly more than in SIL group. Morphometric indices of regenerated fibers showed that the number and diameter of the myelinated fibers in SIL/ASA were significantly higher than in control group. In immuohistochemistry, location of reactions to S-100 in SIL/ASA was clearly more positive than in SIL group. Response to local treatment of ASA demonstrates that it influences and improves functional recovery of peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:24140781

  20. Application to induction motor faults diagnosis of the amplitude recovery method combined with FFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yukun; Guo, Liwei; Wang, Qixiang; An, Guoqing; Guo, Ming; Lian, Hao

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a signal processing method - amplitude recovery method (abbreviated to ARM) - that can be used as the signal pre-processing for fast Fourier transform (FFT) in order to analyze the spectrum of the other-order harmonics rather than the fundamental frequency in stator currents and diagnose subtle faults in induction motors. In this situation, the ARM functions as a filter that can filter out the component of the fundamental frequency from three phases of stator currents of the induction motor. The filtering result of the ARM can be provided to FFT to do further spectrum analysis. In this way, the amplitudes of other-order frequencies can be extracted and analyzed independently. If the FFT is used without the ARM pre-processing and the components of other-order frequencies, compared to the fundamental frequency, are fainter, the amplitudes of other-order frequencies are not able easily to extract out from stator currents. The reason is when the FFT is used direct to analyze the original signal, all the frequencies in the spectrum analysis of original stator current signal have the same weight. The ARM is capable of separating the other-order part in stator currents from the fundamental-order part. Compared to the existent digital filters, the ARM has the benefits, including its stop-band narrow enough just to stop the fundamental frequency, its simple operations of algebra and trigonometry without any integration, and its deduction direct from mathematics equations without any artificial adjustment. The ARM can be also used by itself as a coarse-grained diagnosis of faults in induction motors when they are working. These features can be applied to monitor and diagnose the subtle faults in induction motors to guard them from some damages when they are in operation. The diagnosis application of ARM combined with FFT is also displayed in this paper with the experimented induction motor. The test results verify the rationality and feasibility of the

  1. ISS Contingency Attitude Control Recovery Method for Loss of Automatic Thruster Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Bhatt, Sagar; Alaniz, Abran; McCants, Edward; Nguyen, Louis; Chamitoff, Greg

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the attitude control issues associated with International Space Station (ISS) loss of automatic thruster control capability are discussed and methods for attitude control recovery are presented. This scenario was experienced recently during Shuttle mission STS-117 and ISS Stage 13A in June 2007 when the Russian GN&C computers, which command the ISS thrusters, failed. Without automatic propulsive attitude control, the ISS would not be able to regain attitude control after the Orbiter undocked. The core issues associated with recovering long-term attitude control using CMGs are described as well as the systems engineering analysis to identify recovery options. It is shown that the recovery method can be separated into a procedure for rate damping to a safe harbor gravity gradient stable orientation and a capability to maneuver the vehicle to the necessary initial conditions for long term attitude hold. A manual control option using Soyuz and Progress vehicle thrusters is investigated for rate damping and maneuvers. The issues with implementing such an option are presented and the key issue of closed-loop stability is addressed. A new non-propulsive alternative to thruster control, Zero Propellant Maneuver (ZPM) attitude control method is introduced and its rate damping and maneuver performance evaluated. It is shown that ZPM can meet the tight attitude and rate error tolerances needed for long term attitude control. A combination of manual thruster rate damping to a safe harbor attitude followed by a ZPM to Stage long term attitude control orientation was selected by the Anomaly Resolution Team as the alternate attitude control method for such a contingency.

  2. Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity.

  3. Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. CITED4 induces physiologic hypertrophy and promotes functional recovery after ischemic injury

    PubMed Central

    Bezzerides, Vassilios J.; Platt, Colin; Lerchenmüller, Carolin; Paruchuri, Kaavya; Oh, Nul Loren; Xiao, Chunyang; Cao, Yunshan; Mann, Nina; Spiegelman, Bruce M.; Rosenzweig, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which exercise mediates its multiple cardiac benefits are only partly understood. Prior comprehensive analyses of the cardiac transcriptional components and microRNAs dynamically regulated by exercise suggest that the CBP/p300-interacting protein CITED4 is a downstream effector in both networks. While CITED4 has documented functional consequences in neonatal cardiomyocytes in vitro, nothing is known about its effects in the adult heart. To investigate the impact of cardiac CITED4 expression in adult animals, we generated transgenic mice with regulated, cardiomyocyte-specific CITED4 expression. Cardiac CITED4 expression in adult mice was sufficient to induce an increase in heart weight and cardiomyocyte size with normal systolic function, similar to the effects of endurance exercise training. After ischemia-reperfusion, CITED4 expression did not change initial infarct size but mediated substantial functional recovery while reducing ventricular dilation and fibrosis. Forced cardiac expression of CITED4 also induced robust activation of the mTORC1 pathway after ischemic injury. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 abrogated CITED4’s effects in vitro and in vivo. Together, these data establish CITED4 as a regulator of mTOR signaling that is sufficient to induce physiologic hypertrophy at baseline and mitigate adverse ventricular remodeling after ischemic injury. PMID:27430023

  5. Intraspinal Delivery of Polyethylene Glycol-coated Gold Nanoparticles Promotes Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Papastefanaki, Florentia; Jakovcevski, Igor; Poulia, Nafsika; Djogo, Nevena; Schulz, Florian; Martinovic, Tamara; Ciric, Darko; Loers, Gabrielle; Vossmeyer, Tobias; Weller, Horst; Schachner, Melitta; Matsas, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Failure of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) to regenerate effectively after injury leads to mostly irreversible functional impairment. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are promising candidates for drug delivery in combination with tissue-compatible reagents, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). PEG administration in CNS injury models has received interest for potential therapy, but toxicity and low bioavailability prevents clinical application. Here we show that intraspinal delivery of PEG-functionalized 40-nm-AuNPs at early stages after mouse spinal cord injury is beneficial for recovery. Positive outcome of hind limb motor function was accompanied by attenuated inflammatory response, enhanced motor neuron survival, and increased myelination of spared or regrown/sprouted axons. No adverse effects, such as body weight loss, ill health, or increased mortality were observed. We propose that PEG-AuNPs represent a favorable drug-delivery platform with therapeutic potential that could be further enhanced if PEG-AuNPs are used as carriers of regeneration-promoting molecules. PMID:25807288

  6. Investigation of the nanoscale elastic recovery of a polymer using an atomic force microscopy-based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Yanquan; Yan, Yongda; Hu, Zhenjiang; Zhao, Xuesen

    2016-01-01

    An atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based method to reveal the elastic recovery behavior of a polymer material after the nanoscratching process is presented. The machined depth during scratching is obtained by monitoring the position of the piezoceramic tube (PZT) of the AFM system. By comparison with the measured depth of the nanogroove, the elastic recovery of the machined depth can be achieved. Experiments are also undertaken to study the effects of the scratching velocity and the applied normal load on the elastic recovery of the machined depth when scratching on polycarbonate (PC). Results show that the elastic recovery rate has a logarithmically proportional relationship to the scratching velocity, while it has little change with the variation of the applied normal load. In addition, the constitutive model of the polymer material is also used to verify the obtained conclusions, indicating that this is a potential method for measuring the elastic recovery of the material under the mechanical process on the nanoscale.

  7. Comparison of six DNA extraction methods for recovery of fungal DNA as assessed by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Fredricks, David N; Smith, Caitlin; Meier, Amalia

    2005-10-01

    The detection of fungal pathogens in clinical samples by PCR requires the use of extraction methods that efficiently lyse fungal cells and recover DNA suitable for amplification. We used quantitative PCR assays to measure the recovery of DNA from two important fungal pathogens subjected to six DNA extraction methods. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia or Candida albicans yeast cells were added to bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and subjected to DNA extraction in order to assess the recovery of DNA from a defined number of fungal propagules. In order to simulate hyphal growth in tissue, Aspergillus fumigatus conidia were allowed to form mycelia in tissue culture media and then harvested for DNA extraction. Differences among the DNA yields from the six extraction methods were highly significant (P<0.0001) in each of the three experimental systems. An extraction method based on enzymatic lysis of fungal cell walls (yeast cell lysis plus the use of GNOME kits) produced high levels of fungal DNA with Candida albicans but low levels of fungal DNA with Aspergillus fumigatus conidia or hyphae. Extraction methods employing mechanical agitation with beads produced the highest yields with Aspergillus hyphae. The Master Pure yeast method produced high levels of DNA from C. albicans but only moderate yields from A. fumigatus. A reagent from one extraction method was contaminated with fungal DNA, including DNA from Aspergillus and Candida species. In conclusion, the six extraction methods produce markedly differing yields of fungal DNA and thus can significantly affect the results of fungal PCR assays. No single extraction method was optimal for all organisms. PMID:16207973

  8. Causal Link between the Cortico-Rubral Pathway and Functional Recovery through Forced Impaired Limb Use in Rats with Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Akimasa; Isa, Kaoru; Umeda, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Kobayashi, Kenta; Hida, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Intensive rehabilitation is believed to induce use-dependent plasticity in the injured nervous system; however, its causal relationship to functional recovery is unclear. Here, we performed systematic analysis of the effects of forced use of an impaired forelimb on the recovery of rats after lesioning the internal capsule with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Forced limb use (FLU) group rats exhibited better recovery of skilled forelimb functions and their cortical motor area with forelimb representation was restored and enlarged on the ipsilesional side. In addition, abundant axonal sprouting from the reemerged forelimb area was found in the ipsilateral red nucleus after FLU. To test the causal relationship between the plasticity in the cortico-rubral pathway and recovery, loss-of-function experiments were conducted using a double-viral vector technique, which induces selective blockade of the target pathway. Blockade of the cortico-rubral tract resulted in deficits of the recovered forelimb function in FLU group rats. These findings suggest that the cortico-rubral pathway is a substrate for recovery induced by intensive rehabilitation after ICH. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The research aimed at determining the causal linkage between reorganization of the motor pathway induced by intensive rehabilitative training and recovery after stroke. We clarified the expansion of the forelimb representation area of the ipsilesional motor cortex by forced impaired forelimb use (FLU) after lesioning the internal capsule with intracerebral hemorrhaging (ICH) in rats. Anterograde tracing showed robust axonal sprouting from the forelimb area to the red nucleus in response to FLU. Selective blockade of the cortico-rubral pathway by the novel double-viral vector technique clearly revealed that the increased cortico-rubral axonal projections had causal linkage to the recovery of reaching movements induced by FLU. Our data demonstrate that the cortico-rubral pathway is responsible for the

  9. Method for printing functional protein microarrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delehanty, James B.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2003-01-01

    Piezoelectric dispensing of proteins from borosilicate glass capillaries is a popular method of protein biochip fabrication that offers the advantages of sample recovery and noncontact with the printing substrate. However, little regard has been given to the quantitative aspects of dispensing minute volumes (1 nL or less) at the low protein concentrations (20 micrograms/mL or less) typically used in microprinting. Specifically, loss of protein sample due to nonspecific adsorption to the glass surface of the dispensing capillaries can limit the amount of protein delivered to the substrate. We demonstrate the benefits of a low ionic strength buffer containing the carrier protein BSA that effectively minimizes the ionic strength-dependent phenomenon of nonspecific protein adsorption to borosilicate glass. Over the concentration range of 20-2.5 micrograms/mL, the dispensing of a reference IgG in 10 mM PBS including 0.1% BSA resulted in the deposition of 3.6- to 44-fold more IgG compared to the deposition of IgG in standard 150 mM PBS in the absence of BSA. Furthermore, when the IgG was dispensed with carrier protein, the resulting spots exhibited a more uniform morphology. In a direct immunoassay for cholera toxin, capture antibody spots dispensed in 10 mM PBS containing 0.1% BSA produced fluorescent signals that were 2.8- to 4.3-fold more intense than antibody spots that were dispensed in 150 mM PBS without BSA. Interestingly, no differences were observed in the specific activities of the capture antibodies as a result of printing in the different buffers. The implications of these results on the future development of protein biochips are discussed.

  10. Comparison of Mechanical Allodynia and Recovery of Locomotion and Bladder Function by Different Parameters of Low Thoracic Spinal Contusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Michael W.; Johnson, Kathia M.; Lee, Jun Yeon; Hulsebosch, Claire E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to examine the functional recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI) by adjusting the parameters of impact force and dwell-time using the Infinite Horizon (IH) impactor device. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats (225–240 g) were divided into eight injury groups based on force of injury (Kdyn) and dwell time (seconds), indicated as Force-Dwell time: 150-4, 150-3, 150-2, 150-1, 150-0, 200-0, 90-2 and sham controls, respectively. Results After T10 SCI, higher injury force produced greater spinal cord displacement (P < 0.05) and showed a significant correlation (r = 0.813) between the displacement and the force (P < 0.05). In neuropathic pain-like behavior, the percent of paw withdrawals scores in the hindpaw for the 150-4, 150-3, 150-2, 150-1 and the 200-0 injury groups were significantly lowered compared with sham controls (P < 0.05). The recovery of locomotion had a significant within-subjects effect of time (P < 0.05) and the 150-0 group had increased recovery compared to other groups (P < 0.05). In addition, the 200-0 and the 90-2 recovered significantly better than all the 150 kdyn impact groups that included a dwell-time (P < 0.05). In recovery of spontaneous bladder function, the 150-4 injury group took significantly longer recovery time whereas the 150-0 and the 90-2 groups had the shortest recovery times. Conclusions The present study demonstrates SCI parameters optimize development of mechanical allodynia and other pathological outcomes. PMID:27103963

  11. Anatomical and functional recovery following spinal cord transection in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, I; Oppenheim, R W; O'Brien, M; Shneiderman, A

    1990-09-01

    Following complete transection of the thoracic spinal cord at various times during embryonic development, chick embryos and posthatched animals exhibited various degrees of anatomical and functional recovery depending upon the age of injury. Transection on embryonic day 2 (E2), when neurogenesis is still occurring and before descending or ascending fiber tracts have formed, produced no noticeable behavioral or anatomical deficits. Embryos hatched on their own and were behaviorally indistinguishable from control hatchlings. Similar results were found following transection on E5, an age when neurogenesis is complete and when ascending and descending fiber tracts have begun to project through the thoracic region. Within 48 h following injury on E5, large numbers of nerve fibers were observed growing across the site of transection. By E8, injections of horse-radish peroxidase (HRP) administered caudal to the lesion, retrogradely labelled rostral spinal and brainstem neurons. Embryos transected on E5 were able to hatch and could stand and locomote posthatching in a manner that was indistinguishable from controls. Following spinal cord transections on E10, anatomical recovery of the spinal cord at the site of injury was not quite as complete as after E5 transection. Nonetheless, anatomical continuity was restored at the site of injury, axons projected across this region, and rostral spinal and brainstem neurons could be retrogradely labelled following HRP injections administered caudal to the lesion. At least part of this anatomical recovery may be mediated by the regeneration or regrowth of lesioned axons. Although none of the embryos transected on E10 that survived to hatching were able to hatch on their own, because several sham-operated embryos were also unable to hatch, we do not attribute this deficit to the spinal transection. When E10-transected embryos were aided in escaping from the shell, they were able to support their own weight, could stand, and locomote

  12. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred W.; Bridges, Robert A.; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.; Lorinovich, Caitlin J.; Lu, Silong

    2003-02-07

    This project involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field, California. Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contained approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley.

  13. Modified Interior Distance Functions (Theory and Methods)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polyak, Roman A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we introduced and developed the theory of Modified Interior Distance Functions (MIDF's). The MIDF is a Classical Lagrangian (CL) for a constrained optimization problem which is equivalent to the initial one and can be obtained from the latter by monotone transformation both the objective function and constraints. In contrast to the Interior Distance Functions (IDF's), which played a fundamental role in Interior Point Methods (IPM's), the MIDF's are defined on an extended feasible set and along with center, have two extra tools, which control the computational process: the barrier parameter and the vector of Lagrange multipliers. The extra tools allow to attach to the MEDF's very important properties of Augmented Lagrangeans. One can consider the MIDFs as Interior Augmented Lagrangeans. It makes MIDF's similar in spirit to Modified Barrier Functions (MBF's), although there is a fundamental difference between them both in theory and methods. Based on MIDF's theory, Modified Center Methods (MCM's) have been developed and analyzed. The MCM's find an unconstrained minimizer in primal space and update the Lagrange multipliers, while both the center and the barrier parameter can be fixed or updated at each step. The MCM's convergence was investigated, and their rate of convergence was estimated. The extension of the feasible set and the special role of the Lagrange multipliers allow to develop MCM's, which produce, in case of nondegenerate constrained optimization, a primal and dual sequences that converge to the primal-dual solutions with linear rate, even when both the center and the barrier parameter are fixed. Moreover, every Lagrange multipliers update shrinks the distance to the primal dual solution by a factor 0 less than gamma less than 1 which can be made as small as one wants by choosing a fixed interior point as a 'center' and a fixed but large enough barrier parameter. The numericai realization of MCM leads to the Newton MCM (NMCM). The

  14. Structural methods for studying IRES function.

    PubMed

    Kieft, Jeffrey S; Costantino, David A; Filbin, Megan E; Hammond, John; Pfingsten, Jennifer S

    2007-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) substitute RNA sequences for some or all of the canonical translation initiation protein factors. Therefore, an important component of understanding IRES function is a description of the three-dimensional structure of the IRES RNA underlying this mechanism. This includes determining the degree to which the RNA folds, the global RNA architecture, and higher resolution information when warranted. Knowledge of the RNA structural features guides ongoing mechanistic and functional studies. In this chapter, we present a roadmap to structurally characterize a folded RNA, beginning from initial studies to define the overall architecture and leading to high-resolution structural studies. The experimental strategy presented here is not unique to IRES RNAs but is adaptable to virtually any RNA of interest, although characterization of RNA-protein interactions requires additional methods. Because IRES RNAs have a specific function, we present specific ways in which the data are interpreted to gain insight into that function. We provide protocols for key experiments that are particularly useful for studying IRES RNA structure and that provide a framework onto which additional approaches are integrated. The protocols we present are solution hydroxyl radical probing, RNase T1 probing, native gel electrophoresis, sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation, and strategies to engineer RNA for crystallization and to obtain initial crystals. PMID:17913644

  15. Chronic behavioral testing after focal ischemia in the mouse: functional recovery and the effects of gender.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoling; Blizzard, Kathleen K; Zeng, Zhiyuan; DeVries, A Courtney; Hurn, Patricia D; McCullough, Louise D

    2004-05-01

    Several useful behavioral tests exist for measuring behavioral recovery after ischemia in higher-order animals and rats. With the increasing use of mice in focal stroke research, simple, reliable, and reproducible behavioral testing has become a priority. As neuroprotective agents are tested, long-term outcome must be assessed, especially in studies focused on neuronal plasticity and regeneration after ischemia. Our laboratory and others have previously shown that estrogen (E2) is neuroprotective in rodent stroke paradigms. We examined a battery of behavioral tests in male and female mice subjected to 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to determine the most sensitive tests for detecting sensorimotor dysfunction after stroke, and to determine the functional significance of E2-mediated neuroprotection. Only two tests, the corner test and the cylinder test, were able to differentiate between groups (sham and stroke) after several days of repeated testing. The cylinder test was sensitive to the neuroprotective/neurorestorative effects of E2, but 2 weeks after stroke, the cylinder test was unable to distinguish between sham and stroke animals treated with E2. In contrast, the corner test was able to differentiate stroke and sham animals even 6 weeks after stroke, but did not distinguish animals treated with E2 vs. vehicle. These tests provide a simple, rapid, reliable assessment of sensorimotor dysfunction in the mouse after focal ischemia. Hormonal status influences speed of recovery on cylinder testing in animals of both genders. This suggests that a short battery of tests including the neurological score, cylinder, and corner test may be adequate to rapidly and repeatedly assess sensorimotor dysfunction in mice of both genders. PMID:15081592

  16. Potential contribution of fish restocking to the recovery of deteriorated coral reefs: an alternative restoration method?

