Sample records for function recovery method

  1. A robust functional-data-analysis method for data recovery in multichannel sensor systems.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Liao, Haitao; Upadhyaya, Belle R

    2014-08-01

    Multichannel sensor systems are widely used in condition monitoring for effective failure prevention of critical equipment or processes. However, loss of sensor readings due to malfunctions of sensors and/or communication has long been a hurdle to reliable operations of such integrated systems. Moreover, asynchronous data sampling and/or limited data transmission are usually seen in multiple sensor channels. To reliably perform fault diagnosis and prognosis in such operating environments, a data recovery method based on functional principal component analysis (FPCA) can be utilized. However, traditional FPCA methods are not robust to outliers and their capabilities are limited in recovering signals with strongly skewed distributions (i.e., lack of symmetry). This paper provides a robust data-recovery method based on functional data analysis to enhance the reliability of multichannel sensor systems. The method not only considers the possibly skewed distribution of each channel of signal trajectories, but is also capable of recovering missing data for both individual and correlated sensor channels with asynchronous data that may be sparse as well. In particular, grand median functions, rather than classical grand mean functions, are utilized for robust smoothing of sensor signals. Furthermore, the relationship between the functional scores of two correlated signals is modeled using multivariate functional regression to enhance the overall data-recovery capability. An experimental flow-control loop that mimics the operation of coolant-flow loop in a multimodular integral pressurized water reactor is used to demonstrate the effectiveness and adaptability of the proposed data-recovery method. The computational results illustrate that the proposed method is robust to outliers and more capable than the existing FPCA-based method in terms of the accuracy in recovering strongly skewed signals. In addition, turbofan engine data are also analyzed to verify the capability of the proposed method in recovering non-skewed signals. PMID:25051452

  2. Neuroplasticity and functional recovery in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tomassini, Valentina; Matthews, Paul M.; Thompson, Alan J.; Fuglø, Daniel; Geurts, Jeroen J.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Jones, Derek K.; Rocca, Maria A.; Wise, Richard G.; Barkhof, Frederik; Palace, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies that promote functional recovery is a major goal of multiple sclerosis (MS) research. Neuroscientific and methodological advances have improved our understanding of the brain’s recovery from damage, generating novel hypotheses for potential targets or modes of intervention and laying the foundation for the development of scientifically informed strategies promoting recovery in interventional studies. This Review aims to encourage the transition from characterization of recovery mechanisms to the development of strategies that promote recovery in MS. We discuss current evidence for functional reorganization that underlies recovery and its implications for development of new recovery-oriented strategies in MS. Promotion of functional recovery requires an improved understanding of recovery mechanisms modulated by interventions and the development of reliable measures of therapeutic effects. As imaging methods can be used to measure functional and structural alterations associated with recovery, this Review discusses their use as reliable markers to measure the effects of interventions. PMID:22986429

  3. Methods to evaluate functional nerve recovery in adult rats: walking track analysis, video analysis and the withdrawal reflex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeroen R. Dijkstra; Marcel F. Meek; Peter H. Robinson; Albert Gramsbergen

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different methods for the evaluation of functional nerve recovery. Three groups of adult male Wistar rats were studied. In group A, a 12-mm gap between nerve ends was bridged by an autologous nerve graft; in rats of group B we performed a crush lesion of the sciatic nerve and group C consisted

  4. Pathways mediating functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stuart N; Zaaimi, Boubker; Fisher, Karen M; Edgley, Steve A; Soteropoulos, Demetris S

    2015-01-01

    Following damage to the motor system (e.g., after stroke or spinal cord injury), recovery of upper limb function exploits the multiple pathways which allow motor commands to be sent to the spinal cord. Corticospinal fibers originate from premotor as well as primary motor cortex. While some corticospinal fibers make direct monosynaptic connections to motoneurons, there are also many connections to interneurons which allow control of motoneurons indirectly. Such interneurons may be placed within the cervical enlargement, or more rostrally (propriospinal interneurons). In addition, connections from cortex to the reticular formation in the brainstem allow motor commands to be sent over the reticulospinal tract to these spinal centers. In this review, we consider the relative roles of these different routes for the control of hand function, both in healthy primates and after recovery from lesion. PMID:25890147

  5. Recovery of particle distribution function in four-dimensional phase space from measurements with pepper-pot method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazarinov, N. Yu.; Kazacha, V. I.

    2010-03-01

    The possibility of recovering the particle distribution function at any point of the four-dimensional transverse phase volume “ x, x', y, y'” using the results of measurements with the pepper-pot method is demonstrated. The proposed method for processing experimental data is based on the assumption that the one-to-one correspondence between holes in the mask and their images on the screen is established. Such a preliminary calibration should be experimentally performed on the measured ion beam. The method of moments is used for the recovery of the distribution function. Using Legendre polynomials for processing experimental results reduces the problem to a sequence of recurrence relations. A numerical simulation of the measurement process demonstrated that the recovery accuracy of the particle distribution function is about ±10%.

  6. Secondary recovery method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1965-01-01

    This is a waterflood method of oil recovery. A slug of a light hydrocarbon crude-oil distillate having a boiling point below that of gas-oil is injected into the oil-bearing formation. An amount equal to between 10 and 20% of the pore volume of the formation is injected. The slug also contains between 2.5 and 10% by wt of a high-

  7. Practical Experiences from the USE of a Method for Active Functional Tests and Optimization of Coil Energy Recovery Loop Systems in AHUs

    E-print Network

    Eriksson, J.

    2004-01-01

    A method, based on simulation models, for active functional tests and optimization of coil energy recovery loop systems in Air Handling Units (AHUs) have been developed and a first version implemented in the program Engineering Equation Solver (EES...

  8. Differentiation method for phase recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özcan, Meriç

    2015-03-01

    Here we consider a derivative based method for phase recovery and demonstrate a numerical method that can be described as differentiate and cross multiply operation to obtain the phase gradient. This method uses quadrature phase data that is in sine and cosine form, which is a natural outcome many interferometric measurements including that of digital holographic reconstruction. Since the differentiation is performed on trigonometric functions which are discrete, it is shown that the method of differentiation and the sampling rate are important considerations especially for the noise corrupt signals. The method is initially developed for 1D phase signals, and then later extended to 2D. Noise performance of the method is also investigated, and it is shown that for extremely noisy signals the method can be adapted to an iteration routine which recovers the phase successfully. We present simulations and the experimental results which show the validity of the approach.

  9. Recovery of microbial community structure and functioning after wildfire in semi-arid environments: optimising methods for monitoring and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Martini, Dylan; Erickson, Todd; Merritt, David; Dixon, Kingsley

    2015-04-01

    Introduction In semi-arid areas such as northern Western Australia, wildfires are a natural part of the environment and many ecosystems in these landscapes have evolved and developed a strong relationship with fire. Soil microbial communities play a crucial role in ecosystem processes by regulating the cycling of nutrients via decomposition, mineralization, and immobilization processes. Thus, the structure (e.g. soil microbial biomass) and functioning (e.g. soil microbial activity) of microbial communities, as well as their changes after ecosystem disturbance, can be useful indicators of soil quality and health recovery. In this research, we assess the impacts of fire on soil microbial communities and their recovery in a biodiverse semi-arid environment of Western Australia (Pilbara region). New methods for determining soil microbial respiration as an indicator of microbial activity and soil health are also tested. Methodology Soil samples were collected from 10 similar ecosystems in the Pilbara with analogous native vegetation, but differing levels of post-fire disturbance (i.e. 3 months, 1 year, 5, 7 and 14 years after wildfire). Soil microbial activity was measured with the Solvita test which determines soil microbial respiration rate based on the measurement of the CO2 burst of a dry soil after it is moistened. Soils were dried and re-wetted and a CO2 probe was inserted before incubation at constant conditions of 25°C during 24 h. Measurements were taken with a digital mini spectrometer. Microbial (bacteria and fungi) biomass and community composition were measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA). Results Immediately after the fire (i.e. 3 months), soil microbial activity and microbial biomass are similar to 14 years 'undisturbed' levels (53.18±3.68 ppm CO2-CO and 14.07±0.65 mg kg-1, respectively). However, after the first year post-fire, with larger plant productivity, microbial biomass and microbial activity increase rapidly, peaking after 5-7 years post fire (70.70±8.94 ppm CO2-CO and 21.67±2.62 mg kg-1, respectively). Microbial activity measured with the Solvita test was significantly correlated (R Pearson > 0.7; P < 0.001) with microbial parameters analysed with PLFA such as microbial biomass, bacteria biomass or mycorrhizhal fungi. This method has proven to be reliable, fast and easy to interpret for assessment of soil microbial activity in the recovery of soil quality during the recovery after fire. Keywords Pilbara region, biodiverse ecosystems, microbial biomass, microbial respiration, Solvita test, CO2 burst.

  10. Oil recovery apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, J.G.

    1981-05-19

    An oil recovery apparatus and method, particularly for removing oil and grease from the discharge of dishwashing machines or the like, provides a small size assembly employing the same principle as in U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,024. This apparatus and method employs single rotating discs of plastic or plastic coated material and each disk has a pair of scraper blades arranged to scrape opposite sides of the rotating blade. Exterior of the container for the oil recovery apparatus is at least one filter basket adapted to receive the flow into the strainer container of large particles of food and other waste such as cigarette butts and the like. Each filter is disposed for the ready cleaning of accumulated matter from the basket. There is shown plural filters, valve controls, auxiliary heating and disc support means to be more fully described.

  11. Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Acceptability and Recovery of Cortisol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Susan K.; Lopata, Christopher; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Neilans, Erik G.; Werth, Jilynn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared cortisol concentrations yielded using three saliva collection methods (passive drool, salivette, and sorbette) in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, as well as method acceptability for a sample of children (n = 39) with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. No cortisol concentration differences were observed between…

  12. Surfactant waterflooding oil recovery method

    SciTech Connect

    Kalfoglou, G.

    1981-10-27

    Disclosed is a novel surfactant fluid and an oil recovery method using the fluid for recovering oil from subterranean formations thereof by surfactant waterflooding process. The fluid comprises water and at least one surfactant, preferably including an alkylpolyalkoxyalkylene sulfonate or an alkylarylpolyalkoxyalkylene sulfonate and as an additive for reducing the rigidity of the interfacial film, a silicapolydialkylsiloxane such as a silica-polydimethylsiloxane. Reduction in rididity of the interfacial film occupied by surfactant molecules of which the hydrophobic portion is dissolved in the oil phase and the hydrophilic portion is dissolved in the aqueous phase, improves the effectiveness of the surfactant fluid for recovering oil from subterranean formations.

  13. Recovery of particle distribution function in four-dimensional phase space from measurements with pepper-pot method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Yu. Kazarinov; V. I. Kazacha

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of recovering the particle distribution function at any point of the four-dimensional transverse phase volume\\u000a “x, x?, y, y?” using the results of measurements with the pepper-pot method is demonstrated. The proposed method for processing experimental\\u000a data is based on the assumption that the one-to-one correspondence between holes in the mask and their images on the screen\\u000a is

  14. Promoting neurological recovery of function via metaplasticity

    E-print Network

    Cho, Kathleen K.

    The modification of synapses by neural activity has been proposed to be the substrate for experience-dependent brain development, learning, and recovery of visual function after brain injury. The effectiveness or ‘strength’ ...

  15. Renal function recovery after laparosocopic pyeloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Gregorio, Sergio Alonso y; Eastmond, María Portilla; Gómez, Angel Tabernero; Togores, Luis Hidalgo; Sebastián, Jesús Díez; Barthel, Jesús Javier de la Peña

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To observe the renal function recovery measured by diuretic renography in short and medium follow–up of patients with transperitoneal Anderson–Hynes laparoscopic pyeloplasty. Material and methods We performed a retrospective review from our series of laparoscopic pyeloplasties, and we applied the following selection criteria: 1) to have at least two MAG3 diuretic renography during the follow–up, performed with a gap of 4–6 months between them; 2) to have at least one year follow–up. Fulfilling these criteria, we have selected 35 patents of 62. Results During follow–up, statistically significant improvement comparing with the pre–surgical value has been observed in diuretic renography in the operated kidney in all selected patients during the time of follow up in terms of: functional uptake ratio (FUR), furosemide excretion and total excretion. No statistically significant differences were found in excretion time and spontaneous excretion parameters. By dividing patients in two age groups <40 years and >40 years we found no statistically significant differences between them in relation to the improvement of the FUR. Conclusions Laparoscopic pyeloplasty not only corrects the UPJO, it also may recover renal function demonstrated after one year follow up with diuretic renography. Laparoscopic pyeloplasty should be procedure of choice even in those patients with poor renal function at diagnosis, whenever there are chances of recovering renal function, regardless patients age. PMID:25140243

  16. Thyristor with integrated forward recovery protection function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-J. Schulze; F.-J. Niedernostheide; U. Kellner-Werdehausen

    2001-01-01

    A completely self-protected light-triggered high-power thyristor has been developed and fabricated. The integrated protection functions comprise overvoltage protection, dV\\/dt protection and forward recovery protection. Turn-on characteristics of 8 kV, 4000 A prototype samples under diverse conditions are presented, demonstrating the reliable operation of all the protection functions

  17. Method of increasing oil recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. King; W. S. Fallgatter

    1967-01-01

    A method is described for selectively plugging permeable channels in oil producing formations by the cyclic introduction of treating solutions, each portion of the treating reactants being separated by an inert spacing medium. The relative amount of spacing medium is decreased during the treating operation, causing the reactants to contact each other in concentric regions of the formation increasingly approaching

  18. Promoting neurological recovery of function via metaplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kathleen KA; Bear, Mark F

    2010-01-01

    The modification of synapses by neural activity has been proposed to be the substrate for experience-dependent brain development, learning, and recovery of visual function after brain injury. The effectiveness or ‘strength’ of synaptic transmission can be persistently modified in response to defined patterns of pre- and post-synaptic activity. Well-studied examples of this type of synaptic plasticity are long-term potentiation and long-term depression. Can we exploit the current understanding of these mechanisms in order to strengthen brain connections that may have been weakened or impaired by sensory deprivation, disease or injury? Theoretically motivated research in the visual cortex has suggested ways to promote synaptic potentiation. The theoretical concept is that the type and extent of synaptic plasticity caused by patterns of activity depend critically on the recent prior history of synaptic or cellular activity. Studies in visual cortex strongly support this concept, and have suggested a mechanism for ‘metaplasticity’ – the plasticity of synaptic plasticity – based on activity-dependent modification of NMDA-receptor structure and function. The knowledge gained by these studies suggests ways in which recovery of function can be promoted. PMID:20209094

  19. 20 CFR 340.11 - Waiver of methods of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...individual is without fault and if, in the judgment of the Board, recovery by the methods waived would be against equity and good conscience and recovery by such other methods would not be against equity and good...

  20. 20 CFR 340.11 - Waiver of methods of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...individual is without fault and if, in the judgment of the Board, recovery by the methods waived would be against equity and good conscience and recovery by such other methods would not be against equity and good...

  1. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, Deborah A. (Bartlesville, OK)

    1989-01-01

    A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

  2. Heterotopic transplantation as a model to study functional recovery of unloaded failing hearts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hendrik T. Tevaearai; G. Brant Walton; Andrea D. Eckhart; Janelle R. Keys; Walter J. Koch

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Recent studies have demonstrated cardiac improvement in patients supported with a ventricular assist device, suggesting that reverse remodeling and myocardial recovery are possible. We developed an animal model of cardiac unloading by adapting a heterotopic transplantation technique and used it to examine the pattern of functional recovery in the left ventricle of the failing heart.Methods: Heart failure was induced

  3. Enhanced physical therapy improves recovery of arm function after stroke. A randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Sunderland; D J Tinson; E L Bradley; D Fletcher; R Langton Hewer; D T Wade

    1992-01-01

    Previous research on stroke rehabilitation has not established whether increase in physical therapy lead to better intrinsic recovery from hemiplegia. A detailed study was carried out of recovery of arm function after acute stroke, and compares orthodox physiotherapy with an enhanced therapy regime which increased the amount of treatment as well as using behavioural methods to encourage motor learning. In

  4. Practical Experiences from the USE of a Method for Active Functional Tests and Optimization of Coil Energy Recovery Loop Systems in AHUs 

    E-print Network

    Eriksson, J.

    2004-01-01

    recovery in this kind of systems is often much lower than expected. The main reason for the poor efficiency is wrong ?fluid? flow in the recovery loop. The efficiency can in many cases be raised from about 35 % up to 60%. The ratio of the heat capacity... flow of supply air divided by exhaust air will if the ratio is 1 in the summer be about 0.8 during cold winder days. Hence, constant air volume systems are variable heat capacity flow systems. By using a calibrated model of a coil energy recovery...

  5. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.

    1989-04-04

    A method is described for flooding of a subterranean petroleum bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery, comprising the steps of providing at least one production well having at least one inlet within the subterranean petroleum bearing formation, and at least one injection well having at least one outlet within the subterranean petroleum bearing formation, injecting into the petroleum bearing formation through the injection well, a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution having a pH in the range of from about 8.25 to about 9.25 comprising from about 0.25 to about 5 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate, from about 0.05 to about 1.0 weight percent of petroleum recovery surfactant, and from about 1 to about 20 weight percent of sodium chloride, based on the total weight of the aqueous flooding solution, withdrawing through at least one inlet of the production wells, an oil and water mixture comprising petroleum from the subterranean petroleum bearing formation and at least a portion of the low alkaline pH sodium bicarbonate aqueous flooding solution, and separating the oil from the aqueous oil and water mixture.

  6. RPC gas recovery by open loop method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Avinash; Kalmani, S. D.; Mondal, N. K.; Satyanarayana, B.

    2009-05-01

    RPC detectors require to be flushed with small but continuous flow of gas mixture. Dealing with large number of detectors, gas consumption to very large volumes. Gas flow is a running expense and constituent gases are too expensive to be treated as consumables. Exhaust gas mixture from detectors is a potential environmental hazard if discharged directly into the atmosphere. Storage of gases on a large scale also leads to inventory- and safety-related problems. A solution to these problems is the recovery and reuse of exhaust gas mixture from RPC detectors. Close loop method employs recirculation of exhausted gas mixture after purification, analysis and addition of top-up quantities. In open loop method, under consideration here, individual component gases are separated from gas mixture and reused as source. During open loop process, gases liquefiable at low pressures are separated from ones liquefiable at high pressure. The gas phase components within each group are successively separated by either fractional condensation or gravity separation. Gas mixture coming from RPC exhaust is first desiccated by passage through molecular sieve adsorbent type (3A+4A). Subsequent scrubbing over basic activated alumina removes toxic and acidic contaminants such as S 2F 10 produced during corona (arcing) discharge. In the first stage of separation isobutane and freon are concentrated by diffusion and liquefied by fractional condensation by cooling upto -30 °C. Liquefied gases are returned to source tanks. In the second stage of separation, argon and sulphur hexafluoride, the residual gases, are concentrated by settling due to density difference. SF 6 is stored for recovery by condensation at high pressure while argon is further purified by thermal cracking of crossover impurities at 1000 °C followed by wet scrubbing.

  7. Silencing Nogo-A Promotes Functional Recovery in Demyelinating Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuhong; Liu, Yue; Wei, Ping; Peng, Haiyan; Winger, Ryan; Hussain, Rehana Z.; Ben, Li-Hong; Cravens, Petra D.; Gocke, Anne R.; Puttaparthi, Krishna; Racke, Michael K.; McTigue, Dana M.; Lovett-Racke, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if suppressing Nogo-A, an axonal inhibitory protein, will promote functional recovery in a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods A small interfering RNA was developed to specifically suppress Nogo-A (siRNA-NogoA). The siRNA-NogoA silencing effect was evaluated in vitro and in vivo via immunohistochemistry. The siRNA was administered intravenously in two models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Axonal repair was measured by upregulation of GAP43. ELISA, flow cytometry and 3H-thymidine incorporation was used to determine immunological changes in myelin-specific T cells in mice with EAE. Results The siRNA-NogoA suppressed Nogo-A expression in vitro and in vivo. Systemic administration of siRNA-NogoA ameliorated EAE and promoted axonal repair as demonstrated by enhanced GAP43+ axons in the lesions. Myelin-specific T cell proliferation and cytokine production were unchanged in the siRNA-NogoA treated mice. Interpretation Silencing Nogo-A in EAE promotes functional recovery. The therapeutic benefit appears to be mediated by axonal growth and repair, and is not attributable to changes in the encephalitogenic capacity of the myelin-specific T cells. Silencing Nogo-A may be a therapeutic option for MS patients to prevent permanent functional deficits caused by immune-mediated axonal damage. PMID:20437585

  8. Neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and MRI indices of functional recovery from stroke.

    PubMed

    Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang; Jiang, Quan

    2007-02-01

    This article analyzes the mechanisms underlying the potentiation of functional recovery poststroke by cell-based and pharmacologic agents, which amplify endogenous neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and angiogenesis in the border of the ischemic lesion in the animal. Discussion of the interaction between angiogenesis and neurogenesis is provided and data are described demonstrating a role for matrix metalloproteinases expressed in periinfarct vasculature as chemotactic for neuroblasts migrating from the subventricular zone. Monitoring angiogenesis and structural changes in the ischemic brain associated with functional recovery by means of MRI is described. We demonstrate that injured brain can be stimulated to promote angiogenesis and neurogenesis, which are coupled restorative processes that contribute to functional recovery from stroke and that MRI indices of these neurorestorative events are highly correlative with neurologic function and may be used in real-time monitoring of recovery from stroke. PMID:17261747

  9. Blind source recovery using an adaptive generalized Gaussian score function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khurram Waheed; Fathi M. Salam

    2002-01-01

    The paper discusses blind source recovery (BSR) of minimum phase and non-minimum phase mixtures of multiple source distributions using an adaptive score function. This proposed parametric score function is derived from the generalized Gaussian distribution model. An adaptive algorithm to determine the tuning parameter for the proposed score function using batch kurtosis of the BSR output is also presented. The

  10. Analysis of Hessian Recovery Methods for Generating Adaptive Meshes

    E-print Network

    Frey, Pascal

    Analysis of Hessian Recovery Methods for Generating Adaptive Meshes Konstantin Lipnikov1 and Yuri@dodo.inm.ras.ru Summary. We study adaptive meshes which are quasi-uniform in a metric gener- ated by the Hessian of a P1 singularities to show that all Hessian recovery methods result in acceptable adaptive meshes although

  11. Erythropoietin Accelerates Functional Recovery After Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Elfar, John C.; Jacobson, Justin A.; Puzas, J. Edward; Rosier, Randy N.; Zuscik, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Erythropoietin is a naturally occurring hormone with multiple effects on a number of different cell types. Recent data have suggested neuroprotective and perhaps even neurotrophic roles for erythropoietin. We hypothesized that these functional effects could be demonstrable in standard models of peripheral nerve injury. Methods: Experiments were undertaken to evaluate the effect of erythropoietin on the previously reported standard course of healing of sciatic injuries in mice. The injury groups included mice that were subjected to (1) sham surgery, (2) a calibrated sciatic crush injury, (3) transection of the sciatic nerve followed by epineural repair, or (4) a transection followed by burial of the proximal stump in the adjacent muscle tissue (neurectomy). Either erythropoietin or saline solution was administered to the mice in each of these experimental groups twenty-four hours preinjury, immediately after surgical creation of the injury, twenty-four hours postinjury, or one week postinjury. All mice were evaluated on the basis of the published model for recovery of sciatic nerve motor function by measuring footprint parameters at specific times after the injury. Immunohistochemistry was also performed to assess the erythropoietin-receptor expression profile at the site of injury. Results: In general, the mice treated with erythropoietin recovered sciatic nerve motor function significantly faster than did the untreated controls. This conclusion was based on a sciatic function index that was 60% better in the erythropoietin-treated mice at seven days postinjury (p < 0.05). Although the group that had been given the erythropoietin immediately postinjury showed the best enhancement of recovery, the timing of the administration of the drug was not critical. Histological analysis demonstrated enhanced erythropoietin-receptor positivity in the nerves that recovered fastest, suggesting that accelerated healing correlates with expression of the receptor in nerve tissue. Conclusions: Erythropoietin treatment of an acute sciatic nerve crush injury leads to an effect consistent with functional neuroprotection. This protective effect may have clinical relevance, especially since it was detectable even when erythropoietin had been administered up to one week after injury. Clinical Relevance: Erythropoietin may represent a safe therapeutic agent to enhance nerve recovery in humans either after or before “nerve-at-risk” procedures as well as a useful adjunct to treatment of peripheral nerve crush injuries. PMID:18676893

  12. Risk Factors for Delayed Inpatient Functional Recovery after Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hoogeboom, Thomas J.; van Meeteren, Nico L. U.; Schank, Kristin; Kim, Raymond H.; Miner, Todd; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the predictive value of surgery-related variables for delayed inpatient functional recovery (i.e., ?3 days to reach functional independence) after TKA. Method. 193 consecutive people undergoing TKA were included in this prospective cohort study. Inpatient functional recovery was measured daily using the Iowa Level of Assistance scale (ILAS). Two persons reviewed medical records to extract patient characteristics (i.e., age, sex, and BMI) and surgical factors (i.e., blood loss, tourniquet time, postoperative morphine use, and surgical experience). Odds ratios (OR) and area under the curves (AUC) were calculated to determine the predictive value of the putative factors and of the model on delayed functional recovery, respectively. Results. Delayed functional recovery was apparent in 76 (39%) people. Higher age, female sex, and higher BMI were all independent risk factors for delayed functional recovery (AUC (95%-CI); 0.72 (0.65–0.80)), whereas blood loss (OR (95%-CI); 1.00 (0.99–1.01)), tourniquet time (OR = 1.00 (0.98–1.02)), and postoperative morphine use (OR = 0.88 (0.37–2.06)) did not statistically improve the predictive value of the model, while surgical experience did (OR = 0.31 (0.16–0.64); AUC = 0.76 (0.69–83)). Conclusions. Surgery-related factors contribute little to the patient-related characteristics in a predictive model explaining delayed functional recovery after TKA in daily orthopaedic practice. PMID:25961001

  13. Functional recovery of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in modeled microgravity.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Barry W; Lelkes, Peter I; Gardner, Elizabeth M

    2006-02-01

    Immune function is suppressed in space flight, demonstrated by reduced mitogen-stimulated proliferation of postflight astronaut peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). While flight studies are limited, the development of rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors, such as the high aspect ratio vessel (HARV), has facilitated ground-based studies of the effects of modeled microgravity (MMG) on cell-mediated immunity. Astronauts regain immune function 3 days postflight, but this recovery has not yet been demonstrated following MMG. MMG eliminated phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated proliferation of PBMCs. Upon removal from HARV, full recovery was gradually achieved over a 72 h period, in agreement with postflight studies of astronauts. Recovery from MMG delayed, but did not reduce, the maximal proliferative response compared with PHA-activated stationary cultures. Likewise, peak expression of T cell surface activation markers CD69 and CD25 was delayed upon stimulation following exposure to MMG. MMG and recovery from MMG differentially affected the detection of IL-2 and IFN in supernatants. Further development of this model of immune recovery is important for investigating the mechanisms of immune suppression and recovery in space flight, as well as possible countermeasures to prevent immunosuppression or enhance recovery. Given the analogous immune suppression observed in microgravity, MMG, and aging, further investigation may also lead to advances in anti-aging medicine. PMID:16371429

  14. Mechanisms underlying recovery of motor function after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ward, N

    2005-01-01

    Neurological damage, and stroke in particular, is the leading cause of long term disability worldwide. There is growing interest in the part that central nervous system reorganisation plays in recovery of function. Techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation permit the non-invasive study of the working human brain, and suggest that functionally relevant adaptive changes occur in the human brain after focal damage. An understanding of how these changes are related to recovery will facilitate the development of novel therapeutic techniques that are based on neurobiological principles and that are designed to minimise impairment in appropriately targeted patients suffering from stroke. PMID:16085742

  15. Evaluation of special recovery methods: activities developed by Petrobras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. V. De Andrade; G. M. De Andrade

    1981-01-01

    Petrobras has employed conventional recovery methods (water and\\/or gas injection) extensively. Estimates of reserves, both primary and secondary, are tabulated and compared for the principal Brazilian oil fields. Specific field data are given for 7 secondary recovery projects, employing steam injection, in situ combustion, carbon dioxide injection, polymer waterflooding, and surfactant waterflooding.

  16. Evaluation of special recovery methods: activities developed by Petrobras

    SciTech Connect

    De Andrade, P.J.V.; De Andrade, G.M.

    1981-03-01

    Petrobras has employed conventional recovery methods (water and/or gas injection) extensively. Estimates of reserves, both primary and secondary, are tabulated and compared for the principal Brazilian oil fields. Specific field data are given for 7 secondary recovery projects, employing steam injection, in situ combustion, carbon dioxide injection, polymer waterflooding, and surfactant waterflooding.

  17. Schwann Cells Seeded in Acellular Nerve Grafts Improve Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Jesuraj, Nithya J.; Santosa, Katherine B.; MacEwan, Matthew R.; Moore, Amy M.; Kasukurthi, Rahul; Ray, Wilson Z.; Flagg, Eric R.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Borschel, Gregory H.; Johnson, Philip J.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluated whether Schwann cells (SCs) from different nerve sources transplanted into cold-preserved acellular nerve grafts (CP-ANGs) would improve functional regeneration compared to nerve isografts. Methods SCs isolated and expanded from motor and sensory branches of rat femoral and sciatic nerves were seeded into 14mm CP-ANGs. Growth factor expression, axonal regeneration, and functional recovery were evaluated in a14 mm rat sciatic injury model and compared to isografts. Results At 14 days, motor or sensory-derived SCs increased expression of growth factors in CP-ANGs versus isografts. After 42 days, histomorphometric analysis found CP-ANGs with SCs and isografts had similar numbers of regenerating nerve fibers. At 84 days, muscle force generation was similar for CP-ANGs with SCs and isografts. SC source did not affect nerve fiber counts or muscle force generation. Discussion SCs transplanted into CP-ANGs increase functional regeneration to isograft levels; however SC nerve source did not have an effect. PMID:23625513

  18. Optogenetic neuronal stimulation promotes functional recovery after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Michelle Y.; Wang, Eric H.; Woodson, Wyatt J.; Wang, Stephanie; Sun, Guohua; Lee, Alex G.; Arac, Ahmet; Fenno, Lief E.; Deisseroth, Karl; Steinberg, Gary K.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and research efforts have focused on promoting functional recovery after stroke. Brain stimulation strategies are particularly promising because they allow direct manipulation of the target area’s excitability. However, elucidating the cell type and mechanisms mediating recovery has been difficult because existing stimulation techniques nonspecifically target all cell types near the stimulated site. To circumvent these barriers, we used optogenetics to selectively activate neurons that express channelrhodopsin 2 and demonstrated that selective neuronal stimulations in the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (iM1) can promote functional recovery. Stroke mice that received repeated neuronal stimulations exhibited significant improvement in cerebral blood flow and the neurovascular coupling response, as well as increased expression of activity-dependent neurotrophins in the contralesional cortex, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, and neurotrophin 3. Western analysis also indicated that stimulated mice exhibited a significant increase in the expression of a plasticity marker growth-associated protein 43. Moreover, iM1 neuronal stimulations promoted functional recovery, as stimulated stroke mice showed faster weight gain and performed significantly better in sensory-motor behavior tests. Interestingly, stimulations in normal nonstroke mice did not alter motor behavior or neurotrophin expression, suggesting that the prorecovery effect of selective neuronal stimulations is dependent on the poststroke environment. These results demonstrate that stimulation of neurons in the stroke hemisphere is sufficient to promote recovery. PMID:25136109

  19. Increasing neurogenesis with fluoxetine, simvastatin and ascorbic Acid leads to functional recovery in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Adrian M; Sieber, Scott; Wyatt, Nicholas; Lizzi, Jenna; Flannery, Tiffany; Sibbit, Bethany; Sanghvi, Saagar

    2015-01-01

    Less than 8.5% of ischemic stroke patients receive clot-busting drugs within the narrow time needed to reduce injury. Thus, there is need for an easily-accessible delayed post-stroke drug treatment to improve functional recovery. Various combinations of fluoxetine, simvastatin, and ascorbic acid were given to healthy rats to assess impact on neurogenesis versus controls. Fluoxetine combined with simvastatin and ascorbic acid produced a 19-fold increase in neurogenesis versus controls in healthy rats; fluoxetine alone produced 10-fold increase. We next tried a couple of drug combinations versus control in endothelin-induced stroked rats. Combined fluoxetine/ simvastatin/ascorbic acid treatment, given to stroked rats 20-26 hours after stroke induction and continued for 31 days, produced strong recovery as measured by Montoya staircase test (mean recovery to 85% of pre-stroke function) and Forelimb Asymmetry test (mean recovery to 90% of pre-stroke function). Fluoxetine and ascorbic acid without simvastatin only produced ~50% of recovery produced by the 3-drug combination. Our results indicate that combined treatment of Fluoxetine, simvastatin and ascorbic acid represents a promising delayed stroke treatment that greatly improves functional recovery in rats and warrants further study in human patient populations. This work formed the basis for a patent submission (US20130065924A1) Composition and method for treatment of neurodegeneration. PMID:25612744

  20. Renal Function Recovery and HIV Viral Suppression Following Tenofovir Discontinuation for Renal Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Romo, Francine Touzard; Aziz, Mariam; Livak, Britt; Huesgen, Emily; Colton, Ben; Flanigan, Timothy P.; Max, Blake; Kessler, Harold

    2015-01-01

    Background Tenofovir associated nephrotoxicity (TDFN) is well recognized. This study describes the trend of renal function recovery and virologic consequences after cessation of tenofovir (TDF) for suspected TDFN. Methods This was a retrospective chart review of 241 patients who underwent HLA-B*5701 allele testing between January 2007-December 2010. Demographics and clinical characteristics were compared at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 month between patients that continued and discontinued TDF. Factors associated with renal function recovery were assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Results Eighty patients were identified with TDFN; 84% male, 74% African American (AA) with a median age of 55 years, and median length of TDF use for 122 weeks. Renal recovery at 12 months differed in those who stopped versus (vs.) continued TDF (83% vs. 57% p=0.03). In a crude analysis, baseline chronic kidney disease was negatively associated with renal recovery (p=0.01). An adjusted analysis showed that those who stopped TDF had 3.76 higher odds of renal recovery compared to those who did not stop TDF (95% CI: 1.26-11.27, p=0.02). There were no significant differences in virologic response after switching TDF to an alternative agent. Conclusion In this mostly AA male population with suspected TDFN, discontinuation of TDF was strongly associated with renal function recovery without affecting viral suppression.

  1. Recovery of human norovirus from water by virus concentration methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiji Haramoto; Hiroyuki Katayama; Etsuko Utagawa; Shinichiro Ohgaki

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of virus concentration methods to detect human norovirus (HuNoV) in water. One conventional virus concentration method using an electropositive filter (1MDS-method) and two methods developed by our research group using an electronegative filter (Mg-method and Al-method) were subjected to recovery tests of the HuNoV strain GII.4, which was obtained from

  2. Functional Imagining in the Study of Recovery Patterns in Bilingual Aphasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, David W.; Price, Cathy J.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes that the causal mechanisms of recovery patterns in bilingual aphasia can be partially revealed by combining neuropsychological and neuroimaging methods. Reviews potentials and limitations associated with functional neuroimaging experiments on normal and neurologically impaired patients and discusses different levels of description…

  3. Recovery of Olfactory Function after an Anterior Craniofacial Approach

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Masakatsu; Fukuta, Keizo; Tachibana, Eiji; Yoshida, Jun

    1999-01-01

    We assessed recovery of olfactory function in five consecutive patients who underwent surgical resection of midline skull base tumors using an anterior craniofacial approach in which the cribriform plate was mobilized with the dura. Olfactory function was evaluated before and after surgery using an intravenous olfactory test with prosultiamine and also a standard olfactory acuity test. Before surgery, one patient showed anosmia attributable to obstruction of the nasal cavity and olfactory cleft, and four patients showed normal olfactory function. After surgery, one patient was irreversibly anosmic, probably because of intradural dissection of the olfactory tracts. The other four patients, including the patient showing anosmia preoperatively, reported subjective recovery of olfaction 3 to 8 weeks after surgery. Intravenous and standard olfactory acuity tests indicated recovery of olfaction to the normal range in three patients and decreased olfactory function in one. With careful preservation of the olfactory system and of the integrity of the nasal cavity, olfactory function was found to recover after skull base resections via the anterior craniofacial approach. ImagesFigure 1p204-bFigure 3p205-b PMID:17171090

  4. Recovery of olfactory function after an anterior craniofacial approach.

    PubMed

    Saito, K; Takahashi, M; Fukuta, K; Tachibana, E; Yoshida, J

    1999-01-01

    We assessed recovery of olfactory function in five consecutive patients who underwent surgical resection of midline skull base tumors using an anterior craniofacial approach in which the cribriform plate was mobilized with the dura. Olfactory function was evaluated before and after surgery using an intravenous olfactory test with prosultiamine and also a standard olfactory acuity test. Before surgery, one patient showed anosmia attributable to obstruction of the nasal cavity and olfactory cleft, and four patients showed normal olfactory function. After surgery, one patient was irreversibly anosmic, probably because of intradural dissection of the olfactory tracts. The other four patients, including the patient showing anosmia preoperatively, reported subjective recovery of olfaction 3 to 8 weeks after surgery. Intravenous and standard olfactory acuity tests indicated recovery of olfaction to the normal range in three patients and decreased olfactory function in one. With careful preservation of the olfactory system and of the integrity of the nasal cavity, olfactory function was found to recover after skull base resections via the anterior craniofacial approach. PMID:17171090

  5. Recovery of function following unilateral damage to visuoparietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Rushmore, R J; Payne, Bertram; Valero-Cabre, Antoni

    2010-06-01

    Damage to the visuoparietal cortex located in the banks of the middle suprasylvian gyrus of the cat has been shown to produce a deficit in the detection and localization of moving visual cues presented in the contralesional visual hemifield. There is evidence from reversible cooling deactivation studies that the integrity of this orienting function is not completely dependent on the VP cortex and that under the right circumstances, other brain regions may come online and completely take over the processing that subserves this behavior. We examined the recovery of orienting behavior after unilateral damage to the VP cortex. We found that consistent with previous data, VP damage produced an impairment in the capacity to detect and orient to moving visual stimuli in the contralesional visual field. Over a span of days, spontaneous recovery fully occurred. The ability to detect and localize static visual stimuli was tested as a fiducial measure of parietal cortex function, and this function did not recover. We conclude that the detection and localization of moving visual stimuli is not a function that requires VP cortex and argue for the existence of a parallel and redundant subcortical-cortical brain network that serves as the substrate for recovery of function. PMID:20461362

  6. Functional recovery is considered the most important target: a survey of dedicated professionals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to survey the relative importance of postoperative recovery targets and perioperative care items, as perceived by a large group of international dedicated professionals. Methods A questionnaire with eight postoperative recovery targets and 13 perioperative care items was mailed to participants of the first international Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) congress and to authors of papers with a clear relevance to ERAS in abdominal surgery. The responders were divided into categories according to profession and region. Results The recovery targets ‘To be completely free of nausea’, ‘To be independently mobile’ and ‘To be able to eat and drink as soon as possible’ received the highest score irrespective of the responder's profession or region of origin. Equally, the care items ‘Optimizing fluid balance’, ‘Preoperative counselling’ and ‘Promoting early and scheduled mobilisation’ received the highest score across all groups. Conclusions Functional recovery, as in tolerance of food without nausea and regained mobility, was considered the most important target of recovery. There was a consistent uniformity in the way international dedicated professionals scored the relative importance of recovery targets and care items. The relative rating of the perioperative care items was not dependent on the strength of evidence supporting the items. PMID:25089195

  7. Wastewater heat recovery method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  8. Noninvasive Strategies to Promote Functional Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Alessandro; Rossi, Ferdinando; Carulli, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is a common and disabling global health-care problem, which is the third most common cause of death and one of the main causes of acquired adult disability in many countries. Rehabilitation interventions are a major component of patient care. In the last few years, brain stimulation, mirror therapy, action observation, or mental practice with motor imagery has emerged as interesting options as add-on interventions to standard physical therapies. The neural bases for poststroke recovery rely on the concept of plasticity, namely, the ability of central nervous system cells to modify their structure and function in response to external stimuli. In this review, we will discuss recent noninvasive strategies employed to enhance functional recovery in stroke patients and we will provide an overview of neural plastic events associated with rehabilitation in preclinical models of stroke. PMID:23864962

  9. Enhanced oil recovery using electrical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Muhammad Moshin

    Heavy Oil Recovery is gaining much popularity because of huge consumption of oil in the modern industry. Main concern in the extraction of heavy oil is its high viscosity. Heating heavy oil by different electrical means has come out to be a promising solution for viscosity reduction. This includes the low frequency resistive heating, induction heating and high frequency microwave heating or the dielectric heating. Application of low frequency resistive heating is limited by the requirement of brine (conducting fluid) inside the reservoir while Induction heating is only applicable in the presence of ferrous elements in the reservoir. High frequency microwave heating can be used effectively for enhancing the oil productivity. Ultrasonic stimulation is another technique capable of reducing the viscosity of heavy oil without employing the heating techniques. Although many models have been presented addressing microwave heating of heavy oil but, no model has been found in the literature addressing the design of microwave sources and the experimental verification of the results. Similarly some authors have also addressed the ultrasonic stimulation of heavy oil but no one has discussed the behavior of ultrasonic waves at different power level along with the experimental verification. This thesis presents complete mathematical modeling of microwave heating, with numerical solution by considering two-dimensional radial model. In addition, the design, positioning, and orientation of the array of microwave antennas have also been considered in numerical simulations while results of some of the cases are also verified experimentally. Similarly, the Thesis discusses the ultrasonic modeling with numerical solution and experimental verification at different power levels and positioning of the ultrasonic transducer. These models present the results in the form of temperature & pressure distribution and productivity enhancement. For numerical simulations, a Finite Element Analysis based simulator has been used. Main focus was on the design and orientation of the array of microwave and ultrasonic sources and the validation of results with experiments. Results showed a good fit between the numerical simulations and the experimental procedures proving the efficiency of microwave and ultrasonic sources. It has also been found that microwaves and ultrasonic waves are beneficial for specific reservoir characterizations.

  10. Tertiary recovery method using inverted deviated holes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goodhart

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of recovering oil and the like from a subsurface earth formation comprising the steps of: establishing a substantially vertical shaft hole extending from the surface of the earth of the subsurface earth formation, boring from the vertical shaft initially in an essentially upward direction in the formation at least one deviated hole in the formation, the

  11. A Variational Method In Image Recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilles Aubert; Luminita Vese

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a classical denoising and deblurring problem in imagerecovery. Our approach is based on a variational method. By using the Legendre--Fenchel transform,we show how the nonquadratic criterion to be minimized can be split into a sequence of half-quadraticproblems easier to solve numerically. First we prove an existence and uniqueness result, and then wedescribe the algorithm for

  12. Development of new and improvement of existing core recovery methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Marx; E. J. Kroemer

    1982-01-01

    Prospecting of new oil and gas fields through sampling of soil by core drilling was investigated. Two core recovery methods were designed; corresponding prototypes were built and tested. The drill mandrel, the core barrel closing system, solliciation of the barrel by hydraulic friction, and sollicitation of the driving axe during side drilling were studied. The core barrel system with built

  13. Biphasic microtiter method for campylobacter recovery and enumeration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a biphasic method for recovery and enumeration of campylobacters. The biphasic system was composed of 96-well microtiter plates containing Campy-Line Agar (CLA) prepared 2X for all ingredients except for 1X agar (0.1 ml per well). Samples of pure Campylobacter spp. isolates, post-chi...

  14. Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride

    DOEpatents

    Kreuzmann, Alvin B. (Cincinnati, OH)

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions wherein the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

  15. Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride

    DOEpatents

    Kreuzmann, A.B.

    1982-10-27

    The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions whereas the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

  16. Level Set Methods for Shape Recovery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Overview of a movie on medical imaging. Imagine that you are given an image, say a medical (MRI or CT) scan. Suppose you want to extract the important feature within the image of a digital subtraction angiogram (DSA); in this case, the outline of the artery. One idea is to look for places where there is a big jump in intensity between neighboring pixels. However, it is hard to pick a good value for the jump; too small and you get extra boundaries; too large and you miss the whole show. Another problem is that you can get fooled by large spikes of noise... See also Sethian, J.A., Level Set Methods: Evolving Interfaces in Geometry, Fluid Mechanics, Computer Vision and Materials Sciences, Cambridge University Press, 1996, a book intended for mathematicians, applied scientists, practicing engineers, computer graphic artists, and anyone interested in the evolution of boundaries and interfaces.

  17. Development of new and improvement of existing core recovery methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, C.; Kroemer, E. J.

    1982-06-01

    Prospecting of new oil and gas fields through sampling of soil by core drilling was investigated. Two core recovery methods were designed; corresponding prototypes were built and tested. The drill mandrel, the core barrel closing system, solliciation of the barrel by hydraulic friction, and sollicitation of the driving axe during side drilling were studied. The core barrel system with built in hydrostatic drill motor and diamond bit drill was retained. This combination leads to a core sample recovery rate of over 90% and a drill speed increase of 40% over the rotary core sampling system. The KIBM-1 prototype was tested in five drilling applications in deep wells. The sidewall coring system permits recovery of core material from the bore hole wall for boreholes at least eight and a half inches in diameter.

  18. Apparatus and method for improving spin recovery on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, II (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Previous research on airplane spinning and recovery has shown that at potential spin conditions (high angles of attack with rotation) the horizontal tail, depending upon its location, can create a wake about the vertical tail and rudder which can adversely affect airplane spin and recovery characteristics. Many methods of altering the tail geometry to modify these interference effects were investigated for improving airplane spin and recovery characteristics. Examples of changes includes relocation of the horizontal tail, increasing control surface travel, and use of a 'flip tail' that can be rotated to extreme angles for spin recovery. A device is provided which improves the spin recovery characteristics of aircraft which involves attaching the horizontal tail of the aircraft to the aircraft such that a gap remains between the root end of each horizontal tail section and the fuselage or vertical tail of the aircraft. The gaps measure between about 15 and 30 percent of the tail semispan. The gaps may be covered by shields which are released should a spin occur.

  19. Strategies to promote recovery of cavernous nerve function after radical prostatectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur L. Burnett

    2003-01-01

    While the application of penile autonomic nerve-sparing techniques during radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer has improved erection recovery rates after surgery, many men still experience delayed or incomplete recovery of erectile function. In recognition of neuropathy as a likely basis for erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy, investigators have begun exploring new strategies to promote the functional recovery of

  20. Dual simulated childbirth injuries result in slowed recovery of pudendal nerve and urethral function

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hai-Hong; Pan, Hui Q; Gustilo-Ashby, A. Marcus; Gill, Bradley; Glaab, Jonathan; Zaszczurynski, Paul; Damaser, Margot

    2008-01-01

    Aims Pelvic floor muscle trauma and pudendal nerve injury have been implicated in stress urinary incontinence (SUI) development after childbirth. In this study, we investigated how combinations of these injuries affect recovery. Methods Sixty-seven female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent vaginal distension (VD), pudendal nerve crush (PNC), PNC and VD (PNC+VD), pudendal nerve transection (PNT), or served as unmanipulated controls. Four days, 3 weeks, or 6 weeks after injury, we simultaneously recorded pudendal nerve motor branch potentials (PNMBP), external urethral sphincter electromyography (EUS EMG), and transurethral bladder pressure under urethane anesthesia. The presence of a guarding reflex (increased frequency & amplitude of PNMBP or EUS EMG activity) during leak point pressure (LPP) testing was determined. Results Controls consistently demonstrated a guarding reflex. Four days after VD, EUS EMG activity was eliminated, but PNMBP activity reflected the guarding reflex; EUS EMG activity recovered after 3 weeks. Four days after PNC, both EUS EMG and PNMBP activity were eliminated, but demonstrated significant recovery at 3 weeks. Four days after PNC+VD both EUS EMG and nerve activity were eliminated, and little recovery was observed after 3 weeks with significant recovery of the guarding reflex 6 weeks after injury. Little recovery was observed at all time points after PNT. LPP results mirrored the reduction in EUS EMG activity. Conclusion Functional recovery occurs more slowly after PNC+VD than after either PNC or VD alone. Future work will be aimed at testing methods to facilitate neuroregeneration and recovery after this clinically relevant dual injury. PMID:18973146

  1. Angiogenesis, neurogenesis and brain recovery of function following injury.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ye; Mahmood, Asim; Chopp, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Unfortunately, almost all phase III clinical trials of neuroprotective agents for stroke and TBI have demonstrated no benefit, raising concerns regarding the use of neuroprotective strategies alone as therapy for acute brain injuries. Therefore, a compelling need exists to develop treatments that promote both the repair and regeneration of injured brain tissue, and functional recovery. Recent data suggest that strategies to enhance neurogenesis and angiogenesis following brain injuries may provide promising opportunities to improve clinical outcomes and brain functional recovery. This review discusses neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the adult brain following stroke or TBI. Selected cell-based and pharmacological therapies are highlighted that promote neurogenesis and angiogenesis and are designed to restore neurological function after brain injuries. These discoveries emphasize the need for an improved understanding of injury- and therapy-induced neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the adult brain, and suggest that the manipulation of endogenous neural precursors and endothelial cells is a potential therapy for brain injury. PMID:20178043

  2. A Model for Functional Recovery and Cortical Reintegration after Hemifacial Composite Tissue Allotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Kia M.; Solari, Mario G.; Sacks, Justin M.; Horibe, Elaine K.; Unadkat, Jignesh V.; Carvell, George E.; Simons, Daniel J.; Lee, W. P. Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Background The ability to achieve optimal functional recovery is important in both face and hand transplantation. The purpose of this study was to develop a functional rat hemifacial transplant model optimal for studying both functional outcome and cortical reintegration in composite tissue allotransplantation. Methods Five syngeneic transplants with motor and sensory nerve appositions (group 1) and five syngeneic transplants without nerve appositions (group 2) were performed. Five allogeneic transplants were performed with motor and sensory nerve appositions (group 3). Lewis (RT1l) rats were used for syngeneic transplants and Brown-Norway (RT1n) donors and Lewis (RT1l) recipients were used for allogeneic transplants. Allografts received cyclosporine A monotherapy. Functional recovery was assessed by recordings of nerve conduction velocity and cortical neural activity evoked by facial nerve and sensory (tactile) stimuli, respectively. Results All animals in groups 1 and 3 showed evidence of motor function return on nerve conduction testing, whereas animals in group 2, which did not have nerve appositions, did not show electrical activity on electromyographic analysis (p < 0.001). All animals in groups 1 and 3 showed evidence of reafferentation on recording from the somatosensory cortex after whisker stimulation. Animals in group 2 did not show a cortical response on stimulation of the whiskers (p < 0.001). Conclusion The authors have established a hemiface transplant model in the rat that has several modalities for the comprehensive study of motor and sensory recovery and cortical reintegration after composite tissue allotransplantation. PMID:19182661

  3. Laboratory methods for enhanced oil recovery core floods

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, E.P.; Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1994-03-01

    Current research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is investigating microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) systems for application to oil reservoirs. Laboratory corefloods are invaluable in developing technology necessary for a field application of MEOR. Methods used to prepare sandstone cores for experimentation, coreflooding techniques, and quantification of coreflood effluent are discussed in detail. A technique to quantify the small volumes of oil associated with laboratory core floods is described.

  4. Plasticity of Language-Related Brain Function During Recovery from Stroke

    E-print Network

    to correlate functional recovery from aphasia after acute stroke with the temporal evolution of the anatomic during recovery from acute stroke presenting with aphasia. Perfusion, diffusion, sodium, and conventional patient, in whom mapping was performed fortuitously before stroke, recovery of a Wernicke's aphasia showed

  5. An efficient method of noroviruses recovery from oysters and clams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Deqing; Ma, Liping; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Lin; Su, Laijin; Li, Xinguang

    2013-03-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are widespread causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Outbreaks of NoVs caused diseases are commonly ascribed to the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The concentration and RNA extraction of NoVs are crucial steps of detecting NoVs in shellfish. This study aimed to select a simple, rapid and highly efficient recovery method of NoVs detection with real-time RT-PCR. Four methods of recovering GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs from spiked digestive tissues of oysters and clams, respectively, were compared, of them, the method involving proteinase K and PEG 8000 was found the most efficient. With this method, 9.3% and 13.1% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from oysters and 9.6% and 12.3% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from clams, respectively. This method was further used to detect NoVs in 84 oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) and 86 clams ( Ruditapes philippinarum) collected from 10 coastal cities in China from Jan. 2011 to Feb. 2012. The NoVs isolation rates were 10.47% of clams (9/86) and 7.14% of oysters (6/84). All the detected NoVs belonged to genotype GII. The NoVs recovery method selected is efficient for NoVs detection in oysters and clams.

  6. A review of microbial injury and recovery methods in food.

    PubMed

    Wu, V C H

    2008-09-01

    The existence of injured microorganisms in food and their recovery during culturing procedures is critical. Microbial injury is characterized by the capability of a microorganism to return to normalcy during a resuscitation process in which the damaged essential components are repaired. Injury of microorganisms can be induced by sublethal heat, freezing, freeze-drying, drying, irradiation, high hydrostatic pressure, aerosolization, dyes, sodium azide, salts, heavy metals, antibiotics, essential oils, sanitizing compounds, and other chemicals or natural antimicrobial compounds. Injured microorganisms present a potential threat in food safety since they may repair themselves under suitable conditions. Detection of injured microorganisms can be important to practical interpretations of data in food microbiology. This review provides an overview of microbial injury in food and discusses the development of recovery methods for detecting injured foodborne microorganisms. PMID:18620965

  7. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOEpatents

    Easterly, C.E.; Vass, A.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1997-01-28

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  8. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOEpatents

    Easterly, Clay E. (Knoxville, TN); Vass, Arpad A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  9. Cerebral reorganization as a function of linguistic recovery in children: An fMRI study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Odelia Elkana; Ram Frost; Uri Kramer; Dafna Ben-Bashat; Talma Hendler; David Schmidt; Avraham Schweiger

    2011-01-01

    Characterizing and mapping the relationship between neuronal reorganization and functional recovery are essential to the understanding of cerebral plasticity and the dynamic processes which occur following brain damage. The neuronal mechanisms underlying linguistic recovery following left hemisphere (LH) lesions are still unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated whether the extent of brain lateralization of linguistic functioning in

  10. Assessment of functional recovery of sciatic nerve in rats submitted to low-level laser therapy with different fluences. An experimental study: laser in functional recovery in rats.

    PubMed

    Marcolino, Alexandre Marcio; Barbosa, Rafael Inácio; das Neves, Lais Mara Siqueira; Mazzer, Nilton; de Jesus Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto; de Cássia Registro Fonseca, Marisa

    2013-12-01

    Peripheral nerve lesions caused sensory and motor deficits along the distribution of the injured nerve. Numerous researches have been carried out to enhance and/or accelerate the recovery of such lesions. The objective of this study was to assess the functional recovery of sciatic nerve in rats subjected to different fluences of low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Thirty-six animals were randomly divided into four groups: one consisting of sham rats and three others irradiated with progressive fluencies of 10 J/cm(2), 40 J/cm(2) and 80 J/cm(2) of laser AsGaAl (830 nm) for 21 consecutive days. They were evaluated by the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI) method. The crush injury was performed by using a portable device with dead weight of 5,000 g whose load was applied for 10 min. A digital camera was used to record the footprints left on the acrylic track, before surgery and after, on the 7th, 14th, and 21st days. The results also showed that on the 7th day, there was a difference between the groups irradiated with 40 J/cm(2), when compared with the sham group (p??0.05). It was possible to observe that the LLLT at fluency of 40 J/cm(2) and 80 J/cm(2) had a positive influence on the acceleration of the functional nerve recovery. PMID:24426674

  11. Prognostic Factors Predicting Early Recovery of Pre-fracture Functional Mobility in Elderly Patients With Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daegu; Jo, Jae Yong; Jung, Ji Sun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prognostic factors predicting the recovery of pre-fracture functional mobility, we evaluated this by the use of ambulatory assistive devices in short-term follow-up. Methods Five hundred and fifty-three elderly patients who had undergone hip fracture operations from January 2006 to June 2013 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Clinical characteristics and predicted factors affecting functional recovery, such as the delay of rehabilitation after the operation, were reviewed. The functional status of the gait was classified as either a bedridden state, wheelchair-bound state, walker gait, single cane gait, and self-gait without any ambulatory assistance device. When this functional grade in patients who recovered after the surgery was compared to before the surgery, this state was considered 'functional recovery'. Results One hundred and ninety-two patients (34.7%) showed recovery of preoperative mobility in the first month after their operation. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified that the following four factors were significantly associated with a deterioration of functional recovery: old age (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-0.97), delays in rehabilitation after operation (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.98), the presence of cognitive dysfunction (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.18-0.71), and trochanteric fracturing (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.36-0.94). Conclusion We found that old age, cognitive dysfunction, trochanteric fracture type, and delay of rehabilitation were associated with the deterioration of functional recovery after a hip fracture operation in the short-term. Therefore, early rehabilitation was required to acquire functional recovery after a hip fracture operation in the short-term. PMID:25566483

  12. Functional Task Test: 2. Spaceflight-Induced Cardiovascular Change and Recovery During NASA's Functional Task Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Tiffany; Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, Michael; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of the functional task test (FTT) is to correlate spaceflight-induced physiological adaptations with changes in performance of high priority exploration mission-critical tasks. This presentation will focus on the recovery from fall/stand test (RFST), which measures the cardiovascular response to the transition from the prone posture (simulated fall) to standing in normal gravity, as well as heart rate (HR) during 11 functional tasks. As such, this test describes some aspects of spaceflight-induced cardiovascular deconditioning and the course of recovery in Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. The sensorimotor and neuromuscular components of the FTT are described in two separate abstracts: Functional Task Test 1 and 3.

  13. The Effects of Rehabilitation Protocol on Functional Recovery After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dragicevic-Cvjetkovic, Dragana; Jandric, Slavica; Bijeljac, Sinisa; Palija, Stanislav; Manojlovic, Slavko; Talic, Goran

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of rehabilitation protocol which corresponds to surgical technique results in optimal postoperative outcome and functional recovery of patients to a pre-injury level of activity. The aim of this paper is to show the effects of the official rehabilitation protocol in our Institute on functional recovery of patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Patients and methods: In prospective study, we evaluated 70 males after ACL reconstruction using hamstring graft. Patients were divided into two groups according to the manner of conducting the postoperative rehabilitation. Group A consisted of 35 patients that followed postoperative rehabilitation according to the rehabilitation protocol. Group B also 35 patients, which did not undergo the rehabilitation protocol. We evaluated thigh muscle circumference and modified Tegner Lysholm Score, preoperatively and postoperatively after 1,3,6 and 12 months. In the statistical analysis, the Studentov T-test was used. Results: In the first postoperative month, the difference between groups in thigh muscle circumference is statistically significant (p<0,05). This difference between groups is statistically highly significant after 3, 6, and 12 months postoperative (p<0,01). Results of the modified Tegner Lysholm Score is statistically highly significant in 1, 3 and 6 postoperative months in patients from the experimental group (p<0,01). Conclusion: The positive effects of the rehabilitation protocol results in significant increase of the thigh muscle circumference and faster functional recovery of patients after ACL reconstruction. PMID:25568570

  14. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Stimulation Impairs Epidermal Permeability Barrier Function and Recovery and Modulates Cornified Envelope Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Brenda J.; Plichta, Jennifer K.; Blatt, Hanz; Droho, Steven; Griffin, Tina M.; Radek, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To characterize how nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) influence epidermal barrier function and recovery following prolonged stress or direct nAChR activation or antagonism. Main Methods Mice were subjected to psychological stress or treated topically with nAChR agonist or antagonist for 3 days. We assessed barrier permeability and recovery by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) before and after barrier disruption. In parallel, we analyzed the production and localization of several epidermal cornified envelope proteins in mouse skin and in human EpiDerm™ organotypic constructs stimulated with a nAChR agonist (nicotine) and/or a nAChR selective antagonist (?-bungarotoxin). Key Findings We determined that psychological stress in mice impairs barrier permeability function and recovery, an effect that is reversed by application of the ?7 selective nAChR antagonist, ?-bungarotoxin (Bung). In the absence of stress, both topical nicotine or Bung treatment alone impaired barrier permeability. We further observed that stress, topical nicotine, or topical Bung treatment in mice influenced the abundance and/or localization of filaggrin, loricrin, and involucrin. Similar alterations in these three major cornified envelope proteins were observed in human EpiDerm™ cultures. Significance Perceived psychological stress and nicotine usage can both initiate or exacerbate several dermatoses by altering the cutaneous permeability barrier. Modulation of nAChRs by topical agonists or antagonists may be used to improve epidermal barrier function in skin diseases associated with defects in epidermal barrier permeability. PMID:22940618

  15. Monitoring aquifer storage and recovery using multiple geophysical methods , Kristofer Davis

    E-print Network

    -gravity methods to monitor an aquifer storage recovery (ASR) project. An abandoned coal mine has been developedMonitoring aquifer storage and recovery using multiple geophysical methods Yaoguo Li , Kristofer into the reservoir during winter and then retrieved for use in the summer. Understanding the storage-recovery process

  16. Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, David O. (Albuquerque, NM); Montoya, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Wayland, Jr., James R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the CSAMT technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (a) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (b) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the connate water of the production field; (c) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (d) mathematically comparing the maps from step (a) and step (c) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

  17. Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1984-03-30

    A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (1) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (2) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the conate water of the production field; (3) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (4) mathematically comparing the maps from step (1) and step (3) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

  18. Hydrogeophysical methods for analyzing aquifer storage and recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Minsley, B.J.; Ajo-Franklin, J.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Morgan, F.D.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrogeophysical methods are presented that support the siting and monitoring of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) systems. These methods are presented as numerical simulations in the context of a proposed ASR experiment in Kuwait, although the techniques are applicable to numerous ASR projects. Bulk geophysical properties are calculated directly from ASR flow and solute transport simulations using standard petrophysical relationships and are used to simulate the dynamic geophysical response to ASR. This strategy provides a quantitative framework for determining site-specific geophysical methods and data acquisition geometries that can provide the most useful information about the ASR implementation. An axisymmetric, coupled fluid flow and solute transport model simulates injection, storage, and withdrawal of fresh water (salinity {approx}500 ppm) into the Dammam aquifer, a tertiary carbonate formation with native salinity approximately 6000 ppm. Sensitivity of the flow simulations to the correlation length of aquifer heterogeneity, aquifer dispersivity, and hydraulic permeability of the confining layer are investigated. The geophysical response using electrical resistivity, time-domain electromagnetic (TEM), and seismic methods is computed at regular intervals during the ASR simulation to investigate the sensitivity of these different techniques to changes in subsurface properties. For the electrical and electromagnetic methods, fluid electric conductivity is derived from the modeled salinity and is combined with an assumed porosity model to compute a bulk electrical resistivity structure. The seismic response is computed from the porosity model and changes in effective stress due to fluid pressure variations during injection/recovery, while changes in fluid properties are introduced through Gassmann fluid substitution.

