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1

A robust functional-data-analysis method for data recovery in multichannel sensor systems.  

PubMed

Multichannel sensor systems are widely used in condition monitoring for effective failure prevention of critical equipment or processes. However, loss of sensor readings due to malfunctions of sensors and/or communication has long been a hurdle to reliable operations of such integrated systems. Moreover, asynchronous data sampling and/or limited data transmission are usually seen in multiple sensor channels. To reliably perform fault diagnosis and prognosis in such operating environments, a data recovery method based on functional principal component analysis (FPCA) can be utilized. However, traditional FPCA methods are not robust to outliers and their capabilities are limited in recovering signals with strongly skewed distributions (i.e., lack of symmetry). This paper provides a robust data-recovery method based on functional data analysis to enhance the reliability of multichannel sensor systems. The method not only considers the possibly skewed distribution of each channel of signal trajectories, but is also capable of recovering missing data for both individual and correlated sensor channels with asynchronous data that may be sparse as well. In particular, grand median functions, rather than classical grand mean functions, are utilized for robust smoothing of sensor signals. Furthermore, the relationship between the functional scores of two correlated signals is modeled using multivariate functional regression to enhance the overall data-recovery capability. An experimental flow-control loop that mimics the operation of coolant-flow loop in a multimodular integral pressurized water reactor is used to demonstrate the effectiveness and adaptability of the proposed data-recovery method. The computational results illustrate that the proposed method is robust to outliers and more capable than the existing FPCA-based method in terms of the accuracy in recovering strongly skewed signals. In addition, turbofan engine data are also analyzed to verify the capability of the proposed method in recovering non-skewed signals. PMID:25051452

Sun, Jian; Liao, Haitao; Upadhyaya, Belle R

2014-08-01

2

Neuroplasticity and functional recovery in multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

The development of therapeutic strategies that promote functional recovery is a major goal of multiple sclerosis (MS) research. Neuroscientific and methodological advances have improved our understanding of the brain’s recovery from damage, generating novel hypotheses for potential targets or modes of intervention and laying the foundation for the development of scientifically informed strategies promoting recovery in interventional studies. This Review aims to encourage the transition from characterization of recovery mechanisms to the development of strategies that promote recovery in MS. We discuss current evidence for functional reorganization that underlies recovery and its implications for development of new recovery-oriented strategies in MS. Promotion of functional recovery requires an improved understanding of recovery mechanisms modulated by interventions and the development of reliable measures of therapeutic effects. As imaging methods can be used to measure functional and structural alterations associated with recovery, this Review discusses their use as reliable markers to measure the effects of interventions.

Tomassini, Valentina; Matthews, Paul M.; Thompson, Alan J.; Fugl?, Daniel; Geurts, Jeroen J.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Jones, Derek K.; Rocca, Maria A.; Wise, Richard G.; Barkhof, Frederik; Palace, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

3

Fluid recovery system and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluid recovery method is described for use in open water such as rivers, harbors, ports, lakes, and the like. The method is concerned with recovering fluids, whose specific gravity is lower than that of water, which are escaping from flow lines submerged in open water. This process consists of locating the leak in the submerged flow line, then centering,

Logan

1968-01-01

4

Electrochemical catalyst recovery method  

DOEpatents

A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

Silva, Laura J. (Richland, WA); Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA)

1995-01-01

5

Magnesium fluoride recovery method  

DOEpatents

A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

Gay, Richard L. (Canoga Park, CA); McKenzie, Donald E. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1989-01-01

6

Electrochemical catalyst recovery method  

DOEpatents

A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

1995-05-30

7

Predicting Functional Recovery after Acute Ankle Sprain  

PubMed Central

Introduction Ankle sprains are among the most common acute musculoskeletal conditions presenting to primary care. Their clinical course is variable but there are limited recommendations on prognostic factors. Our primary aim was to identify clinical predictors of short and medium term functional recovery after ankle sprain. Methods A secondary analysis of data from adult participants (N = 85) with an acute ankle sprain, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial was undertaken. The predictive value of variables (age, BMI, gender, injury mechanism, previous injury, weight-bearing status, medial joint line pain, pain during weight-bearing dorsiflexion and lateral hop test) recorded at baseline and at 4 weeks post injury were investigated for their prognostic ability. Recovery was determined from measures of subjective ankle function at short (4 weeks) and medium term (4 months) follow ups. Multivariate stepwise linear regression analyses were undertaken to evaluate the association between the aforementioned variables and functional recovery. Results Greater age, greater injury grade and weight-bearing status at baseline were associated with lower function at 4 weeks post injury (p<0.01; adjusted R square=0.34). Greater age, weight-bearing status at baseline and non-inversion injury mechanisms were associated with lower function at 4 months (p<0.01; adjusted R square=0.20). Pain on medial palpation and pain on dorsiflexion at 4 weeks were the most valuable prognostic indicators of function at 4 months (p< 0.01; adjusted R square=0.49). Conclusion The results of the present study provide further evidence that ankle sprains have a variable clinical course. Age, injury grade, mechanism and weight-bearing status at baseline provide some prognostic information for short and medium term recovery. Clinical assessment variables at 4 weeks were the strongest predictors of recovery, explaining 50% of the variance in ankle function at 4 months. Further prospective research is required to highlight the factors that best inform the expected convalescent period, and risk of recurrence.

O'Connor, Sean R.; Bleakley, Chris M.; Tully, Mark A.; McDonough, Suzanne M.

2013-01-01

8

Method for extraction solvent recovery  

SciTech Connect

A method for recovery of extraction solvent from a dissolved solute wherein halogen gas evolution and halogen compound retention in the solute are minimized comprises heating a solution of a halogenated organic solvent and the extracted solute in the presence of an ammonium, Group I metal or Group II metal salt of an acid of carbon number 1 to 6, such as ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate, ammonium formate, sodium carbonate, sodium formate, or calcium formate, to recover the solvent and the solute.

Wolff, W. F.

1985-10-22

9

Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Acceptability and Recovery of Cortisol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared cortisol concentrations yielded using three saliva collection methods (passive drool, salivette, and sorbette) in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, as well as method acceptability for a sample of children (n = 39) with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. No cortisol concentration differences were observed between…

Putnam, Susan K.; Lopata, Christopher; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Neilans, Erik G.; Werth, Jilynn

2012-01-01

10

Varying temperature oil recovery method  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is a sequenced method of increasing the injectivity of oil bearing formations and increasing hydrocarbon recovery. The method of the invention is initiated by injecting an aqueous fluid at an ambient temperature into the formation through an injection well while concurrently recovering fluid at a production well. The first injection stage is followed by the injection of fluid of gradually increasing temperature until a temperature of about 75/sup 0/-100/sup 0/ C. is reached. Finally, steam is injected into the formation.

Sustek, A.J. Jr.; Hall, W.L.; Teasdale, T.S.; Wiechel, J.F.

1984-08-14

11

Comparison of saliva collection methods in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: acceptability and recovery of cortisol.  

PubMed

This study compared cortisol concentrations yielded using three saliva collection methods (passive drool, salivette, and sorbette) in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, as well as method acceptability for a sample of children (n = 39) with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. No cortisol concentration differences were observed between passive and sorbette samples obtained in vitro or in vivo. The salivette derived concentration was lower than the other two methods for the in vitro derived comparisons but did not differ from the other methods when collected in vivo. Cross-day comparison for the salivettes was also found to differ significantly, whereas the cross-day comparisons did not differ for the passive method or the sorbette method. Overall, passive drool and sorbettes were found to produce similar and stable readings of cortisol, whereas the salivette yielded unstable and variable concentrations. Ratings suggested that the children generally perceived all methods as acceptable. PMID:22331443

Putnam, Susan K; Lopata, Christopher; Fox, Jeffery D; Thomeer, Marcus L; Rodgers, Jonathan D; Volker, Martin A; Lee, Gloria K; Neilans, Erik G; Werth, Jilynn

2012-08-01

12

Optimized basis function for spectral reflectance recovery from tristimulus values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral reflectance is a significant physical property of materials. It plays an important role in color constancy, illumination modeling, and color reproduction. Spectral reflectance basis functions are the most important impact factors for spectral reflectance recovery. Previous methods mainly calculated basis functions for the reflectance spectra data sets by employing the principle component analysis (PCA) and its improved methods. In this paper, we present a new method to solve this problem. Specifically, we propose a new cost function and some constraint conditions to convert the problem into an optimization problem by minimizing the cost function. Unlike the PCA method which yields the orthogonal basis functions for approximating the reflectance spectra, our method yields the nonorthogonal basis functions for better approximating the reflectance spectra. Experimental results show that our derived basis functions are better than those obtained by the PCA method for reflectance spectra recovery.

Wu, Denglu; Tian, Jiandong; Tang, Yandong

2014-03-01

13

Actinide Recovery Method for Large Soil Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new Actinide Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides in very large soil samples. Diphonix Resin(r) is used eliminate soil matrix interferences and preconcentrate actinides after soil l...

S. L. Maxwell S. Nichols

1998-01-01

14

Fluid recovery system and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for recovering fluid leaking from a crack or other opening in a flow line or the like beneath a body of water having a current flow with the fluid having a specific gravity lower than that of water and substantially immiscible with the water. The steps of the method include locating the crack in the flow

Logan

1970-01-01

15

Functional recovery after bleeding episodes in haemophilia.  

PubMed

Haemophilia is characterized by intra-articular and intramuscular bleeding episodes. Although much work has been carried out into post-bleeding mechanisms in both synovial joints and muscles, the picture is not yet clear. A firm post-bleeding rehabilitation protocol is of utmost importance for people with haemophilia. The use of the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health reveals that information worldwide is on body level, whereas the goals of patients with haemophilia implicitly aim at optimal functional recovery. This interferes much more with activities and participation in society. The Functional Independence Score for Haemophilia and the Post-bleeding Protocol Based on Functional Milestones are examples of post-bleeding approaches that deal more with function. Two cases will emphasize the value of this approach. PMID:15479390

De Kleijn, P; Gilbert, M; Roosendaal, G; Poonnose, P M; Narayan, P M; Tahir, N

2004-10-01

16

Bilinear Forms for the Recovery-Based Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Diffusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present paper introduces bilinear forms that are equivalent to the recovery-based discontinuous Galerkin formulation introduced by Van Leer in 2005. The recovery method approximates the solution of the diffusion equation in a discontinuous function sp...

B. Van Leer M. H. Van Raalte

2007-01-01

17

Method for magnesium sulfate recovery  

DOEpatents

A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

Gay, Richard L. (Canoga Park, CA); Grantham, LeRoy F. (Calabasas, CA)

1987-01-01

18

Method for magnesium sulfate recovery  

DOEpatents

A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

1987-08-25

19

Recovery of thyroid function in primary hypothyroidism.  

PubMed

In recent years transient primary hypothyroidism has reported with increasing frequency. Physicians are often unsure whether withdrawal of thyroid hormone to identify the transient hypothyroidism is indicated and cost-effective and in which patients this should be done. To study these questions, thyroid hormone therapy was withdrawn from 63 patients with proven primary hypothyroidism at 6 months and again at 1 and 3 years to determine if there was recovery of thyroid function. Of the 49 patients with primary hypothyroidism (PH) that was not attributable to such causes as drug therapy, surgery, iodine-131 therapy, or silent or subacute thyroiditis, only two patients recovered thyroid function. In the other 14 patients, hypothyroidism developed within 6 months postpartum. Nine of these 14 recovered thyroid function. Therefore, it appears that when PH is not related to certain specific causes or states, it is likely to be permanent. Furthermore, withdrawal of thyroid hormone therapy to assess recovery of thyroid function is unnecessary and not cost-effective. PMID:2913797

Nikolai, T F

1989-01-01

20

Method for monitoring slow dynamics recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slow Dynamics is a specific material property, which for example is connected to the degree of damage. It is therefore of importance to be able to attain proper measurements of it. Usually it has been monitored by acoustic resonance methods which have very high sensitivity as such. However, because the acoustic wave is acting both as conditioner and as probe, the measurement is affecting the result which leads to a mixing of the fast nonlinear response to the excitation and the slow dynamics material recovery. In this article a method is introduced which, for the first time, removes the fast dynamics from the process and allows the behavior of the slow dynamics to be monitored by itself. The new method has the ability to measure at the shortest possible recovery times, and at very small conditioning strains. For the lowest strains the sound speed increases with strain, while at higher strains a linear decreasing dependence is observed. This is the first method and test that has been able to monitor the true material state recovery process.

Haller, Kristian C. E.; Hedberg, Claes M.

2012-11-01

21

Functional Imaging Correlates of Recovery After Stroke in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms that are responsible for the remarkable potential for functional recovery from stroke in humans remain unclear, and functional tomographic neuroimaging techniques increasingly are being used to investigate this issue. Such studies confirmed that recovery of function is related to the volume of penumbra tissue that escapes infarction. For language, reactivation of the primary functional areas in the dominant

Karl Herholz; Wolf-Dieter Heiss

2000-01-01

22

Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery  

DOEpatents

A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

Peru, Deborah A. (Bartlesville, OK)

1989-01-01

23

Incomplete functional recovery after delirium in elderly people: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Delirium often has a poor outcome, but why some people have incomplete recovery is not well understood. Our objective was to identify factors associated with short-term (by discharge) and long-term (by 6 month) incomplete recovery of function following delirium. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study of elderly patients with delirium seen by geriatric medicine services, function was assessed at

Melissa K Andrew; Susan H Freter; Kenneth Rockwood

2005-01-01

24

20 CFR 340.11 - Waiver of methods of recovery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...individual is without fault and if, in the judgment of the Board, recovery by the methods waived would be against equity and good conscience and recovery by such other methods would not be against equity and good...

2013-04-01

25

Relationship Between Diastolic Function and Heart Rate Recovery After Symptom-limited Exercise  

PubMed Central

Background Autonomic abnormalities have been implicated in both diastolic dysfunction and abnormal heart rate (HR) recovery; however, few studies have assessed whether diastolic dysfunction is associated with abnormal HR recovery, and whether both modify exercise capacity. Methods and Results Exercise echocardiography with diastolic assessment was performed in 2826 patients with normal wall motion responses to symptom-limited exercise testing. HR recovery was defined as the difference in HR from peak exercise to 1 minute in recovery; abnormal HR recovery was defined as the lowest quartile. Mean HR recovery was 32±14 beats per minute. Patients with diastolic dysfunction or abnormal HR recovery had lower exercise capacity, and those with both had the lowest exercise capacity (p<0.0001 for comparison to normal responses). Indices of abnormal diastolic function were correlated with abnormal HR recovery. In multivariable analysis, after age, diastolic dysfunction (referent: normal diastolic function) was the strongest predictor of abnormal HR recovery (adjusted OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.20-1.80) and incrementally predictive of chronotropic incompetence (adjusted OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.16-1.74). Conclusions Diastolic dysfunction is independently associated with abnormal HR recovery after symptom-limited exercise. Further studies are needed to determine if diastolic function modifies the adverse outcomes observed in those with abnormal HR recovery.

Gharacholou, S. Michael; Scott, Christopher G.; Borlaug, Barry A.; Kane, Garvan C.; McCully, Robert B.; Oh, Jae K.; Pellikka, Patricia A.

2011-01-01

26

RPC gas recovery by open loop method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RPC detectors require to be flushed with small but continuous flow of gas mixture. Dealing with large number of detectors, gas consumption to very large volumes. Gas flow is a running expense and constituent gases are too expensive to be treated as consumables. Exhaust gas mixture from detectors is a potential environmental hazard if discharged directly into the atmosphere. Storage of gases on a large scale also leads to inventory- and safety-related problems. A solution to these problems is the recovery and reuse of exhaust gas mixture from RPC detectors. Close loop method employs recirculation of exhausted gas mixture after purification, analysis and addition of top-up quantities. In open loop method, under consideration here, individual component gases are separated from gas mixture and reused as source. During open loop process, gases liquefiable at low pressures are separated from ones liquefiable at high pressure. The gas phase components within each group are successively separated by either fractional condensation or gravity separation. Gas mixture coming from RPC exhaust is first desiccated by passage through molecular sieve adsorbent type (3A+4A). Subsequent scrubbing over basic activated alumina removes toxic and acidic contaminants such as S 2F 10 produced during corona (arcing) discharge. In the first stage of separation isobutane and freon are concentrated by diffusion and liquefied by fractional condensation by cooling upto -30 °C. Liquefied gases are returned to source tanks. In the second stage of separation, argon and sulphur hexafluoride, the residual gases, are concentrated by settling due to density difference. SF 6 is stored for recovery by condensation at high pressure while argon is further purified by thermal cracking of crossover impurities at 1000 °C followed by wet scrubbing.

Joshi, Avinash; Kalmani, S. D.; Mondal, N. K.; Satyanarayana, B.