    PubMed Central

    Obolski, Uri; Hadany, Lilach

    2016-01-01

    Counteracting the worldwide trend of coral reef degeneration is a major challenge for the scientific community. A crucial management approach to minimizing stress effects on healthy reefs and helping the recovery of disturbed reefs is reef protection. However, the current rapid decline of the world’s reefs suggests that protection might be insufficient as a viable stand-alone management approach for some reefs. We thus suggest that the ecological restoration of coral reefs (CRR) should be considered as a valid component of coral reef management, in addition to protection, if the applied method is economically applicable and scalable. This theoretical study examines the potential applicability and outcomes of restocking grazers as a restoration tool for coral reef recovery—a tool that has not been applied so far in reef restoration projects. We studied the effect of restocking grazing fish as a restoration method using a mathematical model of degrading reefs, and analyzed the financial outcomes of the restocking intervention. The results suggest that applying this restoration method, in addition to protection, can facilitate reef recovery. Moreover, our analysis suggests that the restocking approach almost always becomes profitable within several years. Considering the relatively low cost of this restoration approach and the feasibility of mass production of herbivorous fish, we suggest that this approach should be considered and examined as an additional viable restoration tool for coral reefs. PMID:26966666

  17. An improved method for the recovery of Salmonella serovars from orange juice using universal preenrichment broth.

    PubMed

    Hammack, T S; Amaguaña, R M; Andrews, W H

    2001-05-01

    The relative effectiveness of three methods for the recovery of Salmonella serovars from orange juice was determined. One method, a modified Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) procedure consisted of preenrichment in lactose broth at 35 degrees C for 24 h, selective enrichment, and selective plating. Another method, a National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC 1) procedure, consisted of direct enrichment in tetrathionate broth at 35 degrees C for 24 and 48 h, followed by selective plating. The third method (also from CDC and designated CDC 2) consisted of preenrichment in Universal Preenrichment (UP) broth at 35 degrees C for 24 h, selective enrichment, and selective plating. In 10 experiments encompassing five different Salmonella serovars and 200 test portions per broth, the CDC 1 method recovered 141 Salmonella-positive test portions, the BAM method recovered 151, and the CDC 2 method recovered 171. In 2 of the 10 experiments, with two different Salmonella serovars, the BAM recovered significantly fewer (P < 0.05) Salmonella-positive test portions than did the CDC 2 method. On the basis of the above results, the second phase of this study focused on a comparison of the effectiveness of the BAM-recommended lactose broth and the CDC 2-recommended UP broth as preenrichment media for the recovery of Salmonella serovars from pasteurized and unpasteurized orange juice. Subsequent culture treatment of the two preenrichments was identical so that the effect of other variables (e.g., different selective enrichment media, various incubation temperatures, and different selective plating agars) on the relative performance of these two preenrichment media was excluded. In one of nine experiments, with pasteurized orange juice, lactose broth recovered significantly fewer (P < 0.05) Salmonella-positive test portions than did UP broth. For the combined results of the nine pasteurized orange juice experiments (180 test portions per broth), lactose broth

  18. Rewiring the Brain: Potential Role of the Premotor Cortex in Motor Control, Learning, and Recovery of Function Following Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kantak, Shailesh S.; Stinear, James W.; Buch, Ethan R.; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2016-01-01

    The brain is a plastic organ with a capability to reorganize in response to behavior and/or injury. Following injury to the motor cortex or emergent corticospinal pathways, recovery of function depends on the capacity of surviving anatomical resources to recover and repair in response to task-specific training. One such area implicated in poststroke reorganization to promote recovery of upper extremity recovery is the premotor cortex (PMC). This study reviews the role of distinct subdivisions of PMC: dorsal (PMd) and ventral (PMv) premotor cortices as critical anatomical and physiological nodes within the neural networks for the control and learning of goal-oriented reach and grasp actions in healthy individuals and individuals with stroke. Based on evidence emerging from studies of intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity, transcranial magnetic stimulation, functional neuroimaging, and experimental studies in animals and humans, the authors propose 2 distinct patterns of reorganization that differentially engage ipsilesional and contralesional PMC. Research directions that may offer further insights into the role of PMC in motor control, learning, and poststroke recovery are also proposed. This research may facilitate neuroplasticity for maximal recovery of function following brain injury. PMID:21926382

  19. Testing a Family-centered Intervention to Promote Functional and Cognitive Recovery in Hospitalized Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Boltz, Marie; Resnick, Barbara; Chippendale, Tracy; Galvin, James

    2016-01-01

    A comparative trial using repeated measures design evaluated the feasibility and outcomes of the Family-centered Function-focused Care (Fam-FFC) intervention intended to promote functional recovery in the hospitalized older adult. A three component intervention (1) environmental assessment/ modification, 2) staff education, 3) family/patient education and partnership in care planning with post-acute follow-up) was implemented by a family-centered resource nurse and a facility champion. Control units were exposed to function-focused care education only. Ninety-seven dyads of medical patients age 65 and older and family caregivers (FCGs) were recruited from three medical units of a community teaching hospital. The majority of patients were female (53%); white (89%), married (51%) or widowed (40%), with a mean age of 80.8 (± 7.5). The majority of FCGs were married (78%) daughters (34%), followed by female spouses/partners (31%), in the age range of 46–65 (38%). Outcomes for patients included: functional outcomes (ADL and walking performance, gait, balance), and delirium severity and duration. FCG outcomes included preparedness for caregiving, anxiety, depression, role strain, and mutuality. The intervention group demonstrated less severity and duration of delirium, and better ADL and walking performance, but not gait/balance as compared to the control group. FCG who participated in Fam-FFC showed a significant increase in preparedness for caregiving, less anxiety and less depression from admission to two months post-discharge, but no significant differences in strain and mutuality, as compared to FCG in the control group. Fam-FFC is feasible and has the potential to improve outcomes for hospitalized older adults and family caregivers. PMID:25481973

  20. Functional recovery of anterior semicircular canal afferents following hair cell regeneration in birds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Richard; Highstein, Stephen M.; Carey, John P.; Xu, Jinping

    2002-01-01

    Streptomycin sulfate (1.2 g/kg i.m.) was administered for 5 consecutive days to 5-7-day-old white Leghorn chicks; this causes damage to semicircular canal hair cells that ultimately regenerate to reform the sensory epithelium. During the recovery period, electrophysiological recordings were taken sequentially from anterior semicircular canal primary afferents using an indentation stimulus of the canal that has been shown to mimic rotational stimulation. Chicks were assigned to an early (14-18 days; n = 8), intermediate (28-34 days; n = 5), and late (38-58 days; n = 4) period based on days after treatment. Seven untreated chicks, 15-67 days old, provided control data. An absence of background and indent-induced discharge was the prominent feature of afferents in the early period: only "silent" afferents were encountered in 5/8 experiments. In several of these chicks, fascicles of afferent fibers were seen extending up to the epithelium that was void of hair cells, and intra- and extracellular biocytin labeling revealed afferent processes penetrating into the supporting cell layer of the crista. In 3/8 chicks 74 afferents could be characterized, and they significantly differed from controls (n = 130) by having a lower discharge rate and a negligible response to canal stimulation. In the intermediate period there was considerable variability in discharge properties of 121 afferents, but as a whole the number of "silent" fibers in the canal nerve diminished, the background rate increased, and a response to canal stimulation detected. Individually biocytin-labeled afferents had normal-appearing terminal specializations in the sensory epithelium by 28 days poststreptomycin. In the late period, afferents (n = 58) remained significantly different from controls in background discharge properties and response gain. The evidence suggests that a considerable amount of variability exists between chicks in the return of vestibular afferent function following ototoxic injury and

  1. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    PubMed Central

    Carmel, Jason B.; Martin, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay. PMID:24994971

  2. Enhanced Functional Recovery in MRL/MpJ Mice after Spinal Cord Dorsal Hemisection

    PubMed Central

    Thuret, Sandrine; Thallmair, Michaela; Horky, Laura L.; Gage, Fred H.

    2012-01-01

    Adult MRL/MpJ mice have been shown to possess unique regeneration capabilities. They are able to heal an ear-punched hole or an injured heart with normal tissue architecture and without scar formation. Here we present functional and histological evidence for enhanced recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI) in MRL/MpJ mice. A control group (C57BL/6 mice) and MRL/MpJ mice underwent a dorsal hemisection at T9 (thoracic vertebra 9). Our data show that MRL/MpJ mice recovered motor function significantly faster and more completely. We observed enhanced regeneration of the corticospinal tract (CST). Furthermore, we observed a reduced astrocytic response and fewer micro-cavities at the injury site, which appear to create a more growth-permissive environment for the injured axons. Our data suggest that the reduced astrocytic response is in part due to a lower lesion-induced increase of cell proliferation post-SCI, and a reduced astrocytic differentiation of the proliferating cells. Interestingly, we also found an increased number of proliferating microglia, which could be involved in the MRL/MpJ spinal cord repair mechanisms. Finally, to evaluate the molecular basis of faster spinal cord repair, we examined the difference in gene expression changes in MRL/MpJ and C57BL/6 mice after SCI. Our microarray data support our histological findings and reveal a transcriptional profile associated with a more efficient spinal cord repair in MRL/MpJ mice. PMID:22348029

  3. Inhibition of LINGO-1 promotes functional recovery after experimental spinal cord demyelination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Yi Ping; Pepinsky, Blake; Huang, Guanrong; Shields, Lisa B E; Shields, Christopher B; Mi, Sha

    2015-04-01

    Blocking LINGO-1 has been shown to enhance remyelination in the rat lysolecithin-induced focal spinal cord demyelination model. We used transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potentials (tcMMEPs) to assess the effect of blocking LINGO-1 on recovery of axonal function in a mouse lysolecithin model at 1, 2 and 4weeks after injury. The role of LINGO-1 was assessed using LINGO-1 knockout (KO) mice and in wild-type mice after intraperitoneal administration of anti-LINGO-1 antagonist monoclonal antibody (mAb3B5). Response rates (at 2 and 4weeks) and amplitudes (at 4weeks) were significantly increased in LINGO-1 KO and mAb3B5-treated mice compared with matched controls. The latency of potentials at 4weeks was significantly shorter in mAb3B5-treated mice compared with controls. Lesion areas in LINGO-1 KO and mAb3B5-treated mice were reduced significantly compared with matched controls. The number of remyelinated axons within the lesions was increased and the G-ratios of the axons were decreased in both LINGO-1 KO and mAb3B5-treated mice compared with matched controls. These data provide morphometric and functional evidence of enhancement of remyelination associated with antagonism of LINGO-1. PMID:25681574

  4. Environmental Experience Modulates Ischemia-Induced Amyloidogenesis and Enhances Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Rogozinska, Magdalena; Woods, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we examined whether ischemia-induced amyloidogenesis could be modulated by environmental “experience,” and whether this modulation is associated with improved cognitive functioning. Rats were subjected to either global ischemia or sham surgery and then were randomly assigned to either enriched environment housing (EE) or socially paired housing (controls). After 14 days of differential environmental housing, the rats were tested in the water maze. Our results show decreased C-terminal fragments of the β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) and decreased amyloid beta (Aβ) load in the ischemic EE rats compared to the ischemic control animals. In addition, Aβ oligomerization was significantly decreased in the ischemic EE animals compared to the ischemic control rats. Further, significantly increased levels of neprilysin, but not insulin-degrading enzyme, amyloid-degrading enzymes, were seen in the ischemic EE rats compared to the ischemic control animals. Behavioral analyses showed that ischemic EE rats performed significantly better on the memory task compared to the ischemic control group. These results suggest that use of multi-sensory environmental enrichment following cerebral ischemia may reduce the accumulation of Aβ peptide in the more pathologic oligomeric form, and consequently may enhance functional recovery. PMID:19271963

  5. Plasminogen activator induction facilitates recovery of respiratory function following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Minor, Kenneth H; Seeds, Nicholas W

    2008-01-01

    The possibility that plasminogen activator (PA) plays a role in synaptic plasticity was explored in the spinal cord during the crossed phrenic phenomenon (CPP), where respiratory functional plasticity develops following spinal cord injury. Synaptic remodeling on phrenic motorneurons occurs during the characteristic delay period following spinal cord injury before CPP recovery of respiratory function. The molecular mechanisms underlying this plasticity are not well-defined. During the critical 1-2 h delay period required for this synaptic plasticity following a C2 hemisection in mice, uPA and tPA mRNAs are rapidly induced in C4-5 ventral spinal cord neurons in the ipsilateral phrenic motor nucleus (PMN), as are uPA and tPA protein levels. A role for uPA in CPP spinal cord plasticity is confirmed by the impaired ability of uPA knockout mice to acquire a good CPP response by 6 h post-hemisection and their lack of structural remodeling of PMN synapses that underlies development of the CPP response. PMID:18042398

  6. Oct4-induced oligodendrocyte progenitor cells enhance functional recovery in spinal cord injury model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Beom; Lee, Hyunah; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Hwang, Kyujin; Nam, Donggyu; Park, Myung Rae; Zaehres, Holm; Park, Kook In; Lee, Seok-Jin

    2015-12-01

    The generation of patient-specific oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) holds great potential as an expandable cell source for cell replacement therapy as well as drug screening in spinal cord injury or demyelinating diseases. Here, we demonstrate that induced OPCs (iOPCs) can be directly derived from adult mouse fibroblasts by Oct4-mediated direct reprogramming, using anchorage-independent growth to ensure high purity. Homogeneous iOPCs exhibit typical small-bipolar morphology, maintain their self-renewal capacity and OPC marker expression for more than 31 passages, share high similarity in the global gene expression profile to wild-type OPCs, and give rise to mature oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in vitro and in vivo. Notably, transplanted iOPCs contribute to functional recovery in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model without tumor formation. This study provides a simple strategy to generate functional self-renewing iOPCs and yields insights for the in-depth study of demyelination and regenerative medicine. PMID:26497893

  7. Heat acclimation provides sustained improvement in functional recovery and attenuates apoptosis after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Umscheif, Gali; Umschwief, Gali; Shein, Na'ama A; Alexandrovich, Alexander G; Trembovler, Victoria; Horowitz, Michal; Shohami, Esther

    2010-03-01

    Heat acclimation (HA) offers functional neuroprotection in mice after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study further characterizes endogenous neuroprotection acquired by HA (34+/-1 degrees C, 30 d) after TBI. We establish here the ability of HA to induce sustained functional benefits and to reduce activation of apoptotic pathways. Neurobehavioral recovery, assessed by the Neurological Severity Score, was greater in HA mice up to 8 days after injury as compared with normothermic controls (P<0.05) and lesion volume was also smaller in the HA group (P<0.05). Reduced apoptotic cell death in HA mice was confirmed using caspase-3 activity measurements and immunohistochemistry. To investigate the underlying molecular pathways, expression levels of intrinsic apoptotic pathway-related proteins were examined. HA mice displayed higher mitochondrial levels of antiapoptotic Bcl-xL, accompanied by lower proapoptotic Bad levels and decreased cytochrome c release, suggesting a higher apoptotic threshold. Taken together with our previous reports, indicating increased Akt phosphorylation and antioxidative capacity, alongside with reduced tumor necrosis alpha levels after TBI in HA animals, the current results support the involvement of an antiapoptotic effect in HA-induced neuroprotection. Current results warrant further study as TBI-induced apoptosis may persist over weeks after injury, possibly providing a target for belated therapeutic intervention. PMID:19904288

  8. A novel method for the photographic recovery of fingermark impressions from ammunition cases using digital imaging.

    PubMed

    Porter, Glenn; Ebeyan, Robert; Crumlish, Charles; Renshaw, Adrian

    2015-03-01

    The photographic preservation of fingermark impression evidence found on ammunition cases remains problematic due to the cylindrical shape of the deposition substrate preventing complete capture of the impression in a single image. A novel method was developed for the photographic recovery of fingermarks from curved surfaces using digital imaging. The process involves the digital construction of a complete impression image made from several different images captured from multiple camera perspectives. Fingermark impressions deposited onto 9-mm and 0.22-caliber brass cartridge cases and a plastic 12-gauge shotgun shell were tested using various image parameters, including digital stitching method, number of images per 360° rotation of shell, image cropping, and overlap. The results suggest that this method may be successfully used to recover fingermark impression evidence from the surfaces of ammunition cases or other similar cylindrical surfaces. PMID:25537854

  9. Acute Delivery of EphA4-Fc Improves Functional Recovery after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Spanevello, Mark Damien; Tajouri, Sophie Ines; Mirciov, Cornel; Kurniawan, Nyoman; Pearse, Martin John; Fabri, Louis Jerry; Owczarek, Catherine Mary; Hardy, Matthew Philip; Bradford, Rebecca Anne; Ramunno, Melanie Louise; Turnley, Ann Maree; Ruitenberg, Marc Jan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Blocking the action of inhibitory molecules at sites of central nervous system injury has been proposed as a strategy to promote axonal regeneration and functional recovery. We have previously shown that genetic deletion or competitive antagonism of EphA4 receptor activity promotes axonal regeneration and functional recovery in a mouse model of lateral hemisection spinal cord injury. Here we have assessed the effect of blocking EphA4 activation using the competitive antagonist EphA4-Fc in a rat model of thoracic contusive spinal cord injury. Using a ledged tapered balance beam and open-field testing, we observed significant improvements in recovery of locomotor function after EphA4-Fc treatment. Consistent with functional improvement, using high-resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging at 16.4T, we found that rats treated with EphA4-Fc had a significantly increased cross-sectional area of the dorsal funiculus caudal to the injury epicenter compared with controls. Our findings indicate that EphA4-Fc promotes functional recovery following contusive spinal cord injury and provides further support for the therapeutic benefit of treatment with the competitive antagonist in acute cases of spinal cord injury. PMID:23557244

  10. Synergistic effects of low-level laser and mesenchymal stem cells on functional recovery in rats with crushed sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen-Chia; Wang, John; Chen, Shyh-Chang; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2016-02-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been proposed to exert beneficial effects on peripheral nerve regeneration after a peripheral nerve injury, but the functional recovery in the denervated limb is still limited. In this study, we used low-level laser therapy (LLLT) as an adjunct therapy for MSC transplantation on the functional recovery of crushed sciatic nerve in rats. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in 48 Sprague-Dawley rats by crushing the unilateral sciatic nerve, using a vessel clamp. The animals with crushed injury were randomly divided into four groups: control group, with no treatment; MSC group, treated with MSC alone; LLLT group, treated with LLLT alone; and MSCLLLT group, treated with a combination of MSC and LLLT. The sciatic function index (SFI), vertical activity of locomotion (VA) and ankle angle (AA) of rats were examined for functional assessments after treatment. Electrophysiological, morphological and S100 immunohistochemical studies were also conducted. The MSCLLLT group showed a greater recovery in SFI, VA and AA, with significant difference from MSC, LLLT and control groups (p < 0.05). Moreover, markedly enhanced electrophysiological function and expression of S100 immunoreactivity, as well as fewer inflammatory cells and less vacuole formation were also demonstrated after nerve crush injury in the MSCLLLT group when compared with the groups receiving a single treatment (p < 0.05). MSC transplantation combined with LLLT could achieve better results in functional recovery than a conventional treatment of MSC or LLLT alone. LLLT has a synergistic effect in providing greater functional recovery with MSC transplantation after nerve crush injury. PMID:23468370

  11. Microbiological methods for the water recovery systems test, revision 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, Tim; Kilgore, M. V., Jr.; Mikell, A. T., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Current microbiological parameters specified to verify microbiological quality of Space Station Freedom water quality include the enumeration of total bacteria, anaerobes, aerobes, yeasts and molds, enteric bacteria, gram positives, gram negatives, and E. coli. In addition, other parameters have been identified as necessary to support the Water Recovery Test activities to be conducted at the NASA/MSFC later this year. These other parameters include aerotolerant eutrophic mesophiles, legionellae, and an additional method for heterotrophic bacteria. If inter-laboratory data are to be compared to evaluate quality, analytical methods must be eliminated as a variable. Therefore, each participating laboratory must utilize the same analytical methods and procedures. Without this standardization, data can be neither compared nor validated between laboratories. Multiple laboratory participation represents a conservative approach to insure quality and completeness of data. Invariably, sample loss will occur in transport and analyses. Natural variance is a reality on any test of this magnitude and is further enhanced because biological entities, capable of growth and death, are specific parameters of interest. The large variation due to the participation of human test subjects has been noted with previous testing. The resultant data might be dismissed as 'out of control' unless intra-laboratory control is included as part of the method or if participating laboratories are not available for verification. The purpose of this document is to provide standardized laboratory procedures for the enumeration of certain microorganisms in water and wastewater specific to the water recovery systems test. The document consists of ten separate cultural methods and one direct count procedure. It is not intended nor is it implied to be a complete microbiological methods manual.