  19. Effects of ischemia and omeprazole preconditioning on functional recovery of isolated rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Jeremic, Nevena; Petkovic, Anica; Srejovic, Ivan; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Djuric, Dragan; Jakovljevic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare protective effects of ischemic and potential protective effects of pharmacological preconditioning with omeprazole on isolated rat heart subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. Methods The hearts of male Wistar albino rats were excised and perfused on a Langendorff apparatus. In control group (CG) after stabilization period, hearts were subjected to global ischemia (perfusion was totally stopped) for 20 minutes and 30 minutes of reperfusion. Hearts of group II (IPC) were submitted to ischemic preconditioning lasting 5 minutes before 20 minutes of ischemia and 30 minutes of reperfusion. In third group (OPC) hearts first underwent preconditioning lasting 5 minutes with 100?M omeprazole, and then submitted 20 minutes of ischemia and 30 minutes of reperfusion. Results Administration of omeprazole before ischemia induction had protective effect on myocardium function recovery especially regarding to values of systolic left ventricular pressure and dp/dt max. Also our findings are that values of coronary flow did not change between OPC and IPC groups in last point of reperfusion. Conclusion Based on our results it seems that ischemic preconditioning could be used as first window of protection after ischemic injury especially because all investigated parameters showed continuous trend of recovery of myocardial function. On the other hand, preconditioning with omeprazole induced sudden trend of recovery with positive myocardium protection, although less effective than results obtained with ischemic preconditioning not withstand, we must consider that omeprazole may be used in many clinical circumstances where direct coronary clamping for ischemic preconditioning is not possible.

  20. Recent developments in functional and structural imaging of aphasia recovery after stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus Meinzer; Stacy Harnish; Tim Conway; Bruce Crosson

    2011-01-01

    Background: Functional and structural neuroimaging techniques can increase our knowledge about the neural processes underlying recovery from post-stroke language impairments (aphasia).Aims: In the present review we highlight recent developments in neuroimaging research of aphasia recovery.Main Contribution: We review (a) cross-sectional findings in aphasia with regard to local brain functions and functional connectivity, (b) structural and functional imaging findings using longitudinal

  1. Comparison of Effects of Various Methods of Recovery of Muscle after Applied Exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Nováková; P. Šifta

    \\u000a We tried to compare four types of recovery (massage, stretching, cold, needle) to find out witch method is most efficient\\u000a to improve recovery of triceps surrae muscle after aerobic exercise. We suppose that muscle recovery can be represented by\\u000a state of viscoelastic properties of muscle (stiffness and elasticity). Recovery of muscle in athletes is often discussed topic\\u000a in sport training.

  2. Driving Functional Behavioral Recovery Using Activity-Dependent Stimulation

    E-print Network

    Guggenmos, David

    2012-12-31

    The purpose of this project was to determine if artificially linking spared motor and sensory areas following a cortical lesion would lead to increased behavioral recovery on a skilled reaching task. Sensory-motor integration ...

  3. 17?-Estradiol treatment following permanent focal ischemia does not influence recovery of sensorimotor function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy D. Farr; Hilary V. O. Carswell; Lindsay Gallagher; Barrie Condon; Andrew J. Fagan; Jim Mullin; I. Mhairi Macrae

    2006-01-01

    The development of therapy to aid poststroke recovery is essential. The female hormone 17?-estradiol has been shown to promote synaptogenesis; the purpose of this study was to attempt to harness these mechanisms to promote repair and recovery in the peri-infarct zone. Rats were ovariectomized, tested for sensorimotor function, and the middle cerebral artery permanently occluded (MCAO). Infarct volumes were calculated

  4. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  5. Dobutamine magnetic resonance imaging as a predictor of myocardial functional recovery after revascularisation

    PubMed Central

    Trent, R; Waiter, G; Hillis, G; McKiddie, F; Redpath, T; Walton, S

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the use of dobutamine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a preoperative predictor of myocardial functional recovery after revascularisation, comparing wall motion and radial wall thickening analyses by observer and semi-automated edge detection.?PATIENTS—25 men with multivessel coronary disease and resting wall motion abnormalities were studied with preoperative rest and stress MRI.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Observer analysis for radial wall thickening was compared with a normal range, while wall motion analysis used a standard four point scale. Semi-automated analysis was performed using an edge detection algorithm. Segments displaying either improved or worsened thickening or motion with dobutamine were considered viable. Postoperative rest images were performed 3-6 months after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for comparison.?RESULTS—For observer analysis the values for sensitivity and specificity were 50% and 72% for wall motion, with respective values of 50% and 68% for thickening. With semi-automated edge detection the figures for motion were 60% and 73%, with corresponding values of 79% and 58% for thickening. Combining thickening and motion for the semi-automated method to describe any change in segmental function yielded a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 70%.?CONCLUSIONS—Dobutamine MRI is a reasonably good predictor of myocardial functional recovery after CABG. The use of semi-automated edge detection analysis improved results.???Keywords: dobutamine; magnetic resonance imaging myocardial viability; coronary artery bypass grafting PMID:10618334

  6. A Robust and Adaptive Carrier Recovery Method for Chinese DTTB Receiver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiqiang Liang; Jing Chai; Yunfeng Guan; Wenjun Zhang; Dazhi He

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a robust and adaptive carrier recovery method for Chinese digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB) system in which pilot signal and pseudonoise (PN) sequence are adopted to help carrier recovery. The conventional methods utilize pilot or PN sequence respectively. In this paper, we try to combine the advantage of each method together and propose a well designed state

  7. In Situ Recovery Methods for Heavy Oil and Bitumen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Sawatzky

    The in situ production of heavy oil and bitumen from the enormous resources contained in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) is expected to accelerate, as a result of the potential of new recovery technologiies developed specifically for these challenging resources (2). Key examples of these new recovery technologies include: thermal gravity processes; solvent- assisted gravity processes, cold production (primary

  8. Method for stabilizing an acrylamide polymer in a petroleum recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Kanda, S.; Kawamura, G.

    1983-07-12

    A method for stabilizing an acrylamide polymer in a petroleum recovery process is described. As a result of investigations into methods for stabilizing acrylamide polymers and additives for stabilizing these polymers in a petroleum recovery process, it has been found that aqueous solutions of these polymers can be stabilized for use in a petroleum recovery process by the addition of 2-mercaptobenzoimidazole or its water soluble salt. 1 claim.

  9. Factors Associated With Neurological Recovery of Brainstem Function Following Postoperative Conformal Radiation Therapy for Infratentorial Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.or [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Chitti, Ramana M. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Sanford, Robert A. [Semmes-Murphy Neurological Institute, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Khan, Raja B. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To identify risk factors associated with incomplete neurological recovery in pediatric patients with infratentorial ependymoma treated with postoperative conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods: The study included 68 patients (median age +- standard deviation of 2.6 +- 3.8 years) who were followed for 5 years after receiving CRT (54-59.4 Gy) and were assessed for function of cranial nerves V to VII and IX to XII, motor weakness, and dysmetria. The mean (+- standard deviation) brainstem dose was 5,487 (+-464) cGy. Patients were divided into four groups representing those with normal baseline and follow-up, those with abnormal baseline and full recovery, those with abnormal baseline and partial or no recovery, and those with progressive deficits at 12 (n = 62 patients), 24 (n = 57 patients), and 60 (n = 50 patients) months. Grouping was correlated with clinical and treatment factors. Results: Risk factors (overall risk [OR], p value) associated with incomplete recovery included gender (male vs. female, OR = 3.97, p = 0.036) and gross tumor volume (GTV) (OR/ml = 1.23, p = 0.005) at 12 months, the number of resections (>1 vs. 1; OR = 23.7, p = 0.003) and patient age (OR/year = 0.77, p = 0.029) at 24 months, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting (Yes vs. No; OR = 21.9, p = 0.001) and GTV volume (OR/ml = 1.18, p = 0.008) at 60 months. An increase in GTV correlated with an increase in the number of resections (p = 0.001) and CSF shunting (p = 0.035); the number of resections correlated with CSF shunting (p < 0.0001), and male patients were more likely to undergo multiple tumor resections (p = 0.003). Age correlated with brainstem volume (p < 0.0001). There were no differences in outcome based on the absolute or relative volume of the brainstem that received more than 54 Gy. Conclusions: Incomplete recovery of brainstem function after CRT for infratentorial ependymoma is related to surgical morbidity and the volume and the extent of tumor.

  10. Arm Function after Stroke: From Physiology to Recovery

    E-print Network

    education for physicians. Credit: The Indiana University School of Medicine designates this educational activity for a maximum of 1 Category 1 credit toward the AMA Physicians Recognition Award. Each physician does not go much beyond writing prescriptions for physical Stroke Acute Management and Recovery; Editor

  11. Acute assessment of microvascular perfusion patterns by myocardial contrast echocardiography during myocardial infarction: relation to timing and extent of functional recovery

    PubMed Central

    Czitrom, D; Karila-Cohen, D; Brochet, E; Juliard, J; Faraggi, M; Aumont, M; Assayag, P; Steg, P

    1999-01-01

    Objective—To examine the relation between the initial microvascular perfusion pattern, as assessed by intracoronary myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE), immediately after restoration of TIMI (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction) (TIMI) grade 3 flow during acute myocardial infarction, and the extent and timing of functional recovery in the area at risk.?Setting—Referral centre for interventional cardiology.?Methods—Intracoronary MCE was performed 15 minutes after TIMI grade 3 recanalisation of the infarct artery in 25 patients. Segmental myocardial contrast patterns were graded semiquantitatively (0, none; 0.5, heterogeneous; 1, homogeneous). Functional recovery was assessed by echocardiography on days 9 and 42.?Results—Among 174 myocardial segments in the area at risk, wall motion recovery on day 9 was observed in 40% of MCE grade 1 segments but there was no significant recovery in grade 0 or 0.5 segments. On day 42, recovery had occurred in 56% of MCE grade 1 segments (p < 0.0001 v MCE grade 0 and 0.5; p = 0.0001 v MCE grade 1 on day 9), and 22% of MCE grade 0.5 segments (p = 0.02 v MCE grade 0; p = 0.0005 v MCE grade 0.5 on day 9); MCE grade 0 segments did not recover. Negative predictive value in predicting recovery by contrast enhancement was 95% and 89% by days 9 and 42, respectively.?Conclusions—Contractile recovery occurs earliest in well reperfused segments. Up to one quarter of segments with heterogeneous contrast enhancement show wall motion recovery within the first six weeks. Myocardial perfusion after recanalisation in acute myocardial infarction, even if heterogeneous, is a prerequisite for postischaemic functional recovery. Thus preservation of acute myocardial perfusion is associated with more complete and early functional recovery.?? Keywords: acute myocardial infarction;  myocardial contrast echocardiography;  microcirculation;  functional recovery PMID:10220538

  12. Erythropoietin promotes neurovascular remodeling and long-term functional recovery in rats following traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruizhuo Ning; Ye Xiong; Asim Mahmood; Yanlu Zhang; Yuling Meng; Changsheng Qu; Michael Chopp

    2011-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) improves functional recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study was designed to investigate long-term (3months) effects of EPO on brain remodeling and functional recovery in rats after TBI. Young male Wistar rats were subjected to unilateral controlled cortical impact injury. TBI rats were divided into the following groups: (1) saline group (n=7); (2) EPO-6h group (n=8); and

  13. Localized and Sustained Delivery of Erythropoietin from PLGA Microspheres Promotes Functional Recovery and Nerve Regeneration in Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Jianheng; Zhang, Licheng; Long, Anhua; Zhang, Lihai; Tang, Peifu

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) has been demonstrated to exert neuroprotective effects on peripheral nerve injury recovery. Though daily intraperitoneal injection of EPO during a long period of time was effective, it was a tedious procedure. In addition, only limited amount of EPO could reach the injury sites by general administration, and free EPO is easily degraded in vivo. In this study, we encapsulated EPO in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres. Both in vitro and in vivo release assays showed that the EPO-PLGA microspheres allowed sustained release of EPO within a period of two weeks. After administration of such EPO-PLGA microspheres, the peripheral nerve injured rats had significantly better recovery compared with those which received daily intraperitoneal injection of EPO, empty PLGA microspheres, or saline treatments. This was supported by the functional, electrophysiological, and histological evaluations of the recovery done at week 8 postoperatively. We conclude that sustained delivery of EPO could be achieved by using EPO-PLGA microspheres, and such delivery method could further enhance the recovery function of EPO in nerve injury recovery. PMID:25821803

  14. Does physical activity change predict functional recovery in low back pain? Protocol for a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, Paul; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Bell, Melanie L; Hale, Leigh; Hurley, Deirdre A; McDonough, Suzanne M; Melloh, Markus; Baxter, David G

    2009-01-01

    Background Activity advice and prescription are commonly used in the management of low back pain (LBP). Although there is evidence for advising patients with LBP to remain active, facilitating both recovery and return to work, to date no research has assessed whether objective measurements of free living physical activity (PA) can predict outcome, recovery and course of LBP. Methods An observational longitudinal study will investigate PA levels in a cohort of community-dwelling working age adults with acute and sub-acute LBP. Each participant's PA level, functional status, mood, fear avoidance behaviours, and levels of pain, psychological distress and occupational activity will be measured on three occasions during for 1 week periods at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year. Physical activity levels will be measured by self report, RT3 triaxial accelerometer, and activity recall questionnaires. The primary outcome measure of functional recovery will be the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Free living PA levels and changes in functional status will be quantified in order to look at predictive relationships between levels and changes in free living PA and functional recovery in a LBP population. Discussion This research will investigate levels and changes in activity levels of an acute LBP cohort and the predictive relationship to LBP recovery. The results will assess whether occupational, psychological and behavioural factors affect the relationship between free living PA and LBP recovery. Results from this research will help to determine the strength of evidence supporting international guidelines that recommend restoration of normal activity in managing LBP. Trial registration [Clinical Trial Registration Number, ACTRN12609000282280] PMID:19895697

  15. Monitoring of thermal enhanced oil recovery processes with electromagnetic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.

    1992-09-01

    Research in applying electromagnetic methods for imaging thermal enhanced oil recovery has progressed significantly during the past eighteen months. Working together with researchers at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and supported by a group of industrial sponsors we have focused our effort on field system development and doing field surveys connected with EOR operations. Field surveys were recently completed at the Lost Hills No.3 oil field and at UC Richmond Field station. At Lost Hills, crosshole EM data sets were collected before a new phase of steam injection for EOR and again four months after the onset of steaming. The two data sets were nearly identical suggesting that very little steam had been injected into this borehole. This is in accord with the operators records which indicate injectivity problems with this particular well. At Richmond we conducted a salt water injection monitoring experiment where 50,000 gallons of salt water were injected in a shallow aquifer and crosshole EM data were collected using the injection well and several observation wells. We applied the imaging code to some of the collected data and produced an image showing that the salt water slug has propagated 8--10 m from the injector into the aquifer. This result is partially confirmed by prior calculations and well logging data. Applying the EM methods to the problem of oil field characterization essentially means extending the borehole resistivity log into the region between wells. Since the resistivity of a sedimentary environment is often directly dependent on the fluids in the rock the knowledge of the resistivity distribution within an oil field can be invaluable for finding missed or bypassed oil or for mapping the overall structure. With small modification the same methods used for mapping EOR process can be readily applied to determining the insitu resistivity structure.

  16. Physiological, Sensory, and Functional Measures in a Model of Wrist Muscle Injury and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lindsay; Brant, Aron; Enns, Deborah; Bryden, Pamela J.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of muscle rehabilitation modalities, it is first necessary to develop a model to test measures that would assess physiological, sensory, and functional muscle recovery. This study attempted to develop such a model for wrist injury. Subjects: Healthy male and female adults (n = 25). Methods: Subjects performed wrist muscle damage assessment, soreness, discomfort, difficulty, and functional motor task tests before and 1, 2, and 7 days after eccentric wrist muscle contractions. Wrist-related motor task tests, including the perception of discomfort and difficulty during performance, were also conducted. Results: At 24 hours post–eccentric exercises, wrist extension and flexion force declined (p < 0.05) and soreness (p < 0.05) and circumference (p < 0.05) increased; all returned to normal by 7 days post-exercise. At 24 and 48 hours post-exercise, perception of discomfort and difficulty was elevated during performance of motor tasks (p < 0.05). The completion speed of motor tasks was unaffected at any time post–eccentric exercise (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Loss of wrist muscle force, increased soreness, task discomfort, and difficulty were noted following eccentric exercise. However, subjects appeared able to compensate, such that the speed of completion of motor tasks was not slowed. Longer or more specific motor tasks may be necessary to mimic real work performance decrement and recovery. PMID:20145740

  17. Advanced Echocardiography in Adult Zebrafish Reveals Delayed Recovery of Heart Function after Myocardial Cryoinjury

    PubMed Central

    Kossack, Mandy; Juergensen, Lonny; Fuchs, Dieter; Katus, Hugo A.; Hassel, David

    2015-01-01

    Translucent zebrafish larvae represent an established model to analyze genetics of cardiac development and human cardiac disease. More recently adult zebrafish are utilized to evaluate mechanisms of cardiac regeneration and by benefiting from recent genome editing technologies, including TALEN and CRISPR, adult zebrafish are emerging as a valuable in vivo model to evaluate novel disease genes and specifically validate disease causing mutations and their underlying pathomechanisms. However, methods to sensitively and non-invasively assess cardiac morphology and performance in adult zebrafish are still limited. We here present a standardized examination protocol to broadly assess cardiac performance in adult zebrafish by advancing conventional echocardiography with modern speckle-tracking analyses. This allows accurate detection of changes in cardiac performance and further enables highly sensitive assessment of regional myocardial motion and deformation in high spatio-temporal resolution. Combining conventional echocardiography measurements with radial and longitudinal velocity, displacement, strain, strain rate and myocardial wall delay rates after myocardial cryoinjury permitted to non-invasively determine injury dimensions and to longitudinally follow functional recovery during cardiac regeneration. We show that functional recovery of cryoinjured hearts occurs in three distinct phases. Importantly, the regeneration process after cryoinjury extends far beyond the proposed 45 days described for ventricular resection with reconstitution of myocardial performance up to 180 days post-injury (dpi). The imaging modalities evaluated here allow sensitive cardiac phenotyping and contribute to further establish adult zebrafish as valuable cardiac disease model beyond the larval developmental stage. PMID:25853735

  18. T-lymphocyte recovery and function after cord blood transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Szabolcs

    2011-01-01

    The Szabolcs laboratory is focused on understanding the biology of donor-derived cellular immunity in recipients of allogeneic\\u000a hematopoietic cell transplantation that can be translated into new immunotherapy strategies. To this end, we are focused on\\u000a developing novel laboratory approaches to analyze and augment immune recovery for high risk patient cohorts without increasing\\u000a graft-versus-host disease. Much of our work has focused

  19. Method for Rapid Recovery Path Computation on Mesh IP Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Masayuki

    2008-01-01

    A collection of slides from the authorpsilas seminar presentation is given. These discuss centralized management architecture, path computation and restoration, recovery by descending order, greedy algorithm, heuristic algorithm, computation time, network for simulation, test for optimality.

  20. Kemp's Ridley, Lepidochelys kempi, Sea Turtle Head Start Tag Recoveries: Distribution, Habitat, and Method of Recovery

    E-print Network

    of head-started turtles on Padre Island or elsewhere (Fontaine et aI., 1985). To try to create a secondKemp's Ridley, Lepidochelys kempi, Sea Turtle Head Start Tag Recoveries: Distribution, Habitat The Kemp's ridley, Lepidochelys kem pi, is the most endangered of all sea turtles. The only known primary

  1. The General Weakness Syndrome Therapy (GymNAST) study: protocol for a cohort study on recovery on walking function

    PubMed Central

    Mehrholz, Jan; Mückel, Simone; Oehmichen, Frank; Pohl, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Critical illness myopathy (CIM) and polyneuropathy (CIP) are common complications of critical illness that frequently occur together. Both cause so called intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired muscle weakness. This weakness of limb muscles increases morbidity and delay rehabilitation and recovery of walking ability. Although full recovery has been reported people with severe weakness may take months to improve walking. Focused physical rehabilitation of people with ICU-acquired muscle weakness is therefore of great importance. However, although physical rehabilitation is common, detailed knowledge about the pattern and the time course of recovery of walking function are not well understood. Therefore, the aim of the General Weakness Syndrome Therapy (GymNAST) study is to describe the time course of recovery of walking function and other activities of daily living in these patients. Methods and analysis We conduct a prospective cohort study of people with ICU-acquired muscle weakness with defined diagnosis of CIM or CIP. Based on our sample size calculation, approximately 150 patients will be recruited from the ICU of our hospital in Germany. Amount and content of physical rehabilitation, clinical tests for example, muscle strength and motor function and neuropsychological assessments will be used as independent variables. The primary outcomes will include recovery of walking function and mobility. Secondary outcomes will include global motor function, activities in daily life and participation. Ethics and dissemination The study is being carried out in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki and conducted with the approval of the local medical Ethics Committee (Landesärztekammer Sachsen, Germany, reference number EK-BR-32/13-1) and with the understanding and written consent of each patient's guardian. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to the medical society and general public. PMID:25344484

  2. Method of recovery of gas flow pressure based on the results of measurements in short-duration wind tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevyanko, V. A.; Kukushkin, S. V.; Latypov, A. F.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents a method of recovery of gas flow pressure from the results of measurements by a piezoelectric pressure sensor in short-duration wind tunnels. It is assumed that the measuring system is a linear dynamic object. A quasisolution of linear Volterra integral equation of the first kind is constructed based on the condition that the equation holds on average in successive intervals into which the time interval of the measurement is divided. An experimental technique for determining the normal response of the sensor (transfer function) is proposed, and an example of recovery of air flow pressure in a wind tunnel is given.

  3. Resource-recovery facilities: Production and cost functions, and debt-financing issues

    SciTech Connect

    Simonsen, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Some of the fiscal questions relating to resource-recovery, or trash-burning, facilities are addressed. Production and cost functions for resource-recovery facilities are estimated using regression analysis. Whether or not there are returns to scale are addressed using the production and cost-function framework. Production functions are also estimated using data envelopment analysis (DEA), and results are compared to the regression results. DEA is a linear-program-based technique that can provide information about the production process. The data used to estimate the production and cost functions were collected from the Resource Recovery Yearbook. Once the decision is made to construct a resource-recovery facility, it needs to be financed. The high cost of these facilities usually prohibits financing construction out of regular operating revenues. Therefore, the issues a government faces when debt is used to finance a resource-recovery facility are analyzed. The most important public policy finding is that increasing economies of scale do not seem to be present for resource-recovery facilities.

  4. Apolipoprotein E Mimetic Promotes Functional and Histological Recovery in Lysolecithin-Induced Spinal Cord Demyelination in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zhen; Li, Fengqiao; Zhang, Yi Ping; Shields, Lisa B.E.; Hu, Xiaoling; Zheng, Yiyan; Yu, Panpan; Zhang, Yongjie; Cai, Jun; Vitek, Michael P.; Shields, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Considering demyelination is the pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), reducing demyelination and/or promoting remyelination is a practical therapeutic strategy to improve functional recovery for MS. An apolipoprotein E (apoE)-mimetic peptide COG112 has previously demonstrated therapeutic efficacy on functional and histological recovery in a mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of human MS. In the current study, we further investigated whether COG112 promotes remyelination and improves functional recovery in lysolecithin induced focal demyelination in the white matter of spinal cord in mice. Methods A focal demyelination model was created by stereotaxically injecting lysolecithin into the bilateral ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) of T8 and T9 mouse spinal cords. Immediately after lysolecithin injection mice were treated with COG112, prefix peptide control or vehicle control for 21 days. The locomotor function of the mice was measured by the beam walking test and Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) assessment. The nerve transmission of the VLF of mice was assessed in vivo by transcranial magnetic motor evoked potentials (tcMMEPs). The histological changes were also examined by by eriochrome cyanine staining, immunohistochemistry staining and electron microscopy (EM) method. Results The area of demyelination in the spinal cord was significantly reduced in the COG112 group. EM examination showed that treatment with COG112 increased the thickness of myelin sheaths and the numbers of surviving axons in the lesion epicenter. Locomotor function was improved in COG112 treated animals when measured by the beam walking test and BMS assessment compared to controls. TcMMEPs also demonstrated the COG112-mediated enhancement of amplitude of evoked responses. Conclusion The apoE-mimetic COG112 demonstrates a favorable combination of activities in suppressing inflammatory response, mitigating demyelination and in promoting remyelination and associated functional recovery in animal model of CNS demyelination. These data support that apoE-mimetic strategy may represent a promising therapy for MS and other demyelination disorders. PMID:25642353

  5. Contralateral recovery of cochlear function after cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jonathan H K; Kumar, Sanjiv; Chung, Mark; Axon, Patrick R; Gray, Roger F; Donnelly, Neil

    2011-08-01

    Significant recovery of sensorineural hearing loss in either ear after cochlear implantation (CI) is rare. We present the case of a 57-year-old lady with medically treated depression and a background of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in the non-implanted ear, who clearly fulfilled audiological criteria for CI. Two years post-implantation her CSOM in the non-implanted ear was addressed with blind sac closure of the ear. Post-operatively the hearing thresholds in this ear had improved to the extent that a bone-anchored hearing aid became a viable option. The literature is carefully reviewed to consider possible explanations of this phenomenon. PMID:21917208

  6. Intraoperative Neural Response Telemetry and Neural Recovery Function: a Comparative Study between Adults and Children.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Bettina; Hamerschmidt, Rogerio; Wiemes, Gislaine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction?Neural response telemetry (NRT) is a method of capturing the action potential of the distal portion of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) users, using the CI itself to elicit and record the answers. In addition, it can also measure the recovery function of the auditory nerve (REC), that is, the refractory properties of the nerve. It is not clear in the literature whether the responses from adults are the same as those from children. Objective?To compare the results of NRT and REC between adults and children undergoing CI surgery. Methods?Cross-sectional, descriptive, and retrospective study of the results of NRT and REC for patients undergoing IC at our service. The NRT is assessed by the level of amplitude (microvolts) and REC as a function of three parameters: A (saturation level, in microvolts), t0 (absolute refractory period, in seconds), and tau (curve of the model function), measured in three electrodes (apical, medial, and basal). Results?Fifty-two patients were evaluated with intraoperative NRT (26 adults and 26 children), and 24 with REC (12 adults and 12 children). No statistically significant difference was found between intraoperative responses of adults and children for NRT or for REC's three parameters, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. Conclusion?The results of intraoperative NRT and REC were not different between adults and children, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. PMID:25992145

  7. Laser beam device and method for subterranean recovery of fluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Stout; P. C. Washburn; D. J. Rupp; E. D. Latimer; H. McGinnes

    1972-01-01

    A number of conventional laser beam generators is mounted by a frame assembly above ground surface in alignment with a borehole communicating with a subterranean cavity from which recovery of additional oil and gas reserves is desired. The individual laser beams are adjustable concentrated into a composite laser beam by a condensing type focusing lens. A reflecting device rotatable about

  8. Functional connectivity changes in the language network during stroke recovery

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Veena A; Young, Brittany M; La, Christian; Reiter, Peter; Nadkarni, Tanvi N; Song, Jie; Vergun, Svyatoslav; Addepally, Naga Saranya; Mylavarapu, Krishna; Swartz, Jennifer L; Jensen, Matthew B; Chacon, Marcus R; Sattin, Justin A; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Objective Several neuroimaging studies have examined language reorganization in stroke patients with aphasia. However, few studies have examined language reorganization in stroke patients without aphasia. Here, we investigated functional connectivity (FC) changes after stroke in the language network using resting-state fMRI and performance on a verbal fluency (VF) task in patients without clinically documented language deficits. Methods Early-stage ischemic stroke patients (N = 26) (average 5 days from onset), 14 of whom were tested at a later stage (average 4.5 months from onset), 26 age-matched healthy control subjects (HCs), and 12 patients with cerebrovascular risk factors (patients at risk, PR) participated in this study. We examined FC of the language network with 23 seed regions based on a previous study. We evaluated patients' behavioral performance on a VF task and correlation between brain resting-state FC (rsFC) and behavior. Results Compared to HCs, early stroke patients showed significantly decreased rsFC in the language network but no difference with respect to PR. Early stroke patients showed significant differences in performance on the VF task compared to HCs but not PR. Late-stage patients compared to HCs and PR showed no differences in brain rsFC in the language network and significantly stronger connections compared to early-stage patients. Behavioral differences persisted in the late stage compared to HCs. Change in specific connection strengths correlated with changes in behavior from early to late stage. Conclusions These results show decreased rsFC in the language network and verbal fluency deficits in early stroke patients without clinically documented language deficits. PMID:25750922

  9. False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method

    SciTech Connect

    Krauter, Paula; Piepel, Gregory F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matthew S.; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-02-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10x10^-3 to 1.86 CFU/cm^2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (>1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm^2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

  10. Inhibition of CXCL12 signaling attenuates the postischemic immune response and improves functional recovery after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ruscher, Karsten; Kuric, Enida; Liu, Yawei; Walter, Helene L; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Englund, Elisabet; Wieloch, Tadeusz

    2013-01-01

    After stroke, brain inflammation in the ischemic hemisphere hampers brain tissue reorganization and functional recovery. Housing rats in an enriched environment (EE) dramatically improves recovery of lost neurologic functions after experimental stroke. We show here that rats housed in EE after stroke induced by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (pMCAO), showed attenuated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the ischemic core and the surrounding peri-infarct area, including a significant reduction in the stroke-induced chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its natural ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12). To mimic beneficial effects of EE, we studied the impact of inhibiting CXCL12 action on functional recovery after transient MCAO (tMCAO). Rats treated with the specific CXCL12 receptor antagonist 1-[4-(1,4,8,11-tetrazacyclotetradec-1-ylmethyl)phenyl]methyl]-1,4,8,11-tetrazacyclo-tetradecan (AMD3100) showed improved recovery compared with saline-treated rats after tMCAO, without a concomitant reduction in infarct size. This was accompanied by a reduction of infiltrating immune cells in the ischemic hemisphere, particularly cluster of differentiation 3-positive (CD3+) and CD3+/CD4+ T cells. Spleen atrophy and delayed death of splenocytes, induced by tMCAO, was prevented by AMD3100 treatment. We conclude that immoderate excessive activation of the CXCL12 pathway after stroke contributes to depression of neurologic function after stroke and that CXCR4 antagonism is beneficial for the recovery after stroke. PMID:23632969

  11. Resting State Alpha-band Functional Connectivity and Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Westlake, Kelly P.; Hinkley, Leighton B.; Bucci, Monica; Guggisberg, Adrian G.; Findlay, Anne M.; Byl, Nancy; Henry, Roland G.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2013-01-01

    After cerebral ischemia, disruption and subsequent reorganization of functional connections occur both locally and remote to the lesion. However, the unpredictable timing and extent of sensorimotor recovery reflects a gap in understanding of these underlying neural mechanisms. We aimed to identify plasticity of alpha-band functional neural connections within the perilesional area and the predictive value of functional connectivity with respect to motor recovery of the upper extremity after stroke. Our results show improvements in upper extremity motor recovery in relation to distributed changes in MEG-based alpha band functional connectivity, both in the perilesional area and contralesional cortex. Motor recovery was found to be predicted by increased connectivity at baseline in the ipsilesional somatosensory area, supplementary motor area, and cerebellum, contrasted with reduced connectivity of contralesional motor regions, after controlling for age, stroke onset-time and lesion size. These findings support plasticity within a widely distributed neural network and define brain regions in which the extent of network participation predicts post-stroke recovery potential PMID:22750324

  12. Recovery of methanotrophs from disturbance: population dynamics, evenness and functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Ho; Claudia Lüke; Peter Frenzel

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity is claimed to be essential for ecosystem functioning, but is threatened by anthropogenic disturbances. Prokaryotes have been assumed to be functionally redundant and virtually inextinguishable. However, recent work indicates that microbes may well be sensitive to environmental disturbance. Focusing on methane-oxidizing bacteria as model organisms, we simulated disturbance-induced mortality by mixing native with sterilized paddy soil in two ratios,

  13. Symmetry Restoration and Functional Recovery before and after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Logerstedt, David; Lynch, Andrew; Axe, Michael J.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to evaluate the functional recovery before and after ACL reconstruction and to evaluate the sensitivity to change in performance-based and self-report outcomes prior to and after ACL reconstruction and to determine if these changes represent clinically relevant improvement. Methods Eighty-three athletes participated in this study. Athletes were tested after an ACL injury, after pre-operative training, and 6 and 12 months after ACL reconstruction. Athletes completed quadriceps strength testing, hop testing, and self-reported questionnaires for knee function (International Knee Documentation Committee subjective knee form, Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale, and the Global Rating Scale of Perceived Function) at each testing period. Results A significant interaction of limb by time was seen in normalized quadriceps strength, and single, triple, and 6-meter timed hop, where the involved limb improved more than the uninvolved limb over time. A main effect of time was noted for performance-based limb symmetry indexes and self-report measures. Conclusion Limb-to-limb asymmetries are reduced and normal limb symmetry is restored after perturbation training and aggressive quadriceps strengthening and returned to similar levels 6 months after reconstruction. Performance-based values on the involved limb and self-reported outcomes are sensitive to change over time and these were clinically relevant improvements. Level of evidence Level II prognostic study PMID:22349604

  14. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR SAMPLING, RECOVERY, AND ENUMERATION OF BACTERIA APPLIED TO THE PHYLLOPANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining the fate and survival of genetically engineered microorganisms released into the environment requires the development and application of accurate and practical methods of detection and enumeration. everal experiments were performed to examine quantitative recovery met...

  15. A Review of Instruments for Measuring Functional Recovery in Those Diagnosed With Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mausbach, Brent T.; Moore, Raeanne; Bowie, Christopher; Cardenas, Veronica; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    The task of judging an individual's functional recovery is not an easy one for healthcare professionals. Indeed, increasing one's accuracy in predicting one's ability to self-maintain would be of great value for determining if functional recovery has or is occurring. The purpose of this review is to examine existing measures for assessing remission/normalization of functional status among people with psychosis. Our review evaluates 8 measures of functional ability encompassing self-report, clinical, and performance-based measures. We elected to utilize a grading system to aid readers in understanding the merit of a scale for use in assessing functional recovery. In this approach, a letter grade (A, B, or C) was assigned to each of 4 domains we deemed important to professionals in electing to use specific assessments: (1) Ease of Administration, (2) Reliability, (3) Validity/Relationship to Real-World Outcomes, and (4) Sensitivity to Change/Use in Clinical Trials. Results indicated that no “gold standard” measure has been developed to date, but performance-based measures appear to have the most evidence for predicting concurrent self-maintenance abilities (eg, residing independently or maintaining work). More research on existing measures is needed, and greater funding for developing new measures of functional recovery is strongly recommended. PMID:19023122

  16. Delayed Recovery of Receptor-Mediated Functional Responses to Acetylcholine in Mouse Isolated Carotid Arteries following Endothelial Denudation in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alastair L. Miller; Frances Plane; Jamie Y. Jeremy; Heather J. McKinnon; Christopher L. Jackson

    2003-01-01

    The time-course of endothelial regrowth and functional recovery following polytetrafluoroethylene filament-induced endothelial denudation in vivo was studied in the left common carotid artery of the mouse. This technique does not result in any intimal hyperplasia, enabling the investigation of endothelial function without any confounding effect of intimal thickening. Endothelial coverage was assessed histologically, and functional recovery was assessed as restoration

  17. Novel method for graphene functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepi?, D.; Markovi?, Z.; Jovanovi?, S.; Holclajtner Antunovi?, I.; Kleut, D.; Todorovi? Markovi?, B.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we present a novel method to obtain a stable dispersion of graphene in water using carbon quantum dots as surface active agents. In this way it is possible to achieve graphene concentrations in dispersion up to 2.7 mg ml?1. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV–Vis measurements confirmed the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups in the graphene–carbon quantum dot (gCQD) structure, responsible for its good solubility in water. The stability of the gCQD dispersion is due to ?–? interactions formed between graphene and graphene-like sites of carbon quantum dots. According to Raman spectroscopy, as well as transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy analysis, graphene sheets consist of several layers.

  18. On the convergence of nonconvex minimization methods for image recovery.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jin; Ng, Michael Kwok-Po; Yang, Yu-Fei

    2015-05-01

    Nonconvex nonsmooth regularization method has been shown to be effective for restoring images with neat edges. Fast alternating minimization schemes have also been proposed and developed to solve the nonconvex nonsmooth minimization problem. The main contribution of this paper is to show the convergence of these alternating minimization schemes, based on the Kurdyka-?ojasiewicz property. In particular, we show that the iterates generated by the alternating minimization scheme, converges to a critical point of this nonconvex nonsmooth objective function. We also extend the analysis to nonconvex nonsmooth regularization model with box constraints, and obtain similar convergence results of the related minimization algorithm. Numerical examples are given to illustrate our convergence analysis. PMID:25675457

  19. Functional Recovery of Denervated Skeletal Muscle with Sensory or Mixed Nerve Protection: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing Tian; Zhang, Pei Xun; Yin, Xiao Feng; Han, Na; Kou, Yu Hui; Deng, Jiu Xu; Jiang, Bao Guo

    2013-01-01

    Functional recovery is usually poor following peripheral nerve injury when reinnervation is delayed. Early innervation by sensory nerve has been indicated to prevent atrophy of the denervated muscle. It is hypothesized that early protection with sensory axons is adequate to improve functional recovery of skeletal muscle following prolonged denervation of mixed nerve injury. In this study, four groups of rats received surgical denervation of the tibial nerve. The proximal and distal stumps of the tibial nerve were ligated in all animals except for those in the immediate repair group. The experimental groups underwent denervation with nerve protection of peroneal nerve (mixed protection) or sural nerve (sensory protection). The experimental and unprotected groups had a stage II surgery in which the trimmed proximal and distal tibial nerve stumps were sutured together. After 3 months of recovery, electrophysiological, histological and morphometric parameters were assessed. It was detected that the significant muscle atrophy and a good preserved structure of the muscle were observed in the unprotected and protective experimental groups, respectively. Significantly fewer numbers of regenerated myelinated axons were observed in the sensory-protected group. Enhanced recovery in the mixed protection group was indicated by the results of the muscle contraction force tests, regenerated myelinated fiber, and the results of the histological analysis. Our results suggest that early axons protection by mixed nerve may complement sensory axons which are required for promoting functional recovery of the denervated muscle natively innervated by mixed nerve. PMID:24244555

  20. Enhanced oil recovery with hydrophobically associating polymers containing n-vinyl-pyrrolidone functionality

    SciTech Connect

    Bridgewater, J.B.; Pace, S.J.; Gardner, G.; Schulz, D.N.

    1987-12-01

    This invention relates to a method for enhanced recovery of petroleum from a subterranean oil-bearing formation. More particularly, this invention relates to secondary or tertiary recovery of oil employing a polymer-thickened aqueous drive fluid. The polymeric viscosifier for the drive fluid is selected from a class of hydrophobically associating, water soluble polymers containing one or more water soluble monomers and a water insoluble monomer group. The water soluble groups are acrylamide and a salt of acrylic acid and the water insoluble group is a higher alkylacrylamide. These polymers, when dissolved in an aqueous brine solution, have the ability to substantially increase the viscosity of the aqueous solution. The control of displacement fluid mobility results in more uniform sweep efficiency and improved oil recovery. In addition, aqueous solutions of these hydrophobically associating polymers exhibit enhanced viscosification, reduced salt sensitivity and other desirable rheological properties found useful in chemically enhanced oil recovery processes.

  1. The Role of Species Traits in Mediating Functional Recovery during Matrix Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Andrew D.; Emberson, Rowan M.; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Didham, Raphael K.

    2014-01-01

    Reversing anthropogenic impacts on habitat structure is frequently successful through restoration, but the mechanisms linking habitat change, community reassembly and recovery of ecosystem functioning remain unknown. We test for the influence of edge effects and matrix habitat restoration on the reassembly of dung beetle communities and consequent recovery of dung removal rates across tropical forest edges. Using path modelling, we disentangle the relative importance of community-weighted trait means and functional trait dispersion from total biomass effects on rates of dung removal. Community trait composition and biomass of dung beetle communities responded divergently to edge effects and matrix habitat restoration, yielding opposing effects on dung removal. However, functional dispersion—used in this study as a measure of niche complementarity—did not explain a significant amount of variation in dung removal rates across habitat edges. Instead, we demonstrate that the path to functional recovery of these altered ecosystems depends on the trait-mean composition of reassembling communities, over and above purely biomass-dependent processes that would be expected under neutral theory. These results suggest that any ability to manage functional recovery of ecosystems during habitat restoration will demand knowledge of species' roles in ecosystem processes. PMID:25502448

  2. The role of species traits in mediating functional recovery during matrix restoration.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Andrew D; Emberson, Rowan M; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Didham, Raphael K

    2014-01-01

    Reversing anthropogenic impacts on habitat structure is frequently successful through restoration, but the mechanisms linking habitat change, community reassembly and recovery of ecosystem functioning remain unknown. We test for the influence of edge effects and matrix habitat restoration on the reassembly of dung beetle communities and consequent recovery of dung removal rates across tropical forest edges. Using path modelling, we disentangle the relative importance of community-weighted trait means and functional trait dispersion from total biomass effects on rates of dung removal. Community trait composition and biomass of dung beetle communities responded divergently to edge effects and matrix habitat restoration, yielding opposing effects on dung removal. However, functional dispersion--used in this study as a measure of niche complementarity--did not explain a significant amount of variation in dung removal rates across habitat edges. Instead, we demonstrate that the path to functional recovery of these altered ecosystems depends on the trait-mean composition of reassembling communities, over and above purely biomass-dependent processes that would be expected under neutral theory. These results suggest that any ability to manage functional recovery of ecosystems during habitat restoration will demand knowledge of species' roles in ecosystem processes. PMID:25502448

  3. Effect of skilled and unskilled training on nerve regeneration and functional recovery

    PubMed Central

    Pagnussat, A.S.; Michaelsen, S.M.; Achaval, M.; Ilha, J.; Hermel, E.E.S.; Back, F.P.; Netto, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    The most disabling aspect of human peripheral nerve injuries, the majority of which affect the upper limbs, is the loss of skilled hand movements. Activity-induced morphological and electrophysiological remodeling of the neuromuscular junction has been shown to influence nerve repair and functional recovery. In the current study, we determined the effects of two different treatments on the functional and morphological recovery after median and ulnar nerve injury. Adult Wistar male rats weighing 280 to 330?g at the time of surgery (N = 8-10 animals/group) were submitted to nerve crush and 1 week later began a 3-week course of motor rehabilitation involving either “skilled” (reaching for small food pellets) or “unskilled” (walking on a motorized treadmill) training. During this period, functional recovery was monitored weekly using staircase and cylinder tests. Histological and morphometric nerve analyses were used to assess nerve regeneration at the end of treatment. The functional evaluation demonstrated benefits of both tasks, but found no difference between them (P > 0.05). The unskilled training, however, induced a greater degree of nerve regeneration as evidenced by histological measurement (P < 0.05). These data provide evidence that both of the forelimb training tasks used in this study can accelerate functional recovery following brachial plexus injury. PMID:22584636

  4. Hyperinnervation during Adrenal Regeneration Influences the Rate of Functional Recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yvonne M. Ulrich-Lai; William C. Engeland

    2000-01-01

    The rat adrenal cortex has the uncommon ability to demonstrate morphological and functional regeneration after injury-induced loss of cortical tissue. Peripheral nerves are involved in tissue regeneration and healing after injury, implying that nerves may also be involved in modulating the regeneration of the adrenal cortex. Studies were initiated to assess changes in adrenal innervation during cortical tissue regeneration subsequent

  5. Meta analysis of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation promoting functional recovery of motor nerves in rats with complete spinal cord transection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Chen, Ping; Wang, Qi; Chen, Yu; Yu, Haiong; Ma, Junxiong; Guo, Mingming; Piao, Meihui; Ren, Weijian; Xiang, Liangbi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation on functional recovery of rats with complete spinal cord transection. DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online search of Medline (1989–2013), Embase (1989–2013), Cochrane library (1989–2013), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1989–2013), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1989–2013), VIP (1989–2013), Wanfang databases (1989–2013) and Chinese Clinical Trial Register was conducted to collect randomized controlled trial data regarding olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation for the treatment of complete spinal cord transection in rats. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials investigating olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation and other transplantation methods for promoting neurological functional recovery of rats with complete spinal cord transection were included in the analysis. Meta analysis was conducted using RevMan 4.2.2 software. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores of rats with complete spinal cord transection were evaluated in this study. RESULTS: Six randomized controlled trials with high quality methodology were included. Meta analysis showed that Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores were significantly higher in the olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation group compared with the control group (WMD = 3.16, 95% CI (1.68, 4.65); P < 0.00001). CONCLUSION: Experimental studies have shown that olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation can promote the functional recovery of motor nerves in rats with complete spinal cord transection. PMID:25422649

  6. Chronic psychological stress impairs recovery of muscular function and somatic sensations over a 96-hour period.

    PubMed

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Bartholomew, John B; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether chronic mental stress moderates recovery of muscular function and somatic sensations: perceived energy, fatigue, and soreness, in a 4-day period after a bout of strenuous resistance exercise. Undergraduate resistance training students (n = 31; age, 20.26 ± 1.34 years) completed the Perceived Stress Scale and the Undergraduate Stress Questionnaire, a measure of life event stress. At a later visit, they performed an acute heavy-resistance exercise protocol (10 repetition maximum [RM] leg press test plus 6 sets: 80-100% of 10RM). Maximal isometric force (MIF), perceived energy, fatigue, and soreness were assessed in approximately 24-hour intervals after exercise. Recovery data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling growth curve analysis. Life event stress significantly moderated linear (p = 0.027) and squared (p = 0.031) recovery of MIF. This relationship held even when the model was adjusted for fitness, workload, and training experience. Perceived energy (p = 0.038), fatigue (p = 0.040), and soreness (p = 0.027) all were moderated by life stress. Mean perceived stress modulated linear and squared recovery of MIF (p < 0.001) and energy (p = 0.004) but not fatigue or soreness. In all analyses, higher stress was associated with worse recovery. Stress, whether assessed as life event stress or perceived stress, moderated the recovery trajectories of muscular function and somatic sensations in a 96-hour period after strenuous resistance exercise. Therefore, under conditions of inordinate stress, individuals may need to be more mindful about observing an appropriate length of recovery. PMID:24343323

  7. Time course of locomotor recovery and functional regeneration in spinal-transected lamprey: kinematics and electromyography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Davis Jr; M. T. Troxel; V. J. Kohler; E. M. Grossmann; A. D. McClellan

    1993-01-01

    The time course of recovery of locomotor function was examined with kinematic analysis and muscle recordings in larval lampreys 2–32 weeks after rostral spinal cord transection at the level of the third gill (~10% of body length, BL). Animals began to recover locomotor movements within 2–4 weeks of spinal cord transection, but the amplitude of locomotor movements in the tail

  8. Anesthesiology. Author manuscript Lack of impact of intravenous lidocaine on analgesia, functional recovery,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of lidocaine and placebo on pain score, pressure pain thresholds,= extent in the area of hyperalgesia-analgesics which have been recently studied for the postoperative pain treatment, systemic administration of local, functional recovery, and nociceptive pain threshold after total hip arthroplasty Martin Fr d ricé é 1

  9. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Facilitate Axon Sorting, Myelination, and Functional Recovery in Paralyzed

    E-print Network

    -deficient mice were treated with syngenic murine adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). ADSCs expressed lamininMesenchymal Stem Cells Facilitate Axon Sorting, Myelination, and Functional Recovery in Paralyzed Research (DIBIT), San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy KEY WORDS laminin; mesenchymal stem cell

  10. Reducing excessive GABA-mediated tonic inhibition promotes functional recovery after stroke.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Andrew N; Huang, Ben S; Macisaac, Sarah E; Mody, Istvan; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2010-11-11

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability, but no pharmacological therapy is currently available for promoting recovery. The brain region adjacent to stroke damage-the peri-infarct zone-is critical for rehabilitation, as it shows heightened neuroplasticity, allowing sensorimotor functions to re-map from damaged areas. Thus, understanding the neuronal properties constraining this plasticity is important for the development of new treatments. Here we show that after a stroke in mice, tonic neuronal inhibition is increased in the peri-infarct zone. This increased tonic inhibition is mediated by extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors and is caused by an impairment in GABA (?-aminobutyric acid) transporter (GAT-3/GAT-4) function. To counteract the heightened inhibition, we administered in vivo a benzodiazepine inverse agonist specific for ?5-subunit-containing extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors at a delay after stroke. This treatment produced an early and sustained recovery of motor function. Genetically lowering the number of ?5- or ?-subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors responsible for tonic inhibition also proved beneficial for recovery after stroke, consistent with the therapeutic potential of diminishing extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptor function. Together, our results identify new pharmacological targets and provide the rationale for a novel strategy to promote recovery after stroke and possibly other brain injuries. PMID:21048709

  11. Estimation of signal-dependent noise level function in transform domain via a sparse recovery model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingyu; Gan, Ziqiao; Wu, Zhaoyang; Hou, Chunping

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel algorithm to estimate the noise level function (NLF) of signal-dependent noise (SDN) from a single image based on the sparse representation of NLFs. Noise level samples are estimated from the high-frequency discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of nonlocal-grouped low-variation image patches. Then, an NLF recovery model based on the sparse representation of NLFs under a trained basis is constructed to recover NLF from the incomplete noise level samples. Confidence levels of the NLF samples are incorporated into the proposed model to promote reliable samples and weaken unreliable ones. We investigate the behavior of the estimation performance with respect to the block size, sampling rate, and confidence weighting. Simulation results on synthetic noisy images show that our method outperforms existing state-of-the-art schemes. The proposed method is evaluated on real noisy images captured by three types of commodity imaging devices, and shows consistently excellent SDN estimation performance. The estimated NLFs are incorporated into two well-known denoising schemes, nonlocal means and BM3D, and show significant improvements in denoising SDN-polluted images. PMID:25781167

  12. Organism-Sediment Interactions Govern Post-Hypoxia Recovery of Ecosystem Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Van Colen, Carl; Rossi, Francesca; Montserrat, Francesc; Andersson, Maria G. I.; Gribsholt, Britta; Herman, Peter M. J.; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda; Ysebaert, Tom; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia represents one of the major causes of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning loss for coastal waters. Since eutrophication-induced hypoxic events are becoming increasingly frequent and intense, understanding the response of ecosystems to hypoxia is of primary importance to understand and predict the stability of ecosystem functioning. Such ecological stability may greatly depend on the recovery patterns of communities and the return time of the system properties associated to these patterns. Here, we have examined how the reassembly of a benthic community contributed to the recovery of ecosystem functioning following experimentally-induced hypoxia in a tidal flat. We demonstrate that organism-sediment interactions that depend on organism size and relate to mobility traits and sediment reworking capacities are generally more important than recovering species richness to set the return time of the measured sediment processes and properties. Specifically, increasing macrofauna bioturbation potential during community reassembly significantly contributed to the recovery of sediment processes and properties such as denitrification, bedload sediment transport, primary production and deep pore water ammonium concentration. Such bioturbation potential was due to the replacement of the small-sized organisms that recolonised at early stages by large-sized bioturbating organisms, which had a disproportionately stronger influence on sediment. This study suggests that the complete recovery of organism-sediment interactions is a necessary condition for ecosystem functioning recovery, and that such process requires long periods after disturbance due to the slow growth of juveniles into adult stages involved in these interactions. Consequently, repeated episodes of disturbance at intervals smaller than the time needed for the system to fully recover organism-sediment interactions may greatly impair the resilience of ecosystem functioning. PMID:23185440

  13. Timing of recovery of lung function after severe hypoxemic respiratory failure in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. D. B. Golder; R. C. Tasker

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To describe the timing of recovery of lung function after severe acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) in children.\\u000a Design: A serial observational follow-up study of clinical and lung function measurements up to 53 months after acute illness. Setting: University pediatric intensive care unit in a national children's hospital. Patients: Five critically ill children aged 5–14 years. Interventions: None Results:

  14. Stem Cell Mediation of Functional Recovery after Stroke in the Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Ramos-Cabrer; Carles Justicia; Dirk Wiedermann; Mathias Hoehn; Christoph Kleinschnitz

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundRegenerative strategies of stem cell grafting have been demonstrated to be effective in animal models of stroke. In those studies, the effectiveness of stem cells promoting functional recovery was assessed by behavioral testing. These behavioral studies do, however, not provide access to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the observed functional outcome improvement.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsIn order to address the underlying mechanisms

  15. Sampling, preservation, and analytical methods research plan - liquid redox sulfur recovery technologies: Stretford process. Topical report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trofe

    1986-01-01

    GRI has developed a sampling, preservation, and analytical (SPandA) methods research plan for developing and validating analytical methodologies for liquid redox sulfur recovery processes (e.g., Stretford process). The document describes the technical approach which will be used to direct research activities to develop SPandA methodologies to analyze gaseous, aqueous, and solid process streams from the Stretford sulfur recovery process. The

  16. GRACE: Public Health Recovery Methods following an Environmental Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, ER; Whittle, N; Wright, L; McKeown, RE; Sprayberry, K; Heim, M; Caldwell, R; Gibson, JJ; Vena, J.

    2014-01-01

    Different approaches are necessary when Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) of environmental illness is initiated after an environmental disaster within a community. Often such events are viewed as golden scientific opportunities to do epidemiological studies. However, we believe that in such circumstances, community engagement and empowerment needs to be integrated into the public health service efforts in order for both those and any science to be successful, with special care being taken to address the immediate health needs of the community first rather than the pressing needs to answer important scientific questions. We will demonstrate how we have simultaneously provided valuable public health service, embedded generalizable scientific knowledge, and built a successful foundation for supplemental CBPR through our on-going recovery work after the chlorine gas disaster in Graniteville, South Carolina. PMID:20439226

  17. Edaravone promotes functional recovery after mechanical peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Teng; Li, Zhengwei; Dong, Jianli; Nan, Feng; Li, Tao; Yu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Edaravone has been shown to reduce ischemia/reperfusion-induced peripheral nerve injury. However, the therapeutic effect of edaravone on peripheral nerve injury caused by mechanical factors is unknown. In the present study, we established a peripheral nerve injury model by crushing the sciatic nerve using hemostatic forceps, and then administered edaravone 3 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The sciatic functional index and superoxide dismutase activity of the sciatic nerve were increased, and the malondialdehyde level was decreased in animals in the edaravone group compared with those in the model group. Bcl-2 expression was increased, but Bax expression was decreased in anterior horn cells of the L4-6 spinal cord segments. These results indicated that edaravone has a neuroprotective effect following peripheral nerve injury caused by mechanical factors through alleviating free radical damage to cells and inhibiting lipid peroxidation, as well as regulating apoptosis-related protein expression. PMID:25374594

  18. DEDICATED SPECTRAL METHOD OF BOOLEAN FUNCTION DECOMPOSITION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PIOTR PORWIK

    2006-01-01

    Spectral methods constitute a useful tool in the analysis and synthesis of Boolean functions, especially in cases when other methods reduce to brute-force search procedures. There is renewed interest in the application of spectral methods in this area, which extends also to the closely connected concept of the autocorrelation function, for which spectral methods provide fast calculation algorithms. This paper

  19. Modifying lipid rafts promotes regeneration and functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Tassew, Nardos G; Mothe, Andrea J; Shabanzadeh, Alireza P; Banerjee, Paromita; Koeberle, Paulo D; Bremner, Rod; Tator, Charles H; Monnier, Philippe P

    2014-08-21

    Ideal strategies to ameliorate CNS damage should promote both neuronal survival and axon regeneration. The receptor Neogenin promotes neuronal apoptosis. Its ligand prevents death, but the resulting repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa)-Neogenin interaction also inhibits axonal growth, countering any prosurvival benefits. Here, we explore strategies to inhibit Neogenin, thus simultaneously enhancing survival and regeneration. We show that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and RGMa-dependent recruitment of Neogenin into lipid rafts requires an interaction between RGMa and Neogenin subdomains. RGMa or Neogenin peptides that prevent this interaction, BMP inhibition by Noggin, or reduction of membrane cholesterol all block Neogenin raft localization, promote axon outgrowth, and prevent neuronal apoptosis. Blocking Neogenin raft association influences axonal pathfinding, enhances survival in the developing CNS, and promotes survival and regeneration in the injured adult optic nerve and spinal cord. Moreover, lowering cholesterol disrupts rafts and restores locomotor function after spinal cord injury. These data reveal a unified strategy to promote both survival and regeneration in the CNS. PMID:25127134

  20. Sensorimotor training promotes functional recovery and somatosensory cortical map reactivation following cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marina; Brezun, Jean-Michel; Zennou-Azogui, Yoh'i; Baril, Nathalie; Xerri, Christian

    2009-12-01

    Sensorimotor activity has been shown to play a key role in functional recovery after partial spinal cord injury (SCI). Most studies in rodents have focused on the rehabilitation of hindlimb locomotor functions after thoracic or lumbar SCI, whereas forelimb motor and somatosensory abilities after cervical SCI remain largely uninvestigated, despite the high incidence of such injuries in humans. Moreover, little is known about the neurophysiological substrates of training-induced recovery in supraspinal structures. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of a training procedure combining both motor and sensory stimulation on behavioral performance and somatosensory cortical map remodeling after cervical (C4-C5) spinal hemisection in rats. This SCI severely impaired both sensory and motor capacities in the ipsilateral limbs. Without training, post-lesion motor capacities gradually improved, whereas forepaw tactile abilities remained impaired. Consistently, no stimulus-evoked responses were recorded within the forepaw representational zone in the primary somatosensory (S1) cortex at 2 months after the SCI. However, our data reveal that with training started from the 7th day post-lesion, a nearly complete recovery (characterized by an early and rapid improvement of motor functions) was associated with a gradual compensation of tactile deficits. Furthermore, the recovery of tactile abilities was correlated with the areal extent of reactivation of S1 cortex forepaw representations. Rehabilitative training promoted post-lesion adaptive plasticity, probably by enhancing endogenous activity within spared spinal and supraspinal circuits and pathways sustaining sensory and motor functions. This study highlights the beneficial effect of sensorimotor training in motor improvement and its critical influence on tactile recovery after SCI. PMID:20092578

  1. Motoneuron BDNF/TrkB signaling enhances functional recovery after cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Carlos B; Gransee, Heather M; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C

    2013-09-01

    A C2 cervical spinal cord hemisection (SH) interrupts descending inspiratory-related drive to phrenic motoneurons located between C3 and C5 in rats, paralyzing the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm muscle. There is gradual recovery of rhythmic diaphragm muscle activity ipsilateral to cervical spinal cord injury over time, consistent with neuroplasticity and strengthening of spared, contralateral descending premotor input to phrenic motoneurons. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through the tropomyosin related kinase receptor subtype B (TrkB) plays an important role in neuroplasticity following spinal cord injury. We hypothesized that 1) increasing BDNF/TrkB signaling at the level of the phrenic motoneuron pool by intrathecal BDNF delivery enhances functional recovery of rhythmic diaphragm activity after SH, and 2) inhibiting BDNF/TrkB signaling by quenching endogenous neurotrophins with the soluble fusion protein TrkB-Fc or by knocking down TrkB receptor expression in phrenic motoneurons using intrapleurally-delivered siRNA impairs functional recovery after SH. Diaphragm EMG electrodes were implanted bilaterally to verify complete hemisection at the time of SH and 3days post-SH. After SH surgery in adult rats, an intrathecal catheter was placed at C4 to chronically infuse BDNF or TrkB-Fc using an implanted mini-osmotic pump. At 14days post-SH, all intrathecal BDNF treated rats (n=9) displayed recovery of ipsilateral hemidiaphragm EMG activity, compared to 3 out of 8 untreated SH rats (p<0.01). During eupnea, BDNF treated rats exhibited 76±17% of pre-SH root mean squared EMG vs. only 5±3% in untreated SH rats (p<0.01). In contrast, quenching endogenous BDNF with intrathecal TrkB-Fc treatment completely prevented functional recovery up to 14days post-SH (n=7). Immunoreactivity of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), a downstream effector of TrkB signaling, increased in phrenic motoneurons following BDNF treatment (n=6) compared to artificial cerebrospinal fluid treatment (n=6; p<0.001). Intrapleural injections of non-sense or TrkB siRNA were administered after SH to specifically target phrenic motoneurons. At 14days post-SH, none out of 9 TrkB siRNA treated rats displayed functional recovery compared to 5 out of 9 non-sense siRNA treated rats. These results indicate that BDNF/TrkB signaling in phrenic motoneuron pool plays a critical role in functional recovery after cervical spinal cord injury. PMID:23583688

  2. Misdirection of regenerating axons and functional recovery following sciatic nerve injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Shirley K; Hinkle, Marcus L; Nicolini, Jennifer; Rambo, Lindsay N; Rexwinkle, April M; Rose, Sam J; Sabatier, Manning J; Backus, Deborah; English, Arthur W

    2011-01-01

    Poor functional recovery found after peripheral nerve injury has been attributed to the misdirection of regenerating axons to reinnervate functionally inappropriate muscles. We applied brief electrical stimulation (ES) to the common fibular (CF) but not the tibial (Tib) nerve just prior to transection and repair of the entire rat sciatic nerve, to attempt to influence the misdirection of its regenerating axons. The specificity with which regenerating axons reinnervated appropriate targets was evaluated physiologically using compound muscle action potentials (M responses) evoked from stimulation of the two nerve branches above the injury site. Functional recovery was assayed using the timing of electromyography (EMG) activity recorded from the tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (Sol) muscles during treadmill locomotion and kinematic analysis of hindlimb locomotor movements. Selective ES of the CF nerve resulted in restored M-responses at earlier times than in unstimulated controls in both TA and Sol muscles. Stimulated CF axons reinnervated inappropriate targets to a greater extent than unstimulated Tib axons. During locomotion, functional antagonist muscles, TA and Sol, were coactivated both in stimulated rats and in unstimulated but injured rats. Hindlimb kinematics in stimulated rats were comparable to untreated rats, but significantly different from intact controls. Selective ES promotes enhanced axon regeneration but does so with decreased fidelity of muscle reinnervation. Functional recovery is neither improved nor degraded, suggesting that compensatory changes in the outputs of the spinal circuits driving locomotion may occur irrespective of the extent of misdirection of regenerating axons in the periphery. PMID:21120925

  3. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Waste Heat Recovery Methods for the UBC Microbrewery

    E-print Network

    into Waste Heat Recovery Methods for the UBC Microbrewery Nazanin Bahrami, Michael Huang, Aldrich Huang already being a popular place for social activities), and the promotion of similar waste heat recovery...............................................................................................1 2.0 Overview of Waste Heat Recovery Strategies...................................................2

  4. Ecto-domain phosphorylation promotes functional recovery from spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Suehiro, Kenji; Nakamura, Yuka; Xu, Shuai; Uda, Youichi; Matsumura, Takafumi; Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Okamura, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Toshihide; Takei, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) can promote recovery following spinal cord injury. The ecto-domain of NgR can be phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA), which blocks activation of the receptor. Here, we found that infusion of PKA plus ATP into the damaged spinal cord can promote recovery of locomotor function. While significant elongation of cortical-spinal axons was not detectable even in the rats showing enhanced recovery, neuronal precursor cells were observed in the region where PKA plus ATP were directly applied. NgR1 was expressed in neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPs) derived from the adult spinal cord. Both an NgR1 antagonist NEP1-40 and ecto-domain phosphorylation of NgR1 promote neuronal cell production of the NSPs, in vitro. Thus, inhibition of NgR1 in NSPs can promote neuronal cell production, which could contribute to the enhanced recovery of locomotor function following infusion of PKA and ATP. PMID:24826969

  5. Ecto-domain phosphorylation promotes functional recovery from spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Suehiro, Kenji; Nakamura, Yuka; Xu, Shuai; Uda, Youichi; Matsumura, Takafumi; Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Okamura, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Toshihide; Takei, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) can promote recovery following spinal cord injury. The ecto-domain of NgR can be phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA), which blocks activation of the receptor. Here, we found that infusion of PKA plus ATP into the damaged spinal cord can promote recovery of locomotor function. While significant elongation of cortical-spinal axons was not detectable even in the rats showing enhanced recovery, neuronal precursor cells were observed in the region where PKA plus ATP were directly applied. NgR1 was expressed in neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPs) derived from the adult spinal cord. Both an NgR1 antagonist NEP1-40 and ecto-domain phosphorylation of NgR1 promote neuronal cell production of the NSPs, in vitro. Thus, inhibition of NgR1 in NSPs can promote neuronal cell production, which could contribute to the enhanced recovery of locomotor function following infusion of PKA and ATP. PMID:24826969

  6. Sensory recovery of innervated and non-innervated radial forearm free flaps: functional implications.

    PubMed

    Netscher, D; Armenta, A H; Meade, R A; Alford, E L

    2000-04-01

    Findings reported in the literature on the sensation provided by intraorally applied innervated vs. non-innervated radial forearm free flaps differ. In an effort to understand these differences in sensory recovery, the authors carried out sensory evaluations in 12 patients who had undergone radial forearm free flaps. Seven patients had innervated flaps for defects of the tongue and floor of mouth; five had non-innervated flaps to various sites. Flap sensitivity to temperature, light touch, dull touch, and sharpness and two-point discrimination was assessed at the donor site and contralaterally, and at the recipient site and contralateral mirror-image oral mucosa. Patients subjectively rated post-reconstruction sensation and provided quality of life (QOOL) data. The innervated flaps demonstrated better sensory recovery than the non-innervated flaps, although the latter did restore reasonable sensation. This paper describes the results, compares the study to other similar studies, and discusses various factors in the sensory recovery of both innervated and non-innervated intraoral radial forearm free flaps. The authors conclude that, although the trend in this study is toward improved function with the innervated flaps, these flaps do not appear to offer major intraoral functional advantage over the non-innervated flaps, which attain reasonably effective sensory recovery from neural ingrowth, if the lingual nerve is intact. PMID:10803620

  7. A novel time-memory trade-off method for password recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vrizlynn L. L. Thing; Hwei-Ming Ying

    2009-01-01

    As users become increasingly aware of the need to adopt strong password, it hinders the digital forensics investigations due to the password protection of potential evidence data. In this paper, we analyse and discuss existing password recovery methods, and identify the need for a more efficient and effective method to aid the digital forensics investigation process. We show that our

  8. New method for carbon dioxide recovery from the combustion of fossil fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Berry; C. S. Wang; C. B. Dennis; A. M. Wolsky

    1988-01-01

    The relative size and composition of gas streams concomitant with a new method of carbon dioxide recovery are described and related to each other. This is done for two variations, dry recycle and wet recycle, of the new method. Calculations performed under the differing assumptions of complete combustion and chemical equilibrium are compared. The following fuels are considered: methane, CHâ;

  9. Cerebral reorganization as a function of linguistic recovery in children: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Elkana, Odelia; Frost, Ram; Kramer, Uri; Ben-Bashat, Dafna; Hendler, Talma; Schmidt, David; Schweiger, Avraham

    2011-02-01

    Characterizing and mapping the relationship between neuronal reorganization and functional recovery are essential to the understanding of cerebral plasticity and the dynamic processes which occur following brain damage. The neuronal mechanisms underlying linguistic recovery following left hemisphere (LH) lesions are still unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated whether the extent of brain lateralization of linguistic functioning in specific regions of interest (ROIs) is correlated with the level of linguistic performance following recovery from acquired childhood aphasia. The study focused on a rare group of children in whom lesions occurred after normal language acquisition, but prior to complete maturation of the brain. During fMRI scanning, rhyming, comprehension and verb generation activation tasks were monitored. The imaging data were evaluated with reference to linguistic performance measured behaviorally during imaging, as well as outside the scanner. Compared with normal controls, we found greater right hemisphere (RH) lateralization in patients. However, correlations with linguistic performance showed that increased proficiency in linguistic tasks was associated with greater lateralization to the LH. These results were replicated in a longitudinal case study of a patient scanned twice, 3 years apart. Additional improvement in linguistic performance of the patient was accompanied by increasing lateralization to the LH in the anterior language region. This, however, was the result of a decreased involvement of the RH. These findings suggest that recovery is a dynamic, ongoing process, which may last for years after onset. The role of each hemisphere in the recovery process may continuously change within the chronic stage. PMID:20138262

  10. A Method for Simulating Heat Recovery Systems Using AirModel in Implementations of the ASHRAE Simplified Energy Analysis Procedure 

    E-print Network

    Liu, C.; Zeig, M.; Claridge, D. E.; Wei, G.; Bruner, H.; Turner, W. D.