2009-05-01

27

Modeling early recovery of physical function following hip and knee arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Information on early recovery after arthroplasty is needed to help benchmark progress and make appropriate decisions concerning patient rehabilitation needs. The purpose of this study was to model early recovery of physical function in patients undergoing total hip (THA) and knee (TKA) arthroplasty, using physical performance and self-report measures. METHODS: A sample of convenience of 152 subjects completed testing,

Deborah M Kennedy; Paul W Stratford; Steven E Hanna; Jean Wessel; Jeffrey D Gollish

2006-01-01

28

Enhanced physical therapy improves recovery of arm function after stroke. A randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on stroke rehabilitation has not established whether increase in physical therapy lead to better intrinsic recovery from hemiplegia. A detailed study was carried out of recovery of arm function after acute stroke, and compares orthodox physiotherapy with an enhanced therapy regime which increased the amount of treatment as well as using behavioural methods to encourage motor learning. In

A Sunderland; D J Tinson; E L Bradley; D Fletcher; R Langton Hewer; D T Wade

1992-01-01

29

Recovery of cognitive and dynamic motor function following concussion  

PubMed Central

Objective Neuropsychological testing has been advocated as an important tool of proper post?concussion management. Although these measures provide information that can be used in the decision of when to return an individual to previous levels of physical activity, they provide little data on motor performance following injury. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between measures of dynamic motor performance and neuropsychological function following concussion over the course of 28?days. Methods Participants completed two experimental protocols: gait stability and neuropsychological testing. The gait stability protocol measured whole?body centre of mass motion as subjects walked under conditions of divided and undivided attention. Neuropsychological testing consisted of a computerised battery of tests designed to assess memory, reaction time, processing speed and concussion symptoms. Correlation coefficients were computed between all neuropsychological and gait variables and comparisons of neuropsychological and gait stability post?concussion recovery curves were assessed. Results Dynamic motor tasks, such as walking under varying conditions of attention, are complex and demanding undertakings, which require a longer recovery time following a concussion than cognitive measures. Little statistical relationship was found between the neuropsychological and gait variables, and the recovery curves of neuropsychological and gait domains were observed to be independent. Conclusions In order to fully examine the effects of concussion and determine the optimal time for a safe return to activity, a multi?factorial approach, including both cognitive and motor tasks, should be employed.

Parker, Tonya M; Osternig, Louis R; van Donkelaar, Paul; Chou, Li-Shan

2007-01-01

30

Measurement of functional recovery in individuals with acute anterior cruciate ligament rupture  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To measure functional recovery following acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture using a simple and reliable clinical movement analysis system. Clinic based methods that simultaneously quantify different aspects of movement over a range of activities and model functional recovery will help guide rehabilitation. Methods: A longitudinal study was used to measure gait variables at initial physiotherapy attendance and then at monthly intervals using a digital camcorder and computer for quantitative analysis. Jogging and distance hopping were added during recovery. A sample of 63 ACL deficient subjects entered the study and 48 subjects were measured at least three times. To determine the pattern of recovery, repeated measurements were analysed using a least square fit of the data. Results: Gait variables took between 95 and 130 days post injury to reach the control mean and stabilise shortly after this. Hopping distance for the injured leg took 62 days to recover to within normal limits and 5 months post injury to reach the control mean. Jogging was already within the control limits at 30 days post injury and demonstrated little change with recovery. Conclusions: Functional recovery of multiple variables has been modelled. In the early phase of post injury, gait velocity seems to be the most useful variable to measure improvement. Recovery of more challenging activities appears to take an average of 5 months. Therefore, patients may need to be monitored in physiotherapy until this time and advised not to return to sport until sufficient recovery is demonstrated on activities such as distance hopping.

Button, K; van Deursen, R; Price, P; Rosenbaum, D

2005-01-01

31

High vertical and horizontal conformance viscous oil recovery method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is an oil recovery method especially useful for recovering viscous oil from thick formations including tar sand deposits. The method comprises several phases which accomplish efficient recovery of the viscous oil from the formation with good vertical and horizontal sweep conformance or effectiveness. The first phase may utilize as few as two spaced apart wells, one for fluid injection

J. C. Allen; R. J. Korstad

1978-01-01

32

Infarct size as predictor of systolic functional recovery after myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Background: The effects of modern therapy on functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are unknown. Objectives: To evaluate the predictors of systolic functional recovery after anterior wall AMI in patients undergoing modern therapy (reperfusion, aggressive platelet antiaggregant therapy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers). Methods: A total of 94 consecutive patients with AMI with ST-segment elevation were enrolled. Echocardiograms were performed during the in-hospital phase and after 6 months. Systolic dysfunction was defined as ejection fraction value < 50%. Results: In the initial echocardiogram, 64% of patients had systolic dysfunction. Patients with ventricular dysfunction had greater infarct size, assessed by the measurement of total and isoenzyme MB creatine kinase enzymes, than patients without dysfunction. Additionally, 24.5% of patients that initially had systolic dysfunction showed recovery within 6 months after AMI. Patients who recovered ventricular function had smaller infarct sizes, but larger values of ejection fraction and E-wave deceleration time than patients without recovery. At the multivariate analysis, it can be observed that infarct size was the only independent predictor of functional recovery after 6 months of AMI when adjusted for age, gender, ejection fraction and E-wave deceleration time. Conclusion: In spite of aggressive treatment, systolic ventricular dysfunction remains a frequent event after the anterior wall myocardial infarction. Additionally, 25% of patients show functional recovery. Finally, infarct size was the only significant predictor of functional recovery after six months of acute myocardial infarction. PMID:25004416

Minicucci, Marcos F; Farah, Elaine; Fusco, Daniéliso R; Cogni, Ana Lúcia; Azevedo, Paula S; Okoshi, Katashi; Zanati, Silméia G; Matsubara, Beatriz B; Paiva, Sergio A R; Zornoff, Leonardo A M

2014-07-01

33

Infarct Size as Predictor of Systolic Functional Recovery after Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of modern therapy on functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are unknown. Objectives To evaluate the predictors of systolic functional recovery after anterior wall AMI in patients undergoing modern therapy (reperfusion, aggressive platelet antiaggregant therapy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers). Methods A total of 94 consecutive patients with AMI with ST-segment elevation were enrolled. Echocardiograms were performed during the in-hospital phase and after 6 months. Systolic dysfunction was defined as ejection fraction value < 50%. Results In the initial echocardiogram, 64% of patients had systolic dysfunction. Patients with ventricular dysfunction had greater infarct size, assessed by the measurement of total and isoenzyme MB creatine kinase enzymes, than patients without dysfunction. Additionally, 24.5% of patients that initially had systolic dysfunction showed recovery within 6 months after AMI. Patients who recovered ventricular function had smaller infarct sizes, but larger values of ejection fraction and E-wave deceleration time than patients without recovery. At the multivariate analysis, it can be observed that infarct size was the only independent predictor of functional recovery after 6 months of AMI when adjusted for age, gender, ejection fraction and E-wave deceleration time. Conclusion In spite of aggressive treatment, systolic ventricular dysfunction remains a frequent event after the anterior wall myocardial infarction. Additionally, 25% of patients show functional recovery. Finally, infarct size was the only significant predictor of functional recovery after six months of acute myocardial infarction.

Minicucci, Marcos F.; Farah, Elaine; Fusco, Danieliso R.; Cogni, Ana Lucia; Azevedo, Paula S.; Okoshi, Katashi; Zanati, Silmeia G.; Matsubara, Beatriz B.; Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M.

2014-01-01

34

Petroleum recovery: Reservoir engineering and recovery methods. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning field projects and supporting research on petroleum recovery and reservoir technology. Recovery agents and methods are discussed including responsive copolymers, microemulsions, surfactants, steam injection, gas injection, miscible displacement, and thermal processes. Reservoir modeling, simulation, and performance are examined. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-09-01

35

Gasoline vapor recovery system and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gasoline vapor recovery system is described which is particularly adapted for bulk flow plants. The system includes an absorber into which raw gasoline vapor is introduced, as by a connection from a tank truck while the tank truck is loaded with gasoline. Light oil, such as kerosine, is pumped into the absorber and acts as a carrier, carrying the

A. J. Doncer; H. R. White

1975-01-01

36

Socioeconomic Status, Functional Recovery, and Long-Term Mortality among Patients Surviving Acute Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the relationship between socio-economic status (SES), functional recovery and long-term mortality following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Background The extent to which SES mortality disparities are explained by differences in functional recovery following AMI is unclear. Methods We prospectively examined 1368 patients who survived at least one-year following an index AMI between 1999 and 2003 in Ontario, Canada. Each patient was linked to administrative data and followed over 9.6 years to track mortality. All patients underwent medical chart abstraction and telephone interviews following AMI to identify individual-level SES, clinical factors, processes of care (i.e., use of, and adherence, to evidence-based medications, physician visits, invasive cardiac procedures, referrals to cardiac rehabilitation), as well as changes in psychosocial stressors, quality of life, and self-reported functional capacity. Results As compared with their lower SES counterparts, higher SES patients experienced greater functional recovery (1.80 ml/kg/min average increase in peak V02, P<0.001) after adjusting for all baseline clinical factors. Post-AMI functional recovery was the strongest modifiable predictor of long-term mortality (Adjusted HR for each ml/kg/min increase in functional capacity: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.87–0.94, P<0.001) irrespective of SES (P?=?0.51 for interaction between SES, functional recovery, and mortality). SES-mortality associations were attenuated by 27% after adjustments for functional recovery, rendering the residual SES-mortality association no longer statistically significant (Adjusted HR: 0.84; 95% CI:0.70–1.00, P?=?0.05). The effects of functional recovery on SES-mortality associations were not explained by access inequities to physician specialists or cardiac rehabilitation. Conclusions Functional recovery may play an important role in explaining SES-mortality gradients following AMI.

Alter, David A.; Franklin, Barry; Ko, Dennis T.; Austin, Peter C.; Lee, Douglas S.; Oh, Paul I.; Stukel, Therese A.; Tu, Jack V.

2013-01-01

37

Resting state ?-band functional connectivity and recovery after stroke.  

PubMed

After cerebral ischemia, disruption and subsequent reorganization of functional connections occur both locally and remote to the lesion. However, the unpredictable timing and extent of sensorimotor recovery reflects a gap in understanding of these underlying neural mechanisms. We aimed to identify the plasticity of alpha-band functional neural connections within the perilesional area and the predictive value of functional connectivity with respect to motor recovery of the upper extremity after stroke. Our results show improvements in upper extremity motor recovery in relation to distributed changes in MEG-based alpha band functional connectivity, both in the perilesional area and contralesional cortex. Motor recovery was found to be predicted by increased connectivity at baseline in the ipsilesional somatosensory area, supplementary motor area, and cerebellum, contrasted with reduced connectivity of contralesional motor regions, after controlling for age, stroke onset-time and lesion size. These findings support plasticity within a widely distributed neural network and define brain regions in which the extent of network participation predicts post-stroke recovery potential. PMID:22750324

Westlake, Kelly P; Hinkley, Leighton B; Bucci, Monica; Guggisberg, Adrian G; Byl, Nancy; Findlay, Anne M; Henry, Roland G; Nagarajan, Srikantan S

2012-09-01

38

Solar assisted method for recovery of bitumen from oil sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel concept for the recovery of bitumen from oil sands in a natural gas limited environment with and without CO2 constraints is presented. We suggest a feasible method for the recovery of unconventional oil in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way that has the potential of eliminating the need of natural gas as a process fuel. The proposed concept

Daniel Kraemer; Anurag Bajpayee; Andy Muto; Vincent Berube; Matteo Chiesa

2009-01-01

39

Adiponectin Promotes Functional Recovery after Podocyte Ablation  

PubMed Central

Low levels of the adipocyte-secreted protein adiponectin correlate with albuminuria in both mice and humans, but whether adiponectin has a causative role in modulating renal disease is unknown. Here, we first generated a mouse model that allows induction of caspase-8–mediated apoptosis specifically in podocytes upon injection of a construct-specific agent. These POD-ATTAC mice exhibited significant kidney damage, mimicking aspects of human renal disease, such as foot process effacement, mesangial expansion, and glomerulosclerosis. After the initial induction, both podocytes and filtration function recovered. Next, we crossed POD-ATTAC mice with mice lacking or overexpressing adiponectin. POD-ATTAC mice lacking adiponectin developed irreversible albuminuria and renal failure; conversely, POD-ATTAC mice overexpressing adiponectin recovered more rapidly and exhibited less interstitial fibrosis. In conclusion, these results suggest that adiponectin is a renoprotective protein after podocyte injury. Furthermore, the POD-ATTAC mouse provides a platform for further studies, allowing precise timing of podocyte injury and regeneration.

Rutkowski, Joseph M.; Wang, Zhao V.; Park, Ae Seo Deok; Zhang, Jianning; Zhang, Dihua; Hu, Ming Chang; Moe, Orson W.; Susztak, Katalin

2013-01-01

40

Recovery of Clostridia from Human Feces. Development of a Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method allowing consistent recovery of clostridia from human feces is presented. During development of this procedure, clostridia were isolated in 105 of 161 specimens. Maximal dilution at which isolations were obtained varied from .001 to 10 to the min...

C. Eller

1966-01-01

41

Recovery of vestibular function following hair cell destruction by streptomycin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Can the vestibular periphery of warm-blooded vertebrates recover functionally from severe sensory hair cell loss? Recent findings in birds suggest a mechanism for recovery but in fact no direct functional evidence has been reported. We produced vestibular hair cell lesions using the ototoxic agent streptomycin sulfate (600 mg/kg/day, 8 days, chicks, Gallus domesticus). Compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve were used as a direct measure of peripheral vestibular function. Vestibular thresholds, neural activation latencies and amplitudes were documented. Eight days of drug treatment elevated thresholds significantly (P < 0.001) and eliminated all but remnants of vestibular activity. Virtually complete physiological recovery occurred in all animals studied over a period of 70 days following treatment. Thresholds recovered within two weeks of drug treatment whereas the return of response morphologies including activation latencies and amplitudes required an additional 6-8 weeks.

Jones, T. A.; Nelson, R. C.

1992-01-01

42

Wastewater heat recovery method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention is comprised of a heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-01-01

43

Dichloroacetate Enhanced Myocardial Functional Recovery Post-ischemia: ATP and NADH Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to determine the effect of dichloroacetate (DCA) on myocardial functional and metabolic recovery following global ischemia. Isolated rabbit hearts were subjected to 120 min of mildly hypothermic (34°C), cardioplegic arrest with multidose, modified St. Thomas’ cardioplegia. Hearts were reperfused with either physiologic salt solution (PSS) as controls, (CON,n= 10) or PSS containing DCA (DCA,n= 6) at

Joyce A. Wahr; Douglas Olszanski; Keith F. Childs; Steven F. Bolling

1996-01-01

44

Best recovery of the Laplace operator of a function from incomplete spectral data  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the problem of best recovery for a fractional power of the Laplacian of a smooth function on R{sup d} from an exact or approximate Fourier transform for it, which is known on some convex subset of R{sup d}. A series of optimal recovery methods is constructed. Information about the Fourier transform outside some ball centred at the origin proves redundant--it is not used by the optimal methods. These optimal methods differ in the way they 'process' key information. Bibliography: 12 titles.

Magaril-Il'yaev, Georgii G; Sivkova, Elena O

2012-04-30

45

Dual simulated childbirth injuries result in slowed recovery of pudendal nerve and urethral function  

PubMed Central

Aims Pelvic floor muscle trauma and pudendal nerve injury have been implicated in stress urinary incontinence (SUI) development after childbirth. In this study, we investigated how combinations of these injuries affect recovery. Methods Sixty-seven female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent vaginal distension (VD), pudendal nerve crush (PNC), PNC and VD (PNC+VD), pudendal nerve transection (PNT), or served as unmanipulated controls. Four days, 3 weeks, or 6 weeks after injury, we simultaneously recorded pudendal nerve motor branch potentials (PNMBP), external urethral sphincter electromyography (EUS EMG), and transurethral bladder pressure under urethane anesthesia. The presence of a guarding reflex (increased frequency & amplitude of PNMBP or EUS EMG activity) during leak point pressure (LPP) testing was determined. Results Controls consistently demonstrated a guarding reflex. Four days after VD, EUS EMG activity was eliminated, but PNMBP activity reflected the guarding reflex; EUS EMG activity recovered after 3 weeks. Four days after PNC, both EUS EMG and PNMBP activity were eliminated, but demonstrated significant recovery at 3 weeks. Four days after PNC+VD both EUS EMG and nerve activity were eliminated, and little recovery was observed after 3 weeks with significant recovery of the guarding reflex 6 weeks after injury. Little recovery was observed at all time points after PNT. LPP results mirrored the reduction in EUS EMG activity. Conclusion Functional recovery occurs more slowly after PNC+VD than after either PNC or VD alone. Future work will be aimed at testing methods to facilitate neuroregeneration and recovery after this clinically relevant dual injury.

Jiang, Hai-Hong; Pan, Hui Q; Gustilo-Ashby, A. Marcus; Gill, Bradley; Glaab, Jonathan; Zaszczurynski, Paul; Damaser, Margot

2008-01-01

46

Noninvasive strategies to promote functional recovery after stroke.  

PubMed

Stroke is a common and disabling global health-care problem, which is the third most common cause of death and one of the main causes of acquired adult disability in many countries. Rehabilitation interventions are a major component of patient care. In the last few years, brain stimulation, mirror therapy, action observation, or mental practice with motor imagery has emerged as interesting options as add-on interventions to standard physical therapies. The neural bases for poststroke recovery rely on the concept of plasticity, namely, the ability of central nervous system cells to modify their structure and function in response to external stimuli. In this review, we will discuss recent noninvasive strategies employed to enhance functional recovery in stroke patients and we will provide an overview of neural plastic events associated with rehabilitation in preclinical models of stroke. PMID:23864962

Faralli, Alessio; Bigoni, Matteo; Mauro, Alessandro; Rossi, Ferdinando; Carulli, Daniela

2013-01-01

47

Noninvasive Strategies to Promote Functional Recovery after Stroke  

PubMed Central

Stroke is a common and disabling global health-care problem, which is the third most common cause of death and one of the main causes of acquired adult disability in many countries. Rehabilitation interventions are a major component of patient care. In the last few years, brain stimulation, mirror therapy, action observation, or mental practice with motor imagery has emerged as interesting options as add-on interventions to standard physical therapies. The neural bases for poststroke recovery rely on the concept of plasticity, namely, the ability of central nervous system cells to modify their structure and function in response to external stimuli. In this review, we will discuss recent noninvasive strategies employed to enhance functional recovery in stroke patients and we will provide an overview of neural plastic events associated with rehabilitation in preclinical models of stroke.