  12. Recovery of metals from waste printed circuit boards by a mechanical method using a water medium.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chenlong; Wen, Xuefeng; Shi, Changsheng; Zhao, Yuemin; Wen, Baofeng; He, Yaqun

    2009-07-15

    Research on the recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCB) is at the forefront of environmental pollution prevention and resource recycling. To effectively crush waste PCB and to solve the problem of secondary pollution from fugitive odors and dust created during the crushing process, a wet impacting crusher was employed to achieve comminution liberation of the PCB in a water medium. The function of water in the crushing process was analyzed. When using slippery hammerheads, a rotation speed of 1470 rpm, a water flow of 6m(3)/h and a sieve plate aperture of 2.2mm, 95.87% of the crushed product was sized less than 1mm. 94.30% of the metal was in this grade of product. Using smashed material graded -1mm for further research, a Falcon concentrator was used to recover the metal from the waste PCB. Engineering considerations were the liberation degree, the distribution ratio of the metal and a way to simplify the technology. The separation mechanism for fine particles of different densities in a Falcon concentrator was analyzed in detail and the separation process in the segregation and separation zones was deduced. Also, the magnitude of centrifugal acceleration, the back flow water pressure and the feed slurry concentration, any of which might affect separation results, were studied. A recovery model was established using Design-Expert software. Separating waste PCB, crushed to -1mm, with the Falcon separator gave a concentrated product graded 92.36% metal with a recovery of 97.05%. To do this the reverse water pressure was 0.05 MPa, the speed transducer frequency was set at 30 Hz and the feed density was 20 g/l. A flow diagram illustrating the new technique of wet impact crushing followed by separation with a Falcon concentrator is provided. The technique will prevent environmental pollution from waste PCB and allow the effective recovery of resources. Water was used as the medium throughout the whole process. PMID:19121892

  13. Comparison of the Recovery Patterns of Language and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Post-Traumatic Language Processing Deficits and in Patients with Aphasia Following a Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the…

  14. A non-iterative method for the electrical impedance tomography based on joint sparse recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ok Kyun; Kang, Hyeonbae; Ye, Jong Chul; Lim, Mikyoung

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a non-iterative method for the inverse conductivity problem of recovering multiple small anomalies from the boundary measurements. When small anomalies are buried in a conducting object, the electric potential values inside the object can be expressed by integrals of densities with a common sparse support on the location of anomalies. Based on this integral expression, we formulate the reconstruction problem of small anomalies as a joint sparse recovery and present an efficient non-iterative recovery algorithm of small anomalies. Furthermore, we also provide a slightly modified algorithm to reconstruct an extended anomaly. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm over the linearized method and the multiple signal classification algorithm by numerical simulations. This work is supported by the Korean Ministry of Education, Sciences and Technology through NRF grant No. NRF-2010-0017532 (to H K), the Korean Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning; through NRF grant No. NRF-2013R1A1A3012931 (to M L), the R&D Convergence Program of NST (National Research Council of Science & Technology) of Republic of Korea (Grant CAP-13-3-KERI) (to O K L and J C Y).

  15. Theoretical Estimation of Cannulation Methods for Left Ventricular Assist Device Support as a Bridge to Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ki Moo; Lee, Jeong Sang; Song, Jin-Ho; Youn, Chan-Hyun; Choi, Jae-Sung

    2011-01-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support under cannulation connected from the left atrium to the aorta (LA-AA) is used as a bridge to recovery in heart failure patients because it is non-invasive to ventricular muscle. However, it has serious problems, such as valve stenosis and blood thrombosis due to the low ejection fraction of the ventricle. We theoretically estimated the effect of the in-series cannulation, connected from ascending aorta to descending aorta (AA-DA), on ventricular unloading as an alternative to the LA-AA method. We developed a theoretical model of a LVAD-implanted cardiovascular system that included coronary circulation. Using this model, we compared hemodynamic responses according to various cannulation methods such as LA-AA, AA-DA, and a cannulation connected from the left ventricle to ascending aorta (LV-AA), under continuous and pulsatile LVAD supports. The AA-DA method provided 14% and 18% less left ventricular peak pressure than the LA-AA method under continuous and pulsatile LVAD conditions, respectively. The LA-AA method demonstrated higher coronary flow than AA-DA method. Therefore, the LA-AA method is more advantageous in increasing ventricular unloading whereas the AA-DA method is a better choice to increase coronary perfusion. PMID:22147996

  16. Salmon fibrin treatment of spinal cord injury promotes functional recovery and density of serotonergic innervation.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Kelli G; Dickson, Amanda R; Marchenko, Steve A; Yee, Kelly M; Emery, Pauline N; Laidmåe, Ivo; Uibo, Raivo; Sawyer, Evelyn S; Steward, Oswald; Flanagan, Lisa A

    2012-05-01

    The neural degeneration caused by spinal cord injury leaves a cavity at the injury site that greatly inhibits repair. One approach to promoting repair is to fill the cavity with a scaffold to limit further damage and encourage regrowth. Injectable materials are advantageous scaffolds because they can be placed as a liquid in the lesion site then form a solid in vivo that precisely matches the contours of the lesion. Fibrin is one type of injectable scaffold, but risk of infection from blood borne pathogens has limited its use. We investigated the potential utility of salmon fibrin as an injectable scaffold to treat spinal cord injury since it lacks mammalian infectious agents and encourages greater neuronal extension in vitro than mammalian fibrin or Matrigel®, another injectable material. Female rats received a T9 dorsal hemisection injury and were treated with either salmon or human fibrin at the time of injury while a third group served as untreated controls. Locomotor function was assessed using the BBB scale, bladder function was analyzed by measuring residual urine, and sensory responses were tested by mechanical stimulation (von Frey hairs). Histological analyses quantified the glial scar, lesion volume, and serotonergic fiber density. Rats that received salmon fibrin exhibited significantly improved recovery of both locomotor and bladder function and a greater density of serotonergic innervation caudal to the lesion site without exacerbation of pain. Rats treated with salmon fibrin also exhibited less autophagia than those treated with human fibrin, potentially pointing to amelioration of sensory dysfunction. Glial scar formation and lesion size did not differ significantly among groups. The pattern and timing of salmon fibrin's effects suggest that it acts on neuronal populations but not by stimulating long tract regeneration. Salmon fibrin clearly has properties distinct from those of mammalian fibrin and is a beneficial injectable scaffold for treatment

  17. Impaired Cerebrovascular Function in Coronary Artery Disease Patients and Recovery Following Cardiac Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Anazodo, Udunna C.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Suskin, Neville; Ssali, Tracy; Wang, Danny J. J.; St. Lawrence, Keith S.

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) poses a risk to the cerebrovascular function of older adults and has been linked to impaired cognitive abilities. Using magnetic resonance perfusion imaging, we investigated changes in resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia in 34 CAD patients and 21 age-matched controls. Gray matter volume (GMV) images were acquired and used as a confounding variable to separate changes in structure from function. Compared to healthy controls, CAD patients demonstrated reduced CBF in the superior frontal, anterior cingulate (AC), insular, pre- and post-central gyri, middle temporal, and superior temporal regions. Subsequent analysis of these regions demonstrated decreased CVR in the AC, insula, post-central and superior frontal regions. Except in the superior frontal and precentral regions, regional reductions in CBF and CVR were identified in brain areas where no detectable reductions in GMV were observed, demonstrating that these vascular changes were independent of brain atrophy. Because aerobic fitness training can improve brain function, potential changes in regional CBF were investigated in the CAD patients after completion of a 6-months exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program. Increased CBF was observed in the bilateral AC, as well as recovery of CBF in the dorsal aspect of the right AC, where the magnitude of increased CBF was roughly equal to the reduction in CBF at baseline compared to controls. These exercise-related improvements in CBF in the AC is intriguing given the role of this area in cognitive processing and regulation of cardiovascular autonomic control. PMID:26779011

  18. Differentiated adipose-derived stem cells promote the recovery of nociceptor function in rats.

    PubMed

    Nishibayashi, Akimitsu; Tomita, Koichi; Kiya, Koichiro; Yano, Kenji; Hosokawa, Ko

    2016-10-19

    The loss of nociceptive function in the skin because of trauma or surgery can impair the quality of life. The recovery of nociceptor function is mediated by two different axonal responses: nerve growth factor (NGF)-dependent collateral sprouting of undamaged nerves and NGF-independent regeneration of damaged nerves. We reported previously that adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can transdifferentiate into Schwann cell (SC)-like cells (dASCs) and that transplantation of dASCs increases axonal density in skin flaps. In the present study, we used an animal model that allowed for the individual assessment of collateral sprouting and regeneration. In-vitro differentiation of ASCs to dASCs significantly increased the production of NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to levels comparable with SCs. In-vivo experiments showed that dASC and SC transplantation significantly increased the area of the mechano-nociceptive field in both collateral sprouting and regeneration models, whereas ASC transplantation exerted no significant effect. Antibody blocking experiment showed that these effects of dASC transplantation in the regeneration model were partly mediated by BDNF. Interestingly, the final areas of nociceptive fields between the two experimental models did not differ significantly for any treatment condition. These results indicate that dASC transplantation differentially facilitates collateral sprouting and axonal regeneration by delivering NGF and other neurotrophic factors (e.g. BDNF), respectively. Although there is a limit to nociceptive field enlargement irrespective of axonal response, dASC transplantation could present a new approach for improving nociceptive function in denervated skin. PMID:27513202

  19. Recovery of ovary function impaired by chemotherapy using Chinese herbal medicine in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tian; Fu, Yu; Gao, Hui; Zhao, Zhimei; Zhao, Liying; Han, Bing

    2014-10-01

    The ovary is not only involved in female germ cell development and maturation, but also adjusts female endocrinology. Its function is severely impaired during chemotherapy, and premature ovarian failure may be induced. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has displayed significant potential in the treatment of female endocrine disorders; however, it is unknown whether it can recover ovarian function impaired by chemotherapy. In the present study, CHM was used to treat rat models of ovarian dysfunction impaired by chemotherapeutic drugs. Three groups were included in this study: a prevention group, a treatment group, and a prevention-treatment group. Routine gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) treatment was used as a control. The results showed that body weight, fertility, estrus days, hormone levels, and ovary weight were restored when CHM was administered in these rat models. Moreover, in the prevention-treatment group, the number of follicles at each developmental stage significantly increased compared with the prevention or treatment group. Furthermore, the number of apoptotic cells significantly decreased, and the relative mRNA expression of caspase-3 significantly decreased, in the prevention-treatment group. The results of gene expression analysis indicated that the expression of anti-Müllerianhormone (AMH) which indicates ovarian preservation was significantly up-regulated in the prevention-treatment group and was similar to normal rats. The expression of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) was significantly enhanced in both the prevention-treatment group and the GnRHa group, which suggested that the oocytes were of better quality. Finally, we found that there were no differences in body weight and fertility in the offspring conceived by the drug-treated rats, which partly indicated the safety of the medicine. In conclusion, Chinese herbal medicine showed a beneficial role in the recovery of ovary function in these rat models and has significant

  20. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permit modifications and the functional equivalency demonstration: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Elsberry, K.; Garcia, P.; Carnes, R.; Kinker, J.; Loehr, C; Lyon, W.

    1996-02-01

    Hazardous waste operating permits issued under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) often impose requirements that specific components and equipment be used. Consequently, changing these items, may first require that the owner/operator request a potentially time-consuming and costly permit modification. However, the owner/operator may demonstrate that a modification is not required because the planned changes are ``functionally equivalent.`` The Controlled-Air Incinerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is scheduled for maintenance and improvements. The incinerator`s carbon adsorption unit/high efficiency particulate air filtration system, was redesigned to improve reliability and minimize maintenance. A study was performed to determine whether the redesigned unit would qualify as functionally equivalent to the original component. In performing this study, the following steps were taken: (a) the key performance factors were identified; (b) performance data describing the existing unit were obtained; (c) performance of both the existing and redesigned units was simulated; and (d) the performance data were compared to ascertain whether the components could qualify as functionally equivalent. In this case, the key performance data included gas residence time and distribution of flow over the activated carbon. Because both units were custom designed and fabricated, a simple comparison of manufacturers` specifications was impossible. Therefore, numerical simulation of each unit design was performed using the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulic computer code to model isothermal hydrodynamic performance under steady-state conditions. The results of residence time calculations from the model were coupled with flow proportion and sampled using a Monte Carlo-style simulation to derive distributions that describe the predicted residence times.

  1. Surgical sperm recovery for intracytoplasmic sperm injection: which method is to be preferred?

    PubMed

    Tournaye, H

    1999-09-01

    Different methods for recovering epididymal or testicular spermatozoa have been described and each has its drawbacks and advantages. Percutaneous aspiration of the testis may be the method of choice in cases of irreparable obstructive azoospermia. Using a 21-gauge needle, spermatozoa may be recovered in 96 % of patients. More patients undergoing fine-needle aspiration experienced less pain than expected as compared with those undergoing open biopsy. Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) is the preferred method in patients with an incomplete work-up because, if indicated, a vasoepididymostomy can be performed concomitantly with a full scrotal exploration. In azoospermic patients with testicular failure, the sperm recovery rate, i.e. the chance of finding at least one spermatozoon, is around 50% after multiple open biopsies. However, the fertilization rates after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are significantly lower than in men with normal spermatogenesis, and complete fertilization failure may occur more frequently. Although the combination of testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and ICSI may be the sole treatment available for infertility because of non-obstructive azoospermia, the overall success rate is limited and ongoing pregnancies are obtained in < or =20% of ICSI cycles. In patients with incomplete Sertoli cell-only syndrome, testicular damage may be limited by use of a selective microsurgical approach; less invasive methods such as fine-needle aspiration are not useful in these patients. Of 14 patients with primary testicular failure as proven by histopathology, only in one case (7.1%) were spermatozoa recovered by multiple aspirations, while in nine cases (64.3%) spermatozoa were recovered by open biopsy. Although the pregnancy rates reported after ICSI with frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa from patients with primary testicular failure are relatively low, the recovery of testicular spermatozoa by open biopsy followed by

  2. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Predict Functional Recovery in Tibial Fracture Patients: The Somatic Pre-Occupation and Coping (SPOC) Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Busse, Jason W.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Mandel, Scott; Sanders, David; Schemitsch, Emil; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Wai, Eugene; Walter, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the role of patients’ beliefs in their likelihood of recovery from severe physical trauma. Methods We developed and validated an instrument designed to capture the impact of patients’ beliefs on functional recovery from injury; the Somatic Pre-occupation and Coping (SPOC) questionnaire. At 6-weeks post-surgical fixation, we administered the SPOC questionnaire to 359 consecutive patients with operatively managed tibial shaft fractures. We constructed multivariable regression models to explore the association between SPOC scores and functional outcome at 1-year, as measured by return to work and short form-36 (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores. Results In our adjusted multivariable regression models that included pre-injury SF-36 scores, SPOC scores at 6-weeks post-surgery accounted for 18% of the variation in SF-36 PCS scores and 18% of SF-36 MCS scores at 1-year. In both models, 6-week SPOC scores were a far more powerful predictor of functional recovery than age, gender, fracture type, smoking status, or the presence of multi-trauma. Our adjusted analysis found that for each 14 point increment in SPOC score at 6-weeks (14 chosen on the basis of half a standard deviation of the mean SPOC score) the odds of returning to work at 1-year decreased by 40% (odds ratio = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.73). Conclusion The SPOC questionnaire is a valid measurement of illness beliefs in tibial fracture patients and is highly predictive of their long-term functional recovery. Future research should explore if these results extend to other trauma populations and if modification of unhelpful illness beliefs is feasible and would result in improved functional outcomes. PMID:22011635

  3. Kinetic quantitation of cerebral PET-FDG studies without concurrent blood sampling: statistical recovery of the arterial input function.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, F; Kirrane, J; Muzi, M; O'Sullivan, J N; Spence, A M; Mankoff, D A; Krohn, K A

    2010-03-01

    Kinetic quantitation of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) studies via compartmental modeling usually requires the time-course of the radio-tracer concentration in the arterial blood as an arterial input function (AIF). For human and animal imaging applications, significant practical difficulties are associated with direct arterial sampling and as a result there is substantial interest in alternative methods that require no blood sampling at the time of the study. A fixed population template input function derived from prior experience with directly sampled arterial curves is one possibility. Image-based extraction, including requisite adjustment for spillover and recovery, is another approach. The present work considers a hybrid statistical approach based on a penalty formulation in which the information derived from a priori studies is combined in a Bayesian manner with information contained in the sampled image data in order to obtain an input function estimate. The absolute scaling of the input is achieved by an empirical calibration equation involving the injected dose together with the subject's weight, height and gender. The technique is illustrated in the context of (18)F -Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET studies in humans. A collection of 79 arterially sampled FDG blood curves are used as a basis for a priori characterization of input function variability, including scaling characteristics. Data from a series of 12 dynamic cerebral FDG PET studies in normal subjects are used to evaluate the performance of the penalty-based AIF estimation technique. The focus of evaluations is on quantitation of FDG kinetics over a set of 10 regional brain structures. As well as the new method, a fixed population template AIF and a direct AIF estimate based on segmentation are also considered. Kinetics analyses resulting from these three AIFs are compared with those resulting from radially sampled AIFs. The proposed penalty-based AIF extraction method is found to

  4. Applicability of solvent based Huff-and-Puff Method to enhance heavy oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qazvini Firouz, Alireza

    Over and above solvent based processes, specifically, the cyclic solvent injection well known as "Huff-and-Puff', has demonstrated a significant potential to enhance heavy oil recovery. Solvent and CO2 Huff-and-Puff are analogies to cyclic steam stimulation; however, in this method, steam is replaced with CO2, hydrocarbon solvent or mixture of the two. This study attempts to validate the feasibility of the Solvent Based Huff-and-Puff Method with respect to enhancing heavy oil recovery and to investigate the effect of fluid, operation, and reservoir parameters on its' performance. Thus, both experimental and reservoir simulation approaches were applied and, the impact of the aforementioned parameters on the performance of the process was investigated. All experiments were conducted in a Berea core with the dimensions of 30.48 cm by 5.07 cm. The core has a permeability of 1800 md and a porosity of 24% which was mounted in a high pressure, stainless steel core holder. Before conducting each Huff-and-Puff Test, the core was saturated with an oil sample representative of Saskatchewan heavy oil reservoirs and exhibited a viscosity of 952 mPa.s, at a temperature of 28°C. Prior to the tests, a complete phase behavior (PVT) analysis of the oil sample and solvents mixture was conducted using CMG- WinProp(TM) software. Over 12 sets of Huff-and-Puff Experiments, utilizing the pure solvent of carbon dioxide, methane, and mixtures of CO2 and propane, were performed at different operating pressures. A soaking time period of 24 hrs and a cut-off pressure of 276 kPa were considered for all cycles. In addition, all Huff-and-Puff Cycles were continued for each operating pressure until production dropped below one percent of the original oil in place. The production trend and recovery factor for each experiment were determined. The final oil recoveries, at the highest operating pressure of 7239 kPa for pure CO2 and, at 6895 kPa for pure methane, were 71 and 50 % OOIP, respectively

  5. Using ecological function to develop recovery criteria for depleted species: sea otters and kelp forests in the Aleutian archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Bodkin, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Recovery criteria for depleted species or populations normally are based on demographic measures, the goal being to maintain enough individuals over a sufficiently large area to assure a socially tolerable risk of future extinction. Such demographically based recovery criteria may be insufficient to restore the functional roles of strongly interacting species. We explored the idea of developing a recovery criterion for sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in the Aleutian archipelago on the basis of their keystone role in kelp forest ecosystems. We surveyed sea otters and rocky reef habitats at 34 island-time combinations. The system nearly always existed in either a kelp-dominated or deforested phase state, which was predictable from sea otter density. We used a resampling analysis of these data to show that the phase state at any particular island can be determined at 95% probability of correct classification with information from as few as six sites. When sea otter population status (and thus the phase state of the kelp forest) was allowed to vary randomly among islands, just 15 islands had to be sampled to estimate the true proportion that were kelp dominated (within 10%) with 90% confidence. We conclude that kelp forest phase state is a more appropriate, sensitive, and cost-effective measure of sea otter recovery than the more traditional demographically based metrics, and we suggest that similar approaches have broad potential utility in establishing recovery criteria for depleted populations of other functionally important species.