    2005-01-01

    sensible heat recovery system, the return air ratio was adjusted in AirModel. The adjusted return air ratio was calculated by using the heat recovery parameters, weather data, and room temperatures. The heat recovery system was then modeled as a heat...A Method for Simulating Heat Recovery Systems Using AirModel in Implementations of the ASHRAE Simplified Energy Analysis Procedure Chenggang Liu Research Associate Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University College Station, TX Marvin...

  11. A unified method to process biosolids samples for the recovery of bacterial, viral, and helminths pathogens.

    PubMed

    Alum, Absar; Rock, Channah; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    For land application, biosolids are classified as Class A or Class B based on the levels of bacterial, viral, and helminths pathogens in residual biosolids. The current EPA methods for the detection of these groups of pathogens in biosolids include discrete steps. Therefore, a separate sample is processed independently to quantify the number of each group of the pathogens in biosolids. The aim of the study was to develop a unified method for simultaneous processing of a single biosolids sample to recover bacterial, viral, and helminths pathogens. At the first stage for developing a simultaneous method, nine eluents were compared for their efficiency to recover viruses from a 100 gm spiked biosolids sample. In the second stage, the three top performing eluents were thoroughly evaluated for the recovery of bacteria, viruses, and helminthes. For all three groups of pathogens, the glycine-based eluent provided higher recovery than the beef extract-based eluent. Additional experiments were performed to optimize performance of glycine-based eluent under various procedural factors such as, solids to eluent ratio, stir time, and centrifugation conditions. Last, the new method was directly compared with the EPA methods for the recovery of the three groups of pathogens spiked in duplicate samples of biosolids collected from different sources. For viruses, the new method yielded up to 10% higher recoveries than the EPA method. For bacteria and helminths, recoveries were 74% and 83% by the new method compared to 34% and 68% by the EPA method, respectively. The unified sample processing method significantly reduces the time required for processing biosolids samples for different groups of pathogens; it is less impacted by the intrinsic variability of samples, while providing higher yields (P = 0.05) and greater consistency than the current EPA methods. PMID:24521413

  12. Caregiver-mediated intervention can improve physical functional recovery of patients with chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu-Chi; Tsai, Alan C; Wang, Jiun-Yi; Lin, Yu-Te; Lin, Ko-Long; Chen, Jiun Jiang; Lin, Bei Yi; Lin, Tai Ching

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Patients with chronic stroke may benefit from continuing rehabilitation training after hospital discharge. This study examined whether caregiver-mediated, home-based intervention (CHI) could improve physical functioning and social participation in these patients. Methods. A single-blind, randomized, controlled 12-week trial conducted with 51 patients from 3 hospitals in Taiwan who had chronic stroke (>6 months; Brunnstrom recovery stages III-V). Patients and their caregivers in the intervention arm (n = 25) were given weekly personalized CHI trainings designed by a physical therapist. Patients in the control arm (n = 26) received visits from the therapist without intervention. All were evaluated for physical recovery through the Stroke Impact Scale, Berg Balance Scale, 10-Meter Walk Test, 6-Minute Walk Test, and Barthel Index at baseline and endpoint. Caregivers were evaluated with the Caregiver Burden Scale. Results were analyzed through Mann-Whitney U test. Results. CHI significantly improved scores of the Stroke Impact Scale: strength (control vs intervention, respectively: 1.4 vs 15.5; P = .002), mobility (-0.5 vs 13.7; P < .001), composite physical (-0.7 vs 11.2; P < .001), and general recovery domain (0.2 vs 17.4; P < .001). CHI also significantly improved free-walking velocity (-1.4 vs 7.5 cm/s; P = .006), 6-minute walk distance (-10.5 vs 15.8 m; P = .003), Berg Balance Scale score (-0.8 vs 4.5; P = .006), and Barthel Index score (0.6 vs 7.2; P = .008). CHI did not significantly increase caregiver burden at endpoint. Conclusion. CHI can improve physical functional recovery and, possibly, social participation in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:24788580

  13. Dexamethasone Enhanced Functional Recovery after Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xinhong; Yuan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone is currently used for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, but its mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Inflammation/immune response at the site of nerve lesion is known to be an essential trigger of the pathological changes that have a critical impact on nerve repair and regeneration. In this study, we observed the effects of various doses of dexamethasone on the functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model. Motor functional recovery was monitored by walking track analysis and gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio. The myelinated axon number was counted by morphometric analysis. Rats administered dexamethasone by local intramuscular injection had a higher nerve function index value, increased gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio, reduced Wallerian degeneration severity, and enhanced regenerated myelinated nerve fibers. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for CD3 expression, which is a marker for T-cell activation, and infiltration in the sciatic nerve. Dexamethasone-injected rats had fewer CD3-positive cells compared to controls. Furthermore, we found increased expression of GAP-43, which is a factor associated with development and plasticity of the nervous system, in rat nerves receiving dexamethasone. These results provide strong evidence that dexamethasone enhances sciatic nerve regeneration and function recovery in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury through immunosuppressive and potential neurotrophic effects. PMID:25839037

  14. Dexamethasone enhanced functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xinhong; Yuan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone is currently used for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, but its mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Inflammation/immune response at the site of nerve lesion is known to be an essential trigger of the pathological changes that have a critical impact on nerve repair and regeneration. In this study, we observed the effects of various doses of dexamethasone on the functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model. Motor functional recovery was monitored by walking track analysis and gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio. The myelinated axon number was counted by morphometric analysis. Rats administered dexamethasone by local intramuscular injection had a higher nerve function index value, increased gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio, reduced Wallerian degeneration severity, and enhanced regenerated myelinated nerve fibers. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for CD3 expression, which is a marker for T-cell activation, and infiltration in the sciatic nerve. Dexamethasone-injected rats had fewer CD3-positive cells compared to controls. Furthermore, we found increased expression of GAP-43, which is a factor associated with development and plasticity of the nervous system, in rat nerves receiving dexamethasone. These results provide strong evidence that dexamethasone enhances sciatic nerve regeneration and function recovery in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury through immunosuppressive and potential neurotrophic effects. PMID:25839037

  15. Manual stimulation of forearm muscles does not improve recovery of motor function after injury to a mixed peripheral nerve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Sinis; O. Guntinas-Lichius; A. Irintchev; E. Skouras; S. Kuerten; S. P. Pavlov; H. E. Schaller; S. A. Dunlop; D. N. Angelov

    2008-01-01

    Transection and re-anastomosis of the purely motor facial nerve leads to poor functional recovery. However, we have recently\\u000a shown in rat that manual stimulation (MS) of denervated vibrissal muscles reduces the number of polyinnervated motor endplates\\u000a and promotes full recovery of whisking. Here, we examined whether MS of denervated rat forearm muscles would also improve\\u000a recovery following transection and suture

  16. Exploration method using harmonic functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edson Prestes e Silva Jr.; Paulo Martins Engel; Marcelo Trevisan; Marco Aurélio Pires Idiart

    2002-01-01

    Harmonic functions provide optimal potential maps for robot navigation in a previously explored static environment. Here we investigate the performance of an algorithm for exploration based on partial updates of a harmonic potential in an occupancy grid. We consider that while the robot moves it carries along an activation window whose size is of the order of the sensor's range.

  17. Functional adaptation to traumatic brain injury: Recovery of function following left hemisphere damage acquired in adulthood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronan E. Ocarroll; Neil Prentice

    1996-01-01

    We report a case of a subject (HA) who suffered a very severe head injury in a road traffic accident In 1944 (aged 21 years). She subsequently made an excellent recovery and had not suffered any long-term sequelae to this until she exhibited psychotic symptomatology in 1971, when she developed temporal lobe epilepsy with marked paranoid delusional ideas. This has

  18. Chronic Valproate Treatment Enhances Post-ischemic Angiogenesis and Promotes Functional Recovery in a Rat Model of Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifei; Tsai, Li-Kai; Munasinghe, Jeeva; Leng, Yan; Fessler, Emily Bame; Chibane, Fairouz; Leeds, Peter; Chuang, De-Maw

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Enhanced angiogenesis facilitates neurovascular remodeling processes and promotes brain functional recovery after stroke. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that valproate (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, protects against experimental brain ischemia. The present study investigated whether VPA could enhance angiogenesis and promote long-term functional recovery after ischemic stroke. Methods Male rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion for up to 14 days. Assessed parameters were: locomotor function via rotarod test; infarct volume via T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging; microvessel density via immunohistochemistry; relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) via perfusion-weighted imaging; protein levels of pro-angiogenic factors via Western blotting; and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9 activities via gelatin zymography. Results Post-ischemic VPA treatment robustly improved the rotarod performance of MCAO rats on days 7 and 14 after ischemia, and significantly reduced brain infarction on day 14. Concurrently, VPA markedly enhanced microvessel density, facilitated endothelial cell proliferation, and increased rCBF in the ipsilateral cortex. The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? and its downstream pro-angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and MMP-2/9, were upregulated after MCAO and significantly potentiated by VPA in the ipsilateral cortex. Acetylation of histone-H3 and H4 was robustly increased by chronic VPA treatment. The beneficial effects of VPA on rotarod performance and microvessel density were abolished by HIF-1? inhibition. Conclusions Chronic VPA treatment enhances angiogenesis and promotes functional recovery after brain ischemia. These effects may involve HDAC inhibition and upregulation of HIF-1? and its downstream pro-angiogenic factors VEGF and MMP-2/9. PMID:22811460

  19. Method and apparatus for the recovery of hydrocarbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Schirmer

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an elongated modular steam generating means detachably coupled in series from its upstream end to its downstream end, each module being adapted to be replaced by a module, including at least one differently operating element, adapted to perform the same function as the module replaced. It comprises: combustor head means, including fuel injection means and combustion-supporting gas

  20. A Method for Comparative Analysis of Recovery Potential in Impaired Waters Restoration Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Douglas J.; Wickham, James D.; Wade, Timothy G.; Kunert, Kelly; Thomas, John V.; Zeph, Paul

    2009-08-01

    Common decision support tools and a growing body of knowledge about ecological recovery can help inform and guide large state and federal restoration programs affecting thousands of impaired waters. Under the federal Clean Water Act (CWA), waters not meeting state Water Quality Standards due to impairment by pollutants are placed on the CWA Section 303(d) list, scheduled for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) development, and ultimately restored. Tens of thousands of 303(d)-listed waters, many with completed TMDLs, represent a restoration workload of many years. State TMDL scheduling and implementation decisions influence the choice of waters and the sequence of restoration. Strategies that compare these waters’ recovery potential could optimize the gain of ecological resources by restoring promising sites earlier. We explored ways for states to use recovery potential in restoration priority setting with landscape analysis methods, geographic data, and impaired waters monitoring data. From the literature and practice we identified measurable, recovery-relevant ecological, stressor, and social context metrics and developed a restorability screening approach adaptable to widely different environments and program goals. In this paper we describe the indicators, the methodology, and three statewide, recovery-based targeting and prioritization projects. We also call for refining the scientific basis for estimating recovery potential.

  1. Cognitive recovery and predictors of functional outcome 1 year after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Sigurdardottir, Solrun; Andelic, Nada; Roe, Cecilie; Schanke, Anne-Kristine

    2009-09-01

    Outcome studies on traumatic brain injury (TBI) have shown that functional status can be predicted by demographic, injury severity, and trauma-related factors. Concurrent cognitive functions as one of the determinants of functional outcome is less documented. This study evaluated the effects of concurrent neuropsychological measures on functional outcome 1 year after injury. Neuropsychological data, employment status, self-reported fatigue, and the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) were collected from 115 persons with TBI (ranging from mild to severe) at 3 and 12 months postinjury. Principal components analysis was conducted with the neuropsychological measures and three components emerged. Multiple regression analysis, controlling for demographic and injury severity related factors, was used to test the effects of cognitive components at 12 months on functional outcome (GOSE). One year after injury, 64% were categorized as "good recovery" and 36% as "moderate disability" according to GOSE. Good functional recovery depended on shorter duration of posttraumatic amnesia, less fatigue, absence of intracranial pathology, higher education, and better performance on cognitive measures. The predictive values of Verbal/Reasoning and Visual/Perception components are supported; each added significantly and improved prediction of functional outcome. The Memory/Speed component showed a near-significant relationship to outcome. PMID:19602303

  2. Strength and Functional Recovery Following Repair of Flexor Digitorum Superficialis in Zone 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. BOULAS; J. W. STRICKLAND

    1993-01-01

    A two-pronged study was designed to evaluate the strength in vitro and functional recovery in vivo of FDS repairs in zone 2. In part I, horizontal mattress or Tajima grasping repairs were performed on fresh-frozen cadaveric digits, using 3\\/0 or 4\\/0 braided nylon suture material. The Tajima repair was significantly stronger than the mattress suture, using either 3\\/0 (P =

  3. Delayed administration of a PTEN inhibitor BPV improves functional recovery after experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Mao, L; Jia, J; Zhou, X; Xiao, Y; Wang, Y; Mao, X; Zhen, X; Guan, Y; Alkayed, N J; Cheng, J

    2013-02-12

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) inhibitors administered prior to or immediately after experimental stroke confer acute neuroprotection. However, it remains unclear if delayed treatment with a PTEN inhibitor improves long-term functional recovery after stroke. We addressed the issue in this study. Adult male mice were subjected to 1h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by treatment with a well-established PTEN inhibitor BPV or saline daily for 14 days, starting at 24h after MCAO. Functional recovery was assessed with behavioral tests and acute infarct volumes were analyzed histologically. Delayed BPV treatment did not reduce infarction during the acute phase, but significantly improved long-term functional recovery after MCAO. Since PTEN is a critical intrinsic inhibitory factor in axonal regeneration, we further examined BPV effects on axonal densities following MCAO using bielschowsky silver staining and immunohistochemistry with antibodies against myelin basic protein. Delayed BPV treatment significantly increased axon densities in the ischemic brain at 14 days after MCAO. Moreover, PTEN expression persistently remained high in the ischemic brain over 14 days after MCAO, and BPV treatment increased post-ischemic activation of Akt and mTOR in the ischemic brain. Akt and mTOR activation are the well-established cascades downstream to PTEN inhibition and have been shown to contribute to post-injury axonal regrowth in response to PTEN inhibition. Consistently, in an in vitro neuronal ischemia model, BPV enhanced axonal outgrowth of primary cortical neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation and the enhancing effects were abolished by Akt/mTOR inhibition. In conclusion, delayed BPV treatment improved functional recovery from experimental stroke possibly via enhancing axonal growth and Akt/mTOR activation contributed to BPV-enhanced post-stroke axon growth. PMID:23219909

  4. Glia are the main source of lactate utilized by neurons for recovery of function posthypoxia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avital Schurr; Ralphiel S Payne; James J Miller; Benjamin M Rigor

    1997-01-01

    Experiments are described in which a rat hippocampal slice preparation was used along with the metabolic glial inhibitor, fluorocitrate (FC), to investigate the role of glial-made lactate and its shuttling to neurons in posthypoxia recovery of synaptic function. After testing two less effective concentrations of FC, only 10.1±6.5% of slices treated with 100 ?M of the metabolic toxin recovered synaptic

  5. Women's Voices on Recovery: A Multi-Method Study of the Complexity of Recovery from Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The current study was exploratory and used multiple methods to examine patterns of stability and change in resilient functioning across 7 years of early adulthood. Second, qualitative data were used to examine in greater detail survivors' own narratives about correlates of healing. Method: This study was longitudinal and used both…

  6. Functional recovery from sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat correlates with individual differences in responses to chronic intermittent stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Gispen; N. L. U. Meeteren; J. H. Brakkee; P. J. M. Helders; V. M. Wiegant

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to monitor the influence of chronic stress on functional recovery from a sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat. Male Wistar rats underwent standard unilateral sciatic nerve crush. Subsequently, chronic stress was induced during the recovery phase using a daily 30 min shock box session where rats received three electric footshocks each session

  7. Nogo-A-specific antibody treatment enhances sprouting and functional recovery after cervical lesion in adult primates.

    PubMed

    Freund, Patrick; Schmidlin, Eric; Wannier, Thierry; Bloch, Jocelyne; Mir, Anis; Schwab, Martin E; Rouiller, Eric M

    2006-07-01

    In rodents, after spinal lesion, neutralizing the neurite growth inhibitor Nogo-A promotes axonal sprouting and functional recovery. To evaluate this treatment in primates, 12 monkeys were subjected to cervical lesion. Recovery of manual dexterity and sprouting of corticospinal axons were enhanced in monkeys treated with Nogo-A-specific antibody as compared to monkeys treated with control antibody. PMID:16819551

  8. RECOVERY OF WASTE PVC COATED PET FABRICS BY SWELLING METHOD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabit Adanur; Zhenwei Hou

    This work focused on investigating a novel recycling technique, swelling method, to recovering PVC coated PET fabrics. This technique used a chemical as a swelling agent to swell the only PVC component in the coated fabric. This process degrades the mechanical properties of PVC component which allows it to be broken into small pieces and detached from the PET fabric

  9. A new digestion method for recovery of MMMFs from lungs.

    PubMed

    Ishimatsu, S; Oyabu, T; Hori, H; Tanaka, I

    1999-07-01

    A new tissue digestion method is proposed to recover man-made mineral fibers (MMMFs) from lungs, which is an improved Kjeldahl method using microwaves. Tissue digestion is carried out under five different conditions in this experiment, and the most suitable condition is found as follows; dried rat lung (0.5 g of wet weight) is put into a flask with 0.1 ml of H2SO4 and 2.0 ml of HNO3, and treated by microwaves for 5 min. After the treatment, 1.0 ml of H2O2 is added immediately and the sample is treated again under the same condition. Pure samples of glass fibers and refractory ceramic fibers are treated by this proposed method. Numbers and sizes of the fibers are measured before and after the treatment on enlarged photos taking by a scanning electron microscope. As no significant changes are observed in fiber dimensions and numbers, the proposed method is shown to be applicable to recover these MMMFs from lungs. PMID:10441902

  10. Mass recovery methods for trichloroethylene in plant tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gayathri Gopalakrishnan; M. C. Negri; C. J. Werth

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring expenses form a significant fraction of the costs associated with remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater sites. A novel monitoring method that could result in significant cost savings is the use of plants as monitoring devices; previous work indicates that plant tissue samples, especially trunk (core) and branch samples, can be used to delineate soil and groundwater plumes at

  11. Recovery of Copper from the Slag of Khatoonabad Flash Smelting Furnace by Flotation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Nader; Vaghar, Ramez; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza Tavakoli; Hashemi, Seyed Ahmad

    2013-04-01

    Copper loss in the slag of Khatoonabad flash smelting furnace is estimated to be about 1-3 %. At present, the electric slag cleaning furnace is used for the recovery of copper from slag. However, due to low recovery efficiency of electric furnace along with high consumption of electrical energy and water, selection of a method to enable minimum energy consumption and maximum recovery of copper seems to be essential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of copper recovery from this slag using flotation method, and to determine the effective parameters involved in the process. Based on the experiments conducted, the best results were obtained for pH 11.5, 60 g/t Z11 and R407 collectors with a weighing ratio of 3-2, 40 g/t of MIBC and A65 frothers with an equal weighting ratio and grinding time of 45 min. Under these conditions, the copper concentrate grade and recovery were 19 and 91.1 % in the rougher step, 27.4 and 96.3 % in the cleaner step, and 32 and 93 % in the recleaner step, respectively.

  12. N-acetylcysteineamide Preserves Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Improves Functional Recovery Following Spinal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Samir P.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Pandya, Jignesh D.; Goldstein, Glenn A.; VanRooyen, Jenna L.; Yonutas, Heather M.; Eldahan, Khalid C.; Morehouse, Johnny; Magnuson, David S. K.; Rabchevsky, Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is becoming a pivotal target for neuroprotective strategies following contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and the pharmacological compounds that maintain mitochondrial function confer neuroprotection and improve long-term hindlimb function after injury. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of cell-permeating thiol, N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA), a precursor of endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH), on mitochondrial function acutely, and long-term tissue sparing and hindlimb locomotor recovery following upper lumbar contusion SCI. Some designated injured adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=120) received either Vehicle or NACA (75, 150, 300 or 600 mg/kg) at 15min and 6hrs post-injury. After 24hr the total, synaptic, and non-synaptic mitochondrial populations were isolated from a single 1.5cm spinal cord segment (centered at injury site) and assessed for mitochondrial bioenergetics. Results showed compromised total mitochondrial bioenergetics following acute SCI that was significantly improved with NACA treatment in a dose-dependent manner, with maximum effects at 300 mg/kg (n=4/group). For synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria, only 300 mg/kg NACA dosage showed efficacy. Similar dosage (300mg/kg) also maintained mitochondrial GSH near normal levels. Other designated injured rats (n=21) received continuous NACA (150 or 300mg/kg/day) treatment starting at 15min post-injury for one week to assess long-term functional recovery over 6 weeks post-injury. Locomotor testing and novel gait analyses showed significantly improved hindlimb function with NACA that were associated with increased tissue sparing at the injury site. Overall, NACA treatment significantly maintained acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and normalized GSH levels following SCI, and prolonged delivery resulted in significant tissue sparing and improved recovery of hindlimb function. PMID:24805071

  13. The role of recovery of mitochondrial structure and function in desiccation tolerance of pea seeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Cheng, Hong-Yan; Møller, Ian M; Song, Song-Quan

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial repair is of fundamental importance for seed germination. When mature orthodox seeds are imbibed and germinated, they lose their desiccation tolerance in parallel. To gain a better understanding of this process, we studied the recovery of mitochondrial structure and function in pea (Pisum sativum cv. Jizhuang) seeds with different tolerance to desiccation. Mitochondria were isolated and purified from the embryo axes of control and imbibed-dehydrated pea seeds after (re-)imbibition for various times. Recovery of mitochondrial structure and function occurred both in control and imbibed-dehydrated seed embryo axes, but at different rates and to different maximum levels. The integrity of the outer mitochondrial membrane reached 96% in all treatments. However, only the seeds imbibed for 12 h and then dehydrated recovered the integrity of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) and State 3 (respiratory state in which substrate and ADP are present) respiration (with NADH and succinate as substrate) to the control level after re-imbibition. With increasing imbibition time, the degree to which each parameter recovered decreased in parallel with the decrease in desiccation tolerance. The tolerance of imbibed seeds to desiccation increased and decreased when imbibed in CaCl(2) and methylviologen solution, respectively, and the recovery of the IMM integrity similarly improved and weakened in these two treatments, respectively. Survival of seeds after imbibition-dehydration linearly increased with the increase in ability to recover the integrity of IMM and State 3 respiration, which indicates that recovery of mitochondrial structure and function during germination has an important role in seed desiccation tolerance. PMID:21910735

  14. Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley, NJ)

    2011-03-08

    A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.

  15. Boolean Function Design Using Hill Climbing Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Millan; Andrew Clark; Ed Dawson

    1999-01-01

    This paper outlines a general approach to the iterative incre- mental improvement of the cryptographic properties of arbitrary Boolean functions. These methods, which are known as hill climbing, oer a fast way to obtain Boolean functions that have properties superior to those of randomly generated functions. They provide a means to improve the at- tainable compromise between conflicting cryptographic criteria.

  16. Evaluation method for thermal processing of phosphoric acid with waste heat recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Zan; Lin Shi; Yao Zu Song; Ming Shan Zhu

    2006-01-01

    The conventional two-step thermal processing of phosphoric acid wastes enormous amounts of energy, which causes serious environmental pollution in addition to bad economic performance. A two-step waste heat recovery method using a “phosphorus burning boiler” was developed to reduce energy loss. This paper presents an exergy analysis model based on two new indicators for the “process driving force” and the

  17. Thermodynamic optimization method of a triple effect absorption system with wasted heat recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Manole; J. L. Lage

    1995-01-01

    A detailed performance study is done for a water-lithium bromide triple regenerative effect absorption refrigerating system, with heat recovery. An analysis method is developed and implemented on a computer code to simulate the operation and control of the system under realistic conditions. The thermodynamic performances of the system are described by means of exergetic and energetic based criteria. The numerical

  18. EXTRACTION METHODS FOR RECOVERY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM FORTIFIED DRY SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recovery of 8 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dry soils, each fortified at 800 ng/g soil, was studied in relation to the extraction method and time of extraction. Extraction procedures studied on desiccator-dried soils were modifications of EPA low-and high-level purge-and...

  19. A Novel Method for Enhanced Recovery of Lignin from Aqueous Process Streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Ho Kim; Yunqiao Pu; Richard P. Chandra; Thomas J. Dyer; Arthur J. Ragauskas; Preet M. Singh

    2007-01-01

    This study demonstrates that acid precipitation of lignin in the presence of magnetite followed by an applied magnetic field provides a simple method for enhanced lignin recovery from an aqueous stream. The extraction procedure was shown to be sensitive to the relative charge of magnetite and solution pH. Under optimized conditions, 93 wt.% of the softwood lignin from a kraft cooking

  20. Method for selective recovery of cadmium from cadmium-bearing waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Reinhardt; H. D. Ottertun; J. H. A. Rydberg

    1977-01-01

    A method for the selective recovery of cadmium, nickel and cobalt from a nickel--cadmium battery waste comprises the following steps: (A) leaching the waste with an ammoniacal carbonate solution to form an aqueous ammoniacal carbonate solution containing cadmium, nickel and cobalt (II) ammine complexes and a leaching residue--any iron in the waste is in the leaching residue; (B) adding air

  1. Functional methods for waves in random media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    Some basic ideas in functional methods for waves in random media are illustrated through a simple random differential equation. These methods are then generalized to solve certain random parabolic equations via an exponential representation given by the Feynman-Kac formula. It is shown that these functional methods are applicable to a number of problems in random wave propagation. They include the forward-scattering approximation in Gaussian white-noise media; the solution of the optical beam propagation problem by a phase-integral method; the high-frequency scattering by bounded random media, and a derivation of approximate moment equations from the functional integral representation.

  2. Method of controlling scale in oil recovery operations

    DOEpatents

    Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing highly viscous minerals from a subterranean formation by injection of an acidic, thermal vapor stream without substantial scale buildup in downstream piping, pumps and well bore. The process comprises heating the formation by injection of heat, preferably in the form of a thermal vapor stream composed of combustion gases and steam and injecting an acidic compound simultaneously with the thermal vapor stream into the formation at a temperature above the dew point of the thermal vapor stream. The acidic, thermal vapor stream increases the solubility of metal ions in connate water and thus reduces scaling in the downstream equipment during the production of viscous hydrocarbons.

  3. Method of enhanced oil recovery employing thickened amphoteric surfactant solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kalpakci, B.; Chan, K. S.

    1985-11-26

    A method is disclosed for recovering petroleum from a subterranean reservoir penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well comprising: injecting into the reservoir through the injection well a surfactant slug comprising an aqueous solution containing about 0.001 to about 5% by weight of an amphoteric surfactant and an effective amount of a high molecular weight homopolysaccharide gum thickener derived from fungus strains of the genus Schlerotium to provide the surfactant slug with a viscosity exceeding the viscosity of the petroleum in the reservoir; and recovering fluid from the production well.

  4. Oil recovery method utilizing highly oxyalklated phenolic resins

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, C.M. Jr.; Stout, C.A.; Olsen, R.P.

    1989-03-21

    A method is described for recovering petroleum from a subterranean reservoir. It consists of introducing, through an injection well, a predeterminable amount of polyalkylene oxide adduct of a fusible phenolic, hydrocarbon-soluble synthetic resin, the resin containing from about 4 to about 16 phenolic groups and being a condensate of an ortho or para alkyl or cycloaliphatic substituted phenol and an aldehyde. The adduct is formed by further condensation of the condensate resin with ethylene oxide and at least one other alkylene oxide containing 3 or 4 carbon atoms. The adduct contains more than about 1% by weight and less than about 50% by weight of phenolic resin moiety.

  5. Local delivery of FTY720 in PCL membrane improves SCI functional recovery by reducing reactive astrogliosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjuan; Wang, Jiaqiu; Lu, Ping; Cai, Youzhi; Wang, Yafei; Hong, Lan; Ren, Hao; Heng, Boon Chin; Liu, Hua; Zhou, Jing; Ouyang, Hongwei

    2015-09-01

    FTY720 has recently been approved as an oral drug for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, and exerts its therapeutic effect by acting as an immunological inhibitor targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor subtype (S1P1) of T cells. Recently studies demonstrated positive efficacy of this drug on spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models after systemic administration, albeit with significant adverse side effects. We hereby hypothesize that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by reducing pathological astrogliosis. The mechanistic functions of FTY720 were investigated in vitro and in vivo utilizing immunofluorescence, histology, MRI and behavioral analysis. The in vitro study showed that FTY720 can reduce astrocyte migration and proliferation activated by S1P. FTY720 can prolong internalization of S1P1 and exert antagonistic effects on S1P1. In vivo study of SCI animal models demonstrated that local delivery of FTY720 with polycaprolactone (PCL) membrane significantly decreased S1P1 expression and glial scarring compared with the control group. Furthermore, FTY720-treated groups exhibited less cavitation volume and neuron loss, which significantly improved recovery of motor function. These findings demonstrated that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by targeting the S1P1 receptor of astrocytes, provide a new therapeutic strategy for SCI treatment. PMID:26036174

  6. Electrical stimulation and iterative learning control for functional recovery in the upper limb post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Meadmore, Katie; Exell, Timothy; Freeman, Christopher; Kutlu, Mustafa; Rogers, Eric; Hughes, Ann-Marie; Hallewell, Emma; Burridge, Jane

    2013-06-01

    Therapies using functional electrical stimulation (FES) in conjunction with practice of everyday tasks have proven effective in facilitating recovery of upper limb function following stroke. The aim of the current study is to develop a multi-channel electrical stimulation system that precisely controls the assistance provided in goal-orientated tasks through use of advanced model-based 'iterative learning control' (ILC) algorithms to facilitate functional motor recovery of the upper limb post-stroke. FES was applied to three muscle groups in the upper limb (the anterior deltoid, triceps and wrist extensors) to assist hemiparetic, chronic stroke participants to perform a series of functional tasks with real objects, including closing a drawer, turning on a light switch and repositioning an object. Position data from the participants' impaired upper limb was collected using a Microsoft Kinect® and was compared to an ideal reference. ILC used data from previous attempts at the task to moderate the FES signals applied to each muscle group on a trial by trial basis to reduce performance error whilst supporting voluntary effort by the participant. The clinical trial is on-going. Preliminary results show improvements in performance accuracy for each muscle group, as well as improvements in clinical outcome measures pre and post 18 training sessions. Thus, the feasibility of applying precisely controlled FES to three muscle groups in the upper limb to facilitate functional reach and grasp movements post stroke has been demonstrated. PMID:24187178

  7. Assessments of lung digestion methods for recovery of fibers.

    PubMed

    Warheit, D B; Hwang, H C; Achinko, L

    1991-04-01

    Evaluation of the pulmonary hazards associated with exposure to fibrous materials tends to be more complicated than assessments required for particulate materials. Fibers are defined by aspect ratios and it is generally considered that physical dimensions play an important role in the pathogenesis of fiber-related lung diseases. Several digestion techniques have been used to recover fibers from exposed lung tissue for clearance studies. Because many of the digestion fluids are corrosive (e.g., bleach, KOH), it is conceivable that the dimensions of recovered fibers are modified during the tissue digestion methods to assess whether the physical dimensions of bulk samples of fibers were altered following simulated digestion processing. Aliquots of crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos, Kevlar aramid, wollastonite, polyacrylonitrile (pan)-based carbon, and glass fibers were incubated with either saline, bleach, or KOH and then filtered. Scanning electron microscopy techniques were utilized to measure the physical dimensions (i.e., lengths and diameters) of at least 160 fibers per treatment group of each fiber type. Our results showed that the lengths and diameters of glass fibers and wollastonite were altered after treatment with KOH. In addition, treatment with bleach produced a small reduction in both asbestos fiber-type diameters, and greater changes in Kevlar and wollastonite diameters and carbon fiber lengths (P less than 0.05). These results indicate that lung digestion methods should be carefully assessed for each fiber type before initiating fiber clearance studies. PMID:1851478

  8. Human Hepatocyte Growth Factor Promotes Functional Recovery in Primates after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Kazuya; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Yamane, Jun-ichi; Toyota, Fumika; Hikishima, Keigo; Nomura, Tatsuji; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Aoki, Masashi; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

    2011-01-01

    Many therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) using neurotrophic factors have focused on reducing the area damaged by secondary, post-injury degeneration, to promote functional recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes and a mediator of the inflammatory responses to tissue injury, was recently highlighted as a potent neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. We previously reported that introducing exogenous HGF into the injured rodent spinal cord using a herpes simplex virus-1 vector significantly reduces the area of damaged tissue and promotes functional recovery. However, that study did not examine the therapeutic effects of administering HGF after injury, which is the most critical issue for clinical application. To translate this strategy to human treatment, we induced a contusive cervical SCI in the common marmoset, a primate, and then administered recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) intrathecally. Motor function was assessed using an original open field scoring system focusing on manual function, including reach-and-grasp performance and hand placement in walking. The intrathecal rhHGF preserved the corticospinal fibers and myelinated areas, thereby promoting functional recovery. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed significant preservation of the intact spinal cord parenchyma. rhHGF-treatment did not give rise to an abnormal outgrowth of calcitonin gene related peptide positive fibers compared to the control group, indicating that this treatment did not induce or exacerbate allodynia. This is the first study to report the efficacy of rhHGF for treating SCI in non-human primates. In addition, this is the first presentation of a novel scale for assessing neurological motor performance in non-human primates after contusive cervical SCI. PMID:22140459

  9. Human hepatocyte growth factor promotes functional recovery in primates after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kazuya; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Yamane, Jun-Ichi; Toyota, Fumika; Hikishima, Keigo; Nomura, Tatsuji; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Aoki, Masashi; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

    2011-01-01

    Many therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) using neurotrophic factors have focused on reducing the area damaged by secondary, post-injury degeneration, to promote functional recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes and a mediator of the inflammatory responses to tissue injury, was recently highlighted as a potent neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. We previously reported that introducing exogenous HGF into the injured rodent spinal cord using a herpes simplex virus-1 vector significantly reduces the area of damaged tissue and promotes functional recovery. However, that study did not examine the therapeutic effects of administering HGF after injury, which is the most critical issue for clinical application. To translate this strategy to human treatment, we induced a contusive cervical SCI in the common marmoset, a primate, and then administered recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) intrathecally. Motor function was assessed using an original open field scoring system focusing on manual function, including reach-and-grasp performance and hand placement in walking. The intrathecal rhHGF preserved the corticospinal fibers and myelinated areas, thereby promoting functional recovery. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed significant preservation of the intact spinal cord parenchyma. rhHGF-treatment did not give rise to an abnormal outgrowth of calcitonin gene related peptide positive fibers compared to the control group, indicating that this treatment did not induce or exacerbate allodynia. This is the first study to report the efficacy of rhHGF for treating SCI in non-human primates. In addition, this is the first presentation of a novel scale for assessing neurological motor performance in non-human primates after contusive cervical SCI. PMID:22140459

  10. Long-term functional recovery and compensation after cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Sylvie; Murray, Katie N.; Rothwell, Nancy J.; Metz, Gerlinde A.S.; Allan, Stuart M.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is one of the most common causes of disabilities in adults and leads to long-term motor and cognitive impairments with limited therapeutic possibilities. Treatment options have proven efficient in preclinical models of cerebral ischemia but have failed in the clinical setting. This limited translation may be due to the suitability of models used and outcomes measured as most studies have focused on the early period after injury with gross motor scales, which have limited correlation to the clinical situation. The aim of this study was to determine long-term functional outcomes after cerebral ischemia in rats, focusing on fine motor function, social and depressive behavior as clinically relevant measures. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effects of an anti-inflammatory treatment (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)) on functional recovery and compensation. Infarct volume was correlated with long-term (25 days) impairments in fine motor skills, but not with emotional components of behavior. Motor impairments could not be detected using conventional neurological tests and only detailed analysis allowed differentiation between recovery and compensation. Acute systemic administration of IL-1Ra (at reperfusion) led to a faster and more complete recovery, but delayed (24 h) IL-1Ra treatment had no effect. In summary functional assessment after brain injury requires detailed motor tests in order to address long-term impairments and compensation processes that are mediated by intact tissues. Functional deficits in skilled movement after brain injury represent ideal predictors of long-term outcomes and should become standard measures in the assessment of preclinical animal models. PMID:24821402

  11. Erythropoietin promotes neurovascular remodeling and long-term functional recovery in rats following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ning, Ruizhuo; Xiong, Ye; Mahmood, Asim; Zhang, Yanlu; Meng, Yuling; Qu, Changsheng; Chopp, Michael

    2011-04-12

    Erythropoietin (EPO) improves functional recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study was designed to investigate long-term (3 months) effects of EPO on brain remodeling and functional recovery in rats after TBI. Young male Wistar rats were subjected to unilateral controlled cortical impact injury. TBI rats were divided into the following groups: (1) saline group (n=7); (2) EPO-6h group (n=8); and (3) EPO-24h group (n=8). EPO (5000 U/kg in saline) was administered intraperitoneally at 6h, and 1 and 2 days (EPO-6h group) or at 1, 2, and 3 days (EPO-24h group) postinjury. Neurological function was assessed using a modified neurological severity score, footfault and Morris water maze tests. Animals were sacrificed at 3 months after injury and brain sections were stained for immunohistochemical analyses. Compared to the saline, EPO-6h treatment significantly reduced cortical lesion volume, while EPO-24h therapy did not affect the lesion volume (P<0.05). Both the EPO-6h and EPO-24h treatments significantly reduced hippocampal cell loss (P<0.05), promoted angiogenesis (P<0.05) and increased endogenous cellular proliferation (BrdU-positive cells) in the injury boundary zone and hippocampus (P<0.05) compared to saline controls. Significantly enhanced neurogenesis (BrdU/NeuN-positive cells) was seen in the dentate gyrus of both EPO groups compared to the saline group. Both EPO treatments significantly improved long-term sensorimotor and cognitive functional recovery after TBI. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of posttraumatic EPO treatment on injured brain persisted for at least 3 months. The long-term improvement in functional outcome may in part be related to the neurovascular remodeling induced by EPO. PMID:21295557

  12. Method and apparatus for the recovery of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, R.M.

    1989-08-29

    This patent describes an elongated modular steam generating means detachably coupled in series from its upstream end to its downstream end, each module being adapted to be replaced by a module, including at least one differently operating element, adapted to perform the same function as the module replaced. It comprises: combustor head means, including fuel injection means and combustion-supporting gas introduction means; combustion chamber means in open communication with the downstream end of the combustor head, adapted to burn the fuel in the presence of the combustion-supporting gas and produce a flue gas substantially free of unburned and partially burned fuel; water introduction means adapted to introduce water into the flue gas adjacent the downstream end of the combustion chamber; and vaporization chamber means in open communication with the downstream end of the combustion chamber and adapted to vaporize a major portion of the water and discharge a mixture of flue gas and steam from the downstream end of the vaporization chamber. The fuel introduction means, the combustion supporting gas introduction means and the combustion chamber means being adapted to produce a power output of at least 7MM Btu/hr. with a heat release rate of at least about 50 MM Btu/hr. ft/sup 3/.

  13. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1988-05-04

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, James D. (Laramie, WY); Harak, Arnold E. (Laramie, WY)

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

  15. Effect of lacosamide on structural damage and functional recovery after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, A; Immonen, R; Ndode-Ekane, X; Gröhn, O; Stöhr, T; Nissinen, J

    2014-05-01

    In a subgroup of patients, traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in the occurrence of acute epileptic seizures or even status epilepticus, which are treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Recent experimental data, however, suggest that administration of AEDs at the early post-injury phase can compromise the recovery process. The present study was designed to assess the profile of a novel anticonvulsant, lacosamide (Vimpat) on post-TBI structural, motor and cognitive outcomes. Moderate TBI was induced by lateral fluid-percussion injury in adult rats. Treatment with 0.9% saline or lacosamide (30 mg/kg, i.p.) was started at 30 min post-injury and continued at 8h intervals for 3d (total daily dose 90 mg/kg/d). Rats were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups: sham-operated controls treated with vehicle (Sham-Veh) or lacosamide (Sham-LCM) and injured animals treated with vehicle (TBI-Veh) or lacosamide (TBI-LCM). As functional outcomes we tested motor recovery with composite neuroscore and beam-walking at 2, 7, and 15 d post-injury. Cognitive recovery was tested with the Morris water-maze at 12-14 d post-TBI. To assess the structural outcome, animals underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2 d post-TBI. At 16d post-TBI, rats were perfused for histology to analyze cortical and hippocampal neurodegeneration and axonal damage. Our data show that at 2 d post-TBI, both the TBI-Veh and TBI-LCM groups were equally impaired in neuroscore. Thereafter, motor recovery occurred similarly during the first week. At 2 wk post-TBI, recovery of the TBI-LCM group lagged behind that in the TBI-VEH group (p<0.05). Performance in beam-walking did not differ between the TBI-Veh and TBI-LCM groups. Both TBI groups were similarly impaired in the Morris water-maze at 2 wk post-TBI. MRI and histology did not reveal any differences in the cortical or hippocampal damage between the TBI-Veh and TBI-LCM groups. Taken together, acute treatment with LCM had no protective effects on post-TBI structural or functional impairment. Composite neuroscore in the TBI-LCM group lagged behind that in the TBI-Veh group at 15 d post-injury, but no compromise was found in other indices of post-TBI recovery in the LCM treated animals. PMID:24636248

  16. Development of on-farm oil recovery and processing methods: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.; Kilgo, M.B.

    1987-09-02

    Using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), peanut oil was extracted from ground peanuts at pressures of 2000 to 10,000 psi and temperatures of 25-120/degree/ C. Above 6000 psi, increasing the temperature to the maximum possible without heavily charring the peanuts (120/degree/C) significantly increased the initial extraction rate. Increasing the pressure at constant temperature increased the rate. At higher temperatures (75/degree/ C and above) roasting began to occur, however, this was not detrimental to the extraction rate or overall oil recovery. Decreasing the particle size increases the overall yield per batch of peanuts as seen in both the half factorial and particle size experiments. Increasing the moisture increases the amount of volatiles lost. The flow rate does not affect the solubility, percent oil recovered or volatiles lost for flow rates of 40 to 60 liters CO2/minute at STP. Recovery of peanut and rapeseed oil with a combined process of partial recovery in a screw press plus extraction of the remaining oil with SC-CO2 is technically a viable alternative to other oil recovery methods. Oil recoveries of 95% (peanuts) and 75% (rapeseed) have been demonstrated. The initial extraction rate for rapeseed was consistently lower than the rate for peanuts at the same extraction temperature and pressure. No differences in SC-CO2 extraction rates or yields were found between Dwarf Essex and Cascade varieties of rapeseed. 8 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. A biomaterials approach to peripheral nerve regeneration: bridging the peripheral nerve gap and enhancing functional recovery

    PubMed Central

    Daly, W.; Yao, L.; Zeugolis, D.; Windebank, A.; Pandit, A.

    2012-01-01

    Microsurgical techniques for the treatment of large peripheral nerve injuries (such as the gold standard autograft) and its main clinically approved alternative—hollow nerve guidance conduits (NGCs)—have a number of limitations that need to be addressed. NGCs, in particular, are limited to treating a relatively short nerve gap (4 cm in length) and are often associated with poor functional recovery. Recent advances in biomaterials and tissue engineering approaches are seeking to overcome the limitations associated with these treatment methods. This review critically discusses the advances in biomaterial-based NGCs, their limitations and where future improvements may be required. Recent developments include the incorporation of topographical guidance features and/or intraluminal structures, which attempt to guide Schwann cell (SC) migration and axonal regrowth towards their distal targets. The use of such strategies requires consideration of the size and distribution of these topographical features, as well as a suitable surface for cell–material interactions. Likewise, cellular and molecular-based therapies are being considered for the creation of a more conductive nerve microenvironment. For example, hurdles associated with the short half-lives and low stability of molecular therapies are being surmounted through the use of controlled delivery systems. Similarly, cells (SCs, stem cells and genetically modified cells) are being delivered with biomaterial matrices in attempts to control their dispersion and to facilitate their incorporation within the host regeneration process. Despite recent advances in peripheral nerve repair, there are a number of key factors that need to be considered in order for these new technologies to reach the clinic. PMID:22090283

  18. Assessments of lung digestion methods for recovery of fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Warheit, D.B.; Hwang, H.C.; Achinko, L. (E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Newark DE (United States))

    1991-04-01

    Evaluation of the pulmonary hazards associated with exposure to fibrous materials tends to be more complicated than assessments required for particulate materials. Fibers are defined by aspect ratios and it is generally considered that physical dimensions play an important role in the pathogenesis of fiber-related lung diseases. Several digestion techniques have been used to recover fibers from exposed lung tissue for clearance studies. Because many of the digestion fluids are corrosive (e.g., bleach, KOH), it is conceivable that the dimensions of recovered fibers are modified during the tissue digestion process, thus creating erroneous data. Accordingly, the authors evaluated two lung digestion methods to assess whether the physical dimensions of bulk samples of fibers were altered following simulated digestion processing. Aliquots of crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos, Kevlar aramid, wollastonite, polyacrylonitrile (pan)-based carbon, and glass fibers were incubated with either saline, bleach, or KOH and then filtered. Scanning electron microscopy techniques were utilized to measure the physical dimensions (i.e., lengths and diameters) of at least 160 fibers per treatment group of each fiber type. Their results showed that the lengths and diameters of glass fibers and wollastonite were altered after treatment with KOH. In addition, treatment with bleach produced a small reduction in both asbestos fiber-type diameters, and greater changes in Kevlar and wollastonite diameters and carbon fiber lengths.

  19. The functional connectivity of semantic task changes in the recovery from stroke aphasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jie; Wu, Xia; Yao, Li; Li, Kun-Cheng; Shu, Hua; Dong, Qi

    2007-03-01

    Little is known about the difference of functional connectivity of semantic task between the recovery aphasic patients and normal subject. In this paper, an fMRI experiment was performed in a patient with aphasia following a left-sided ischemic lesion and normal subject. Picture naming was used as semantic activation task in this study. We compared the preliminary functional connectivity results of the recovery aphasic patient with the normal subject. The fMRI data were separated by independent component analysis (ICA) into 90 components. According to our experience and other papers, we chose a region of interest (ROI) of semantic (x=-57, y=15, z=8, r=11mm). From the 90 components, we chose one component as the functional connectivity of the semantic ROI according to one criterion. The criterion is the mean value of the voxels in the ROI. So the component of the highest mean value of the ROI is the functional connectivity of the ROI. The voxel with its value higher than 2.4 was thought as activated (p<0.05). And the functional connectivity networks of the normal subjects were t-tested as group network. From the result, we can know the semantic functional connectivity of stroke aphasic patient and normal subjects are different. The activated areas of the left inferior frontal gyrus and inferior/middle temporal gyrus are larger than the ones of normal. The activated area of the right inferior frontal gyrus is smaller than the ones of normal. The functional connectivity of stroke aphasic patient under semantic condition is different with the normal one. The focus of the stroke aphasic patient can affect the functional connectivity.

  20. Change in Positive Emotion and Recovery of Functional Status Following Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Seale, Gary S.; Berges, Ivonne-Marie; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Ostir, Glenn V.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To investigate change in positive emotion over a 3-month follow-up period and determine whether this change is associated with recovery of functional status in persons with stroke. Design A longitudinal study using information from the Stroke Recovery in Underserved Patients (SRUP) database. Positive emotion and functional status were assessed within 72 hours of discharge from an in-patient medical rehabilitation facility and at 3-month follow-up using established measurement instruments. Participants The study included 840 adults 55 years old or older with a first-time stroke and admitted to one of eleven in-patient medical rehabilitation facilities in the United States. Results The mean age was 72.9 (SD = 9.52) years, 78.6% were non-Hispanic white and 51.7% were women. The average length of stay was 20.2 (SD = 10.1) days and the most prevalent type of stroke was ischemic (75.0%). Positive emotion increased for 35.6% of the sample, decreased for 29.2%, and 35.2% reported no change. Increases in positive emotion change score compared to no change (b = ?3.2, SE = 1.5, p = .032) or a decline (b = ?8.9, SE = 1.4, p = <.001) was significantly associated with improved functional status at the 3-month follow-up after adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical variables as well as depressive symptoms. Conclusion Positive emotion is a dynamic process and can change over time. In persons with stroke, increases in positive emotion over a 3-month period was significantly associated with an increasing likelihood of recovery of functional status compared to no change or a decline in positive emotion. Understanding factors that influence both increases and decreases in positive emotion has implications for stroke rehabilitation programming and quality of life post-hospital discharge. PMID:20175632

  1. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on recovery of function after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tazoe, Toshiki; Perez, Monica A

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of rehabilitation strategies after spinal cord injury (SCI) is to enhance the recovery of function. One possible avenue to achieve this goal is to strengthen the efficacy of the residual neuronal pathways. Noninvasive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used in patients with motor disorders as a tool to modulate activity of corticospinal, cortical, and subcortical pathways to promote functional recovery. This article reviews a series of studies published during the last decade that used rTMS in the acute and chronic stages of paraplegia and tetraplegia in humans with complete and incomplete SCI. In the studies, rTMS has been applied over the arm and leg representations of the primary motor cortex to target 3 main consequences of SCI: sensory and motor function impairments, spasticity, and neuropathic pain. Although some studies demonstrated that consecutive sessions of rTMS improve aspects of particular functions, other studies did not show similar effects. We discuss how rTMS parameters and postinjury reorganization in the corticospinal tract, motor cortical, and spinal cord circuits might be critical factors in understanding the advantages and disadvantages of using rTMS in patients with SCI. The available data highlight the limited information on the use of rTMS after SCI and the need to further understand the pathophysiology of neuronal structures affected by rTMS to maximize the potential beneficial effects of this technique in humans with SCI. PMID:25175159

  2. Postoperative complications do not influence the pattern of early lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer in patients at risk

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pattern and factors influencing the lung function recovery in the first postoperative days are still not fully elucidated, especially in patients at increased risk. Methods Prospective study on 60 patients at increased risk, who underwent a lung resection for primary lung cancer. Inclusion criteria: complete resection and one or more known risk factors in form of COPD, cardiovascular disorders, advanced age or other comorbidities. Previous myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularization or stenting, cardiac rhythm disorders, arterial hypertension and myocardiopathy determined the increased cardiac risk. The severity of COPD was graded according to GOLD criteria. The trend of the postoperative lung function recovery was assessed by performing spirometry with a portable spirometer. Results Cardiac comorbidity existed in 55%, mild and moderate COPD in 20% and 35% of patients respectively. Measured values of FVC% and FEV1% on postoperative days one, three and seven, showed continuous improvement, with significant difference between the days of measurement, especially between days three and seven. There was no difference in the trend of the lung function recovery between patients with and without postoperative complications. Whilst pO2 was decreasing during the first three days in a roughly parallel fashion in patients with respiratory, surgical complications and in patients without complications, a slight hypercapnia registered on the first postoperative day was gradually abolished in all groups except in patients with cardiac complications. Conclusion Extent of the lung resection and postoperative complications do not significantly influence the trend of the lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer. PMID:24884793

  3. Effect of mirror therapy with tDCS on functional recovery of the upper extremity of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyuk-Shin; Cha, Hyun-Gyu

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effect of mirror therapy (MT) with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the recovery of the upper extremity function of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-seven patients at least 6 months after stroke onset were divided randomly into an experimental group (14 patients) and a control group (13 patients). [Methods] All subjects received tDCS for 20?min followed by a 5?min rest. Then the experimental group received MT while the control group conducted the same exercises as the experimental group using a mirror that did not show the non-paretic upper extremity. The groups performed the same exercises for 20?min. All subjects received this intervention for 45-min three times a week for 6 weeks. [Results] After the intervention, the experimental group showed significant improvements in the box and block test (BBT), grip strength, and the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA), and a significant decrease in the Jebsen-Taylor test. The control group showed a significant increase in grip strength after the intervention, and a significant decrease in the Jebsen-Taylor test. Comparison of the result after the intervention revealed that the experimental group showed more significant increases in the BBT and grip strength than the control group. [Conclusion] These results show that MT with tDCS has a positive effect on the functional recovery of the upper extremity of stroke patients, through activating motor regions in the brain, and thus plays an important role in recovery of neuroplasticity. PMID:25995552

  4. Stress relaxation functions: Methods of approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Mark V.; Gant, Frederick S.

    1994-04-01

    A new method of determining Prony series coefficients is presented. This method, the domain of influence method (DOI), capitalizes on characteristics of the exponential decay curve to adjust its parameters to fit a set of data. This method was applied to viscoelastic stress relaxation data. The method is general and can be used to develop exponential decay curves to represent other types of data where appropriate. The DOI method does not include any error correction within itself. To improve the results of the DOI method some form of error correction is necessary. The nonlinearity of the Prony series does not lend itself to common methods of error minimization. Optimization methods can be applied to this problem. These methods use the functional behavior of the problem under study to minimize or maximize some characteristic of the problem. Here the function minimized was an error function between the DOI estimated Prony series and the viscoelastic data. Optimization was achieved by adjusting the Prony series coefficients to minimize that error. The DOI method was encoded in FORTRAN and integrated with commercially available optimization routines to produce a tool called Viscoelastic Coefficient Determination or VCD. A description of this code including a discussion of the salient features is presented. An example is used to demonstrate the DOI method, illustrate the operation of VCD, and demonstrate the capabilities of the method and the software. A code listing appears in the appendix.

  5. Connectionist modeling of the recovery of language functions following brain damage.

    PubMed

    Harley, T A

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the contribution of connectionism to our understanding of behavioral changes in language functions after brain damage. Connectionism is founded upon a neural metaphor in that connectionist networks are made up of many simple, neuron-like units. It is possible to lesion these networks and explore the effects of that damage. It is widely held that damaging connectionist networks informs our understanding of neuropsychology and cognitive psychology. To what extent then does it currently tell us, or is likely to tell us, anything about behavioral change following brain damage? Current connectionist models simulate either spontaneous recovery or the effects of retraining, and I discuss both approaches. Which is taken at present partly depends upon the connectionist framework used as the starting point. Most simulation work involving back-propagation has focused upon retraining lesioned networks, while work involving interactive activation has focused upon making inferences about the time course of spontaneous recovery. I discuss research in modeling deep dyslexia, aphasia, and dementia. I argue that further research on modeling spontaneous recovery is limited by the fixed architecture of most current connectionist networks. PMID:8741975

  6. Intrathecal Morphine Attenuates Recovery of Function after a Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Georgina; Woller, Sarah; Puga, Denise; Hoy, Kevin; Balden, Robyn; Grau, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Prior work has shown that a high dose (20?mg/kg) of systemic morphine, required to produce significant analgesia in the acute phase of a contusion injury, undermines the long-term health of treated subjects and increases lesion size. Moreover, a single dose of systemic morphine in the early stage of injury (24?h post-injury) led to symptoms of neuropathic pain 3 weeks later, in the chronic phase. The present study examines the locus of the effects using intrathecal morphine administration. Subjects were treated with one of three doses (0, 30, or 90??g) of intrathecal morphine 24?h after a moderate contusion injury. The 90-?g dose produced significant analgesia when subjects were exposed to noxious stimuli (thermal and incremented shock) below the level of injury. Yet, despite analgesic efficacy, intrathecal morphine significantly attenuated the recovery of locomotor function and increased lesion size rostral to the injury site. A single dose of 30 or 90??g of intrathecal morphine also decreased weight gain, and more than doubled the incidence of mortality and autophagia when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Morphine is one of the most effective pharmacological agents for the treatment of neuropathic pain and, therefore, is indispensable for the spinally injured. Treatment can, however, adversely affect the recovery process. A morphine-induced attenuation of recovery may result from increases in immune cell activation and, subsequently, pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the contused spinal cord. PMID:19388818

  7. Sampling, preservation, and analytical methods research plan - liquid redox sulfur recovery technologies: Stretford process. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Trofe, T.W.

    1986-11-01

    GRI has developed a sampling, preservation, and analytical (SPandA) methods research plan for developing and validating analytical methodologies for liquid redox sulfur recovery processes (e.g., Stretford process). The document describes the technical approach which will be used to direct research activities to develop SPandA methodologies to analyze gaseous, aqueous, and solid process streams from the Stretford sulfur recovery process. The primary emphasis is on developing and validating methodologies for analyzing vanadium (IV) and vanadium (V), anthraquinone disulphonic acids (ADA), polysulfide-sulfur, sulfide-sulfur, thiosulfate, sulfate, thiocyanate, total soluble sulfur, alkalinity, pH, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, and dissolved oxygen in aqueous process streams. The document includes descriptions of the process streams and chemical species, selection of candidate analytical methods, and technical approach for methods development and validation.

  8. On statistical methods of structure function extraction

    E-print Network

    S. N. Sevbitov; T. V. Shishkina; I. L. Solovtsov

    2007-11-29

    Several methods of statistical analysis are proposed and analyzed in application for a specific task -- extraction of the structure functions from the cross sections of deep inelastic interactions of any type. We formulate the method based on the orthogonal weight functions and on an optimization procedure of errors minimization as well as methods underlying common $\\chi^2$ minimization. Effectiveness of these methods usage is analyzed by comparison of the statistical parameters such as bias, extraction variance etc., for sample deep inelastic scattering data set.