Mauro, Alessandro; Rossi, Ferdinando; Carulli, Daniela

2013-01-01

48

Functional Recovery of Older Hip-Fracture Patients after Interdisciplinary Intervention Follows Three Distinct Trajectories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose To assess the effects of an interdisciplinary intervention on the trajectories of functional recovery among older patients with hip fracture during 2 years after hospitalization. Design and Methods In a randomized controlled trial with 24-month follow-up, 162 patients [greater than or equal to]60 years were enrolled after hip-fracture…

Tseng, Ming-Yueh; Shyu, Yea-Ing L.; Liang, Jersey

2012-01-01

49

Functional recovery is considered the most important target: a survey of dedicated professionals  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to survey the relative importance of postoperative recovery targets and perioperative care items, as perceived by a large group of international dedicated professionals. Methods A questionnaire with eight postoperative recovery targets and 13 perioperative care items was mailed to participants of the first international Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) congress and to authors of papers with a clear relevance to ERAS in abdominal surgery. The responders were divided into categories according to profession and region. Results The recovery targets ‘To be completely free of nausea’, ‘To be independently mobile’ and ‘To be able to eat and drink as soon as possible’ received the highest score irrespective of the responder's profession or region of origin. Equally, the care items ‘Optimizing fluid balance’, ‘Preoperative counselling’ and ‘Promoting early and scheduled mobilisation’ received the highest score across all groups. Conclusions Functional recovery, as in tolerance of food without nausea and regained mobility, was considered the most important target of recovery. There was a consistent uniformity in the way international dedicated professionals scored the relative importance of recovery targets and care items. The relative rating of the perioperative care items was not dependent on the strength of evidence supporting the items.

2014-01-01

50

Predictors for Functional Recovery and Mortality of Surgically Treated Traumatic Acute Subdural Hematomas in 256 Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliable factors influencing the surgical outcome of the patients with traumatic acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) and to improve the functional outcome of these patients. Methods A total of 256 consecutive patients who underwent surgical intervention for traumatic ASDH between March 1998 and March 2008 were reviewed. We evaluated the influence of perioperative variables on functional recovery and mortality using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Functional recovery was achieved in 42.2% of patients and the overall mortality was 39.8%. Age (OR=4.91, p=0.002), mechanism of injury (OR=3.66, p=0.003), pupillary abnormality (OR=3.73, p=0.003), GCS score on admission (OR=5.64, p=0.000), and intraoperative acute brain swelling (ABS) (OR=3.71, p=0.009) were independent predictors for functional recovery. And preoperative pupillary abnormality (OR=2.60, p=0.023), GCS score (OR=4.66, p=0.000), and intraoperative ABS (OR=4.16, p=0.001) were independent predictors for mortality. Midline shift, thickness and volume of hematoma, type of surgery, and time to surgery showed no independent association with functional recovery, although these variables were correlated with functional recovery in univariate analyses. Conclusion Functional recovery was more likely to be achieved in patients who were under 40 years of age, victims of motor vehicle collision and having preoperative reactive pupils, higher GCS score and the absence of ABS during surgery. These results would be helpful for neurosurgeon to improve outcomes from traumatic acute subdural hematomas.

2009-01-01

51

Method for silicon nitride precursor solids recovery  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus are provided for collecting reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow from a reaction situs, wherein the gaseous outflow includes a condensable vapor. A condensate is formed of the condensable vapor on static mixer surfaces within a static mixer heat exchanger. The entrained reaction product solids are captured in the condensate which can be collected for further processing, such as return to the reaction situs. In production of silicon imide, optionally integrated into a production process for making silicon nitride caramic, wherein reactant feed gas comprising silicon halide and substantially inert carrier gas is reacted with liquid ammonia in a reaction vessel, silicon imide reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow comprising residual carrier gas and vaporized ammonia can be captured by forming a condensate of the ammonia vapor on static mixer surfaces of a static mixer heat exchanger.

Crosbie, Gary M. (Dearborn, MI); Predmesky, Ronald L. (Livonia, MI); Nicholson, John M. (Wayne, MI)

1992-12-15

52

Synaptic Plasticity, Neurogenesis, and Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury research has greatly expanded in recent years, but our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the functional recovery that can occur over the weeks and months following the initial injury, is far from complete. To grasp the scope of the problem, it is important to begin by defining the sensorimotor pathways that might be involved by a spinal injury. This is done in the rodent and nonhuman primate, which are two of the most commonly used animal models in basic and translational spinal injury research. Many of the better known experimentally induced models are then reviewed in terms of the pathways they involve and the reorganization and recovery that have been shown to follow. The better understood neuronal mechanisms mediating such post-injury plasticity, including dendritic spine growth and axonal sprouting, are then examined.

Darian-Smith, Corinna

2010-01-01

53

Work function recovery of air exposed molybdenum oxide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report substantial work function (WF) recovery of air exposed molybdenum oxide thin films with vacuum annealing. We observed a sharp reduction in the MoOx WF (from 6.8 eV to 5.6 eV) as well as a very thin layer of oxygen rich adsorbate on the MoOx film after an hour of air exposure. The WF of the exposed MoOx film started to gradually recover with increasing annealing temperature in vacuum, and the saturation in the WF recovery was observed at 450 °C with WF ~6.4 eV. We further studied the interface formation between the annealed MoOx and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc). The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of CuPc was observed to be almost pinned to the Fermi level, strongly suggesting the possibility of efficient hole injection with the vacuum annealed MoOx film.

Irfan, Irfan; James Turinske, Alexander; Bao, Zhenan; Gao, Yongli

2012-08-01

54

Recovery of semantic word processing in global aphasia: a functional MRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

One important issue concerning the recovery of higher cognitive functions—such as word comprehension in aphasia—is to what extent impairments can be compensated for by intact parts of the network of areas normally involved in a closely related function (“redundancy recovery”). In a previous functional MRI investigation, we were able to show that left hemispheric redundancy recovery within a distributed system

Roland Zahn; Eva Drews; Karsten Specht; Stefan Kemeny; Wolfgang Reith; Klaus Willmes; Michael Schwarz; Walter Huber

2004-01-01

55

Angiogenesis, neurogenesis and brain recovery of function following injury  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury and stroke are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Unfortunately, almost all phase-III neuroprotective clinical trials for stroke and traumatic brain injury have shown no benefits; this has raised concerns regarding neuroprotective strategy alone as a therapy for acute brain injuries. There is therefore a compelling need to develop treatments that promote the repair and regeneration of injured brain tissue and functional recovery. Recent findings suggest that strategies to enhance angiogenesis and neurogenesis for brain injuries may provide promising opportunities to improve clinical outcomes during brain functional recovery. This article reviews current data on angiogenesis and neurogenesis in the adult brain after stroke and traumatic brain injury. Select cell-based and pharmacological therapies that promote angiogenesis and neurogenesis designed to restore neurological function after brain injuries are described. These findings highlight the need for a better understanding of injury- and therapy-induced angiogenesis and neurogenesis in the adult and suggest that the manipulation of endogenous neural precursors and endothelial cells is a potential therapy for brain injury.

Xiong, Ye; Mahmood, Asim; Chopp, Michael

2010-01-01

56

Stunning, preconditioning, and functional recovery after global myocardial ischemia.  

PubMed

Stunning (reversible myocardial ischemia without necrosis) occurs with induced global ischemia during cardiac operations and depresses the ability of the heart to utilize oxygen efficiently because less contractile work is developed per unit of oxygen utilized. Interestingly, regional studies have demonstrated dramatic infarct size reduction with stunning episodes before prolonged ischemia, a phenomenon known as myocardial preconditioning. It is postulated that the postischemic contractile dysfunction noted after stunning causes reduced energy demands, which "preconditions" myocardium to withstand a subsequent longer ischemic episode. Some evidence from regional studies suggests that preconditioning may improve functional recovery after ischemia. This study examined the complex relationship between stunning and preconditioning to functional recovery in a surgical setting of global ischemia. To study the effect of stunning, myocardial oxygen consumption, oxygen extraction, and functional indices of contractility were measured before and after isolated rabbit hearts were subjected to 10, 20, or 45 minutes of normothermic 37 degrees C global ischemic stun intervals. This demonstrated that while oxygen consumption and extraction quickly recover to prestun levels, contractility remains depressed well beyond the stun interval. To study the effect of preconditioning using stunning, isolated hearts were then subjected to 120 minutes of 34 degrees C cardioplegic-induced ischemia after preconditioning. Hearts received either modified St. Thomas cardioplegic solution as a control or cardioplegia administered after preconditioning with 37 degrees C ischemic stunning for 5, 10, 15, 20, or 45 minutes or multiple 5- or 10-minute stuns, with reperfusion before cardioplegic-induced ischemia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7944710

Bolling, S F; Olszanski, D A; Childs, K F; Gallagher, K P; Ning, X H

1994-09-01

57

Reconciling Stable Asymmetry with Recovery of Function: An Adaptive Systems Perspective on Functional Plasticity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary, written in response to Witelson's work (1987), examines alternative ways of determining how the developmentally stable functional asymmetry (hemispheric specialization) observed in neurologically intact children can be reconciled with the dramatic recovery of function often displayed following unilateral brain damage. (PCB)

Bullock, Daniel; And Others

1987-01-01

58

Prediction of Motor Function Recovery after Subcortical Stroke: Case Series of Activation PET and TMS Studies  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine whether the pattern of brain activation induced by a motor task and the motor responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have prognostic implications for motor recovery after stroke. Method Ten patients with first-ever subcortical stroke (55.7±17.3 years, 5 ischemic and 5 hemorrhagic) underwent 2 FDG PET studies under different conditions (1: rest, 2: activation with a specific motor task) at 37.7±25.2 days after stroke. The regions showing more than a 10% increase in glucose metabolism on subtraction images during activation and rest were considered to be significantly activated. Cortical excitability of intracortical inhibition (ICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) were assessed using the TMS from both abductor pollicis brevis muscles within 7 days of PET scans. Recovery of motor function was assessed at the point of the neurological plateau. Results The presence of a motor response at the plegic site to TMS and normal intracortical inhibition, and facilitation patterns in the unaffected hemisphere were found to be related to good recovery. An association between an ipsilesional activation on PET and good motor recovery was also observed, but this was significantly weaker than that between TMS measured cortical excitability and motor recovery. Conclusion Integrity of the ipsilesional corticospinal pathway, normalized contralesional intracortical excitability, and task-related activation in the ipsilesional hemisphere were found to predict post-stroke motor recovery significantly.

Jung, Se Hee; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eum

2012-01-01

59

Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields that are developed using water flooding and thermal steam treatment are considered. The results of pilot testing of processes based on these methods carried out at West Siberian and Chinese oil fields are analysed. The attention is focused on the processes that make use of surfactant blends and alkaline buffer solutions and thermotropic gel-forming systems.

Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.

2007-10-01

60

Functional Recovery Measures for Spinal Cord Injury: An Evidence-Based Review for Clinical Practice and Research  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: The end goal of clinical care and clinical research involving spinal cord injury (SCI) is to improve the overall ability of persons living with SCI to function on a daily basis. Neurologic recovery does not always translate into functional recovery. Thus, sensitive outcome measures designed to assess functional status relevant to SCI are important to develop. Method: Evaluation of currently available SCI functional outcome measures by a multinational work group. Results: The 4 measures that fit the prespecified inclusion criteria were the Modified Barthel Index (MBI), the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the Quadriplegia Index of Function (QIF), and the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM). The MBI and the QIF were found to have minimal evidence for validity, whereas the FIM and the SCIM were found to be reliable and valid. The MBI has little clinical utility for use in the SCI population. Likewise, the FIM applies mainly when measuring burden of care, which is not necessarily a reflection of functional recovery. The QIF is useful for measuring functional recovery but only in a subpopulation of people with SCI, and substantial validity data are still required. The SCIM is the only functional recovery outcome measure designed specifically for SCI. Conclusions: The multinational work group recommends that the latest version of the SCIM (SCIM III) continue to be refined and validated and subsequently implemented worldwide as the primary functional recovery outcome measure for SCI. The QIF may continue to be developed and validated for use as a supplemental tool for the nonambulatory tetraplegic population.

Anderson, Kim; Aito, Sergio; Atkins, Michal; Biering-S?rensen, Fin; Charlifue, Susan; Curt, Armin; Ditunno, John; Glass, Clive; Marino, Ralph; Marshall, Ruth; Mulcahey, Mary Jane; Post, Marcel; Savic, Gordana; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Catz, Amiram

2008-01-01

61

Cortical recovery of swallowing function in wound botulism  

PubMed Central

Background Botulism is a rare disease caused by intoxication leading to muscle weakness and rapidly progressive dysphagia. With adequate therapy signs of recovery can be observed within several days. In the last few years, brain imaging studies carried out in healthy subjects showed activation of the sensorimotor cortex and the insula during volitional swallowing. However, little is known about cortical changes and compensation mechanisms accompanying swallowing pathology. Methods In this study, we applied whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) in order to study changes in cortical activation in a 27-year-old patient suffering from wound botulism during recovery from dysphagia. An age-matched group of healthy subjects served as control group. A self-paced swallowing paradigm was performed and data were analyzed using synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM). Results The first MEG measurement, carried out when the patient still demonstrated severe dysphagia, revealed strongly decreased activation of the somatosensory cortex but a strong activation of the right insula and marked recruitment of the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC). In the second measurement performed five days later after clinical recovery from dysphagia we found a decreased activation in these two areas and a bilateral cortical activation of the primary and secondary sensorimotor cortex comparable to the results seen in a healthy control group. Conclusion These findings indicate parallel development to normalization of swallowing related cortical activation and clinical recovery from dysphagia and highlight the importance of the insula and the PPC for the central coordination of swallowing. The results suggest that MEG examination of swallowing can reflect short-term changes in patients suffering from neurogenic dysphagia.

Teismann, Inga K; Steinstraeter, Olaf; Warnecke, Tobias; Zimmermann, Julian; Ringelstein, Erich B; Pantev, Christo; Dziewas, Rainer

2008-01-01

62

Reorganization of functional brain networks during the recovery of stroke: a functional MRI study.  

PubMed

Studies have demonstrated that reorganization of the cortex after stroke contributed to the recovery of motor function. However, these studies paid much more attention to the reorganization of motor-related brain regions and motor executive network which only contained tens of brain regions, ignoring the change in brain-wide network during the restoration of motor function. Based on this consideration, this paper investigated the functional reorganization of brain-wide network during the recovery after stroke from the perspective of graph theory. At four time points (less than 10 days, around 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 months) after stroke onset, we obtained the functional MRI (fMRI) data of stroke patients when they were doing finger tapping task. Based on the fMRI data, we constructed the brain-wide functional network which consisted of 264 putative functional areas for each subject at each time point. Then the topological parameters (e.g., characteristic path length and cluster coefficient) of these brain networks were examined. Results showed that the brain networks shifted towards a non-optimal topological configuration with low small-worldness during the process of recovery. And this finding may broaden our knowledge about the reorganization of brain function during recovery after stroke. PMID:23366837

Cheng, Lin; Wu, Zhiyuan; Fu, Yi; Miao, Fei; Sun, Junfeng; Tong, Shanbao

2012-01-01

63

Comparison of Surface Sampling Methods for Virus Recovery from Fomites ? †  

PubMed Central

The role of fomites in infectious disease transmission relative to other exposure routes is difficult to discern due, in part, to the lack of information on the level and distribution of virus contamination on surfaces. Comparisons of studies intending to fill this gap are difficult because multiple different sampling methods are employed and authors rarely report their method's lower limit of detection. In the present study, we compare a subset of sampling methods identified from a literature review to demonstrate that sampling method significantly influences study outcomes. We then compare a subset of methods identified from the review to determine the most efficient methods for recovering virus from surfaces in a laboratory trial using MS2 bacteriophage as a model virus. Recoveries of infective MS2 and MS2 RNA are determined using both a plaque assay and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, respectively. We conclude that the method that most effectively recovers virus from nonporous fomites uses polyester-tipped swabs prewetted in either one-quarter-strength Ringer's solution or saline solution. This method recovers a median fraction for infective MS2 of 0.40 and for MS2 RNA of 0.07. Use of the proposed method for virus recovery in future fomite sampling studies would provide opportunities to compare findings across multiple studies.

Julian, Timothy R.; Tamayo, Francisco J.; Leckie, James O.; Boehm, Alexandria B.

2011-01-01

64

Laboratory methods for enhanced oil recovery core floods  

SciTech Connect

Current research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is investigating microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) systems for application to oil reservoirs. Laboratory corefloods are invaluable in developing technology necessary for a field application of MEOR. Methods used to prepare sandstone cores for experimentation, coreflooding techniques, and quantification of coreflood effluent are discussed in detail. A technique to quantify the small volumes of oil associated with laboratory core floods is described.