  6. Knockdown of Nogo gene by short hairpin RNA interference promotes functional recovery of spinal cord injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Min; Luo, Yun-Gang; Li, Juan; Xu, Kun

    2016-05-01

    The specific myelin component Nogo protein is one of the major inhibitory molecules of spinal cord axonal outgrowth following spinal cord injury. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of silencing Nogo protein with shRNA interference on the promotion of functional recovery in a rat model with spinal cord hemisection. Nogo-A short hairpin RNAs (Nogo shRNAs) were constructed and transfected into rats with spinal cord hemisection by adenovirus-mediated transfection. Reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed to analyze the expression of Nogo-A and Growth Associated Protein 43 (GAP-43). In addition, Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) scores were used to assess the functional recovery of rats following spinal cord injury. The results demonstrated that expression of the Nogo‑A gene was observed to be downregulated following transfection and GAP‑43 expression was observed to increase. The BBB scores were increased following treatment with Nogo shRNAs, indicating functional recovery of the injured nerves. Thus, Nogo-A shRNA interference can knockdown Nogo gene expression and upregulate GAP-43 to promote the functional recovery of spinal cord injury in rats. This finding may advance progress toward assisting the regeneration of injured neurons through the use of Nogo-A shRNA. PMID:27035338

  7. Initial Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Data Acquired from Soyuz Landings: Establishing a Functional Performance Recovery Time Constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kofman, I. S.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stenger, M. B.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; Lee, S. M. C.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Feiveson, A. H.; Fisher, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Testing of crew responses following long-duration flights has not been previously possible until a minimum of more than 24 hours after landing. As a result, it has not been possible to determine the trend of the early recovery process, nor has it been possible to accurately assess the full impact of the decrements associated with long-duration flight. To overcome these limitations, both the Russian and U.S. programs have implemented joint testing at the Soyuz landing site. This International Space Station research effort has been identified as the functional Field Test, and represents data collect on NASA, Russian, European Space Agency, and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency crews. RESEARCH The primary goal of this research is to determine functional abilities associated with long-duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible on the day of landing (typically within 1 to 1.5 hours). This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements. To date, a total of 15 subjects have participated in a 'pilot' version of the full 'field test'. The full version of the 'field test' will assess functional sensorimotor measurements included hand/eye coordination, standing from a seated position (sit-to-stand), walking normally without falling, measurement of dynamic visual acuity, discriminating different forces generated with the hands (both strength and ability to judge just noticeable differences of force), standing from a prone position, coordinated walking involving tandem heel-to-toe placement (tested with eyes both closed and open), walking normally while avoiding obstacles of differing heights, and determining postural ataxia while standing (measurement of quiet stance). Sensorimotor performance has been obtained using video records, and data from body worn inertial sensors. The cardiovascular portion of the investigation has measured blood pressure and heart rate during a timed stand test in conjunction with postural ataxia

  8. Effects of dexmedetomidine on anesthesia recovery period and postoperative cognitive function of patients after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lingling; Zhang, Hong; Mi, Weidong; Wang, Tao; He, Yan; Zhang, Xu; Ma, Xin; Li, Hongzhao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of dexmedetomidine on anesthesia recovery period and postoperative cognitive function of patients after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion. Methods: A total of 40 elective patients who would undergo robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion. They were randomly divided into two groups in a double-blind manner. After pneumoperitoneum established, all patients adopted 40° trendelenberg position. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and bispectral index (BIS) of each patient were recorded at four moments respectively, namely the end of surgery (T0), palinesthesia (T1), extubation (T2), 10 min after extubation (T3). Results: In the dexmedetomidine group, the mean arterial pressure and heart rate decreased at T1 and T2 compared with controls (P<0.05); in addition, the delirium rating scale was lower than the latter (P<0.05) while Ramsay sedation score was significantly higher (P<0.05). POCD was observed on 28 patients, containing 17 controls and 11 dexmedetomidine individuals, one day after operation, and 21 patients (12 controls, 9 dexmedetomidine people) five days after operation. One- and five-day after operation, the levels of TNF-α, NSE and IL-6 in the dexmedetomidine group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05), and serum SOD significantly increased in the former (P<0.05). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine had a neuroprotective effect on anesthesia recovery and postoperative period of the elderly patients undergone robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy, which might be related to the reduction of inflammatory reaction induced by dexmedetomidine. PMID:26379954

  9. The validation of made-to-measure method for reconstruction of phase space distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, H.; Gouda, N.; Yano, T.; Hara, T.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate how accurately phase space distribution functions (DFs) in galactic models can be reconstructed by a made-to-measure (M2M) method, which constructs N-particle models of stellar systems from photometric and various kinematic data. The advantage of the M2M method is that this method can be applied to various galactic models without assumption of the spatial symmetries of gravitational potentials adopted in galactic models, and furthermore, numerical calculations of the orbits of the stars cannot be severely constrained by the capacities of computer memories. The M2M method has been applied to various galactic models. However, the degree of accuracy for the recovery of DFs derived by the M2M method in galactic models has never been investigated carefully. Therefore, we show the degree of accuracy for the recovery of the DFs for the anisotropic Plummer model and the axisymmetric Stäckel model, which have analytic solutions of the DFs. Furthermore, this study provides the dependence of the degree of accuracy for the recovery of the DFs on various parameters and a procedure adopted in this paper. As a result, we find that the degree of accuracy for the recovery of the DFs derived by the M2M method for the spherical target model is a few percent, and more than ten percent for the axisymmetric target model.

  10. Overexpression of Sox11 Promotes Corticospinal Tract Regeneration after Spinal Injury While Interfering with Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zimei; Reynolds, Ashley; Kirry, Adam; Nienhaus, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic neurons, peripheral neurons, and CNS neurons in zebrafish respond to axon injury by initiating pro-regenerative transcriptional programs that enable axons to extend, locate appropriate targets, and ultimately contribute to behavioral recovery. In contrast, many long-distance projection neurons in the adult mammalian CNS, notably corticospinal tract (CST) neurons, display a much lower regenerative capacity. To promote CNS repair, a long-standing goal has been to activate pro-regenerative mechanisms that are normally missing from injured CNS neurons. Sox11 is a transcription factor whose expression is common to a many types of regenerating neurons, but it is unknown whether suboptimal Sox11 expression contributes to low regenerative capacity in the adult mammalian CNS. Here we show in adult mice that dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGs) and CST neurons fail to upregulate Sox11 after spinal axon injury. Furthermore, forced viral expression of Sox11 reduces axonal dieback of DRG axons, and promotes CST sprouting and regenerative axon growth in both acute and chronic injury paradigms. In tests of forelimb dexterity, however, Sox11 overexpression in the cortex caused a modest but consistent behavioral impairment. These data identify Sox11 as a key transcription factor that can confer an elevated innate regenerative capacity to CNS neurons. The results also demonstrate an unexpected dissociation between axon growth and behavioral outcome, highlighting the need for additional strategies to optimize the functional output of stimulated neurons. PMID:25698749

  11. The effect of ubiquinone on functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Z; Azizi, S; Hobbenaghi, R

    2014-01-01

    A common cause of peripheral nerve injury is trauma. The positive effect of antioxidants on the improvement of nerve regeneration has currently become a focus of attention. In this experiment, the effect of intraperitoneal administration of ubiquinone (CoQ10) on an acute experimentally sciatic nerve crush was studied in a rat model. Forty-five male Wistar rats, weighing between 160-180 g were used. The rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n=20). Each group was further subdivided into four subgroups of five animals each. Functional studies confirmed the faster recovery of regenerated axons in the treatment group compared to the un-treated group (P<0.05). Morphometric indices of the regenerated fibers showed the number and diameter of the myelinated fibers to be significantly higher in the treatment group than the un-treated group (P<0.05). Intraperitoneal administration of CoQ10 (10 mg/kg/day) in the early inflammatory stage of sciatic nerve crush was found to improve nerve regeneration. PMID:27175137

  12. Effects of Rolipram on Adult Rat Oligodendrocytes and Functional Recovery after Contusive Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, Eric; Whitaker, Christopher M.; Burke, Darlene A.; Hetman, Michal; Onifer, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic human spinal cord injury causes devastating and long-term hardships. These are due to the irreparable primary mechanical injury and secondary injury cascade. In particular, oligodendrocyte cell death, white matter axon damage, spared axon demyelination, and the ensuing dysfunction in action potential conduction lead to the initial deficits and impair functional recovery. For these reasons, and that oligodendrocyte and axon survival may be related, various neuroprotective strategies after SCI are being investigated. We previously demonstrated that oligodendrocytes in the adult rat epicenter ventrolateral funiculus express 3′-5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent phosphodiesterase 4 subtypes and that their death was attenuated up to 3 days after contusive cervical spinal cord injury when rolipram, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4, was administered. Here, we report that 1) there are more oligodendrocyte somata in the adult rat epicenter ventrolateral funiculus, 2) descending and ascending axonal conductivity in the ventrolateral funiculus improves, and that 3) there are fewer hindlimb footfall errors during grid-walking at 5 weeks after contusive cervical spinal cord injury when rolipram is delivered for 2 weeks. This is the first demonstration of improved descending and ascending long-tract axonal conductivity across a spinal cord injury with this pharmacological approach. Since descending long-tract axonal conductivity did not return to normal, further evaluations of the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic window of rolipram as well as optimal combinations are necessary before consideration for neuroprotection in humans with spinal cord injury. PMID:19635528

  13. Targeting the Cholinergic System for Neuroprotection and/or Enhancement of Functional Recovery Following Neurotrauma.

    PubMed

    Huber, Kathleen B G; Uteshev, Victor V; Pauly, James R

    2016-01-01

    Development of novel pharmacotherapies for the treatment of traumatic injury to the nervous system has been ongoing for over 40 years. Despite many promising compounds discovered using animal models, no treatments have successfully translated into the clinic. The central dogma in this field is that brain trauma initiates a complex chain of biochemical events leading to secondary brain damage and sustained neurological deficits. The delayed secondary brain injury is likely to result from multiple insults including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, breakdown of the blood brain barrier, dysregulated release of glutamate, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and other mediators. However, therapies targeting these systems have generally met with failure in clinical trials. The purpose of this review is to summarize the models used for preclinical neurotrauma research, provide a brief overview of previous failed clinical trials in head and spinal cord injury, and finally, to review involvement of the cholinergic system and discuss implications for future research. Possibilities and pitfalls of targeting the cholinergic system for neuroprotection and/or enhancement of functional recovery are also discussed. PMID:26818862

  14. FGF2 and FGFR1 signaling regulate functional recovery following cuprizone demyelination.

    PubMed

    Mierzwa, Amanda J; Zhou, Yong-Xing; Hibbits, Norah; Vana, Adam C; Armstrong, Regina C

    2013-08-26

    In demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, remyelination offers the potential to recover function of viable denuded axons by restoring saltatory conduction and/or protecting from further damage. Mice with genetic reduction of fibroblast growth factor 2 (Fgf2) or Fgf receptor 1 (Fgfr1) exhibit dramatically improved remyelination following experimental demyelination with cuprizone. The current studies are the first to test neurobehavioral outcomes with these gene deletions that improved remyelination. The cuprizone protocols used did not produce overt abnormalities but did reduce bilateral sensorimotor coordination (complex wheel task) and increase sociability (two chamber apparatus with novel mouse). A significant effect of genotype was observed on the complex wheel task but not in the sociability apparatus. Specifically, complex wheel velocities for Fgf2 nulls improved significantly after removal of cuprizone from the diet. This improvement in Fgf2 null mice occurred following either acute (6 weeks) or chronic (12 weeks) demyelination. Plp/CreERT:Fgfr1(fl/fl) mice administered tamoxifen at 10 weeks of cuprizone treatment to induce Fgfr1 knockdown also showed improved recovery of running velocities on the complex wheels. Therefore, constitutive deletion of Fgf2 or Fgfr1 knockdown in oligodendrocyte lineage cells is sufficient to overcome impairment of sensorimotor coordination after cuprizone demyelination. PMID:23684572

  15. Involvement of Peripheral Adenosine A2 Receptors in Adenosine A1 Receptor–Mediated Recovery of Respiratory Motor Function After Upper Cervical Spinal Cord Hemisection

    PubMed Central

    James, Elysia; Nantwi, Kwaku D

    2006-01-01

    Background/Objective: In an animal model of spinal cord injury, a latent respiratory motor pathway can be pharmacologically activated through central adenosine A1 receptor antagonism to restore respiratory function after cervical (C2) spinal cord hemisection that paralyzes the hemidiaphragm ipsilateral to injury. Although respiration is modulated by central and peripheral mechanisms, putative involvement of peripheral adenosine A2 receptors in functional recovery in our model is untested. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of peripherally located adenosine A2 receptors on recovery of respiratory function after cervical (C2) spinal cord hemisection. Methods: Respiratory activity was electrophysiologically assessed (under standardized recording conditions) in C2-hemisected adult rats with the carotid bodies intact (H-CBI; n =12) or excised (H-CBE; n =12). Animals were administered the adenosine A2 receptor agonist, CGS-21680, followed by the A1 receptor antagonist, 1, 3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX), or administered DPCPX alone. Recovered respiratory activity, characterized as drug-induced activity in the previously quiescent left phrenic nerve of C2-hemisected animals in H-CBI and H-CBE rats, was compared. Recovered respiratory activity was calculated by dividing drug-induced activity in the left phrenic nerve by activity in the right phrenic nerve. Results: Administration of CGS-21680 before DPCPX (n = 6) in H-CBI rats induced a significantly greater recovery (58.5 ± 3.6%) than when DPCPX (42.6 ± 4.6%) was administered (n = 6) alone. In H-CBE rats, prior administration of CGS-21680 (n = 6) did not enhance recovery over that induced by DPCPX (n = 6) alone. Recovery in H-CBE rats amounted to 39.7 ± 3.7% and 38.4 + 4.2%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results suggest that adenosine A2 receptors located in the carotid bodies can enhance the magnitude of adenosine A1 receptor–mediated recovery of respiratory function after C2 hemisection

  16. The potential synergism by combining external counterpulsation with intermittent theta burst stimulation in post-stroke motor function recovery.

    PubMed

    He, Weijia; Au-Yeung, Suk-Yin Stephanie; Mak, Margaret; Leung, Thomas Wai Hong; Leung, Howan; Wong, Lawrence Ka Sing

    2016-08-01

    Upper limb weakness and incoordination is a common disability following ischemic stroke. Previous studies have showed that the single application of external counterpulsation (ECP) and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) can effectively enhance the cortical motor excitability and facilitate recovery. However, it remains uncertain if sequential application of these therapies would further augment the recovery. We hypothesize a synergistic effect of ECP followed by iTBS to upper limb function may happen through improvements in both cerebral perfusion and neuron excitability. PMID:27372874

  17. The RFad Method--a new fatigue recovery time assessment for industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Silva e Santos, Marcello; Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez; Moreira, Sergio Bastos

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study about fatigue recovery time assessment processes in work activities. It came about due to a demand presented by an automotive industry giant, in need of updating existing cycle time sheets and TAKT time parameters. The company decided to hire an Ergonomics Laboratory with ties to a major Brazilian University in order to evaluate current conditions and establish a new method to either calculate recovery times or validate existing assessment criteria, based in the ergonomics evaluation of the work activities. It is clear that there has been evident evolution in the industrial sector in the past two decades. It brought up fast modernization of industrial processes, not only in production but also in terms of management systems. Due to improved computer and robotics systems, combined with overall operational advancements - like the use of lighter hand tools and more effective hoist systems - most work activities have had its physical effort requirements reduced in the past decades. Thus, compensation factors built into production times need to be reviewed in order to avoid unnecessary costs associated to them. By using ergonomics considerations, we prevent simply removing the physical variables built in rest time calculations without taking on account, for example, additional cognitive load represented by the use of more sophisticated pieces of equipment. PMID:22316952

  18. Delayed Imatinib Treatment for Acute Spinal Cord Injury: Functional Recovery and Serum Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kjell, Jacob; Finn, Anja; Hao, Jingxia; Wellfelt, Katrin; Josephson, Anna; Svensson, Camilla I; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Zsuzsanna; Eriksson, Ulf; Abrams, Mathew; Olson, Lars

    2015-11-01

    With no currently available drug treatment for spinal cord injury, there is a need for additional therapeutic candidates. We took the approach of repositioning existing pharmacological agents to serve as acute treatments for spinal cord injury and previously found imatinib to have positive effects on locomotor and bladder function in experimental spinal cord injury when administered immediately after the injury. However, for imatinib to have translational value, it needs to have sustained beneficial effects with delayed initiation of treatment, as well. Here, we show that imatinib improves hind limb locomotion and bladder recovery when initiation of treatment was delayed until 4 h after injury and that bladder function was improved with a delay of up to 24 h. The treatment did not induce hypersensitivity. Instead, imatinib-treated animals were generally less hypersensitive to either thermal or mechanical stimuli, compared with controls. In an effort to provide potential biomarkers, we found serum levels of three cytokines/chemokines--monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3α, and keratinocyte chemoattractant/growth-regulated oncogene (interleukin 8)--to increase over time with imatinib treatment and to be significantly higher in injured imatinib-treated animals than in controls during the early treatment period. This correlated to macrophage activation and autofluorescence in lymphoid organs. At the site of injury in the spinal cord, macrophage activation was instead reduced by imatinib treatment. Our data strengthen the case for clinical trials of imatinib by showing that initiation of treatment can be delayed and by identifying serum cytokines that may serve as candidate markers of effective imatinib doses. PMID:25914996

  19. Hyperbaric oxygenation enhances transplanted cell graft and functional recovery in the infarct heart

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mahmood; Meduru, Sarath; Mohan, Iyyapu K.; Kuppusamy, M. Lakshmi; Wisel, Sheik; Kulkarni, Aditi; Rivera, Brian K.; Hamlin, Robert L.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2009-01-01

    A major limitation to the application of stem-cell therapy to repair ischemic heart damage is the low survival of transplanted cells in the heart, possibly due to poor oxygenation. We hypothesized that hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) can be used as an adjuvant treatment to augment stem-cell therapy. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of HBO on the engraftment of rat bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplanted in infarct rat hearts. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in Fisher-344 rats by permanently ligating the left-anterior-descending coronary artery. MSCs, labeled with fluorescent superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles, were transplanted in the infarct and peri-infarct regions of the MI hearts. HBO (100% oxygen at 2 ATA for 90 min) was administered daily for 2 weeks. Four MI groups were used: untreated (MI); HBO; MSC; MSC+HBO. Echocardiography, electro-vectorcardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging were used for functional evaluations. The engraftment of transplanted MSCs in the heart was confirmed by SPIO fluorescence and Prussian-blue staining. Immunohistochemical staining was used to identify key cellular and molecular markers including CD29, troponin-T, connexin-43, VEGF, α-smooth-muscle actin, and von-Willebrand factor in the tissue. Compared to MI and MSC groups, the MSC+HBO group showed a significantly increased recovery of cardiac function including left-ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, fraction-shortening, LV wall-thickness, and QRS vector. Further, HBO treatment significantly increased the engraftment of CD29-positive cells, expression of connexin-43, troponin-T and VEGF, and angiogenesis in the infarct tissue. Thus, HBO appears to be a potential and clinically-viable adjuvant treatment for myocardial stem-cell therapy. PMID:19376124

  20. Delayed Imatinib Treatment for Acute Spinal Cord Injury: Functional Recovery and Serum Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Anja; Hao, Jingxia; Wellfelt, Katrin; Josephson, Anna; Svensson, Camilla I.; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Zsuzsanna; Eriksson, Ulf; Abrams, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract With no currently available drug treatment for spinal cord injury, there is a need for additional therapeutic candidates. We took the approach of repositioning existing pharmacological agents to serve as acute treatments for spinal cord injury and previously found imatinib to have positive effects on locomotor and bladder function in experimental spinal cord injury when administered immediately after the injury. However, for imatinib to have translational value, it needs to have sustained beneficial effects with delayed initiation of treatment, as well. Here, we show that imatinib improves hind limb locomotion and bladder recovery when initiation of treatment was delayed until 4 h after injury and that bladder function was improved with a delay of up to 24 h. The treatment did not induce hypersensitivity. Instead, imatinib-treated animals were generally less hypersensitive to either thermal or mechanical stimuli, compared with controls. In an effort to provide potential biomarkers, we found serum levels of three cytokines/chemokines—monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3α, and keratinocyte chemoattractant/growth-regulated oncogene (interleukin 8)—to increase over time with imatinib treatment and to be significantly higher in injured imatinib-treated animals than in controls during the early treatment period. This correlated to macrophage activation and autofluorescence in lymphoid organs. At the site of injury in the spinal cord, macrophage activation was instead reduced by imatinib treatment. Our data strengthen the case for clinical trials of imatinib by showing that initiation of treatment can be delayed and by identifying serum cytokines that may serve as candidate markers of effective imatinib doses. PMID:25914996

  1. Functional recovery of supersensitive dopamine receptors after intrastriatal grafts of fetal substantia nigra

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, T.M.; Dawson, V.L.; Gage, F.H.; Fisher, L.J.; Hunt, M.A.; Wamsley, J.K. )

    1991-03-01

    Interruption of the ascending dopamine neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway, by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion in rats, produced a significant loss of the dopamine transport complexes labeled with the phencyclidine derivative (3H)BTCP. This loss of dopamine innervation in the striatum was present at least 12 to 14 months after lesioning and was functionally manifested by ipsilateral rotation of the animals in response to amphetamine. In these same animals, in comparison to controls, there was a significant increase in the number (Bmax) of (3H)SCH 23390-labeled D-1 receptors in the striatum (36.7%) and the substantia nigra (35.1%) and a 54.4% increase in the number (Bmax) of (3H)sulpiride-labeled striatal D-2 receptors without an apparent change in affinity (Kd). Ten to twelve months after the transplantation of homologous fetal substantia nigra into the denervated striatum, there was a significant decrease in amphetamine-induced turning behavior. In these animals, there was an ingrowth of dopamine nerve terminals in the striatum as demonstrated by a return of (3H)BTCP binding. Accompanying this reinnervation was the normalization of D-1 and D-2 receptors to control values in the striatum as well as the return of D-1 receptors to prelesion densities in the substantia nigra. In a subgroup of transplanted rats, amphetamine continued to induce ipsilateral turning. In these animals both D-1 and D-2 receptors remained supersensitive. These results support the hypothesis that the functional recovery of transplanted animals is due, in part, to reinnervation of the striatum. In addition, long-term alterations in receptor density may be related to the behavioral deficits that are associated with the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat.