  9. A Combination Therapy of Nicotinamide and Progesterone Improves Functional Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Todd C; Hoane, Michael R; McConomy, Keith S; Farin, Fred M; Bammler, Theo K; MacDonald, James W; Kantor, Eric D; Anderson, Gail D

    2015-06-01

    Neuroprotection, recovery of function, and gene expression were evaluated in an animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) after a combination treatment of nicotinamide (NAM) and progesterone (Prog). Animals received a cortical contusion injury over the sensorimotor cortex, and were treated with either Vehicle, NAM, Prog, or a NAM/Prog combination for 72?h and compared with a craniotomy only (Sham) group. Animals were assessed in a battery of behavioral, sensory, and both fine and gross motor tasks, and given histological assessments at 24?h post-injury to determine lesion cavity size, degenerating neurons, and reactive astrocytes. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine treatment-specific changes on gene expression. Our results confirm the beneficial effects of treatment with either NAM or Prog, demonstrating significant improvements in recovery of function and a reduction in lesion cavitation, degenerating neurons, and reactive astrocytes 24?h post-injury. The combination treatment of NAM and Prog led to a significant improvement in both neuroprotection at 24?h post-injury and recovery of function in sensorimotor related tasks when compared with individual treatments. The NAM/Prog-treated group was the only treatment group to show a significant reduction of cortical loss 24?h post-injury. The combination appears to affect inflammatory and immune processes, reducing expression of a significant number of genes in both pathways. Further preclinical trials using NAM and Prog as a combination treatment should be conducted to identify the window of opportunity, determine the optimal duration of treatment, and evaluate the combination in other pre-clinical models of TBI. PMID:25313690

  10. Agar Underlay Method for Recovery of Sublethally Heat-Injured Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kang, D. H.; Siragusa, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    A method of recovering sublethally heat-injured bacteria was developed. The procedure (termed the agar underlay method) uses a nonselective agar underlaid with a selective medium. In a two-chambered petri dish, the Lutri plate (LP), a nonselective agar is inoculated with a population of sublethally heat-injured bacteria. After a 2-h repair incubation period, selective agar is added to the bottom chamber of the LP and incubated. By diffusing through the nonselective top agar, selective agents from the underlay medium impart selectivity to the system. By the agar underlay method, recovery rates of the heat-injured food-borne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium were not different (P > 0.05) from recovery rates determined with nonselective media. Sublethally heat-injured cells (60°C for 1.5 min in buffer or 80°C for 30 s on meat surfaces) grew and produced a typical colony morphology and color reaction when the agar underlay procedure was used with the appropriate respective selective agars. Unlike agar overlay methods for injury repair, the agar underlay procedure allows the typical selective-medium colony morphology to develop and allows colonies to be more easily picked for further characterization. Higher recovery rates of heat-injured fecal enterococci from bovine fecal samples and total coliforms from animal waste lagoons were obtained by the agar underlay method with selective agars than by direct plating on the respective selective media. PMID:10583985

  11. Promoting endothelial function by S-nitrosoglutathione through the HIF-1?/VEGF pathway stimulates neurorepair and functional recovery following experimental stroke in rats

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mushfiquddin; Dhammu, Tajinder S; Matsuda, Fumiyo; Baarine, Mauhammad; Dhindsa, Tejbir Singh; Singh, Inderjit; Singh, Avtar K

    2015-01-01

    Background For stroke patients, stimulating neurorepair mechanisms is necessary to reduce morbidity and disability. Our previous studies on brain and spinal cord trauma show that exogenous treatment with the S-nitrosylating agent S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) – a nitric oxide and glutathione metabolite of the human body – stimulates neurorepair and aids functional recovery. Using a rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (IR) in this study, we tested the hypothesis that GSNO invokes the neurorepair process and improves neurobehavioral functions through the angiogenic HIF-1?/VEGF pathway. Methods Stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion in adult male rats. The injured animals were treated with saline (IR group, n=7), GSNO (0.25 mg/kg, GSNO group, n=7), and GSNO plus the HIF-1? inhibitor 2-methoxyestra-diol (2-ME) (0.25 mg/kg GSNO + 5.0 mg/kg 2-ME, GSNO + 2-ME group, n=7). The groups were studied for either 7 or 14 days to determine neurorepair mediators and functional recovery. Brain capillary endothelial cells were used to show that GSNO promotes angiogenesis and that GSNO-mediated induction of VEGF and the stimulation of angiogenesis are dependent on HIF-1? activity. Results IR injury increased the expression of neurorepair mediators HIF-1?, VEGF, and PECAM-1 and vessel markers to a limited degree that correlate well with significantly compromised neurobehavioral functions compared with sham animals. GSNO treatment of IR not only remarkably enhanced further the expression of HIF-1?, VEGF, and PECAM-1 but also improved functioning compared with IR. The GSNO group also had a higher degree of vessel density than the IR group. Increased expression of VEGF and the degree of tube formation (angiogenesis) by GSNO were reduced after the inhibition of HIF-1? by 2-ME in an endothelial cell culture model. 2-ME treatment of the GSNO group also blocked not only GSNO’s effect of reduced infarct volume, decreased neuronal loss, and enhanced expression of PECAM-1 (P<0.001), but also its improvement of motor and neurological functions (P<0.001). Conclusion GSNO stimulates the process of neurorepair, promotes angiogenesis, and aids functional recovery through the HIF-1?-dependent pathway, showing therapeutic and translational promise for stroke. PMID:25945035

  12. Functional recovery of fluid drainage precedes lymphangiogenesis in acute murine foreleg lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Uziel; Brown, Emily M.; Ongstad, Emily L.; Slis, Justin R.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary lymphedema in humans is a common consequence of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) to treat breast cancer. It is commonly hypothesized that lymphatic growth is required to increase fluid drainage and ameliorate lymphedema. Although there is a pronounced alteration in the balance of interstitial forces regulating fluid transport that sustains the chronic form of lymphedema, it is presently unknown whether changes occur to the balance of interstitial forces during acute lymphedema that may play a role in the recovery of fluid drainage. Here, we compared the relative importance of lymphangiogenesis of lymphatic vessels and interstitial flows for restoring fluid drainage and resolving acute lymphedema in the mouse foreleg after ALND. We found that removal of the axillary lymph nodes reduced lymph drainage in the foreleg at days 0 and 5 postsurgery, with fluid tracer spreading interstitially through subcutaneous tissues. Interstitial fluid drainage returned to normal by day 10, whereas functional regrowth of lymphatic vessels was first detected by indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography at day 15, demonstrating that the recovery of interstitial fluid drainage preceded the regrowth of lymphatic vessels. This was confirmed by the administration of VEGF receptor-3-neutralizing antibodies, which completely blocks lymphatic regrowth. It was found that the recovery of interstitial fluid drainage and the natural resolution of acute lymphedema produced by ALND were not hindered by VEGF receptor-3 neutralization, demonstrating that interstitial fluid drainage recovery and the resolution of acute lymphedema are lymphangiogenesis independent. The data highlight the central role of the interstitial environment in adapting to lymphatic injury to increase fluid drainage. PMID:22427513

  13. Cardiac autonomic function during sleep: Effects of alcohol dependence and evidence of partial recovery with abstinence.

    PubMed

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Willoughby, Adrian R; Baker, Fiona C; Sugarbaker, David S; Colrain, Ian M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with the development of cardiac and peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) pathology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which recovery in ANS function could be demonstrated over the first 4 months of abstinence. Fifteen alcoholics (7 women) were studied on three occasions: within a month of detoxification, at approximately 2 months post-detox, and at 4 months post-detox. Thirteen control subjects (6 women) were also studied on three occasions with inter-study intervals matching those of the alcoholics. Six alcoholics relapsed, 48.7 ± 27.9 days following the initial PSG session. ANS function was assessed in the first part of stable non-rapid eye movement sleep. Frequency-domain power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) produced variables including: heart rate (HR), total power (TP; an index representing total HR variability), High Frequency power (HFa; an index reflecting cardiac vagal modulation), HF proportion of total power (HFprop sympathovagal balance), and HF peak frequency (HFpf; an index reflecting respiration rate). Overall, high total and high frequency variability and low sympathovagal balance and myocardial contractility are considered as desired conditions to promote cardiovascular health. At initial assessment, alcoholics had a higher HR (p < 0.001) and respiratory rate (p < 0.01), and lower vagal activity (HFa; p < 0.01) than controls. Alcoholics showed evidence of recovery in HR (p = 0.039) and HFa (p = 0.031) with 4 months of abstinence. Alcoholics with higher TP at the initial visit showed a greater improvement in TP from the initial to the 4 month follow-up session (r = 0.75, p < 0.05). Alcoholics showed substantial recovery in HR and vagal modulation of HRV with 4 months of abstinence, with evidence that the extent of recovery in HRV may be partially determined by the extent of alcohol dependence-related insult to the cardiac ANS system. These data support other studies showing recovery in a number of ANS, central nervous system, and behavioral domains with abstinence, even in those with long-term dependence. PMID:25957854

  14. Ketoprofen combined with artery graft entubulization improves functional recovery of transected peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Rahim; Mehrtash, Moein; Nikonam, Nima; Mehrtash, Moied; Amini, Keyvan

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to assess the local effect of ketoprofen on sciatic nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Eighty healthy male white Wistar rats were randomized into four experimental groups of 20 animals each: In the transected group (TC), the left sciatic nerve was transected and nerve cut ends were fixed in the adjacent muscle. In the treatment group the defect was bridged using an artery graft (AG/Keto) filled with 10 microliter ketoprofen (0.1 mg/kg). In the artery graft group (AG), the graft was filled with phosphated-buffer saline alone. In the sham-operated group (SHAM), the sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups of five animals each and regenerated nerve fibres were studied at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks post operation. Behavioural testing, sciatic nerve functional study, gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indices showed earlier regeneration of axons in AG/Keto than in AG group (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemical study clearly showed more positive location of reactions to S-100 in AG/Keto than in AG group. When loaded in an artery graft, ketoprofen improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of the sciatic nerve. Local usage of this easily accessible therapeutic medicine is cost saving and avoids the problems associated with systemic administration. PMID:23932540

  15. Disturbance and recovery of microbial community structure and function following Hurricane Frances.

    PubMed

    Yannarell, Anthony C; Steppe, Timothy F; Paerl, Hans W

    2007-03-01

    Disturbance and recovery influence microbial community structure and ecosystem functions in most natural environments. This study from a hypersaline Bahamian lagoon details the response of a benthic cyanobacterial mat to disturbance by Hurricane Frances, a category-4 storm. Clone libraries of cyanobacterial small subunit r-RNA genes and nitrogenase genes revealed significant shifts in cyanobacterial and diazotroph community composition following the hurricane. Post-hurricane clone libraries were dominated by sequences that had been rare in pre-hurricane communities. In spite of this dominance shift, re-colonizing mat communities performed nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis at rates within the normal range of variation measured in the mat at similar salinities. There was a tendency for nitrogen fixation rates from mats re-colonizing sites with hurricane-related sand deposition to be higher than those from mats re-colonizing sites without significant sand deposition. This suggests that the altered communities responded to a carbon : nitrogen imbalance that was particularly pronounced in areas subjected to disturbance by sand burial. The post-hurricane dominance of organisms that had been previously rare suggests that pre-hurricane diversity and functional redundancy contributed to the rapid recovery of ecosystem function in the post-disturbance environment. PMID:17298358

  16. Electroacupuncture Promotes Post-Stroke Functional Recovery via Enhancing Endogenous Neurogenesis in Mouse Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Ha Neui; Ahn, Sung Min; Choi, Yung Hyun; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the question of whether electroacupuncture (EA) promotes functional recovery via enhancement of proliferation and differentiation of neuronal stem cells (NSCs) in ischemic stroke, EA stimulation with 2 Hz was applied at bilateral acupoints to Baihui (GV20) and Dazhui (GV14) in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) mice. EA stimulation improved neuromotor function and cognitive ability after ischemic stroke. EA stimulation resulted in an increase in the number of proliferated cells, especially in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the ipsilateral hemisphere. Although a very limited number of NSCs survived and differentiated into neurons or astrocytes, EA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the number of proliferative cells and differentiated cells in the hippocampus and SVZ of the ipsilateral hemisphere compared to MCAO mice. EA stimulation resulted in significantly increased mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Protein levels of these factors were confirmed in the ipsilateral hippocampus and SVZ by immunohistochemical and Western blotting analyses. Expression of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, BDNF, and VEGF-mediated down-stream were enhanced by EA stimulation in newly formed neuroblasts. These results indicate that EA treatment after ischemic stroke may promote post-stroke functional recovery by enhancement of proliferation and differentiation of NSCs via the BDNF and VEGF signaling pathway. PMID:24587178

  17. Electroacupuncture promotes post-stroke functional recovery via enhancing endogenous neurogenesis in mouse focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Ha Neui; Ahn, Sung Min; Choi, Yung Hyun; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the question of whether electroacupuncture (EA) promotes functional recovery via enhancement of proliferation and differentiation of neuronal stem cells (NSCs) in ischemic stroke, EA stimulation with 2 Hz was applied at bilateral acupoints to Baihui (GV20) and Dazhui (GV14) in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) mice. EA stimulation improved neuromotor function and cognitive ability after ischemic stroke. EA stimulation resulted in an increase in the number of proliferated cells, especially in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the ipsilateral hemisphere. Although a very limited number of NSCs survived and differentiated into neurons or astrocytes, EA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the number of proliferative cells and differentiated cells in the hippocampus and SVZ of the ipsilateral hemisphere compared to MCAO mice. EA stimulation resulted in significantly increased mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Protein levels of these factors were confirmed in the ipsilateral hippocampus and SVZ by immunohistochemical and Western blotting analyses. Expression of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, BDNF, and VEGF-mediated down-stream were enhanced by EA stimulation in newly formed neuroblasts. These results indicate that EA treatment after ischemic stroke may promote post-stroke functional recovery by enhancement of proliferation and differentiation of NSCs via the BDNF and VEGF signaling pathway. PMID:24587178

  18. Recovery of laryngeal function after intraoperative injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Hydman, Jonas; Svensson, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Loss of function in the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) during thyroid/parathyroid surgery, despite a macroscopically intact nerve, is a challenge which highlights the sensitivity and complexity of laryngeal innervation. Furthermore, the uncertain prognosis stresses a lack of capability to diagnose the reason behind the impaired function. There is a great deal of literature considering risk factors, surgical technique and mechanisms outside the nerve affecting the incidence of RLN paresis during surgery. To be able to prognosticate recovery in cases of laryngeal dysfunction and voice changes after thyroid surgery, the surgeon would first need to define the presence, location, and type of laryngeal nerve injury. There is little data describing the events within the nerve and the neurobiological reasons for the impaired function related to potential recovery and prognosis. In addition, very little data has been presented in order to clarify any differences between the transient and permanent injury of the RLN. This review aims, from an anatomical and neurobiological perspective, to provide an update on the current understandings of surgically-induced injury to the laryngeal nerves. PMID:25713777

  19. The Effect of Premorbid Demographic Factors on the Recovery of Neurocognitive Function in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ik-Chan; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Seong-Ho; Chang, Chul-Hoon; Bai, Dai-Seg

    2008-01-01

    Objective Premorbid demographic backgrounds of injured individuals are likely to reflect more accurately the status of patients with traumatic brian injury (TBI) than clinical factors. However, the concrete study about the relationship between the demographic factors and neurocognitive function in TBI patients has not been reported. The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of premorbid demographic factors on the recovery of neurocognitive function following TBI. Methods From July 1998 to February 2007, 293 patients (male: 228, female: 65) with a history of head injury, who had recovered from the acute phase, were selected from our hospital to include in this study. We analyzed the effect of premorbid demographic factors including age, sex, educational level and occupation on the recovery of neurocognitive function in each TBI subgroup as defined by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. Intelligence and memory are components of neurocognitive function, and the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale (K-WAIS) and the Korean memory assessment scale (K-MAS) were used in this study. The results were considered significant at p<0.05. Results The higher level of education was a good prognostic factor for intelligence regardless of GCS score and younger age group showed a better result for memory with an exception of severe TBI group. In the severe TBI group, the meaningful effect of demographic factors was not noted by the cause of influence of severe brain injury. Conclusion The demographic factors used in this study may be helpful for predicting the precise prognosis and developing an appropriate rehabilitation program for TBI patients. PMID:19119465

  20. Effectiveness of poliovirus concentration and recovery from treated wastewater by two electropositive filter methods.

    PubMed

    Soto-Beltran, Marcela; Ikner, Luisa A; Bright, Kelly R

    2013-06-01

    Enteric viruses are often present in low numbers in various water matrices. Virus sampling therefore involves multiple concentration steps to condense large samples down to small volumes for detection by cell culture or molecular assays. The NanoCeram® Virus Sampler has been demonstrated to be effective for the recovery of viruses from tap water, surface waters, and seawater. The goal of this study was to evaluate a new method using NanoCeram® filters for the recovery of poliovirus 1 (PV-1) from treated wastewater. Activated sludge effluent samples were spiked with PV-1 and concentrated in side-by-side tests by two methods: (1) NanoCeram® filtration, elution with sodium polyphosphate buffer, secondary concentration via centrifugal ultrafiltration; and (2) 1MDS filtration, elution with beef extract, secondary concentration via organic flocculation. The virus retention and elution efficiencies did not differ significantly between the two methods. In contrast, the secondary concentrate volume was smaller for the NanoCeram® method (8.4 vs. 30 mL) and the secondary concentration efficiencies were different between the two methods with 98 % for centrifugal ultrafiltration (NanoCeram® and 45 % for organic flocculation (1MDS). The overall method efficiencies were significantly different (P ? 0.05) with the NanoCeram® method yielding a 57 % and the 1MDS a 23 % virus recovery. In addition, there appeared to be less interference with viral detection via polymerase chain reaction with the NanoCeram® concentrates. This NanoCeram® method therefore is able to efficiently recover PV-1 from large volumes of wastewater and may serve as an inexpensive alternative to the standard 1MDS filter method for such applications. PMID:23412726

  1. Carrier recovery methods for a dual-mode modem: A design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, C. W.; Wilson, S. G.

    1984-01-01

    A dual mode model with selectable QPSK or 16-QASK modulation schemes is discussed. The theoretical reasoning as well as the practical trade-offs made during the development of a modem are presented, with attention given to the carrier recovery method used for coherent demodulation. Particular attention is given to carrier recovery methods that can provide little degradation due to phase error for both QPSK and 16-QASK, while being insensitive to the amplitude characteristic of a 16-QASK modulation scheme. A computer analysis of the degradation is symbol error rate (SER) for QPSK and 16-QASK due to phase error is prresented. Results find that an energy increase of roughly 4 dB is needed to maintain a SER of 1X10(-5) for QPSK with 20 deg of phase error and 16-QASK with 7 deg phase error.

  2. Adaptive psychophysical methods for nonmonotonic psychometric functions.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Miguel A

    2014-02-01

    Many psychophysical tasks in current use render nonmonotonic psychometric functions; these include the oddball task, the temporal generalization task, the binary synchrony judgment task, and other forms of the same-different task. Other tasks allow for ternary responses and render three psychometric functions, one of which is also nonmonotonic, like the ternary synchrony judgment task or the unforced choice task. In all of these cases, data are usually collected with the inefficient method of constant stimuli (MOCS), because extant adaptive methods are only applicable when the psychometric function is monotonic. This article develops stimulus placement criteria for adaptive methods designed for use with nonmonotonic psychometric functions or with ternary tasks. The methods are transformations of conventional up-down rules. Simulations under three alternative psychophysical tasks prove the validity of these methods, their superiority to MOCS, and the accuracy with which they recover direct estimates of the parameters determining the psychometric functions, as well as estimates of derived quantities such as the point of subjective equality or the difference limen. Practical recommendations and worked-out examples are provided to illustrate how to use these adaptive methods in empirical research. PMID:24197504

  3. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.

    2003-02-07

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity is needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

  4. Recovery of waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium from water samples by the membrane-filter dissolution method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. K. Graczyk; M. R. Cranfield; R. Fayer

    1997-01-01

    The cellulose-acetate membrane (CAM)-filter dissolution method implemented into a Millipore Glass Microanalysis system was used for recovery of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts seeded into 25 l of drinking water in polyethylene carboy aspirator bottles. CAM-entrapped oocysts were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. From 65 to 94 oocysts\\/l (mean 75 oocysts\\/l), 34.7% overall of the inoculated oocysts, were unrecovered as determined after the

  5. Simplified two-stage method to B-phycoerythrin recovery from Porphyridium cruentum.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Jorge; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2006-11-21

    A simplified two-stage method for B-phycoerythrin (BPE) recovery from Porphyridium cruentum was developed. The proposed method involved cell disruption by sonication and primary recovery by aqueous two-phase partition. The evaluation of two different methods of cell disruption and the effect of increasing concentration of cell homogenate from P. cruentum culture upon aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) performance was carried out to avoid the use of precipitation stages. Cell disruption by sonication proved to be superior over manual maceration since a five time increase in the concentration of B-phycoerythrin release was achieved. An increase in the concentration of crude extract from disrupted P. cruentum cells loaded to the ATPS (from 10 to 40%, w/w) proved to be suitable to increase the product purity and benefited the processing of highly concentrated disrupted extract. Kinetics studies of phase separation performed suggested the use of batch settlers with height/diameter (H/D) ratio less than one to reduce the necessary time for the phases to separate. The proposed ATPS stage comprising of 29% (w/w) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1000g/mol, 9% (w/w) potassium phosphate, tie-line length (TLL) of 45% (w/w), volume ratio (V(R)) of 4.5, pH 7.0 and 40% (w/w) crude extract loaded in a batch settler with H/D ratio of 0.5 proved to be efficient for the recovery of 90% of B-phycoerythrin at the top PEG-rich phase. The purity of B-phycoerythrin increased up to 4.0 times after the two-stage method. The results reported here demonstrate the potential implementation of a strategy to B-phycoerythrin recovery with a purity of 3.2 (estimated by the absorbance relation of 545-280nm) from P. cruentum. PMID:16860005

  6. A computer method for the automatic recovery of short monoalphabetic substitution ciphers

    E-print Network

    Wright, Thomas Wyatt

    1967-01-01

    -Significance ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 25 CHAPTER I Problem Statssmnt Ths following statement was made ia the 1935 edition of a military cryptologic manual: ~ . . Today code methods predominate in ths secret coa- municatiea systems of the military, naval, aad diplomatic services... * Superscripts refer to the numbered bibliography, page 31 ' (such as the "literary crypt" series appearing in the Sat- ~urdu Review) should be an interesting topic for your Mas- ter s thesis. Manual techniques for recovery are describ- ed in the open...

  7. An improved method for the recovery of petroleum hydrocarbons from fish muscle tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I?i?igür; H. Heras; R. G. Ackman

    1996-01-01

    A method based on fish muscle hydrolysis with NaOH followed by addition of CaCl2, and steam distillation, with direct analysis of a dichloromethane extract of the distillate by capillary gas chromatography (GC), was evaluated for the recovery of bioaccumulated water-soluble hydrocarbons from high-fat salmon muscle with the objectives of combining simplicity and minimal contamination by other materials. The 17 hydrocarbons

  8. Functional and Transcriptomic Recovery of Infarcted Mouse Myocardium Treated with Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lachtermacher, Stephan; Esporcatte, Bruno L. B.; da Silva de Azevedo Fortes, Fábio; Rocha, Nazareth Novaes; Montalvão, Fabrício; Costa, Patricia C.; Belem, Luciano; Rabischoffisky, Arnaldo; Neto, Hugo C. C. Faria; Vasconcellos, Rita; Iacobas, Dumitru A.; Iacobas, Sanda; Spray, David C.; Thomas, Neil M.; Goldenberg, Regina C. S.; de Carvalho, Antonio C. Campos

    2011-01-01

    Although bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMNC) have been extensively used in cell therapy for cardiac diseases, little mechanistic information is available to support reports of their efficacy. To address this shortcoming, we compared structural and functional recovery and associated global gene expression profiles in post-ischaemic myocardium treated with BMNC transplantation. BMNC suspensions were injected into cardiac scar tissue 10 days after experimental myocardial infarction. Six weeks later, mice undergoing BMNC therapy were found to have normalized antibody repertoire and improved cardiac performance measured by ECG, treadmill exercise time and echocardiography. After functional testing, gene expression profiles in cardiac tissue were evaluated using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Expression of more than 18% of the 11981 quantified unigenes was significantly altered in the infarcted hearts. BMNC therapy restored expression of 2099 (96.2%) of the genes that were altered by infarction but led to altered expression of 286 other genes, considered to be a side effect of the treatment. Transcriptional therapeutic efficacy, a metric calculated using a formula that incorporates both recovery and side effect of treatment, was 73%. In conclusion, our results confirm a beneficial role for bone marrow-derived cell therapy and provide new information on molecular mechanisms operating after BMNC transplantation on post ischemic heart failure in mice. PMID:21671060

  9. Unexpected Recovery of Function after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: The Limits of Early Neuroimaging-Based Outcome Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Edlow, Brian L.; Giacino, Joseph T.; Hirschberg, Ronald E.; Gerrard, Jason; Wu, Ona; Hochberg, Leigh R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prognostication in the early stage of traumatic coma is a common challenge in the neuro-intensive care unit. We report the unexpected recovery of functional milestones (i.e., consciousness, communication, and community reintegration) in a 19-year-old man who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury. The early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, at the time, suggested a poor prognosis. Methods During the first year of the patient’s recovery, MRI with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and T2*-weighted imaging was performed on day 8 (coma), day 44 (minimally conscious state), day 198 (post-traumatic confusional state), and day 366 (community reintegration). Mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the corpus callosum, cerebral hemispheric white matter and thalamus were compared with clinical assessments using the Disability Rating Scale (DRS). Results Extensive diffusion restriction in the corpus callosum and bihemispheric white matter was observed on day 8, with ADC values in a range typically associated with neurotoxic injury (230 to 400 × 10?6 mm2/sec). T2*-weighted MRI revealed widespread hemorrhagic axonal injury in the cerebral hemispheres, corpus callosum, and brainstem. Despite the presence of severe axonal injury on early MRI, the patient regained the ability to communicate and perform activities of daily living independently at one year post-injury (DRS = 8). Conclusions MRI data should be interpreted with caution when prognosticating for patients in traumatic coma. Recovery of consciousness and community reintegration are possible even when extensive traumatic axonal injury is demonstrated by early MRI. PMID:23860665

  10. Deconvolution methods based on ?HL regularization for spectral recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hu; Deng, Lizhen; Bai, Xiaodong; Li, Meng; Cheng, Zhao

    2015-05-10

    The recorded spectra often suffer noise and band overlapping, and deconvolution methods are always used for spectral recovery. However, during the process of spectral recovery, the details cannot always be preserved. To solve this problem, two regularization terms are introduced and proposed. First, the conditions on the regularization term are analyzed for smoothing noise and preserving detail, and according to these conditions, ?HL regularization is introduced into the spectral deconvolution model. In view of the deficiency of ?HL under noisy condition, adaptive ?HL regularization (?AHL) is proposed. Then semi-blind deconvolution methods based on ?HL regularization (SBD-HL) and based on adaptive ?HL regularization (SBD-AHL) are proposed, respectively. The simulation experimental results indicate that the proposed SBD-HL and SBD-AHL methods have better recovery, and SBD-AHL is superior to SBD-HL, especially in the noisy case. PMID:25967486

  11. Strength and functional recovery following repair of flexor digitorum superficialis in zone 2.

    PubMed

    Boulas, H J; Strickland, J W

    1993-02-01

    A two-pronged study was designed to evaluate the strength in vitro and functional recovery in vivo of FDS repairs in zone 2. In part I, horizontal mattress or Tajima grasping repairs were performed on fresh-frozen cadaveric digits, using 3/0 or 4/0 braided nylon suture material. The Tajima repair was significantly stronger than the mattress suture, using either 3/0 (P = 0.0001) or 4/0 (P = 0.0027) suture material. The 3/0 Tajima repair appeared strong enough to permit gentle early active motion. Furthermore, the clinical portion of the study (part II) demonstrated restoration of FDS function following repair in relatively isolated injuries in 13 out of 15 digits (86.7%), with PIP flexion averaging 80 degrees and grip strength 89% of that in the uninjured hand. PMID:8436853

  12. Relationships and responsiveness of six upper extremity function tests during the first 6 months of recovery after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Justin A.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Knowing how clinical tests are related to each other, if tests are responsive to change and what constitutes change is critical to evidence-based practice and sound research. Objective To determine 1) relationships between six clinical tests of upper extremity function, and 2) responsiveness for each test during the first 6 months after stroke. Methods Grip strength, Pinch strength, Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Jebsen Taylor test of hand function, 9-Hole Peg Test (9HPT), and the Stroke Impact Scale-Hand (SIS-Hand) domain were administered to 33 subjects within 1 month, 3 and 6 months after stroke. Spearman’s correlations were used to analyze relationships between tests. Responsiveness was calculated using the single population effect size method. Results All tests were correlated with each other with absolute values ranging from 0.54 to 0.92 at 1 month, 0.57 to 0.97 at 3 months, and 0.41 to 0.97 at 6 months. All tests were at least moderately responsive to change, with effect sizes ranging from 0.50 to 1.02 from 1–3 months, and 0.56 to 0.86 from 1–6 months. Conclusions Our data can assist clinicians and researchers in making decisions to use specific tests for measuring upper extremity function in people with hemiparesis in the first 6 months of recovery. PMID:19556918

  13. Recovery after Prolonged Sleep Deprivation: Residual Effects of SlowRelease Caffeine on Recovery Sleep, Sleepiness and Cognitive Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice Beaumont; Denise Batéjat; Olivier Coste; Philippe Doireau; Françoise Chauffard; Marc Enslen; Didier Lagarde; Christophe Pierard

    2005-01-01

    A long work schedule often results in sleep deprivation, sleepiness, impaired performance and fatigue. We investigated the residual effects of slow-release caffeine (SRC) on sleep, sleepiness and cognitive performance during a 42-hour recovery period following a 64-hour continuous wakefulness period in 16 healthy males, according to a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Three hundred milligrams of SRC or placebo was

  14. Effects of a virtual reality-based exercise program on functional recovery in stroke patients: part 1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of a virtual reality exercise program using the Interactive Rehabilitation and Exercise System (IREX) on the recovery of motor and cognitive function and the performance of activities of daily living in stroke patients. [Subjects] The study enrolled 10 patients diagnosed with stroke who received occupational therapy at the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of Hospital A between January and March 2014. [Methods] The patients took part in the virtual reality exercise program for 30 minutes each day, three times per week, for 4 weeks. Then, the patients were re-evaluated to determine changes in upper extremity function, cognitive function, and performance of activities of daily living 4 weeks after the baseline assessment. [Results] In the experimental group, there were significant differences in the Korea-Mini Mental Status Evaluation, Korean version of the modified Barthel index, and Fugl-Meyer assessment scores between the baseline and endpoint. [Conclusion] The virtual reality exercise program was effective for restoring function in stroke patients. Further studies should develop systematic protocols for rehabilitation training with a virtual reality exercise program. PMID:26180287

  15. Effects of a virtual reality-based exercise program on functional recovery in stroke patients: part 1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Hee

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of a virtual reality exercise program using the Interactive Rehabilitation and Exercise System (IREX) on the recovery of motor and cognitive function and the performance of activities of daily living in stroke patients. [Subjects] The study enrolled 10 patients diagnosed with stroke who received occupational therapy at the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of Hospital A between January and March 2014. [Methods] The patients took part in the virtual reality exercise program for 30 minutes each day, three times per week, for 4 weeks. Then, the patients were re-evaluated to determine changes in upper extremity function, cognitive function, and performance of activities of daily living 4 weeks after the baseline assessment. [Results] In the experimental group, there were significant differences in the Korea-Mini Mental Status Evaluation, Korean version of the modified Barthel index, and Fugl-Meyer assessment scores between the baseline and endpoint. [Conclusion] The virtual reality exercise program was effective for restoring function in stroke patients. Further studies should develop systematic protocols for rehabilitation training with a virtual reality exercise program. PMID:26180287

  16. Functional Recovery of Paraplegic Rats and Motor Axon Regeneration in Their Spinal Cords by Olfactory Ensheathing Glia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Almudena Ramón-Cueto; M. Isabel Cordero; Fernando F. Santos-Benito; Jesús Avila

    2000-01-01

    Axonal regeneration in the lesioned mammalian central nervous system is abortive, and this causes permanent disabilities in individuals with spinal cord injuries. In adult rats, olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) transplants successfully led to functional and structural recovery after complete spinal cord transection. From 3 to 7 months post surgery, all OEG-transplanted animals recovered locomotor functions and sensorimotor reflexes. They presented

  17. Investigating pyrolysis/incineration as a method of resource recovery from solid waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Bobby J.; Lemay, Christopher S.

    1993-01-01

    Pyrolysis/incineration (P/I) is a physicochemical method for the generation of recoverable resources from solid waste materials such as inedible plant biomass (IPB), paper, plastics, cardboard, etc. P/I permits the collection of numerous gases with a minimal amount of solid residue. Pyrolysis, also known as starved air incineration, is usually conducted at relatively high temperatures (greater than 500 deg C) in the absence of oxygen. Incineration is conducted at lower temperatures in the presence of oxygen. The primary purpose of this study was to design, construct, and test a model P/I. The system design includes safety requirements for temperature and pressure. The objectives of this study were: (1) to design and construct a P/I system for incorporation with the Hybrid Regenerative Water Recovery System; (2) to initiate testing of the P/I system; (3) to collect and analyze P/I system data; (4) to consider test variables; and (5) to determine the feasibility of P/I as an effective method of resource recovery. A P/I system for the recovery of reuseable resources from solid waste materials was designed, constructed, and tested. Since a large amount of inedible plant biomass (IPB) will be generated in a space-based habitat on the lunar surface and Mars, IPB was the primary waste material tested in the system. Analysis of the effluent gases was performed to determine which gases could be used in a life support system.

  18. Recovery of waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium from water samples by the membrane-filter dissolution method.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R; Fayer, R

    1997-01-01

    The cellulose-acetate membrane (CAM)-filter dissolution method implemented into a Millipore Glass Microanalysis system was used for recovery of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts seeded into 25 l of drinking water in polyethylene carboy aspirator bottles. CAM-entrapped oocysts were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. From 65 to 94 oocysts/l (mean 75 oocysts/l), 34.7% overall of the inoculated oocysts, were unrecovered as determined after the water had been drained from the bottle, rinsed with 1 l of eluting fluid (EF), and CAM-filtered. Efficiency rates of oocyst recovery ranged from 24.0% to 64.0% (mean 44.1%), without the use of EF and from 72.1% to 82.3% (mean 78.8%) when EF was used. To ensure a high recovery efficiency of Cryptosporidium oocysts from sampled water by the CAM-filter dissolution method, it is recommended that 1 l of EF per 25 l of water be used. PMID:9039693

  19. Methods for incomplete Bessel function evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Frank E.; Fripiat, J. G.

    Presented here are detailed methods for evaluating the incomplete Bessel functions arising when Gaussian-type orbitals are used for systems periodic in one spatial dimension. The scheme is designed to yield these incomplete Bessel functions with an absolute accuracy of ±1 × 10-10, for the range of integer orders 0 ? n ? 12 [a range sufficient for a basis whose members have angular momenta of up to three units (s, p, d, or f atomic functions)]. To reach this accuracy level within acceptable computation times, new rational approximations were developed to compute the special functions involved, namely, the exponential integral E1(x) and the modified Bessel functions K0(x) and K1(x), to absolute accuracy ±1 × 10-15.

  20. A Novel Dehydroepiandrosterone Analog Improves Functional Recovery in a Rat Traumatic Brain Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    MALIK, AMIR S.; NARAYAN, RAJ K.; WENDLING, WOODROW W.; COLE, RUSSELL W.; PASHKO, LAURA L.; SCHWARTZ, ARTHUR G.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a novel steroid, fluasterone (DHEF, a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analog), at improving functional recovery in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The lateral cortical impact model was utilized in two studies of efficacy and therapeutic window. DHEF was given (25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) at the initial time point and once a day for 2 more days. Study A included four groups: sham injury, vehicle treated (n = 22); injured, vehicle treated (n = 30); injured, pretreated (5–10 min prior to injury, n = 24); and injured, posttreated (initial dose 30 min postinjury, n = 15). Study B (therapeutic window) included five groups: sham injury, vehicle treated (n = 17); injured, vehicle treated (n = 26); and three posttreatment groups: initial dose at 30 min (n = 18), 2 h (n = 23), or 12 h (n = 16) postinjury. Three criteria were used to grade functional recovery. In study A, DHEF improved beam walk performance both with pretreatment (79%) and 30-min posttreatment group (54%; p < 0.01, Dunnett vs. injured vehicle). In study B, the 12-h posttreatment group showed a 97% improvement in beam walk perfomance (p < 0.01, Dunnett). The 30-min and 12-h posttreatment groups showed a decreased incidence of falls from the beam, which reached statistical significance (p < 0.05, Dunnett). Tests of memory (Morris water maze) and neurological reflexes both revealed significant improvements in all DHEF treatment groups. In cultured rat mesangial cells, DHEF (and DHEA) potently inhibited interleukin-1?–induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) mRNA and prostaglandin (PGE2) production. In contrast, DHEF treatment did not alter injury-induced COX2 mRNA levels in the cortex or hippocampus. However, DHEF (and DHEA) relaxed ex vivo bovine middle cerebral artery preparations by about 30%, with an IC50 ? 40 ?M. This was a direct effect on the vascular smooth muscle, independent of the endothelial cell layer. Fluasterone (DHEF) treatments improved functional recovery in a rat TBI model. Possible mechanisms of action for this novel DHEA analog are discussed. These findings suggest an exciting potential use for this agent in the clinical treatment of traumatic brain injury. PMID:12803978

  1. Recovery of altered neuromuscular junction morphology and muscle function in mdx mice after injury.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Stephen J P; Shah, Sameer B; Ward, Christopher W; Kerr, Jaclyn P; Stains, Joseph P; Lovering, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating neuromuscular disease in which weakness, increased susceptibility to muscle injury, and inadequate repair underlie the pathology. While most attention has focused within the muscle fiber, we recently demonstrated significant alterations in the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) morphology and resulting neuromuscular transmission failure (NTF) 24 h after injury in mdx mice (murine model for DMD). Here we determine the contribution of NMJ morphology and NTF to the recovery of muscle contractile function post-injury. NMJ morphology and NTF rates were assessed day 0 (immediately after injury) and days 1, 7, 14 and 21 after quadriceps injury. Eccentric injury of the quadriceps resulted in a significant loss of maximal torque in both WT (39 ± 6 %) and mdx (76 ± 8 %) with a full recovery in WT by day 7 and in mdx by day 21. Post-injury alterations in NMJ morphology and NTF were found only in mdx, were limited to days 0 and 1, and were independent of changes in MuSK or AChR expression. Such early changes at the NMJ after injury are consistent with mechanical disruption rather than newly forming NMJs. Furthermore, we show that the dense microtubule network that underlies the NMJ is significantly reduced and disorganized in mdx compared to WT. These structural changes at the NMJ may play a role in the increased NMJ disruption and the exaggerated loss of nerve-evoked muscle force seen after injury to dystrophic muscles. PMID:24947322

  2. Functional motor recovery is improved due to local placement of GDNF microspheres after delayed nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Wood, Matthew D; Gordon, Tessa; Kemp, Stephen W P; Liu, Edward H; Kim, Howard; Shoichet, Molly S; Borschel, Gregory H

    2013-05-01

    The majority of bioengineering strategies to promote peripheral nerve regeneration after injury have focused on therapies to bridge large nerve defects while fewer therapies are being developed to treat other nerve injuries, such as nerve transection. We constructed delivery systems using fibrin gels containing either free GDNF or polylactide-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres with GDNF to treat delayed nerve repair, where ELISA verified GDNF release. We determined the formulation of microspheres containing GDNF that optimized nerve regeneration and functional recovery in a rat model of delayed nerve repair. Experimental groups underwent delayed nerve repair and treatment with GDNF microspheres in fibrin glue at the repair site or control treatments (empty microspheres or free GDNF without microspheres). Contractile muscle force, muscle mass, and MUNE were measured 12 weeks following treatment, where GDNF microspheres (2 weeks formulation) were superior compared to either no GDNF or short-term release of free GDNF to nerve. Nerve histology distal to the repair site demonstrated increased axon counts and fiber diameters due to GDNF microspheres (2 weeks formulation). GDNF microspheres partially reversed the deleterious effects of chronic nerve injury, and recovery was slightly favored with the 2 weeks formulation compared to the 4 weeks formulation. PMID:23239194

  3. A self-assembling nanomaterial reduces acute brain injury and enhances functional recovery in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sang, Lynn Yan-Hua; Liang, Yu-Xiang; Li, Yue; Wong, Wai-Man; Tay, David Kiong-Chiu; So, Kwok-Fai; Ellis-Behnke, Rutledge G; Wu, Wutian; Cheung, Raymond Tak-Fai

    2015-04-01

    There is no effective treatment for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Intracerebral delivery of nanomaterials into the hemorrhagic lesion may be a new therapeutic strategy. In a rat model of ICH plus ultra-early hematoma aspiration, we found that locally delivered self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold (SAPNS) replaced the hematoma, reduced acute brain injury and brain cavity formation, and improved sensorimotor functional recovery. SAPNS serves as biocompatible material in the hemorrhagic brain cavity. Local delivery of this nanomaterial may facilitate the repair of ICH related brain injury and functional recovery. From the clinical editor: In a rat model of intracranial hemorrhage, these authors demonstrate that following ultra-early hematoma aspiration, local delivery of a self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold replaces the hematoma, reduces brain cavity formation, and improves sensorimotor functional recovery. Similar approaches would be welcome additions to the clinical treatment of this often devastating condition. PMID:24907463

  4. Losartan administration reduces fibrosis but hinders functional recovery after volumetric muscle loss injury.

    PubMed

    Garg, Koyal; Corona, Benjamin T; Walters, Thomas J

    2014-11-15

    Losartan is a Food and Drug Administration approved antihypertensive medication that is recently emerging as an antifibrotic therapy. Previously, losartan has been successfully used to reduce fibrosis and improve both muscle regeneration and function in several models of recoverable skeletal muscle injuries, such as contusion and laceration. In this study, the efficacy of losartan treatment in reducing fibrosis and improving regeneration was determined in a Lewis rat model of volumetric muscle loss (VML) injury. VML has been defined as the traumatic or surgical loss of skeletal muscle with resultant functional impairment. It is among the top 10 causes for wounded service members to be medically retired from the military. This study shows that, after several weeks of recovery, VML injury results in little to no muscle regeneration, but is marked by persistent inflammation, chronic upregulation of profibrotic markers and extracellular matrix (i.e., collagen type I), and fat deposition at the defect site, which manifest irrecoverable deficits in force production. Losartan administration at 10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) was able to modulate the gene expression of fibrotic markers and was also effective at reducing fibrosis (i.e., the deposition of collagen type I) in the injured muscle. However, there were no improvements in muscle regeneration, and deleterious effects on muscle function were observed instead. We propose that, in the absence of regeneration, reduction in fibrosis worsens the ability of the VML injured muscle to transmit forces, which ultimately results in decreased muscle function. PMID:25257876

  5. Comparison of Functional Recovery of Manual Dexterity after Unilateral Spinal Cord Lesion or Motor Cortex Lesion in Adult Macaque Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Hoogewoud, Florence; Hamadjida, Adjia; Wyss, Alexander F.; Mir, Anis; Schwab, Martin E.; Belhaj-Saif, Abderraouf; Rouiller, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    In relation to mechanisms involved in functional recovery of manual dexterity from cervical cord injury or from motor cortical injury, our goal was to determine whether the movements that characterize post-lesion functional recovery are comparable to original movement patterns or do monkeys adopt distinct strategies to compensate the deficits depending on the type of lesion? To this aim, data derived from earlier studies, using a skilled finger task (the modified Brinkman board from which pellets are retrieved from vertical or horizontal slots), in spinal cord and motor cortex injured monkeys were analyzed and compared. Twelve adult macaque monkeys were subjected to a hemi-section of the cervical cord (n?=?6) or to a unilateral excitotoxic lesion of the hand representation in the primary motor cortex (n?=?6). In addition, in each subgroup, one half of monkeys (n?=?3) were treated for 30?days with a function blocking antibody against the neurite growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A, while the other half (n?=?3) represented control animals. The motor deficits, and the extent and time course of functional recovery were assessed. For some of the parameters investigated (wrist angle for horizontal slots and movement types distribution for vertical slots after cervical injury; movement types distribution for horizontal slots after motor cortex lesion), post-lesion restoration of the original movement patterns (“true” recovery) led to a quantitatively better functional recovery. In the motor cortex lesion groups, pharmacological reversible inactivation experiments showed that the peri-lesion territory of the primary motor cortex or re-arranged, spared domain of the lesion zone, played a major role in the functional recovery, together with the ipsilesional intact premotor cortex. PMID:23885254

  6. ISS Contingency Attitude Control Recovery Method for Loss of Automatic Thruster Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Bhatt, Sagar; Alaniz, Abran; McCants, Edward; Nguyen, Louis; Chamitoff, Greg

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the attitude control issues associated with International Space Station (ISS) loss of automatic thruster control capability are discussed and methods for attitude control recovery are presented. This scenario was experienced recently during Shuttle mission STS-117 and ISS Stage 13A in June 2007 when the Russian GN&C computers, which command the ISS thrusters, failed. Without automatic propulsive attitude control, the ISS would not be able to regain attitude control after the Orbiter undocked. The core issues associated with recovering long-term attitude control using CMGs are described as well as the systems engineering analysis to identify recovery options. It is shown that the recovery method can be separated into a procedure for rate damping to a safe harbor gravity gradient stable orientation and a capability to maneuver the vehicle to the necessary initial conditions for long term attitude hold. A manual control option using Soyuz and Progress vehicle thrusters is investigated for rate damping and maneuvers. The issues with implementing such an option are presented and the key issue of closed-loop stability is addressed. A new non-propulsive alternative to thruster control, Zero Propellant Maneuver (ZPM) attitude control method is introduced and its rate damping and maneuver performance evaluated. It is shown that ZPM can meet the tight attitude and rate error tolerances needed for long term attitude control. A combination of manual thruster rate damping to a safe harbor attitude followed by a ZPM to Stage long term attitude control orientation was selected by the Anomaly Resolution Team as the alternate attitude control method for such a contingency.

  7. Physiological fusion of functional and structural data for cardiac deformation recovery.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ken C L; Wang, Linwei; Zhang, Heye; Shi, Pengcheng

    2010-01-01

    The advancement in meaningful constraining models has resulted in increasingly useful quantitative information recovered from cardiac images. Nevertheless, single-source data used by most of these algorithms have put certain limits on the clinical completeness and relevance of the analysis results, especially for pathological cases where data fusion of multiple complementary sources is essential. As traditional image fusion strategies are typically performed at pixel level by fusing commensurate information of registered images through various mathematical operators, such approaches are not necessarily based on meaningful biological bases, particularly when the data are dissimilar in physical nature and spatiotemporal quantity. In this work, we present a physiological fusion framework for integrating information from different yet complementary sources. Using a cardiac physiome model as the central link, structural and functional data are naturally fused together for a more complete subject-specific information recovery. Experiments were performed on synthetic and real data to show the benefits and potential clinical applicability of our framework. PMID:20879227

  8. Microscale Electrode Implantation during Nerve Repair: Effects on Nerve Morphology, Electromyography, and Recovery of Muscle Contractile Function

    PubMed Central

    Urbanchek, Melanie G; Wei, Benjamin; Egeland, Brent M; Abidian, Mohammad R; Kipke, Daryl R; Cederna, Paul S

    2011-01-01

    Background Our goal is to develop a peripheral nerve electrode with long-term stability and fidelity for use in nerve-machine interfaces. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) use silicon probes that contain multi-channel actuators, sensors, and electronics. We tested the null hypothesis that implantation of MEMS probes do not have a detrimental effect on peripheral nerve function or regeneration. Methods A rat hindlimb, peroneal nerve model was utilized in all experimental groups: a) intact nerve (Control, n= 10); b) nerve division and repair (Repair, n= 9); and c) Nerve division, insertion of MEMS probe, and repair (Repair + Probe, n=9). Nerve morphology, nerve to muscle compound action potential (CMAP) studies, walking tracks, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle function tests were evaluated following an 80 day recovery. Results Repair and Repair + Probe showed no differences in axon count, axon size, percent non-neural area, CMAP amplitude, latency, muscle mass, muscle force, or walking track scores. Though there was some local fibrosis around each MEMS probe, this did not lead to measurable detrimental effects in any anatomic or functional outcome measurements. Conclusions The lack of a significant difference between Repair and Repair + Probe groups in histology, CMAP, walking tracks, and muscle force suggests that MEMS electrodes are compatible with regenerating axons and show promise for establishing chemical and electrical interfaces with peripheral nerves. PMID:21921739

  9. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Treatment Following Spinal Cord Injury Improves Mitochondrial Function Correlated with Remarkable Tissue Sparing and Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Samir P.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Lyttle, Travis S.; Magnuson, David S. K.; Rabchevsky, Alexander G.

    2012-01-01

    We have recently documented that treatment with the alternative biofuel, acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC, 300 mg/kg), as late as 1 hr after T10 contusion spinal cord injury (SCI), significantly maintained mitochondrial function 24 hrs after injury. Here we report that following more severe contusion SCI centered on the L1/L2 segments that are postulated to contain lamina X neurons critical for locomotion (the “central pattern generator”), ALC treatment resulted in significant improvements in acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and long-term hindlimb function. While control-injured rats were only able to achieve slight movements of hindlimb joints, ALC-treated animals produced consistent weight-supported plantar steps one month after injury. Such landmark behavioral improvements were significantly correlated with increased tissue sparing of both gray and white matter proximal to the injury, as well as preservation of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in lamina X rostral to the injury site. These findings signify that functional improvements with ALC treatment are mediated, in part, by preserved locomotor circuitry rostral to upper lumbar contusion SCI. Based on beneficial effects of ALC on mitochondrial bioenergetics after injury, our collective evidence demonstrate that preventing mitochondrial dysfunction acutely “promotes” neuroprotection that may be associated with the milestone recovery of plantar, weight-supported stepping. PMID:22445934

  10. Recovery from aphasia as a function of language therapy in an early bilingual patient demonstrated by fMRI.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, M; Obleser, J; Flaisch, T; Eulitz, C; Rockstroh, B

    2007-03-25

    Knowledge about the recovery of language functions in bilingual aphasic patients who suffer from left-hemispheric stroke is scarce. Here, we present the case of an early bilingual patient (German/French) with chronic aphasia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate neural correlates of language performance during an overt picture naming task in German and French (a) 32 months after stroke to assess differential recovery of both languages as a function of the preceding language therapy that was provided exclusively in German and (b) after additional short-term intensive (German) language training. At the first investigation behavioral performance confirmed selective recovery of German naming ability which was associated with increased functional brain activation compared to the French naming condition. Changes in behavioral performance and brain activation pattern as disclosed by fMRI after an additional experimental treatment were confined to the trained (German) language and indicate bilateral neuroplastic reorganization. No generalization to the untrained (French) language was observed. The present case results demonstrate use and/or training-dependent differential recovery of expressive language functions and an enhanced pattern of brain activation as a function of the rehabilitation efforts that were focussed exclusively on the patient's German language abilities. PMID:17109899

  11. Comparison of the Recovery Patterns of Language and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Post-Traumatic Language Processing Deficits and in Patients with Aphasia Following a Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the…

  12. Why use a connectivity-based approach to study stroke and recovery of function?

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Alex R.; Shulman, Gordon L.; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The brain is organized into a set of widely distributed networks. Therefore, although structural damage from stroke is focal, remote dysfunction can occur in regions connected to the area of lesion. Historically, neuroscience has focused on local processing due in part to the absence of tools to study the function of distributed networks. In this article we discuss how a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of stroke can be attained using resting state functional connectivity BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (resting state fcMRI). Resting state fcMRI has a number of advantages over task-evoked fMRI for studying brain network reorganization in response to stroke, including the ability to image subjects with a broad range of impairments and the ability to study multiple networks simultaneously. We describe our rationale for using resting state connectivity as a tool for investigating the neural substrates of stroke recovery in a heterogeneous population of stroke patients and discuss the main questions we hope to answer, in particular whether resting state fcMRI measures in the acute phase of stroke can predict subsequent recovery. Early results suggest that disruption of inter-hemispheric connectivity in the somatomotor network and the dorsal attention network is more strongly associated with behavioral impairment in those domains than is intra-hemispheric connectivity within either the lesioned or unaffected hemisphere. We also observe in the somatomotor network an interesting interaction between corticospinal tract damage and decreased inter-hemispheric connectivity that suggests that both processes combine to contribute to neuromotor impairment after stroke. A connectivity-based approach will provide greater insight into network reorganization in the acute and chronic phases after stroke and will contribute to improving prognostic ability and the development of therapeutic interventions. PMID:22414990

  13. The biphasic nature of renal functional recovery following relief of chronic obstructive uropathy.

    PubMed

    Jones, D A; George, N J; O'Reilly, P H; Barnard, R J

    1988-03-01

    Twenty-one patients with chronic obstructive uropathy due to high pressure chronic retention of urine underwent renal functional assessment both during the period of obstruction and repeatedly up to 3 months following its relief. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined using clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and iohexol. Creatinine, water, urea and electrolyte excretion was assessed from timed urine collections. Excretion of water, urea and electrolyte was normal during obstruction but increased dramatically immediately following relief (e.g. sodium 110 to 234 mmol/24 h). Values returned to normal by 2 weeks (sodium excretion 148 mmol/24 h). No further significant changes occurred up to 3 months. Mean 99mTc-DTPA and iohexol clearances during obstruction were 59.0 and 50.5 ml/min respectively. Following relief of obstruction, no significant improvement occurred at 2 weeks but did at 3 months (mean = 68.4 and 55.7 ml/min). Mean creatinine clearance during obstruction was 32.5 ml/min. This improved 2 days following relief to 46 ml/min. No further improvement was seen until 3 months (mean = 57.3 ml/min). It was concluded that recovery of renal function from obstructive injury occurs in two phases, an early tubular phase lasting up to 2 weeks and a later, predominantly glomerular phase, between 2 weeks and 3 months. There is some disparity between creatinine clearance and more accurate measurements of GFR which may be explained by tubular excretion of creatinine in the early phase of recovery. PMID:3359120

  14. Effects of Balance and Gait Training on the Recovery of the Motor Function in an Animal Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young-jeoi; Lee, Byung-hoon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate the effect of balance and gait training on the recovery of the motor function in a Parkinson’s disease animal models. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 40 mice were randomly classified into four groups with 10 in each group: Group I-Normal; Group II-Parkinson’s disease and no training; Group III-Parkinson’s disease and balance training was performed; and Group IV-Parkinson’s disease and gait training. Parkinson’s disease was induced by administration of MPTP to animals in Groups II–IV. Groups III and IV did training once a day, five days a week, for four weeks. Neurobehavioral evaluation was performed through the pole and open-field tests. Immunological evaluation was performed via TH (tyrosine hydroxylase) protein expression, using western blot analysis. [Results] In the result of the pole test, Groups III and IV showed significantly greater motor function recovery than to Group II. The results of the open-field test also showed that Groups III and IV had significantly greater motor function recovery than to Group II, and Group IV showed significantly greater motor function recovery than to Group III. Using western blot analysis, we determined that the expression of TH protein in the corpus striatum was greatest in group I, followed by Groups III and IV, and that Group II had the lowest TH protein expression in the corpus striatum. [Conclusion] The results of this study showed that balance and gait training were effective at recovering the motor functions of a Parkinson’s disease animal models induced by MPTP, and that gait training was more effective than balance training. PMID:25013293

  15. Recovery of 18F from [18O] water by electrochemical method.

    PubMed

    Saito, F; Nagashima, Y; Kurihara, T; Suzuki, N; Kim, J; Wei, L; Itoh, Y; Goto, A; Hyodo, T

    2001-12-01

    An electrochemical method for producing 18F sources for the slow positron beam was applied to the recovery of 18F from H2(18)O water. The 18F of activities 150-227 mCi (5.55-8.40 GBq) was electro-deposited on a graphite rod and then emitted into pure water. The best result of the efficiency for the electro-deposition for 5 min was 97% and that for the electro-emission for 5 min was 89%. The H2(18)O water is expected to be reused much more easily by this method than by the ion exchange resin method. The metal impurities contained in the 18F solution were considerably reduced by using this method. PMID:11761096

  16. Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Restoring endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis improves functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ohri, Sujata Saraswat; Hetman, Michal; Whittemore, Scott R

    2013-10-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response (ERSR) is activated to maintain protein homeostasis or induce apoptosis in the ER in response to distinct cellular insults including hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative damage. Recently, we showed ERSR activation in a mouse model of a contusive spinal cord injury (SCI) and an improved hindlimb locomotor function following SCI when the pro-apoptotic arm of ERSR was genetically inhibited. The objective of the current study was to explore if the pharmacological enhancement of the homeostatic arm of the ERSR pathway can improve the functional outcome after SCI. Salubrinal enhances the homeostatic arm of the ERSR by increasing phosphorylation of eIF2?. Salubrinal significantly enhanced the levels of phosphorylated eIF2? protein and modulated the downstream ERSR effectors assessed at the lesion epicenter 6h post-SCI. Hindlimb locomotion showed significant improvement in animals treated with salubrinal. Treadmill-based-gait assessment showed a significant increase in maximum speed of coordinated walking and a decrease in rear stance time and stride length in salubrinal-treated animals. This improved functional recovery corresponded with increased white matter sparing and decreased oligodendrocyte apoptosis. In addition, salubrinal protected cultured mouse oligodendrocyte progenitor cells against the ER stress-inducing toxin tunicamycin. These data suggest that boosting the homeostatic arm of the ERSR reduces oligodendrocyte loss after traumatic SCI and support the contention that pharmacological targeting of the ERSR after CNS trauma is a therapeutically viable approach. PMID:23659896

  18. Intraspinal Delivery of Polyethylene Glycol-coated Gold Nanoparticles Promotes Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Papastefanaki, Florentia; Jakovcevski, Igor; Poulia, Nafsika; Djogo, Nevena; Schulz, Florian; Martinovic, Tamara; Ciric, Darko; Loers, Gabrielle; Vossmeyer, Tobias; Weller, Horst; Schachner, Melitta; Matsas, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Failure of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) to regenerate effectively after injury leads to mostly irreversible functional impairment. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are promising candidates for drug delivery in combination with tissue-compatible reagents, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). PEG administration in CNS injury models has received interest for potential therapy, but toxicity and low bioavailability prevents clinical application. Here we show that intraspinal delivery of PEG-functionalized 40-nm-AuNPs at early stages after mouse spinal cord injury is beneficial for recovery. Positive outcome of hind limb motor function was accompanied by attenuated inflammatory response, enhanced motor neuron survival, and increased myelination of spared or regrown/sprouted axons. No adverse effects, such as body weight loss, ill health, or increased mortality were observed. We propose that PEG-AuNPs represent a favorable drug-delivery platform with therapeutic potential that could be further enhanced if PEG-AuNPs are used as carriers of regeneration-promoting molecules. PMID:25807288

  19. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred W.; Bridges, Robert A.; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.; Lorinovich, Caitlin J.; Lu, Silong

    2003-02-07

    This project involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field, California. Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contained approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley.

  20. Poststroke aphasia recovery assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging and a picture identification task.

    PubMed

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Eaton, Kenneth; Ball, Angel L; Banks, Christi; Vannest, Jennifer; Allendorfer, Jane B; Page, Stephen; Holland, Scott K

    2011-01-01

    Stroke patients often display deficits in language function, such as correctly naming objects. Our aim was to evaluate the reliability and the patterns of poststroke language recovery using a picture identification task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 4 T. Four healthy subjects and 4 subjects with left middle cerebral artery stroke with chronic (>1 year) aphasia were enrolled in the study. In each subject, 10 fMRI scans were performed over a 10-week period using a picture-identification task. The active condition involved presenting subject with a panel of 4 figures (eg, drawings of 4 animals) every 6 seconds and asking the subject to indicate which figure matched the written name in the center. The control condition was a same/different judgment task with pairs of geometric figures (squares, octagons, or combination) presented every 6 seconds. Thirty-second active/control blocks were repeated 5 times each, and responses were recorded. The stoke subjects and controls had similar demographic characteristics, including age (46 vs 53 years), personal handedness (Edinburg Handedness Inventory, 89 vs 95), familial handedness (93 vs 95), and years of education (14.3 vs 14.8). For the active condition, the controls performed better than the stroke subjects (97.7% vs 89.1%; P < .001); the 2 groups performed similarly for the control condition (99.5% vs 98.8%; P = .23). On fMRI, the controls exhibited bilateral, L > R positive blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activations in frontal and temporal language areas and symmetric retrosplenial and posterior cingulate areas and symmetric negative BOLD activations in bilateral frontotemporal language networks. In contrast, the stroke subjects exhibited positive BOLD activations predominantly in peristroke areas and negative BOLD activations in the unaffected (right) hemisphere. Both groups displayed high activation reliability (as measured by the intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) in the left frontal and temporal language areas, although in the stroke subjects the ICC in the frontal regions was spread over a much larger peristroke area. This study documents the utility of the picture-identification task for poststroke language recovery evaluation. Our data suggest that adult stroke patients use functional peristroke areas to perform language functions. PMID:20719532

  1. Effects of a training program based on the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation method on post-stroke motor recovery: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Tatiana Souza; de Sousa e Silva, Emília Márcia Gomes; Sousa Silva, Wagner Henrique; de Alencar Caldas, Vescia Vieira; Silva, Diana Lídice Araújo; Costa Cavalcanti, Fabrícia Azevedo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues

    2014-10-01

    This preliminary study sought to analyze the effects of a training program based on the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) method on motor recovery of individuals with chronic post-stroke hemiparesis. Eleven individuals with chronic hemiparesis (mean lesion time of 19.64 months) after unilateral and non-recurrent stroke underwent training based on PNF method for twelve sessions, being evaluated for motor function - using the Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM) instrument; functionality, by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM); and gait kinematic (using the Qualisys Motion Capture System), at baseline and post-training. Significant changes in FIM (from median 67 to median 68; P = .043) and STREAM scores (from median 47 to median 55; P = .003) were observed. Data showed significant changes in motor function and functionality after training, suggesting that this program can be useful for rehabilitation of chronic stroke survivors. PMID:25440202

  2. A novel method for the photographic recovery of fingermark impressions from ammunition cases using digital imaging.

    PubMed

    Porter, Glenn; Ebeyan, Robert; Crumlish, Charles; Renshaw, Adrian

    2015-03-01

    The photographic preservation of fingermark impression evidence found on ammunition cases remains problematic due to the cylindrical shape of the deposition substrate preventing complete capture of the impression in a single image. A novel method was developed for the photographic recovery of fingermarks from curved surfaces using digital imaging. The process involves the digital construction of a complete impression image made from several different images captured from multiple camera perspectives. Fingermark impressions deposited onto 9-mm and 0.22-caliber brass cartridge cases and a plastic 12-gauge shotgun shell were tested using various image parameters, including digital stitching method, number of images per 360° rotation of shell, image cropping, and overlap. The results suggest that this method may be successfully used to recover fingermark impression evidence from the surfaces of ammunition cases or other similar cylindrical surfaces. PMID:25537854

  3. Generalized Wannier function method for photonic crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Albert; C. Jouanin; D. Cassagne; D. Bertho

    2000-01-01

    The concept of generalized Wannier functions, adopted from the electronic theory of solids, is used to build a localized representation of electromagnetic waves in dielectric materials. For two-dimensional photonic crystals, we demonstrate the existence of such a localized state basis, and we establish an efficient computational method, allowing a tight-binding-like parameter free modelization of any dielectric structure deviating from periodicity.