Robertson, E.P.; Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

1994-03-01

65

Invasive Cortical Stimulation to Promote Recovery of Function After Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Residual motor deficits frequently linger after stroke. Search for newer effective strategies to promote functional recovery is ongoing. Brain stimulation, as a means of directing adaptive plasticity, is appealing. Animal studies and Phase I and II trials in humans have indicated safety, feasibility, and efficacy of combining rehabilitation and concurrent invasive cortical stimulation. However, a recent Phase III trial showed no advantage of the combination. We critically review results of various trials and discuss the factors that contributed to the distinctive result. Summary of Review Regarding cortical stimulation, it is important to determine the (1) location of peri-infarct representations by integrating multiple neuroanatomical and physiological techniques; (2) role of other mechanisms of stroke recovery; (3) viability of peri-infarct tissue and descending pathways; (4) lesion geometry to ensure no alteration/displacement of current density; and (5) applicability of lessons generated from noninvasive brain stimulation studies in humans. In terms of combining stimulation with rehabilitation, we should understand (1) the principle of homeostatic plasticity; (2) the effect of ongoing cortical activity and phases of learning; and (3) that subject-specific intervention may be necessary. Conclusions Future cortical stimulation trials should consider the factors that may have contributed to the peculiar results of the Phase III trial and address those in future study designs.

Plow, Ela B.; Carey, James R.; Nudo, Randolph J.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2011-01-01

66

Myocardial contrast echocardiography for predicting functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) is a promising diagnostic tool for detecting microvascular integrity. The aim of the study was to investigate the comparative specificity and sensitivity of intravenous MCE, technetium-99m Sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and dipyridamole–dobutamine (DIDO) stress echocardiography for predicting functional recovery after coronary revascularization in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: In a prospective, observational

Adrian C. Borges; Wolf S. Richter; Christian Witzel; Matthias Witzel; Andrea Grohmann; Rona K. Reibis; Wolfgang Rutsch; Ingeborg Küchler; Dieter L. Munz; Gert Baumann

2002-01-01

67

Influence of the Emotional Response to Surgery on Functional Recovery During 6 Months After Hip Arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether the emotional response to hip arthroplasty predicted functional recovery after controlling for preoperative function and surgical trauma. Mood and fatigue were measured in 102 consecutive patients preoperatively and 3 days postoperatively. Time of achievement of functional milestones indicated recovery in hospital, and functional status was measured preoperatively and 1 and 6 months postoperatively. Circulating C-reactive protein and

Peter Salmon; George M. Hall; Denise Peerbhoy

2001-01-01

68

Intermittent hypoxia induces functional recovery following cervical spinal injury  

PubMed Central

Respiratory-related complications are the leading cause of death in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Few effective SCI treatments are available after therapeutic interventions are performed in the period shortly after injury (e.g. spine stabilization and prevention of further spinal damage). In this review we explore the capacity to harness endogenous spinal plasticity induced by intermittent hypoxia to optimize function of surviving (spared) neural pathways associated with breathing. Two primary questions are addressed: 1) does intermittent hypoxia induce plasticity in spinal synaptic pathways to respiratory motor neurons following experimental SCI? and 2) can this plasticity improve respiratory function? In normal rats, intermittent hypoxia induces serotonin-dependent plasticity in spinal pathways to respiratory motor neurons. Early experiments suggest that intermittent hypoxia also enhances respiratory motor output in experimental models of cervical SCI, (cervical hemisection) and that the capacity to induce functional recovery is greater with longer durations post-injury. Available evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia-induced spinal plasticity has considerable therapeutic potential to treat respiratory insufficiency following chronic cervical spinal injury.

Vinit, Stephane; Lovett-Barr, Mary Rachael; Mitchell, Gordon S.

2009-01-01

69

Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation  

DOEpatents

A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

Sisemore, Clyde J. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01

70

Method for the removal and recovery of mercury  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

Easterly, C.E.; Vass, A.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

1997-01-28

71

Method for the removal and recovery of mercury  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

Easterly, Clay E. (Knoxville, TN); Vass, Arpad A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

1997-01-01

72

Stressful life events predict delayed functional recovery following treatment for mania in bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Identifying predictors of functional recovery in bipolar disorder is critical to treatment efforts to help patients re-establish premorbid levels of role adjustment following an acute manic episode. The current study examined the role of stressful life events as potential obstacles to recovery of functioning in various roles. 65 patients with bipolar I disorder participated in a longitudinal study of functional recovery following clinical recovery from a manic episode. Stressful life events were assessed as predictors of concurrent vs. delayed recovery of role functioning in 4 domains (friends, family, home duties, work/school). Despite clinical recovery, a subset of patients experienced delayed functional recovery in various role domains. Moreover, delayed functional recovery was significantly associated with presence of one or more stressors in the prior 3 months, even after controlling for mood symptoms. Presence of a stressor predicted longer time to functional recovery in life domains, up to 112 days in work/school. Interventions that provide monitoring, support, and problem-solving may be needed to help prevent or mitigate the effects of stress on functional recovery.

Yan-Meier, Leslie; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Hammen, Constance L.; Gitlin, Michael; Sokolski, Kenneth; Altshuler, Lori

2010-01-01

73

Arterial injury and endothelial repair: rapid recovery of function after mechanical injury in healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

Objective. Previous studies suggest a protracted course of recovery after mechanical endothelial injury; confounders may include degree of injury and concomitant endothelial dysfunction. We sought to define the time course of endothelial function recovery using flow-mediated dilation (FMD), after ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) and mechanical injury in patients and healthy volunteers. The contribution of circulating CD133(+)/CD34(+)/VEGFR2(+) "endothelial progenitor" (EPC) or repair cells to endothelial repair was also examined. Methods. 28 healthy volunteers aged 18-35 years underwent transient forearm ischaemia induced by cuff inflation around the proximal biceps and radial artery mechanical injury induced by inserting a wire through a cannula. A more severe mechanical injury was induced using an arterial sheath and catheter inserted into the radial artery of 18 patients undergoing angiography. Results. IR and mechanical injury produced immediate impairment of FMD (from 6.5 ± 1.2% to 2.9 ± 2.2% and from 7.4 ± 2.3% to 1.5 ± 1.6% for IR and injury, resp., each P < 0.001) but recovered within 6 hours and 2 days, respectively. FMD took up to 4 months to recover in patients. Circulating EPC did not change significantly during the injury/recovery period in all subjects. Conclusions. Recovery of endothelial function after IR and mechanical injury is rapid and not associated with a change in circulating EPC. PMID:24719774

Tilling, Lindsey; Hunt, Joanne; Donald, Ann; Clapp, Brian; Chowienczyk, Phil

2014-01-01

74

Arterial Injury and Endothelial Repair: Rapid Recovery of Function after Mechanical Injury in Healthy Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Objective. Previous studies suggest a protracted course of recovery after mechanical endothelial injury; confounders may include degree of injury and concomitant endothelial dysfunction. We sought to define the time course of endothelial function recovery using flow-mediated dilation (FMD), after ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) and mechanical injury in patients and healthy volunteers. The contribution of circulating CD133+/CD34+/VEGFR2+ “endothelial progenitor” (EPC) or repair cells to endothelial repair was also examined. Methods. 28 healthy volunteers aged 18–35 years underwent transient forearm ischaemia induced by cuff inflation around the proximal biceps and radial artery mechanical injury induced by inserting a wire through a cannula. A more severe mechanical injury was induced using an arterial sheath and catheter inserted into the radial artery of 18 patients undergoing angiography. Results. IR and mechanical injury produced immediate impairment of FMD (from 6.5 ± 1.2% to 2.9 ± 2.2% and from 7.4 ± 2.3% to 1.5 ± 1.6% for IR and injury, resp., each P < 0.001) but recovered within 6 hours and 2 days, respectively. FMD took up to 4 months to recover in patients. Circulating EPC did not change significantly during the injury/recovery period in all subjects. Conclusions. Recovery of endothelial function after IR and mechanical injury is rapid and not associated with a change in circulating EPC.

Hunt, Joanne; Donald, Ann; Chowienczyk, Phil

2014-01-01

75

Methods for improved recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from cheese.  

PubMed Central

Method of homogenization (Waring blender versus stomacher), type of diluent (tryptose broth [TB] versus aqueous 2% trisodium citrate), and temperature of diluent (20 versus 40 degrees C) were compared for recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from freshly made and ripened Colby cheese. By using direct plating on McBride listeria agar, significantly higher numbers of L. monocytogenes were recovered when cheese samples were (i) homogenized for 2 min with the blender rather than the stomacher (P less than 0.01), (ii) diluted in trisodium citrate rather than TB (P less than 0.01), and (iii) diluted in diluents at 40 rather than 20 degrees C (P less than 0.05). Based on these results, a new diluent/enrichment medium was developed by adding 2% trisodium citrate to TB (TBC). Despite superior results with the blender, biosafety concerns led to use of the stomacher for homogenization of cheese samples; hence, the stomaching time was increased to 3 min. Results obtained by direct plating indicated that recovery of L. monocytogenes from Colby cheese and from curd samples taken during manufacture of brick cheese increased when samples were diluted 1:10 in TBC at 45 degrees C and stomached for 3 min, as compared with similarly treated samples diluted in TB at 25 degrees C. A similar comparison of both diluents for recovery of L. monocytogenes from cold-pack cheese food yielded bacterial counts which were not significantly different. Recovery of L. monocytogenes from cold-enriched (at 4 degrees C for up to 8 weeks) samples of Colby cheese and cold-pack cheese food was generally similar for samples homogenized in TBC or TB.

Yousef, A E; Ryser, E T; Marth, E H

1988-01-01

76

Assessment of functional recovery of sciatic nerve in rats submitted to low-level laser therapy with different fluences. An experimental study: laser in functional recovery in rats.  

PubMed

Peripheral nerve lesions caused sensory and motor deficits along the distribution of the injured nerve. Numerous researches have been carried out to enhance and/or accelerate the recovery of such lesions. The objective of this study was to assess the functional recovery of sciatic nerve in rats subjected to different fluences of low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Thirty-six animals were randomly divided into four groups: one consisting of sham rats and three others irradiated with progressive fluencies of 10 J/cm(2), 40 J/cm(2) and 80 J/cm(2) of laser AsGaAl (830 nm) for 21 consecutive days. They were evaluated by the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI) method. The crush injury was performed by using a portable device with dead weight of 5,000 g whose load was applied for 10 min. A digital camera was used to record the footprints left on the acrylic track, before surgery and after, on the 7th, 14th, and 21st days. The results also showed that on the 7th day, there was a difference between the groups irradiated with 40 J/cm(2), when compared with the sham group (p??0.05). It was possible to observe that the LLLT at fluency of 40 J/cm(2) and 80 J/cm(2) had a positive influence on the acceleration of the functional nerve recovery. PMID:24426674

Marcolino, Alexandre Marcio; Barbosa, Rafael Inácio; das Neves, Lais Mara Siqueira; Mazzer, Nilton; de Jesus Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto; de Cássia Registro Fonseca, Marisa

2013-12-01

77

Classification of functional recovery of anterior cruciate ligament copers, non-copers, and adapters  

PubMed Central

Objectives (a) To identify whether differences exist in the pattern of recovery with respect to functional outcomes for acutely ruptured anterior cruciate ligament deficient (ACLD) copers, adapters, and non?copers. (b) To identify clinically relevant outcomes that could distinguish between three functional subgroups. Methods A longitudinal study was used to measure gait variables and distance hop at regular intervals after injury using a digital camcorder and computer for quantitative analysis. A sample of 63 ACLD subjects entered the study; 42 subjects were measured at least three times. At 12–36?months after injury, subjects were classified as functional copers, adapters, or non?copers on the basis of which of their preinjury activities they had resumed. To determine the pattern of recovery, repeated measurements were analysed using a least squares fit of the data. Results 17% of ACLD subjects were classified as functional copers, 45% as adapters, and 38% as non?copers. Only 5% of those who participated in high demand activities before injury returned to them. ACLD copers had recovered above the control mean for all gait variables by 40?days after the injury. Hopping distance did not recover to the control mean. Non?copers struggled to recover to control limits and remained borderline for all the gait variables. Conclusions Distinctive patterns of functional recovery for three subgroups of ACLD subjects have been identified. Gait variables and activity level before injury were the most useful variables for distinguishing between the subgroups. If potential for recovery is identified early after injury, then appropriate treatment can be given.

Button, K; van Deursen, R; Price, P

2006-01-01

78

Recovery mechanisms of somatosensory function in stroke patients: implications of brain imaging studies.  

PubMed

Somatosensory dysfunction is associated with a high incidence of functional impairment and safety in patients with stroke. With developments in brain mapping techniques, many studies have addressed the recovery of various functions in such patients. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms of recovery of somatosensory function. Based on the previous human studies, a review of 11 relevant studies on the mechanisms underlying the recovery of somatosensory function in stroke patients was conducted based on the following topics: (1) recovery of an injured somatosensory pathway, (2) peri-lesional reorganization, (3) contribution of the unaffected somatosensory cortex, (4) contribution of the secondary somatosensory cortex, and (5) mechanisms of recovery in patients with thalamic lesions. We believe that further studies in this field using combinations of diffusion tensor imaging, functional neuroimaging, and magnetoencephalography are needed. In addition, the clinical significance, critical period, and facilitatory strategies for each recovery mechanism should be clarified. PMID:23471867

Jang, Sung Ho

2013-06-01

79

Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery  

DOEpatents

A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the CSAMT technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (a) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (b) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the connate water of the production field; (c) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (d) mathematically comparing the maps from step (a) and step (c) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

Lee, David O. (Albuquerque, NM); Montoya, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Wayland, Jr., James R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1987-01-01

80

Heat Recovery from Ventilating Systems. Functioning in Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a survey of 9 heat recovery systems in order to show if the advantage estimated by installating heat recovery plant is obtained. Measurements have been carried out on 9 systems: 2 plants supplied with cross-heat exchangers, 3 plants s...

P. Moerk

1986-01-01

81

Recovery Time of Platelet Function After Aspirin Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Introduction Inappropriate antiplatelet therapy discontinuation increases the risk of thrombotic complications and bleeding after dental procedures. To determine the platelet reactivity recovery time after aspirin withdrawal in vivo, our study was conducted in patients with low-risk cardiovascular disease who can stop aspirin administration following the guidelines stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians. The time it takes for platelet activity to normalize and the diagnostic accuracy of testing methods were assessed for a residual antiplatelet activity with multiple electrode aggregometry. Our study included patients with clinically indicated hypertension preparing for a dental extraction procedure. Materials and methods A total of 212 patients not taking aspirin (control group) and 248 patients with hypertension receiving long-time aspirin treatment at a 100-mg daily dose were prospectively included in the study, which involved stopping aspirin intake before dental extraction. The residual platelet activity and dental bleeding in patients who stopped aspirin intake were analyzed and compared with those of the control group. In addition, platelet reactivity recovery time and bleeding risk in patients who stopped taking aspirin every 24 hours for 0 to 5 days (0–143 hours) before dental extraction was also assessed. Results Platelet reactivity normalized 96 hours after aspirin withdrawal. The cut-off value of 49 arbitrary units in the arachidonic acid platelet aggregation test excluded the effect of aspirin with 91% sensitivity and 66% specificity. AUC showed 0.86 (P < 0.001) diagnostic accuracy. The immediate bleeding complications in all treatment groups were similar to those seen in the control group and were successfully managed with local hemostatic measures. Conclusions The antiplatelet effects of aspirin disappeared 96 hours after aspirin withdrawal in our study, and dental extractions may be safely performed in this period when appropriate local hemostatic measures are taken. Based on these results, a shorter aspirin intake cessation period may be allowable in complex dental procedures and surgery for which a longer aspirin intake cessation period (7–10 days) is recommended based on the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines.

Lee, Jeonghun; Kim, Jeong Kyung; Kim, Jeong Hee; Dunuu, Tsagaan; Park, Sang-Ho; Park, Sang Joon; Kang, Ji Yeon; Choi, Rak Kyeong; Hyon, Min Su

2014-01-01

82

Hydrogeophysical methods for analyzing aquifer storage and recovery systems.  

PubMed

Hydrogeophysical methods are presented that support the siting and monitoring of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) systems. These methods are presented as numerical simulations in the context of a proposed ASR experiment in Kuwait, although the techniques are applicable to numerous ASR projects. Bulk geophysical properties are calculated directly from ASR flow and solute transport simulations using standard petrophysical relationships and are used to simulate the dynamic geophysical response to ASR. This strategy provides a quantitative framework for determining site-specific geophysical methods and data acquisition geometries that can provide the most useful information about the ASR implementation. An axisymmetric, coupled fluid flow and solute transport model simulates injection, storage, and withdrawal of fresh water (salinity ?500 ppm) into the Dammam aquifer, a tertiary carbonate formation with native salinity approximately 6000 ppm. Sensitivity of the flow simulations to the correlation length of aquifer heterogeneity, aquifer dispersivity, and hydraulic permeability of the confining layer are investigated. The geophysical response using electrical resistivity, time-domain electromagnetic (TEM), and seismic methods is computed at regular intervals during the ASR simulation to investigate the sensitivity of these different techniques to changes in subsurface properties. For the electrical and electromagnetic methods, fluid electric conductivity is derived from the modeled salinity and is combined with an assumed porosity model to compute a bulk electrical resistivity structure. The seismic response is computed from the porosity model and changes in effective stress due to fluid pressure variations during injection/recovery, while changes in fluid properties are introduced through Gassmann fluid substitution. PMID:20180865

Minsley, Burke J; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha; Morgan, Frank Dale

2011-01-01

83

Artemin induced functional recovery and reinnervation after partial nerve injury.  