  2. Muscle Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor α Promotes Axonal Regeneration and Functional Recovery Following Peripheral Nerve Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nancy; Spearry, Rachel P.; Leahy, Kendra M.; Robitz, Rachel; Trinh, Dennis S.; Mason, Carter O.; Zurbrugg, Rebekah J.; Batt, Myra K.; Paul, Richard J.; Maclennan, A. John

    2014-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) administration maintains, protects, and promotes the regeneration of both motor neurons (MNs) and skeletal muscle in a wide variety of models. Expression of CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα), an essential CNTF receptor component, is greatly increased in skeletal muscle following neuromuscular insult. Together the data suggest that muscle CNTFRα may contribute to neuromuscular maintenance, protection, and/or regeneration in vivo. To directly address the role of muscle CNTFRα, we selectively-depleted it in vivo by using a “floxed” CNTFRα mouse line and a gene construct (mlc1f-Cre) that drives the expression of Cre specifically in skeletal muscle. The resulting mice were challenged with sciatic nerve crush. Counting of nerve axons and retrograde tracing of MNs indicated that muscle CNTFRα contributes to MN axonal regeneration across the lesion site. Walking track analysis indicated that muscle CNTFRα is also required for normal recovery of motor function. However, the same muscle CNTFRα depletion unexpectedly had no detected effect on the maintenance or regeneration of the muscle itself, even though exogenous CNTF has been shown to affect these functions. Similarly, MN survival and lesion-induced terminal sprouting were unaffected. Therefore, muscle CNTFRα is an interesting new example of a muscle growth factor receptor that, in vivo under physiological conditions, contributes much more to neuronal regeneration than to the maintenance or regeneration of the muscle itself. This novel form of muscle–neuron interaction also has implications in the therapeutic targeting of the neuromuscular system in MN disorders and following nerve injury. PMID:23504871

  3. Whole-body vibration improves functional recovery in spinal cord injured rats.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Felicitas; Schempf, Greta; Stein, Gregor; Wellmann, Katharina; Manthou, Marilena; Scholl, Carolin; Sidorenko, Malina; Semler, Oliver; Eisel, Leonie; Harrach, Rachida; Angelova, Srebrina; Jaminet, Patrick; Ankerne, Janina; Ashrafi, Mahak; Ozsoy, Ozlem; Ozsoy, Umut; Schubert, Harald; Abdulla, Diana; Dunlop, Sarah A; Angelov, Doychin N; Irintchev, Andrey; Schönau, Eckhard

    2013-03-15

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a relatively novel form of exercise used to improve neuromuscular performance in healthy individuals. Its usefulness as a therapy for patients with neurological disorders, in particular spinal cord injury (SCI), has received little attention in clinical settings and, surprisingly, even less in animal SCI models. We performed severe compression SCI at a low-thoracic level in Wistar rats followed by daily WBV starting 7 (10 rats) or 14 (10 rats) days after injury (WBV7 and WBV14, respectively) and continued over a 12-week post-injury period. Rats with SCI but no WBV training (sham, 10 rats) and intact animals (10 rats) served as controls. Compared to sham-treated rats, WBV did not improve BBB score, plantar stepping, or ladder stepping during the 12-week period. Accordingly, WBV did not significantly alter plantar H-reflex, lesion volume, serotonergic input to the lumbar spinal cord, nor cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs to lumbar motoneurons at 12 weeks after SCI. However, compared to sham, WBV14, but not WBV7, significantly improved body weight support (rump-height index) during overground locomotion and overall recovery between 6-12 weeks and also restored the density of synaptic terminals in the lumbar spinal cord at 12 weeks. Most remarkably, WBV14 led to a significant improvement of bladder function at 6-12 weeks after injury. These findings provide the first evidence for functional benefits of WBV in an animal SCI model and warrant further preclinical investigations to determine mechanisms underpinning this noninvasive, inexpensive, and easily delivered potential rehabilitation therapy for SCI. PMID:23157611

  4. Gains in upper extremity function after stroke via recovery or compensation: Potential differential effects on amount of real-world limb use.

    PubMed

    Lum, Peter S; Mulroy, Sara; Amdur, Richard L; Requejo, Philip; Prilutsky, Boris I; Dromerick, Alexander W

    2009-01-01

    In terms of integration of the paretic upper extremity in activities of daily living (ADLs), outcome is poor after stroke. Furthermore, amount of real-world arm use appears only weakly correlated with laboratory motor function scales. Therefore, amount of arm use may depend critically on the location, extent, and type of functional gains, which can be quantified with comprehensive kinematic and EMG analysis of ADL performance. Gains in upper extremity function can occur via compensation or recovery of premorbid movement and EMG patterns, and traditional treatment approaches encourage adoption of compensatory strategies early in the postacute period that can inhibit potential recovery. A new treatment approach called Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program (ASAP) focuses on impairment reduction coupled with repetitive, task-specific training of the paretic arm during ADLs. We present pilot data that show recovery in subjects who received the ASAP, while a usual care control subject showed increased use of compensation over the same period. Finally, we discuss the advantages of data reduction methods such as principal components analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling, which can potentially distill large kinematic and EMG data sets into the key latent variables that predict amount of real-world use. PMID:19740730

  5. Multiresidue supercritical fluid extraction method for the recovery at low ppb levels of three sulfonamides from fortified chicken liver.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, R J; Lightfield, A R

    1998-09-18

    A supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method is proposed for the recovery of three sulfonamides from chicken liver. Samples were extracted at 680 bar and 40 degrees C using unmodified carbon dioxide and were collected free of co-extracted artifactual material on an in-line neutral alumina sorbent bed. High recoveries of sulfamethazine (SMZ), sulfadimethoxine (SDM) and sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) were obtained from chicken liver samples fortified at levels from 1000 to 50 ppm. PMID:9792530

  6. Analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage: a Rayleigh-based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schout, Gilian; Drijver, Benno; Gutierrez-Neri, Mariene; Schotting, Ruud

    2013-10-01

    High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) is an important technique for energy conservation. A controlling factor for the economic feasibility of HT-ATES is the recovery efficiency. Due to the effects of density-driven flow (free convection), HT-ATES systems applied in permeable aquifers typically have lower recovery efficiencies than conventional (low-temperature) ATES systems. For a reliable estimation of the recovery efficiency it is, therefore, important to take the effect of density-driven flow into account. A numerical evaluation of the prime factors influencing the recovery efficiency of HT-ATES systems is presented. Sensitivity runs evaluating the effects of aquifer properties, as well as operational variables, were performed to deduce the most important factors that control the recovery efficiency. A correlation was found between the dimensionless Rayleigh number (a measure of the relative strength of free convection) and the calculated recovery efficiencies. Based on a modified Rayleigh number, two simple analytical solutions are proposed to calculate the recovery efficiency, each one covering a different range of aquifer thicknesses. The analytical solutions accurately reproduce all numerically modeled scenarios with an average error of less than 3 %. The proposed method can be of practical use when considering or designing an HT-ATES system.

  7. Biomaterial-based interventions for neuronal regeneration and functional recovery in rodent model of spinal cord injury: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Vibhor; Konakondla, Sanjay; Nicholas, Joyce; Varma, Abhay; Kindy, Mark; Wen, Xuejun

    2013-01-01

    Context There is considerable interest in translating laboratory advances in neuronal regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI). A multimodality approach has been advocated for successful functional neuronal regeneration. With this goal in mind several biomaterials have been employed as neuronal bridges either to support cellular transplants, to release neurotrophic factors, or to do both. A systematic review of this literature is lacking. Such a review may provide insight to strategies with a high potential for further investigation and potential clinical application. Objective To systematically review the design strategies and outcomes after biomaterial-based multimodal interventions for neuronal regeneration in rodent SCI model. To analyse functional outcomes after implantation of biomaterial-based multimodal interventions and to identify predictors of functional outcomes. Methods A broad PubMed, CINHAL, and a manual search of relevant literature databases yielded data from 24 publications; 14 of these articles included functional outcome information. Studies reporting behavioral data in rat model of SCI and employing biodegradable polymer-based multimodal intervention were included. For behavioral recovery, studies using severe injury models (transection or severe clip compression (>16.9 g) or contusion (50 g/cm)) were categorized separately from those investigating partial injury models (hemisection or moderate-to-severe clip compression or contusion). Results The cumulative mean improvements in Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores after biomaterial-based interventions are 5.93 (95% CI = 2.41 − 9.45) and 4.44 (95% CI = 2.65 – 6.24) for transection and hemisection models, respectively. Factors associated with improved outcomes include the type of polymer used and a follow-up period greater than 6 weeks. Conclusion The functional improvement after implantation of biopolymer-based multimodal implants is modest. The relationship with neuronal

  8. Method for enhancing selectivity and recovery in the fractional flotation of particles in a flotation column

    DOEpatents

    Klunder, Edgar B.

    2011-08-09

    The method relates to particle separation from a feed stream. The feed stream is injected directly into the froth zone of a vertical flotation column in the presence of a counter-current reflux stream. A froth breaker generates a reflux stream and a concentrate stream, and the reflux stream is injected into the froth zone to mix with the interstitial liquid between bubbles in the froth zone. Counter-current flow between the plurality of bubbles and the interstitial liquid facilitates the attachment of higher hydrophobicity particles to bubble surfaces as lower hydrophobicity particles detach. The height of the feed stream injection and the reflux ratio may be varied in order to optimize the concentrate or tailing stream recoveries desired based on existing operating conditions.

  9. Superconvergence and recovery type a posteriori error estimation for hybrid stress finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, YanHong; Wu, YongKe; Xie, XiaoPing

    2016-09-01

    Superconvergence and a posteriori error estimators of recovery type are analyzed for the 4-node hybrid stress quadrilateral finite element method proposed by Pian and Sumihara (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engrg., 1984, 20: 1685-1695) for linear elasticity problems. Uniform superconvergence of order $O(h^{1+\\min\\{\\alpha,1\\}})$ with respect to the Lam\\'{e} constant $\\lambda$ is established for both the recovered gradients of the displacement vector and the stress tensor under a mesh assumption, where $\\alpha>0$ is a parameter characterizing the distortion of meshes from parallelograms to quadrilaterals. A posteriori error estimators based on the recovered quantities are shown to be asymptotically exact. Numerical experiments confirm the theoretical results.

  10. Function-Triggering Antibodies to the Adhesion Molecule L1 Enhance Recovery after Injury of the Adult Mouse Femoral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Guseva, Daria; Loers, Gabriele; Schachner, Melitta

    2014-01-01

    L1 is among the few adhesion molecules that favors repair after trauma in the adult central nervous system of vertebrates by promoting neuritogenesis and neuronal survival, among other beneficial features. In the peripheral nervous system, L1 is up-regulated in Schwann cells and regrowing axons after nerve damage, but the functional consequences of this expression remain unclear. Our previous study of L1-deficient mice in a femoral nerve injury model showed an unexpected improved functional recovery, attenuated motoneuronal cell death, and enhanced Schwann cell proliferation, being attributed to the persistent synthesis of neurotrophic factors. On the other hand, transgenic mice over-expressing L1 in neurons led to improved remyelination, but not improved functional recovery. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the monoclonal L1 antibody 557 that triggers beneficial L1 functions in vitro would trigger these also in femoral nerve repair. We analyzed femoral nerve regeneration in C57BL/6J mice that received this antibody in a hydrogel filled conduit connecting the cut and sutured nerve before its bifurcation, leading to short-term release of antibody by diffusion. Video-based quantitative analysis of motor functions showed improved recovery when compared to mice treated with conduits containing PBS in the hydrogel scaffold, as a vehicle control. This improved recovery was associated with attenuated motoneuron loss, remyelination and improved precision of preferential motor reinnervation. We suggest that function-triggering L1 antibodies applied to the lesion site at the time of injury over a limited time period will not only be beneficial in peripheral, but also central nervous system regeneration. PMID:25393007

  11. Factors Associated With Upper Extremity Functional Recovery Following Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors related to upper extremity functional improvement following inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in stroke patients. Methods Forty-one stroke patients received low-frequency rTMS over the contralesional hemisphere according to a standard protocol, in addition to conventional physical and occupational therapy. The rTMS-treated patients were divided into two groups according to their responsiveness to rTMS measured by the self-care score of the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI): responded group (n=19) and non-responded group (n=22). Forty-one age-matched stroke patients who had not received rTMS served as controls. Neurological, cognitive and functional assessments were performed before rTMS and 4 weeks after rTMS treatment. Results Among the rTMS-treated patients, the responded group was significantly younger than the non-responded group (51.6±10.5 years and 65.5±13.7 years, respectively; p=0.001). Four weeks after rTMS, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, the Brunnstrom recovery stage and upper extremity muscle power scores were significantly more improved in the responded group than in the control group. Besides the self-care score, the mobility score of the K-MBI was also more improved in the responded group than in the non-responded group or controls. Conclusion Age is the most obvious factor determining upper extremity functional responsiveness to low-frequency rTMS in stroke patients. PMID:27446773

  12. Attenuating the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Improves Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    OHRI, SUJATA SARASWAT; MADDIE, MELISSA A.; ZHAO, YONGMEI; QIU, MENGSHENG S.; HETMAN, MICHAL; WHITTEMORE, SCOTT R.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous CNS myelin abnormalities; yet, its direct role in traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced demyelination is not known. The UPR is an evolutionarily conserved cell defense mechanism initiated to restore endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis in response to various cellular stresses including infection, trauma, and oxidative damage. However, if uncompensated, the UPR triggers apoptotic cell death. We demonstrate that the three signaling branches of UPR including the PERK, ATF6, and IRE1α are rapidly initiated in a mouse model of contusive SCI specifically at the injury epicenter. Immunohistochemical analyses of the various UPR markers revealed that in neurons, the UPR appeared at 6 and 24-h post-SCI. In contrast, in oligodendrocytes and astroglia, UPR persisted at least for up to 3 days post-SCI. The UPR-associated proapoptotic transcriptional regulator CHOP was among the UPR markers upregulated in neurons and oligodendrocytes, but not in astrocytes, of traumatized mouse spinal cords. To directly analyze its role in SCI, WT and CHOP null mice received a moderate T9 contusive injury. Deletion of CHOP led to an overall attenuation of the UPR after contusive SCI. Furthermore, analyses of hindlimb locomotion demonstrated a significant functional recovery that correlated with an increase in white-matter sparing, transcript levels of myelin basic protein, and Claudin 11 and decreased oligodendrocyte apoptosis in CHOP null mice in contrast to WT animals. Thus, our study provides evidence that the UPR contributes to oligodendrocyte loss after traumatic SCI. PMID:21638341

  13. Effect of Delayed Peripheral Nerve Repair on Nerve Regeneration, Schwann Cell Function and Target Muscle Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Samuel; Wiberg, Rebecca; McGrath, Aleksandra M.; Novikov, Lev N.; Wiberg, Mikael; Novikova, Liudmila N.; Kingham, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques for peripheral nerve repair, functional restitution remains incomplete. The timing of surgery is one factor influencing the extent of recovery but it is not yet clearly defined how long a delay may be tolerated before repair becomes futile. In this study, rats underwent sciatic nerve transection before immediate (0) or 1, 3, or 6 months delayed repair with a nerve graft. Regeneration of spinal motoneurons, 13 weeks after nerve repair, was assessed using retrograde labeling. Nerve tissue was also collected from the proximal and distal stumps and from the nerve graft, together with the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. A dramatic decline in the number of regenerating motoneurons and myelinated axons in the distal nerve stump was observed in the 3- and 6-months delayed groups. After 3 months delay, the axonal number in the proximal stump increased 2–3 folds, accompanied by a smaller axonal area. RT-PCR of distal nerve segments revealed a decline in Schwann cells (SC) markers, most notably in the 3 and 6 month delayed repair samples. There was also a progressive increase in fibrosis and proteoglycan scar markers in the distal nerve with increased delayed repair time. The yield of SC isolated from the distal nerve segments progressively fell with increased delay in repair time but cultured SC from all groups proliferated at similar rates. MG muscle at 3- and 6-months delay repair showed a significant decline in weight (61% and 27% compared with contra-lateral side). Muscle fiber atrophy and changes to neuromuscular junctions were observed with increased delayed repair time suggestive of progressively impaired reinnervation. This study demonstrates that one of the main limiting factors for nerve regeneration after delayed repair is the distal stump. The critical time point after which the outcome of regeneration becomes too poor appears to be 3-months. PMID:23409189

  14. Employment Status as an Indicator of Recovery and Function One Year after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Eleshia J; Ehlers, Shawna L; Bronars, Carrie A; Patten, Christi A; Brockman, Tabetha A; Cerhan, James R; Hogan, William J; Hashmi, Shahrukh K; Gastineau, Dennis A

    2016-09-01

    Employment after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an indicator of post-transplantation recovery and function, with economic and social implications. As survival rates for HSCT continue to improve, greater emphasis can be placed on factors affecting the quality of post-transplantation survival, including the ability to resume employment. A sample of recipients of autologous or allogeneic HSCT was accrued (n = 1000) to complete a longitudinal lifestyle survey before transplantation and at 1 year after transplantation. The present study examines associations between employment and patient characteristics, disease variables, illness status, and quality of life among 1-year survivors (n = 702). Participants had a mean age of 55 years (range, 18 to 78) and were predominately male (59.7%), married/partnered (77.1%), and non-Hispanic Caucasian (89.5%); most (79.4%) had received autologous transplantation. Of the 690 participants reporting some form of employment before illness diagnosis, 62.4% had returned to work by 1 year after HSCT. Full-time employment at 1 year after HSCT was significantly associated with remission of illness, improved illness, fewer post-transplantation hospitalizations, less fatigue and pain, higher quality of life, and higher rating of perceived health. Those unemployed because of their health reported the highest rates of fatigue and pain and lowest quality of life, and they were most likely to report poor perceived health. These findings highlight work reintegration as an important outcome and marker of survivors' overall adjustment after transplantation. Identifying factors affecting post-transplantation employment offers opportunities for behavioral interventions to target modifiable risk factors to optimize post-transplantation survivorship, inclusive of increased rates of return to work and decreased rates of associated disability. PMID:27220264

  15. Electroacupuncture promotes the recovery of motor neuron function in the anterior horn of the injured spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-hui; Lv, Jian-guo; Wang, Hui; Nie, Hui-yong