  4. Wave function methods for fractional electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmann, Stephan N.; Yang, Weitao

    2013-08-01

    Determining accurate chemical potentials is of considerable interest in various chemical and physical contexts: from small molecular charge-transfer complexes to bandgap in bulk materials such as semi-conductors. Chemical potentials are typically evaluated either by density functional theory, or, alternatively, by computationally more intensive Greens function based GW computations. To calculate chemical potentials, the ground state energy needs to be defined for fractional charges. We thus explore an extension of wave function theories to fractional charges, and investigate the ionization potential and electron affinity as the derivatives of the energy with respect to the electron number. The ultimate aim is to access the chemical potential of correlated wave function methods without the need of explicitly changing the numbers of electrons, making the approach readily applicable to bulk materials. We find that even though second order perturbation theory reduces the fractional charge error considerably compared to Hartree-Fock and standard density functionals, higher order perturbation theory is more accurate and coupled-cluster approaches are even more robust, provided the electrons are bound at the Hartree-Fock level. The success of post-HF approaches to improve over HF relies on two equally important aspects: the integer values are more accurate and the Coulomb correlation between the fractionally occupied orbital and all others improves the straight line behavior significantly as identified by a correction to Hartree-Fock. Our description of fractional electrons is also applicable to fractional spins, illustrating the ability of coupled-cluster singles and doubles to deal with two degenerate fractionally occupied orbitals, but its inadequacy for three and more fractional spins, which occur, for instance, for spherical atoms and when dissociating double bonds. Our approach explores the realm of typical wave function methods that are applied mostly in molecular chemistry, but become available to the solid state community and offer the advantage of an integrated approach: fundamental gap, relative energies, and optimal geometries can be obtained at the same level.

  5. Testing a family-centered intervention to promote functional and cognitive recovery in hospitalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Marie; Resnick, Barbara; Chippendale, Tracy; Galvin, James

    2014-12-01

    A comparative trial using a repeated-measures design was designed to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of the Family-Centered Function-Focused-Care (Fam-FFC) intervention, which is intended to promote functional recovery in hospitalized older adults. A family-centered resource nurse and a facility champion implemented a three-component intervention (environmental assessment and modification, staff education, individual and family education and partnership in care planning with follow-up after hospitalization for an acute illness). Control units were exposed to function-focused-care education only. Ninety-seven dyads of medical patients aged 65 and older and family caregivers (FCGs) were recruited from three medical units of a community teaching hospital. Fifty-three percent of patients were female, 89% were white, 51% were married, and 40% were widowed, and they had a mean age of 80.8 ± 7.5. Seventy-eight percent of FCGs were married, 34% were daughters, 31% were female spouses or partners, and 38% were aged 46 to 65. Patient outcomes included functional outcomes (activities of daily living (ADLs), walking performance, gait, balance) and delirium severity and duration. FCG outcomes included preparedness for caregiving, anxiety, depression, role strain, and mutuality. The intervention group demonstrated less severity and shorter duration of delirium and better ADL and walking performance but not better gait and balance performance than the control group. FCGs who participated in Fam-FFC showed a significant increase in preparedness for caregiving and a decrease in anxiety and depression from admission to 2 months after discharge but no significant differences in strain or quality of the relationship with the care recipient from FCGs in the control group. Fam-FFC is feasible and has the potential to improve outcomes for hospitalized older adults and their caregivers. PMID:25481973

  6. Functional recovery of anterior semicircular canal afferents following hair cell regeneration in birds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Richard; Highstein, Stephen M.; Carey, John P.; Xu, Jinping

    2002-01-01

    Streptomycin sulfate (1.2 g/kg i.m.) was administered for 5 consecutive days to 5-7-day-old white Leghorn chicks; this causes damage to semicircular canal hair cells that ultimately regenerate to reform the sensory epithelium. During the recovery period, electrophysiological recordings were taken sequentially from anterior semicircular canal primary afferents using an indentation stimulus of the canal that has been shown to mimic rotational stimulation. Chicks were assigned to an early (14-18 days; n = 8), intermediate (28-34 days; n = 5), and late (38-58 days; n = 4) period based on days after treatment. Seven untreated chicks, 15-67 days old, provided control data. An absence of background and indent-induced discharge was the prominent feature of afferents in the early period: only "silent" afferents were encountered in 5/8 experiments. In several of these chicks, fascicles of afferent fibers were seen extending up to the epithelium that was void of hair cells, and intra- and extracellular biocytin labeling revealed afferent processes penetrating into the supporting cell layer of the crista. In 3/8 chicks 74 afferents could be characterized, and they significantly differed from controls (n = 130) by having a lower discharge rate and a negligible response to canal stimulation. In the intermediate period there was considerable variability in discharge properties of 121 afferents, but as a whole the number of "silent" fibers in the canal nerve diminished, the background rate increased, and a response to canal stimulation detected. Individually biocytin-labeled afferents had normal-appearing terminal specializations in the sensory epithelium by 28 days poststreptomycin. In the late period, afferents (n = 58) remained significantly different from controls in background discharge properties and response gain. The evidence suggests that a considerable amount of variability exists between chicks in the return of vestibular afferent function following ototoxic injury and that the secretory function of regenerating hair cells might become functional before their transducer function.

  7. Contralateral and ipsilateral EMG responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation during recovery of arm and hand function after stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Turton; S. Wroe; N. Trepte; C. Fraser; R. N. Lemon

    1996-01-01

    We examined the relationship between the recovery of hand and arm function in a group of hemiplegic stroke patients and the presence of short-latency EMG responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in 4 different upper limb muscles (deltoid, biceps, extensor digitorum communis and the first dorsal interosseous). Twenty-one patients were examined within 5 weeks of stroke (median 2 weeks), and

  8. Brain lactate, not glucose, fuels the recovery of synaptic function from hypoxia upon reoxygenation: an in vitro study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avital Schurr; Ralphiel S Payne; James J Miller; Benjamin M Rigor

    1997-01-01

    Lactate has been considered for many years to be a useless, and frequently, harmful end-product of anaerobic glycolysis. In the present in vitro study, lactate-supplied rat hippocampal slices showed a significantly higher degree of recovery of synaptic function after a short hypoxic period than slices supplied with an equicaloric amount of glucose. More importantly, all slices in which anaerobic lactate

  9. Physiological fusion of functional and structural images for cardiac deformation recovery.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ken C L; Wang, Linwei; Zhang, Heye; Liu, Huafeng; Shi, Pengcheng

    2011-04-01

    The recent advances in meaningful constraining models have resulted in increasingly useful quantitative information recovered from cardiac images. Nevertheless, as most frameworks utilize either functional or structural images, the analyses cannot benefit from the complementary information provided by the other image sources. To better characterize subject-specific cardiac physiology and pathology, data fusion of multiple image sources is essential. Traditional image fusion strategies are performed by fusing information of commensurate images through various mathematical operators. Nevertheless, when image data are dissimilar in physical nature and spatiotemporal quantity, such approaches may not provide meaningful connections between different data. In fact, as different image sources provide partial measurements of the same cardiac system dynamics, it is more natural and suitable to utilize cardiac physiological models for the fusions. Therefore, we propose to use the cardiac physiome model as the central link to fuse functional and structural images for more subject-specific cardiac deformation recovery through state-space filtering. Experiments were performed on synthetic and real data for the characteristics and potential clinical applicability of our framework, and the results show an increase of the overall subject specificity of the recovered deformations. PMID:21224172

  10. Functional recovery of aimed scratching movements after a graded proprioceptive manipulation.

    PubMed

    Page, Keri L; Matheson, Thomas

    2009-03-25

    To demonstrate the role of proprioceptive feedback in aimed limb movements, we induced graded changes in the signals provided by the principal receptor in a leg of a locust. The femoro-tibial chordotonal organ (FCO) of the hindleg monitors extension and flexion movements of the tibia and provides the main source of proprioceptive feedback about tibial kinematics. The FCO apodeme (tendon) was surgically shortened by different amounts to provide a systematic bias to this feedback, and aimed scratching movements were analyzed over the week after surgery. Shortening the apodeme led to increased firing of sensory neurons of the FCO at flexed joint angles and is thus functionally similar to flexing the tibia. Immediately after surgery, limb movements shifted dorsally and posteriorly, driven by overextension of the femoro-tibial joint and changes at other joints of the limb. The extent of tibial overextension reflected the extent of apodeme shortening. Overextension would tend to renormalize the FCO feedback signal and can be explained by known interjoint reflex pathways. Our data demonstrate that proprioceptive feedback provides a graded signal that is used to control these aimed limb movements. Over the course of 7 d after surgery, there was a functional recovery in aiming as the overall patterns of movement returned toward control values driven by reciprocal compensatory changes at two joints. The sensory to motor pathways are monosynaptic and oligosynaptic in this system, thus providing us with a powerful opportunity to investigate further the sensorimotor transformations and plasticity of aimed limb movements. PMID:19321786

  11. The human visual cortex responds to gene therapy–mediated recovery of retinal function

    PubMed Central

    Ashtari, Manzar; Cyckowski, Laura L.; Monroe, Justin F.; Marshall, Kathleen A.; Chung, Daniel C.; Auricchio, Alberto; Simonelli, Francesca; Leroy, Bart P.; Maguire, Albert M.; Shindler, Kenneth S.; Bennett, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a rare degenerative eye disease, linked to mutations in at least 14 genes. A recent gene therapy trial in patients with LCA2, who have mutations in RPE65, demonstrated that subretinal injection of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying the normal cDNA of that gene (AAV2-hRPE65v2) could markedly improve vision. However, it remains unclear how the visual cortex responds to recovery of retinal function after prolonged sensory deprivation. Here, 3 of the gene therapy trial subjects, treated at ages 8, 9, and 35 years, underwent functional MRI within 2 years of unilateral injection of AAV2-hRPE65v2. All subjects showed increased cortical activation in response to high- and medium-contrast stimuli after exposure to the treated compared with the untreated eye. Furthermore, we observed a correlation between the visual field maps and the distribution of cortical activations for the treated eyes. These data suggest that despite severe and long-term visual impairment, treated LCA2 patients have intact and responsive visual pathways. In addition, these data suggest that gene therapy resulted in not only sustained and improved visual ability, but also enhanced contrast sensitivity. PMID:21606598

  12. Effect of the knee position during wound closure after total knee arthroplasty on early knee function recovery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the effect of the knee position during wound closure on early knee function recovery after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods This study included 80 primary total knee arthroplasties due to osteoarthritis. The patients were randomized according to the type of wound closure: extension group for full extension and flexion group for 90° flexion. The incision of articular capsule was marked for precise wound alignment. In the flexion group, the knee was kept in high flexion for 1 to 2 min after wound closure. The two groups were treated with the same postoperative rehabilitation exercises. The range of motion (ROM), visual analogue scale (VAS) score of anterior knee pain, Knee Society Score (KSS) and postoperative complications were assessed at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months, postoperatively. Results At 6 weeks and 3 months postoperatively, the ROM in flexion group was 98.95?±?10.33° and 110.05?±?4.93° respectively, with 87.62?±?8.92° and 95.62?±?6.51° in extension group, respectively; The VAS score of anterior knee pain in flexion group was 2.02?±?1.38 and 2.21?±?0.87, respectively, with 2.57?±?1.07 and 2.87?±?0.83 in extension group, respectively. The ROM and VAS pain score of the two groups were significantly different at these two time points, with no significant difference at 6 months postoperatively. The two groups were not significantly different in KSS, and no apparent complication was observed at three time points. Conclusion Marking the articular capsule incision, wound closure in flexion and high flexion after wound closure can effectively decrease anterior knee pain after TKA and promote the early recovery of ROM. PMID:25149657

  13. A non-iterative method for the electrical impedance tomography based on joint sparse recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ok Kyun; Kang, Hyeonbae; Ye, Jong Chul; Lim, Mikyoung

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a non-iterative method for the inverse conductivity problem of recovering multiple small anomalies from the boundary measurements. When small anomalies are buried in a conducting object, the electric potential values inside the object can be expressed by integrals of densities with a common sparse support on the location of anomalies. Based on this integral expression, we formulate the reconstruction problem of small anomalies as a joint sparse recovery and present an efficient non-iterative recovery algorithm of small anomalies. Furthermore, we also provide a slightly modified algorithm to reconstruct an extended anomaly. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm over the linearized method and the multiple signal classification algorithm by numerical simulations. This work is supported by the Korean Ministry of Education, Sciences and Technology through NRF grant No. NRF-2010-0017532 (to H K), the Korean Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning; through NRF grant No. NRF-2013R1A1A3012931 (to M L), the R&D Convergence Program of NST (National Research Council of Science & Technology) of Republic of Korea (Grant CAP-13-3-KERI) (to O K L and J C Y).

  14. Method for printing functional protein microarrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delehanty, James B.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2003-01-01

    Piezoelectric dispensing of proteins from borosilicate glass capillaries is a popular method of protein biochip fabrication that offers the advantages of sample recovery and noncontact with the printing substrate. However, little regard has been given to the quantitative aspects of dispensing minute volumes (1 nL or less) at the low protein concentrations (20 micrograms/mL or less) typically used in microprinting. Specifically, loss of protein sample due to nonspecific adsorption to the glass surface of the dispensing capillaries can limit the amount of protein delivered to the substrate. We demonstrate the benefits of a low ionic strength buffer containing the carrier protein BSA that effectively minimizes the ionic strength-dependent phenomenon of nonspecific protein adsorption to borosilicate glass. Over the concentration range of 20-2.5 micrograms/mL, the dispensing of a reference IgG in 10 mM PBS including 0.1% BSA resulted in the deposition of 3.6- to 44-fold more IgG compared to the deposition of IgG in standard 150 mM PBS in the absence of BSA. Furthermore, when the IgG was dispensed with carrier protein, the resulting spots exhibited a more uniform morphology. In a direct immunoassay for cholera toxin, capture antibody spots dispensed in 10 mM PBS containing 0.1% BSA produced fluorescent signals that were 2.8- to 4.3-fold more intense than antibody spots that were dispensed in 150 mM PBS without BSA. Interestingly, no differences were observed in the specific activities of the capture antibodies as a result of printing in the different buffers. The implications of these results on the future development of protein biochips are discussed.

  15. Modified Interior Distance Functions (Theory and Methods)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polyak, Roman A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we introduced and developed the theory of Modified Interior Distance Functions (MIDF's). The MIDF is a Classical Lagrangian (CL) for a constrained optimization problem which is equivalent to the initial one and can be obtained from the latter by monotone transformation both the objective function and constraints. In contrast to the Interior Distance Functions (IDF's), which played a fundamental role in Interior Point Methods (IPM's), the MIDF's are defined on an extended feasible set and along with center, have two extra tools, which control the computational process: the barrier parameter and the vector of Lagrange multipliers. The extra tools allow to attach to the MEDF's very important properties of Augmented Lagrangeans. One can consider the MIDFs as Interior Augmented Lagrangeans. It makes MIDF's similar in spirit to Modified Barrier Functions (MBF's), although there is a fundamental difference between them both in theory and methods. Based on MIDF's theory, Modified Center Methods (MCM's) have been developed and analyzed. The MCM's find an unconstrained minimizer in primal space and update the Lagrange multipliers, while both the center and the barrier parameter can be fixed or updated at each step. The MCM's convergence was investigated, and their rate of convergence was estimated. The extension of the feasible set and the special role of the Lagrange multipliers allow to develop MCM's, which produce, in case of nondegenerate constrained optimization, a primal and dual sequences that converge to the primal-dual solutions with linear rate, even when both the center and the barrier parameter are fixed. Moreover, every Lagrange multipliers update shrinks the distance to the primal dual solution by a factor 0 less than gamma less than 1 which can be made as small as one wants by choosing a fixed interior point as a 'center' and a fixed but large enough barrier parameter. The numericai realization of MCM leads to the Newton MCM (NMCM). The approximation for the primal minimizer one finds by Newton Method followed by the Lagrange multipliers update. Due to the MCM convergence, when both the center and the barrier parameter are fixed, the condition of the MDF Hessism and the neighborhood of the primal ninimizer where Newton method is 'well' defined remains stable. It contributes to both the complexity and the numerical stability of the NMCM.

  16. Methods and Analysis for Recovery Logistics Networks with Uncertainty and Channel Selection Considerations 

    E-print Network

    Hwang, Sung Ook

    2014-12-12

    In this dissertation, we develop models and methodologies for effective design and efficient operation of product recovery logistics networks. Recovery networks, employed for recycle-reuse-refurbish-remanufacture purposes, constitute an ever...

  17. Salmon fibrin treatment of spinal cord injury promotes functional recovery and density of serotonergic innervation

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Kelli G.; Dickson, Amanda R.; Marchenko, Steve A.; Yee, Kelly M.; Emery, Pauline N.; Laidmåe, Ivo; Uibo, Raivo; Sawyer, Evelyn S.; Steward, Oswald; Flanagan, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    The neural degeneration caused by spinal cord injury leaves a cavity at the injury site that greatly inhibits repair. One approach to promoting repair is to fill the cavity with a scaffold to limit further damage and encourage regrowth. Injectable materials are advantageous scaffolds because they can be placed as a liquid in the lesion site then form a solid in vivo that precisely matches the contours of the lesion. Fibrin is one type of injectable scaffold, but risk of infection from blood borne pathogens has limited its use. We investigated the potential utility of salmon fibrin as an injectable scaffold to treat spinal cord injury since it lacks mammalian infectious agents and encourages greater neuronal extension in vitro than mammalian fibrin or Matrigel®, another injectable material. Female rats received a T9 dorsal hemisection injury and were treated with either salmon or human fibrin at the time of injury while a third group served as untreated controls. Locomotor function was assessed using the BBB scale, bladder function was analyzed by measuring residual urine, and sensory responses were tested by mechanical stimulation (von Frey hairs). Histological analyses quantified the glial scar, lesion volume, and serotonergic fiber density. Rats that received salmon fibrin exhibited significantly improved recovery of both locomotor and bladder function and a greater density of serotonergic innervation caudal to the lesion site without exacerbation of pain. Rats treated with salmon fibrin also exhibited less autophagia than those treated with human fibrin, potentially pointing to amelioration of sensory dysfunction. Glial scar formation and lesion size did not differ significantly among groups. The pattern and timing of salmon fibrin’s effects suggest that it acts on neuronal populations but not by stimulating long tract regeneration. Salmon fibrin clearly has properties distinct from those of mammalian fibrin and is a beneficial injectable scaffold for treatment of spinal cord injury. PMID:22414309

  18. TrkB kinase activity is critical for recovery of respiratory function after cervical spinal cord hemisection.

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Carlos B; Greising, Sarah M; Stowe, Jessica M; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C

    2014-11-01

    Neuroplasticity following spinal cord injury contributes to spontaneous recovery over time. Recent studies highlight the important role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling via the high-affinity tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) receptor subtype B (TrkB) in recovery of rhythmic diaphragm activity following unilateral spinal hemisection at C2 (C2SH). We hypothesized that TrkB kinase activity is necessary for spontaneous recovery of diaphragm activity post-C2SH. A chemical-genetic approach employing adult male TrkB(F616A) mice (n=49) was used to determine the impact of inhibiting TrkB kinase activity by the phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 inhibitor derivative 1NMPP1 on recovery of ipsilateral hemidiaphragm EMG activity. In mice, C2SH was localized primarily to white matter tracts comprising the lateral funiculus. The extent of damaged spinal cord (~27%) was similar regardless of the presence of functional recovery, consistent with spontaneous recovery reflecting neuroplasticity primarily of contralateral spared descending pathways to the phrenic motor pools. Ipsilateral hemidiaphragm EMG activity was verified as absent in all mice at 3days post-C2SH. By 2weeks after C2SH, ipsilateral hemidiaphragm EMG activity was present in 39% of vehicle-treated mice compared to 7% of 1NMPP1-treated mice (P=0.03). These data support the hypothesis that BDNF/TrkB signaling involving TrkB kinase activity plays a critical role in spontaneous recovery of diaphragm activity following cervical spinal cord injury. PMID:24910201

  19. Initial Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Data Acquired from Soyuz Landings: Establishing a Functional Performance Recovery Time Constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kofman, I. S.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stenger, M. B.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; Lee, S. M. C.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Feiveson, A. H.; Fisher, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Testing of crew responses following long-duration flights has not been previously possible until a minimum of more than 24 hours after landing. As a result, it has not been possible to determine the trend of the early recovery process, nor has it been possible to accurately assess the full impact of the decrements associated with long-duration flight. To overcome these limitations, both the Russian and U.S. programs have implemented joint testing at the Soyuz landing site. This International Space Station research effort has been identified as the functional Field Test, and represents data collect on NASA, Russian, European Space Agency, and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency crews. RESEARCH The primary goal of this research is to determine functional abilities associated with long-duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible on the day of landing (typically within 1 to 1.5 hours). This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements. To date, a total of 15 subjects have participated in a 'pilot' version of the full 'field test'. The full version of the 'field test' will assess functional sensorimotor measurements included hand/eye coordination, standing from a seated position (sit-to-stand), walking normally without falling, measurement of dynamic visual acuity, discriminating different forces generated with the hands (both strength and ability to judge just noticeable differences of force), standing from a prone position, coordinated walking involving tandem heel-to-toe placement (tested with eyes both closed and open), walking normally while avoiding obstacles of differing heights, and determining postural ataxia while standing (measurement of quiet stance). Sensorimotor performance has been obtained using video records, and data from body worn inertial sensors. The cardiovascular portion of the investigation has measured blood pressure and heart rate during a timed stand test in conjunction with postural ataxia testing (quiet stance sway) as well as cardiovascular responses during sensorimotor testing on all of the above measures. We have also collected motion sickness data associated with each of the postflight tests. When possible rudimentary cerebellar assessment was undertaken. In addition to the immediate post-landing collection of data, postflight data has been acquired twice more within 24 hours after landing and measurements continue until sensorimotor and cardiovascular responses have returned to preflight normative values (approximately 60 days postflight). SUMMARY The level of functional deficit observed in the crew tested to date is more severe than expected, clearly triggered by the acquisition of gravity loads immediately after landing when the demands for crew intervention in response to emergency operations will be greatest. Measureable performance parameters such as ability to perform a seat egress, recover from a fall or the ability to see clearly when walking, and related physiologic data (orthostatic responses) are required to provide an evidence base for characterizing programmatic risks and the degree of variability among crewmembers for exploration missions where the crew will be unassisted after landing. Overall, these early functional and related physiologic measurements will allow the estimation of nonlinear sensorimotor and cardiovascular recovery trends that have not been previously captured.

  20. Sensory experience during locomotion promotes recovery of function in adult visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Megumi; Stryker, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Recovery from sensory deprivation is slow and incomplete in adult visual cortex. In this study, we show that visual stimulation during locomotion, which increases the gain of visual responses in primary visual cortex, dramatically enhances recovery in the mouse. Excitatory neurons regained normal levels of response, while narrow-spiking (inhibitory) neurons remained less active. Visual stimulation or locomotion alone did not enhance recovery. Responses to the particular visual stimuli viewed by the animal during locomotion recovered, while those to another normally effective stimulus did not, suggesting that locomotion promotes the recovery only of the neural circuits that are activated concurrent with the locomotion. These findings may provide an avenue for improving recovery from amblyopia in humans.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02798.001. PMID:24970838

  1. Biomaterial-based interventions for neuronal regeneration and functional recovery in rodent model of spinal cord injury: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Vibhor; Konakondla, Sanjay; Nicholas, Joyce; Varma, Abhay; Kindy, Mark; Wen, Xuejun

    2013-01-01

    Context There is considerable interest in translating laboratory advances in neuronal regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI). A multimodality approach has been advocated for successful functional neuronal regeneration. With this goal in mind several biomaterials have been employed as neuronal bridges either to support cellular transplants, to release neurotrophic factors, or to do both. A systematic review of this literature is lacking. Such a review may provide insight to strategies with a high potential for further investigation and potential clinical application. Objective To systematically review the design strategies and outcomes after biomaterial-based multimodal interventions for neuronal regeneration in rodent SCI model. To analyse functional outcomes after implantation of biomaterial-based multimodal interventions and to identify predictors of functional outcomes. Methods A broad PubMed, CINHAL, and a manual search of relevant literature databases yielded data from 24 publications; 14 of these articles included functional outcome information. Studies reporting behavioral data in rat model of SCI and employing biodegradable polymer-based multimodal intervention were included. For behavioral recovery, studies using severe injury models (transection or severe clip compression (>16.9 g) or contusion (50 g/cm)) were categorized separately from those investigating partial injury models (hemisection or moderate-to-severe clip compression or contusion). Results The cumulative mean improvements in Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores after biomaterial-based interventions are 5.93 (95% CI = 2.41 ? 9.45) and 4.44 (95% CI = 2.65 – 6.24) for transection and hemisection models, respectively. Factors associated with improved outcomes include the type of polymer used and a follow-up period greater than 6 weeks. Conclusion The functional improvement after implantation of biopolymer-based multimodal implants is modest. The relationship with neuronal regeneration and functional outcome, the effects of inflammation at the site of injury, the prolonged survival of supporting cells, the differentiation of stem cells, the effective delivery of neurotrophic factors, and longer follow-up periods are all topics for future elucidation. Future investigations should strive to further define specific factors associated with improved functional outcomes in clinically relevant models. PMID:23809587

  2. FGF2 and FGFR1 signaling regulate functional recovery following cuprizone demyelination.

    PubMed

    Mierzwa, Amanda J; Zhou, Yong-Xing; Hibbits, Norah; Vana, Adam C; Armstrong, Regina C

    2013-08-26

    In demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, remyelination offers the potential to recover function of viable denuded axons by restoring saltatory conduction and/or protecting from further damage. Mice with genetic reduction of fibroblast growth factor 2 (Fgf2) or Fgf receptor 1 (Fgfr1) exhibit dramatically improved remyelination following experimental demyelination with cuprizone. The current studies are the first to test neurobehavioral outcomes with these gene deletions that improved remyelination. The cuprizone protocols used did not produce overt abnormalities but did reduce bilateral sensorimotor coordination (complex wheel task) and increase sociability (two chamber apparatus with novel mouse). A significant effect of genotype was observed on the complex wheel task but not in the sociability apparatus. Specifically, complex wheel velocities for Fgf2 nulls improved significantly after removal of cuprizone from the diet. This improvement in Fgf2 null mice occurred following either acute (6 weeks) or chronic (12 weeks) demyelination. Plp/CreERT:Fgfr1(fl/fl) mice administered tamoxifen at 10 weeks of cuprizone treatment to induce Fgfr1 knockdown also showed improved recovery of running velocities on the complex wheels. Therefore, constitutive deletion of Fgf2 or Fgfr1 knockdown in oligodendrocyte lineage cells is sufficient to overcome impairment of sensorimotor coordination after cuprizone demyelination. PMID:23684572

  3. Overexpression of Sox11 promotes corticospinal tract regeneration after spinal injury while interfering with functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zimei; Reynolds, Ashley; Kirry, Adam; Nienhaus, Christopher; Blackmore, Murray G

    2015-02-18

    Embryonic neurons, peripheral neurons, and CNS neurons in zebrafish respond to axon injury by initiating pro-regenerative transcriptional programs that enable axons to extend, locate appropriate targets, and ultimately contribute to behavioral recovery. In contrast, many long-distance projection neurons in the adult mammalian CNS, notably corticospinal tract (CST) neurons, display a much lower regenerative capacity. To promote CNS repair, a long-standing goal has been to activate pro-regenerative mechanisms that are normally missing from injured CNS neurons. Sox11 is a transcription factor whose expression is common to a many types of regenerating neurons, but it is unknown whether suboptimal Sox11 expression contributes to low regenerative capacity in the adult mammalian CNS. Here we show in adult mice that dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGs) and CST neurons fail to upregulate Sox11 after spinal axon injury. Furthermore, forced viral expression of Sox11 reduces axonal dieback of DRG axons, and promotes CST sprouting and regenerative axon growth in both acute and chronic injury paradigms. In tests of forelimb dexterity, however, Sox11 overexpression in the cortex caused a modest but consistent behavioral impairment. These data identify Sox11 as a key transcription factor that can confer an elevated innate regenerative capacity to CNS neurons. The results also demonstrate an unexpected dissociation between axon growth and behavioral outcome, highlighting the need for additional strategies to optimize the functional output of stimulated neurons. PMID:25698749

  4. Exercise facilitates the action of dietary DHA on functional recovery after brain trauma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Aiguo; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The abilities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and exercise to counteract cognitive decay after TBI is getting increasing recognition; however, the possibility that these actions can be complementary remains just as an intriguing possibility. Here we have examined the likelihood that the combination of diet and exercise has the added potential to facilitate functional recovery following TBI. Rats received mild fluid percussion injury (mFPI) or sham injury and then were maintained on a diet high in DHA (1.2% DHA) with or without voluntary exercise for 12 days. We found that FPI reduced DHA content in the brain, which was accompanied by increased levels of lipid peroxidation assessed using 4-HHE. FPI reduced the enzymes Acox1 and 17 -HSD4, and the calcium-independent phospholipases A2 (iPLA2), which are involved in metabolism of membrane phospholipids. FPI reduced levels of syntaxin-3 (STX-3), involved in the action of membrane DHA on synaptic membrane expansion, and also reduced BDNF signaling through its TrkB receptor. These effects of FPI were optimally counteracted by the combination of DHA and exercise. Our results support the possibility that the complementary action of exercise is exerted on restoring membrane homeostasis after TBI, which is necessary for supporting synaptic plasticity and cognition. It is our contention that strategies that take advantage of the combined applications of diet and exercise may have additional effects to the injured brain. PMID:23811071

  5. Quantification of relative cerebral blood flow change by flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) technique: application to functional mapping.

    PubMed

    Kim, S G

    1995-09-01

    Relative cerebral blood flow changes can be measured by a novel simple blood flow measurement technique with endogenous water protons as a tracer based on flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR). Two inversion recovery (IR) images are acquired by interleaving slice-selective inversion and nonselective inversion. During the inversion delay time after slice-selective inversion, fully magnetized blood spins move into the imaging slice and exchange with tissue water. The signal enhancement (FAIR image) measured by the signal difference between two images is directly related to blood flow. For functional MR imaging studies, two IR images are alternatively and repeatedly acquired during control and task periods. Relative signal changes in the FAIR images during the task periods represent the relative regional cerebral blood flow changes. The FAIR technique has been successfully applied to functional brain mapping studies in humans during finger opposition movements. The technique is capable of generating microvascular-based functional maps. PMID:7500865

  6. Brain-Controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation for Lower-Limb Motor Recovery in Stroke Survivors

    E-print Network

    Nenadic, Zoran

    and functional improvements, such as brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), have been explored. In this article, we by the Institute of Clinical and Translational Science at UCI, and the American Academy of Neurology. 1Dept to a population of chronic stroke survivors. II. METHODS A. Overview and Subject Recruitment Chronic stroke

  7. Neuropsychologic and Functional Recovery From Severe Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Without Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindell K Weaver; Ramona O Hopkins; Valerie Larson-Lohr

    1996-01-01

    Study objective: To test the hypothesis that neuropsychologic test results and functional outcome will be abnormal if hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is not used in patients with severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Methods: For a 1-year interval, we retrospectively identified all CO-poisoned patients who were comatose on presentation at a large, urban tertiary hospital and did not receive HBO therapy. Prospectively,

  8. Function-Triggering Antibodies to the Adhesion Molecule L1 Enhance Recovery after Injury of the Adult Mouse Femoral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Guseva, Daria; Loers, Gabriele; Schachner, Melitta

    2014-01-01

    L1 is among the few adhesion molecules that favors repair after trauma in the adult central nervous system of vertebrates by promoting neuritogenesis and neuronal survival, among other beneficial features. In the peripheral nervous system, L1 is up-regulated in Schwann cells and regrowing axons after nerve damage, but the functional consequences of this expression remain unclear. Our previous study of L1-deficient mice in a femoral nerve injury model showed an unexpected improved functional recovery, attenuated motoneuronal cell death, and enhanced Schwann cell proliferation, being attributed to the persistent synthesis of neurotrophic factors. On the other hand, transgenic mice over-expressing L1 in neurons led to improved remyelination, but not improved functional recovery. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the monoclonal L1 antibody 557 that triggers beneficial L1 functions in vitro would trigger these also in femoral nerve repair. We analyzed femoral nerve regeneration in C57BL/6J mice that received this antibody in a hydrogel filled conduit connecting the cut and sutured nerve before its bifurcation, leading to short-term release of antibody by diffusion. Video-based quantitative analysis of motor functions showed improved recovery when compared to mice treated with conduits containing PBS in the hydrogel scaffold, as a vehicle control. This improved recovery was associated with attenuated motoneuron loss, remyelination and improved precision of preferential motor reinnervation. We suggest that function-triggering L1 antibodies applied to the lesion site at the time of injury over a limited time period will not only be beneficial in peripheral, but also central nervous system regeneration. PMID:25393007

  9. Myocardial oxygenation and functional recovery in infarct rat hearts transplanted with mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Simi M.; Khan, Mahmood; Kuppusamy, M. Lakshmi; Pandian, Ramasamy P.; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah; Bratasz, Anna; Rivera, Brian K.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2009-01-01

    Stem cell therapy for myocardial tissue repair is limited by the poor survival of transplanted cells, possibly because of inadequate supply of oxygen and nutrients. The purpose of this study was to assess the oxygenation level and functional recovery after allogenic transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). Myocardial oxygen tension (Po2) was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry using an implantable oxygen-sensing spin probe (OxySpin). MSCs incubated with OxySpins showed substantial uptake of the probe without affecting its oxygen sensitivity or calibration. The cells internalized with OxySpins were able to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, cardiomyocyte, and endothelial cell lineages. The labeled cells tested positive for CD44 and CD29 markers and negative for the hematopoietic markers CD14 and CD45. For the in vivo studies, MI was induced in rats by permanently ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. MSCs with OxySpins were transplanted in the infarct region of hearts. A significant increase in Po2 was observed in the MSC group compared with the untreated MI group (18.1 ± 2.6 vs. 13.0 ± 1.8 mmHg, n = 4, P < 0.05) at 4 wk after transplantation. Echocardiography showed a significant improvement in ejection fraction and fraction shortening, which inversely correlated with the magnitude of fibrosis in the treated hearts. The cell-transplanted hearts also showed an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor level and capillary density in the infarct region. The study established our ability to measure and correlate changes in myocardial tissue oxygenation with cardiac function in infarcted rat hearts treated with MSCs. PMID:19286938

  10. Functional recovery of supersensitive dopamine receptors after intrastriatal grafts of fetal substantia nigra

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, T.M.; Dawson, V.L.; Gage, F.H.; Fisher, L.J.; Hunt, M.A.; Wamsley, J.K. (Univ. of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Interruption of the ascending dopamine neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway, by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion in rats, produced a significant loss of the dopamine transport complexes labeled with the phencyclidine derivative (3H)BTCP. This loss of dopamine innervation in the striatum was present at least 12 to 14 months after lesioning and was functionally manifested by ipsilateral rotation of the animals in response to amphetamine. In these same animals, in comparison to controls, there was a significant increase in the number (Bmax) of (3H)SCH 23390-labeled D-1 receptors in the striatum (36.7%) and the substantia nigra (35.1%) and a 54.4% increase in the number (Bmax) of (3H)sulpiride-labeled striatal D-2 receptors without an apparent change in affinity (Kd). Ten to twelve months after the transplantation of homologous fetal substantia nigra into the denervated striatum, there was a significant decrease in amphetamine-induced turning behavior. In these animals, there was an ingrowth of dopamine nerve terminals in the striatum as demonstrated by a return of (3H)BTCP binding. Accompanying this reinnervation was the normalization of D-1 and D-2 receptors to control values in the striatum as well as the return of D-1 receptors to prelesion densities in the substantia nigra. In a subgroup of transplanted rats, amphetamine continued to induce ipsilateral turning. In these animals both D-1 and D-2 receptors remained supersensitive. These results support the hypothesis that the functional recovery of transplanted animals is due, in part, to reinnervation of the striatum. In addition, long-term alterations in receptor density may be related to the behavioral deficits that are associated with the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat.

  11. Modulating molecular chaperones improves sensory fiber recovery and mitochondrial function in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Urban, Michael J; Pan, Pan; Farmer, Kevin L; Zhao, Huiping; Blagg, Brian S J; Dobrowsky, Rick T

    2012-05-01

    Quantification of intra-epidermal nerve fibers (iENFs) is an important approach to stage diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and is a promising clinical endpoint for identifying beneficial therapeutics. Mechanistically, diabetes decreases neuronal mitochondrial function and enhancing mitochondrial respiratory capacity may aid neuronal recovery from glucotoxic insults. We have proposed that modulating the activity and expression of heat shock proteins (Hsp) may be of benefit in treating DPN. KU-32 is a C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitor that improved thermal hypoalgesia in diabetic C57Bl/6 mice but it was not determined if this was associated with an increase in iENF density and mitochondrial function. After 16 weeks of diabetes, Swiss Webster mice showed decreased electrophysiological and psychosensory responses and a >30% loss of iENFs. Treatment of the mice with ten weekly doses of 20mg/kg KU-32 significantly reversed pre-existing deficits in nerve conduction velocity and responses to mechanical and thermal stimuli. KU-32 therapy significantly reversed the pre-existing loss of iENFs despite the identification of a sub-group of drug-treated diabetic mice that showed improved thermal sensitivity but no increase in iENF density. To determine if the improved clinical indices correlated with enhanced mitochondrial activity, sensory neurons were isolated and mitochondrial bioenergetics assessed ex vivo using extracellular flux technology. Diabetes decreased maximal respiratory capacity in sensory neurons and this deficit was improved following KU-32 treatment. In conclusion, KU-32 improved physiological and morphologic markers of degenerative neuropathy and drug efficacy may be related to enhanced mitochondrial bioenergetics in sensory neurons. PMID:22465570

  12. Inhibition of connexin43 improves functional recovery after ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Zhao, Heqing; Tan, Xianxing; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Du, Gang; Chen, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Jiangtao; Miao, Zhigang; Yu, Hailong; Kong, Jiming; Xu, Xingshun

    2015-09-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) is one of the most abundant gap junction proteins in the central nervous system. Abnormal opening of Cx43 hemichannels after ischemic insults causes apoptotic cell death. In this study, we found persistently increased expression of Cx43 8 h to 7 d after hypoxia/ischemia (HI) injury in neonatal rats. Pre-treatment with Gap26 and Gap27, two Cx43 mimetic peptides, significantly reduced cerebral infarct volume. Gap26 treatment at 24 h after ischemia improved functional recovery on muscle strength, motor coordination, and spatial memory abilities. Further, Gap26 inhibited Cx43 expression and reduced active astrogliosis. Gap26 interacted and co-localized with Cx43 together in brain tissues and cultured astrocytes. After oxygen glucose deprivation, Gap26 treatment reduced the total Cx43 level in cultured astrocytes; but Cx43 level in the plasma membrane was increased. Degradation of Cx43 in the cytoplasm was mainly via the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Concurrently, phosphorylated Akt, which phosphorylates Cx43 on Serine(373) and facilitates the forward transport of Cx43 to the plasma membrane, was increased by Gap26 treatment. Microdialysis showed that increased membranous Cx43 causes glutamate release by opening Cx43 hemichannels. Extracellular glutamate concentration was significantly decreased by Gap26 treatment in vivo. Finally, we found that cleaved caspase-3, an apoptosis marker, was attenuated after HI injury by Gap26 treatment. Effects of Gap27 were analogous to those of Gap26. In summary, our findings demonstrate that modulation of Cx43 expression and astroglial function is a potential therapeutic strategy for ischemic brain injury. GLIA 2015;63:1553-1567. PMID:25988944

  13. Hyperbaric oxygenation enhances transplanted cell graft and functional recovery in the infarct heart

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mahmood; Meduru, Sarath; Mohan, Iyyapu K.; Kuppusamy, M. Lakshmi; Wisel, Sheik; Kulkarni, Aditi; Rivera, Brian K.; Hamlin, Robert L.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2009-01-01

    A major limitation to the application of stem-cell therapy to repair ischemic heart damage is the low survival of transplanted cells in the heart, possibly due to poor oxygenation. We hypothesized that hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) can be used as an adjuvant treatment to augment stem-cell therapy. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of HBO on the engraftment of rat bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplanted in infarct rat hearts. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in Fisher-344 rats by permanently ligating the left-anterior-descending coronary artery. MSCs, labeled with fluorescent superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles, were transplanted in the infarct and peri-infarct regions of the MI hearts. HBO (100% oxygen at 2 ATA for 90 min) was administered daily for 2 weeks. Four MI groups were used: untreated (MI); HBO; MSC; MSC+HBO. Echocardiography, electro-vectorcardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging were used for functional evaluations. The engraftment of transplanted MSCs in the heart was confirmed by SPIO fluorescence and Prussian-blue staining. Immunohistochemical staining was used to identify key cellular and molecular markers including CD29, troponin-T, connexin-43, VEGF, ?-smooth-muscle actin, and von-Willebrand factor in the tissue. Compared to MI and MSC groups, the MSC+HBO group showed a significantly increased recovery of cardiac function including left-ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, fraction-shortening, LV wall-thickness, and QRS vector. Further, HBO treatment significantly increased the engraftment of CD29-positive cells, expression of connexin-43, troponin-T and VEGF, and angiogenesis in the infarct tissue. Thus, HBO appears to be a potential and clinically-viable adjuvant treatment for myocardial stem-cell therapy. PMID:19376124

  14. Promoting recovery-oriented practice in mental health services: a quasi-experimental mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recovery has become an increasingly prominent concept in mental health policy internationally. However, there is a lack of guidance regarding organisational transformation towards a recovery orientation. This study evaluated the implementation of recovery-orientated practice through training across a system of mental health services. Methods The intervention comprised four full-day workshops and an in-team half-day session on supporting recovery. It was offered to 383 staff in 22 multidisciplinary community and rehabilitation teams providing mental health services across two contiguous regions. A quasi-experimental design was used for evaluation, comparing behavioural intent with staff from a third contiguous region. Behavioural intent was rated by coding points of action on the care plans of a random sample of 700 patients (400 intervention, 300 control), before and three months after the intervention. Action points were coded for (a) focus of action, using predetermined categories of care; and (b) responsibility for action. Qualitative inquiry was used to explore staff understanding of recovery, implementation in services and the wider system, and the perceived impact of the intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 intervention group team leaders post-training and an inductive thematic analysis undertaken. Results A total of 342 (89%) staff received the intervention. Care plans of patients in the intervention group had significantly more changes with evidence of change in the content of patient’s care plans (OR 10.94. 95% CI 7.01-17.07) and the attributed responsibility for the actions detailed (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.68-5.18). Nine themes emerged from the qualitative analysis split into two superordinate categories. ‘Recovery, individual and practice’, describes the perception and provision of recovery orientated care by individuals and at a team level. It includes themes on care provision, the role of hope, language of recovery, ownership and multidisciplinarity. ‘Systemic implementation’, describes organizational implementation and includes themes on hierarchy and role definition, training approaches, measures of recovery and resources. Conclusions Training can provide an important mechanism for instigating change in promoting recovery-orientated practice. However, the challenge of systemically implementing recovery approaches requires further consideration of the conceptual elements of recovery, its measurement, and maximising and demonstrating organizational commitment. PMID:23764121

  15. Method for enhancing selectivity and recovery in the fractional flotation of particles in a flotation column

    DOEpatents

    Klunder, Edgar B. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2011-08-09

    The method relates to particle separation from a feed stream. The feed stream is injected directly into the froth zone of a vertical flotation column in the presence of a counter-current reflux stream. A froth breaker generates a reflux stream and a concentrate stream, and the reflux stream is injected into the froth zone to mix with the interstitial liquid between bubbles in the froth zone. Counter-current flow between the plurality of bubbles and the interstitial liquid facilitates the attachment of higher hydrophobicity particles to bubble surfaces as lower hydrophobicity particles detach. The height of the feed stream injection and the reflux ratio may be varied in order to optimize the concentrate or tailing stream recoveries desired based on existing operating conditions.

  16. Method for efficient recovery of high-purity polycarbonates from electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Weeden, George S; Soepriatna, Nicholas H; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

    2015-02-17

    More than one million tons of polycarbonates from waste electrical and electronic equipment are consigned to landfills at an increasing rate of 3-5% per year. Recycling the polymer waste should have a major environmental impact. Pure solvents cannot be used to selectively extract polycarbonates from mixtures of polymers with similar properties. In this study, selective mixed solvents are found using guidelines from Hansen solubility parameters, gradient polymer elution chromatography, and solubility tests. A room-temperature sequential extraction process using two mixed solvents is developed to recover polycarbonates with high yield (>95%) and a similar purity and molecular weight distribution as virgin polycarbonates. The estimated cost of recovery is less than 30% of the cost of producing virgin polycarbonates from petroleum. This method would potentially reduce raw materials from petroleum, use 84% less energy, reduce emission by 1-6 tons of CO2 per ton of polycarbonates, and reduce polymer accumulation in landfills and associated environmental hazards. PMID:25625790

  17. Comparison of three DNA extraction methods for recovery of soil protist DNA.

    PubMed

    Santos, Susana S; Nielsen, Tue Kjærgaard; Hansen, Lars H; Winding, Anne

    2015-08-01

    The use of molecular methods to investigate protist communities in soil is in rapid development this decade. Molecular analysis of soil protist communities is usually dependant on direct genomic DNA extraction from soil and inefficient or differential DNA extraction of protist DNA can lead to bias in downstream community analysis. Three commonly used soil DNA extraction methods have been tested on soil samples from three European Long-Term Observatories (LTOs) with different land-use and three protist cultures belonging to different phylogenetic groups in different growth stages. The methods tested were: ISOm-11063 (a version of the ISO-11063 method modified to include a FastPrep ®-24 mechanical lysis step), GnS-GII (developed by the GenoSol platform to extract soil DNA in large-scale soil surveys) and a commercial DNA extraction kit - Power Lyzer™ PowerSoil® DNA Isolation Kit (MoBio). DNA yield and quality were evaluated along with DNA suitability for amplification of 18S rDNA fragments by PCR. On soil samples, ISOm-11063 yields significantly higher DNA for two of the three soil samples, however, MoBio extraction favors DNA quality. This method was also more effective to recover copies of 18S rDNA numbers from all soil types. In addition and despite the lower yields, higher DNA quality was observed with DNA extracted from protist cultures with the MoBio method. Likewise, a bead-beating step shows to be a good solution for DNA extraction of soil protists, since the recovery of DNA from protist cultures and from the different soil samples with the ISOm method proved to be efficient in recovering PCR-amplifiable DNA. This study showed that soil DNA extraction methods provide biased results towards the cyst stages of protist organism. PMID:25966645

  18. A Functional Proteomic Method for Biomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Fred; Panneer, Nivedha; Tutino, Christopher M.; Wu, Michael; Skrabal, William R.; Moskaluk, Christopher; Kelly, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome holds out the hope for personalized medicine, but it is clear that analysis of DNA or RNA content alone is not sufficient to understand most disease processes. Proteomic strategies that allow unbiased identification of proteins and their post-transcriptional and -translation modifications are an essential complement to genomic strategies. However, the enormity of the proteome and limitations in proteomic methods make it difficult to determine the targets that are particularly relevant to human disease. Methods are therefore needed that allow rational identification of targets based on function and relevance to disease. Screening methodologies such as phage display, SELEX, and small-molecule combinatorial chemistry have been widely used to discover specific ligands for cells or tissues of interest, such as tumors. Those ligands can be used in turn as affinity probes to identify their cognate molecular targets when they are not known in advance. Here we report an easy, robust and generally applicable approach in which phage particles bearing cell- or tissue-specific peptides serve directly as the affinity probes for their molecular targets. For proof of principle, the method successfully identified molecular binding partners, three of them novel, for 15 peptides specific for pancreatic cancer. PMID:21811618

  19. Active subnetwork recovery with a mechanism-dependent scoring function; with application to angiogenesis and organogenesis studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The learning active subnetworks problem involves finding subnetworks of a bio-molecular network that are active in a particular condition. Many approaches integrate observation data (e.g., gene expression) with the network topology to find candidate subnetworks. Increasingly, pathway databases contain additional annotation information that can be mined to improve prediction accuracy, e.g., interaction mechanism (e.g., transcription, microRNA, cleavage) annotations. We introduce a mechanism-based approach to active subnetwork recovery which exploits such annotations. We suggest that neighboring interactions in a network tend to be co-activated in a way that depends on the “correlation” of their mechanism annotations. e.g., neighboring phosphorylation and de-phosphorylation interactions may be more likely to be co-activated than neighboring phosphorylation and covalent bonding interactions. Results Our method iteratively learns the mechanism correlations and finds the most likely active subnetwork. We use a probabilistic graphical model with a Markov Random Field component which creates dependencies between the states (active or non-active) of neighboring interactions, that incorporates a mechanism-based component to the function. We apply a heuristic-based EM-based algorithm suitable for the problem. We validated our method’s performance using simulated data in networks downloaded from GeneGO against the same approach without the mechanism-based component, and two other existing methods. We validated our methods performance in correctly recovering (1) the true interaction states, and (2) global network properties of the original network against these other methods. We applied our method to networks generated from time-course gene expression studies in angiogenesis and lung organogenesis and validated the findings from a biological perspective against current literature. Conclusions The advantage of our mechanism-based approach is best seen in networks composed of connected regions with a large number of interactions annotated with a subset of mechanisms, e.g., a regulatory region of transcription interactions, or a cleavage cascade region. When applied to real datasets, our method recovered novel and biologically meaningful putative interactions, e.g., interactions from an integrin signaling pathway using the angiogenesis dataset, and a group of regulatory microRNA interactions in an organogenesis network. PMID:23432934

  20. Nogo-66 Receptor Antagonist Peptide (NEP1-40) Administration Promotes Functional Recovery and Axonal Growth After Lateral Funiculus Injury in the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Y.; Shumsky, J. S.; Sabol, M. A.; Kushner, R. A.; Strittmatter, S.; Hamers, F. P. T.; Lee, D. H. S.; Rabacchi, S. A.; Murray, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The myelin protein Nogo inhibits axon regeneration by binding to its receptor (NgR) on axons. Intrathecal delivery of an NgR antagonist (NEP1-40) promotes growth of injured corticospinal axons and recovery of motor function following a dorsal hemisection. The authors used a similar design to examine recovery and repair after a lesion that interrupts the rubrospinal tract (RST). Methods Rats received a lateral funiculotomy at C4 and NEP1-40 or vehicle was delivered to the cervical spinal cord for 4 weeks. Outcome measures included motor and sensory tests and immunohistochemistry. Results Gait analysis showed recovery in the NEP1-40-treated group compared to operated controls, and a test of forelimb usage also showed a beneficial effect. The density of labeled RST axons increased ipsilaterally in the NEP1-40 group in the lateral funiculus rostral to the lesion and contralaterally in both gray and white matter. Thus, rubrospinal axons exhibited diminished dieback and/or growth up to the lesion site. This was accompanied by greater density of 5 HT and calcitonin gene-related peptide axons adjacent to and into the lesion/matrix site in the NEP1-40 group. Conclusions NgR blockade after RST injury is associated with axonal growth and/or diminished dieback of severed RST axons up to but not into or beyond the lesion/matrix site, and growth of serotonergic and dorsal root axons adjacent to and into the lesion/matrix site. NgR blockade also supported partial recovery of function. The authors’ results indicate that severed rubrospinal axons respond to NEP1-40 treatment but less robustly than corticospinal, raphe-spinal, or dorsal root axons. PMID:18056009

  1. Modeling of Salivary Production Recovery After Radiotherapy Using Mixed Models: Determination of Optimal Dose Constraint for IMRT Planning and Construction of Convenient Tools to Predict Salivary Function

    SciTech Connect

    Ortholan, Cecile [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France)], E-mail: c.ortholan@wanadoo.fr; Chamorey, Emmanuel Phar [Department of Biostatistics, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France); Benezery, Karen; Thariat, Juliette [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France); Dassonville, Olivier; Poissonnet, Gilles; Bozec, Alexandre [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France); Follana, Philippe; Peyrade, Frederique [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France); Sudaka, Anne [Department of Pathology, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France); Gerard, Jean Pierre; Bensadoun, Rene Jean [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France)

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The mathematical relationship between the dose to the parotid glands and salivary gland production needs to be elucidated. This study, which included data from patients included in a French prospective study assessing the benefit of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (RT), sought to elaborate a convenient and original model of salivary recovery. Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and December 2004, 44 patients were included (35 with oropharyngeal and 9 with nasopharyngeal cancer). Of the 44 patients, 24 were treated with intensity-modulated RT, 17 with three-dimensional conformal RT, and 2 with two-dimensional RT. Stimulated salivary production was collected for {<=}24 months after RT. The data of salivary production, time of follow-up, and dose to parotid gland were modeled using a mixed model. Several models were developed to assess the best-fitting variable for the dose level to the parotid gland. Results: Models developed with the dose to the contralateral parotid fit the data slightly better than those with the dose to both parotids, suggesting that contralateral and ipsilateral parotid glands are not functionally equivalent even with the same dose level to the glands. The best predictive dose-value variable for salivary flow recovery was the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy. Conclusion: The results of this study show that the recommendation of a dose constraint for intensity-modulated RT planning should be established at the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy rather than the mean dose. For complete salivary production recovery after 24 months, the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy should be <33%. Our results permitted us to establish two convenient tools to predict the saliva production recovery function according to the dose received by the contralateral parotid gland.

  2. Transplantated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Embryonic Stem Cells Promote Muscle Regeneration and Accelerate Functional Recovery of Injured Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ninagawa, Nana Takenaka; Isobe, Eri; Hirayama, Yuri; Murakami, Rumi; Komatsu, Kazumi; Nagai, Masataka; Kobayashi, Mami; Kawabata, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We previously established that mesenchymal stem cells originating from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells (E-MSCs) showed markedly higher potential for differentiation into skeletal muscles in vitro than common mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Further, the E-MSCs exhibited a low risk for teratoma formation. Here we evaluate the potential of E-MSCs for differentiation into skeletal muscles in vivo and reveal the regeneration and functional recovery of injured muscle by transplantation. E-MSCs were transplanted into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle 24?h following direct clamping. After transplantation, the myogenic differentiation of E-MSCs, TA muscle regeneration, and re-innervation were morphologically analyzed. In addition, footprints and gaits of each leg under spontaneous walking were measured by CatWalk XT, and motor functions of injured TA muscles were precisely analyzed. Results indicate that >60% of transplanted E-MSCs differentiated into skeletal muscles. The cross-sectional area of the injured TA muscles of E-MSC–transplanted animals increased earlier than that of control animals. E-MSCs also promotes re-innervation of the peripheral nerves of injured muscles. Concerning function of the TA muscles, we reveal that transplantation of E-MSCs promotes the recovery of muscles. This is the first report to demonstrate by analysis of spontaneous walking that transplanted cells can accelerate the functional recovery of injured muscles. Taken together, the results show that E-MSCs have a high potential for differentiation into skeletal muscles in vivo as well as in vitro. The transplantation of E-MSCs facilitated the functional recovery of injured muscles. Therefore, E-MSCs are an efficient cell source in transplantation. PMID:23914336

  3. The role of stress in recovery of function after spinal cord injury 

    E-print Network

    Washburn, Stephanie Nicole

    2009-05-15

    Research has shown that exposure to just 6 minutes of uncontrollable shock 24 hours following contusion injury impairs locomotor recovery and leads to greater tissue loss at the injury epicenter. Uncontrollable shock is known to elevate...

  4. Thoracic epidural anesthesia does not affect functional recovery from myocardial stunning in sevoflurane-anesthetized dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Meissner; Thomas P. Weber; Hugo Van Aken; Michael Weyand; Michael Booke; Norbert Rolf

    1998-01-01

    Objective: A beneficial effect of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) on recovery from myocardial stunning was previously shown in awake dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TEA on recovery from myocardial stunning in sevoflurane-anesthetized dogs.Design: Randomized animal study.Setting: Animal laboratory of a university hospital.Participants: Chronically instrumented mongrel dogs.Interventions: Six dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement

  5. Relation of delayed recovery of myocardial function after takotsubo cardiomyopathy to subsequent quality of life.

    PubMed

    Neil, Christopher J; Nguyen, Thanh H; Singh, Kuljit; Raman, Betty; Stansborough, Jeanette; Dawson, Dana; Frenneaux, Michael P; Horowitz, John D

    2015-04-15

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) has generally been regarded as a relatively transient disorder, characterized by reversible regional left ventricular systolic dysfunction. However, most patients with TTC experience prolonged lassitude or dyspnea after acute attacks. Although this might reflect continued emotional stress, myocardial inflammation and accentuated brain-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) release persist for at least 3 months. We therefore tested the hypotheses that this continued inflammation is associated with (1) persistent contractile dysfunction and (2) consequent impairment of quality of life. Echocardiographic parameters (global longitudinal strain [GLS], longitudinal strain rate [LSR], and peak apical twist [AT]) were compared acutely and after 3 months in 36 female patients with TTC and 19 age-matched female controls. Furthermore, correlations were sought between putative functional anomalies, inflammatory markers (T2 score on cardiovascular magnetic resonance, plasma NT-proBNP, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels), and the physical composite component of SF36 score (SF36-PCS). In TTC cases, left ventricular ejection fraction returned to normal within 3 months. GLS, LSR, and AT improved significantly over 3-month recovery, but GLS remained reduced compared to controls even at follow-up (-17.9 ± 3.1% vs -20.0 ± 1.8%, p = 0.003). Impaired GLS at 3 months was associated with both persistent NT-proBNP elevation (p = 0.03) and reduced SF36-PCS at ?3 months (p = 0.04). In conclusion, despite normalization of left ventricular ejection fraction, GLS remains impaired for at least 3 months, possibly as a result of residual myocardial inflammation. Furthermore, perception of impaired physical exercise capacity ?3 months after TTC may be explained by persistent myocardial dysfunction. PMID:25724780

  6. Quantitative evaluation of motor functional recovery process in chronic stroke patients during robot-assisted wrist training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. L. Hu; K. Y. Tong; R. Song; X. J. Zheng; K. H. Lui; W. W. F. Leung; S. Ng; S. S. Y. Au-Yeung

    2009-01-01

    This study was to investigate the motor functional recovery process in chronic stroke during robot-assisted wrist training. Fifteen subjects with chronic upper extremity paresis after stroke attended a 20-session wrist tracking training using an interactive rehabilitation robot. Electromyographic (EMG) parameters, i.e., EMG activation levels of four muscles: biceps brachii (BIC), triceps brachii (TRI, lateral head), flexor carpiradialis (FCR), and extensor

  7. Comparison of the effects of erythropoietin and anakinra on functional recovery and gene expression in a traumatic brain injury model

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gail D.; Peterson, Todd C.; Vonder Haar, Cole; Kantor, Eric D.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Hoane, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the effects of two inflammatory modulators, erythropoietin (EPO) and anakinra, on functional recovery and brain gene expression following a cortical contusion impact (CCI) injury. Dosage regimens were designed to provide serum concentrations in the range obtained with clinically approved doses. Functional recovery was assessed using both motor and spatial learning tasks and neuropathological measurements conducted in the cortex and hippocampus. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine the effect on gene expression at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days post-CCI. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to evaluate the effect on relevant functional categories. EPO and anakinra treatment resulted in significant changes in brain gene expression in the CCI model demonstrating acceptable brain penetration. At all three time points, EPO treatment resulted in significantly more differentially expressed genes than anakinra. For anakinra at 24 h and EPO at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days, the genes in the top 3 functional categories were involved in cellular movement, inflammatory response and cell-to-cell signaling. For EPO, the majority of the genes in the top 10 canonical pathways identified were associated with inflammatory and immune signaling processes. This was true for anakinra only at 24 h post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). The immunomodulation effects of EPO and anakinra did not translate into positive effects on functional behavioral and lesion studies. Treatment with either EPO or anakinra failed to induce significant beneficial effects on recovery of function or produce any significant effects on the prevention of injury induced tissue loss at 30 days post-injury. In conclusion, treatment with EPO or anakinra resulted in significant effects on gene expression in the brain without affecting functional outcome. This suggests that targeting these inflammatory processes alone may not be sufficient for preventing secondary injuries after TBI. PMID:24151467

  8. TAT-NEP1-40 as a novel therapeutic candidate for axonal regeneration and functional recovery after stroke.

    PubMed

    Gou, Xingchun; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Qianzi; Xu, Lixian; Xiong, Lize

    2011-02-01

    Currently available therapeutics has been less effective in promoting functional recovery from stroke or other injuries in the central nervous system (CNS). Axonal damage is a characteristic pathology seen in CNS injuries. Previously, it was reported that Nogo-A extracellular peptide residues 1-40 (NEP1-40), a competitive antagonist of Nogo-66 receptor (NgR1), has the ability to promote axonal regrowth and functional recovery after CNS injury. However, delivery of the therapeutic proteins into the brain parenchyma is limited due to its inability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We first generated a biologically active NEP1-40 fusion protein containing the protein transduction domain (PTD) of the transactivator of transcription (TAT), TAT-NEP1-40, which crosses the BBB in vivo after systemic delivery. The TAT-NEP1-40 can protect PC12 cells against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and promote neurite outgrowth when added exogenously to culture medium. The TAT-NEP1-40 protein transduced into the brain continued to sustain biological activities and protected the brain against ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibition of neuronal apoptosis. Collectively, our data suggest that TAT-NEP1-40 may be a novel therapeutic candidate for axonal regeneration and functional recovery from CNS injuries such as cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, cerebral hemorrhage, brain trauma, and also for spinal cord injury. PMID:20367026

  9. Effects of Robot-assisted Gait Training Combined with Functional Electrical Stimulation on Recovery of Locomotor Mobility in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-hyeon; Ko, Young Jun; Chang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Ju Hyeok; Lee, Kyeong Bong; Park, Yoo Jung; Ha, Hyun Geun; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of robot-assisted gait training combined with functional electrical stimulation on locomotor recovery in patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects] The 20 subjects were randomly assigned into either an experimental group (n = 10) that received a combination of robot-assisted gait training and functional electrical stimulation on the ankle dorsiflexor of the affected side or a control group (n = 10) that received robot-assisted gait training only. [Methods] Both groups received the respective therapies for 30?min/day, 3 days/week for 5 weeks. The outcome was measured using the Modified Motor Assessment Scale (MMAS), Timed Up-and-Go Test (TUG), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and gait parameters through gait analysis (Vicon 370 motion analysis system, Oxford Metrics Ltd., Oxford, UK). All the variables were measured before and after training. [Results] Step length and maximal knee extension were significantly greater than those before training in the experimental group only. Maximal Knee flexion showed a significant difference between the experimental and control groups. The MMAS, BBS, and TUG scores improved significantly after training compared with before training in both groups. [Conclusion] We suggest that the combination of robot-assisted gait training and functional electrical stimulation encourages patients to actively participate in training because it facilitates locomotor recovery without the risk of adverse effects. PMID:25540505

  10. Method for the recovery of minerals and production of by-products from coal ash

    SciTech Connect

    Schmeda, R.A.; Ashworth, R.A.; Rodriguez, L.A.; Padilla, A.A.; Spake, N.B.; Berry, W.W.