PubMed

Systemic artemin promotes regeneration of dorsal roots to the spinal cord after crush injury. However, it is unclear whether systemic artemin can also promote peripheral nerve regeneration, and functional recovery after partial lesions distal to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) remains unknown. In the present investigation, male Sprague Dawley rats received axotomy, ligation, or crush of the L5 spinal nerve or sham surgery. Starting the day of injury, animals received intermittent subcutaneous artemin or vehicle across 2weeks. Sensory thresholds to tactile or thermal stimuli were monitored for 6weeks after injury. Immunohistochemical analyses of the DRG and nerve regeneration were performed at the 6-week time point. Artemin transiently reversed tactile and thermal hypersensitivity after axotomy, ligation, or crush injury. Thermal and tactile hypersensitivity reemerged within 1week of treatment termination. However, artemin-treated rats with nerve crush, but not axotomy or ligation, subsequently showed gradual return of sensory thresholds to preinjury baseline levels by 6weeks after injury. Artemin normalized labeling for NF200, IB4, and CGRP in nerve fibers distal to the crush injury, suggesting persistent normalization of nerve crush-induced neurochemical changes. Sciatic and intradermal administration of dextran or cholera toxin B distal to the crush injury site resulted in labeling of neuronal profiles in the L5 DRG, suggesting regeneration functional restoration of nonmyelinated and myelinated fibers across the injury site into cutaneous tissue. Artemin also diminished ATF3 and caspase 3 expression in the L5 DRG, suggesting persistent neuroprotective actions. A limited period of artemin treatment elicits disease modification by promoting sensory reinnervation of distal territories and restoring preinjury sensory thresholds. PMID:24269493

Wang, Ruizhong; Rossomando, Anthony; Sah, Dinah W Y; Ossipov, Michael H; King, Tamara; Porreca, Frank

2014-03-01

84

Prognostic Value of fMRI in Recovery of Hand Function in Subcortical Stroke Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first objective of the study was to determine whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal was correlated with motor performance at different stages of poststroke recovery. The second objective was to assess the existence of prognostic factors for recovery in early functional MR images. Eight right-handed patients with pure motor deficit secondary to a first lacunar infarct localized on

Isabelle Loubinoux; S. Dechaumont-Palacin; E. Castel-Lacanal; X. De Boissezon; Philippe Marque; J. Pariente; J.-F. Albucher; I. Berry; F. Chollet

2007-01-01

85

Recovery after prolonged sleep deprivation: residual effects of slow-release caffeine on recovery sleep, sleepiness and cognitive functions.  

PubMed

A long work schedule often results in sleep deprivation, sleepiness, impaired performance and fatigue. We investigated the residual effects of slow-release caffeine (SRC) on sleep, sleepiness and cognitive performance during a 42-hour recovery period following a 64-hour continuous wakefulness period in 16 healthy males, according to a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Three hundred milligrams of SRC or placebo was given twice a day at 21:00 and 9:00 during the first 48 h of wakefulness. Recovery sleep was analysed with electroencephalography (EEG) and wrist actigraphy, daytime sleepiness with continuous EEG, sleep latency tests and actigraphy and cognitive functions with computerized tests from the NATO AGARD STRES battery. Both drug groups exhibited almost the same sleep architecture with a rebound of slow-wave sleep during both recovery nights and of REM sleep during the second night. Wakefulness level and cognitive functions were similarly impaired in both groups on the first day of recovery and partially returned to baseline on the second. To conclude, SRC appears to have no unwanted side-effects on recovery sleep, wakefulness and cognitive performance after a long period of sleep deprivation and might therefore be a useful choice over other psychostimulants for a long work schedule. PMID:15627809

Beaumont, Maurice; Batéjat, Denise; Coste, Olivier; Doireau, Philippe; Chauffard, Françoise; Enslen, Marc; Lagarde, Didier; Pierard, Christophe

2005-01-01

86

Postoperative Recovery of Visual Function after Macula-Off Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine which factors affect the recovery of visual function in macula off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods In a prospective study of forty-five patients with a primary macula-off RRD of 24 hours to 6 weeks duration, the height of the macular detachment was determined by ultrasonography. At 12 months postoperatively, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast acuity, and color confusion indexes (CCI) were obtained. Results Macular detachment was present for 2–32 (median 7) days before repair. A shorter duration of macular detachment was correlated with a better CCI saturé (p?=?0.0026) and lower LogMAR BCVA (better Snellen visual acuity)(p?=?0.012). Also, a smaller height of macular detachment was correlated with a lower LogMAR BCVA (p?=?0.0034). A younger age and lower pre-operative LogMAR BCVA at presentation were both correlated with better postoperative contrast acuity in the total group (age: p?=?1.7×10?4 and pre-operative LogMAR BCVA: p?=?0.0034). Conclusion Functional recovery after macula-off RRD is affected by the duration and the height of the macular detachment. Recovery of contrast acuity is also affected by age and BCVA at presentation. Meeting presentation ARVO annual meeting 2013, May 7, Seattle, Washington, United States of America. Trial registration: trialregister.nl NTR839

van de Put, Mathijs A. J.; Croonen, Danna; Nolte, Ilja M.; Japing, Wouter J.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.

2014-01-01

87

Cryptosporidium and Giardia Recoveries in Natural Waters by Using Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbidity could explain variation in Giardia recoveries (r2 0.80) but not variation in Cryptosporidium recoveries (r2 0.16). The inconsistent recoveries across sites suggested that the background matrix of the ambient water affected recovery by method 1623. A control sample collected at the height of the winter rainy season detected one organism, highlighting the difficulty of using this method to accurately

Carol L. DiGiorgio; David A. Gonzalez; Christopher C. Huitt

2002-01-01

88

Acute Leptin Treatment Enhances Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Background Spinal cord injury is a major cause of long-term disability and has no current clinically accepted treatment. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, is best known as a regulator of food intake and energy expenditure. Interestingly, several studies have demonstrated that leptin has significant effects on proliferation and cell survival in different neuropathologies. Here, we sought to evaluate the role of leptin after spinal cord injury. Findings Based on its proposed neuroprotective role, we have evaluated the effects of a single, acute intraparenchymal injection of leptin in a clinically relevant animal model of spinal cord injury. As determined by quantitative Real Time-PCR, endogenous leptin and the long isoform of the leptin receptor genes show time-dependent variations in their expression in the healthy and injured adult spinal cord. Immunohistochemical analysis of post-injury tissue showed the long isoform of the leptin receptor expression in oligodendrocytes and, to a lesser extent, in astrocytes, microglia/macrophages and neurons. Moreover, leptin administered after spinal cord injury increased the expression of neuroprotective genes, reduced caspase-3 activity and decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules. In addition, histological analysis performed at the completion of the study showed that leptin treatment reduced microglial reactivity and increased caudal myelin preservation, but it did not modulate astroglial reactivity. Consequently, leptin improved the recovery of sensory and locomotor functioning. Conclusions Our data suggest that leptin has a prominent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory role in spinal cord damage and highlights leptin as a promising therapeutic agent.

Fernandez-Martos, Carmen Maria; Gonzalez, Pau; Rodriguez, Francisco Javier

2012-01-01

89

Recovery of psychomotor function after propofol sedation is prolonged in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To assess the effects of age on recovery of psychomotor function for propofol sedation during spinal anesthesia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Propofol was continuously infused during surgery and spinal anesthesia in 15 elderly patients (65–85 yr-old) and 15 younger\\u000a patients (20–50 yr-old). Infusion rates were adjusted to maintain an appropriate level of sedation using the bispectral index\\u000a (range 60–70). The sedative infusion was discontinued

Mio Shinozaki; Yosuke Usui; Shigeki Yamaguchi; Yasuhisa Okuda; Toshimitsu Kitajima

2002-01-01

90

Effectiveness of motor imagery or mental practice in functional recovery after stroke: a systematic review.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: In recent decades, many stroke rehabilitation methods have been developed. Mental practice (MP) is a dynamic state in which the subject evokes an imaginary representation of a motor action or skill in order to learn or perfect that action. Although functional imaging has shown that MP produces similar cortical activation patterns to those of movement, the clinical effectiveness of such methods in rehabilitation and functional recovery has yet to be demonstrated. DEVELOPMENT: Systematic search of all clinical studies published in the main scientific databases between December 2011 and October 2012 concerning mental practice in stroke rehabilitation. We selected 23 clinical trials testing different MP protocols in patients with hemiparesis. CONCLUSIONS: MP is effective when used in conjunction with conventional physical therapy for functional rehabilitation of both upper and lower limbs, as well as for the recovery of daily activities and skills. Owing to the heterogeneity of the studies with regard to the intervention protocol, specific imagery technique, time spent practicing, patient characteristics, etc., more studies are needed in order to determine the optimal treatment protocol and patient profile. PMID:23601759

García Carrasco, D; Aboitiz Cantalapiedra, J

2013-04-16

91

Transplantation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Improves Functional Recovery in Huntington's Disease Rat Model  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the functional recovery of the transplanted induced pluripotent stem cells in a rat model of Huntington's disease with use of 18F-FDG microPET/CT imaging. Methods In a quinolinic acid-induced rat model of striatal degeneration, induced pluripotent stem cells were transplanted into the ipsilateral lateral ventricle ten days after the quinolinic acid injection. The response to the treatment was evaluated by serial 18F-FDG PET/CT scans and Morris water maze test. Histological analyses and Western blotting were performed six weeks after stem cell transplantation. Results After induced pluripotent stem cells transplantation, higher 18F-FDG accumulation in the injured striatum was observed during the 4 to 6-weeks period compared with the quinolinic acid-injected group, suggesting the metabolic recovery of injured striatum. The induced pluripotent stem cells transplantation improved learning and memory function (and striatal atrophy) of the rat in six week in the comparison with the quinolinic acid-treated controls. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that transplanted stem cells survived and migrated into the lesioned area in striatum, and most of the stem cells expressed protein markers of neurons and glial cells. Conclusion Our findings show that induced pluripotent stem cells can survive, differentiate to functional neurons and improve partial striatal function and metabolism after implantation in a rat Huntington's disease model.

Zhou, Guangqian; Peng, Wenda; He, Zhendan; Zhao, Zhenfu; Mo, CuiPing; Qu, Junle; Zhang, Jian

2014-01-01

92

Carbohydrate vs protein supplementation for recovery of neuromuscular function following prolonged load carriage  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined the effect of carbohydrate and whey protein supplements on recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage. Methods Ten male participants (body mass: 81.5 ± 10.5 kg, age: 28 ± 9 years, O2max: 55.0 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) completed three treadmill walking tests (2 hr, 6.5 km·h-1), carrying a 25 kg backpack consuming 500 ml of either: (1) Placebo (flavoured water) [PLA], (2) 6.4% Carbohydrate Solution [CHO] or (3) 7.0% Whey Protein Solution [PRO]. For three days after load carriage, participants consumed two 500 ml supplement boluses. Muscle performance was measured before and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after load carriage, during voluntary and electrically stimulated contractions. Results Isometric knee extension force decreased immediately after load carriage with no difference between conditions. During recovery, isometric force returned to pre-exercise values at 48 h for CHO and PRO but at 72 h for PLA. Voluntary activation decreased immediately after load carriage and returned to pre-exercise values at 24 h in all conditions (P = 0.086). During recovery, there were no differences between conditions for the change in isokinetic peak torque. Following reductions immediately after load carriage, knee extensor and flexor peak torque (60°·s-1) recovered to pre-exercise values at 72 h. Trunk extensor and flexor peak torque (15°·s-1) recovered to pre-exercise values at 24 h (P = 0.091) and 48 h (P = 0.177), respectively. Conclusion Recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage is improved with either carbohydrate or whey protein supplementation for isometric contractions but not for isokinetic contractions.

2010-01-01

93

Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles  

DOEpatents

A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

2013-06-11

94

[A method for recovery of enteroviruses from milk].  

PubMed

A method of detection of enteric viruses in milk was studied. The high protein content of milk and the protein nature of enterovirus allowed the detection of these viruses using the organic acid flocculation method. The poliovirus type 1 (Mahoney strains) and the E.C.H.O.1 isolated from the environment were used as virus model and were inoculated to creamed, half-creamed and whole UHT commercialized milk. The method consists on a milk sample clarification with acid precipitation and centrifugation. The clarified extract is reduced to a final volume of 10 to 15 ml after addition of beef extract powder and protein precipitation. This technique allows the recovery of 26 to 36% of poliovirus type 1 and 10 to 46% of E.C.H.O.1 viruses. In this work, the ferric chloride (FeCl3), added in 0.5 to 1 mM final concentration, was used as an adjuvant for the organic acid precipitation. PMID:1668634

Hassen, A; Hachicha, R; Jedidi, N; Agbalika, F; Harteman, P

1991-01-01

95

Etifoxine improves peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral nerves show spontaneous regenerative responses, but recovery after injury or peripheral neuropathies (toxic, diabetic, or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy syndromes) is slow and often incomplete, and at present no efficient treatment is available. Using well-defined peripheral nerve lesion paradigms, we assessed the therapeutic usefulness of etifoxine, recently identified as a ligand of the translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO), to

Christelle Girard; Song Liu; Françoise Cadepond; David Adams; Catherine Lacroix; Marc Verleye; Jean-Marie Gillardin; Etienne-Emile Baulieu; Michael Schumacher; Ghislaine Schweizer-Groyer

2008-01-01

96

Cortical recovery of swallowing function in wound botulism  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Botulism is a rare disease caused by intoxication leading to muscle weakness and rapidly progressive dysphagia. With adequate therapy signs of recovery can be observed within several days. In the last few years, brain imaging studies carried out in healthy subjects showed activation of the sensorimotor cortex and the insula during volitional swallowing. However, little is known about cortical

Inga K Teismann; Olaf Steinstraeter; Tobias Warnecke; Julian Zimmermann; Erich B Ringelstein; Christo Pantev; Rainer Dziewas

2008-01-01

97

In Situ Recovery Methods for Heavy Oil and Bitumen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in situ production of heavy oil and bitumen from the enormous resources contained in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) is expected to accelerate, as a result of the potential of new recovery technologiies developed specifically for these challenging resources (2). Key examples of these new recovery technologies include: thermal gravity processes; solvent- assisted gravity processes, cold production (primary

Ron Sawatzky

98

Methods for optimal recovery of Malassezia furfur from blood culture.  

PubMed

Malassezia furfur, a recently described agent of catheter-associated sepsis, requires long-chained fatty acids for in vitro growth. To determine optimum conditions for recovery of the organism from blood culture, we compared a radiometric (BACTEC) with a lysis centrifugation-direct agar plating (Isolator) blood culture method. When blood culture isolates of M. furfur were suspended in phosphate-buffered saline and used as inocula, the BACTEC system detected the organisms radiometrically only when bottles were supplemented with lipid compounds; detection was often delayed (greater than or equal to 72 h) when small inoculum sizes were tested. The Isolator pediatric tube system detected growth of M. furfur within 48 h of plating onto a lipid-supplemented agar medium. Simulated blood culture experiments showed that the addition of whole human blood and Intralipid to the BACTEC 6B bottle was associated with rapid lysis of erythrocytes, accumulation of a chocolate brown sediment in the bottles, and fungicidal activity to the M. furfur isolates. In contrast, suspensions of M. furfur in whole human blood were stable for at least 8 h in Isolator tubes and quantitatively recoverable after plating onto agar. Of the two systems studied, the Isolator tube system provided a more suitable procedure for isolation of M. furfur from blood culture. PMID:3771759

Marcon, M J; Powell, D A; Durrell, D E

1986-11-01

99

Methods for optimal recovery of Malassezia furfur from blood culture.  

PubMed Central

Malassezia furfur, a recently described agent of catheter-associated sepsis, requires long-chained fatty acids for in vitro growth. To determine optimum conditions for recovery of the organism from blood culture, we compared a radiometric (BACTEC) with a lysis centrifugation-direct agar plating (Isolator) blood culture method. When blood culture isolates of M. furfur were suspended in phosphate-buffered saline and used as inocula, the BACTEC system detected the organisms radiometrically only when bottles were supplemented with lipid compounds; detection was often delayed (greater than or equal to 72 h) when small inoculum sizes were tested. The Isolator pediatric tube system detected growth of M. furfur within 48 h of plating onto a lipid-supplemented agar medium. Simulated blood culture experiments showed that the addition of whole human blood and Intralipid to the BACTEC 6B bottle was associated with rapid lysis of erythrocytes, accumulation of a chocolate brown sediment in the bottles, and fungicidal activity to the M. furfur isolates. In contrast, suspensions of M. furfur in whole human blood were stable for at least 8 h in Isolator tubes and quantitatively recoverable after plating onto agar. Of the two systems studied, the Isolator tube system provided a more suitable procedure for isolation of M. furfur from blood culture.

Marcon, M J; Powell, D A; Durrell, D E

1986-01-01

100

PLANKTON RESPIRATION AND BIOMASS AS FUNCTIONAL INDICATORS OF RECOVERY IN RESTORED PRAIRIE WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Reliable ecological indicators of wetland integrity are necessary for assessing recovery of restored wetlands, yet little consensus currently exists on which indicators are most appropriate. We employed indicators derived from simple, standard measures of ecosystem function selec...