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture has been shown to lessen the inflammatory reaction after acute spinal cord injury and reduce secondary injury. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, a rat model of spinal cord injury was established by compressing the T8–9 segments using a modified Nystrom method. Twenty-four hours after injury, Zusanli (ST36), Xuanzhong (GB39), Futu (ST32) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) were stimulated with electroacupuncture. Rats with spinal cord injury alone were used as controls. At 2, 4 and 6 weeks after injury, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity at the site of injury, the number of medium and large neurons in the spinal cord anterior horn, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) mRNA expression, and Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale scores were greater in the electroacupuncture group compared with the control group. These results demonstrate that electroacupuncture increases AChE activity, up-regulates GDNF mRNA expression, and promotes the recovery of motor neuron function in the anterior horn after spinal cord injury. PMID:26889195

  16. LOWER COST METHODS FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY (IOR) VIA SURFACTANT FLOODING

    SciTech Connect

    William A. Goddard III; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Seung Soon Jang; Shiang-Tai Lin; Prabal Maiti; Yongfu Wu; Stefan Iglauer; Xiaohang Zhang

    2004-09-01

    This report provides a summary of the work performed in this 3-year project sponsored by DOE. The overall objective of this project is to identify new, potentially more cost-effective surfactant formulations for improved oil recovery (IOR). The general approach is to use an integrated experimental and computational chemistry effort to improve our understanding of the link between surfactant structure and performance, and from this knowledge, develop improved IOR surfactant formulations. Accomplishments for the project include: (1) completion of a literature review to assemble current and new surfactant IOR ideas, (2) Development of new atomistic-level MD (molecular dynamic) modeling methodologies to calculate IFT (interfacial tension) rigorously from first principles, (3) exploration of less computationally intensive mesoscale methods to estimate IFT, Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR), and cohesive energy density (CED) calculations, (4) experiments to screen many surfactant structures for desirable low IFT and solid adsorption behavior, and (5) further experimental characterization of the more promising new candidate formulations (based on alkyl polyglycosides (APG) and alkyl propoxy sulfate surfactants). Important findings from this project include: (1) the IFT between two pure substances may be calculated quantitatively from fundamental principles using Molecular Dynamics, the same approach can provide qualitative results for ternary systems containing a surfactant, (2) low concentrations of alkyl polyglycoside surfactants have potential for IOR (Improved Oil Recovery) applications from a technical standpoint (if formulated properly with a cosurfactant, they can create a low IFT at low concentration) and also are viable economically as they are available commercially, and (3) the alkylpropoxy sulfate surfactants have promising IFT performance also, plus these surfactants can have high optimal salinity and so may be attractive for use in higher

  17. Treadmill Exercise Induced Functional Recovery after Peripheral Nerve Repair Is Associated with Increased Levels of Neurotrophic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Sung; Höke, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Benefits of exercise on nerve regeneration and functional recovery have been reported in both central and peripheral nervous system disease models. However, underlying molecular mechanisms of enhanced regeneration and improved functional outcomes are less understood. We used a peripheral nerve regeneration model that has a good correlation between functional outcomes and number of motor axons that regenerate to evaluate the impact of treadmill exercise. In this model, the median nerve was transected and repaired while the ulnar nerve was transected and prevented from regeneration. Daily treadmill exercise resulted in faster recovery of the forelimb grip function as evaluated by grip power and inverted holding test. Daily exercise also resulted in better regeneration as evaluated by recovery of compound motor action potentials, higher number of axons in the median nerve and larger myofiber size in target muscles. Furthermore, these observations correlated with higher levels of neurotrophic factors, glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), in serum, nerve and muscle suggesting that increase in muscle derived neurotrophic factors may be responsible for improved regeneration. PMID:24618564

  18. Recovery of Iron/Iron Oxide Nanoparticles from Solution: Comparison of Methods and their Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmi, James; Sarathy, Vaishnavi; Tratnyek, P. G.; Baer, Donald R.; Amonette, James E.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.

    2011-05-15

    Most methods currently being used to recover Fe0-core/oxide-shell nanoparticles from solutions (including the solvents they are synthesized or stored in) are potentially problematic because they may alter the particle composition (e.g., depositing salts formed from solutes) or leave the particles prone to transformations during subsequent storage and handling (e.g., due to residual moisture). In this study, several methods for recovery of nanoparticles from aqueous solution were studied to determine how they affect the structure and reactivity of the recovered materials. Simple washing of the nanoparticles during vacuum filtration (i.e., “flash drying”) can leave up to ~17 weight percent residual moisture. Modeling calculations suggest this moisture is mostly capillary or matric water held between particles and particle aggregates, which can be removed by drying for short periods at relative vapor pressures below 0.9. Flash drying followed by vacuum drying, all under N2, leaves no detectable residue from precipitation of solutes (detectable by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS), no significant changes in overall particle composition or structure (determined by transmission electron microscopy, TEM), and negligible residual moisture (by thermogravimetric analysis, TGA). While this improved flash-drying protocol may be the preferred method for recovering nanoparticles for many purposes, we found that Fe0-core/oxide-shell nanoparticles still exhibit gradual aging during storage when characterized electrochemically with voltammetry.

  19. Method for the recovery of silver from waste photographic fixer solutions

    DOEpatents

    Posey, Franz A.; Palko, Aloysius A.

    1984-01-01

    The method of the present invention is directed to the recovery of silver from spent photographic fixer solutions and for providing an effluent essentially silver-free that is suitable for discharge into commercial sewage systems. The present method involves the steps of introducing the spent photographic fixer solution into an alkaline hypochlorite solution. The oxidizing conditions of the alkaline hypochlorite solution are maintained during the addition of the fixer solution so that the silver ion complexing agents of thiosulfate and sulfite ions are effectively destroyed. Hydrazine monohydrate is then added to the oxidizing solution to form a reducing solution to effect the formation of a precipitate of silver which can be readily removed by filtration or decanting. Experimental tests indicate that greater than 99.99% of the original silver in the spent photographic fixer can be efficiently removed by practicing the present method. Also, the chemical and biological oxygen demand of the remaining effluent is significantly reduced so as to permit the discharge thereof into sewage systems at levels in compliance with federal and state environmental standards.

  20. Method for the recovery of silver from waste photographic fixer solutions

    DOEpatents

    Posey, F.A.; Palko, A.A.

    The method of the present invention is directed to the recovery of silver from spent photographic fixer solutions and for providing an effluent essentially silver-free that is suitable for discharge into commercial sewage systems. The present method involves the steps of introducing the spent photographic fixer solution into an alkaline hypochlorite solution. The oxidizing conditions of the alkaline hypochlorite solution are maintained during the addition of the fixer solution so that the silver ion complexing agents of thiosulfate and sulfite ions are effectively destroyed. Hydrazine monohydrate is then added to the oxidizing solution to form a reducing solution to effect the formation of a precipitate of silver which can be readily removed by filtration of decanting. Experimental tests indicate that greater than 99.99% of the original silver in the spent photographic fixer can be efficiently removed by practicing the present method. Also, the chemical and biological oxygen demand of the remaining effluent is significantly reduced so as to permit the discharge thereof into sewage systems at levels in compliance with federal and state environmental standards.

  1. Recovery Discontinuous Galerkin Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov Method for all-speed flows

    SciTech Connect

    HyeongKae Park; Robert Nourgaliev; Vincent Mousseau; Dana Knoll

    2008-07-01

    There is an increasing interest to develop the next generation simulation tools for the advanced nuclear energy systems. These tools will utilize the state-of-art numerical algorithms and computer science technology in order to maximize the predictive capability, support advanced reactor designs, reduce uncertainty and increase safety margins. In analyzing nuclear energy systems, we are interested in compressible low-Mach number, high heat flux flows with a wide range of Re, Ra, and Pr numbers. Under these conditions, the focus is placed on turbulent heat transfer, in contrast to other industries whose main interest is in capturing turbulent mixing. Our objective is to develop singlepoint turbulence closure models for large-scale engineering CFD code, using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) or Large Eddy Simulation (LES) tools, requireing very accurate and efficient numerical algorithms. The focus of this work is placed on fully-implicit, high-order spatiotemporal discretization based on the discontinuous Galerkin method solving the conservative form of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The method utilizes a local reconstruction procedure derived from weak formulation of the problem, which is inspired by the recovery diffusion flux algorithm of van Leer and Nomura [?] and by the piecewise parabolic reconstruction [?] in the finite volume method. The developed methodology is integrated into the Jacobianfree Newton-Krylov framework [?] to allow a fully-implicit solution of the problem.

  2. Synergist muscle ablation and recovery from nerve-repair grafting: contractile and metabolic function

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Lisa M.; Kuzon, William M.; Halter, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    After nerve-repair grafting of medial gastrocnemius muscle, there is incomplete recovery of specific force and sustainable power, perhaps due to overcompensation by synergistic muscles. We hypothesized that increased workload due to synergist ablation would enhance graft recovery. Contractile and metabolic properties of control and nerve-repair grafted muscles, with and without synergist ablation, were determined after 120 days recovery. Specific force (N/cm2) and normalized power (W/kg) were less in the experimental groups compared with controls. Sustained power (W/kg) in the synergist-ablated nerve-repair grafted muscle was higher than nerve-repair grafted muscle, returning to control values. GLUT-4 protein was higher and glycogen content was diminished in both synergist-ablated groups. In summary, synergist ablation did not enhance the recovery of specific force or normalized power, but sustained power did recover, suggesting that metabolic and not mechanical parameters were responsible for this recovery. The enhanced endurance after synergist ablation was accompanied by increased GLUT-4 protein, suggesting a role for increased uptake of circulating glucose during contraction. PMID:11007584

  3. Functional lateralization in cingulate cortex predicts motor recovery after basal ganglia stroke.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Chen, Zengai; Su, Xin; Zhang, Xiaoliu; Wang, Ping; Zhu, Yajing; Xu, Qun; Xu, Jianrong; Tong, Shanbao

    2016-02-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) is involved in higher order motor control such as movement planning and execution of complex motor synergies. Neuroimaging study on stroke patients specifically with BG lesions would help to clarify the consequence of BG damage on motor control. In this paper, we performed a longitudinal study in the stroke patients with lesions in BG regions across three motor recovery stages, i.e., less than 2week (Session 1), 1-3m (Session 2) and more than 3m (Session 3). The patients showed an activation shift from bilateral hemispheres during early sessions (<3m) to the ipsilesional cortex in late session (>3m), suggesting a compensation effect from the contralesional hemisphere during motor recovery. We found that the lateralization of cerebellum(CB) for affected hand task correlated with patients' concurrent Fugl-Meyer index (FMI) in Session 2. Moreover, the cingulate cortex lateralization index in Session 2 was shown to significantly correlate with subsequent FMI change between Session 3 and Session 2, which serves as a prognostic marker for motor recovery. Our findings consolidated the close interactions between BG and CB during the motor recovery after stroke. The dominance of activation in contralateral cingulate cortex was associated with a better motor recovery, suggesting the important role of ipsilesional attention modulation in the early stage after BG stroke. PMID:26742641

  4. Recovery methods for detection and quantification of Campylobacter depend on meat matrices and bacteriological or PCR tools.

    PubMed

    Fosse, J; Laroche, M; Rossero, A; Fédérighi, M; Seegers, H; Magras, C

    2006-09-01

    Campylobacter is one of the main causes of human foodborne bacterial disease associated with meat consumption in developed countries. Therefore, the most effective approach for recovery and detection of Campylobacter from meat should be determined. Two hundred ninety pork skin and chine samples were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 and two strains of Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter cells were then recovered from suspensions and enumerated by direct plating. Campylobacter recovery was evaluated by comparing results for two methods of sample collection (swabbing and mechanical pummeling) and three recovery fluids (peptone water, 5% glucose serum, and demineralized water). End-point multiplex PCR was performed to evaluate the compatibility of the recovery fluids with direct PCR detection techniques. Mean recovery ratios differed significantly between pork skin and chine samples. Ratios were higher for mechanical pummeling (0.53 for pork skin and 0.49 for chine) than for swabbing (0.31 and 0.13, respectively). For pork skin, ratios obtained with peptone water (0.50) and with glucose serum (0.55) were higher than those obtained with demineralized water (0.16). Significant differences were not observed for chine samples. Direct multiplex PCR detection of Campylobacter was possible with pork skin samples. The tools for Campylobacter recovery must be appropriate for the meat matrix to be evaluated. In this study, less than 66% of inoculated Campylobacter was recovered from meat. This underestimation must be taken into account for quantitative risk analysis of Campylobacter infection. PMID:16995511

  5. Glial growth factor 2 promotes functional recovery with treatment initiated up to 7 days after permanent focal ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Iaci, Jennifer F; Ganguly, Anindita; Finklestein, Seth P; Parry, Tom J; Ren, Jingmei; Saha, Subhash; Sietsma, Dana K; Srinivas, Maya; Vecchione, Andrea M; Caggiano, Anthony O

    2010-12-01

    Neuregulins are a family of growth factors essential for normal cardiac and nervous system development. The EGF-like domain of neuregulins contains the active site which binds and activates signaling cascades through ErbB receptors. A neuregulin-1 gene EGF-like fragment demonstrated neuroprotection in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke model and drastically reduced infarct volume (Xu et al., 2004). Here we use a permanent MCAO rat model to initially compare two products of the neuregulin-1 gene and also assess levels of recovery with acute versus delayed time to treatment. In the initial study full-length glial growth factor 2 (GGF2) and an EGF-like domain fragment were compared with acute intravenous delivery. In a second study GGF2 only was delivered starting at 24h, 3 days or 7 days after permanent ischemia was induced. In both studies daily intravenous administration continued for 10 days. Recovery of neurological function was assessed using limb placing and body swing tests. GGF2 had similar functional improvements compared to the EGF-like domain fragment at equimolar doses, and a higher dose of GGF2 demonstrated more robust functional improvements compared to a lower dose. GGF2 improved sensorimotor recovery with all treatment paradigms, even enhancing recovery of function with a delay of 7 days to treatment. Histological assessments did not show any associated reduction in infarct volume at either 48 h or 21 days post-ischemic event. Neurorestorative effects of this kind are of great potential clinical importance, given the difficulty of delivering neuroprotective therapies within a short time after an ischemic event in human patients. If confirmed by additional work including additional data on mechanism(s) of improved outcome with verification in other stroke models, one can make a compelling case to bring GGF2 to clinical trials as a neurorestorative approach to improving outcome following stroke injury. PMID:20691195

  6. Comparison of the effects of erythropoietin and anakinra on functional recovery and gene expression in a traumatic brain injury model

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gail D.; Peterson, Todd C.; Vonder Haar, Cole; Kantor, Eric D.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Hoane, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the effects of two inflammatory modulators, erythropoietin (EPO) and anakinra, on functional recovery and brain gene expression following a cortical contusion impact (CCI) injury. Dosage regimens were designed to provide serum concentrations in the range obtained with clinically approved doses. Functional recovery was assessed using both motor and spatial learning tasks and neuropathological measurements conducted in the cortex and hippocampus. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine the effect on gene expression at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days post-CCI. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to evaluate the effect on relevant functional categories. EPO and anakinra treatment resulted in significant changes in brain gene expression in the CCI model demonstrating acceptable brain penetration. At all three time points, EPO treatment resulted in significantly more differentially expressed genes than anakinra. For anakinra at 24 h and EPO at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days, the genes in the top 3 functional categories were involved in cellular movement, inflammatory response and cell-to-cell signaling. For EPO, the majority of the genes in the top 10 canonical pathways identified were associated with inflammatory and immune signaling processes. This was true for anakinra only at 24 h post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). The immunomodulation effects of EPO and anakinra did not translate into positive effects on functional behavioral and lesion studies. Treatment with either EPO or anakinra failed to induce significant beneficial effects on recovery of function or produce any significant effects on the prevention of injury induced tissue loss at 30 days post-injury. In conclusion, treatment with EPO or anakinra resulted in significant effects on gene expression in the brain without affecting functional outcome. This suggests that targeting these inflammatory processes alone may not be sufficient for preventing secondary injuries

  7. Recovery of atrial systolic function after pharmacological conversion of chronic atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm: a Doppler echocardiographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Jović, A.; Troskot, R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the time course of the recovery of atrial mechanical function after pharmacological cardioversion of chronic atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 21 patients (12 male, 9 female, aged 37-77 years) with chronic atrial fibrillation (< 6 months) were followed up by serial transmitral pulsed Doppler echocardiography. Echocardiographic studies were performed within the first 24 hours and on day 8, 15, and 30 after cardioversion. RESULTS: There was a significant increase (mean (SD)) in the peak A-wave velocity (from 0.35 (0.10) on day 1 to 0.50 (1.73) on day 8, and thereafter a gradual increase to 0.61 (0.14) m/s on day 30). Similarly, integrated late atrial velocities increased from 4.50 (1.46) on day 1 to 5.61 (1.73) on day 8 and 5.97 (1.47) cm/s2 on day 30. The atrial contribution to total transmitral flow increased significantly from 26 (7)% immediately after conversion of atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm to 34 (7)% on day 30, indicating the haemodynamic benefit of the restoration of sinus rhythm. Left atrial diameter decreased but not significantly, from 4.11 (0.37) to 3.98 (0.34) cm (P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that restoration of atrial mechanical function after pharmacological cardioversion in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation is slow and gradual, as it is after electrical DC restoration of sinus rhythm. This time course may have important implications for determining how long treatment with anticoagulants and antiarrhythmic agents needs to continue in individual patients. It will also influence the clinical assessment of the haemodynamic benefit of restoring sinus rhythm in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. Images PMID:9038694

  8. In Hospital and 3-Month Mortality and Functional Recovery Rate in Patients Treated for Hip Fracture by a Multidisciplinary Team

    PubMed Central

    Rostagno, Carlo; Buzzi, Roberto; Campanacci, Domenico; Boccacini, Alberto; Cartei, Alessandro; Virgili, Gianni; Belardinelli, Andrea; Matarrese, Daniela; Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Gusinu, Roberto; Marchionni, Niccolò

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Medical comorbidities affect outcome in elderly patients with hip fracture. This study was designed to preliminarily evaluate the usefulness of a hip-fracture unit led by an internal medicine specialist. Methods In-hospital and 3-month outcomes in patients with hip fracture were prospectively evaluated in 121 consecutive patients assessed before and followed after surgery by a multidisciplinary team led by internal medicine specialist; 337 consecutive patients were recalled from ICD-9 discharge records and considered for comparison regarding in-hospital mortality. Results In the intervention period, patients treated within 48 hours were 54% vs. 26% in the historical cohort (P<0.0001). In-hospital mortality remained stable at about 2.3 per 1000 person-days. At 3 months, 10.3% of discharged patients had died, though less than 8% of patients developed postoperative complications (mainly pneumonia and respiratory failure). The presence of more than 2 major comorbidities and the loss of 3 or more BADL were independent predictors of death. 50/105 patients recovered previous functional capacity, but no independent predictor of functional recovery could be identified. Mean length of hospital stay significantly decreased in comparison to the historical cohort (13.6± 4.7 vs 17 ± 5 days, p = 0.0001). Combined end-point of mortality and length of hospitalization < 12 days was significantly lower in study period (27 vs 34%, p <0.0132). Conclusions Identification and stabilization of concomitant clinical problems by internal medicine specialists may safely decrease time to surgery in frail subjects with hip fracture. Moreover, integrated perioperative clinical management may shorten hospital stay with no apparent increase in in-hospital mortality and ultimately improve the outcome. These results are to be confirmed by a larger study presently ongoing at our institution. PMID:27389193

  9. Method for Recovery and Immunoaffinity Enrichment of Membrane Proteins Illustrated with Metastatic Ovarian Cancer Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Luke V.; Likhte, Varsha; Wright, William H.; Chu, Frances; Cambron, Emma; Baldwin-Burnett, Anne; Krakow, Jessica; Smejkal, Gary B.