    1987-03-24

    A method is described for the recovery of mineral values from ash derived from coal gasification and combustion which ash contains carbon, magnetite, cenospheres and mineral values including aluminum and iron. The method comprises: (a) screening the ash to provide a first carbon and cenosphere-containing ash fraction which contains the major portion of the cenospheres and carbon present in the ash as well as mineral values and a second ash fraction; (b) separating and recovering cenospheres from the first ash fraction to yield a mineral value and carbon-containing ash fraction; (c) removing and recovering the carbon from the carbon-containing ash fraction by froth flotation to separate the carbon from mineral values contained in the fraction; (d) subjecting the mineral value-containing ash fraction produced in step (c) to wet magnetic separation to yield a non-magnetic ash fraction and a magnetite-rich fraction; (e) subjecting the second ash fraction to dry magnetic separation to produce a non-magnetic ash fraction and a magnetite-rich fraction; and (f) subjecting the magnetite-rich fraction resulting from step (e) to wet magnetic separation to yield a non-magnetic ash fraction.

  11. Protection Method of Magnetic Energy Recovery Switch Applied to Series Compensation in Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiik, Jan Arild; Wijaya, Fransisco Danang; Shimada, Ryuichi

    Series compensation in transmission systems is efficient for improved utilization of the grid. However, during faults, large over-currents will result and necessary protection must be installed. This increases the costs significantly. A power flow controller called the magnetic energy recovery switch (MERS) is investigated. The configuration consists of four active switches and a small dc capacitor. It is characterized by a large steady-state voltage-current operating range. A special capability of the configuration is the possibility to conduct current in two parallel arms when the voltage across the capacitor is zero. It can be found that this increases the over-current capability of the device to almost the double. A protection method utilizing the active switches is suggested. By applying simple control, parallel conduction mode can be reached quickly after fault occurs. Small scale experiments demonstrate simple implementation and successful operation. Additionally, large scale system investigations show that the influence of the protection method on the required semiconductor rating is low. This indicates the potential for significant protection cost reductions.

  12. Method for Recovery and Immunoaffinity Enrichment of Membrane Proteins Illustrated with Metastatic Ovarian Cancer Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Luke V.; Likhte, Varsha; Wright, William H.; Chu, Frances; Cambron, Emma; Baldwin-Burnett, Anne; Krakow, Jessica; Smejkal, Gary B.

    2012-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins play key biological roles in cell signaling, transport, and pathogen invasion. However, quantitative clinical assays for this critical class of proteins remain elusive and are generally limited to serum-soluble extracellular fragments. Furthermore, classic proteomic approaches to membrane protein analysis typically involve proteolytic digestion of the soluble pieces, resulting in separation of intra- and extracellular segments and significant informational loss. In this paper, we describe the development of a new method for the quantitative extraction of intact integral membrane proteins (including GPCRs) from solid metastatic ovarian tumors using pressure cycling technology in combination with a new (ProteoSolve-TD) buffer system. This new extraction buffer is compatible with immunoaffinity methods (e.g., ELISA and immunoaffinity chromatography), as well as conventional proteomic techniques (e.g., 2D gels, western blots). We demonstrate near quantitative recovery of membrane proteins EDG2, EDG4, FASLG, KDR, and LAMP-3 by western blots. We have also adapted commercial ELISAs for serum-soluble membrane protein fragments (e.g., sVEGFR2) to measure the tissue titers of their transmembrane progenitors. Finally, we demonstrate the compatibility of the new buffers with immunoaffinity enrichment/mass spectrometric characterization of tissue proteins. PMID:22919487

  13. Effects of hypothermia combined with neural stem cell transplantation on recovery of neurological function in rats with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Jianjun

    2015-03-01

    The microenvironment of the injured spinal cord is hypothesized to be involved in driving the differentiation and survival of engrafted neural stem cells (NSCs). Hypothermia is known to improve the microenvironment of the injured spinal cord in a number of ways. To investigate the effect of NSC transplantation in combination with hypothermia on the recovery of rat spinal cord injury, 60 Sprague?Dawley female rats were used to establish a spinal cord hemisection model. They were divided randomly into three groups: A, spinal cord injury group; B, NSC transplantation group; and C, NSC transplantation + hypothermia group. At 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks post?injury, the motor function of all animals was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie and Besnaham locomotor scoring system and the inclined plane test. At 4 weeks post?transplantation, histological analysis and immunocytochemistry were performed. At 8 weeks post?transplantation, horseradish peroxidase nerve tracing and transmission electron microscopy were conducted to observe axonal regeneration. The outcome of hind limb motor function recovery in group C significantly surpassed that in group B at 4 weeks post?injury (P<0.05). Recovery was also observed in group A, but to a lesser degree. For the pathological sections no neural axonal were observed in group A. A few axon?like structures were observed in group B and more in group C. Horseradish peroxidase?labeled neurofibers and bromodeoxyuridine?positive cells were observed in the spinal cords of group C. Fewer of these cells were found in group B and fewer still in group A. The differences among the three groups were significant (P<0.05). Using transmission electron microscopy, newly formed nerve fibers and myelinated nerve fibers were observed in the central transverse plane in groups B and C, although these nerve fibers were not evident in group A. In conclusion, NSC transplantation promoted the recovery of hind limb function in rats, and combination treatment with hypothermia produced synergistic effects. PMID:25385306

  14. Plasticity of subcortical pathways promote recovery of skilled hand function in rats after corticospinal and rubrospinal tract injuries.

    PubMed

    García-Alías, Guillermo; Truong, Kevin; Shah, Prithvi K; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2015-04-01

    The corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts are the predominant tracts for controlling skilled hand function. Injuries to these tracts impair grasping but not gross motor functions such as overground locomotion. The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not, after damage to both the corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts, other spared subcortical motor pathway can mediate the recovery of skilled hand function. Adult rats received a bilateral injury to the corticospinal tract at the level of the medullar pyramids and a bilateral ablation of the rubrospinal axons at C4. One group of rats received, acutely after injury, two injections of chondroitinase-ABC at C7, and starting at 7days post-injury were enrolled in daily reaching and grasping rehabilitation (CHASE group, n=5). A second group of rats received analogous injections of ubiquitous penicillinase, and did not undergo rehabilitation (PEN group, n=5). Compared to rats in the PEN group, CHASE rats gradually recovered the ability to reach and grasp over 42days after injury. Overground locomotion was mildly affected after injury and both groups followed similar recovery. Since the reticulospinal tract plays a predominant role in motor control, we further investigated whether or not plasticity of this pathway could contribute to the animal's recovery. Reticulospinal axons were anterogradely traced in both groups of rats. The density of reticulospinal processes in both the normal and ectopic areas of the grey ventral matter of the caudal segments of the cervical spinal cord was greater in the CHASE than PEN group. The results indicate that after damage to spinal tracts that normally mediate the control of reaching and grasping in rats other complementary spinal tracts can acquire the role of those damaged tracts and promote task-specific recovery. PMID:25666586

  15. Human Adipose Stem Cells Improve Mechanical Allodynia and Enhance Functional Recovery in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Yeong; Lee, Hye-Lan; Yun, Yeomin; Kim, Jin-Su; Ha, Yoon; Yoon, Do Heum; Lee, Soo-Hong; Shin, Dong Ah

    2015-07-01

    Stem cells are a promising source of tissue engineering due to their differentiation potential. Today, direct transplantation of stem cells for cell therapy is commonly performed. However, in cases of nerve injury, direct transplantation of cells could lead to secondary nerve damage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: the phosphate-buffered saline epineural transplantation (PBS-ENT) group, the PBS intraneural transplantation (PBS-INT) group, the human adipose-derived stem cells epineural transplantation (hASCs-ENT) group, and human adipose-derived stem cells intraneural transplantation (hASCs-INT) group. Transplantation was conducted 1 week later after inflicting a crush injury with subsequent observation for 5 weeks. To evaluate pain, each group was examined with regard to paw withdrawal latency and evoked potentials. The sciatic functional index (SFI) was calculated to estimate functional recovery. The sciatic nerve was also examined histologically. The hASCs-ENT group showed a more rapid paw withdrawal threshold and SFI recovery than the other groups (p<0.05). The hASCs-ENT group also showed shorter initial latencies in both somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) and motor evoked potential (MEP) than the PBS-INT group (p<0.05). In addition, the N1 latency of the MEP and the N1 and P1 latencies of the SSEP were significantly shorter than those of the PBS-INT group (p<0.05). Histological examination revealed that the transplanted groups showed better neural recovery and remyelination than the groups injected with PBS. These results show that the transplantation of hASCs into the injured sciatic nerve improved mechanical allodynia and functional recovery as determined by the paw withdrawal test, SFI analysis, and electrophysiological studies. ENT is superior to INT in terms of invasiveness and better outcomes. PMID:25857679

  16. Recovery of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using three sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10, 100, or 1,000 cfu/eggshell of S. Enteritidis...

  17. Methods And Tools For The Evaluation Of Monitored Natural Recovery Of Contaminated Sediment: Lake Hartwell Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) Office of Research and Development (ORD) has been conducting research to develop methods and tools for the evaluation of monitored natural recovery (MNR) of contami...

  18. Comparative study of shell swab and shell crush methods for the recovery of Salmonella from shell eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg associated Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks have been a major cause of foodborne illness in Japan as well as in the United States and several European countries. Researchers have been attempting to develop a rapid and highly sensitive method for the recovery of microorganisms from shell eggs. ...

  19. Evaluation of COFCAW as a tertiary recovery method, Sloss field, Nebraska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Parrish; C. B. Pollock; Craig F. F. Jr

    1972-01-01

    Following an encouraging pilot test, a full-scale COFCAW (Combination Of Forward Combustion And Waterflooding) operation was conducted in the Sloss field, Nebraska. Begun with six 80-acre 5-spots, this project ultimately involved 960 acres and became the largest test of tertiary oil recovery yet reported. Reservoir conditions were unusual for thermal recovery. The reservoir had previously been waterflooded to an average

  20. P2Y2 Receptor Agonist INS37217 Enhances Functional Recovery after Detachment Caused by Subretinal Injection in Normal and rds Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nour, May; Quiambao, Alexander B.; Peterson, Ward M.; Al-Ubaidi, Muayyad R.; Naash, Muna I.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of INS37217 on the recovery of retinal function after experimental retinal detachment induced by subretinal injection. Methods Subretinal injections of 1 ?L of fluorescent microbeads, saline, or INS37217 (1–200 ?M) were made by the transvitreal method in normal (C57BL/6) mice and in mice heterozygous for the retinal degeneration slow (rds) gene. Control, mock-injected animals underwent corneal puncture without injection. Histologic and ERG evaluations were made at 0 to 1 and 8 hours, and 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, and 60 days post injection (PI). DNA fragmentation was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated uridine 5?-triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL). Results A single subretinal injection of saline solution containing fluorescent beads caused a histologically evident retinal detachment and distributed the microbeads to almost all the subretinal space. Spontaneous reattachment occurred within 24 hours after injection and was accompanied by evident retinal folding that appeared largely resolved by 6 days later. Relative to controls, injection of saline resulted in approximately 40% recovery of dark-adapted a-wave amplitude at 24 hours PI and gradually improved to approximately 90% of controls at 2 months PI. Subretinal injection of saline containing INS37217 (10 ?M) significantly increased rod and cone ERG of normal and rds+/? mice at 1 and 10 days PI, when compared with injection of saline alone. Additionally, INS37217 reduced the number of TUNEL-positive photoreceptors and the enhanced rate of reattachment. Conclusions Enhancement of ERG recovery by INS37217 is likely due to reduced retinal folding and cell death associated with detachment. These results support the use of INS37217 to help restore function after therapies that involve subretinal administration of drugs in animal models of retinal diseases. PMID:14507899

  1. Optimal swab processing recovery method for detection of bioterrorism-related Francisella tularensis by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Walker, Roblena E; Petersen, Jeannine M; Stephens, Kenyatta W; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2010-10-01

    Francisella tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia, is regarded as a potential bioterrorism agent. The advent of bioterrorism has heightened awareness of the need for validated methods for processing environmental samples. In this study we determined the optimal method for processing environmental swabs for the recovery and subsequent detection of F. tularensis by the use of real-time PCR assays. Four swab processing recovery methods were compared: heat, sonication, vortexing, and the Swab Extraction Tube System (SETS). These methods were evaluated using cotton, foam, polyester and rayon swabs spiked with six pathogenic strains of F. tularensis. Real-time PCR analysis using a multi-target 5'nuclease assay for F. tularensis showed that the use of the SETS method resulted in the best limit of detection when evaluated using multiple strains of F. tularensis. We demonstrated also that the efficiency of F. tularensis recovery from swab specimens was not equivalent for all swab processing methodologies and, thus, that this variable can affect real-time PCR assay sensitivity. The effectiveness of the SETS method was independent of the automated DNA extraction method and real-time PCR platforms used. In conclusion, diagnostic laboratories can now potentially incorporate the SETS method into specimen processing protocols for the rapid and efficient detection of F. tularensis by real-time PCR during laboratory bioterrorism-related investigations. PMID:20654658

  2. A comparison of results obtained by two different chromium-51 methods of determining platelet survival and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, G.; Tittley, P. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-06-01

    A number of different methods exist that use chromium-51 to determine platelet survival and recovery. A 1986 article in TRANSFUSION described the recommended methods for conducting such studies in the hope of standardizing methodology and permitting interlaboratory comparison of results. The results obtained with the recommended method have been compared with those of our previous method. With the new method, recovery of fresh random-donor platelets prepared in polyolefin bags was 76 +/- 6 percent with a survival of 9.3 +/- 2.8 days (n = 4). After 5 days of storage, these values were 67 +/- 8 percent and 7.8 +/- 1.9 days. Similar values were obtained for fresh and stored platelets collected on automated cell separators. However, when our previous (pre-1986) method of evaluation was used, recovery of fresh platelets in the polyolefin bags was 56 +/- 11 percent, and survival was 8.6 +/- 1.3 days. The 5-day values were 36 +/- 5 percent and 6.9 +/- 2.7 days. These values are significantly lower (p less than 0.05) than those obtained with the newer method, but they are in agreement with those previously reported for other techniques. Thus, the new method consistently gives higher values, possibly as a result of a less harmful labeling procedure.

  3. The Design of Boolean Functions by Modified Hill Climbing Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuriy I. Izbenko; Vladyslav Kovtun; Alexandr Kuznetsov

    2009-01-01

    With cryptographic investigations, the design of Boolean functions is a wide area. The Boolean functions play important role in the construction of a symmetric cryp- tosystem. In this paper the modifled hill climbing method is considered. The method allows using hill climbing tech- niques to modify bent functions used to design balanced, highly nonlinear Boolean functions with high algebraic de-

  4. Interlaboratory evaluation of the AOAC method and the A-1 procedure for recovery of fecal coliforms from foods.

    PubMed

    Andrews, W H; Wilson, C R; Poelma, P L; Bullock, L K; McClure, F D; Gentile, D E

    1981-09-01

    An interlaboratory evaluation was made of the 96 h AOAC method and the 24 h A-1 procedure for the enumeration of fecal coliforms in samples of yellow corn meal, rye flour, mung beans, raw ground beef, and raw oyster homogenate. Results indicated that the efficiency of the A-1 procedure, measured in terms of recovery of fecal coliforms, and the reproducibility of that recovery were dependent on the particular food being analyzed. Accordingly, until its efficiency can be more fully demonstrated, the A-1 procedure is recommended only as a screening procedure for fecal coliforms in foods. PMID:7026527

  5. Topographic Controls on Southern California Ecosystem Function and Post-fire Recovery: a Satellite and Near-surface Remote Sensing Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzari, George

    Southern Californian wildfires can influence climate in a variety of ways, including changes in surface albedo, emission of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and the production of tropospheric ozone. Ecosystem post-fire recovery plays a key role in determining the strength, duration, and relative importance of these climate forcing agents. Southern California's ecosystems vary markedly with topography, creating sharp transitions with elevation, aspect, and slope. Little is known about the ways topography influences ecosystem properties and function, particularly in the context of post-fire recovery. We combined images from the USGS satellite Landsat 5 with flux tower measurements to analyze pre- and post-fire albedo and carbon exchanged by Southern California's ecosystems in the Santa Ana Mountains. We reduced the sources of external variability in Landsat images using several correction methods for topographic and bidirectional effects. We used time series of corrected images to infer the Net Ecosystem Exchange and surface albedo, and calculated the radiative forcing due to CO2 emissions and albedo changes. We analyzed the patterns of recovery and radiative forcing on north- and south-facing slopes, stratified by vegetation classes including grassland, coastal sage scrub, chaparral, and evergreen oak forest. We found that topography strongly influenced post-fire recovery and radiative forcing. Field observations are often limited by the difficulty of collecting ground validation data. Current instrumentation networks do not provide adequate spatial resolution for landscape-level analysis. The deployment of consumer-market technology could reduce the cost of near-surface measurements, allowing the installation of finer-scale instrument networks. We tested the performance of the Microsoft Kinect sensor for measuring vegetation structure. We used Kinect to acquire 3D vegetation point clouds in the field, and used these data to compute plant height, crown diameter, and volume. We found good agreement between Kinect-derived and manual measurements.

  6. Functional Methods in the Generalized Dicke Model

    E-print Network

    M. Aparicio Alcade; A. L. L. de Lemos; N. F. Svaiter

    2007-06-12

    The Dicke model describes an ensemble of N identical two-level atoms (qubits) coupled to a single mode of a bosonic field. The fermion Dicke model should be obtained by changing the atomic pseudo-spin operators by a linear combination of Fermi operators. The generalized fermion Dicke model is defined introducing different coupling constants between the single mode of the bosonic field and the reservoir. In the thermodynamic limit, the fermion Dicke model can be analized using the path integral approach with functional method. The system exhibits a second order phase transition from normal to superrandiance at some critical temperature with the presence of a condensate. We evaluate the critical transition temperature and present the spectrum of the collective bosonic excitations. There is quantum phantum critical behavior when the coupling constants satisfy an especific condition. Two particular situations are analyzed. First, we present the spectrum of the collective bosonic excitations in the case using the rotating-wave approximation, recovering the well know results. Second, the case only considering virtual processes. In the last case, it is possible to have a superradiance phase when only virtual processes are introduced in the interaction Hamiltonian. Here also appears a quantum phase transition at some critical coupling, and for larger values for the critical coupling, the system enter in this superradiant phase with a Goldstone mode.

  7. Comparison of modified A-1 method with standard EC test for recovery of fecal coliform bacteria for shellfish.

    PubMed

    Hunt, D A; Lucas, J P; McClure, F D; Springer, J; Newell, R

    1981-05-01

    This study is one of a series in which variations of the A-1 method for the detection and enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in seawater and foods were evaluated. The tests were conducted jointly by the Food and Drug Administration and state and provincial laboratories that support shellfish control programs in the United States and Canada as part of the National Shellfish Sanitation Program's Microbiology Task Force activities. Results showed significantly higher recovery of fecal coliforms from naturally contaminated shellfish by the AOAC official A-1-M method than by the American Public Health Association standard method. There was no significant difference in recovery of E. coli by the 2 methods. PMID:7016825

  8. Neurovascular Recovery via Cotransplanted Neural and Vascular Progenitors Leads to Improved Functional Restoration after Ischemic Stroke in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Tang, Yaohui; Wang, Yongting; Tang, Rongbiao; Jiang, Weifang; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Gao, Wei-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Summary The concept of the “neurovascular unit,” emphasizing the interactions between neural and vascular components in the brain, raised the notion that neural progenitor cell (NPC) transplantation therapy aimed at neural repair may be insufficient for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Here, we demonstrate that enhanced neurovascular recovery via cotransplantation of NPCs and embryonic stem cell-derived vascular progenitor cells (VPCs) in a rat stroke model is correlated with improved functional recovery after stroke. We found that cotransplantation promoted the survival, migration, differentiation, and maturation of neuronal and vascular cells derived from the cotransplanted progenitors. Furthermore, it triggered an increased generation of VEGF-, BDNF-, and IGF1-expressing neural cells derived from the grafted NPCs. Consistently, compared with transplantation of NPCs alone, cotransplantation more effectively improved the neurobehavioral deficits and attenuated the infarct volume. Thus, cotransplantation of NPCs and VPCs represents a more effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of stroke than transplantation of NPCs alone. PMID:25068125

  9. Whey proteins are more efficient than casein in the recovery of muscle functional properties following a casting induced muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Martin, Vincent; Ratel, Sébastien; Siracusa, Julien; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Combaret, Lydie; Guillet, Christelle; Dardevet, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whey supplementation, as compared to the standard casein diet, on the recovery of muscle functional properties after a casting-induced immobilization period. After an initial (I0) evaluation of the contractile properties of the plantarflexors (isometric torque-frequency relationship, concentric power-velocity relationship and a fatigability test), the ankle of 20 male adult rats was immobilized by casting for 8 days. During this period, rats were fed a standard diet with 13% of casein (CAS). After cast removal, rats received either the same diet or a diet with 13% of whey proteins (WHEY). A control group (n = 10), non-immobilized but pair-fed to the two other experimental groups, was also studied and fed with the CAS diet. During the recovery period, contractile properties were evaluated 7 (R7), 21 (R21) and 42 days (R42) after cast removal. The immobilization procedure induced a homogeneous depression of average isometric force at R7 (CAS: - 19.0 ± 8.2%; WHEY: - 21.7 ± 8.4%; P<0.001) and concentric power (CAS: - 26.8 ± 16.4%, P<0.001; WHEY: - 13.5 ± 21.8%, P<0.05) as compared to I0. Conversely, no significant alteration of fatigability was observed. At R21, isometric force had fully recovered in WHEY, especially for frequencies above 50 Hz, whereas it was still significantly depressed in CAS, where complete recovery occurred only at R42. Similarly, recovery of concentric power was faster at R21 in the 500-700°/s range in the WHEY group. These results suggest that recovery kinetics varied between diets, the diet with the whey proteins promoting a faster recovery of isometric force and concentric power output as compared to the casein diet. These effects were more specifically observed at force level and movement velocities that are relevant for functional abilities, and thus natural locomotion. PMID:24069411

  10. RECOVERY OF SPONTANEOUS ERECTILE FUNCTION AFTER NERVE-SPARING RADICAL RETROPUBIC PROSTATECTOMY WITH AND WITHOUT EARLY INTRACAVERNOUS INJECTIONS OF ALPROSTADIL: RESULTS OF A PROSPECTIVE, RANDOMIZED TRIAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Montorsi; Giorgio Guazzoni Luigi; Luigi Ferini Strambi; Luigi F. Da Pozzo; Luciano Nava; Luigi Barbieri; Patrizio Rigatti; Giuliano Pizzini; Alberto Miani

    1997-01-01

    PurposeThis study was aimed at assessing prospectively the effect of postoperative intracavernous injections of alprostadil on the recovery of spontaneous erectile function after nervesparing radical retropubic prostatectomy.

  11. Maitake beta-glucan promotes recovery of leukocytes and myeloid cell function in peripheral blood from paclitaxel hematotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hong; de Stanchina, Elisa; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Hong, Feng; Seidman, Andrew; Fornier, Monica; Xiao, Wei-Lie; Kennelly, Edward J.; Wesa, Kathleen; Cassileth, Barrie R.

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow myelotoxicity is a major limitation of chemotherapy. While granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment is effective, alternative approaches to support hematopoietic recovery are sought. We previously found that a beta-glucan extract from maitake mushroom Grifola frondosa (MBG) enhanced colony forming unit-granulocyte monocyte (CFU-GM) activity of mouse bone marrow and human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), stimulated G-CSF production and spared HPC from doxorubicin toxicity in vitro. This investigation assessed the effects of MBG on leukocyte recovery and granulocyte/monocyte function in vivo after dose intensive paclitaxel (Ptx) in a normal mouse. After a cumulative dose of Ptx (90–120 mg/kg) given to B6D2F1 mice, daily oral MBG (4 or 6 mg/kg), intravenous G-CSF (80 ?g/kg) or Ptx alone were compared for effects on the dynamics of leukocyte recovery in blood, CFU-GM activity in bone marrow and spleen, and granulocyte/monocyte production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Leukocyte counts declined less in Ptx + MBG mice compared to Ptx-alone (p = 0.024) or Ptx + G-CSF treatment (p = 0.031). Lymphocyte levels were higher after Ptx + MBG but not Ptx + G-CSF treatment compared to Ptx alone (p < 0.01). MBG increased CFU-GM activity in bone marrow and spleen (p < 0.001, p = 0.002) 2 days after Ptx. After two additional days (Ptx post-day 4), MBG restored granulocyte/monocyte ROS response to normal levels compared to Ptx-alone and increased ROS response compared to Ptx-alone or Ptx + G-CSF (p < 0.01, both). The studies indicate that oral MBG promoted maturation of HPC to become functionally active myeloid cells and enhanced peripheral blood leukocyte recovery after chemotoxic bone marrow injury. PMID:20140432

  12. Alcoholics' Recovery from Cerebral Impairment as a Function of Duration of Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, G. B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examined the time-course of recovery from cerebral impairment due to heavy drinking. Results suggest that treatment programs that use a preliminary "drying-out" period should consider lengthening this period to three weeks to ensure that patients are maximally responsive to psychotherapy. (Author)

  13. A novel method for furfural recovery via gas stripping assisted vapor permeation by a polydimethylsiloxane membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Song; Guan, Yu; Cai, Di; Li, Shufeng; Qin, Peiyong; Karim, M. Nazmul; Tan, Tianwei

    2015-03-01

    Furfural is an important platform chemical with a wide range of applications. However, due to the low concentration of furfural in the hydrolysate, the conventional methods for furfural recovery are energy-intensive and environmentally unfriendly. Considering the disadvantages of pervaporation (PV) and distillation in furfural separation, a novel energy-efficient `green technique', gas stripping assisted vapor permeation (GSVP), was introduced in this work. In this process, the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane was prepared by employing water as solvent. Coking in pipe and membrane fouling was virtually non-existent in this new process. In addition, GSVP was found to achieve the highest pervaporation separation index of 216200 (permeate concentration of 71.1 wt% and furfural flux of 4.09 kgm-2h-1) so far, which was approximately 2.5 times higher than that found in pervaporation at 95°C for recovering 6.0 wt% furfural from water. Moreover, the evaporation energy required for GSVP decreased by 35% to 44% relative to that of PV process. Finally, GSVP also displayed more promising potential in industrial application than PV, especially when coupled with the hydrolysis process or fermentation in biorefinery industry.

  14. Prediction of global left ventricular functional recovery in patients with heart failure undergoing surgical revascularisation, based on late gadolinium enhancement Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tammy J Pegg; Joseph B Selvanayagam; Joslin Jennifer; Jane M Francis; Theodoros D Karamitsos; Erica Dall'Armellina; Karen L Smith; David P Taggart; Stefan Neubauer

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The new gold standard for myocardial viability assessment is late gadolinium enhancement-cardiovascular magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR); this technique has demonstrated that the transmural extent of scar predicts segmental functional recovery. We now asked how the number of viable and number of viable+normal, segments predicted recovery of global left ventricular (LV) function in patients undergoing CABG. Finally, we examined which segmental

  15. Tadalafil, a long-acting type 5 phosphodiesterase isoenzyme inhibitor, improves neurological functional recovery in a rat model of embolic stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Zhang; Zhenggang Zhang; Rui Lan Zhang; Yisheng Cui; Margot C. LaPointe; Brian Silver; Michael Chopp

    2006-01-01

    Sildenafil, a type 5 phosphodiesterase isoenzyme (PDE5) inhibitor with a short half-life, increases brain cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels and improves neurological functional recovery when administered after stroke. In the present study, we investigated the effects of tadalafil (Cialis), a long acting PDE5 inhibitor, on brain cGMP levels, neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and neurological function during stroke recovery in a rat model

  16. Low-dose candesartan enhances molecular mediators of neuroplasticity and subsequent functional recovery after ischemic stroke in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishrat, Tauheed; Pillai, Bindu; Soliman, Sahar; Fouda, Abdelrahman Y; Kozak, Anna; Johnson, Maribeth H; Ergul, Adviye; Fagan, Susan C

    2015-06-01

    We have previously reported that angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockade with candesartan exerts neurovascular protection after experimental cerebral ischemia. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a low, subhypotensive dose of candesartan enhances neuroplasticity and subsequent functional recovery through enhanced neurotrophic factor expression in rats subjected to ischemia reperfusion injury. Male Wistar rats (290-300 g) underwent 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and received candesartan (0.3 mg/kg) or saline at reperfusion and then once every 24 h for 7 days. Functional deficits were assessed in a blinded manner at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after MCAO. Animals were sacrificed 14-day post-stroke and the brains perfused for infarct size by cresyl violet. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the expression of growth factors and synaptic proteins. Candesartan-treated animals showed a significant reduction in the infarct size [t (13)?=?-5.5, P?=?0.0001] accompanied by functional recovery in Bederson [F (1, 13)?=?7.9, P?=?0.015], beam walk [F (1, 13)?=?6.7, P?=?0.023], grip strength [F (1, 13)?=?15.2, P?=?0.0031], and rotarod performance [F (1, 14)?=?29.8, P?functional recovery after ischemic stroke. PMID:25084762

  17. The Acetyl Bromide Method Is Faster, Simpler and Presents Best Recovery of Lignin in Different Herbaceous Tissues than Klason and Thioglycolic Acid Methods

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Vilar, Flavia Carolina; Siqueira-Soares, Rita de Cássia; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; de Oliveira, Dyoni Matias; Ferro, Ana Paula; da Rocha, George Jackson; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes L.; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    We compared the amount of lignin as determined by the three most traditional methods for lignin measurement in three tissues (sugarcane bagasse, soybean roots and soybean seed coat) contrasting for lignin amount and composition. Although all methods presented high reproducibility, major inconsistencies among them were found. The amount of lignin determined by thioglycolic acid method was severely lower than that provided by the other methods (up to 95%) in all tissues analyzed. Klason method was quite similar to acetyl bromide in tissues containing higher amounts of lignin, but presented lower recovery of lignin in the less lignified tissue. To investigate the causes of the inconsistencies observed, we determined the monomer composition of all plant materials, but found no correlation. We found that the low recovery of lignin presented by the thioglycolic acid method were due losses of lignin in the residues disposed throughout the procedures. The production of furfurals by acetyl bromide method does not explain the differences observed. The acetyl bromide method is the simplest and fastest among the methods evaluated presenting similar or best recovery of lignin in all the tissues assessed. PMID:25330077

  18. Selective recovery of molybdenum from spent HDS catalyst using oxidative soda ash leach/carbon adsorption method.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Ho; Mohapatra, D; Reddy, B Ramachandra

    2006-11-16

    The petroleum refining industry makes extensive use of hydroprocessing catalysts. These catalysts contain environmentally critical and economically valuable metals such as Mo, V, Ni and Co. In the present study, a simple hydrometallurgical processing of spent hydrodesulphurization (HDS) catalyst for the recovery of molybdenum using sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide mixture was investigated. Recovery of molybdenum was largely dependent on the concentrations of Na2CO3 and H2O2 in the reaction medium, which in turn controls the pH of leach liquor and the presence of Al and Ni as impurities. Under the optimum leaching conditions (40 g L(-1) Na2CO3, 6 vol.% H2O2, room temperature, 1h) about 85% recovery of Mo was achieved. The leach liquor was processed by the carbon adsorption method, which selectively adsorbs Mo at pH around 0.75. Desorption of Mo was selective at 15 vol.% NH4OH. With a single stage contact, it was found possible to achieve >99%, adsorption and desorption efficiency. Using this method, recovery of molybdenum as MoO3 product of 99.4% purity was achieved. PMID:16860466

  19. Green's function methods in heavy ion shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Costen, Robert C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Badavi, Francis F.

    1993-01-01

    An analytic solution to the heavy ion transport in terms of Green's function is used to generate a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of the computer code is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique extending Green's function over the solution domain. The computer code can also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments.

  20. Identification of potential sites for aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) in coastal areas using ASR performance estimation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuurbier, Koen G.; Bakker, Mark; Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan; Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    2013-09-01

    Performance of freshwater aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) systems in brackish or saline aquifers is negatively affected by lateral flow, density effects, and/or dispersive mixing, causing ambient groundwater to enter ASR wells during recovery. Two recently published ASR performance estimation methods are applied in a Dutch coastal area, characterized by brackish-to-saline groundwater and locally high lateral-flow velocities. ASR performance of existing systems in the study area show good agreement with the predicted performance using the two methods, provided that local vertical anisotropy ratios are limited (<3). Deviations between actual and predicted ASR performance may originate from simplifications in the conceptual model and uncertainties in the hydrogeological and hydrochemical input. As the estimation methods prove suitable to predict ASR performance, feasibility maps are generated for different scales of ASR to identify favorable ASR sites. Successful small-to-medium-scale ASR varies spatially in the study area, emphasizing the relevance of reliable a priori spatial mapping.

  1. Quadratic function approaching method for magnetotelluric soundingdata inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Liangjun, Yan; Wenbao, Hu; Zhang, Keni

    2004-04-05

    The quadratic function approaching method (QFAM) is introduced for magnetotelluric sounding (MT) data inversion. The method takes the advantage of that quadratic function has single extreme value, which avoids leading to an inversion solution for local minimum and ensures the solution for global minimization of an objective function. The method does not need calculation of sensitivity matrix and not require a strict initial earth model. Examples for synthetic data and field measurement data indicate that the proposed inversion method is effective.

  2. Recovery of hand function with robot-assisted therapy in acute stroke patients: a randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sale, Patrizio; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Lombardi, Valentina; Galafate, Daniele; Massimiani, Maria P; Posteraro, Federico; Damiani, Carlo; Franceschini, Marco

    2014-09-01

    In the last few years, not many studies on the use of robot-assisted therapy to recover hand function in acute stroke patients have been carried out. This randomized-controlled observer trial is aimed at evaluating the effects of intensive robot-assisted hand therapy compared with intensive occupational therapy in the early recovery phases after stroke with a 3-month follow-up. Twenty acute stroke patients at their first-ever stroke were enrolled and randomized into two groups. The experimental treatment was performed using the Amadeo Robotic System. Control treatment, instead, was carried out using occupational therapy executed by a trained physiotherapist. All participants received 20 sessions of treatment for 4 consecutive weeks (5 days/week). The following clinical scales, Fugl-Meyer Scale (FM), Medical Research Council Scale for Muscle Strength (hand flexor and extensor muscles) (MRC), Motricity Index (MI) and modified Ashworth Scale for wrist and hand muscles (MAS), were performed at baseline (T0), after 20 sessions (end of treatment) (T1) and at the 3-month follow-up (T2). The Barthel Index was assessed only at T0 and T1. Evidence of a significant improvement was shown by the Friedman test for the FM [experimental group (EG): P=0.0039, control group (CG): P<0.0001], Box and Block Test (EG: P=0.0185, CG: P=0.0086), MI (EG: P<0.0001, CG: P=0.0303) and MRC (EG: P<0.0001, CG: P=0.001) scales. These results provide further support to the generalized therapeutic impact of intensive robot-assisted treatment on hand recovery functions in individuals with acute stroke. The robotic rehabilitation treatment may contribute toward the recovery of hand motor function in acute stroke patients. The positive results obtained through the safe and reliable robotic rehabilitation treatment reinforce the recommendation to extend it to a larger clinical practice. PMID:24769557

  3. Effects of integrated polysensory recovery treatment on the functions of the central and autonomic nervous systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. N. Dudnik; O. S. Glazachev; O. Barak; A. A. Lavrishchev; D. I. Kostyuk

    2009-01-01

    The changes in the parameters of P300 cognitive evoked potentials, the psychological and emotional state, and heart rate variability parameters reflecting the\\u000a characteristics of autonomic regulation during polysensory physiotherapeutic recovery treatment were studied. A single treatment\\u000a with combined polysensory stimuli resulted in substantial activation of sympathetic regulation of the heart rate, improvement\\u000a of the emotional state, and an increase in

  4. Singular function mortar finite element methods

    E-print Network

    Sarkis, Marcus; Tu, Xuemin

    2003-01-05

    discretizations do not give optimal accurate schemes [10, 33]. Theoretical and numerical works on corner singularities are well known and several different approaches were proposed, such as integral equations [19, 34], primal and dual singular functions [8, 9, 11..., 12, 14, 15, 18, 20, 22, 28, 33], local mesh refinements or graded meshes [3, 30, 31], high-order polynomial approximations [2, 4, 33], and others; see also references therein. In this paper, we adopt the approach of singular functions to improve...

  5. The effects of a personal oxygen supplement on performance, recovery, and cognitive function during and after exhaustive exercise.

    PubMed

    Etheredge, Cory; Judge, Lawrence W; Bellar, David M

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a personal oxygen supplement (OS) on performance during exhaustive exercise, respiratory responses during exhaustive exercise, and cognitive function after exhaustive exercise. The participants for this blind placebo-controlled experiment were apparently healthy college-aged adults (n = 20). First, VO2max was assessed (47.6 ± 9.8 ml O2·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Participants then ran 2 trials at 80% of VO2max speed to exhaustion and received either a placebo (compressed air) or personal OS. Psychomotor vigilance testing (PVT) was performed before and after each trial. Performance between treatments was evaluated through repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and was not found to be different (p = 0.335, ?p2 = 0.052), and order (placebo first or personal OS first) was not significant within the model (p = 0.305, ?p2 = 0.058). Mean times were 1,057.6 ± 619.8 seconds for the oxygen trials and 992.5 ± 463.1 seconds for the placebo trials. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess minute ventilation (Ve, L·min(-1)) and VCO2 (L·O2·min(-1)) during exercise and recovery, mean heart rate during recovery, and PVT results. Treatment was nonsignificant (p > 0.05) nor were any interaction effects (treatment × time, p > 0.05) for any variables. The results of this study suggest that a personal OS had no effect on performance and did not affect ventilation even at the time directly surrounding the application. The results of the study also suggest that personal OS do not enhance exercise recovery or cognition during exercise recovery. PMID:24552803

  6. Effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on functional and strength recovery of handgrip in patients affected by epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Notarnicola, Angela; Quagliarella, Livio; Sasanelli, Nicola; Maccagnano, Giuseppe; Fracella, Maria Rosaria; Forcignanò, Maria Immacolata; Moretti, Biagio

    2014-12-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is effective in the treatment of tendinopathy. We designed a prospective observational clinical study to assess the correlation between clinical and functional measures and recovery of strength after ESWT for epicondylitis. We analyzed 26 patients. We measured progressive improvement in visual analogue scale values (p < 0.0005) and Mayo Elbow Performance Index scores (p = 0.004) for the pathologic limb. Monitoring of handgrip failed to reveal changes in values at any follow-up (p > 0.05). We found no correlation between degree of clinical function and muscle deficit during follow-up. After ESWT, there was a tendency toward a decrease in grip strength, especially in the dominant limb. This could be related to the effects of ESWT, which reduces spasticity in painful hypertonic muscles. These data may be useful in defining the expectations for function during ESWT for epicondylitis, particularly for elite athletes. PMID:25308950

  7. Methods for Assessing Mitochondrial Function in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Daniel A.; Lanza, Ian R.; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research is investigating the potential contribution of mitochondrial function to the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Numerous in vitro, in situ, and in vivo methodologies are available to examine various aspects of mitochondrial function, each requiring an understanding of their principles, advantages, and limitations. This review provides investigators with a critical overview of the strengths, limitations and critical experimental parameters to consider when selecting and conducting studies on mitochondrial function. In vitro (isolated mitochondria) and in situ (permeabilized cells/tissue) approaches provide direct access to the mitochondria, allowing for study of mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox function under defined substrate conditions. Several experimental parameters must be tightly controlled, including assay media, temperature, oxygen concentration, and in the case of permeabilized skeletal muscle, the contractile state of the fibers. Recently developed technology now offers the opportunity to measure oxygen consumption in intact cultured cells. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides the most direct way of assessing mitochondrial function in vivo with interpretations based on specific modeling approaches. The continuing rapid evolution of these technologies offers new and exciting opportunities for deciphering the potential role of mitochondrial function in the etiology and treatment of diabetes. PMID:23520284

  8. Recovery of ovarian function and pregnancy in a patient with AML after myeloablative busulphan-based conditioning regimen.

    PubMed

    Balashov, Dmitry N; Papusha, Ludmila I; Nazarenko, Tatiana A; Trakhtman, Pavel E; Revishvili, Nino A; Maschan, Alexei A; Persiantseva, Marina I; Andriutsa, Anna V; Skorobogatova, Elena V; Skvortsova, Yulia V; Rumiantsev, Alexander G

    2011-05-01

    We report a rare case of ovarian function recovery and pregnancy after hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) in the acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) patient in third complete remission received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with busulphan-based conditioning regimen. Successful engraftment of the donor cells and full donor's chimerism was achieved without the signs of leukemia. One year after HSCT the patient received a course of HRT as a treatment of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. After 12 months of HRT the recovery of ovarian function was confirmed. Eight years after the HSCT spontaneous pregnancy occurred; heartbeat of the fetus was registered on week 7. Three weeks later a nonsevere vaginal bleeding occurred and the ultrasound examination showed a nondeveloping pregnancy. Genetic examination of the abortion material showed a full triploid genotype (69 XXX). To our knowledge this is a first case of ovarian function restoration and spontaneous pregnancy in a AML patient after multiple courses of high-dose chemotherapy and busulphan-based myeloablative conditioning for HSCT. PMID:21423042

  9. Systemic iron chelation results in limited functional and histological recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Sauerbeck, Andrew; Schonberg, David L; Laws, James L; McTigue, Dana M

    2013-10-01

    Excess iron accumulation within the spinal cord is thought to exacerbate tissue damage and limit functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). An optimal treatment to reverse or prevent damage would be to deliver an iron chelator systemically. Thus, we tested oral delivery of deferasirox (Exjade) in multiple studies using a rat model of mid-thoracic spinal contusion. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received a moderate contusion at vertebral level T8 and were given daily deferasirox for the first 7 or 14 days post-injury. The first two studies showed modest improvements in hindlimb function with limited improvement in tissue sparing. Two subsequent experiments to assess chronic functional changes and test longer-duration treatments failed to produce significant improvements. Testing a 2-fold higher deferasirox dose resulted in toxic side effects. To verify iron chelation treatment was effective, hepatic iron levels were measured which revealed that deferasirox robustly and significantly reduced systemic iron levels. Overall, this study suggests that oral iron chelation with deferasirox may lead to small but significant improvements in locomotor recovery or tissue sparing. However, given the lack of robust beneficial effects combined with potentially detrimental side effects such as exacerbated systemic anemia, oral administration of iron chelators may not be ideal for minimizing intraspinal iron-mediated pathology after SCI. PMID:23712107

  10. Forward-Masking Recovery and the Assumptions of the Temporal Masking Curve Method of Inferring Cochlear Compression

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, Patricia; Johannesen, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    The temporal masking curve (TMC) method is a behavioral technique for inferring human cochlear compression. The method relies on the assumptions that in the absence of compression, forward-masking recovery is independent of masker level and probe frequency. The present study aimed at testing the validity of these assumptions. Masking recovery was investigated for eight listeners with sensorineural hearing loss carefully selected to have absent or nearly absent distortion product otoacoustic emissions. It is assumed that for these listeners basilar membrane responses are linear, hence that masking recovery is independent of basilar membrane compression. TMCs for probe frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6?kHz were available for these listeners from a previous study. The dataset included TMCs for masker frequencies equal to the probe frequencies plus reference TMCs measured using a high-frequency probe and a low, off-frequency masker. All of the TMCs were fitted using linear regression, and the resulting slope and intercept values were taken as indicative of masking recovery and masker level, respectively. Results for on-frequency TMCs suggest that forward-masking recovery is generally independent of probe frequency and of masker level and hence that it would be reasonable to use a reference TMC for a high-frequency probe to infer cochlear compression at lower frequencies. Results further show, however, that reference TMCs were sometimes shallower than corresponding on-frequency TMCs for identical probe frequencies, hence that compression could be overestimated in these cases. We discuss possible reasons for this result and the conditions when it might occur. PMID:25534365

  11. Apparatus and method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Willms, R. Scott (Los Alamos, NM); Birdsell, Stephen A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01

    Apparatus and method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbon feed material. The feed material is caused to flow over a heated catalyst which fosters the water-gas shift reaction (H.sub.2 O+COH.sub.2 +CO.sub.2) and the methane steam reforming reaction (CH.sub.4 +H.sub.2 O3 H.sub.2 +CO). Both of these reactions proceed only to partial completion. However, by use of a Pd/Ag membrane which is exclusively permeable to hydrogen isotopes in the vicinity of the above reactions and by maintaining a vacuum on the permeate side of the membrane, product hydrogen isotopes are removed and the reactions are caused to proceed further toward completion. A two-stage palladium membrane reactor was tested with a feed composition of 28% CQ.sub.4, 35% Q.sub.2 O (where Q=H, D, or T), and 31% Ar in 31 hours of continuous operation during which 4.5 g of tritium were processed. Decontamination factors were found to increase with decreasing inlet rate. The first stage was observed to have a decontamination factor of approximately 200, while the second stage had a decontamination factor of 2.9.times.10.sup.6. The overall decontamination factor was 5.8.times.10.sup.8. When a Pt/.alpha.-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 catalyst is employed, decoking could be performed without catalyst degradation. However, by adjusting the carbon to oxygen ratio of the feed material with the addition of oxygen, coking could be altogether avoided.

  12. THE PARALLELIZED POLLARD KANGAROO METHOD IN REAL QUADRATIC FUNCTION FIELDS

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Daniel

    THE PARALLELIZED POLLARD KANGAROO METHOD IN REAL QUADRATIC FUNCTION FIELDS ANDREAS STEIN AND EDLYN TESKE Abstract. We show how to use the parallelized kangaroo method for computing invariants in real quadratic function #12;elds. Speci#12;cally, we show how to apply the kangaroo method to the infrastructure

  13. Quantitative Evaluation of E1 Endoglucanase Recovery from Tobacco Leaves Using the Vacuum Infiltration-Centrifugation Method

    PubMed Central

    Kingsbury, Nathaniel J.; McDonald, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    As a production platform for recombinant proteins, plant leaf tissue has many advantages, but commercialization of this technology has been hindered by high recovery and purification costs. Vacuum infiltration-centrifugation (VI-C) is a technique to obtain extracellularly-targeted products from the apoplast wash fluid (AWF). Because of its selective recovery of secreted proteins without homogenizing the whole tissue, VI-C can potentially reduce downstream production costs. Lab scale experiments were conducted to quantitatively evaluate the VI-C method and compared to homogenization techniques in terms of product purity, concentration, and other desirable characteristics. From agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, up to 81% of a truncated version of E1 endoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus was recovered with VI-C versus homogenate extraction, and average purity and concentration increases of 4.2-fold and 3.1-fold, respectively, were observed. Formulas were developed to predict recovery yields of secreted protein obtained by performing multiple rounds of VI-C on the same leaf tissue. From this, it was determined that three rounds of VI-C recovered 97% of the total active recombinant protein accessible to the VI-C procedure. The results suggest that AWF recovery is an efficient process that could reduce downstream processing steps and costs for plant-made recombinant proteins. PMID:24971334

  14. MIMIC Methods for Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Three multiple indicators-multiple causes (MIMIC) methods, namely, the standard MIMIC method (M-ST), the MIMIC method with scale purification (M-SP), and the MIMIC method with a pure anchor (M-PA), were developed to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. In a series of simulations, it appeared that all three methods

  15. Use of the Halstead Category Test as a cognitive predictor of functional recovery in the hemiplegic upper limb: a cross-validation study.

    PubMed

    Barreca, S R; Finlayson, M A; Gowland, C A; Basmajian, J V

    1999-05-01

    Current motor learning theory suggests that recovery in the hemiplegic upper limb partially depends on the client's cognitive ability to maximize sensory feedback in order to activate appropriate efferent motor pathways. Study 1 investigated the use of the Category Test as a predictor of functional recovery. Initial scores on the Upper Extremity Function Test and the Category Test explained 81% of the variance of the discharge Upper Extremity Function score (N = 29). Psychological factors such as the client's attitude and motivation were less significant than more direct measures of the biological event. Study 2 (N = 16) confirmed these results and also found that stroke survivors who made fewer errors on the Category Test performed better on a functional disability test. Survivors making the fewest errors on the Category Test also showed the greatest amount of change in arm and hand function. The results are discussed in terms of the role of cognitive and biological factors that might influence recovery. PMID:10949158

  16. Euclidean Methods and the entropy function

    E-print Network

    Pedro J Silva

    2008-07-28

    We review results of articles hep-th/0607056, hep-th/0610163 and 0704.1405 [hep-th]. Here we focus on establish the connection between the entropy functional formalism of Sen and the standard Euclidean formalism taken at zero temperature. We find that Sen's entropy function $f$ (on-shell) matches the zero temperature limit of the Euclidean action. Moreover, Sen's near horizon angular and electric fields agree with the chemical potentials that are defined from the zero-temperature limit of the Euclidean formalism. Connection with the Dual CFT thermodynamics is briefly discussed.

  17. Sound velocity measurement using transfer function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baosheng; Chen, Kevin; Kung, Jennifer; Liebermann, Robert C.; Weidner, Donald J.

    2002-11-01

    The transfer function of a piezoelectric transducer, buffer rod and sample assembly is used to measure the sound velocity of solid materials. From the recorded transfer function, pulse echo patterns at frequencies of the passband of the input signal are reproduced after convoluting with monochromatic RF input signals. The time delay is obtained by performing pulse echo overlap and phase comparison measurements on reproduced signals. Results for a single crystal of MgO along the [100] direction from this study are in good agreement with previous measurements but have the advantage of offline data analysis and fast data acquisition.

  18. Kernel energy method: Basis functions and quantum methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lulu Huang; Lou Massa; Jerome Karle

    2006-01-01

    The kernel energy method (KEM) has been illustrated with peptides and has been shown to reduce the computational difficulty associated with obtaining ab initio quality quantum chemistry results for large biological compounds. In a recent paper, the method was illustrated by application to 15 different peptides, ranging in size from 4 to 19 amino acid residues, and was found to

  19. Methods of Theoretical Physics: II Special Functions. Bessel functions; integral representations; asymptotic expansions.

    E-print Network

    Pope, Christopher

    Methods of Theoretical Physics: II ABSTRACT Special Functions. Bessel functions; integral; spherical harmonics. #12; Contents 1 Bessel Functions 3 1.1 J n (z) Bessel Function of Integer Order n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2 J #23; (z) Bessel Function of Non-integer Order #23; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1

  20. Method for recovery of actinides from actinide-bearing scrap and waste nuclear material using OâFâ

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. B. Asprey; P. G. Eller

    1984-01-01

    Method for recovery of actinides from nuclear waste material containing sintered and other oxides thereof and from scrap materials containing the metal actinides using OâFâ to generate the hexafluorides of the actinides present therein. The fluorinating agent, OâFâ, has been observed to perform the above-described tasks at sufficiently low temperatures that there is virtually no damage to the containment vessels.

  1. Method for recovery of actinides from refractory oxides thereof using O.sub. F.sub.2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larned B. Asprey; Phillip G. Eller

    1988-01-01

    Method for recovery of actinides from nuclear waste material containing sintered and other oxides thereof using O.sub.2 F.sub.2 to generate the hexafluorides of the actinides present therein. The fluorinating agent, O.sub.2 F.sub.2, has been observed to perform the above-described tasks at sufficiently low temperatures that there is virtually no damage to the containment vessels. Moreover, the resulting actinide hexafluorides are

  2. A new practical method for the determination of static formation temperatures in geothermal and petroleum wells using a numerical method based on rational polynomial functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong-Loya, J. A.; Andaverde, J.; Santoyo, E.

    2012-12-01

    A new practical method based on rational polynomial (RP) functions to estimate the static formation temperatures (SFT) in geothermal and petroleum boreholes is described. Thermal recovery processes involved during borehole drilling and completion operations were represented by mathematical asymptotic trends. Measurements of bottom-hole temperature and shut-in times (at least three or more) have been used both to obtain a mathematical function that describes the thermal recovery process of drilled boreholes, and to estimate the SFT. Using build-up temperature logs, the SFT have been reliably estimated with precision and accuracy. With these results, it was successfully demonstrated that the new RP method provides a practical tool for the reliable prediction of SFT in geothermal and petroleum boreholes.

  3. The MDM4/MDM2-p53-IGF1 axis controls axonal regeneration, sprouting and functional recovery after CNS injury.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Yashashree; Sória, Marília Grando; Quadrato, Giorgia; Inak, Gizem; Zhou, Luming; Hervera, Arnau; Rathore, Khizr I; Elnaggar, Mohamed; Magali, Cucchiarini; Marine, Jeanne Christophe; Puttagunta, Radhika; Di Giovanni, Simone

    2015-07-01

    Regeneration of injured central nervous system axons is highly restricted, causing neurological impairment. To date, although the lack of intrinsic regenerative potential is well described, a key regulatory molecular mechanism for the enhancement of both axonal regrowth and functional recovery after central nervous system injury remains elusive. While ubiquitin ligases coordinate neuronal morphogenesis and connectivity during development as well as after axonal injury, their role specifically in axonal regeneration is unknown. Following a bioinformatics network analysis combining ubiquitin ligases with previously defined axonal regenerative proteins, we found a triad composed of the ubiquitin ligases MDM4, MDM2 and the transcription factor p53 (encoded by TP53) as a putative central signalling complex restricting the regeneration program. Indeed, conditional deletion of MDM4 or pharmacological inhibition of MDM2/p53 interaction in the eye and spinal cord promote axonal regeneration and sprouting of the optic nerve after crush and of supraspinal tracts after spinal cord injury. The double conditional deletion of MDM4-p53 as well as MDM2 inhibition in p53-deficient mice blocks this regenerative phenotype, showing its dependence upon p53. Genome-wide gene expression analysis from ex vivo fluorescence-activated cell sorting in MDM4-deficient retinal ganglion cells identifies the downstream target IGF1R, whose activity and expression was found to be required for the regeneration elicited by MDM4 deletion. Importantly, we demonstrate that pharmacological enhancement of the MDM2/p53-IGF1R axis enhances axonal sprouting as well as functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Thus, our results show MDM4-MDM2/p53-IGF1R as an original regulatory mechanism for CNS regeneration and offer novel targets to enhance neurological recovery.media-1vid110.1093/brain/awv125_video_abstractawv125_video_abstract. PMID:25981963

  4. Estimation of the in-situ thermal resistance of a borehole using the Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) technique and the Temperature Recovery Method (TRM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Günzel; Helmut Wilhelm

    2000-01-01

    The temperature recovery method (TRM) is used to acquire in situ thermal properties, i.e. the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the bedrock and the thermal resistance of the borehole wall. For a reliable determination of the thermal resistance of the wall, at least six temperature measurements are required within the first hour of recovery after generation of a temperature disturbance.

  5. Grafted human-induced pluripotent stem-cell-derived neurospheres promote motor functional recovery after spinal cord injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Nori, Satoshi; Okada, Yohei; Yasuda, Akimasa; Tsuji, Osahiko; Takahashi, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Yoshiomi; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Koike, Masato; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Ikeda, Eiji; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Yamanaka, Shinya; Nakamura, Masaya; Okano, Hideyuki

    2011-10-01

    Once their safety is confirmed, human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), which do not entail ethical concerns, may become a preferred cell source for regenerative medicine. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of transplanting hiPSC-derived neurospheres (hiPSC-NSs) into nonobese diabetic (NOD)-severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice to treat spinal cord injury (SCI). For this, we used a hiPSC clone (201B7), established by transducing four reprogramming factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) into adult human fibroblasts. Grafted hiPSC-NSs survived, migrated, and differentiated into the three major neural lineages (neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes) within the injured spinal cord. They showed both cell-autonomous and noncell-autonomous (trophic) effects, including synapse formation between hiPSC-NS-derived neurons and host mouse neurons, expression of neurotrophic factors, angiogenesis, axonal regrowth, and increased amounts of myelin in the injured area. These positive effects resulted in significantly better functional recovery compared with vehicle-treated control animals, and the recovery persisted through the end of the observation period, 112 d post-SCI. No tumor formation was observed in the hiPSC-NS-grafted mice. These findings suggest that hiPSCs give rise to neural stem/progenitor cells that support improved function post-SCI and are a promising cell source for its treatment. PMID:21949375

  6. Subacute Intranasal Administration of Tissue Plasminogen Activator Promotes Neuroplasticity and Improves Functional Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yuling; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Yanlu; Liu, Zhongwu; An, Aaron; Mahmood, Asim; Xiong, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and long-term disability worldwide. To date, there are no effective pharmacological treatments for TBI. Recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the effective drug for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. In addition to its thrombolytic effect, tPA is also involved in neuroplasticity in the central nervous system. However, tPA has potential adverse side effects when administered intravenously including brain edema and hemorrhage. Here we report that tPA, administered by intranasal delivery during the subacute phase after TBI, provides therapeutic benefit. Animals with TBI were treated intranasally with saline or tPA initiated 7 days after TBI. Compared with saline treatment, subacute intranasal tPA treatment significantly 1) improved cognitive (Morris water maze test) and sensorimotor (footfault and modified neurological severity score) functional recovery in rats after TBI, 2) reduced the cortical stimulation threshold evoking ipsilateral forelimb movement, 3) enhanced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and axonal sprouting of the corticospinal tract originating from the contralesional cortex into the denervated side of the cervical gray matter, and 4) increased the level of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Our data suggest that subacute intranasal tPA treatment improves functional recovery and promotes brain neurogenesis and spinal cord axonal sprouting after TBI, which may be mediated, at least in part, by tPA/plasmin-dependent maturation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. PMID:25184365

  7. Intravenous administration of Honokiol provides neuroprotection and improves functional recovery after traumatic brain injury through cell cycle inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiquan; Liao, Zhengbu; Sun, Xiaochuan; Shi, Quanhong; Huo, Gang; Xie, Yanfeng; Tang, Xiaolan; Zhi, Xinggang; Tang, Zhaohua

    2014-11-01

    Recently, increasing evidence has shown that cell cycle activation is a key factor of neuronal death and neurological dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aims to investigate the effects of Honokiol, a cell cycle inhibitor, on attenuating the neuronal damage and facilitating functional recovery after TBI in rats, in an attempt to unveil its underlying molecular mechanisms in TBI. This study suggested that delayed intravenous administration of Honokiol could effectively ameliorate TBI-induced sensorimotor and cognitive dysfunctions. Meanwhile, Honokiol treatment could also reduce the lesion volume and increase the neuronal survival in the cortex and hippocampus. The neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in the cortex and hippocampus were further significantly attenuated by Honokiol treatment. In addition, the expression of cell cycle-related proteins, including cyclin D1, CDK4, pRb and E2F1, was significantly increased and endogenous cell cycle inhibitor p27 was markedly decreased at different time points after TBI. And these changes were significantly reversed by post-injury Honokiol treatment. Furthermore, the expression of some of the key cell cycle proteins such as cyclin D1 and E2F1 and the associated apoptosis in neurons were both remarkably attenuated by Honokiol treatment. These results show that delayed intravenous administration of Honokiol could effectively improve the functional recovery and attenuate the neuronal cell death, which is probably, at least in part, attributed to its role as a cell cycle inhibitior. This might give clues to developing attractive therapies for future clinical trials. PMID:24973706

  8. Boundary Element Methods for Functionally Graded Materials

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paulino, Glaucio

    2002-05-28

    Functionally graded materials (FGMs) possess a smooth variation of material properties due to continuous change in microstructural details. For example, the material gradation may change gradually from a pure ceramic to a pure metal. This work focuses on potential (both steady state and transient) and elasticity problems for inhomogeneous materials. The Green\\'s function(GF) for these materials (e.g. exponentially graded) are expressed as the GF for the homogeneous material plus additional terms due to material gradation. The numerical implementations are performed using a Galerkin (rather than collocation) approximation. A number of examples have been carried out. The results of some specific test problems agree within plotting accuracy with available analytical solutions.

  9. Neural reconstruction methods of restoring bladder function

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Amaya, Sandra M.; Barbe, Mary F.; de Groat, William C.; Brown, Justin M.; Tuite, Gerald F.; Corcos, Jacques; Fecho, Susan B.; Braverman, Alan S.; Ruggieri, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    During the past century, diverse studies have focused on the development of surgical strategies to restore function of a decentralized bladder after spinal cord or spinal root injury via repair of the original roots or by transferring new axonal sources. The techniques included end-to-end sacral root repairs, transfer of roots from other spinal segments to sacral roots, transfer of intercostal nerves to sacral roots, transfer of various somatic nerves to the pelvic or pudendal nerve, direct reinnervation of the detrusor muscle, or creation of an artificial reflex pathway between the skin and the bladder via the central nervous system. All of these surgical techniques have demonstrated specific strengths and limitations. The findings made to date already indicate appropriate patient populations for each procedure, but a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of each technique to restore urinary function after bladder decentralization is required to guide future research and potential clinical application. PMID:25666987

  10. Method to measure CVT transfer function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Foroozan Ghassemi; Philip F. Gale; Barry Clegg; Tom Cumming; Colin Coutts

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the results of tests on a 275 and a 400 kV capacitor voltage transformer are presented. The objective has been to determine the transfer function of the CVTs in the Scottish Power extra-high-voltage (EHV) system, which in turn can be used to compensate for the errors at harmonic frequencies. As a primary requirement, the magnetic elements of

  11. Bowel function recovery after radical hysterectomies: Thoracic epidural bupivacaine-morphine versus intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with morphine: a pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar A. de Leon-Casasola; Dora Karabella; Mark J. Lema

    1996-01-01

    Study Objective: To determine if the use of continuous epidural bupivacaine-morphine in the perioperative period is associated with a significant decrease in the recovery time of postoperative ileus when compared with parenteral morphine administration.Design: Prospective (quality of analgesia) and retrospective (bowel function recovery), nonrandomized study.Setting: Inpatient gynecology-oncology patients at a university-affiliated tertiary cancer center hospital.Patients: 68 women who experienced uncomplicated

  12. Means and method for the recovery of expansion work in a vapor compression cycle device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vakil

    1981-01-01

    Recovery of substantially all of the work associated with the expansion of a multi-component working fluid mixture in a vapor compression cycle device is enabled by conveying working fluid in a liquid phase from a condenser to a coldest portion of an evaporator assembly in a countercurrent heat exchange relationship with fluid flowing through the evaporator assembly.

  13. Methods for polyurethane and polyurethane composites, recycling and recovery: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalid Mahmood Zia; Haq Nawaz Bhatti; Ijaz Ahmad Bhatti

    2007-01-01

    Recent progress in the recycling and recovery of polyurethane and polyurethane composites is reviewed. The various types of polyurethane waste products, consisting of either old recycled parts or production waste, are generally reduced to a more usable form, such as flakes, powder or pellets, depending on the particular type of polyurethane that is being recycled. The various recycling technologies for

  14. Application of thin agar layer method for recovery of injured Salmonella typhimurium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Hyun Kang; Daniel Y. C Fung

    2000-01-01

    Xylose lysine decarboxylase (XLD) medium, a selective plating medium, can inhibit heat-injured Salmonella typhimurium from growing, whereas tryptic soy agar (TSA), a nonselective medium, does not. To facilitate recovery of heat-injured S. typhimurium cells while providing selectivity of isolation of S. typhimurium from other bacteria in the sample, a thin agar layer (TAL) procedure was developed by overlaying 14 ml

  15. Symptomatic Recovery in Miller Fisher Syndrome Parallels Vestibular-Perceptual and not Vestibular-Ocular Reflex Function.