101

Studies of Spontaneous Recovery of Central Respiratory Function after Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition by Organophosphates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spontaneous recovery of the central respiratory function was studied in anesthetized guinea pigs intoxicated with either pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Soman) or isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Sarin). The animals were pretreated with atropine ...

G. K. Adams H. I. Yamamura J. F. O'Leary

1973-01-01

102

Factors Associated With Neurological Recovery of Brainstem Function Following Postoperative Conformal Radiation Therapy for Infratentorial Ependymoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To identify risk factors associated with incomplete neurological recovery in pediatric patients with infratentorial ependymoma treated with postoperative conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods: The study included 68 patients (median age +- standard deviation of 2.6 +- 3.8 years) who were followed for 5 years after receiving CRT (54-59.4 Gy) and were assessed for function of cranial nerves V to VII and IX to XII, motor weakness, and dysmetria. The mean (+- standard deviation) brainstem dose was 5,487 (+-464) cGy. Patients were divided into four groups representing those with normal baseline and follow-up, those with abnormal baseline and full recovery, those with abnormal baseline and partial or no recovery, and those with progressive deficits at 12 (n = 62 patients), 24 (n = 57 patients), and 60 (n = 50 patients) months. Grouping was correlated with clinical and treatment factors. Results: Risk factors (overall risk [OR], p value) associated with incomplete recovery included gender (male vs. female, OR = 3.97, p = 0.036) and gross tumor volume (GTV) (OR/ml = 1.23, p = 0.005) at 12 months, the number of resections (>1 vs. 1; OR = 23.7, p = 0.003) and patient age (OR/year = 0.77, p = 0.029) at 24 months, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting (Yes vs. No; OR = 21.9, p = 0.001) and GTV volume (OR/ml = 1.18, p = 0.008) at 60 months. An increase in GTV correlated with an increase in the number of resections (p = 0.001) and CSF shunting (p = 0.035); the number of resections correlated with CSF shunting (p < 0.0001), and male patients were more likely to undergo multiple tumor resections (p = 0.003). Age correlated with brainstem volume (p < 0.0001). There were no differences in outcome based on the absolute or relative volume of the brainstem that received more than 54 Gy. Conclusions: Incomplete recovery of brainstem function after CRT for infratentorial ependymoma is related to surgical morbidity and the volume and the extent of tumor.

Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.or [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Chitti, Ramana M. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Sanford, Robert A. [Semmes-Murphy Neurological Institute, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Khan, Raja B. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

2010-02-01

103

Esthetic-functional recovery of permanent posterior tooth using autogenous biological restoration.  

PubMed

Occlusal morphology and difficult access for cleaning permanent molars result in the buildup of bacterial plaque and the development of caries. One method known as biological restoration was carried out. This technique known as biological restoration, has as main restorative material a fragment obtained from a duly donated extracted human tooth. This case report describes the restoration of an extensively decayed molar through the bonding of a fragment obtained from a third molar extracted from the patient himself. Biological restoration is a low-cost option that offers satisfactory aesthetic, morphological and functional results.The morphological/functional reestablishment of posterior teeth can be obtained through biological restoration, which allows the recovery of properties inherent to the dental structure, offers satisfactory aesthetic results and low cost. PMID:23514687

Botelho, A M; Tavano, K T A; Correa-Faria, P; Morato, L N S; Viana, M R

2012-01-01

104

Influence of Recovery Method and Centrifugation on Epididymal Sperm from Collared Peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

In order to establish protocols for gamete recovery from accidentally killed wild animals, or to take advantage of those slaughtered by captive breeders, we assess the influence of two methods on the recovery of epididymal sperm from collared peccaries, and verify the effect of centrifugation on such gametes. Genitalia from nine animals were used. For each animal, one epididymis was processed by flotation and the other was processed by retrograde flushing, both using a buffered media based on Tris. Following recovery, sperm were evaluated for motility, vigor, viability, functional membrane integrity, and morphology. A 1-mL aliquot of each sample was centrifuged, the supernatant removed, and the pellet suspended and evaluated as fresh samples. The sperm characteristics did not differ between the samples collected by flotation or retrograde flushing (P < 0.05). Centrifugation promoted an increase in head and tail defects, thus reducing the percentage of viable sperm (P < 0.05). No other parameter assessed for both methods was affected by centrifugation. In conclusion, epididymal sperm from collared peccaries can be efficiently collected through flotation or retrograde flushing, but not when either is followed by centrifugation. PMID:24832907

Bezerra, José Artur Brilhante; Silva, Andréia Maria da; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; Silva, Mariana de Araújo da; Oliveira, Moacir Franco de; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues

2014-05-01

105

Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats.  

PubMed

Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a promising strategy for peripheral nerve repair. PMID:24076387

Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin

2013-10-18

106

Structural and functional recovery from early monocular deprivation in adult rats  

PubMed Central

Visual deficits caused by abnormal visual experience during development are hard to recover in adult animals. Removal of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans from the mature extracellular matrix with chondroitinase ABC promotes plasticity in the adult visual cortex. We tested whether chondroitinase ABC treatment of adult rats facilitates anatomical, functional, and behavioral recovery from the effects of a period of monocular deprivation initiated during the critical period for monocular deprivation. We found that chondroitinase ABC treatment coupled with reverse lid-suturing causes a complete recovery of ocular dominance, visual acuity, and dendritic spine density in adult rats. Thus, manipulations of the extracellular matrix can be used to promote functional recovery in the adult cortex.

Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Medini, Paolo; Landi, Silvia; Baldini, Sara; Berardi, Nicoletta; Maffei, Lamberto

2006-01-01

107

Current Limitation and Recovery Function for Superconducting Fault Current Limiting Transformer (SFCLT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting Fault Current Limiting Transformer (SFCLT) is expected to have both superconducting transformer function and superconducting fault current limiter function. We have so far developed the 2 MVA-class SFCLT based on YBCO coated conductors, and experimentally evaluated its current limitation and recovery characteristics. In this paper, we constructed a simulation model for current limitation and recovery characteristics of SFCLT for different HTS coil characteristics and design, and derived the optimized design for the effective current limitation and extended recovery criteria under the rated voltage of the 2 MVA-class SFCLT.

Himbele, John; Kojima, Hiroki; Hayakawa, Naoki; Hanai, Masahiro; Okubo, Hitoshi

108

Physiological, Sensory, and Functional Measures in a Model of Wrist Muscle Injury and Recovery  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of muscle rehabilitation modalities, it is first necessary to develop a model to test measures that would assess physiological, sensory, and functional muscle recovery. This study attempted to develop such a model for wrist injury. Subjects: Healthy male and female adults (n = 25). Methods: Subjects performed wrist muscle damage assessment, soreness, discomfort, difficulty, and functional motor task tests before and 1, 2, and 7 days after eccentric wrist muscle contractions. Wrist-related motor task tests, including the perception of discomfort and difficulty during performance, were also conducted. Results: At 24 hours post–eccentric exercises, wrist extension and flexion force declined (p < 0.05) and soreness (p < 0.05) and circumference (p < 0.05) increased; all returned to normal by 7 days post-exercise. At 24 and 48 hours post-exercise, perception of discomfort and difficulty was elevated during performance of motor tasks (p < 0.05). The completion speed of motor tasks was unaffected at any time post–eccentric exercise (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Loss of wrist muscle force, increased soreness, task discomfort, and difficulty were noted following eccentric exercise. However, subjects appeared able to compensate, such that the speed of completion of motor tasks was not slowed. Longer or more specific motor tasks may be necessary to mimic real work performance decrement and recovery.

Brown, Lindsay; Brant, Aron; Enns, Deborah; Bryden, Pamela J.

2008-01-01

109

Monitoring functional impairment and recovery after traumatic brain injury in rats by FMRI.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to test a hypothesis that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to monitor functional impairment and recovery after moderate experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). Moderate TBI was induced by lateral fluid percussion injury in adult rats. The severity of brain damage and functional recovery in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) was monitored for up to 56 days using fMRI, cerebral blood flow (CBF) by arterial spin labeling, local field potential measurements (LFP), behavioral assessment, and histology. All the rats had reduced blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses during the 1st week after trauma in the ipsilateral S1. Forty percent of these animals showed recovery of the BOLD response during the 56 day follow-up. Unexpectedly, no association was found between the recovery in BOLD response and the volume of the cortical lesion or thalamic neurodegeneration. Instead, the functional recovery occurred in rats with preserved myelinated fibers in layer VI of S1. This is, to our knowledge, the first study demonstrating that fMRI can be used to monitor post-TBI functional impairment and consequent spontaneous recovery. Moreover, the BOLD response was associated with the density of myelinated fibers in the S1, rather than with neurodegeneration. The present findings encourage exploration of the usefulness of fMRI as a noninvasive prognostic biomarker for human post-TBI outcomes and therapy responses. PMID:23259713

Niskanen, Juha-Pekka; Airaksinen, Antti M; Sierra, Alejandra; Huttunen, Joanna K; Nissinen, Jari; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Pitkänen, Asla; Gröhn, Olli H

2013-04-01

110

Recent developments in functional and structural imaging of aphasia recovery after stroke  

PubMed Central

Background Functional and structural neuroimaging techniques can increase our knowledge about the neural processes underlying recovery from post-stroke language impairments (aphasia). Aims In the present review we highlight recent developments in neuroimaging research of aphasia recovery. Main Contribution We review (a) cross-sectional findings in aphasia with regard to local brain functions and functional connectivity, (b) structural and functional imaging findings using longitudinal (intervention) paradigms, (c) new adjunct treatments that are guided by functional imaging techniques (e.g., electrical brain stimulation) and (d) studies related to the prognosis of language recovery and treatment responsiveness after stroke. Conclusions More recent developments in data acquisition and analysis foster better understanding and more realistic modelling of the neural substrates of language recovery after stroke. Moreover, the combination of different neuroimaging protocols can provide converging evidence for neuroplastic brain remodelling during spontaneous and treatment-induced recovery. Researchers are also beginning to use sophisticated imaging analyses to improve accuracy of prognosis, which may eventually improve patient care by allowing for more efficient treatment planning. Brain stimulation techniques offer a new and exciting way to improve the recovery potential after stroke.

Meinzer, Marcus; Harnish, Stacy; Conway, Tim; Crosson, Bruce

2010-01-01

111

Method for induced flow recovery of shallow crude oil deposits  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for enhancing recovery of crude oil from a producing formation comprising the steps of: drilling a first hole and at least one second hole from a surface of the ground into the producing formation; blasting with suitable charges the producing formation by introducing into the producing formation through the second hole the suitable charges and then detonating the suitable charges; removing from the first hole rubble created by the blasting, creating thereby a recovery chamber in the first hole within the producing formation; casing the first hole from the surface through an overburden and into the producing formation; drilling at least one third hole; injecting under pressure into the producing formation through the third hole a liquid hydrocarbon solvent heated to a temperature greater than temperature of the crude oil; evacuating gas from the recovery chamber by means of a vacuum pump; withdrawing the crude oil from the recovery chamber, the heated and pressure injected hydrocarbon solvent reducing viscosity of the crude oil and enhancing flow of the crude oil from a higher pressure in a region near the third hole to a lower pressure in the recovery chamber below the first hole.

Theis, R.W.

1987-08-25

112

Does physical activity change predict functional recovery in low back pain? Protocol for a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Activity advice and prescription are commonly used in the management of low back pain (LBP). Although there is evidence for advising patients with LBP to remain active, facilitating both recovery and return to work, to date no research has assessed whether objective measurements of free living physical activity (PA) can predict outcome, recovery and course of LBP. Methods An observational longitudinal study will investigate PA levels in a cohort of community-dwelling working age adults with acute and sub-acute LBP. Each participant's PA level, functional status, mood, fear avoidance behaviours, and levels of pain, psychological distress and occupational activity will be measured on three occasions during for 1 week periods at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year. Physical activity levels will be measured by self report, RT3 triaxial accelerometer, and activity recall questionnaires. The primary outcome measure of functional recovery will be the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Free living PA levels and changes in functional status will be quantified in order to look at predictive relationships between levels and changes in free living PA and functional recovery in a LBP population. Discussion This research will investigate levels and changes in activity levels of an acute LBP cohort and the predictive relationship to LBP recovery. The results will assess whether occupational, psychological and behavioural factors affect the relationship between free living PA and LBP recovery. Results from this research will help to determine the strength of evidence supporting international guidelines that recommend restoration of normal activity in managing LBP. Trial registration [Clinical Trial Registration Number, ACTRN12609000282280

Hendrick, Paul; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Bell, Melanie L; Hale, Leigh; Hurley, Deirdre A; McDonough, Suzanne M; Melloh, Markus; Baxter, David G

2009-01-01

113

A combined code acquisition and symbol timing recovery method for tds-ofdm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel timing recovery method which combines code acquisition and symbol timing recovery for TDS-OFDM (time domain synchronous OFDM) is developed. The method is based on the searching and tracking of the correlation peaks of the PN sequences embedded in the signals. Simulations show that this algorithm has very good performance for both AWGN and multipath channels, even when a

Jun Wang; Zhi-Xing Yang; Chang-Yong Pan; Meng Han; Lin Yang

2003-01-01

114

Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a promising strategy for peripheral nerve repair.

Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin, E-mail: chengleiyx@126.com

2013-10-18

115

Recovery of methanotrophs from disturbance: population dynamics, evenness and functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity is claimed to be essential for ecosystem functioning, but is threatened by anthropogenic disturbances. Prokaryotes have been assumed to be functionally redundant and virtually inextinguishable. However, recent work indicates that microbes may well be sensitive to environmental disturbance. Focusing on methane-oxidizing bacteria as model organisms, we simulated disturbance-induced mortality by mixing native with sterilized paddy soil in two ratios,

Adrian Ho; Claudia Lüke; Peter Frenzel

2011-01-01

116

Vector method based coverage hole recovery in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), sensors form the network dynamically without help of any infrastructure. The accidental death of the nodes due to technical failures or death due to power exhaustion may disturb the existing coverage and connectivity of the network. In this paper, distributed coverage hole recovery algorithms for the wireless sensor networks are designed that use the vector

Prasan Kumar Sahoo; Jang-Zern Tsai; Hong-Lin Ke

2010-01-01

117

An improved method for ultra fast recovery diode testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiconductor manufacturers are expending a great deal of effort in designing ultra fast recovery diodes to complement high voltage, high current switching devices, such as IGBTs, that are available today. Circuit designers trying to use these diodes and semiconductor designers trying to evaluate new manufacturing processes are being misled by test results measured on test fixtures that have not changed

Jamie Catt

1994-01-01

118

Peritoneal dialysis does not adversely affect kidney function recovery after congenital heart surgery.  

PubMed

Purpose: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to correct congenital heart disease is common. We prevent fluid overload and further cardiac compromise in oliguric infants with continuous peritoneal dialysis (CPD). The effect of CPD on kidney recovery is unknown, thus indications to discontinue CPD are unclear. We aimed to determine if CPD affects kidney recovery, measured by urine output and novel urinary AKI biomarker concentrations.Methods: Twenty infants <90 days old with congenital heart disease who underwent bypass surgery and were post-operatively treated with CPD were randomized at the time of clinical readiness for CPD discontinuation to 1) discontinue CPD (control) or 2) continue 24 h more CPD (experimental). Urine output (ml/kg per h), total output (ml/kg per h) and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, interleukin-18, liver-type fatty acid binding protein, and kidney injury molecule-1 were assessed post-surgery until CPD catheter removal.Results: 24 hours preceding randomization, there were no differences in mean urine output or total output; 24 hours post-randomization, the control group had higher mean urine output (4.2 ± 2.6 ml/kg per h vs. 2.8 ± 2.0 ml/kg per h, p = 0.02) but lower total output (6.3 ± 2.1 ml/kg per h vs. 4.7 ± 2.7 ml/kg per h, p = 0.01). Median biomarker concentrations did not differ significantly between groups at any time point.Conclusions: Our results suggest renal replacement therapy does not change the time course of kidney function recovery. PMID:24634333

Riley, Alyssa A; Jefferies, John L; Nelson, David P; Bennett, Michael R; Blinder, Joshua J; Ma, Qing; Devarajan, Prasad; Goldstein, Stuart L

2014-01-30

119

Thrombospondins 1 and 2 are necessary for synaptic plasticity and functional recovery after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrombospondins 1 and 2 (TSP-1\\/2) belong to a family of extracellular glycoproteins with angiostatic and synaptogenic properties. Although TSP-1\\/2 have been postulated to drive the resolution of postischemic angiogenesis, their role in synaptic and functional recovery is unknown. We investigated whether TSP-1\\/2 are necessary for synaptic and motor recovery after stroke. Focal ischemia was induced in 8- to 12-week-old wild-type

Jason Liauw; Stanley Hoang; Michael Choi; Cagla Eroglu; Matthew Choi; Guo-hua Sun; Matthew Percy; Benjamin Wildman-Tobriner; Tonya Bliss; Raphael G Guzman; Ben A Barres; Gary K Steinberg

2008-01-01

120

[Spontaneous recovery of function in central nervous system lesions].  

PubMed

A rewiev of the mechanisms responsible for the spontaneous recuperation of function in patients with lesions of the central nervous sistem is made. The spontaneous reorganization theories of the nervous structures and the vicarious function are also referred to. In the last two decades experimental contributions have been accentuated, specially the one conducted by the group of researchers directed by Windle and Guth, who had shown the possibility of regeneration in the central nervous system, as well Lawrende and Kuypers, Brodal, Goldberger and others, which defended the vircarious function as the probable mechanisms of recuperation. PMID:1191098

Anghinah, A

1975-12-01

121

Neuronal circuit remodeling in the contralateral cortical hemisphere during functional recovery from cerebral infarction.  