    2012-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins play key biological roles in cell signaling, transport, and pathogen invasion. However, quantitative clinical assays for this critical class of proteins remain elusive and are generally limited to serum-soluble extracellular fragments. Furthermore, classic proteomic approaches to membrane protein analysis typically involve proteolytic digestion of the soluble pieces, resulting in separation of intra- and extracellular segments and significant informational loss. In this paper, we describe the development of a new method for the quantitative extraction of intact integral membrane proteins (including GPCRs) from solid metastatic ovarian tumors using pressure cycling technology in combination with a new (ProteoSolve-TD) buffer system. This new extraction buffer is compatible with immunoaffinity methods (e.g., ELISA and immunoaffinity chromatography), as well as conventional proteomic techniques (e.g., 2D gels, western blots). We demonstrate near quantitative recovery of membrane proteins EDG2, EDG4, FASLG, KDR, and LAMP-3 by western blots. We have also adapted commercial ELISAs for serum-soluble membrane protein fragments (e.g., sVEGFR2) to measure the tissue titers of their transmembrane progenitors. Finally, we demonstrate the compatibility of the new buffers with immunoaffinity enrichment/mass spectrometric characterization of tissue proteins. PMID:22919487

  10. Method for recovery of enteric viruses from estuarine sediments with chaotropic agents.

    PubMed Central

    Wait, D A; Sobsey, M D

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the ability of chaotropes, low-molecular-weight ionic compounds which enhance the solubilization of hydrophobic compounds in water, to improve the recovery of enteric viruses from highly organic estuarine sediments. Chaotropic agents alone were poor eluents of polioviruses from sediment but were effective when combined with 3% beef extract. Chaotropes of lower potency, NaNO3, NaCl, and KCl, were more efficient eluents than the stronger chaotropes, guanidium hydrochloride or sodium trichloroacetate. The most effective eluent was 2 M NaNO3 in 3% beef extract at pH 5.5, which eluted 71% of sediment-associated polioviruses. Efficient concentration of the sodium nitrate-beef extract eluate by organic flocculation required the addition of the antichaotrope (NH4)2SO4 to a 2 M concentration and Cat-Floc T (Calgon, Pittsburgh, Pa.) a cationic polyelectrolyte, to a 0.01% concentration. Dialysis of the final concentrate was necessary to reduce salts to nontoxic levels before assay in cell cultures. Trials with highly organic estuarine sediment seeded with high or low numbers of poliovirus 1, echovirus 1, or rotavirus SA-11 demonstrated the superiority of this method over two other methods currently in use. PMID:6312884

  11. Method of managing interference during delay recovery on a train system

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Susanna P.; Evans, John A.

    2005-12-27

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  12. Green's function methods in heavy ion shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Costen, Robert C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Badavi, Francis F.

    1993-01-01

    An analytic solution to the heavy ion transport in terms of Green's function is used to generate a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of the computer code is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique extending Green's function over the solution domain. The computer code can also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments.

  13. Lithium accelerates functional motor recovery by improving remyelination of regenerating axons following ventral root avulsion and reimplantation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Ming; Zhang, Chao-Fan; Wong, Wai-Man; Li, Wen; Wu, Wutian; Lin, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Brachial plexus injury (BPI) often involves the complete or partial avulsion of one or more of the cervical nerve roots, which leads to permanent paralysis of the innervated muscles. Reimplantation surgery has been attempted as a clinical treatment for brachial plexus root avulsion but has failed to achieve complete functional recovery. Lithium is a mood stabilizer drug that is used to treat bipolar disorder; however, its effects on spinal cord or peripheral nerve injuries have also been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether lithium can improve functional motor recovery after ventral root avulsion and reimplantation in a rat model of BPI. The results showed that systemic treatment with a clinical dose of lithium promoted motor neuron outgrowth and increased the efficiency of motor unit regeneration through enhanced remyelination. An analysis of myelin-associated genes showed that the effects of lithium started during the early phase of remyelination and persisted through the late stage of the process. Efficient remyelination of the regenerated axons in the lithium-treated rats led to an earlier functional recovery. Therefore, we demonstrated that lithium might be a potential clinical treatment for BPI in combination with reimplantation surgery. PMID:27185485

  14. Comparative effect of immature neuronal or glial cell transplantation on motor functional recovery following experimental traumatic brain injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Fu-Shi; Chen, Jian; Zhong, Yuan; Ren, Wen-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the comparative effect of stereotaxically transplanted immature neuronal or glial cells in brain on motor functional recovery and cytokine expression after cold-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) in adult rats. A total of 60 rats were divided into four groups (n=15/group): Sham group; TBI only group; TBI plus neuronal cells-transplanted group (NC-G); and TBI plus glial cells-transplanted group (GC-G). Cortical lesions were induced by a touching metal stamp, frozen with liquid nitrogen, to the dura mater over the motor cortex of adult rats. Neuronal and glial cells were isolated from rat embryonic and newborn cortices, respectively, and cultured in culture flasks. Rats received neurons or glia grafts (~1×106 cells) 5 days after TBI was induced. Motor functional evaluation was performed with the rotarod test prior to and following glial and neural cell grafts. Five rats from each group were sacrificed at 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-cell transplantation. Immunofluorescence staining was performed on brain section to identify the transplanted neuronal or glial cells using neural and astrocytic markers. The expression levels of cytokines, including transforming growth factor-β, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, which have key roles in the proliferation, differentiation and survival of neural cells, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. A localized cortical lesion was evoked in all injured rats, resulting in significant motor deficits. Transplanted cells successfully migrated and survived in the injured brain lesion, and the expression of neuronal and astrocyte markers were detected in the NC-G and GC-G groups, respectively. Rats in the NC-G and GC-G cell-transplanted groups exhibited significant motor functional recovery and reduced histopathologic lesions, as compared with the TBI-G rats that did not receive neural cells (P<0.05, respectively). Furthermore, GC-G treatment

  15. Modeling of Salivary Production Recovery After Radiotherapy Using Mixed Models: Determination of Optimal Dose Constraint for IMRT Planning and Construction of Convenient Tools to Predict Salivary Function

    SciTech Connect

    Ortholan, Cecile Chamorey, Emmanuel Phar; Benezery, Karen; Thariat, Juliette; Dassonville, Olivier; Poissonnet, Gilles; Bozec, Alexandre; Follana, Philippe; Peyrade, Frederique; Sudaka, Anne; Gerard, Jean Pierre; Bensadoun, Rene Jean

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The mathematical relationship between the dose to the parotid glands and salivary gland production needs to be elucidated. This study, which included data from patients included in a French prospective study assessing the benefit of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (RT), sought to elaborate a convenient and original model of salivary recovery. Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and December 2004, 44 patients were included (35 with oropharyngeal and 9 with nasopharyngeal cancer). Of the 44 patients, 24 were treated with intensity-modulated RT, 17 with three-dimensional conformal RT, and 2 with two-dimensional RT. Stimulated salivary production was collected for {<=}24 months after RT. The data of salivary production, time of follow-up, and dose to parotid gland were modeled using a mixed model. Several models were developed to assess the best-fitting variable for the dose level to the parotid gland. Results: Models developed with the dose to the contralateral parotid fit the data slightly better than those with the dose to both parotids, suggesting that contralateral and ipsilateral parotid glands are not functionally equivalent even with the same dose level to the glands. The best predictive dose-value variable for salivary flow recovery was the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy. Conclusion: The results of this study show that the recommendation of a dose constraint for intensity-modulated RT planning should be established at the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy rather than the mean dose. For complete salivary production recovery after 24 months, the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy should be <33%. Our results permitted us to establish two convenient tools to predict the saliva production recovery function according to the dose received by the contralateral parotid gland.

  16. Tongxinluo Enhances Neurogenesis and Angiogenesis in Peri-Infarct Area and Subventricular Zone and Promotes Functional Recovery after Focal Cerebral Ischemic Infarction in Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Wang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Jian; Dang, Chao; Liu, Gang; Liang, Zhijian; Huang, Gelun; Zhao, Weijia; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2016-01-01

    Background. Tongxinluo is a traditional Chinese medicine compound with the potential to promote the neuronal functional recovery in cerebral ischemic infarction. Objective. This study aimed to disclose whether tongxinluo promotes neurological functional recovery and neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the infarcted area and SVZ after cerebral ischemic infarction in hypertensive rats. Methods. The ischemic model was prepared by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in hypertensive rats. Tongxinluo was administrated 24 h after MCAO and lasted for 3, 7, or 14 days. Behavioral tests were performed to evaluate the protection of tongxinluo. Immunochemical staining was applied on brain tissue to evaluate the effects of tongxinluo on neurogenesis and vascularization in the MCAO model rats. Results. Postinjury administration of tongxinluo ameliorated the neuronal function deficit in the MCAO model rats. As evidenced by the immunochemical staining, BrdU+/DCX+, BrdU+/nestin+, and BrdU+ vascular endothelial cells were promoted to proliferate in SVZ after tongxinluo administration. The matured neurons stained by NeuN and vascularization by laminin staining were observed after tongxinluo administration in the peri-infarct area. Conclusion. Tongxinluo postischemia administration could ameliorate the neurological function deficit in the model rats. Possible mechanisms are related to neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the peri-infarct area and SVZ. PMID:27069496

  17. Usefulness of the Combined Motor Evoked and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials for the Predictive Index of Functional Recovery After Primary Pontine Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Jin Wan; Kim, Min Ho; Shin, Hyo Keong; Lee, Han Do; Park, Jun Bum

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the predictive index of functional recovery after primary pontine hemorrhage (PPH) using the combined motor evoked potential (MEP) and somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) in comparison to the hematoma volume and transverse diameter measured with computerized tomography. Methods Patients (n=14) with PPH were divided into good- and poor-outcome groups according to the modified Rankin Score (mRS). We evaluated clinical manifestations, radiological characteristics, and the combined MEP and SEP responses. The summed MEP and SEP (EP sum) was compared to the hematoma volume and transverse diameter predictive index of global disability, gait ability, and trunk stability in sitting posture. Results All measures of functional status and radiological parameters of the good-outcome group were significantly better than those of the poor-outcome group. The EP sum showed the highest value for the mRS and functional ambulatory category, and transverse diameter showed the highest value for "sitting-unsupported" of Berg Balance Scale. Conclusion The combined MEP and SEP is a reliable and useful tool for functional recovery after PPH. PMID:24639921

  18. Recovery of functional capacity in severe trauma victims at one year after injury: association with trauma-related and hospital stay aspects.

    PubMed

    Padovani, Cauê; Da Silva, Janete Maria; Rotta, Bruna Peruzzo; Neto, Ruy De Camargo Pires; Fu, Carolina; Tanaka, Clarice

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the functional capacity of trauma survivors one year after hospital discharge and to identify associations with trauma- and hospital stay-related aspects in a developing country. [Subjects and Methods] This study included severe trauma patients (Injury Severity Score ≥16; ≥18 years old) who were admitted to an intensive care unit in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Hospital stay data were collected from the patients' records. Functional capacity was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale and Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale one year after hospital discharge. Patients were asked if they had returned to work/school. [Results] Forty-nine patients completed follow-up. According to the Glasgow Outcome Scale data, most patients had moderate or mild/no dysfunction. The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale showed that 60-70% of the subjects performed most activities independently. Multiple linear regression of the Glasgow score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Disease Classification System II score, length of mechanical ventilation, and hospital length of stay revealed an association between the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and hospital length of stay. Overall, 32.6% of the subjects had returned to work/school. [Conclusion] Most severe trauma patients experienced functional recovery, although only one-third had returned to work/school one year after hospital discharge. Hospital length of stay was identified as a significant predictor of functional recovery. PMID:27313345

  19. Recovery of functional capacity in severe trauma victims at one year after injury: association with trauma-related and hospital stay aspects

    PubMed Central

    Padovani, Cauê; Da Silva, Janete Maria; Rotta, Bruna Peruzzo; Neto, Ruy De Camargo Pires; Fu, Carolina; Tanaka, Clarice

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the functional capacity of trauma survivors one year after hospital discharge and to identify associations with trauma- and hospital stay-related aspects in a developing country. [Subjects and Methods] This study included severe trauma patients (Injury Severity Score ≥16; ≥18 years old) who were admitted to an intensive care unit in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Hospital stay data were collected from the patients’ records. Functional capacity was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale and Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale one year after hospital discharge. Patients were asked if they had returned to work/school. [Results] Forty-nine patients completed follow-up. According to the Glasgow Outcome Scale data, most patients had moderate or mild/no dysfunction. The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale showed that 60–70% of the subjects performed most activities independently. Multiple linear regression of the Glasgow score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Disease Classification System II score, length of mechanical ventilation, and hospital length of stay revealed an association between the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and hospital length of stay. Overall, 32.6% of the subjects had returned to work/school. [Conclusion] Most severe trauma patients experienced functional recovery, although only one-third had returned to work/school one year after hospital discharge. Hospital length of stay was identified as a significant predictor of functional recovery. PMID:27313345

  20. The linear-ordered collagen scaffold-BDNF complex significantly promotes functional recovery after completely transected spinal cord injury in canine.

    PubMed

    Han, Sufang; Wang, Bin; Jin, Wei; Xiao, Zhifeng; Li, Xing; Ding, Wenyong; Kapur, Meghan; Chen, Bing; Yuan, Baoyu; Zhu, Tiansheng; Wang, Handong; Wang, Jing; Dong, Qun; Liang, Weibang; Dai, Jianwu

    2015-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is still a worldwide clinical challenge for which there is no viable therapeutic method. We focused on developing combinatorial methods targeting the complex pathological process of SCI. In this study, we implanted linear-ordered collagen scaffold (LOCS) fibers with collagen binding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by tagging a collagen-binding domain (CBD) (LOCS + CBD-BDNF) in completely transected canine SCI with multisystem rehabilitation to validate its potential therapeutic effect through a long-term (38 weeks) observation. We found that LOCS + CBD-BDNF implants strikingly promoted locomotion and functional sensory recovery, with some dogs standing unassisted and transiently moving. Further histological analysis showed that administration of LOCS + CBD-BDNF reduced lesion volume, decreased collagen deposits, promoted axon regeneration and improved myelination, leading to functional recovery. Collectively, LOCS + CBD-BDNF showed striking therapeutic effect on completely transected canine SCI model and it is the first time to report such breakthrough in the war with SCI. Undoubtedly, it is a potentially promising therapeutic method for SCI paralysis or other movement disorders caused by neurological diseases in the future. PMID:25522968

  1. Characterization of tests of functional recovery after median and ulnar nerve injury and repair in the rat forelimb.

    PubMed

    Galtrey, Clare M; Fawcett, James W

    2007-03-01

    The majority of human peripheral nerve injuries occur in the upper limb but the majority of studies in the rat are performed in the hindlimb. The upper and lower limbs differ in dexterity and control by supraspinal systems, so an upper limb model is a better representation of the common form of human injury. The purpose of this study was to further develop a rat model involving lesions of the median and ulnar nerves. To produce different degrees of misdirection of axons following nerve repair, we studied nerve crush, cut and repair of the two nerves, and cut and repair with crossover. Assessment of functional recovery was performed using a battery of motor and sensory tests: the staircase test, which assesses skilled forepaw reaching; grip strength meter, which assesses grip strength; pawprint analysis, which assesses toe spread and print length; horizontal ladder, which assesses forepaw placement during skilled locomotion; modified Randall-Selitto device and electronic von Frey probes, which assess fine touch; and cold probes, which assess temperature sensation. All tests revealed deficits in forepaw function after nerve injury except the print length and modified Randall-Selitto device. The time course of functional recovery was observed over 15 weeks. The final degree of functional recovery achieved was related to the misdirection of axon regeneration. The tests that most clearly revealed the effects of axon misdirection on function were the skilled paw reaching and grip strength tests. The lesion model and functional tests that we have developed will be useful in testing therapeutic strategies for treating the consequences of inaccurate axon regeneration following peripheral nerve injury in humans. PMID:17374098

  2. Recovery from silver-nanoparticle-exposure-induced lung inflammation and lung function changes in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyung Seuk; Sung, Jae Hyuck; Ji, Jun Ho; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jong Seong; Ryu, Hyeon Ryol; Lee, Jin Kyu; Chung, Yong Hyun; Park, Hyun Min; Shin, Beom Soo; Chang, Hee Kyung; Kelman, Bruce; Yu, Il Je

    2013-03-01

    In a previous study, the lung function, as indicated by the tidal volume, minute volume, and peak inspiration flow, decreased during 90 days of exposure to silver nanoparticles and was accompanied by inflammatory lesions in the lung morphology. Therefore, this study investigated the recovery from such lung function changes in rats following the cessation of 12 weeks of nanoparticle exposure. Male and female rats were exposed to silver nanoparticles (14-15 nm diameter) at concentrations of 0.66 × 10(6) particles/cm(3) (49 μg/m(3), low dose), 1.41 × 10(6) particles/cm(3) (117 μg/m(3), middle dose), and 3.24 × 10(6) particles/cm(3) (381 μg/m(3), high dose) for 6 h/day in an inhalation chamber for 12 weeks. The rats were then allowed to recover. The lung function was measured every week during the exposure period and after the cessation of exposure, plus animals were sacrificed after the 12-week exposure period, and 4 weeks and 12 weeks after the exposure cessation. An exposure-related lung function decrease was measured in the male rats after the 12-week exposure period and 12 weeks after the exposure cessation. In contrast, the female rats did not show a consistent lung function decrease either during the exposure period or following the exposure cessation. The histopathology showed a gradual recovery from the lung inflammation in the female rats, whereas the male rats in the high-dose group exhibited persistent inflammation throughout the 12-week recovery period. Therefore, the present results suggest a potential persistence of lung function changes and inflammation induced by silver nanoparticle exposure above the no observed adverse effect level. PMID:22264098

  3. Recovery actions in PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) for the Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP): Volume 1, Development of the data-based method

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, L M; Whitehead, D W; Graves, N L

    1987-06-01

    In a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for a nuclear power plant, the analyst identifies a set of potential core damage events consisting of equipment failures and human errors and their estimated probabilities of occurrence. If operator recovery from an event within some specified time is considered, then the probability of this recovery can be included in the PRA. This report provides PRA analysts with an improved methodology for including recovery actions in a PRA. A recovery action can be divided into two distinct phases: a Diagnosis Phase (realizing that there is a problem with a critical parameter and deciding upon the correct course of action) and an Action Phase (physically accomplishing the required action). In this methodology, simulator data are used to estimate recovery probabilities for the diagnosis phase. Different time-reliability curves showing the probability of failure of diagnosis as a function of time from the compelling cue for the event are presented. These curves are based on simulator exercises, and the actions are grouped based upon their operational similarities. This is an improvement over existing diagnosis models that rely greatly upon subjective judgment to obtain such estimates. The action phase is modeled using estimates from available sources. The methodology also includes a recommendation on where and when to apply the recovery action in the PRA process.

  4. Alcoholics' Recovery from Cerebral Impairment as a Function of Duration of Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, G. B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examined the time-course of recovery from cerebral impairment due to heavy drinking. Results suggest that treatment programs that use a preliminary "drying-out" period should consider lengthening this period to three weeks to ensure that patients are maximally responsive to psychotherapy. (Author)

  5. Recovery of function in humans: Cortical stimulation and pharmacological treatments after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Floel, Agnes; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, we first provide an overview of general principles of reorganisation in the human brain, and point out possible biomarkers of recovery. Subsequently, we expand on possibilities of adjuvant therapy in human rehabilitation using cortical stimulation and pharmacological treatments. Finally, we suggest future directions for research in this field. PMID:19520165

  6. Strength Recovery Following Rhythmic or Sustained Exercise as a Function of Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Jay T.

    The relative rates of strength recovery subsequent to bouts of rhythmic or sustained isometric exercise were investigated. The 72 undergraduates who served as subjects were tested seven times within the framework of a repeated measures design. Each testing session involved two bouts of either rhythmic or sustained isometric exercise separated by a…

  7. Plasticity of subcortical pathways promote recovery of skilled hand function in rats after corticospinal and rubrospinal tract injuries.