    PubMed

    Seemungal, Barry M; Masaoutis, Panos; Green, David A; Plant, Gordon T; Bronstein, Adolfo M

    2011-01-01

    Unpleasant visual symptoms including oscillopsia and dizziness may occur when there is unexpected motion of the visual world across the subject's retina ("retinal slip") as in an acute spontaneous nystagmus or on head movement with an acute ophthalmoplegia. In contrast, subjects with chronic ocular dysmotility, e.g., congenital nystagmus or chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, are typically symptom free. The adaptive processes that render chronic patients asymptomatic are obscure but may include a suppression of oscillopsia perception as well as an increased tolerance to perceived oscillopsia. Such chronic asymptomatic patients display an attenuation of vestibular-mediated angular velocity perception, implying a possible contributory role in the adaptive process. In order to assess causality between symptoms, signs (i.e., eye movements), and vestibular-perceptual function, we prospectively assessed symptom ratings and ocular-motor and perceptual vestibular function, in a patient with acute but transient ophthalmoplegia due to Miller Fisher Syndrome (as a model of visuo-vestibular adaptation). The data show that perceptual measures of vestibular function display a significant attenuation as compared to ocular-motor measures during the acute, symptomatic period. Perhaps significantly, both symptomatic recovery and normalization of vestibular-perceptual function were delayed and then occurred in a parallel fashion. This is the first report showing that symptomatic recovery of visuo-vestibular symptoms is better paralleled by vestibular-perceptual testing than vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR) measures. The findings may have implications for the understanding of patients with chronic vestibular symptoms where VOR testing is often unhelpful. PMID:21350734

  16. Selective recovery of neodymium from oxides by direct extraction method with supercritical Co2 containing TBP–HNO3 complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Tomioka; Youichi Enokida; Ichiro Yamamoto

    2002-01-01

    A method for the direct extraction of a metal utilizing supercritical CO2 containing tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP)–HNO3 (TBP), which is the TBP solution of TBP–HNO3 complex, has been developed for the recovery of Nd from its oxide. This method was applied using a flow reactor to several oxides (Nd2O3, ZrO2, MoO3, and RuO2), and binary mixtures of the oxides (Nd2O3–ZrO2, Nd2O3–MoO3, and

  17. Adjusting the Influence Function Method for Subsidence Prediction

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Adjusting the Influence Function Method for Subsidence Prediction Ali Saeidi1, a , Olivier Deck2,b: Mining subsidence, Influence function method, vertical subsidence, influence angle. Abstract. The extraction of ore and minerals by underground mining may induce ground subsidence phenomena. These phenomena

  18. A PENALTY FUNCTION METHOD FOR CONSTRAINED MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION

    E-print Network

    A PENALTY FUNCTION METHOD FOR CONSTRAINED MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION By Ajith Gunaratne­000 A PENALTY FUNCTION METHOD FOR CONSTRAINED MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION AJITH GUNARATNE AND ZHIJUN WU FOR MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION 1 that the new iterate can satisfy the constraints [3]. Depending

  19. OPTIMAL DISTRIBUTION OF CENTERS FOR RADIAL BASIS FUNCTION METHODS

    E-print Network

    Iske, Armin

    OPTIMAL DISTRIBUTION OF CENTERS FOR RADIAL BASIS FUNCTION METHODS ARMIN ISKE Abstract. Both the approximation quality and the stability of radial basis function interpolation depend on the distribution' performance. We #12;rst show that for radial basis function interpolation it is desirable to work

  20. Surface functionalized mesoporous material and method of making same

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangdong Feng; Jun Liu; Glen E. Fryxell

    2001-01-01

    According to the present invention, an organized assembly of functional molecules with specific interfacial functionality (functional group(s)) is attached to available surfaces including within mesopores of a mesoporous material. The method of the present invention avoids the standard base soak that would digest the walls between the mesopores by boiling the mesoporous material in water for surface preparation then removing

  1. Localized delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-expressing mesenchymal stem cells enhances functional recovery following cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gransee, Heather M; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C; Mantilla, Carlos B

    2015-02-01

    Neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are important in modulating neuroplasticity and promoting recovery after spinal cord injury. Intrathecal delivery of BDNF enhances functional recovery following unilateral spinal cord hemisection (SH) at C2, a well-established model of incomplete cervical spinal cord injury. We hypothesized that localized delivery of BDNF-expressing mesenchymal stem cells (BDNF-MSCs) would promote functional recovery of rhythmic diaphragm activity after SH. In adult rats, bilateral diaphragm electromyographic (EMG) activity was chronically monitored to determine evidence of complete SH at 3 days post-injury, and recovery of rhythmic ipsilateral diaphragm EMG activity over time post-SH. Wild-type, bone marrow-derived MSCs (WT-MSCs) or BDNF-MSCs (2×10(5) cells) were injected intraspinally at C2 at the time of injury. At 14 days post-SH, green fluorescent protein (GFP) immunoreactivity confirmed MSCs presence in the cervical spinal cord. Functional recovery in SH animals injected with WT-MSCs was not different from untreated SH controls (n=10; overall, 20% at 7 days and 30% at 14 days). In contrast, functional recovery was observed in 29% and 100% of SH animals injected with BDNF-MSCs at 7 days and 14 days post-SH, respectively (n=7). In BDNF-MSCs treated SH animals at 14 days, root-mean-squared EMG amplitude was 63±16% of the pre-SH value compared with 12±9% in the control/WT-MSCs group. We conclude that localized delivery of BDNF-expressing MSCs enhances functional recovery of diaphragm muscle activity following cervical spinal cord injury. MSCs can be used to facilitate localized delivery of trophic factors such as BDNF in order to promote neuroplasticity following spinal cord injury. PMID:25093762

  2. Protein kinase C activator, bryostatin-1, promotes exercise-dependent functional recovery in rats with cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Kenmei; Sonoda, Shigeru; Wakita, Hideaki; Shimpo, Kan

    2015-03-01

    Recently, it has become widely known that neuronal reorganization in the perilesional cortex contributes to some improvement of hemiparesis after stroke. Here, the authors examined in vivo the effects of administration of bryostatin-1, an activator of protein kinase C, combined with voluntary exercise on functional recovery and on cortical phosphorylation of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor subunit GluR1 after infarction.In behavioral evaluation, the mean latency until falling from a rotating rod in the group with exercise and administered agent at 8 days after infarction was significantly longer than that in the other groups. Although there were no significant changes in GluR1 phosphorylation between bryostatin-1 administration alone and the untreated groups, exercise induced an increase in phosphorylated-Ser845-GluR1. Moreover, combining exercise with administration led to increased phosphorylated-Ser831-GluR1.These results suggest that bryostatin-1 facilitated exercise-induced paralysis recovery, which is possibly mediated by synaptic plasticity related to an increase in synaptic transmission efficiency. PMID:25299527

  3. The effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia on functional recovery from myocardial stunning in propofol-anesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Rolf, N; Meissner, A; Van Aken, H; Weber, T P; Hammel, D; Möllhoff, T

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) on myocardial stunning during propofol anesthesia. Six dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement of left atrial, aortic, and left ventricular pressure, maximal rate of increase of left ventricular pressure, and myocardial wall-thickening fraction (WTF). Myocardial blood flow was determined with colored microspheres. Experiments were performed on separate days with 1) 10 min of left anterior descending artery (LAD) ischemia during propofol anesthesia without TEA, and 2) 10 min of LAD ischemia during propofol anesthesia with TEA. WTF was measured as baseline (BL) prior to propofol anesthesia and at predetermined time points until complete recovery from stunning. Propofol anesthesia caused a significant decrease of WTF in the LAD-perfused myocardium (LAD-WTF) compared to BL in awake animals. LAD ischemia led to a further significant decrease of LAD-WTF. There were no significant differences in LAD-WTF between the two experimental conditions at any of the time points measured. TEA did not change subendocardial blood flow in nonischemic myocardium. During ischemia neither the subendocardial/subepicardial nor the occluded/normal zone blood flow ratio were affected by TEA. After myocardial ischemia during propofol anesthesia TEA does not affect functional recovery of stunned myocardium in dogs. PMID:9085946

  4. Functional recovery of the murine brain ischemia model using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived telencephalic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Gomi, Masanori; Takagi, Yasushi; Morizane, Asuka; Doi, Daisuke; Nishimura, Masaki; Miyamoto, Susumu; Takahashi, Jun

    2012-06-12

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells possess the properties of self-renewal and pluripotency, similar to embryonic stem cells. They are a good candidate as a source of suitable cells for cell replacement therapy. In this study, we transplanted human iPS cell-derived neural progenitors into an ischemic mouse brain. Human iPS cells were differentiated into neuronal progenitors by serum-free culture of embryoid body-like aggregates (SFEBs). Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by occluding the middle cerebral artery using the intraluminal filament technique. Donor cells were transplanted into the ischemic lateral striatum 1 week after ischemia induction. Cells survived at the transplantation site, with migration of a proportion of cells along the external capsule and corpus callosum. Cells that were positive for the basal telencephalon marker, Nkx2.1, migrated into the basal part of the telencephalon. The pallial telencephalon marker, Emx1, was detected in cells that had migrated into the pallial part of the telencephalon. SFEBs differentiated into various types of neurons, and a retrograde tracer labeling study showed that differentiated cells integrated into host neural circuitry. Behavioral recovery was significantly enhanced in the transplanted group. Our results suggest that human iPS cell-derived neuronal progenitors survive and migrate in the ischemic brain, and contribute toward functional recovery via neural circuit reconstitution. PMID:22572083

  5. Cadzow Denoising Upgraded: A New Projection Method for the Recovery of Dirac Pulses from

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ". the real > 0 and the integer K 1 are known; that is s(t) = K k=1 ak(t - tk), t [0, [, (1) where (t measurements {vn}N-1 n=0 on s, of the form vn = 0 s(t) n N - t dt + n (2) = K k=1 ak n N - tk + n, n = 0 Linear Measurements Laurent Condat and Akira Hirabayashi Abstract--We consider the recovery of a finite

  6. A Method for Comparative Analysis of Recovery Potential in Impaired Waters Restoration Planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas J. Norton; James D. Wickham; Timothy G. Wade; Kelly Kunert; John V. Thomas; Paul Zeph

    2009-01-01

    Common decision support tools and a growing body of knowledge about ecological recovery can help inform and guide large state\\u000a and federal restoration programs affecting thousands of impaired waters. Under the federal Clean Water Act (CWA), waters not\\u000a meeting state Water Quality Standards due to impairment by pollutants are placed on the CWA Section 303(d) list, scheduled\\u000a for Total Maximum Daily

  7. Mechanism of Kinect-based virtual reality training for motor functional recovery of upper limbs after subacute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Xiao; Mao, Yurong; Lin, Qiang; Qiu, Yunhai; Chen, Shaozhen; Li, Le; Cates, Ryan S.; Zhou, Shufeng; Huang, Dongfeng

    2013-01-01

    The Kinect-based virtual reality system for the Xbox 360 enables users to control and interact with the game console without the need to touch a game controller, and provides rehabilitation training for stroke patients with lower limb dysfunctions. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, 18 healthy subjects and five patients after subacute stroke were included. The five patients were scanned using functional MRI prior to training, 3 weeks after training and at a 12-week follow-up, and then compared with healthy subjects. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function Test scores of the hemiplegic upper limbs of stroke patients were significantly increased 3 weeks after training and at the 12-week follow-up. Functional MRI results showed that contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex was activated after Kinect-based virtual reality training in the stroke patients compared with the healthy subjects. Contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex, the bilateral supplementary motor area and the ipsilateral cerebellum were also activated during hand-clenching in all 18 healthy subjects. Our findings indicate that Kinect-based virtual reality training could promote the recovery of upper limb motor function in subacute stroke patients, and brain reorganization by Kinect-based virtual reality training may be linked to the contralateral sensorimotor cortex. PMID:25206611

  8. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cortical neurons integrate in stroke-injured cortex and improve functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Tornero, Daniel; Wattananit, Somsak; Grønning Madsen, Marita; Koch, Philipp; Wood, James; Tatarishvili, Jemal; Mine, Yutaka; Ge, Ruimin; Monni, Emanuela; Devaraju, Karthikeyan; Hevner, Robert F; Brüstle, Oliver; Lindvall, Olle; Kokaia, Zaal

    2013-12-01

    Stem cell-based approaches to restore function after stroke through replacement of dead neurons require the generation of specific neuronal subtypes. Loss of neurons in the cerebral cortex is a major cause of stroke-induced neurological deficits in adult humans. Reprogramming of adult human somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells is a novel approach to produce patient-specific cells for autologous transplantation. Whether such cells can be converted to functional cortical neurons that survive and give rise to behavioural recovery after transplantation in the stroke-injured cerebral cortex is not known. We have generated progenitors in vitro, expressing specific cortical markers and giving rise to functional neurons, from long-term self-renewing neuroepithelial-like stem cells, produced from adult human fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. At 2 months after transplantation into the stroke-damaged rat cortex, the cortically fated cells showed less proliferation and more efficient conversion to mature neurons with morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of a cortical phenotype and higher axonal projection density as compared with non-fated cells. Pyramidal morphology and localization of the cells expressing the cortex-specific marker TBR1 in a certain layered pattern provided further evidence supporting the cortical phenotype of the fated, grafted cells, and electrophysiological recordings demonstrated their functionality. Both fated and non-fated cell-transplanted groups showed bilateral recovery of the impaired function in the stepping test compared with vehicle-injected animals. The behavioural improvement at this early time point was most likely not due to neuronal replacement and reconstruction of circuitry. At 5 months after stroke in immunocompromised rats, there was no tumour formation and the grafted cells exhibited electrophysiological properties of mature neurons with evidence of integration in host circuitry. Our findings show, for the first time, that human skin-derived induced pluripotent stem cells can be differentiated to cortical neuronal progenitors, which survive, differentiate to functional neurons and improve neurological outcome after intracortical implantation in a rat stroke model. PMID:24148272

  9. HEAVY PARTICLE IRRADIATION, NEUROCHEMISTRY AND BEHAVIOR: THRESHOLDS, DOSE-RESPONSE CURVES AND RECOVERY OF FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor...

  10. Functional recovery with recombinant human IGF1 treatment in a mouse model of Rett Syndrome

    E-print Network

    Sur, Mriganka

    of targets and a wide range of functions, suggesting the hypothesis that functional signaling mechanismsIGF1) improves lifespan, locomotor activity, heart rate, res- piration patterns, and social and anxiety, and short-term treatment with rhIGF1 in these animals improves respiratory patterns, reduces anxiety lev

  11. Transepidermal water loss: the signal for recovery of barrier structure and function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Grubauer; Peter M. Elias; Kenneth R. Feingold

    Previous studies have demonstrated that perturba- tions in barrier function stimulate epidermal lipid synthesis and that this increase can be prevented by occlusive membranes. These observations suggest that epidermal lipid synthesis might be related to barrier function and raised the question whether transcutaneous water flux might regulate epidermal lipogenesis. In the present study we first abrogated the barrier with acetone,

  12. Postanoxic functional recovery of the developing heart is slightly altered by endogenous or exogenous nitric oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Terrand; E. Felley-Bosco; F. Courjault-Gautier; A.-C. Rochat; P. Kucera; E. Raddatz

    2003-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is strongly and transiently expressed in the developing heart but its function is not well documented. This work examined the role, either protective or detrimental, that endogenous and exogenous NO could play in the functioning of the embryonic heart submitted to hypoxia and reoxygenation. Spontaneously beating hearts isolated from 4-day-old chick embryos were either homogenized to

  13. Effect of disease and recovery on functional anatomy in brain tumor patients: insights from functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad M; Saleh, Emam; Huang, Raymond Y; Golby, Alexandra J

    2014-01-01

    Patients with brain tumors provide a unique opportunity to understand functional brain plasticity. Using advanced imaging techniques, such as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging, we have gained tremendous knowledge of brain tumor behavior, transformation, infiltration and destruction of nearby structures. Using these advanced techniques as an adjunct with more proven techniques, such as direct cortical stimulation, intraoperative navigation and advanced microsurgical techniques, we now are able to better formulate safer resection trajectories, perform larger resections at reduced risk and better counsel patients and their families about possible complications. Brain mapping in patients with brain tumors and other lesions has shown us that the old idea of fixed function of the adult cerebral cortex is not entirely true. Improving care for patients with brain lesions in the future will depend on better understanding of the functional organization and plasticity of the adult brain. Advanced noninvasive brain imaging will undoubtedly play a role in advancing this understanding. PMID:24660024

  14. A New Shape Function Based Spatiotemporal Interpolation Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lixin Li; Youming Li; Reinhard Piltner

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a In this paper we propose a new spatiotemporal interpolation method for 3-D space and 1-D time geographic data. Similarly to\\u000a the existing ST (space-time) product and the tetrahedral spatiotemporal interpolation methods, this new method is also based\\u000a on shape functions. However, instead of only manipulating the time dimension as in the ST product and the tetrahedral methods,\\u000a our new method

  15. Exceptional functional recovery and return to high-impact sports after Van Nes rotationplasty.

    PubMed

    Harris, Joshua D; Trinh, Thai Q; Scharschmidt, Thomas J; Mayerson, Joel L

    2013-01-01

    Rotationplasty involves wide resection of lower-extremity malignancy and approximately 180° rotation of the tibia to allow the ankle to function similarly to the former knee joint. It is most commonly used for sarcomas around the knee, such as the distal femur and proximal tibia, in adolescent and young adult patients and is an option for patients with proximal femoral focal deficiency (congenital short femur). Rotationplasty is an alternative to ablative procedures when functional outcome is a consideration or when resection of involved areas and endoprosthetic reconstruction is not possible. This article describes functional status and return to competitive sport after rotationplasty for a lower-extremity bone sarcoma with 3-year follow-up. Despite a postoperative course complicated by a distal tibial physeal injury and femoral neck stress fracture, the patient recovered fully by 1 year postoperatively. Pain free at rest and with activity and with no loss of function, the patient is a successful athlete, playing basketball and baseball and skiing competitively. The patient used a custom-made prosthesis that likely played a role in his high level of function. The patient's high function is evidenced by a maximal or near-maximal possible score on all subsections of the Short Form 36 health survey. Although this level of function is exemplary, it may be more expected in younger, more active, highly motivated, and emotionally and socially mature individuals. PMID:23276345

  16. Influence of storage and examination methods on the recovery and size of metacercariae of Cyathocotyle bushiensis and Sphaeridiotrema pseudoglobulus (Digenea).

    PubMed

    Lepitzki, D A; Scott, M E; McLaughlin, J D

    1994-06-01

    The recovery of metacercariae of Cyathocotyle bushiensis (Digenea: Cyathocotylidae) and Sphaeridiotrema pseudoglobulus (Digenea: Psilostomidae) from Bithynia tentaculata (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) subjected to 3 methods of storage (70% alcohol, freezing, and fresh) and 2 methods of examination (crushing or artificial digestion) was evaluated. Prevalence and abundance of fully developed metacercariae of C. bushiensis and metacercariae of S. pseudoglobulus did not significantly vary as a result of storage or examination methods; however, digestion of frozen and fresh snails resulted in a significantly lower prevalence and abundance of not fully developed metacercariae of C. bushiensis. Furthermore, freezing or storing snails in alcohol may result in misclassification of the metacercariae of C. bushiensis. Both methods of storage and examination also affected the size of the metacercariae of both digeneans. Although digested snails were easier to examine, there appeared to be no overall gain in time by using digestion instead of crushing. PMID:8195948

  17. Accelerated Recovery of Endothelium Function after Stent Implantation with the Use of a Novel Systemic Nanoparticle Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qi; Ye, Fang; Yang, Xiangjun; Gu, Qingqing; Wang, Peng; Zhu, Jianhua; Shen, Li; Gong, Feirong

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin was reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological effects including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities and significantly prevent smooth muscle cells migration. In the present study, a novel kind of curcumin loaded nanoparticles (Cur-NP) has been prepared and characterized with the aim of inhibiting inflammation formation and accelerating the healing process of the stented arteries. Cur-NP was administrated intravenously after stent implantation twice a week and detailed tissue responses were evaluated. The results demonstrated that intravenous administration of Cur-NP after stent implantation accelerated endothelial cells restoration and endothelium function recovery and may potentially be an effective therapeutic alternative to reduce adverse events for currently available drug eluting stents.

  18. Transient Stability Output Margin Estimation Based on Energy Function Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natsuki Miwa; Kazuyuki Tanaka

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a new method of estimating critical generation margin (CGM) in power systems is proposed from the viewpoint of transient stability diagnostic. The proposed method has the capability to directly compute the stability limit output for a given contingency based on transient energy function method (TEF). Since CGM can be directly obtained by the limit output using estimated

  19. Extending applications of the transient energy function method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Vittal

    1992-01-01

    The author summarizes the research conducted in two projects funded by the NSF program in power systems. The projects deal with extending the applications of the transient energy function (TEF) method. The TEF method is a direct method for the transient stability analysis of power systems. The work done in these research efforts consisted of the incorporation of detailed generator

  20. Transient voltage dip analysis using the transient energy function method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Fouad; Ramadevi Sreedhara

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the transient energy function (TEF) method provides a fast approximate approach to voltage dip computations. The TEF method is used to predict the stability of a power system after a disturbance has occurred. The results of application of the technique to test power systems confirmed that the voltage dips predicted by the TEF method compare well

  1. Sensitivity analysis of the transient energy function method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1989-01-01

    In recent years considerable progress has been achieved in power system transient stability assessment using the transient energy function (TEF) method. Due to the continued development and enhancement, the TEF method now provides accurate and reliable stability assessment. An inherent advantage of the TEF method is the availability of the relative degree of stability in terms of the transient energy

  2. Copolymer-1 promotes neurogenesis and improves functional recovery after acute ischemic stroke in rats.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Yolanda; Lorea, Jonathan; Mestre, Humberto; Kim-Lee, Jennifer Hyuna; Herrera, Judith; Mellado, Raúl; Gálvez, Vanesa; Cuellar, Leopoldo; Musri, Carolina; Ibarra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Stroke triggers a systemic inflammatory response that exacerbates the initial injury. Immunizing with peptides derived from CNS proteins can stimulate protective autoimmunity (PA). The most renowned of these peptides is copolymer-1 (Cop-1) also known as glatiramer acetate. This peptide has been approved for use in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Cop-1-specific T cells cross the blood-brain barrier and secrete neurotrophins and anti-inflammatory cytokines that could stimulate proliferation of neural precursor cells and recruit them to the injury site; making it an ideal therapy for acute ischemic stroke. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Cop-1 on neurogenesis and neurological recovery during the acute phase (7 days) and the chronic phase of stroke (60 days) in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo). BDNF and NT-3 were quantified and infarct volumes were measured. We demonstrated that Cop-1 improves neurological deficit, enhances neurogenesis (at 7 and 60 days) in the SVZ, SGZ, and cerebral cortex through an increase in NT-3 production. It also decreased infarct volume even at the chronic phase of tMCAo. The present manuscript fortifies the support for the use of Cop-1 in acute ischemic stroke. PMID:25821957

  3. Beyond Bushfires: Community, Resilience and Recovery - a longitudinal mixed method study of the medium to long term impacts of bushfires on mental health and social connectedness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Natural disasters represent an increasing threat both in terms of incidence and severity as a result of climate change. Although much is known about individual responses to disasters, much less is known about the social and contextual response and how this interacts with individual trajectories in terms of mental health, wellbeing and social connectedness. The 2009 bushfires in Victoria, Australia caused much loss of life, property destruction, and community disturbance. In order to progress future preparedness, response and recovery, it is crucial to measure and understand the impact of disasters at both individual and community levels. Methods/design This study aims to profile the range of mental health, wellbeing and social impacts of the Victorian 2009 bushfires over time using multiple methodologies and involving multiple community partners. A diversity of communities including bushfire affected and unaffected will be involved in the study and will include current and former residents (at the time of the Feb 2009 fires). Participants will be surveyed in 2012, 2014 and, funding permitting, in 2016 to map the predictors and outcomes of mental health, wellbeing and social functioning. Ongoing community visits, as well as interviews and focus group discussions in 2013 and 2014, will provide both contextual information and evidence of changing individual and community experiences in the medium to long term post disaster. The study will include adults, adolescents and children over the age of 5. Discussion Conducting the study over five years and focussing on the role of social networks will provide new insights into the interplay between individual and community factors and their influence on recovery from natural disaster over time. The study findings will thereby expand understanding of long term disaster recovery needs for individuals and communities. PMID:24180339

  4. Functional recovery of regenerating motor axons is delayed in mice heterozygously deficient for the myelin protein P(0) gene.

    PubMed

    Rosberg, Mette Romer; Alvarez, Susana; Krarup, Christian; Moldovan, Mihai

    2013-06-01

    Mice with a heterozygous knock-out of the myelin protein P0 gene (P0+/-) develop a neuropathy similar to human Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. They are indistinguishable from wild-types (WT) at birth and develop a slowly progressing demyelinating neuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the regeneration capacity of early symptomatic P0+/- is impaired as compared to age matched WT. Right sciatic nerves were lesioned at the thigh in 7-8 months old mice. Tibial motor axons at ankle were investigated by conventional motor conduction studies and axon excitability studies using threshold tracking. To evaluate regeneration we monitored the recovery of motor function after crush, and then compared the fiber distribution by histology. The overall motor performance was investigated using Rotor-Rod. P0+/- had reduced compound motor action potential amplitudes and thinner myelinated axons with only a borderline impairment in conduction and Rotor-Rod. Plantar muscle reinnervation occurred within 21 days in all mice. Shortly after reinnervation the conduction of P0+/- regenerated axons was markedly slower than WT, however, this difference decayed with time. Nevertheless, after 1 month, regenerated P0+/- axons had longer strength-duration time constant, larger threshold changes during hyperpolarizing electrotonus and longer relative refractory period. Their performance at Rotor-Rod remained also markedly impaired. In contrast, the number and diameter distribution of regenerating myelinated fibers became similar to regenerated WT. Our data suggest that in the presence of heterozygously P0 deficient Schwann cells, regenerating motor axons retain their ability to reinnervate their targets and remyelinate, though their functional recovery is delayed. PMID:23564290

  5. Effect of biofeedback cycling training on functional recovery and walking ability of lower extremity in patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huei-Ching; Lee, Chia-Ling; Lin, Roxane; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Chen, Chia-Hsin; Lin, Jau-Hong; Lo, Sing Kai

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of biofeedback cycling training on lower limb functional recovery, walking endurance, and walking speed for patients with chronic stroke. Thirty-one patients with stroke (stroke onset >3 months) were randomly assigned into two groups using a crossover design. One group (N = 16; mean: 53.6 ± 10.3 years) underwent conventional rehabilitation and cycling training (30 minutes/time, 5 times per week for 4 weeks), followed by only conventional rehabilitation for another 4 weeks. The other group (N = 15; mean: 54.5 ± 8.0 years) underwent the same training in reverse order. The bike used in this biofeedback cycling training was the MOTOmed viva2 Movement Trainer. Outcome measures included the lower extremity subscale of Fugl-Meyer assessment (LE-FMA), the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), the 10-meter walk test (10MWT), and the modified Ashworth scale (MAS). All participants were assessed at the beginning of the study, at the end of the 4(th) week, and at the end of the 8(th) week. Thirty participants completed the study, including the cycling training interventions and all assessments. The results showed that improvements in the period with cycling training were significantly better than the noncycling period in the LE-FMA (p < 0.05), 6MWT (p < 0.001), 10MWT (p < 0.001), and MAS (p < 0.001) scores. No significant carryover effects were observed. The improvements on outcome measures were significantly different between the cycling period and the noncycling period after adjusting for potential confounding factors in the multivariate analysis of variance (p < 0.001). The study result indicates that the additional 4-week biofeedback cycling training could lead to improved LE functional recovery, walking endurance, and speed for patients with chronic stroke. PMID:24388057

  6. A transformation method for constrained-function minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, S. K.

    1975-01-01

    A direct method for constrained-function minimization is discussed. The method involves the construction of an appropriate function mapping all of one finite dimensional space onto the region defined by the constraints. Functions which produce such a transformation are constructed for a variety of constraint regions including, for example, those arising from linear and quadratic inequalities and equalities. In addition, the computational performance of this method is studied in the situation where the Davidon-Fletcher-Powell algorithm is used to solve the resulting unconstrained problem. Good performance is demonstrated for 19 test problems by achieving rapid convergence to a solution from several widely separated starting points.

  7. Comparison of a membrane surface adhesion recovery method with an IMS method for use in a polymerase chain reaction method to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 in minced beef

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Fitzmaurice; G. Duffy; B. Kilbride; J. J. Sheridan; C. Carroll; M. Maher

    2004-01-01

    In this study, enrichment procedures and two recovery methods, a membrane surface adhesion technique and an immunomagnetic separation (IMS), were compared for use in conjunction with a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method with a view to describing a fast (24 h) and economical test for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat samples. The study showed no significant difference

  8. Effects of seeding procedures and water quality on recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts from stream water by using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 1623

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, D.S.; Simmons, O. D., III; Ware, M.W.; Granger, E.J.; Sobsey, M.D.; Schaefer, F. W., III

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 is widely used to monitor source waters and drinking water supplies for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Matrix spikes, used to determine the effect of the environmental matrix on the method's recovery efficiency for the target organism, require the collection and analysis of two environmental samples, one for analysis of endemic oocysts and the other for analysis of recovery efficiency. A new product, ColorSeed, enables the analyst to determine recovery efficiency by using modified seeded oocysts that can be differentiated from endemic organisms in a single sample. Twenty-nine stream water samples and one untreated effluent sample from a cattle feedlot were collected in triplicate to compare modified seeding procedures to conventional seeding procedures that use viable, unmodified oocysts. Significant negative correlations were found between the average oocyst recovery and turbidity or suspended sediment; this was especially apparent in samples with turbidities greater than 100 nephelometric turbidity units and suspended sediment concentrations greater than 100 mg/liter. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 16.7% of the unseeded environmental samples, and concentrations, adjusted for recoveries, ranged from 4 to 80 oocysts per 10 liters. Determining recovery efficiency also provided data to calculate detection limits; these ranged from <2 to <215 oocysts per 10 liters. Recoveries of oocysts ranged from 2.0 to 61% for viable oocysts and from 3.0 to 59% for modified oocysts. The recoveries between the two seeding procedures were highly correlated (r = 0.802) and were not significantly different. Recoveries by using modified oocysts, therefore, were comparable to recoveries by using conventional seeding procedures.

  9. Method for recovery of actinides from refractory oxides thereof using O.sub. F.sub.2

    SciTech Connect

    Asprey, Larned B. (Los Alamos, NM); Eller, Phillip G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    Method for recovery of actinides from nuclear waste material containing sintered and other oxides thereof using O.sub.2 F.sub.2 to generate the hexafluorides of the actinides present therein. The fluorinating agent, O.sub.2 F.sub.2, has been observed to perform the above-described tasks at sufficiently low temperatures that there is virtually no damage to the containment vessels. Moreover, the resulting actinide hexafluorides are not destroyed by high temperature reactions with the walls of the reaction vessel. Dioxygen difluoride is readily prepared, stored and transferred to the place of reaction.

  10. Evaluation of the Functional Recovery in Sciatic Nerve Injury following the Co-transplantation of Schwann and Bone Marrow Stromal Stem Cells in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Zarbakhsh, Sam; Moradi, Fatemeh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Bahktiari, Mehrdad; Mansouri, Korosh; Abedinzadeh, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) or Schwann cells (SCs) can increase axonal regeneration in peripheral nerve injuries. Based on our previous investigations, the goal of the present work was to examine the individual and synergistic effects of the two different cell types in sciatic nerve injury. We pursued to evaluate the effects of BMSCs and SCs co-transplantation on the functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in rat. Methods In this experimental research, adult male Wistar rats (n = 32, 250-300g) were used, BMSCs and SCs were cultured, and the SCs were confirmed with anti S100 antibody. Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 8 in each group): 1-control group: silicon tube filled with fibrin gel without cells; 2-BMSCs group: silicon tube filled with fibrin gel seeded with BMSCs; 3-SCs group: silicon tube filled with fibrin gel seeded with SCs and 4-co-transplantation group: silicone tube filled with fibrin gel seeded with BMSCs and SCs. The left sciatic nerve was exposed, a 10 mm segment removed, and a silicone tube interposed into this nerve gap. BMSCs and SCs were transplanted separately or in combination into the gap. BMSCs were labeled with anti-BrdU and SCs were labeled with DiI. After 12 weeks electromyographic and functional assessments were performed and analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results Electromyographic and functional assessments showed a significant difference between the experimental groups and controls. Electromyography measures were significantly more favourable in SCs transplantation group as compared to BMSCs transplantation and co-transplantation groups (p < 0.05). Functional assessments showed no statistically significant difference among the BMSCs, SCs and co-transplantation groups (p < 0.05). Discussion Transplantation of BMSCs and SCs separately or in combination have the potential to generate functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in rat. The electromyography evaluation showed a greater improvement after SCs transplantation than BMSCs or the co-transplantation of BMSCs and SCs. PMID:25337360

  11. A multilayer Monte Carlo method with free phase function choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watté, R.; Aernouts, B.; Saeys, W.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an adaptation of the widely accepted Monte Carlo method for Multi-layered media (MCML). Its original Henyey-Greenstein phase function is an interesting approach for describing how light scattering inside biological tissues occurs. It has the important advantage of generating deflection angles in an efficient - and therefore computationally fast- manner. However, in order to allow the fast generation of the phase function, the MCML code generates a distribution for the cosine of the deflection angle instead of generating a distribution for the deflection angle, causing a bias in the phase function. Moreover, other, more elaborate phase functions are not available in the MCML code. To overcome these limitations of MCML, it was adapted to allow the use of any discretized phase function. An additional tool allows generating a numerical approximation for the phase function for every layer. This could either be a discretized version of (1) the Henyey-Greenstein phase function, (2) a modified Henyey-Greenstein phase function or (3) a phase function generated from the Mie theory. These discretized phase functions are then stored in a look-up table, which can be used by the adapted Monte Carlo code. The Monte Carlo code with flexible phase function choice (fpf-MC) was compared and validated with the original MCML code. The novelty of the developed program is the generation of a user-friendly algorithm, which allows several types of phase functions to be generated and applied into a Monte Carlo method, without compromising the computational performance.

  12. Systemic Down-Regulation of Delta-9 Desaturase Promotes Muscle Oxidative Metabolism and Accelerates Muscle Function Recovery following Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Alexandre; Lequeu, Thiebault; Rene, Frederique; Bindler, Françoise; Dirrig-Grosch, Sylvie; Oudart, Hugues; Palamiuc, Lavinia; Metz-Boutigue, Marie-Helene; Dupuis, Luc; Marchioni, Eric; Gonzalez De Aguilar, Jose-Luis; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The progressive deterioration of the neuromuscular axis is typically observed in degenerative conditions of the lower motor neurons, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Neurodegeneration in this disease is associated with systemic metabolic perturbations, including hypermetabolism and dyslipidemia. Our previous gene profiling studies on ALS muscle revealed down-regulation of delta-9 desaturase, or SCD1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids. Interestingly, knocking out SCD1 gene is known to induce hypermetabolism and stimulate fatty acid beta-oxidation. Here we investigated whether SCD1 deficiency can affect muscle function and its restoration in response to injury. The genetic ablation of SCD1 was not detrimental per se to muscle function. On the contrary, muscles in SCD1 knockout mice shifted toward a more oxidative metabolism, and enhanced the expression of synaptic genes. Repressing SCD1 expression or reducing SCD-dependent enzymatic activity accelerated the recovery of muscle function after inducing sciatic nerve crush. Overall, these findings provide evidence for a new role of SCD1 in modulating the restorative potential of skeletal muscles. PMID:23785402

  13. Thoracic epidural anesthesia improves functional recovery from myocardial stunning in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Rolf, N; Van de Velde, M; Wouters, P F; Möllhoff, T; Weber, T P; Van Aken, H K

    1996-11-01

    The effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) on the contractile performance of ischemic and postischemic myocardium have not been well investigated. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of TEA on severity and duration of myocardial stunning in an experimental model for sublethal acute myocardial ischemia. Seven dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement of heart rate (HR), left atrial (LAP), aortic and left ventricular pressure (LVP), LV dP/dtmax' and myocardial wall-thickening fraction (WTF). An occluder around the left anterior descending artery (LAD) allowed induction of reversible LAD ischemia. TEA was performed with lidocaine 4 mg/kg through a chronically implanted epidural catheter at the second thoracic level. Regional myocardial blood flow was determined with colored microspheres. Two experiments were performed in a cross-over design on separate days: Experiment 1, induction of 10 min of LAD ischemia without TEA; and Experiment 2, induction of 10 min of LAD ischemia with TEA. WTF was measured at baseline (BL) and predetermined time points until complete recovery from ischemic dysfunction occurred. LAD ischemia caused a significant decrease of LAD-WTF with (-28% +/- 5.1% versus BL) and without TEA (-15.5% +/- 5.3% versus BL). After 3 h of reperfusion, WTF as percent of BL values was significantly higher with TEA (P < 0.001). BL values of WTF were reached after 24 h with TEA and after more than 48 h without TEA (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences for mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), LVP, LAP, and LVdP/dtmax between the groups during ischemia and reperfusion. In nonischemic myocardium TEA caused an increase of subendocardial blood flow. During ischemia neither the subendocardial/subepicardial nor the occluded/ normal zone blood flow was affected by TEA. TEA attenuates myocardial stunning in conscious dogs. This finding is consistent with data regarding a reduction of infarct size due to TEA. PMID:8895266

  14. Nonlinear Green's function method for unsteady transonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, K.; Morino, L.

    1982-01-01

    Advantages to employing Green's function in describing unsteady three-dimensional transonic flows are explored. The development of the function for application to linear subsonic and supersonic unsteady aerodynamics is reviewed. It is shown that unique solutions are possible for external flows, with all functional expressions being defined in Prandtl-Glauert space. The development of methods of using the Green's function for transonic flows is traced, noting the necessity of including the effects of significant nonlinear terms. The steady-state problem is considered to demonstrate the shock-capturing ability of the method and the usefulness of the function in the incompressible, subsonic, transonic, and supersonic areas of potential unsteady three-dimensional flows around complex configurations. Computational time is asserted to be an order of magnitude less than with finite difference methods.

  15. Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheol-Hee; Jeong, Mi-Kyung; Kilicaslan, M Fatih; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Hong, Hyun-Seon; Hong, Soon-Jik

    2013-03-01

    In this study, a method which is environmentally sound, time and energy efficient has been used for recovery of indium from used liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. In this method, indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was crushed to micron size particles in seconds via high energy ball milling (HEBM). The parameters affecting the amount of dissolved indium such as milling time, particle size, effect time of acid solution, amount of HCl in the acid solution were tried to be optimized. The results show that by crushing ITO glass to micron size particles by HEBM, it is possible to extract higher amount of indium at room temperature than that by conventional methods using only conventional shredding machines. In this study, 86% of indium which exists in raw materials was recovered about in a very short time. PMID:23177569

  16. A simple solvent method for the recovery of LixCoO2 and its applications in alkaline rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanan; Song, Dawei; Li, Li; An, Cuihua; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, LiFang; Yuan, Huatang

    2014-04-01

    A simple solvent method is proposed for the recovery of waste LixCoO2 from lithium-ion batteries, which employs inexpensive DMF to remove the binder of PVDF. This method is convenient to manipulate and low-cost to apply. Electrochemical investigations indicate that recovered LixCoO2 materials with a small amount of S-doping exhibit excellent properties as negative materials for alkaline rechargeable Ni/Co batteries. At the discharge current density of 100 mA g-1, the LixCoO2 + 1% S electrode displays the max discharge capacity of 357 mAh g-1 and outstanding capacity retention rate of 85.5% after 100 cycles. It could overcome not only the sophisticated, energy-intensive shortcomings of conventional recycling methods, but also the high-cost restriction on alkaline rechargeable Ni/Co batteries.

  17. Nonorthogonal generalized Wannier function pseudopotential plane-wave method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris-Kriton Skylaris; Arash A. Mostofi; Peter D. Haynes; Oswaldo Diéguez; Mike C. Payne

    2002-01-01

    We present a reformulation of the plane-wave pseudopotential method for insulators. This new approach allows us to perform density-functional calculations by solving directly for ``nonorthogonal generalized Wannier functions'' rather than extended Bloch states. We outline the theory on which our method is based and present test calculations on a variety of systems. Comparison of our results with a standard plane-wave

  18. Frequency analysis via the method of moment functionals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, A. E.; Pan, J. Q.

    1990-01-01

    Several variants are presented of a linear-in-parameters least squares formulation for determining the transfer function of a stable linear system at specified frequencies given a finite set of Fourier series coefficients calculated from transient nonstationary input-output data. The basis of the technique is Shinbrot's classical method of moment functionals using complex Fourier based modulating functions to convert a differential equation model on a finite time interval into an algebraic equation which depends linearly on frequency-related parameters.

  19. Frequency analysis via the method of moment functionals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, A. E.; Pan, J. Q.

    1991-01-01

    Several variants are presented of a linear-in-parameters least squares formulation for determining the transfer function of a stable linear system at specified frequencies given a finite set of Fourier series coefficients calculated from transient nonstationary input-output data. The basis of the technique is Shinbrot's classical method of moment functionals using complex Fourier based modulating functions to convert a differential equation model on a finite time interval into an algebraic equation which depends linearly on frequency-related parameters.

  20. Functional Quality Assurance- A Cx Method for Innovative Systems

    E-print Network

    Ioannidis, M.

    DC www.eb-ing.com FQA - Functional Quality Assurance Problem and Motivation FQA - Functional Quality Assurance Objectives Tasks and Methods Interactions with Project Team Project Time Schedule Tools Benefits Conclusion and Status Quo Outlook F Q A... Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 13N?rnberg ? M?nchen ? Frankfurt ? Gera ? Berlin ? Leipzig ? D?sseldorf ? F?rth ? Hamburg ? Stuttgart ? Moskau ? Washington DC www.eb-ing.com FQA ? Functional Quality Assurance FQA Outlook square4...

  1. Kinematic Analysis of Limb Movements in Neuropsychological Research: Subtle Deficits and Recovery of Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvyn A. Goodale; A. David Milner; L. S. Jakobson; David P. Carey

    1990-01-01

    In this brief review, we argue that a detailed analysis of the spatial and temporal characteristics of visually guided limb movements can provide important insights into the nature of neuropsychological deficits and the functional organization of the brain. In particular, we will show how kinematic analysis of a simple aiming movement can reveal differences that might not be apparent clinically

  2. Functional recovery with recombinant human IGF1 treatment in a mouse model of Rett Syndrome

    E-print Network

    Garcia, Rodrigo

    Rett Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that arises from mutations in the X-linked gene methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). MeCP2 has a large number of targets and a wide range of functions, suggesting the hypothesis ...

  3. Isolation of outflow graft of a clotted ventricular assist device with recovery of cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Mohite, Prashant; Saez, Diana; Edwards, Gemma; Simon, Andre; Bahram, Toufan

    2013-10-01

    Ventricular assist device (VAD) thrombosis, though uncommon, is a well-known complication. A HeartWare VAD implanted 2 years ago in a middle-aged man stopped because of thrombosis in the VAD. Because the patient's left ventricular function was recovered by the time of intervention, only the outflow graft was isolated and cut, leaving the pump in place. PMID:24364081

  4. Neurturin enhances the recovery of erectile function following bilateral cavernous nerve crush injury in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony J Bella; Thomas M Fandel; Kavirach Tantiwongse; William O Brant; Robert D Klein; Carlos A Garcia; Tom F Lue

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms responsible for the survival and preservation of function for adult parasympathetic ganglion neurons following injury remain incompletely understood. However, advances in the neurobiology of growth factors, neural development, and prevention of cell death have led to a surge of clinical interest for protective and regenerative neuromodulatory strategies, as surgical therapies for prostate, bladder, and colorectal cancers

  5. Recovery of hand function in virtual reality: Training hemiparetic hand and arm together or separately

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergei Adamovich; Gerard G. Fluet; Alma S. Merians; Abraham Mathai; Qinyin Qiu

    2008-01-01

    This study describes a novel robotic system using haptic effects and objects, in rich, three- dimensional virtual environments (VEs) for the sensorimotor training of the hemiparetic hand. This system is used to compare effectiveness of two training paradigms, one using activities that train the hand and arm together (HAT) as a functional unit to training the hand and arm in

  6. Recovery of Nasal Physiology after Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: Olfaction and Mucociliary Transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang-Gi Min; Yeong-Seok Yun; Byeong Ho Song; Yang Sun Cho; Kang Soo Lee

    1995-01-01

    We assessed the changes in olfaction and mucociliary transport after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) in 80 patients with chronic paranasal sinusitis. Olfaction was evaluated with the butanol threshold test and mucociliary transport was assessed by saccharin transit time (STT). Postoperative butanol threshold scores were significantly reduced (p < 0.01), and the changes were more profound in severer forms of

  7. Invasive and noninvasive methods for studying pulmonary function in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Glaab; Christian Taube; Armin Braun; Wayne Mitzner

    2007-01-01

    The widespread use of genetically altered mouse models of experimental asthma has stimulated the development of lung function techniques in vivo to characterize the functional results of genetic manipulations. Here, we describe various classical and recent methods of measuring airway responsiveness in vivo including both invasive methodologies in anesthetized, intubated mice (repetitive\\/non-repetitive assessment of pulmonary resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance

  8. Some clarifications in the transient energy function method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Pai; M. Laufenberg; P. W. Sauer

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the evaluation of path dependent integrals in the energy function method for stability analysis in power systems. In the literature these are handled in an approximate manner through straight line approximation leading to closed form analytic expressions of the energy functions. This may not always be accurate. Here it is compared with

  9. Buckling of stochastically heterogeneous beams, using a functional perturbation method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eli Altus; Essam M. Totry

    2003-01-01

    The buckling load and its probabilistic nature (average and variance) of Bernoulli beams with stochastic material (bending stiffness) properties is derived analytically by a new functional perturbation method (FPM). A buckling shape function is assumed, based on the homogeneous solution and additional terms to account for the morphology effects. The buckling load in the transcendental equation is treated as a

  10. Series Expansion of Functions with He's Homotopy Perturbation Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattri, Sanjay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Finding a series expansion, such as Taylor series, of functions is an important mathematical concept with many applications. Homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is a new, easy to use and effective tool for solving a variety of mathematical problems. In this study, we present how to apply HPM to obtain a series expansion of functions. Consequently,…

  11. THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO COMBINATORIAL METHODS IN BOOLEAN FUNCTION COMPLEXITY

    E-print Network

    Gál, Anna

    THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO COMBINATORIAL METHODS IN BOOLEAN FUNCTION COMPLEXITY A DISSERTATION.1. Complexity of Boolean functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1.1. The basic model: Boolean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3. Lower bounds for Boolean complexity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.3.1. Span programs

  12. Inhibition of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome 10 Decreases Rat Cortical Neuron Injury and Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability, and Improves Neurological Functional Recovery in Traumatic Brain Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fang; Chen, Hao; Tian, Hengli

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Recent evidence has supported the neuroprotective effect of bpV (pic), an inhibitor of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), in models of ischemic stroke. However, whether PTEN inhibitors improve long-term functional recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and whether PTEN affects blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability need further elucidation. The present study was performed to address these issues. Methods Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to fluid percussion injury (FPI) after treatment with a well-established PTEN inhibitor bpV (pic) or saline starting 24 h before FPI. Western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR, or immunostaining was used to measure PTEN, p-Akt, or MMP-9 expression. We determined the presence of neuron apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Evans Blue dye extravasation was measured to evaluate the extent of BBB disruption. Functional recovery was assessed by the neurological severity score (NSS), and Kaplan-Meier analysis was used for survival analysis. Results PTEN expression was up-regulated after TBI. After bpV (pic) treatment, p-Akt was also up-regulated. We found that bpV (pic) significantly decreased BBB permeability and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells. We further demonstrated that PTEN inhibition improved neurological function recovery in the early stage after TBI. Conclusion These data suggest that treatment with the PTEN inhibitor bpV (pic) has a neuroprotective effect in TBI rats. PMID:24312220

  13. Methods for deconvolving sparse positive delta function series

    SciTech Connect

    Trussell, H.J.; Schwalbe, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Sparse delta function series occur as data in many chemical analyses and seismic methods. These original data are often sufficiently degraded by the recording instrument response that the individual delta function peaks are difficult to distinguish and measure. A method, which has been used to measure these peaks, is to fit a parameterized model by a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm. The deconvolution approaches described have the advantage of not requiring a parameterized point spread function, nor do they expect a fixed number of peaks. Two new methods are presented. The maximum power technique is reviewed. A maximum a posteriori technique is introduced. Results on both simulated and real data by the two methods are presented. The characteristics of the data can determine which method gives superior results. 5 figures.

  14. Inhibition of Nogo-66 receptor 1 enhances recovery of cognitive function after traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jing; Liu, Weimin; Wang, Xiaowei; Han, Xiaodi; Hyrien, Ollivier; Samadani, Uzma; Smith, Douglas H; Huang, Jason H

    2013-02-15

    Central nervous system (CNS) axons recover poorly following injury because of the expression of myelin-derived inhibitors of axonal outgrowth such as Nogo, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), all of which bind to the Nogo-66 receptor 1 (NgR1). Herein we examine the role of NgR1 in the recovery of motor and cognitive function after traumatic brain injury (TBI) using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model in NgR1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Four weeks post-injury, scores on the Novel Object Recognition test were significantly increased in NgR1 KO mice compared with WT mice (p<0.05), but motor behavior test scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. Nissl staining showed that NgR1 KO mice had less brain injury volume 2 weeks after CCI (p<0.05). Histological analysis revealed more doublecortin (DCX+) cells (p<0.01) and more Ki-67+ cells in the contralateral dentate gyrus (DG) (p<0.05) 2 weeks after CCI in NgR1 KO mice than in WT. Furthermore, DCX+ cells still retained their longer processes in KO mice (p<0.01) 4 weeks following trauma. The number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)+ cells did not differ between the two groups at 4 weeks post-trauma, but KO mice had higher numbers of cells that co-stained with NeuN, a marker of mature neurons. Increased transcription of growth-associated protein (GAP)-43 in both the injured and contralateral sides of the hippocampus (both p<0.05) was detected in NgR1 KO mice relative to WT. These data suggest that NgR1 negatively influences plasticity and cognitive recovery after TBI. PMID:22967270

  15. Recovery of lower limb function following 6 weeks of non-weight bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacIntyre, Donna L.; Eng, Janice J.; Allen, Trevor J.

    2005-05-01

    Skeletal muscle weakness and atrophy occur following an extended period of decreased use, including space flight and limb unloading. It is also likely that affected muscles will be susceptible to a re-loading injury when they begin return to earth or weight bearing. However, there is a paucity of literature evaluating the response of human unloaded muscle to exercise and return to activity. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the soreness, function and strength response of muscle to re-loading in seven patients who were non-weight bearing for 6 weeks, compared to five healthy subjects. Function improved significantly over time for the patients but was still less than the healthy subjects over 12 weeks of physiotherapy. Concentric quadriceps muscle strength increased significantly over time for the patients. There was considerable variability in the patients' reports of muscle soreness but there were no significant changes over time or between groups.

  16. Brief reoxygenation episodes during chronic hypoxia enhance posthypoxic recovery of LV function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandrine Morel; Giuseppina Milano; Kathi Mujynya Ludunge; Antonio F. Corno; Michele Samaja; Sylvain Fleury; Christophe Bonny; Lukas Kappenberger; Ludwig K. von Segesser; Giuseppe Vassalli

    2006-01-01

    Children with congenital cyanotic heart defects have worse outcomes after surgical repair of their heart defects compared\\u000a with noncyanotic ones. Institution of extracorporeal circulation in these children exposes the cyanotic heart to reoxygenation\\u000a injury. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades are major regulators of cardiomyocyte function in acute\\u000a hypoxia and reoxygenation. However, their roles in chronic hypoxia are incompletely understood.

  17. Transplantation of Microbenthic Algal Assemblages to Assess Structural and Functional Recovery After Diuron Exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Dorigo; Annette Bérard; Agnès Bouchez; Frédéric Rimet; Bernard Montuelle

    2010-01-01

    The potential of microbenthic algal assemblages to recover after diuron exposure was investigated. Microbenthic algal assemblages\\u000a (periphyton) were grown on glass slides in correspondence to a diuron-polluted and a diuron-free sampling site of a river.\\u000a After 5 weeks of colonization, the impacted periphyton was transferred by translocating the colonized glass slides to the\\u000a unpolluted site. To monitor the changes in functional

  18. Functional motor recovery from brain ischemic insult by carbon nanotube-mediated siRNA silencing

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jamal, Khuloud T.; Gherardini, Lisa; Bardi, Giuseppe; Nunes, Antonio; Guo, Chang; Bussy, Cyrill; Herrero, M. Antonia; Bianco, Alberto; Prato, Maurizio; Kostarelos, Kostas; Pizzorusso, Tommaso

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is the second cause of death worldwide with ischemic stroke accounting for 80% of all stroke insults. Caspase-3 activation contributes to brain tissue loss and downstream biochemical events that lead to programmed cell death after traumatic brain injury. Alleviation of symptoms following ischemic neuronal injury can be potentially achieved by either genetic disruption or pharmacological inhibition of caspases. Here, we studied whether silencing of Caspase-3 using carbon nanotube-mediated in vivo RNA interference (RNAi) could offer a therapeutic opportunity against stroke. Effective delivery of siRNA directly to the CNS has been shown to normalize phenotypes in animal models of several neurological diseases. It is shown here that peri-lesional stereotactic administration of a Caspase-3 siRNA (siCas 3) delivered by functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNT) reduced neurodegeneration and promoted functional preservation before and after focal ischemic damage of the rodent motor cortex using an endothelin-1 induced stroke model. These observations illustrate the opportunity offered by carbon nanotube-mediated siRNA delivery and gene silencing of neuronal tissue applicable to a variety of different neuropathological conditions where intervention at well localized brain foci may offer therapeutic and functional benefits. PMID:21690348

  19. Development of an Effective Method for Recovery of Viral Genomic RNA from Environmental Silty Sediments for Quantitative Molecular Detection ?

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Takayuki; Masago, Yoshifumi; Sano, Daisuke; Omura, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    Nine approaches to recover viral RNA from environmental silty sediments were newly developed and compared to quantify RNA viruses in sediments using molecular methods. Four of the nine approaches employed direct procedures for extracting RNA from sediments (direct methods), and the remaining five approaches used indirect methods wherein viral particles were recovered before RNA extraction. A direct method using an SDS buffer with EDTA to lyse viral capsids in sediments, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol to extract RNA, isopropanol to concentrate RNA, and magnetic beads to purify RNA resulted in the highest rate of recovery (geometric mean of 11%, with a geometric standard deviation of 0.02; n = 7) of poliovirus 1 (PV1) inoculated in an environmental sediment sample. The direct method exhibiting the highest rate of PV1 recovery was applied to environmental sediment samples. One hundred eight sediment samples were collected from the Takagi River, Miyagi, Japan, and its estuary from November 2007 to April 2009, and the genomic RNAs of enterovirus and human norovirus in these samples were quantified by reverse transcription (RT)-quantitative PCR (qPCR). The human norovirus genome was detected in one sample collected at the bay, although its concentration was below the quantification limit. Meanwhile, the enterovirus genome was detected in two samples at the river mouth and river at concentrations of 8.6 × 102 and 2.4 × 102 copies/g (wet weight), respectively. This is the first report to obtain quantitative data for a human pathogenic virus in a river and in estuarine sediments using RT-qPCR. PMID:21515729

  20. Methods to assess Drosophila heart development, function and aging

    PubMed Central

    Ocorr, Karen; Vogler, Georg; Bodmer, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the Drosophila heart has become an established model of many different aspects of human cardiac disease. This model has allowed identification of disease-causing mechanisms underlying congenital heart disease and cardiomyopathies and has permitted the study underlying genetic, metabolic and age-related contributions to heart function. In this review we discuss methods currently employed in the analysis of the Drosophila heart structure and function, such as optical methods to infer heart function and performance, electrophysiological and mechanical approaches to characterize cardiac tissue properties, and conclude with histological techniques used in the study of heart development and adult structure. PMID:24727147

  1. Post-insult valproate treatment potentially improved functional recovery in patients with acute middle cerebral artery infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Chou, Chung-Hsing; Cho, Nai-Yu; Sung, Yueh-Feng; Yang, Fu-Chi; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Lai, Yu-Hua; Chiang, Chun-I; Chu, Chi-Ming; Lin, Jiann-Chyun; Hsu, Yaw-Don; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Chuang, De-Maw

    2014-01-01

    Animal stroke models suggest that valproate has multiple neuroprotective mechanisms against ischemic brain damage. This study investigated whether valproate improves functional recovery in patients with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. This was an open-label controlled trial. Three to 24 hours after acute MCA infarction, patients were assigned to either the valproate group (n = 17) or the non-valproate group (n = 17). The valproate group received intravenous valproate (400 mg) at enrollment, and then every 12 hours for three days, followed by oral valproate (500 mg) every 12 hours for three months. Neurological function, laboratory data, and brain magnetic resonance imaging were examined at stroke onset, and at two-week and three-month follow-up. No significant differences were observed between the groups with regard to demographics or baseline characteristics. All patients were elderly, had a high pretreatment score on the NIH stroke scale (NIHSS), and slow stroke lesion growth with a final large infarct volume at two-week follow-up. At the three-month follow-up, functional outcome between pre- and post-treatment had improved significantly in the valproate group (NIHSS, p = 0.004; modified Rankin scale (mRS), p = 0.007; Barthel index (BI), p = 0.001). No such improvement was noted in the NIHSS or mRS for the non-valproate group, though mild improvement was seen on the BI (p = 0.022). This open-label trial is the first to demonstrate that valproate treatment markedly improves functional outcome in patients with acute MCA infarction. PMID:25628792

  2. Bridging the gap between theory and practice: dynamic systems theory as a framework for understanding and promoting recovery of function in children and youth with acquired brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Levac, Danielle; DeMatteo, Carol

    2009-11-01

    A theoretical framework can help physiotherapists understand and promote recovery of function in children and youth with acquired brain injuries (ABI). Physiotherapy interventions for this population have traditionally been based in hierarchical-maturational theories of motor development emphasizing the role of the central nervous system (CNS) in controlling motor behaviour. In contrast, Dynamic Systems Theory (DST) views movement as resulting from the interaction of many subsystems within the individual, features of the functional task to be accomplished, and the environmental context in which the movement takes place. DST is now a predominant theoretical framework in pediatric physiotherapy. The purpose of this article is to describe how DST can be used to understand and promote recovery of function after pediatric ABI. A DST-based approach for children and youth with ABI does not treat the impaired CNS in isolation but rather emphasizes the role of all subsystems, including the family and the environment, in influencing recovery. The emphasis is on exploration, problem solving, and practice of functional tasks. A case scenario provides practical recommendations for the use of DST to inform physiotherapy interventions and clinical decision making in the acute phase of recovery from ABI. Future research is required to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions based in this theoretical framework. PMID:19925262

  3. Time-dependent bidirectional effects of chronic caffeine on functional recovery of the dorsal light reflex after hemilabyrinthectomy in the goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Goodson, N B; Brockhoff, B L; Huston, J P; Spieler, R E

    2015-04-30

    Caffeine works through a variety of complex mechanisms to exert an often bidirectional set of functional and structural neurological changes in vertebrates. We investigated the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on functional recovery of the dorsal light reflex (DLR) in hemilabyrinthectomized common goldfish, Carassius auratus. In this lesion model, the unilateral removal of the vestibular organs results in a temporary loss of gravitationally modulated postural control which is quantifiable via the DLR. We compared the functional recovery over 24 days of post-surgery goldfish continuously held in a caffeine solution of 2.5mg/L (n=10), 5.0mg/L (n=10), 10.0mg/L (n=11), or 0.0mg/L control (n=9). Comparison to a sham surgery group (n=11) indicated statistically significant changes in the DLR of all hemilabyrinthectomized fish on day 1. The control group recovered over the study period and approached, but did not reach sham surgery DLR. Although the caffeine-treated fishes appeared to initiate some postural recovery within the first 2 weeks, beginning on day 10, all caffeine groups diverged from the control group with a deterioration of postural control. All three caffeine groups were significantly deficient in comparison with the control on days 10-24. These results suggest that caffeine exposure can at first be benign, but that high dosage or prolonged exposure hinders functional recovery. PMID:25727640

  4. High-Impact, Self-Motivated Training Within an Enriched Environment With Single Animal Tracking Dose-Dependently Promotes Motor Skill Acquisition and Functional Recovery.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Michelle L; Bleul, Christiane; Kasper, Hansjörg; Mosberger, Alice C; Zörner, Björn; Giger, Stefan; Gullo, Miriam; Buschmann, Frank; Schwab, Martin E

    2014-02-11

    Functional recovery following central nervous system injuries is strongly influenced by rehabilitative training. In the clinical setting, the intensity of training and the level of motivation for a particular task are known to play important roles. With increasing neuroscience studies investigating the effects of training and rehabilitation, it is important to understand how the amount and type of training of individuals influences outcome. However, little is known about the influence of spontaneous "self-training" during daily life as it is often uncontrolled, not recorded, and mostly disregarded. Here, we investigated the effects of the intensity of self-training on motor skill acquisition in normal, intact rats and on the recovery of functional motor behavior following spinal cord injury in adult rats. We used a custom-designed small animal tracking system, "RatTrack," to continuously record the activity of multiple rats, simultaneously in a complex Natural Habitat-enriched environment. Naïve, adult rats performed high-intensity, self-motivated motor training, which resulted in them out-performing rats that were conventionally housed and trained on skilled movement tasks, for example, skilled prehension (grasping) and ladder walking. Following spinal cord injury the amount of self-training was correlated with improved functional recovery. These data suggest that high-impact, self-motivated training leads to superior skill acquisition and functional recovery than conventional training paradigms. These findings have important implications for the design of animal studies investigating rehabilitation and for the planning of human rehabilitation programs. PMID:24519022

  5. Assessment of functional recovery and axonal sprouting in oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) null mice after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ji, Benxiu; Case, Lauren C; Liu, Kai; Shao, Zhaohui; Lee, Xinhua; Yang, Zhongshu; Wang, Joy; Tian, Tim; Shulga-Morskaya, Svetlana; Scott, Martin; He, Zhigang; Relton, Jane K; Mi, Sha

    2008-10-01

    Oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) is a myelin component that has been shown in vitro to inhibit neurite outgrowth by binding to the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR1)/Lingo-1/Taj (TROY)/p75 receptor complex to activate the RhoA pathway. To investigate the effects of OMgp on axon regeneration in vivo, OMgp(-/-) mice on a mixed 129/Sv/C57BL/6 (129BL6) or a C57BL/6 (BL6) genetic background were tested in two spinal cord injury (SCI) models - a severe complete transection or a milder dorsal hemisection. OMgp(-/-) mice on the mixed 129BL6 genetic background showed greater functional improvement compared to OMgp(+/+) littermates, with increased numbers of cholera toxin B-labeled ascending sensory axons and 5-HT(+) descending axons and less RhoA activation after spinal cord injury. Myelin isolated from OMgp(-/-) mice (129BL6) was significantly less inhibitory to neurite outgrowth than wild-type (wt) myelin in vitro. However, OMgp(-/-) mice on a BL/6 genetic background showed neither statistically significant functional recovery nor axonal sprouting following dorsal hemisection. PMID:18692574

  6. A Comparison of Methods for Detecting Differential Distractor Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koon, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the odds-ratio method (Penfield, 2008) and the multinomial logistic regression method (Kato, Moen, & Thurlow, 2009) for measuring differential distractor functioning (DDF) effects in comparison to the standardized distractor analysis approach (Schmitt & Bleistein, 1987). Students classified as participating…

  7. Calculations for Adjusting Endogenous Biomarker Levels During Analytical Recovery Assessments for Ligand-Binding Assay Bioanalytical Method Validation.