PubMed

Recent advances in functional imaging of human brain activity in stroke patients, e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging, have revealed that cortical hemisphere contralateral to the infarction plays an important role in the recovery process. However, underlying mechanisms occurring in contralateral hemisphere during functional recovery have not been elucidated. We experimentally induced a complete infarction of somatosensory cortex in right hemisphere of mice and examined the neuronal changes in contralateral (left) somatosensory cortex during recovery. Both basal and ipsilateral somatosensory stimuli-evoked neuronal activity in left (intact) hemisphere transiently increased 2 d after stroke, followed by an increase in the turnover rate of usually stable mushroom-type synaptic spines at 1 week, observed by using two-photon imaging in vivo. At 4 weeks after stroke, when functional recovery had occurred, a new pattern of electrical circuit activity in response to somatosensory stimuli was established in intact ipsilateral hemisphere. Thus, the left somatosensory cortex can compensate for the loss of the right somatosensory cortex by remodeling neuronal circuits and establishing new sensory processing. This finding could contribute to establish the effective clinical treatments targeted on the intact hemisphere for the recovery of impaired functions and to achieve better quality of life of patients. PMID:19675241

Takatsuru, Yusuke; Fukumoto, Dai; Yoshitomo, Miki; Nemoto, Tomomi; Tsukada, Hideo; Nabekura, Junichi

2009-08-12

122

Partial functional recovery after complete spinal cord transection by combined chondroitinase and clenbuterol treatment.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury not only disrupts axonal tracts but also causes gliotic, fibrotic, and Schwannotic scarring with resulting deposition of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) which prevent axonal reconnection and recovery of locomotor function. Here, we determined whether recovery of locomotor function could be promoted after complete transection, by degrading CSPGs enzymatically within the injury site with chondroitinase ABC (chABC) together with treatment with the beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, clenbuterol, a neuroprotective agent which can promote regrowth of lower motoneurons. Partial recovery of locomotor function was observed 8-12 weeks postinjury only after combined chABC and clenbuterol treatment. The recovery of locomotor function coincided with the presence of axons caudal to the injury site arising from neurons of the reticular, vestibular, and red nuclei also only with combined chABC and clenbuterol treatment. Axons myelinated by Schwann cells were most prominent in the transection site in the combined treatment group. Clenbuterol treatment activated cAMP response element binding protein within retrogradely traced neurons which has been associated with axonal regrowth. ChABC treatment decreased scarring due to both CSPG and collagen deposition as well as the gap between intact regions of the spinal cord. ChABC also increased numbers of phagocytic cells which remove myelin debris as well as populations of astrocytes thereby aiding blood-spinal cord barrier reformation. Together the results suggest that chABC and clenbuterol can act synergistically to promote recovery of locomotor function. PMID:20552220

Bai, Fusheng; Peng, Hong; Etlinger, Joseph D; Zeman, Richard J

2010-08-01

123

Watering, Fertilization, and Slurry Inoculation Promote Recovery of Biological Crust Function in Degraded Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological soil crusts are very sensitive to human-induced disturbances and are in a degraded state in many areas throughout their range. Given their importance in the functioning of arid and semiarid ecosystems, restoring these crusts may contribute to the recovery of ecosystem functionality in degraded areas. We conducted a factorial microcosm experiment to evaluate the effects of inoculation type (discrete

Fernando T. Maestre; Noelia Martín; Beatriz Díez; Rosario López-Poma; Fernando Santos; Ignacio Luque; Jordi Cortina

2006-01-01

124

Parallel Approaches for Discovering Functional Dependencies from Data for Information System Design Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of functional dependencies is a fundamental activity in the database design recovery process. Existing algorithms for this task are computationally expensive and appear to be impractical if applied to large legacy database instances, e.g., their performance deteriorates when number of attributes or\\/and instances is large. This paper presents strategies for parallelising the functional dependencies discovery process. We propose

Wie Ming Lim; John V. Harrison

1997-01-01

125

Predicting recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke: differential modeling of logarithmic and linear regression.  

PubMed

Cognitive disorders in the acute stage of stroke are common and are important independent predictors of adverse outcome in the long term. Despite the impact of cognitive disorders on both patients and their families, it is still difficult to predict the extent or duration of cognitive impairments. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to provide data on predicting the recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke by differential modeling with logarithmic and linear regression. This study included two rounds of data collection comprising 57 stroke patients enrolled in the first round for the purpose of identifying the time course of cognitive recovery in the early-phase group data, and 43 stroke patients in the second round for the purpose of ensuring that the correlation of the early-phase group data applied to the prediction of each individual's degree of cognitive recovery. In the first round, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were assessed 3 times during hospitalization, and the scores were regressed on the logarithm and linear of time. In the second round, calculations of MMSE scores were made for the first two scoring times after admission to tailor the structures of logarithmic and linear regression formulae to fit an individual's degree of functional recovery. The time course of early-phase recovery for cognitive functions resembled both logarithmic and linear functions. However, MMSE scores sampled at two baseline points based on logarithmic regression modeling could estimate prediction of cognitive recovery more accurately than could linear regression modeling (logarithmic modeling, R(2)?=?0.676, P<0.0001; linear regression modeling, R(2)?=?0.598, P<0.0001). Logarithmic modeling based on MMSE scores could accurately predict the recovery of cognitive function soon after the occurrence of stroke. This logarithmic modeling with mathematical procedures is simple enough to be adopted in daily clinical practice. PMID:23326439

Suzuki, Makoto; Sugimura, Yuko; Yamada, Sumio; Omori, Yoshitsugu; Miyamoto, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi

2013-01-01

126

Oil recovery method using steam stimulation of subterranean formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was proposed that a solution containing an oil and water miscible organic liquid, a cationic quaternary amine surfactant and\\/or a nonionic water-soluble surfactant be injected into a reservoir before steam injection for oil recovery. The organic liquid (e.g., Butyl Cellosolve, an ethylene glycol monobutyl ether) decreases clay swelling in the reservoir by removing the water from the clay. To

J. U. Messenger; W. W. Webster

1969-01-01

127

Chronic psychological stress impairs recovery of muscular function and somatic sensations over a 96-hour period.  

PubMed

Stults-Kolehmainen, MA, Bartholomew, JB, and Sinha, R. Chronic psychological stress impairs recovery of muscular function and somatic sensations over a 96-hour period. J Strength Cond Res 28(7): 2007-2017, 2014-The primary aim of this study was to determine whether chronic mental stress moderates recovery of muscular function and somatic sensations: perceived energy, fatigue, and soreness, in a 4-day period after a bout of strenuous resistance exercise. Undergraduate resistance training students (n = 31; age, 20.26 ± 1.34 years) completed the Perceived Stress Scale and the Undergraduate Stress Questionnaire, a measure of life event stress. At a later visit, they performed an acute heavy-resistance exercise protocol (10 repetition maximum [RM] leg press test plus 6 sets: 80-100% of 10RM). Maximal isometric force (MIF), perceived energy, fatigue, and soreness were assessed in approximately 24-hour intervals after exercise. Recovery data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling growth curve analysis. Life event stress significantly moderated linear (p = 0.027) and squared (p = 0.031) recovery of MIF. This relationship held even when the model was adjusted for fitness, workload, and training experience. Perceived energy (p = 0.038), fatigue (p = 0.040), and soreness (p = 0.027) all were moderated by life stress. Mean perceived stress modulated linear and squared recovery of MIF (p < 0.001) and energy (p = 0.004) but not fatigue or soreness. In all analyses, higher stress was associated with worse recovery. Stress, whether assessed as life event stress or perceived stress, moderated the recovery trajectories of muscular function and somatic sensations in a 96-hour period after strenuous resistance exercise. Therefore, under conditions of inordinate stress, individuals may need to be more mindful about observing an appropriate length of recovery. PMID:24343323

Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Bartholomew, John B; Sinha, Rajita

2014-07-01

128

Long-term follow-up of thoratec ventricular assist device bridge-to-recovery patients successfully removed from support after recovery of ventricular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:In certain forms of severe heart failure there is sufficient improvement in cardiac function during ventricular assist device (VAD) support to allow removal of the device. However, it is critical to know whether there is sustained recovery of the heart and long-term patient survival if VAD bridging to recovery is to be considered over the option of transplantation.

David J Farrar; William R Holman; Lawrence R McBride; Robert L Kormos; Timothy B Icenogle; Paul J Hendry; Charles H Moore; Daniel Y Loisance; Aly El-Banayosy; Howard Frazier

2002-01-01

129

Investigating Methods of Heat Recovery from Low-Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in CHP Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat recovery from low-temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells poses a number of challenges. In response to these challenges, thermodynamic assessments of proposed heat recovery methods are studied in the context of combined heat and power (CHP) for building applications. Preheating combustion air in conjunction with desiccant dehumidification and absorption cooling technologies is one of the two strategies examined

Jalalzadeh-Azar

2004-01-01

130

Novel enhanced oil recovery method using dielectric zinc oxide nanoparticles activated by electromagnetic waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep water oil reservoirs buried more than 500m possess high temperature and high pressure conditions, which caused failure to most of the oil recovery methods involving fluid injection. A non-invasive electromagnetic (EM) wave transmission system coupled with nanofluid injection has been proposed to improve recovery factor of an oil reservoir. Interactions of the dielectric nanoparticles at low frequency radio wave

Noor Rasyada Ahmad Latiff; Noorhana Yahya; Hasnah Mohd Zaid; Birol Demiral

2011-01-01

131

Thermographic evaluation of hind paw skin temperature and functional recovery of locomotion after sciatic nerve crush in rats  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: Peripheral nerves are often damaged by direct mechanical injury, diseases, and tumors. The peripheral nerve injuries that result from these conditions can lead to a partial or complete loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions, which in turn are related to changes in skin temperature, in the involved segments of the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in hind paw skin temperature after sciatic nerve crush in rats in an attempt to determine whether changes in skin temperature correlate with the functional recovery of locomotion. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (n?=?7), sham (n?=?25), and crush (n?=?25). All groups were subjected to thermographic, functional, and histological assessments. RESULTS: ?T in the crush group was different from the control and sham groups at the 1st, 3rd and 7rd postoperative days (p<0.05). The functional recovery from the crush group returned to normal values between the 3rd and 4th week post-injury, and morphological analysis of the nerve revealed incomplete regeneration at the 4th week after injury. DISCUSSION: This study is the first demonstration that sciatic nerve crush in rats induces an increase in hind paw skin temperature and that skin temperature changes do not correlate closely with functional recovery

Z. Sacharuk, Viviane; A. Lovatel, Gisele; Ilha, Jocemar; Marcuzzo, Simone; Severo do Pinho, Alexandre; L. Xavier, Leder; A. Zaro, Milton; Achaval, Matilde

2011-01-01

132

Resting State Alpha-band Functional Connectivity and Recovery after Stroke  

PubMed Central

After cerebral ischemia, disruption and subsequent reorganization of functional connections occur both locally and remote to the lesion. However, the unpredictable timing and extent of sensorimotor recovery reflects a gap in understanding of these underlying neural mechanisms. We aimed to identify plasticity of alpha-band functional neural connections within the perilesional area and the predictive value of functional connectivity with respect to motor recovery of the upper extremity after stroke. Our results show improvements in upper extremity motor recovery in relation to distributed changes in MEG-based alpha band functional connectivity, both in the perilesional area and contralesional cortex. Motor recovery was found to be predicted by increased connectivity at baseline in the ipsilesional somatosensory area, supplementary motor area, and cerebellum, contrasted with reduced connectivity of contralesional motor regions, after controlling for age, stroke onset-time and lesion size. These findings support plasticity within a widely distributed neural network and define brain regions in which the extent of network participation predicts post-stroke recovery potential

Westlake, Kelly P.; Hinkley, Leighton B.; Bucci, Monica; Guggisberg, Adrian G.; Findlay, Anne M.; Byl, Nancy; Henry, Roland G.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

2013-01-01

133

False-negative rate and recovery efficiency performance of a validated sponge wipe sampling method.  

PubMed

Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10 × 10(-3) to 1.86 CFU/cm(2)). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD(90) (?1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm(2) on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions. PMID:22138998

Krauter, Paula A; Piepel, Greg F; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G; Einfeld, Wayne

2012-02-01

134

False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method  

PubMed Central

Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10 × 10?3 to 1.86 CFU/cm2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (?1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

Piepel, Greg F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

2012-01-01

135

A review of instruments for measuring functional recovery in those diagnosed with psychosis.  

PubMed

The task of judging an individual's functional recovery is not an easy one for healthcare professionals. Indeed, increasing one's accuracy in predicting one's ability to self-maintain would be of great value for determining if functional recovery has or is occurring. The purpose of this review is to examine existing measures for assessing remission/normalization of functional status among people with psychosis. Our review evaluates 8 measures of functional ability encompassing self-report, clinical, and performance-based measures. We elected to utilize a grading system to aid readers in understanding the merit of a scale for use in assessing functional recovery. In this approach, a letter grade (A, B, or C) was assigned to each of 4 domains we deemed important to professionals in electing to use specific assessments: (1) Ease of Administration, (2) Reliability, (3) Validity/Relationship to Real-World Outcomes, and (4) Sensitivity to Change/Use in Clinical Trials. Results indicated that no "gold standard" measure has been developed to date, but performance-based measures appear to have the most evidence for predicting concurrent self-maintenance abilities (eg, residing independently or maintaining work). More research on existing measures is needed, and greater funding for developing new measures of functional recovery is strongly recommended. PMID:19023122

Mausbach, Brent T; Moore, Raeanne; Bowie, Christopher; Cardenas, Veronica; Patterson, Thomas L

2009-03-01

136

Function recovery after chemobleaching (FRAC): evidence for activity silent membrane receptors on cell surface.  

PubMed

Membrane proteins represent approximately 30% of the proteome of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Unique to cell surface receptors is their biogenesis pathway, which involves vesicular trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum through the Golgi apparatus and to the cell surface. Increasing evidence suggests specific regulation of biogenesis for different membrane receptors, hence affecting their surface expression. We report the development of a pulse-chase assay to monitor function recovery after chemobleaching (FRAC) to probe the transit time of the Kir2.1 K+ channel to reach the cell surface. Our results reveal that the channel activity is contributed by a small fraction of channel protein, providing evidence of activity-silent "sleeping" molecules on the cell surface. This method distinguishes molecular density from functional density, and the assay strategy is generally applicable to other membrane receptors. The ability of the reported method to access the biogenesis pathways in a high-throughput manner facilitates the identification and evaluation of molecules affecting receptor trafficking. PMID:15548608

Sun, Haiyan; Shikano, Sojin; Xiong, Qiaojie; Li, Min

2004-11-30

137

Optimal recovery of values of functions and their derivatives from inaccurate data on the Fourier transform  

SciTech Connect

The problems of the optimal recovery of the derivatives of functions from inaccurate information about the Fourier transforms of these functions on a finite interval or the entire number line are considered. The Stechkin problem of the approximation of derivatives by bounded linear functionals, which is closely connected to this range of problems, is also studied. Precise Kolmogorov-type inequalities for derivatives corresponding to these problems are obtained.

Magaril-Il'yaev, G G [Moscow State Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automatics (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation); Osipenko, K Yu [Moscow State Aviation Technological University (MATI), Moscow (Russian Federation)

2004-10-31

138

Recovery of erectile function by the oral administration of apomorphine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Apomorphine has been reported to be effective in causing erections in animals and man when administered parenterally. The side effects, notably nausea, have seriously limited its clinical usefulness. We formulated apomorphine for controlled sublingual absorption and herein report on four preliminary studies evaluating efficacy and side effects in men with no documentable organic cause of erectile dysfunction.Methods. Patients complaining

Jeremy P. W. Heaton; Alvaro Morales; Michael A. Adams; Brenda Johnston; Ragab El-Rashidy

1995-01-01

139

Functional Recovery of Denervated Skeletal Muscle with Sensory or Mixed Nerve Protection: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Functional recovery is usually poor following peripheral nerve injury when reinnervation is delayed. Early innervation by sensory nerve has been indicated to prevent atrophy of the denervated muscle. It is hypothesized that early protection with sensory axons is adequate to improve functional recovery of skeletal muscle following prolonged denervation of mixed nerve injury. In this study, four groups of rats received surgical denervation of the tibial nerve. The proximal and distal stumps of the tibial nerve were ligated in all animals except for those in the immediate repair group. The experimental groups underwent denervation with nerve protection of peroneal nerve (mixed protection) or sural nerve (sensory protection). The experimental and unprotected groups had a stage II surgery in which the trimmed proximal and distal tibial nerve stumps were sutured together. After 3 months of recovery, electrophysiological, histological and morphometric parameters were assessed. It was detected that the significant muscle atrophy and a good preserved structure of the muscle were observed in the unprotected and protective experimental groups, respectively. Significantly fewer numbers of regenerated myelinated axons were observed in the sensory-protected group. Enhanced recovery in the mixed protection group was indicated by the results of the muscle contraction force tests, regenerated myelinated fiber, and the results of the histological analysis. Our results suggest that early axons protection by mixed nerve may complement sensory axons which are required for promoting functional recovery of the denervated muscle natively innervated by mixed nerve.