    PubMed

    García-Alías, Guillermo; Truong, Kevin; Shah, Prithvi K; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2015-04-01

    The corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts are the predominant tracts for controlling skilled hand function. Injuries to these tracts impair grasping but not gross motor functions such as overground locomotion. The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not, after damage to both the corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts, other spared subcortical motor pathway can mediate the recovery of skilled hand function. Adult rats received a bilateral injury to the corticospinal tract at the level of the medullar pyramids and a bilateral ablation of the rubrospinal axons at C4. One group of rats received, acutely after injury, two injections of chondroitinase-ABC at C7, and starting at 7days post-injury were enrolled in daily reaching and grasping rehabilitation (CHASE group, n=5). A second group of rats received analogous injections of ubiquitous penicillinase, and did not undergo rehabilitation (PEN group, n=5). Compared to rats in the PEN group, CHASE rats gradually recovered the ability to reach and grasp over 42days after injury. Overground locomotion was mildly affected after injury and both groups followed similar recovery. Since the reticulospinal tract plays a predominant role in motor control, we further investigated whether or not plasticity of this pathway could contribute to the animal's recovery. Reticulospinal axons were anterogradely traced in both groups of rats. The density of reticulospinal processes in both the normal and ectopic areas of the grey ventral matter of the caudal segments of the cervical spinal cord was greater in the CHASE than PEN group. The results indicate that after damage to spinal tracts that normally mediate the control of reaching and grasping in rats other complementary spinal tracts can acquire the role of those damaged tracts and promote task-specific recovery. PMID:25666586

  8. Human Adipose Stem Cells Improve Mechanical Allodynia and Enhance Functional Recovery in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Yeong; Lee, Hye-Lan; Yun, Yeomin; Kim, Jin-Su; Ha, Yoon; Yoon, Do Heum; Lee, Soo-Hong; Shin, Dong Ah

    2015-07-01

    Stem cells are a promising source of tissue engineering due to their differentiation potential. Today, direct transplantation of stem cells for cell therapy is commonly performed. However, in cases of nerve injury, direct transplantation of cells could lead to secondary nerve damage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: the phosphate-buffered saline epineural transplantation (PBS-ENT) group, the PBS intraneural transplantation (PBS-INT) group, the human adipose-derived stem cells epineural transplantation (hASCs-ENT) group, and human adipose-derived stem cells intraneural transplantation (hASCs-INT) group. Transplantation was conducted 1 week later after inflicting a crush injury with subsequent observation for 5 weeks. To evaluate pain, each group was examined with regard to paw withdrawal latency and evoked potentials. The sciatic functional index (SFI) was calculated to estimate functional recovery. The sciatic nerve was also examined histologically. The hASCs-ENT group showed a more rapid paw withdrawal threshold and SFI recovery than the other groups (p<0.05). The hASCs-ENT group also showed shorter initial latencies in both somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) and motor evoked potential (MEP) than the PBS-INT group (p<0.05). In addition, the N1 latency of the MEP and the N1 and P1 latencies of the SSEP were significantly shorter than those of the PBS-INT group (p<0.05). Histological examination revealed that the transplanted groups showed better neural recovery and remyelination than the groups injected with PBS. These results show that the transplantation of hASCs into the injured sciatic nerve improved mechanical allodynia and functional recovery as determined by the paw withdrawal test, SFI analysis, and electrophysiological studies. ENT is superior to INT in terms of invasiveness and better outcomes. PMID:25857679

  9. Mast cells promote scar remodeling and functional recovery after spinal cord injury via mouse mast cell protease 6.

    PubMed

    Vangansewinkel, Tim; Geurts, Nathalie; Quanten, Kirsten; Nelissen, Sofie; Lemmens, Stefanie; Geboes, Lies; Dooley, Dearbhaile; Vidal, Pia M; Pejler, Gunnar; Hendrix, Sven

    2016-05-01

    An important barrier for axon regeneration and recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is attributed to the scar that is formed at the lesion site. Here, we investigated the effect of mouse mast cell protease (mMCP) 6, a mast cell (MC)-specific tryptase, on scarring and functional recovery after a spinal cord hemisection injury. Functional recovery was significantly impaired in both MC-deficient and mMCP6-knockout (mMCP6(-/-)) mice after SCI compared with wild-type control mice. This decrease in locomotor performance was associated with an increased lesion size and excessive scarring at the injury site. Axon growth-inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and the extracellular matrix components fibronectin, laminin, and collagen IV were significantly up-regulated in MC-deficient and mMCP6(-/-) mice, with an increase in scar volume between 23 and 32%. A degradation assay revealed that mMCP6 directly cleaves fibronectin and collagen IV in vitro In addition, gene expression levels of the scar components fibronectin, aggrecan, and collagen IV were increased up to 6.8-fold in mMCP6(-/-) mice in the subacute phase after injury. These data indicate that endogenous mMCP6 has scar-suppressing properties after SCI via indirect cleavage of axon growth-inhibitory scar components and alteration of the gene expression profile of these factors.-Vangansewinkel, T., Geurts, N., Quanten, K., Nelissen, S., Lemmens, S., Geboes, L., Dooley, D., Vidal, P. M., Pejler, G., Hendrix, S. Mast cells promote scar remodeling and functional recovery after spinal cord injury via mouse mast cell protease 6. PMID:26917739

  10. [Diagnostic methods of nasal respiratory function].

    PubMed

    Mlynski, G; Beule, A

    2008-01-01

    Objective assessment of nasal obstruction may help with preoperative planning for rhinosurgery and indicate different aspects of endonasal pathology. To improve quality control, preoperative and postoperative objective assessment is desirable. This review presents objective functional diagnostic tools and explains their appropriate uses, the information obtained, and their limitations. An algorithm is presented for analysing nasal obstruction by means of objective functional assessment. Examples illustrate how to use this information for preoperative planning in rhinosurgery. PMID:18210011

  11. Methods for Assessing Mitochondrial Function in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Daniel A.; Lanza, Ian R.; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research is investigating the potential contribution of mitochondrial function to the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Numerous in vitro, in situ, and in vivo methodologies are available to examine various aspects of mitochondrial function, each requiring an understanding of their principles, advantages, and limitations. This review provides investigators with a critical overview of the strengths, limitations and critical experimental parameters to consider when selecting and conducting studies on mitochondrial function. In vitro (isolated mitochondria) and in situ (permeabilized cells/tissue) approaches provide direct access to the mitochondria, allowing for study of mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox function under defined substrate conditions. Several experimental parameters must be tightly controlled, including assay media, temperature, oxygen concentration, and in the case of permeabilized skeletal muscle, the contractile state of the fibers. Recently developed technology now offers the opportunity to measure oxygen consumption in intact cultured cells. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides the most direct way of assessing mitochondrial function in vivo with interpretations based on specific modeling approaches. The continuing rapid evolution of these technologies offers new and exciting opportunities for deciphering the potential role of mitochondrial function in the etiology and treatment of diabetes. PMID:23520284

  12. COMPOSITION-FUNCTION RELATIONSHIPS DURING IL-1-INDUCED CARTILAGE DEGRADATION AND RECOVERY

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Ashley W.; Wilson, Christopher G.; Baum, Elyse J.; Levenston, Marc E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationships between biochemical composition and mechanical properties of articular cartilage explants during interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced degradation and post-exposure recovery. Design: Bovine articular cartilage explants were cultured for up to 32 days with or without 20 ng/mL interleukin-1. The dynamic shear modulus |G*dyn| and equilibrium and dynamic unconfined compression moduli (Eequil and |E*dyn|) were measured at intervals throughout the culture period. In a subsequent recovery study, explants were cultured for 4 days with or without 20ng/mL IL-1 and for an additional 16 days in control media. The dynamic moduli |E*dyn| and |G*dyn| were measured at intervals during degeneration and recovery. Conditioned media and explant digests were assayed for sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) and collagen content. Results: Continuous IL-1 stimulation triggered progressive decreases in Eequil, |E*dyn|, and |G*dyn| concomitant with the sequential release of sGAG and collagen from the explants. Brief IL-1 exposure resulted in a short release of sGAG but not collagen, followed by a gradual and incomplete repopulation of sGAG. The temporary sGAG depletion was associated with decreases in both |E*dyn| and |G*dyn| which also recovered after removal of IL-1. During IL-1-induced degradation and post-exposure recovery, explant mechanical properties correlated well with tissue sGAG concentration. Conclusions: As previously shown for developing cartilages and engineered cartilage constructs, cytokine-induced changes in sGAG concentration (i.e., fixed charge density) are coincident with changes in compressive and shear properties of articular cartilage. Further, recovery of cartilage mechanical properties can be achieved by relief from proinflammatory stimuli and subsequent restoration of tissue sGAG concentration. PMID:19281879

  13. Development of an efficient rehabilitation exercise program for functional recovery in chronic ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kewwan; Jeon, Kyoungkyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to construct an integrated rehabilitation exercise program to prevent chronic pain and improve motor ability in cases of ankle injury and re-injury. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-six male soccer players who required functional strength exercises due to repeated ankle injury were the subjects. A 12-week rehabilitation exercise program was constructed with the aim of improving muscle strength in the ankle and dynamic coordination of the lower limb. Muscle strength and dynamic coordination were evaluated using the Y Balance Test, and isokinetic muscle strength of ankle dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, inversion, and eversion were measured before and after the 12-week program. [Results] Following 12 weeks of rehabilitation exercise, there were statistically significant improvements in the ratios of dorsiflexor strength to plantarflexor strength, eversion strength, and inversion strength on the left side. The other variables showed no significant changes. [Conclusion] The rehabilitation exercise program for chronic ankle instability helped to reduce pain, and to restore normal joint range of motion, muscle strength and endurance, and functional ability. Active protocols to improve complex functions need to be developed to complement these results. PMID:27313347

  14. Development of an efficient rehabilitation exercise program for functional recovery in chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kewwan; Jeon, Kyoungkyu

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to construct an integrated rehabilitation exercise program to prevent chronic pain and improve motor ability in cases of ankle injury and re-injury. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-six male soccer players who required functional strength exercises due to repeated ankle injury were the subjects. A 12-week rehabilitation exercise program was constructed with the aim of improving muscle strength in the ankle and dynamic coordination of the lower limb. Muscle strength and dynamic coordination were evaluated using the Y Balance Test, and isokinetic muscle strength of ankle dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, inversion, and eversion were measured before and after the 12-week program. [Results] Following 12 weeks of rehabilitation exercise, there were statistically significant improvements in the ratios of dorsiflexor strength to plantarflexor strength, eversion strength, and inversion strength on the left side. The other variables showed no significant changes. [Conclusion] The rehabilitation exercise program for chronic ankle instability helped to reduce pain, and to restore normal joint range of motion, muscle strength and endurance, and functional ability. Active protocols to improve complex functions need to be developed to complement these results. PMID:27313347

  15. A novel method for furfural recovery via gas stripping assisted vapor permeation by a polydimethylsiloxane membrane

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Song; Guan, Yu; Cai, Di; Li, Shufeng; Qin, Peiyong; Karim, M. Nazmul; Tan, Tianwei

    2015-01-01

    Furfural is an important platform chemical with a wide range of applications. However, due to the low concentration of furfural in the hydrolysate, the conventional methods for furfural recovery are energy-intensive and environmentally unfriendly. Considering the disadvantages of pervaporation (PV) and distillation in furfural separation, a novel energy-efficient ‘green technique’, gas stripping assisted vapor permeation (GSVP), was introduced in this work. In this process, the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane was prepared by employing water as solvent. Coking in pipe and membrane fouling was virtually non-existent in this new process. In addition, GSVP was found to achieve the highest pervaporation separation index of 216200 (permeate concentration of 71.1 wt% and furfural flux of 4.09 kgm−2h−1) so far, which was approximately 2.5 times higher than that found in pervaporation at 95°C for recovering 6.0 wt% furfural from water. Moreover, the evaporation energy required for GSVP decreased by 35% to 44% relative to that of PV process. Finally, GSVP also displayed more promising potential in industrial application than PV, especially when coupled with the hydrolysis process or fermentation in biorefinery industry. PMID:25819091

  16. The method of quartz damage recovery in the photomask repair process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namkung, Hoon; Kim, MunSik; Park, EuiSang; Jung, HoYong; Kim, SangPyo; Yim, DongGyu

    2015-07-01

    As the pattern size became gradually smaller, the defect detectability of the photomask inspection tool was more improved. For these reasons, we have to repair various defects more precisely. By improving the mask yield through the repair process, we can reduce the cost of mask fabrication. In this study, we studied the defect called quartz damage which distorts the AIMSTM (Arial Image Measurement System) intensity of the repaired pattern and causes the scrap of the photomask. The quartz damage is generally observed when the abnormal defects like particles were repaired in the poor repairing condition. The quartz damage occasionally results in repair errors and affects the AIMS intensity. Currently there is no clear solution for recovering the quartz damage. As a result, it is very difficult to get the high quality photomask if the quartz damage is generated on the photomask. Therefore, it is important to find a method of recovering the quartz damage for producing the high quality photomask. In this paper, we demonstrated that the quartz damage can be recovered through the TEOS (Tetraethoxysilane) gas deposition. Also we investigated the effect on the recovery of the quartz damage of various parameters such as the type and the depth of the quartz damage as well as the repair conditions of the TEOS gas deposition.

  17. A novel method for furfural recovery via gas stripping assisted vapor permeation by a polydimethylsiloxane membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Song; Guan, Yu; Cai, Di; Li, Shufeng; Qin, Peiyong; Karim, M. Nazmul; Tan, Tianwei

    2015-03-01

    Furfural is an important platform chemical with a wide range of applications. However, due to the low concentration of furfural in the hydrolysate, the conventional methods for furfural recovery are energy-intensive and environmentally unfriendly. Considering the disadvantages of pervaporation (PV) and distillation in furfural separation, a novel energy-efficient `green technique', gas stripping assisted vapor permeation (GSVP), was introduced in this work. In this process, the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane was prepared by employing water as solvent. Coking in pipe and membrane fouling was virtually non-existent in this new process. In addition, GSVP was found to achieve the highest pervaporation separation index of 216200 (permeate concentration of 71.1 wt% and furfural flux of 4.09 kgm-2h-1) so far, which was approximately 2.5 times higher than that found in pervaporation at 95°C for recovering 6.0 wt% furfural from water. Moreover, the evaporation energy required for GSVP decreased by 35% to 44% relative to that of PV process. Finally, GSVP also displayed more promising potential in industrial application than PV, especially when coupled with the hydrolysis process or fermentation in biorefinery industry.

  18. Recovery of alkali and alumina from Bayer red mud by the calcification-carbonation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiao-feng; Zhang, Ting-an; Wang, Yan-xiu; Lü, Guo-zhi; Zhang, Wei-guang

    2016-03-01

    Red mud produced in the Bayer process is a hazardous solid waste because of its high alkalinity; however, it is rich in valuable components such as titanium, iron, and aluminum. In this study, a novel calcification-carbonation method was developed to recover alkali and alumina from Bayer red mud under mild reaction conditions. Batch experiments were performed to evaluate the potential effects of important parameters such as temperature, amount of CaO added, and CO2 partial pressure on the recovery of alkali and alumina. The results showed that 95.2% alkali and 75.0% alumina were recovered from red mud with decreases in the mass ratios of Na2O to Fe2O3 and of Al2O3 to Fe2O3 from 0.42 and 0.89 to 0.02 and 0.22, respectively. The processed red mud with less than 0.5wt% Na2O can potentially be used as a construction material.

  19. Enhancement of oil recovery using zirconium-chitosan hybrid composite by adsorptive method.

    PubMed

    Elanchezhiyan, S Sd; Sivasurian, N; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2016-07-10

    Recovery of oil from oil-in-water emulsion has been investigated by many scientists and it continues to be a challenging task for environmental scientists so far. Among all the techniques, adsorption is found to be an appropriate process for the removal of oil from oil-in-water emulsion owing to its high efficiency and easy operation. A hybrid material, zirconium-chitosan composite (Zr-CS-HC) was prepared to remove the oil from oil-in-water emulsion and oil was measured by extractive gravimetric method. Various parameters viz., agitation time, pH, sorbent dosage and initial oil concentration for maximum sorption were optimized. In this study, the maximum oil removal percentage was found to be at pH 3.0 and a minimum contact time of 50min using prepared sorbent. The pH of the sorption studies revealed that oil sorption was favored in acidic condition. The sorbent was characterized using FTIR, SEM with EDAX, XRD, TGA and DSC; contact angle and heat of combustion. The experimental data were explained using Freundlich, Langmuir, D-R and Tempkin isotherms to find the best fit for the sorption process. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were calculated to understand the nature of sorption process. This work provides a potential platform for the expansion of oil removal technology. PMID:27106157

  20. Modulating Astrocyte Transition after Stroke to Promote Brain Rescue and Functional Recovery: Emerging Targets Include Rho Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Abeysinghe, Hima Charika S.; Phillips, Ellie L.; Chin-Cheng, Heung; Beart, Philip M.; Roulston, Carli L.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a common and serious condition, with few therapies. Whilst previous focus has been directed towards biochemical events within neurons, none have successfully prevented the progression of injury that occurs in the acute phase. New targeted treatments that promote recovery after stroke might be a better strategy and are desperately needed for the majority of stroke survivors. Cells comprising the neurovascular unit, including blood vessels and astrocytes, present an alternative target for supporting brain rescue and recovery in the late phase of stroke, since alteration in the unit also occurs in regions outside of the lesion. One of the major changes in the unit involves extensive morphological transition of astrocytes resulting in altered energy metabolism, decreased glutamate reuptake and recycling, and retraction of astrocyte end feed from both blood vessels and neurons. Whilst globally inhibiting transitional change in astrocytes after stroke is reported to result in further damage and functional loss, we discuss the available evidence to suggest that the transitional activation of astrocytes after stroke can be modulated for improved outcomes. In particular, we review the role of Rho-kinase (ROCK) in reactive gliosis and show that inhibiting ROCK after stroke results in reduced scar formation and improved functional recovery. PMID:26927079

  1. Ligustilide treatment promotes functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord injury via preventing ROS production.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Weidong; Yu, Aixi; Liu, Danli; Shen, Jun; Xu, Zhigao

    2015-01-01

    Ligustilide from traditional Chinese medicine extract, angelica sinensis is one of the main active components, and has many pharmacological activities related to the effectiveness. This study sought to determine whether neuro-protection of ligustilide promotes functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI) via preventing ROS production. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced using operation for model SCI. Furthermore, Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scale and footprint analysis of gait was used to assess the neuro-protection of ligustilide on SCI. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production levels were measured by monoclonal enzyme immunoassay kit. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression, activator protein-1 (AP-1) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein expressions were detected using Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and western blot analyses, respectively. Interestingly, treatment with ligustilide significantly increased BBB scale and reduced recovery of coordination in SCI rats. After SCI, the iROS, PGE(2), IL-1β, TNF-α production levels and iNOS gene expression were significantly suppressed in SCI rats. These results suggest that the neuro-protection of ligustilide promotes functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord injury via preventing ROS production. PMID:26722386

  2. Modulating Astrocyte Transition after Stroke to Promote Brain Rescue and Functional Recovery: Emerging Targets Include Rho Kinase.

    PubMed

    Abeysinghe, Hima Charika S; Phillips, Ellie L; Chin-Cheng, Heung; Beart, Philip M; Roulston, Carli L

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a common and serious condition, with few therapies. Whilst previous focus has been directed towards biochemical events within neurons, none have successfully prevented the progression of injury that occurs in the acute phase. New targeted treatments that promote recovery after stroke might be a better strategy and are desperately needed for the majority of stroke survivors. Cells comprising the neurovascular unit, including blood vessels and astrocytes, present an alternative target for supporting brain rescue and recovery in the late phase of stroke, since alteration in the unit also occurs in regions outside of the lesion. One of the major changes in the unit involves extensive morphological transition of astrocytes resulting in altered energy metabolism, decreased glutamate reuptake and recycling, and retraction of astrocyte end feed from both blood vessels and neurons. Whilst globally inhibiting transitional change in astrocytes after stroke is reported to result in further damage and functional loss, we discuss the available evidence to suggest that the transitional activation of astrocytes after stroke can be modulated for improved outcomes. In particular, we review the role of Rho-kinase (ROCK) in reactive gliosis and show that inhibiting ROCK after stroke results in reduced scar formation and improved functional recovery. PMID:26927079

  3. Functional relations trump implied motion in recovery from extinction: evidence from the effects of animacy on extinction.

    PubMed

    Riddoch, M Jane; Riveros, Rodrigo; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2011-02-01

    Patients with extinction show a characteristic impairment in the identification of objects when two items are presented simultaneously, typically reporting the ipsilesional item only. The effect is thought to be due to a spatial bias advantaging the ipsilesional item under conditions of competing concurrent stimulation. Action relations between objects can result in recovery from extinction as the object pair may be perceived as a single group rather than competing perceptual units. However, objects interacting together can also have implied motion. Here we test whether implied motion is necessary to generate recovery from extinction. We varied orthogonally whether animate and inanimate objects were paired together in positions related or unrelated to action. Implied motion was greater when an animate object was present than when both stimuli were inanimate. Despite this, recovery from extinction was greater when actions were shown between inanimate objects. We suggest that actions between inanimate objects are perceived more easily due to the surfaces of these stimuli being designed for functional goals (e.g., the flat surface of a hammer head is designed to hit the flattened head of a nail). Attention is sensitive to the fit between potential action and the functional properties of objects, and not just to implied motion between stimuli. PMID:20672224