    PubMed

    Marcelletti, John F; Evans, Cindy L; Saxena, Manju; Lopez, Adriana E

    2015-07-01

    It is often necessary to adjust for detectable endogenous biomarker levels in spiked validation samples (VS) and in selectivity determinations during bioanalytical method validation for ligand-binding assays (LBA) with a matrix like normal human serum (NHS). Described herein are case studies of biomarker analyses using multiplex LBA which highlight the challenges associated with such adjustments when calculating percent analytical recovery (%AR). The LBA test methods were the Meso Scale Discovery V-PLEX® proinflammatory and cytokine panels with NHS as test matrix. The NHS matrix blank exhibited varied endogenous content of the 20 individual cytokines before spiking, ranging from undetectable to readily quantifiable. Addition and subtraction methods for adjusting endogenous cytokine levels in %AR calculations are both used in the bioanalytical field. The two methods were compared in %AR calculations following spiking and analysis of VS for cytokines having detectable endogenous levels in NHS. Calculations for %AR obtained by subtracting quantifiable endogenous biomarker concentrations from the respective total analytical VS values yielded reproducible and credible conclusions. The addition method, in contrast, yielded %AR conclusions that were frequently unreliable and discordant with values obtained with the subtraction adjustment method. It is shown that subtraction of assay signal attributable to matrix is a feasible alternative when endogenous biomarkers levels are below the limit of quantitation, but above the limit of detection. These analyses confirm that the subtraction method is preferable over that using addition to adjust for detectable endogenous biomarker levels when calculating %AR for biomarker LBA. PMID:25903932

  8. Sensorimotor Training in a Virtual Reality Environment: Does It Improve Functional Recovery Poststroke?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alma S. Merians; Howard Poizner; Rares Boian; Grigore Burdea; Sergei Adamovich

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effectiveness of computerized virtual reality (VR) training of the hemiparetic hand of patients poststroke using a system that provides repetitive motor reeducation and skill reacquisition. Methods. Eight subjects in the chronic phase poststroke participated in a 3-week program using their hemiparetic hand in a series of interactive computer games for 13 days of training, weekend breaks,

  9. Nogo Receptor Inhibition Enhances Functional Recovery following Lysolecithin-Induced Demyelination in Mouse Optic Chiasm

    PubMed Central

    Pourabdolhossein, Fereshteh; Mozafari, Sabah; Morvan-Dubois, Ghislaine; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Lopez-Juarez, Alejandra; Pierre-Simons, Jacqueline; Demeneix, Barbara A.; Javan, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background Inhibitory factors have been implicated in the failure of remyelination in demyelinating diseases. Myelin associated inhibitors act through a common receptor called Nogo receptor (NgR) that plays critical inhibitory roles in CNS plasticity. Here we investigated the effects of abrogating NgR inhibition in a non-immune model of focal demyelination in adult mouse optic chiasm. Methodology/Principal Findings A focal area of demyelination was induced in adult mouse optic chiasm by microinjection of lysolecithin. To knock down NgR levels, siRNAs against NgR were intracerebroventricularly administered via a permanent cannula over 14 days, Functional changes were monitored by electrophysiological recording of latency of visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Histological analysis was carried out 3, 7 and 14 days post demyelination lesion. To assess the effect of NgR inhibition on precursor cell repopulation, BrdU was administered to the animals prior to the demyelination induction. Inhibition of NgR significantly restored VEPs responses following optic chiasm demyelination. These findings were confirmed histologically by myelin specific staining. siNgR application resulted in a smaller lesion size compared to control. NgR inhibition significantly increased the numbers of BrdU+/Olig2+ progenitor cells in the lesioned area and in the neurogenic zone of the third ventricle. These progenitor cells (Olig2+ or GFAP+) migrated away from this area as a function of time. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that inhibition of NgR facilitate myelin repair in the demyelinated chiasm, with enhanced recruitment of proliferating cells to the lesion site. Thus, antagonizing NgR function could have therapeutic potential for demyelinating disorders such as Multiple Sclerosis. PMID:25184636

  10. Contralaterally Controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation for Recovery of Elbow Extension and Hand Opening After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Jayme S.; Harley, Mary Y.; Hisel, Terri Z.; Makowski, Nathaniel S.; Chae, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to determine whether patients with moderate-to-severe upper limb hemiplegia could use contralaterally controlled functional electrical stimulation at the arm and the hand (Arm+Hand CCFES) at home and to evaluate the feasibility of the Arm+Hand CCFES to reduce arm and hand motor impairment. Design With the Arm+Hand CCFES, the paretic elbow and hand extensors were stimulated with intensities proportional to the degree of elbow extension and hand opening, respectively, of the contralateral unimpaired side. For 1 2 wks, four participants with chronic (?6 mos) upper limb hemiplegia received ?7 hrs per week of self-administered home-based stimulation-mediated elbow extension and hand opening exercise plus ?2.5 hrs per week of therapist-supervised laboratory-based stimulation-assisted functional task practice. Assessments of upper limb impairment were made at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 1 mo after treatment. Results All four participants were able to use the Arm+Hand CCFES system at home either independently or with very minimal assistance from a caregiver. All four participants had increases in the Fugl-Meyer score (1–9 points) and the Wolf Motor Function Test (0.2–0.8 points) and varying degrees of improvement in maximum hand opening, maximum elbow extension, and simultaneous elbow extension and hand opening. Conclusions The Arm+Hand CCFES can be successfully administered in stroke patients with moderate-to-severe impairment and can reduce various aspects of upper limb impairment. A larger efficacy study is warranted. PMID:24508938

  11. Galectin-1 regulates neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and promotes functional recovery after stroke.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Satoru; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Sakaguchi, Masanori; Sun, Liyuan; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Okano, Hideyuki; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2007-10-01

    Galectin-1 (Gal-1) has recently been identified as a key molecule that plays important roles in the regulation of neural progenitor cell proliferation in two neurogenic regions: the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. To test the hypothesis that Gal-1 contributes to adult neurogenesis after focal ischemia, we studied the temporal profile of endogenous Gal-1 expression and the effects of human recombinant Gal-1 on neurogenesis and neurological functions in an experimental focal ischemic model. In the normal brain, Gal-1 expression was observed only in the SVZ. In the ischemic brain, Gal-1 expression was markedly upregulated in the SVZ and the area of selective neuronal death around the infarct in the striatum. The temporal profile of Gal-1 expression was correlated with that of neural progenitor cell proliferation in the SVZ of the ischemic hemisphere. Double-labeling studies revealed that Gal-1 was localized predominantly in both reactive astrocytes and SVZ astrocytes. Administration of Gal-1, which is known to have carbohydrate-binding ability, into the lateral ventricle increased neurogenesis in the ipsilateral SVZ and improved sensorimotor dysfunction after focal ischemia. By contrast, blockade of Gal-1 in the SVZ by the administration of anti-Gal-1 neutralizing antibody strongly inhibited neurogenesis and diminished neurological function. These results suggest that Gal-1 is one of the principal regulators of adult SVZ neurogenesis through its carbohydrate-binding ability and provide evidence that Gal-1 protein has a role in the improvement of sensorimotor function after stroke. PMID:17706645

  12. LINGO1 antagonist promotes functional recovery and axonal sprouting after spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benxiu Ji; Mingwei Li; Wu-Tian Wu; Leung-Wah Yick; Xinhua Lee; Zhaohui Shao; Joy Wang; Kwok-Fai So; John M. McCoy; R. Blake Pepinsky; Sha Mi; Jane K. Relton

    2006-01-01

    LINGO-1 is a CNS-specific protein and a functional component of the NgR1\\/p75\\/LINGO-1 and NgR1\\/TAJ(TROY)\\/LINGO-1 signaling complexes that mediate inhibition of axonal outgrowth. These receptor complexes mediate the axonal growth inhibitory effects of Nogo, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) via RhoA activation. Soluble LINGO-1 (LINGO-1-Fc), which acts as an antagonist of these pathways by blocking LINGO-1 binding to NgR1,

  13. Apollo Recovery Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Describe the organization of recovery force command and control and landing areas; b) Describe the function and timeline use of the Earth Landing System (ELS); c) Describe Stable 1 vs Stable 2 landing configurations and the function of the Command Module Uprighting System; d) Explain the activities of the helicopter and swimmer teams in egress and recovery of the crew; e)Explain the activities of the swimmer teams and primary recovery ship in recovery of the Command Module; and f) Describe several landing incidents that occurred during Apollo.

  14. Experimental removal and recovery of subtidal grazers highlights the importance of functional redundancy and temporal context.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Robin; Sebens, Kenneth P

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which different grazers are functionally redundant has strong implications for the maintenance of community structure and function. Grazing by red urchins (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus) on temperate rocky reefs can initiate a switch from invertebrate or macroalgal dominance to an algal crust state, but can also cause increases in the density of molluscan mesograzers. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that red urchins and lined chitons (Tonicella spp.) are redundant in the maintenance of available space, defined as encrusting algae and bare rock. In a factorial field experiment replicated at three sites, we reduced the densities of urchins and chitons on subtidal rock walls for nine months. The effects of grazers were interpreted in the context of natural temporal variation by monitoring the benthic community one year before, during, and after grazer removal. The removal of each grazer in isolation had no effect on the epilithic community, but the removal of both grazers caused an increase in sessile invertebrates. The increase was due primarily to clonal ascidians, which displayed a large (?75%) relative increase in response to the removal of both grazers. However, the observed non-additive responses to grazer removal were temporary and smaller than seasonal fluctuations. Our data demonstrate that urchins and chitons can be redundant in the maintenance of available space, and highlight the value of drawing conclusions from experimental manipulations within an extended temporal context. PMID:24250819

  15. Telerehabilitation and recovery of motor function: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Michela; Moja, Lorenzo; Banzi, Rita; Pistotti, Vanna; Tonin, Paolo; Venneri, Annalena; Turolla, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    SummaryRecent advances in telecommunication technologies have boosted the possibility to deliver rehabilitation via the internet (i.e. telerehabilitation). Several studies have shown that telerehabilitation is effective to improve clinical outcomes in disabling conditions. The aim of this review was to determine whether telerehabilitation was more effective than other modes of delivering rehabilitation to regain motor function, in different populations of patients.We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane library retrieving 2360 records. Twelve studies were included involving different populations (i.e. neurological, total knee arthroplasty (TKA), cardiac) of patients. Inconclusive finding were found on the effect of telerehabilitation for neurological patients (SMD?=?0.08, CI 95%?=?-0.13, 0.29), while both for cardiac (SMD?=?0.24, CI 95%?=?0.04, 0.43) and TKA patients (Timed Up and Go test: MD?=?-5.17, CI 95%?=?-9.79, -0.55) the results were in favour of telerehabilitation.Conclusive evidence on the efficacy of telerehabilitation for treatment of motor function, regardless of pathology, was not reached. Nevertheless, a strong positive effect was found for patients following orthopaedic surgery, suggesting that the increased intensity provided by telerehabilitation is a promising option to be offered to patients. More and higher quality research is needed in this field especially with neurological patients. PMID:25712109

  16. Functional Human Liver Preservation and Recovery by Means of Subnormothermic Machine Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Weeder, Pepijn D.; Sridharan, Gautham V.; Uygun, Basak E.; Karimian, Negin G.; Porte, Robert J.; Markmann, James F.; Yeh, Heidi; Uygun, Korkut

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a severe shortage of liver grafts available for transplantation. Novel organ preservation techniques are needed to expand the pool of donor livers. Machine perfusion of donor liver grafts is an alternative to traditional cold storage of livers and holds much promise as a modality to expand the donor organ pool. We have recently described the potential benefit of subnormothermic machine perfusion of human livers. Machine perfused livers showed improving function and restoration of tissue ATP levels. Additionally, machine perfusion of liver grafts at subnormothermic temperatures allows for objective assessment of the functionality and suitability of a liver for transplantation. In these ways a great many livers that were previously discarded due to their suboptimal quality can be rescued via the restorative effects of machine perfusion and utilized for transplantation. Here we describe this technique of subnormothermic machine perfusion in detail. Human liver grafts allocated for research are perfused via the hepatic artery and portal vein with an acellular oxygenated perfusate at 21 °C. PMID:25938299

  17. Functional recovery with recombinant human IGF1 treatment in a mouse model of Rett Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Castro, Jorge; Garcia, Rodrigo I; Kwok, Showming; Banerjee, Abhishek; Petravicz, Jeremy; Woodson, Jonathan; Mellios, Nikolaos; Tropea, Daniela; Sur, Mriganka

    2014-07-01

    Rett Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that arises from mutations in the X-linked gene methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). MeCP2 has a large number of targets and a wide range of functions, suggesting the hypothesis that functional signaling mechanisms upstream of synaptic and circuit maturation may contribute to our understanding of the disorder and provide insight into potential treatment. Here, we show that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) levels are reduced in young male Mecp2-null (Mecp2(-/y)) mice, and systemic treatment with recombinant human IGF1 (rhIGF1) improves lifespan, locomotor activity, heart rate, respiration patterns, and social and anxiety behavior. Furthermore, Mecp2-null mice treated with rhIGF1 show increased synaptic and activated signaling pathway proteins, enhanced cortical excitatory synaptic transmission, and restored dendritic spine densities. IGF1 levels are also reduced in older, fully symptomatic heterozygous (Mecp2(-/+)) female mice, and short-term treatment with rhIGF1 in these animals improves respiratory patterns, reduces anxiety levels, and increases exploratory behavior. In addition, rhIGF1 treatment normalizes abnormally prolonged plasticity in visual cortex circuits of adult Mecp2(-/+) female mice. Our results provide characterization of the phenotypic development of Rett Syndrome in a mouse model at the molecular, circuit, and organismal levels and demonstrate a mechanism-based therapeutic role for rhIGF1 in treating Rett Syndrome. PMID:24958891

  18. Alpha-lipoic acid treatment is neurorestorative and promotes functional recovery after stroke in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kang-Ho; Park, Man-Seok; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Hyeon-Sik; Kim, Joon-Tae; Kim, Byeong-Chae; Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Park, Jong-Tae; Cho, Ki-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of alpha-lipoic acid (aLA) correlate with its ability to promote neuroproliferation. However, there have been no comprehensive studies examining the neurorestorative effects of aLA administration after the onset of ischemia. The middle cerebral artery (MCA) of adult rats was occluded for 2 hours and then reperfused. aLA (20 mg/kg) was administered in 71 animals (aLA group) through the left external jugular vein immediately after reperfusion. An equivalent volume of vehicle was administered to 71 animals (control group). Functional outcome, levels of endogenous neural precursors with neurogenesis, glial cell activation, and brain metabolism were evaluated. Immediate aLA administration after reperfusion resulted in significantly reduced mortality, infarct size, and neurological deficit score (NDS) in the test group compared to the control group. Long-term functional outcomes, measured by the rotarod test, were markedly improved by aLA treatment. There was a significant increase in the number of cells expressing nestin and GFAP in the boundary zone and infarct core regions after aLA treatment. Furthermore, significantly more BrdU/GFAP, BrdU/DCX, and BrdU/NeuN double-labeled cells were observed along the boundary zone of the aLA group on days 7, 14, and 28 days, respectively. And brain metabolism using (18)F-FDG microPET imaging was markedly improved in aLA group. The effects of aLA was blocked by insulin receptor inhibitor, HNMPA (AM)3. These results indicate that immediate treatment with aLA after ischemic injury may have significant neurorestorative effects mediated at least partially via insulin receptor activation. Thus, aLA may be useful for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. PMID:25761600

  19. Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Oligodendrocyte Progenitors Aid in Functional Recovery of Sensory Pathways following Contusive Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    All, Angelo H.; Bazley, Faith A.; Gupta, Siddharth; Pashai, Nikta; Hu, Charles; Pourmorteza, Amir; Kerr, Candace

    2012-01-01

    Background Transplantations of human stem cell derivatives have been widely investigated in rodent models for the potential restoration of function of neural pathways after spinal cord injury (SCI). Studies have already demonstrated cells survival following transplantation in SCI. We sought to evaluate survival and potential therapeutic effects of transplanted human embryonic stem (hES) cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in a contusive injury in rats. Bioluminescence imaging was utilized to verify survivability of cells up to 4 weeks, and somatosensory evoked potential (SSEPs) were recorded at the cortex to monitor function of sensory pathways throughout the 6-week recovery period. Principal Findings hES cells were transduced with the firefly luciferase gene and differentiated into OPCs. OPCs were transplanted into the lesion epicenter of rat spinal cords 2 hours after inducing a moderate contusive SCI. The hES-treatment group showed improved SSEPs, including increased amplitude and decreased latencies, compared to the control group. The bioluminescence of transplanted OPCs decreased by 97% in the injured spinal cord compared to only 80% when injected into an uninjured spinal cord. Bioluminescence increased in both experimental groups such that by week 3, no statistical difference was detected, signifying that the cells survived and proliferated independent of injury. Post-mortem histology of the spinal cords showed integration of human cells expressing mature oligodendrocyte markers and myelin basic protein without the expression of markers for astrocytes (GFAP) or pluripotent cells (OCT4). Conclusions hES-derived OPCs transplanted 2 hours after contusive SCI survive and differentiate into OLs that produce MBP. Treated rats demonstrated functional improvements in SSEP amplitudes and latencies compared to controls as early as 1 week post-injury. Finally, the hostile injury microenvironment at 2 hours post-injury initially caused increased cell death but did not affect the long-term cell proliferation or survival, indicating that cells can be transplanted sooner than conventionally accepted. PMID:23091637

  20. Methodological Challenges of Multiple-Component Intervention: Lessons Learned from a Randomized Controlled Trial of Functional Recovery After Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Margaret G.E.; Cornell, Charles N.; MacKenzie, C. Ronald; Robbins, Laura; Horton, Roberta; Ganz, Sandy B.; Ruchlin, Hirsch S.; Russo, Pamela Williams; Paget, Stephen A.; Charlson, Mary E.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of a multiple-component intervention designed to improve functional recovery after hip fracture. One hundred seventy-six patients who underwent surgery for a primary unilateral hip fracture were assigned randomly to receive usual care (control arm, n?=?86) or a brief motivational videotape, supportive peer counseling, and high-intensity muscle-strength training (intervention arm, n?=?90). Between-group differences on the physical functioning, role-physical, and social functioning domains of the SF-36 were assessed postoperatively at 6 months. At the end of the trial, 32 intervention and 27 control patients (34%) completed the 6-month outcome assessment. Although patient compliance with all three components of the intervention was uneven, over 90% of intervention patients were exposed to the motivational videotape. Intervention patients experienced a significant (P?=?0.03) improvement in the role-physical domain (mean change, ?11?±?33) compared to control patients (mean change, ?37?±?41). Change in general health (P?=?0.2) and mental health (P?=?0.1) domain scores was also directionally consistent with the study hypothesis. Although our findings are consistent with previous reports of comprehensive rehabilitation efforts for hip fracture patients, the trial was undermined by high attrition and the possibility of self-selection bias at 6-month follow-up. We discuss the methodological challenges and lessons learned in conducting a randomized controlled trial that sought to implement and assess the impact of a complex intervention in a population that proved difficult to follow up once they had returned to the community. PMID:18751772

  1. LIMITED RECOVERY OF PINEAL FUNCTION AFTER REGENERATION OF PREGANGLIONIC SYMPATHETIC AXONS: EVIDENCE FOR LOSS OF GANGLIONIC SYNAPTIC SPECIFICITY

    PubMed Central

    Lingappa, Jaisri R.; Zigmond, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    The cervical sympathetic trunks (CST) contain axons of preganglionic neurons that innervate the superior cervical ganglia (SCG). Since, regeneration of CST fibers can be extensive and can reestablish certain specific patterns of SCG connections, restoration of end organ function would be expected. This expectation was examined with respect to the pineal gland, an organ innervated by the two SCG. The activity of pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) exhibits a large circadian rhythm, with activity high at night, which is dependent on the gland’s sympathetic input. Thirty six hours after the CST were crushed bilaterally, nocturnal NAT was decreased by 99%. Three months later, enzyme activity had recovered only to 15% of control values, a recovery dependent on regeneration of CST fibers. Nevertheless, a small day-night rhythm was present in lesioned animals. Neither the density of the gland’s adrenergic innervation nor the ability of an adrenergic agonist to stimulate NAT activity was reduced in rats with regenerated CST. In addition, stimulation of the regenerated CST at a variety of frequencies was at least as effective in increasing NAT activity as seen with control nerves. These data suggest that the failure of pineal function to recover is not due to a quantitative deficit in the extent of reinnervation or in synaptic efficacy. Rather, we suggest that there is some loss of specificity in the synaptic connections made in the SCG during reinnervation, resulting in a loss of the central neuronal information necessary for directing a normal NAT rhythm and thus normal pineal function. PMID:23486957

  2. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYST RECOVERY IN WATER BY EPA METHOD 1623: EVALUATION OF A MODIFIED IMS DISSOCIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Methods 1622 and 1623 are the benchmarks for detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in water. These methods consist of filtration, elution, purification by immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and microscopic analysis after staining with a fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate...

  3. A top-injection bottom-production cyclic steam stimulation method for enhanced heavy oil recovery 

    E-print Network

    Matus, Eric Robert

    2006-10-30

    A novel method to enhance oil production during cyclic steam injection has been developed. In the Top-Injection and Bottom-Production (TINBOP) method, the well contains two strings separated by two packers (a dual and a ...

  4. COMPARISON OF FILTRATION METHODS FOR PRIMARY RECOVERY OF CRYPTOSPORIIDUM PARVUM FROM WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Waterborne disease outbreaks from contaminated drinking water have been linked to the protozoan parasite, Cryptosporidium parvum. To improve monitoring for this agent, the USEPA developed Method 1622 for isolation and detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water. Method 1622 i...

  5. Further Development of a Tissue Engineered Muscle Repair Construct In Vitro for Enhanced Functional Recovery Following Implantation In Vivo in a Murine Model of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury

    PubMed Central

    Corona, Benjamin T.; Machingal, Masood A.; Criswell, Tracy; Vadhavkar, Manasi; Dannahower, Ashley C.; Bergman, Christopher; Zhao, Weixin

    2012-01-01

    Volumetric muscle loss (VML) can result from trauma and surgery in civilian and military populations, resulting in irrecoverable functional and cosmetic deficits that cannot be effectively treated with current therapies. Previous work evaluated a bioreactor-based tissue engineering approach in which muscle derived cells (MDCs) were seeded onto bladder acellular matrices (BAM) and mechanically preconditioned. This first generation tissue engineered muscle repair (TEMR) construct exhibited a largely differentiated cellular morphology consisting primarily of myotubes, and moreover, significantly improved functional recovery within 2 months of implantation in a murine latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle with a surgically created VML injury. The present report extends these initial observations to further document the importance of the cellular phenotype and composition of the TEMR construct in vitro to the functional recovery observed following implantation in vivo. To this end, three distinct TEMR constructs were created by seeding MDCs onto BAM as follows: (1) a short-term cellular proliferation of MDCs to generate primarily myoblasts without bioreactor preconditioning (TEMR-1SP), (2) a prolonged cellular differentiation and maturation period that included bioreactor preconditioning (TEMR-1SPD; identical to the first generation TEMR construct), and (3) similar treatment as TEMR-1SPD but with a second application of MDCs during bioreactor preconditioning (TEMR-2SPD); simulating aspects of “exercise” in vitro. Assessment of maximal tetanic force generation on retrieved LD muscles in vitro revealed that TEMR-1SP and TEMR-1SPD constructs promoted either an accelerated (i.e., 1 month) or a prolonged (i.e., 2 month postinjury) functional recovery, respectively, of similar magnitude. Meanwhile, TEMR-2SPD constructs promoted both an accelerated and prolonged functional recovery, resulting in twice the magnitude of functional recovery of either TEMR-1SP or TEMR-1SPD constructs. Histological and molecular analyses indicated that TEMR constructs mediated functional recovery via regeneration of functional muscle fibers either at the interface of the construct and the native tissue or within the BAM scaffolding independent of the native tissue. Taken together these findings are encouraging for the further development and clinical application of TEMR constructs as a VML injury treatment. PMID:22439962

  6. Short term recovery of soil biological functions in a new vineyard cultivated in organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Agnelli, Alessandro; Fabiani, Arturo; Gagnarli, Elena; Mocali, Stefano; Priori, Simone; Simoni, Sauro; Valboa, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation completely upset soil profile and characteristics. The resulting soil features are often much more similar to the underlying substratum than original soil profile. The time needed to recover soil functions is ecologically relevant and affects vine phenology and grape yield, particularly in organic viticulture. The general aim of this research work was to investigate the time needed to recover soil functions after the earthworks made before vine plantation. This study compared for a four years period physical and chemical properties, microbial and mesofauna communities, in new and old vineyards, cultivated on the same soil type. The experiment was conducted in a farm of the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on hills of high altitude (400-500 m a.s.l.) on clayey-calcareous flysches, with stony and calcareous soils (Haplic Cambisol (Calcaric, Skeletic)). The reference vine cultivar was Sangiovese. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011 after an equivalent earthwork carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and only compost at the rate of 1,000 kg ha-1 -a was added every year. The new vineyard was periodically cultivated by mechanical tillage, while the older only at alternate rows. Soil samples from the first 15 cm depth were collected in 4 replicates in the younger as well as in the older vineyard during the springtime of 2010-2013; in the older vineyard, two samples were from the periodically cultivated swaths and two under permanent grass cover. Samples were analysed for physical (particle size, field capacity, wilting point), chemical (pH, electrical conductivity, lime, active lime, organic carbon, total nitrogen), microbiological (soil respiration, microbial biomass, DGGE), and mesofauna features (abundance, taxa richness, BSQ index and soil biological classes). Physical soil characteristics remained unchanged after the first year from the earthworks and did not change under grass cover. Chemical analysis only indicated a significant effect of earthworks. Over the 2010-2013 period, the new vineyard showed a slight increase of TOC and total N contents; as compared to the old vineyard, it averaged lower TOC and total N, and higher CaCO3 contents, suggesting still evolving equilibrium conditions. Microarthropod analysis showed significant different abundances and communities' structures both by management system and by year, increasing where the land use pressure was reduced by permanent grass cover and along with the aging of vineyard. Though the euedaphic forms, well adapted to soil life, were always rare. Microbiological analysis showed a different structure of eubacterial communities and a lower microbial activity in the new vineyard, especially during 2010-2012. In contrast, significant differences were not observed between the two vineyards in 2013, and grass cover effect was controversial. To sum up, the consequence of deep earthworks on chemical and biological properties were still evident after four years from planting and more time was needed to recover soil functions. Permanent grass cover did not always show a consistent positive effect.

  7. Comparison of Swiffer wipes and conventional drag swab methods for the recovery of Salmonella in swine production systems.

    PubMed

    Zewde, Bayleyegn Molla; Robbins, Rebecca; Abley, Melanie J; House, Brandon; Morrow, W E Morgan; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of Swiffer wipes in comparison to conventional drag swabs for the recovery of Salmonella. A total of 800 samples (400 Swiffer wipes and 400 drag swabs) were aseptically collected from randomly selected swine barns before disinfection with specific biocides and within 2 h after disinfection. From each barn, 10 samples of each swab type and negative controls were collected. Salmonellae were isolated from 43 (10.8%) of 400 drag swabs and 34 (8.5%) of 400 Swiffer wipes. There was a significant reduction in Salmonella postdisinfection as identified with both sampling procedures irrespective of the type of biocide used (P < 0.05). With the drag swabs, salmonellae were detected in 15% of the samples before disinfection versus 6.5% after disinfection, whereas with the Swiffer wipes, 13 and 4% of the samples were positive pre- and postdisinfection, respectively. Of the total 720 fecal samples collected from pigs placed in the disinfected barns, 132 (18.3%) were Salmonella positive. About 65 and 98% of the Salmonella isolates from swine barns and fecal samples, respectively, were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials tested. Multidrug resistance was found in 35.7% of the isolates from barn swabs and 56.4% of the isolates from fecal samples. Results of this study suggest that the conventional drag swab method results in better recovery of Salmonella than does the Swiffer wipe method and thus could be a useful sampling method in monitoring Salmonella. Pentaresistant Salmonella (mainly R-type ACSSuT) was more common in fecal samples than in environmental samples. PMID:19205475

  8. The +Gz recovery of consciousness curve

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The limiting physiological envelope to extreme gravitational stress is defined by neurologic symptoms and signs that result from exceeding neurologic tolerance. The edge of the limiting envelope is defined by the complete incapacitation associated with acceleration (+Gz) induced loss of consciousness. Should?+?Gz-induced loss of consciousness occur in-flight, brisk recovery of conscious function is essential for aircraft recovery. If recovery does not occur, accident investigation aimed at preventing such accidents is enhanced by understanding the temporal aspects of the resulting incapacitation. The mechanistic basis of neurological reintegration leading to consciousness recovery is of broad medical and scientific interest. Methods Recovery of consciousness episodes from a prospectively developed +Gz-induced loss of consciousness repository of healthy individuals was analyzed to define variables influencing recovery of consciousness. The time from loss to recovery of consciousness as measured by observable signs, is defined as the absolute incapacitation period. The absolute incapacitation period from 760 episodes of loss and recovery of consciousness in healthy humans was analyzed to define +Gz-profile variables that determine the duration of functional neurologic compromise. Results Mean time from loss to return of consciousness for 760 episodes of consciousness recovery was 10.4 ± 5.1 s; minimum 1 s; maximum 38 s. Offset rate for the +Gz-exposure deceleration profiles varied from a minimum of 0.17 Gs?1 to a maximum of 7.93 Gs?1.The curve produced by plotting +Gz-offset rate (Gs?1; y) versus absolute incapacitation period (s; x) described a hyperbolic relationship. The hyperbolic relationship indicates there is a minimum time (mean 8.29 ± 3.84 s) required for recovery of consciousness when complete loss of consciousness occurs. Conclusions Mean recovery time from +Gz-induced unconsciousness is dependent on the deceleration profile's offset rate from the point of loss of consciousness. This relationship is described by a curve plotting offset rate and time for recovery of consciousness. This curve predicts when conscious function should return following exposure to +Gz stress sufficient to cause unconsciousness. The maximum +Gz level of the recovery exposure profile was found to be inadequate for predicting variations in the time for recovery of consciousness. PMID:24843787

  9. Delta function approximations in level set methods by distance function extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedi, Sara; Tornberg, Anna-Karin

    2010-03-01

    In [A.-K. Tornberg, B. Engquist, Numerical approximations of singular source terms in differential equations, J. Comput. Phys. 200 (2004) 462-488], it was shown for simple examples that the then most common way to regularize delta functions in connection to level set methods produces inconsistent approximations with errors that are not reduced with grid refinement. Since then, several clever approximations have been derived to overcome this problem. However, the great appeal of the old method was its simplicity. In this paper it is shown that the old method - a one-dimensional delta function approximation extended to higher dimensions by a distance function - can be made accurate with a different class of one-dimensional delta function approximations. The prize to pay is a wider support of the resulting delta function approximations.

  10. Recovery of oil from oil-in-water emulsion using biopolymers by adsorptive method.

    PubMed

    Elanchezhiyan, S Sd; Sivasurian, N; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to identify, a low cost sorbent for the recovery of oil from oil-in-water emulsion using biopolymers such as chitin and chitosan. Chitin has the greater adsorption capacity than chitosan due to its hydrophobic nature. The characterizations of chitin and chitosan were done using FTIR, SEM, EDAX, XRD, TGA and DSC techniques. Under batch equilibrium mode, a systematic study was performed to optimize the various equilibrium parameters viz., contact time, pH, dosage, initial concentration of oil, and temperature. The adsorption process reached equilibrium at 40 min of contact time and the percentage removal of oil was found to be higher (90%) in the acidic medium. The Freundlich and Langmuir models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were calculated. Thermodynamic parameters such as ?G°, ?H° and ?S° were calculated to find out the nature of the sorption mechanism. The kinetic studies were investigated with reaction-based and diffusion-based models. The suitable mechanism for the removal of oil has been established. PMID:25017179

  11. Analytical control test plan and microbiological methods for the water recovery test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traweek, M. S. (editor); Tatara, J. D. (editor)

    1994-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative laboratory results are important to the decision-making process. In some cases, they may represent the only basis for deciding between two or more given options or processes. Therefore, it is essential that handling of laboratory samples and analytical operations employed are performed at a deliberate level of conscientious effort. Reporting erroneous results can lead to faulty interpretations and result in misinformed decisions. This document provides analytical control specifications which will govern future test procedures related to all Water Recovery Test (WRT) Phase 3 activities to be conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC). This document addresses the process which will be used to verify analytical data generated throughout the test period, and to identify responsibilities of key personnel and participating laboratories, the chains of communication to be followed, and ensure that approved methodology and procedures are used during WRT activities. This document does not outline specifics, but provides a minimum guideline by which sampling protocols, analysis methodologies, test site operations, and laboratory operations should be developed.

  12. Posttraumatic reduction of edema with aquaporin-4 RNA interference improves acute and chronic functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Andrew M; Adami, Arash; Pop, Viorela; Bellone, John A; Coats, Jacqueline S; Hartman, Richard E; Ashwal, Stephen; Obenaus, Andre; Badaut, Jerome

    2013-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in young children and adolescents and is associated with long-term disability and mortality. The neuropathologic sequelae that result from juvenile TBI are a complex cascade of events that include edema formation and brain swelling. Brain aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has a key role in edema formation. Thus, development of novel treatments targeting AQP4 to reduce edema could lessen the neuropathologic sequelae. We hypothesized that inhibiting AQP4 expression by injection of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting AQP4 (siAQP4) after juvenile TBI would decrease edema formation, neuroinflammation, neuronal cell death, and improve neurologic outcomes. The siAQP4 or a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-free control siRNA (siGLO) was injected lateral to the trauma site after controlled cortical impact in postnatal day 17 rats. Magnetic resonance imaging, neurologic testing, and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess outcomes. Pups treated with siAQP4 showed acute (3 days after injury) improvements in motor function and in spatial memory at long term (60 days after injury) compared with siGLO-treated animals. These improvements were associated with decreased edema formation, increased microglial activation, decreased blood-brain barrier disruption, reduced astrogliosis and neuronal cell death. The effectiveness of our treatment paradigm was associated with a 30% decrease in AQP4 expression at the injection site. PMID:23899928

  13. Posttraumatic reduction of edema with aquaporin-4 RNA interference improves acute and chronic functional recovery

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Andrew M; Adami, Arash; Pop, Viorela; Bellone, John A; Coats, Jacqueline S; Hartman, Richard E; Ashwal, Stephen; Obenaus, Andre; Badaut, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in young children and adolescents and is associated with long-term disability and mortality. The neuropathologic sequelae that result from juvenile TBI are a complex cascade of events that include edema formation and brain swelling. Brain aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has a key role in edema formation. Thus, development of novel treatments targeting AQP4 to reduce edema could lessen the neuropathologic sequelae. We hypothesized that inhibiting AQP4 expression by injection of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting AQP4 (siAQP4) after juvenile TBI would decrease edema formation, neuroinflammation, neuronal cell death, and improve neurologic outcomes. The siAQP4 or a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-free control siRNA (siGLO) was injected lateral to the trauma site after controlled cortical impact in postnatal day 17 rats. Magnetic resonance imaging, neurologic testing, and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess outcomes. Pups treated with siAQP4 showed acute (3 days after injury) improvements in motor function and in spatial memory at long term (60 days after injury) compared with siGLO-treated animals. These improvements were associated with decreased edema formation, increased microglial activation, decreased blood–brain barrier disruption, reduced astrogliosis and neuronal cell death. The effectiveness of our treatment paradigm was associated with a 30% decrease in AQP4 expression at the injection site. PMID:23899928

  14. Triptolide (TPL) improves locomotor function recovery in rats and reduces inflammation after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Jing-Tao; Song, Ruo-Xian; Yu, Xiu-Chun

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we studied the effect of triptolide (TPL) on locomotor function in rats with spinal cord injury. A total of 40 rats were studied after dividing them in two major groups, one was experimental group denoted as TPL group while other was control group denoted as PBS group. Each group was subdivided in four subgroups having five rats each (n = 5). TPL was given intraperitonially at the rate of 5 mg/kg/day in TPL group while PBS was given at the same time interval in the same manner in control group for comparison. A reduction in the cavity area of tissue sections was observed by bright field microscopy from 0.22 ± 0.05 to 0.12 ± 0.05 mm(2) in experimental group after 28 days of treatment while BBB score also improved from 1 to 5 after 14 days of treatment. SPSS software, one way ANOVA, was used for recording statistical analysis and values were expressed as mean ± SEM where P value of <0.01 was considered significant. The expression of I-kB? and NF-kB p65 was also studied using western blotting and after recording optical density (OD) values of western blots. It was observed that treatment with TPL significantly reduced the expression of these factors after 28 days of treatment compared with controls. PMID:25547329

  15. Thymic function is maintained during Salmonella-induced atrophy and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Ewan A.; Coughlan, Ruth E.; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; Lax, Sian; Nicholson, Julia; Desanti, Guillaume E.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Bobat, Saeeda; Hitchcock, Jessica; White, Andrea; Jenkinson, William E.; Khan, Mahmood; Henderson, Ian R.; Lavery, Gareth G.; Buckley, Christopher D.; Anderson, Graham; Cunningham, Adam F.

    2014-01-01

    Thymic atrophy is a frequent consequence of infection with bacteria, viruses and parasites and is considered a common virulence trait between pathogens. Multiple reasons have been proposed to explain this atrophy, including premature egress of immature thymocytes, increased apoptosis or thymic shutdown to prevent tolerance to the pathogen from developing. The severe loss in thymic cell number can reflect an equally dramatic reduction in thymic output, potentially reducing peripheral T cell numbers. Here we examine the relationship between systemic Salmonella infection and thymic function. During infection, naive T cell numbers in peripheral lymphoid organs increase. Nevertheless, this occurs despite a pronounced thymic atrophy caused by viable bacteria, with a peak 50-fold reduction in thymocyte numbers. Thymic atrophy is not dependent upon homeostatic feedback from peripheral T cells or on regulation of endogenous glucocorticoids, as demonstrated by infection of genetically-altered mice. Once bacterial numbers fall, thymocyte numbers recover and this is associated with increases in the proportion and proliferation of early thymic progenitors. During atrophy, thymic T cell maturation is maintained and sjTREC analysis reveals there is only a modest fall in recent CD4+ thymic emigrants in secondary lymphoid tissues. Thus thymic atrophy does not necessarily result in a matching dysfunctional T cell output and thymic homeostasis can constantly adjust to systemic infection to ensure that naive T cell output is maintained. PMID:22993205

  16. Anxiolytics may promote locomotor function recovery in spinal cord injury patients

    PubMed Central

    Guertin, Pierre A

    2008-01-01

    Recent findings in animal models of paraplegia suggest that specific nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytics may temporarily restore locomotor functions after spinal cord injury (SCI). Experiments using in vitro models have revealed, indeed, that selective serotonin receptor (5-HTR) ligands such as 5-HTR1A agonists, known as relatively safe anxiolytics, can acutely elicit episodes of rhythmic neuronal activity refered to as fictive locomotion in isolated spinal cord preparations. Along the same line, in vivo studies have recently shown that this subclass of anxiolytics can induce, shortly after systemic administration (eg, orally or subcutaneously), some locomotor-like hindlimb movements during 45–60 minutes in completely spinal cord-transected (Tx) rodents. Using ‘knock-out’ mice (eg, 5-HTR7-/-) and selective antagonists, it has been clearly established that both 5-HTR1A and 5-HTR7 were critically involved in mediating the pro-locomotor effects induced by 8-OH-DPAT (typically referred to as a 5-HTR1A agonist) in Tx animals. Taken together, these in vitro and in vivo data strongly support the idea that 5-HTR1A agonists may eventually become constitutive elements of a novel first-in-class combinatorial treatment aimed at periodically inducing short episodes of treadmill stepping in SCI patients. PMID:19043520

  17. Effects of Seeding Procedures and Water Quality on Recovery of Cryptosporidium Oocysts from Stream Water by Using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna S. Francy; Otto D. Simmons III; Michael W. Ware; Emma J. Granger; Mark D. Sobsey; Frank W. Schaefer

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 is widely used to monitor source waters and drinking water supplies for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Matrix spikes, used to determine the effect of the environmental matrix on the method's recovery efficiency for the target organism, require the collection and analysis of two environmental samples, one for analysis of endemic oocysts and the other for analysis

  18. A Method to Calculate Inclination Function with Jacobi Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lian-da; Wang, Hong-bo; Jing-yuan, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, a method to calculate the inclination function with Jacobi polynomials is studied, the formulation of this method is very simple, it needs not to concern about whether k and l have the same parity, and to calcu- late the non-integral factorials, nor to concern about the conversion between the case of k < 0 and the case of k ? 0, and the recurrent formula can be the stan- dard recurrent formula for Jacobi polynomials. In addition, its computational accuracy and applicable order-numbers are equivalent to those of the Gooding method, but its calculating time is shorter than that of the Gooding method for 9%.

  19. Werner Syndrome-specific induced pluripotent stem cells: recovery of telomere function by reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Akira; Yokote, Koutaro; Tahara, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare human autosomal recessive premature aging disorder characterized by early onset of aging-associated diseases, chromosomal instability, and cancer predisposition. The function of the DNA helicase encoded by WRN, the gene responsible for WS, has been studied extensively. WRN helicase is involved in the maintenance of chromosome integrity through DNA replication, repair, and recombination by interacting with a variety of proteins associated with DNA repair and telomere maintenance. The accelerated aging associated with WS is reportedly caused by telomere dysfunction, and the underlying mechanism of the disease is yet to be elucidated. Although it was reported that the life expectancy for patients with WS has improved over the last two decades, definitive therapy for these patients has not seen much development. Severe symptoms of the disease, such as leg ulcers, cause a significant decline in the quality of life in patients with WS. Therefore, the establishment of new therapeutic strategies for the disease is of utmost importance. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be established by the introduction of several pluripotency genes, including Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-myc into differentiated cells. iPSCs have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types that constitute the human body, and possess infinite proliferative capacity. Recent studies have reported the generation of iPSCs from the cells of patients with WS, and they have concluded that reprogramming represses premature senescence phenotypes in these cells. In this review, we summarize the findings of WS patient-specific iPSCs (WS iPSCs) and focus on the roles of telomere and telomerase in the maintenance of these cells. Finally, we discuss the potential use of WS iPSCs for clinical applications. PMID:25688260

  20. Werner Syndrome-specific induced pluripotent stem cells: recovery of telomere function by reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Shimamoto, Akira; Yokote, Koutaro; Tahara, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare human autosomal recessive premature aging disorder characterized by early onset of aging-associated diseases, chromosomal instability, and cancer predisposition. The function of the DNA helicase encoded by WRN, the gene responsible for WS, has been studied extensively. WRN helicase is involved in the maintenance of chromosome integrity through DNA replication, repair, and recombination by interacting with a variety of proteins associated with DNA repair and telomere maintenance. The accelerated aging associated with WS is reportedly caused by telomere dysfunction, and the underlying mechanism of the disease is yet to be elucidated. Although it was reported that the life expectancy for patients with WS has improved over the last two decades, definitive therapy for these patients has not seen much development. Severe symptoms of the disease, such as leg ulcers, cause a significant decline in the quality of life in patients with WS. Therefore, the establishment of new therapeutic strategies for the disease is of utmost importance. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be established by the introduction of several pluripotency genes, including Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-myc into differentiated cells. iPSCs have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types that constitute the human body, and possess infinite proliferative capacity. Recent studies have reported the generation of iPSCs from the cells of patients with WS, and they have concluded that reprogramming represses premature senescence phenotypes in these cells. In this review, we summarize the findings of WS patient-specific iPSCs (WS iPSCs) and focus on the roles of telomere and telomerase in the maintenance of these cells. Finally, we discuss the potential use of WS iPSCs for clinical applications. PMID:25688260

  1. Short Term Recovery of Function following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomised Study of the Medial Parapatellar and Midvastus Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Nutton, Richard W.; Wade, Frazer A.; Coutts, Fiona J.; van der Linden, Marietta L.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot double blind randomised controlled study aimed to investigate whether the midvastus (MV) approach without patellar eversion in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) resulted in improved recovery of function compared to the medial parapatellar (MP) approach. Patients were randomly allocated to either the MV approach or the MP approach. Achievements of inpatient mobility milestones were recorded. Knee kinematics, muscle strength, Timed Up and Go, WOMAC, and daily step count were assessed before and up to six months after surgery. Cohen's effect size d was calculated to inform the sample size in future trials. Twenty-eight participants (16 males, 12 females) participated. Patient mobility milestones such as straight leg raise were achieved on average 1.3 days (95% CI ?3.4 to 0.7, d = 0.63) earlier in the MV group. Knee extensor strength at 6 weeks after surgery was higher (95% CI ?0.38 to 0.61, d = 0.73) in the MV group. No trends for differences between the groups were observed in knee kinematics, TUG, WOMAC, or step count. Our results suggest a short term advantage in the first 6 weeks after surgery of the MV approach over the MP approach, but a larger study is required to confirm these findings. This trial is registered with NCT056445. PMID:25349736

  2. Deletion of Nrf2 impairs functional recovery, reduces clearance of myelin debris and decreases axonal remyelination after peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linxia; Johnson, Delinda; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is generated in several peripheral nerve injury models. In response to oxidative stress, the transcription factor Nrf2 is activated to induce expression of antioxidant responsive element (ARE) genes. The role of Nrf2 in peripheral nerve injury has not been studied to date. In this study, we used a sciatic nerve crush model to examine how deletion of Nrf2 affects peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration. Our study demonstrated that functional recovery in the Nrf2-/- mice were impaired compared to the wild type mice after sciatic nerve crush. Larger myelin debris were present in the distal nerve stump of the Nrf2-/- mice than in the wild type mice. The presence of larger myelin debris in the Nrf2-/- mice coincides with less macrophages accumulation in the distal nerve stump. Less accumulation of macrophages may have contributed to slower clearance of myelin and thus resulted in the presence of larger myelin debris. Meanwhile, axonal regeneration is comparatively lower in the Nrf2-/- mice than in the wild type mice. Even after 3 months post the injury, more thinly myelinated axon fibers were present in the Nrf2-/- mice than in the wild type mice. Taken collectively, these data support the concept of therapeutic intervention with Nrf2 activators following nerve injury. PMID:23328769

  3. Recovery of motoneuron and locomotor function after spinal cord injury depends on constitutive activity in 5-HT2C receptors

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Katherine C; Nakae, Aya; Stephens, Marilee J; Rank, Michelle; D'Amico, Jessica; Harvey, Philip J; Li, Xiaole; Harris, R Luke W; Ballou, Edward W; Anelli, Roberta; Heckman, Charles J; Mashimo, Takashi; Vavrek, Romana; Sanelli, Leo; Gorassini, Monica A; Bennett, David J; Fouad, Karim

    2011-01-01

    Muscle paralysis after spinal cord injury is partly caused by a loss of brainstem-derived serotonin (5-HT), which normally maintains motoneuron excitability by regulating crucial persistent calcium currents. Here we examine how over time motoneurons compensate for lost 5-HT to regain excitability. We find that, months after a spinal transection in rats, changes in post-transcriptional editing of 5-HT2C receptor mRNA lead to increased expression of 5-HT2C receptor isoforms that are spontaneously active (constitutively active) without 5-HT. Such constitutive receptor activity restores large persistent calcium currents in motoneurons in the absence of 5-HT. We show that this helps motoneurons recover their ability to produce sustained muscle contractions and ultimately enables recovery of motor functions such as locomotion. However, without regulation from the brain, these sustained contractions can also cause debilitating muscle spasms. Accordingly, blocking constitutively active 5-HT2C receptors with SB206553 or cyproheptadine, in both rats and humans, largely eliminates these calcium currents and muscle spasms, providing a new rationale for antispastic drug therapy. PMID:20512126

  4. STATISTICAL FUNCTIONALS AND THE DELTA METHOD 1. Estimates as functionals of IF n or IP n

    E-print Network

    Banerjee, Moulinath

    CHAPTER 7. STATISTICAL FUNCTIONALS AND THE DELTA METHOD 1. Estimates as functionals of IF n or IP n #12; ­ 2 ­ 7.1 1. Estimators as functionals of IF n or IP n Often the quantity we want to estimate can. Then a simple nonparametric estimator is simply T (IF n ) or T (IP n ) where IF n and IP n denote the empirical

  5. Transplantation of mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat cells promotes locomotor functional recovery by remyelination and glial scar reduction after spinal cord injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiromi; Ito, Daisuke; Oki, Yoshinao; Kitagawa, Masato; Matsumoto, Taro; Watari, Tosihiro; Kano, Koichiro

    2014-11-14

    Mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT) have a potential to be useful as new cell-source for cell-based therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI), but the mechanisms remain unclear. The objective of this study was to examine whether DFAT-induced functional recovery is achieved through remyelination and/or glial scar reduction in a mice model of SCI. To accomplish this we subjected adult female mice (n=22) to SCI. On the 8th day post-injury locomotor tests were performed, and the mice were randomly divided into two groups (control and DFAT). The DFAT group received stereotaxic injection of DFAT, while the controls received DMEM medium. Functional tests were conducted at repeated intervals, until the 36th day, and immunohistochemistry or staining was performed on the spinal cord sections. DFAT transplantation significantly improved locomotor function of their hindlimbs, and promoted remyelination and glial scar reduction, when compared to the controls. There were significant and positive correlations between promotion of remyelination or/and reduction of glial scar, and recovery of locomotor function. Furthermore, transplanted DFAT expressed markers for neuron, astrocyte, and oligodendrocyte, along with neurotrophic factors, within the injured spinal cord. In conclusion, DFAT-induced functional recovery in mice after SCI is probably mediated by both cell-autonomous and cell-non-autonomous effects on remyelination of the injured spinal cord. PMID:25451251

  6. Optimization of cell disruption methods for efficient recovery of bioactive metabolites via NMR of three freshwater microalgae (chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Ma, Nyuk Ling; Teh, Kit Yinn; Lam, Su Shiung; Kaben, Anne Marie; Cha, Thye San

    2015-08-01

    This study demonstrates the use of NMR techniques coupled with chemometric analysis as a high throughput data mining method to identify and examine the efficiency of different disruption techniques tested on microalgae (Chlorella variabilis, Scenedesmus regularis and Ankistrodesmus gracilis). The yield and chemical diversity from the disruptions together with the effects of pre-oven and pre-freeze drying prior to disruption techniques were discussed. HCl extraction showed the highest recovery of oil compounds from the disrupted microalgae (up to 90%). In contrast, NMR analysis showed the highest intensity of bioactive metabolites obtained for homogenized extracts pre-treated with freeze-drying, indicating that homogenizing is a more favorable approach to recover bioactive substances from the disrupted microalgae. The results show the potential of NMR as a useful metabolic fingerprinting tool for assessing compound diversity in complex microalgae extracts. PMID:25812996

  7. Methods for chemical recovery of non-carrier-added radioactive tin from irradiated intermetallic Ti-Sb targets

    DOEpatents

    Lapshina, Elena V. (Troitsk, RU); Zhuikov, Boris L. (Troitsk, RU); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY); Ermolaev, Stanislav V. (Obninsk, RU); Togaeva, Natalia R. (Obninsk, RU)

    2012-01-17

    The invention provides a method of chemical recovery of no-carrier-added radioactive tin (NCA radiotin) from intermetallide TiSb irradiated with accelerated charged particles. An irradiated sample of TiSb can be dissolved in acidic solutions. Antimony can be removed from the solution by extraction with dibutyl ether. Titanium in the form of peroxide can be separated from tin using chromatography on strong anion-exchange resin. In another embodiment NCA radiotin can be separated from iodide solution containing titanium by extraction with benzene, toluene or chloroform. NCA radiotin can be finally purified from the remaining antimony and other impurities using chromatography on silica gel. NCA tin-117m can be obtained from this process. NCA tin-117m can be used for labeling organic compounds and biological objects to be applied in medicine for imaging and therapy of various diseases.

  8. BDNF- hypersecreting human mesenchymal stem cells promote functional recovery, axonal sprouting and protection of corticospinal neurons after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Masanori; Radtke, Christine; Tan, Andrew M.; Zhao, Peng; Hamada, Hirofumi; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Honmou, Osamu; Kocsis, Jeffery D.

    2010-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow has been shown to improve functional outcome in spinal cord injury (SCI). We transplanted MSCs derived from human bone marrow (hMSCs) to study their potential therapeutic effect in SCI in the rat. In addition to hMSCs, we used gene-modified hMSCs to secrete brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF-hMSCs). After a dorsal transection lesion was induced at T9, cells were microinjected on each side of the transection site. Fluorogold (FG) was injected into the epicenter of the lesion cavity to identify transected corticospinal tract (CST) neurons. At five weeks after transplantation, the animals were perfused. Locomotor recovery improvement was observed for the BDNF-hMSC group, but not in the hMSC group. Structurally there was increased sprouting of injured corticospinal tract and serotonergic projections after hMSC and BDNF-hMSC transplantation. Moreover, an increased number of serotonergic fibers was observed in spinal gray matter including the ventral horn at and below the level of the lesion, indicating increased innervation in the terminal regions of a descending projection important for locomotion. Stereological quantification was performed on the brains to determine neuronal density in primary motor (M1) cortex. The number of FG backfilled cells demonstrated an increased cell survival of CST neurons in M1 cortex in both of the hMSC and BDNF-hMSC groups at 5 weeks, but the BDNF-hMSC was greater. These results indicate that transplantation of hMSCs hypersecreting BDNF results in structural changes in brain and spinal cord, which are associated with improved functional outcome in acute SCI. PMID:19940189

  9. Enhancement mechanisms behind exclusive removal and selective recovery of copper from salt solutions with an aminothiazole-functionalized adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Gao, Jie; Li, Lan-Juan; Bai, Zhi-Ping; Ling, Chen; Zhu, Chang-Qing; Chen, Da; Li, Ai-Min

    2014-09-15

    The aminothiazole-functionalized adsorbent (CEAD) could exclusively remove and to selectively recover copper. The adsorption and separation properties of Cu(II) onto CEAD from aqueous media, with or without salts such as NaNO3, Ca(NO3)2 and Ni(NO3)2, were systematically compared by carrying out single, binary and multiple component static and dynamic experiments. In binary systems, the adsorption capacities of Cu(II) were obviously increased by 39.47%, 47.37% and 57.89% with Ni(NO3)2, NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2, respectively. Besides, simulation study was performed to selectively recover Cu(II) from multi-component aqueous media, with the separation factor of only 54.91 in aqueous media without salts. The separation factor became infinite in the presence of NaNO3 and the enhancement ratio for Cu(II) was raised by 126.31%. Dynamic adsorption could separate Cu(II) and Ni(II) completely and the amount of effluent for pure Ni(II) increased to 127 BV with the help of NaNO3. In the predominant chelating mode simulated by density functional theory calculation, a metal ion coordinated with three nitrogen atoms and formed a chelating complex with two five-membered rings, and Cu(II) showed stronger coordinating ability than Ni(II) did. Meanwhile, anions exerted significant beneficial effects by electrostatic screening, and thus strengthened the exclusive removal and selective recovery of Cu(II). PMID:25117766

  10. Brain-computer interface with somatosensory feedback improves functional recovery from severe hemiplegia due to chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Takashi; Shindo, Keiichiro; Kawashima, Kimiko; Ota, Naoki; Ito, Mari; Ota, Tetsuo; Mukaino, Masahiko; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Kimura, Akio; Liu, Meigen; Ushiba, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) based brain-computer interface (BCI) has a great potential for motor rehabilitation in stroke patients with severe hemiplegia. However, key elements in BCI architecture for functional recovery has yet to be clear. We in this study focused on the type of feedback to the patients, which is given contingently to their motor-related EEG in a BCI context. The efficacy of visual and somatosensory feedbacks was compared by a two-group study with the chronic stroke patients who are suffering with severe motor hemiplegia. Twelve patients were asked an attempt of finger opening in the affected side repeatedly, and the event-related desynchronization (ERD) in EEG of alpha and beta rhythms was monitored over bilateral parietal regions. Six patients were received a simple visual feedback in which the hand open/grasp picture on screen was animated at eye level, following significant ERD. Six patients were received a somatosensory feedback in which the motor-driven orthosis was triggered to extend the paralyzed fingers from 90 to 50°. All the participants received 1-h BCI treatment with 12–20 training days. After the training period, while no changes in clinical scores and electromyographic (EMG) activity were observed in visual feedback group after training, voluntary EMG activity was newly observed in the affected finger extensors in four cases and the clinical score of upper limb function in the affected side was also improved in three participants in somatosensory feedback group. Although the present study was conducted with a limited number of patients, these results imply that BCI training with somatosensory feedback could be more effective for rehabilitation than with visual feedback. This pilot trial positively encouraged further clinical BCI research using a controlled design. PMID:25071543

  11. Effects of combining methylprednisolone with magnesium sulfate on neuropathic pain and functional recovery following spinal cord injury in male rats.

    PubMed

    Farsi, Leila; Naghib Zadeh, Maryam; Afshari, Khashayar; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Naghshband, Zeinab; Keshavarz, Mansoor

    2015-03-01

    Methylprednisolone (MP) has been widely used as a standard therapeutic agent for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Because of its controversial useful effects, the combination of MP and other pharmacological agents to enhance neuroprotective effects is desirable. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has been shown to have neuroprotective and antihyperalgesic effects. In the present study, we sought to determine the effect of combining MP and MgSO4, on neuropathic pain and functional recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI) in male rats. A total of 48 adult male rats (weight 300-350 g) were used. After laminectomy, complete SCI was achieved by compression of the spinal cord for one minute with aneurysm clips. Single doses of Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), (600 mg/kg), Methylprednisolone (MP), (30 mg/kg) or combining MgSO4 and MP were injected intraperitoneally. Prior to surgery and during four weeks of study Tail flick latency (TFL) and BBB (Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan) score and the acetone drop test were evaluated. In mean values of BBB score, a significant difference was observed in SCI+veh compared with other groups (P<0.05). Mean TFL also was significantly higher in SCI+veh compared with other groups (P<0.05). Mean acetone drop test score and weight were significantly different in MgSO4, MP and combining MgSO4 and MP  treated groups compared with SCI+veh group (P<0.05). These findings revealed that MP, MgSO4 and combining MgSO4 and MP treatment can attenuate neuropathic pains following SCI in rats include: thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia. They also can yield better improvement in motor function and decrease weight loss after SCI in rats compared with the control group. PMID:25796020

  12. Development of recovery indicators to be used during product design process: method, potentialities and limits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrice Mathieux; Daniel Froelich; Pierre Moszkowicz

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a recently developed comprehensive design for recycling methodology. The goal of this method is to assess product design alternatives regarding their suitability for trecovery system performance. The ability of a product to be recovered is evaluated through three types of indicators according to the following criteria: technical, economical and environmental. The method to model a product, the

  13. Effcient recovery of environmental DNA for expression cloning by indirect extraction methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dick B. Janssen; Erik J. de Vries; Esther M. Gabor

    2003-01-01

    Using direct and cell extraction-based (indirect) isolation methods, DNA was obtained from environmental samples with largely differing characteristics (loam soil, sand soil, sediment, activated sludge, and compost) and evaluated with respect to the comprised bacterial diversity and its suitability for expression cloning in Escherichia coli. Indirect DNA extraction methods yielded 10 to 100-fold lower amounts of DNA than direct procedures,

  14. EVALUATION OF SPIKING PROCEDURES FOR RECOVERY OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM IN STREAM WATERS USING USEPA METHOD 1623

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623 is widely used to monitor source waters and drinking water supplies for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Analyzing matrix spikes is an important component of Method 1623. Matrix spikes are used to determine the effect of the environmental...

  15. Probability Density Function Method for Langevin Equations with Colored Noise

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    2013-04-05

    We present a novel method to derive closed-form, computable PDF equations for Langevin systems with colored noise. The derived equations govern the dynamics of joint or marginal probability density functions (PDFs) of state variables, and rely on a so-called Large-Eddy-Diffusivity (LED) closure. We demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed PDF method for linear and nonlinear Langevin equations, describing the classical Brownian displacement and dispersion in porous media.

  16. Density Functional Theory and Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Buda

    The recent progress in fi rst-principles electronic structure calculations together with the steadily increase in computational\\u000a power have considerably broadened the range and scope of application of these theoretical methods. Of particular interest\\u000a is the combination of density functional theory calculations with classical molecular dynamics simulations, the so-called\\u000a Car-Parrinello method. After twenty years since the publication of Car and Parrinello’s

  17. ROUND ROBIN INVESTIGATION OF METHODS FOR THE RECOVERY OF POLIOVIRUS FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six laboratories actively involved in water virology research participated in a methods evaluation study, conducted under the auspices of the American Society for Testing and Materials Committee on Viruses in the Aquatic Environment, Task Force on Drinking Water. Each participant...

  18. Modeling and functional design of logistic park using IDEFO method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cunlu Zhang; Xiaolan Chen; Yongbo Feng; Ruibin Luo

    2010-01-01

    In China, almost every metropolitan has one or even more Logistics Parks planned. Unfortunately most of built Logistic Parks are not very well in revenue and operation. In order to visually present the activities and functions of Logistics Park, a graphical and structured modeling method, IDEFO is chosen, for it can be used to demonstrate the logistics processes, activities and

  19. Extending applications of the transient energy function method: Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Fouad; V. Vittal; Y. X. Ni; H. R. Pota; K. Nodehi; T. K. Oh

    1987-01-01

    Direct transient stability analysis using the Transient Energy Function (TEF) method has made significant strides in the last few years. Reliable and accurate transient stability assessment for large power networks is now possible, at a steadily improved speed. In spite of the substantial progress achieved in Direct Transient Stability Analysis, the technique is still limited to a simple power system

  20. Dynamic Security Assessment Utilizing the Transient Energy Function Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. El-Kady; C. K. Tang; V. F. Carvalho; A. A. Fouad; V. Vittal

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents applications of an efficient computerized technique for power system dynamic system security assessment using the transient energy function (TEF) method. The technique exploits the sensitivities of the unnormalized transient energy margin with respect to operating indices and critical interface flows in order to arrive at the stability limits for various system outage states and operating conditions, that