Li, Qing Tian; Zhang, Pei Xun; Yin, Xiao Feng; Han, Na; Kou, Yu Hui; Deng, Jiu Xu; Jiang, Bao Guo

2013-01-01

140

Psychological Stress as a Modulator of Functional Recovery Following Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

There is strong evidence indicating that the social environment triggers changes to the psychological stress response and glucocorticoid receptor function. Considerable literature links the subsequent changes in stress resiliency to physical health. Here, converging evidence for the modulatory role of chronic psychological stress in the recovery process following spinal cord injury (SCI) is presented. Despite the considerable advances in SCI research, we are still unable to identify the causes of variability in patients’ recovery following injury. We propose that individuals’ past and present life experiences (in the form of stress exposure) may significantly modulate patients’ outcome post-SCI. We propose a theoretical model to explain the negative impact of chronic psychological stress on physical and psychological recovery. The stress experienced in life prior to SCI and also as a result of the traumatic injury, could compromise glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and function, and contribute to high levels of inflammation and apoptosis post-SCI, decreasing the tissue remaining at the injury site and undermining recovery of function. Both stress-induced glucocorticoid resistance and stress-induced epigenetic changes to the glucocorticoid receptor can modulate the nuclear factor-kappa B regulated inflammatory pathways and the Bcl-2 regulated apoptosis pathways. This model not only contributes to the theoretical understanding of the recovery process following injury, but also provides concrete testable hypotheses for future studies.

Maldonado Bouchard, Sioui; Hook, Michelle A.

2014-01-01

141

Method and apparatus for secondary and tertiary recovery of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for secondary and tertiary recovery of hydrocarbons from oil fields comprising: a. a bipropellant generator capable of producing exhaust gases at supercritical pressures and temperatures; b. transport means for carrying the exhaust gases into a well bore, at least a portion of the well bore extending into a hydrocarbon bearing formation from which hydrocarbons are to be recovered; c. means for introducing water into the transport means; and d. a water cooling jacket extending into at least the upper portion of the well bore, the center of the cooling jacket receiving the exhaust gases from the transport means, means being provided for the introduction of chemical additives through a portion of the cooling jacket. A process is described for secondary and tertiary recovery of hydrocarbons from geological formations comprising: a. providing a well bore extending at least into the strata of the geologic formation containing the hydrocarbons to be recovered; b. providing at least the upper portion of the well bore with a cooling jacket, the cooling jacket being provided with a central, open portion; c. generating gases at supercritical temperatures and pressures; d. introducing water into the supercritical gases to form steam; e. forcing the mixture of supercritical combustion gases and steam through the central open portion of the cooling jacket and the well bore into the hydrocarbon strata; and f. adding chemical additives to the mixture of combustion gases and steam below the cooling jacket.

Rivas, N.; Beichel, R.

1987-07-07

142

Recovery Method of Bred Tritium from Solid Breeders  

SciTech Connect

It is required to develop an efficient tritium fueling cycle keeping the overall tritium breeding ratio larger than 1.0 and a reliable tritium confinement system assuring the radiation safety of tritium in construction of the D-T fusion reactor. The blanket is the place where the tritium recovery system has contact with the cooling system for electricity generation at the elevated temperature. Therefore, design of efficient means to recover bred tritium with minimum permeation loss is to be made.It is proposed in this study to construct a recovery system using the Pd alloy with adsorption bed after a precious metal catalyst bed. Effects of existence of water on dissociation reaction of hydrogen on palladium alloy membrane and on recombination reaction are discussed in this study for the case when 800 Pa of water vapor is introduced to the permeation primary side and/or permeation secondary side for the case when water vapor co-existed, and it was observed that water vapor prevents hydrogen permeation through palladium alloy at the lower temperature than 473K.

Furukubo, Yu-ya [Kyushu University (Japan); Fukuda, Ken-ichi [Kyushu University (Japan); Nishikawa, Masabumi [Kyushu University (Japan); Beloglazov, Sergey [Forschungzentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

2005-07-15

143

Review of statistical methods used in enhanced-oil-recovery research and performance prediction. [131 references  

SciTech Connect

Recent literature in the field of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) was surveyed to determine the extent to which researchers in EOR take advantage of statistical techniques in analyzing their data. In addition to determining the current level of reliance on statistical tools, another objective of this study is to promote by example the greater use of these tools. To serve this objective, the discussion of the techniques highlights the observed trend toward the use of increasingly more sophisticated methods and points out the strengths and pitfalls of different approaches. Several examples are also given of opportunities for extending EOR research findings by additional statistical manipulation. The search of the EOR literature, conducted mainly through computerized data bases, yielded nearly 200 articles containing mathematical analysis of the research. Of these, 21 were found to include examples of statistical approaches to data analysis and are discussed in detail in this review. The use of statistical techniques, as might be expected from their general purpose nature, extends across nearly all types of EOR research covering thermal methods of recovery, miscible processes, and micellar polymer floods. Data come from field tests, the laboratory, and computer simulation. The statistical methods range from simple comparisons of mean values to multiple non-linear regression equations and to probabilistic decision functions. The methods are applied to both engineering and economic data. The results of the survey are grouped by statistical technique and include brief descriptions of each of the 21 relevant papers. Complete abstracts of the papers are included in the bibliography. Brief bibliographic information (without abstracts) is also given for the articles identified in the initial search as containing mathematical analyses using other than statistical methods.

Selvidge, J.E.

1982-06-01

144

Methods of making functionalized nanorods  

DOEpatents

A process for forming functionalized nanorods. The process includes providing a substrate, modifying the substrate by depositing a self-assembled monolayer of a bi-functional molecule on the substrate, wherein the monolayer is chosen such that one side of the bi-functional molecule binds to the substrate surface and the other side shows an independent affinity for binding to a nanocrystal surface, so as to form a modified substrate. The process further includes contacting the modified substrate with a solution containing nanocrystal colloids, forming a bound monolayer of nanocrystals on the substrate surface, depositing a polymer layer over the monolayer of nanocrystals to partially cover the monolayer of nanocrystals, so as to leave a layer of exposed nanocrystals, functionalizing the exposed nanocrystals, to form functionalized nanocrystals, and then releasing the functionalized nanocrystals from the substrate.

Gur, Ilan (San Francisco, CA); Milliron, Delia (Berkeley, CA); Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Liu, Haitao (Berkeley, CA)

2012-01-10

145

Effects of Balance and Gait Training on the Recovery of the Motor Function in an Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate the effect of balance and gait training on the recovery of the motor function in a Parkinson’s disease animal models. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 40 mice were randomly classified into four groups with 10 in each group: Group I-Normal; Group II-Parkinson’s disease and no training; Group III-Parkinson’s disease and balance training was performed; and Group IV-Parkinson’s disease and gait training. Parkinson’s disease was induced by administration of MPTP to animals in Groups II–IV. Groups III and IV did training once a day, five days a week, for four weeks. Neurobehavioral evaluation was performed through the pole and open-field tests. Immunological evaluation was performed via TH (tyrosine hydroxylase) protein expression, using western blot analysis. [Results] In the result of the pole test, Groups III and IV showed significantly greater motor function recovery than to Group II. The results of the open-field test also showed that Groups III and IV had significantly greater motor function recovery than to Group II, and Group IV showed significantly greater motor function recovery than to Group III. Using western blot analysis, we determined that the expression of TH protein in the corpus striatum was greatest in group I, followed by Groups III and IV, and that Group II had the lowest TH protein expression in the corpus striatum. [Conclusion] The results of this study showed that balance and gait training were effective at recovering the motor functions of a Parkinson’s disease animal models induced by MPTP, and that gait training was more effective than balance training.

Yoon, Young-jeoi; Lee, Byung-hoon

2014-01-01

146

GRACE: public health recovery methods following an environmental disaster.  

PubMed

Different approaches are necessary when community-based participatory research (CBPR) of environmental illness is initiated after an environmental disaster within a community. Often such events are viewed as golden scientific opportunities to do epidemiological studies. However, the authors believe that in such circumstances, community engagement and empowerment needs to be integrated into the public health service efforts in order for both those and any science to be successful, with special care being taken to address the immediate health needs of the community first, rather than the pressing needs to answer important scientific questions. The authors will demonstrate how they have simultaneously provided valuable public health service, embedded generalizable scientific knowledge, and built a successful foundation for supplemental CBPR through their on-going recovery work after the chlorine gas disaster in Graniteville, South Carolina. PMID:20439226

Svendsen, Erik R; Whittle, Nancy C; Sanders, Louisiana; McKeown, Robert E; Sprayberry, Karen; Heim, Margaret; Caldwell, Richard; Gibson, James J; Vena, John E

2010-01-01

147

GRACE: Public Health Recovery Methods following an Environmental Disaster  

PubMed Central

Different approaches are necessary when Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) of environmental illness is initiated after an environmental disaster within a community. Often such events are viewed as golden scientific opportunities to do epidemiological studies. However, we believe that in such circumstances, community engagement and empowerment needs to be integrated into the public health service efforts in order for both those and any science to be successful, with special care being taken to address the immediate health needs of the community first rather than the pressing needs to answer important scientific questions. We will demonstrate how we have simultaneously provided valuable public health service, embedded generalizable scientific knowledge, and built a successful foundation for supplemental CBPR through our on-going recovery work after the chlorine gas disaster in Graniteville, South Carolina.

Svendsen, ER; Whittle, N; Wright, L; McKeown, RE; Sprayberry, K; Heim, M; Caldwell, R; Gibson, JJ; Vena, J.

2014-01-01

148

Design of a Reflex-Based Bidirectional Converter With the Energy Recovery Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a reflex charging strategy with the energy recovery function for a bidirectional converter (BC) is proposed to build a novel reflex-based BC (RBC) for increasing the battery charging efficiency in an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). The proposed RBC can provide a reflex charging current profile to charge the battery to obtain a high battery charging efficiency and

Liang-Rui Chen; Neng-Yi Chu; Chau-Shing Wang; Ruey-Hsun Liang

2008-01-01

149

The complex relation between myocardial viability and functional recovery in chronic left ventricular dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preserved myocardial viability and recurrent symptomatic ischemia are the most widely accepted criteria indicating that coronary revascularization should take place in patients with postischemic left ventricular dysfunction. However, the presence of viable myocardium within the infarct zone does not necessarily imply recovery of function after coronary revascularization. The complex relation between the extent of transmural necrosis and the degree of

Luciano Agati; Camillo Autore; Carlo Iacoboni; Monica Castaldo; Gabriele Veneroso; Paolo Voci; Armando Dagianti

1998-01-01

150

Reorganization of Functional Connectivity as a Correlate of Cognitive Recovery in Acquired Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive processes require a functional interaction between specialized multiple, local and remote brain regions. Although these interactions can be strongly altered by an acquired brain injury, brain plasticity allows network reorganization to be principally responsible for recovery. The present work evaluates the impact of brain injury on…

Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Paul, Nuria; Ordonez, Victoria E.; Demuynck, Olivier; Bajo, Ricardo; Campo, Pablo; Bilbao, Alvaro; Ortiz, Tomas; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestu, Fernando

2010-01-01

151

Blood Glucose Concentration After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Influences Functional Neurological Recovery in Human Cardiac Arrest Survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data suggest that postischemic blood glucose concentration plays an important role in modulating both ischemic cerebral infarction and selective neuronal necrosis. This study investigated the association between functional neurological recovery and blood glucose concentrations in human cardiac arrest survivors. A group of 145 nondiabetic patients were evaluated after witnessed ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest. Data regarding cardiac arrest were collected

Marcus Müllner; Fritz Sterz; Michael Binder; Wolfgang Schreiber; Alexander Deimel; Anton N. Laggner

1997-01-01

152

The structural and functional mechanisms of motor recovery: complementary use of diffusion tensor and functional magnetic resonance imaging in a traumatic injury of the internal capsule  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Recovery from focal motor pathway lesions may be associated with a functional reorganisation of cortical motor areas. Previous studies of the relation between structural brain damage and the functional consequences have employed MRI and CT, which provide limited structural information. The recent development of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) now provides quantitative measures of fibre tract integrity and orientation. The objective was to use DTI and functional MRI (fMRI) to determine the mechanisms underlying the excellent recovery found after a penetrating injury to the right capsular region.?METHODS—DTI and fMRI were performed on the patient described; DTI was performed on five normal controls.?RESULTS—The injury resulted in a left hemiplegia which resolved fully over several weeks. When studied 18 months later there was no pyramidal weakness, a mild hemidystonia, and sensory disturbance. fMRI activation maps showed contralateral primary and supplementary motor cortex activation during tapping of each hand; smaller ipsilateral primary motor areas were activated by the recovered hand only. DTI disclosed preserved structural integrity and orientation in the posterior capsular limb by contrast with the disrupted structure in the anterior limb on the injured side.?CONCLUSIONS—The findings suggest that the main recovery mechanism was a preservation of the integrity and orientation of pyramidal tract fibres. The fMRI studies do not suggest substantial reorganisation of the motor cortex, although ipsilateral pathways may have contributed to the recovery. The initial deficit was probably due to reversible local factors including oedema and mass effect; permanent damage to fibre tracts in the anterior capsular limb may account for the persistent sensory deficit. This study shows for the first time the potential value of combining fMRI and DTI together to investigate mechanisms of recovery and persistent deficit in an individual patient. ??

Werring, D; Clark, C; Barker, G; Miller, D; Parker, G; Brammer, M; Bullmore, E; Giampietro, V; Thompson, A

1998-01-01

153

Organism-Sediment Interactions Govern Post-Hypoxia Recovery of Ecosystem Functioning  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia represents one of the major causes of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning loss for coastal waters. Since eutrophication-induced hypoxic events are becoming increasingly frequent and intense, understanding the response of ecosystems to hypoxia is of primary importance to understand and predict the stability of ecosystem functioning. Such ecological stability may greatly depend on the recovery patterns of communities and the return time of the system properties associated to these patterns. Here, we have examined how the reassembly of a benthic community contributed to the recovery of ecosystem functioning following experimentally-induced hypoxia in a tidal flat. We demonstrate that organism-sediment interactions that depend on organism size and relate to mobility traits and sediment reworking capacities are generally more important than recovering species richness to set the return time of the measured sediment processes and properties. Specifically, increasing macrofauna bioturbation potential during community reassembly significantly contributed to the recovery of sediment processes and properties such as denitrification, bedload sediment transport, primary production and deep pore water ammonium concentration. Such bioturbation potential was due to the replacement of the small-sized organisms that recolonised at early stages by large-sized bioturbating organisms, which had a disproportionately stronger influence on sediment. This study suggests that the complete recovery of organism-sediment interactions is a necessary condition for ecosystem functioning recovery, and that such process requires long periods after disturbance due to the slow growth of juveniles into adult stages involved in these interactions. Consequently, repeated episodes of disturbance at intervals smaller than the time needed for the system to fully recover organism-sediment interactions may greatly impair the resilience of ecosystem functioning.

Van Colen, Carl; Rossi, Francesca; Montserrat, Francesc; Andersson, Maria G. I.; Gribsholt, Britta; Herman, Peter M. J.; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda; Ysebaert, Tom; Middelburg, Jack J.

2012-01-01

154

Organism-sediment interactions govern post-hypoxia recovery of ecosystem functioning.  

PubMed

Hypoxia represents one of the major causes of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning loss for coastal waters. Since eutrophication-induced hypoxic events are becoming increasingly frequent and intense, understanding the response of ecosystems to hypoxia is of primary importance to understand and predict the stability of ecosystem functioning. Such ecological stability may greatly depend on the recovery patterns of communities and the return time of the system properties associated to these patterns. Here, we have examined how the reassembly of a benthic community contributed to the recovery of ecosystem functioning following experimentally-induced hypoxia in a tidal flat. We demonstrate that organism-sediment interactions that depend on organism size and relate to mobility traits and sediment reworking capacities are generally more important than recovering species richness to set the return time of the measured sediment processes and properties. Specifically, increasing macrofauna bioturbation potential during community reassembly significantly contributed to the recovery of sediment processes and properties such as denitrification, bedload sediment transport, primary production and deep pore water ammonium concentration. Such bioturbation potential was due to the replacement of the small-sized organisms that recolonised at early stages by large-sized bioturbating organisms, which had a disproportionately stronger influence on sediment. This study suggests that the complete recovery of organism-sediment interactions is a necessary condition for ecosystem functioning recovery, and that such process requires long periods after disturbance due to the slow growth of juveniles into adult stages involved in these interactions. Consequently, repeated episodes of disturbance at intervals smaller than the time needed for the system to fully recover organism-sediment interactions may greatly impair the resilience of ecosystem functioning. PMID:23185440

Van Colen, Carl; Rossi, Francesca; Montserrat, Francesc; Andersson, Maria G I; Gribsholt, Britta; Herman, Peter M J; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda; Ysebaert, Tom; Middelburg, Jack J

2012-01-01

155

Locomotor function after long-duration space flight: effects and motor learning during recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astronauts returning from space flight and performing Earth-bound activities must rapidly transition from the microgravity-adapted\\u000a sensorimotor state to that of Earth’s gravity. The goal of the current study was to assess locomotor dysfunction and recovery\\u000a of function after long-duration space flight using a test of functional mobility. Eighteen International Space Station crewmembers\\u000a experiencing an average flight duration of 185 days performed

Ajitkumar P. Mulavara; Alan H. Feiveson; James Fiedler; Helen Cohen; Brian T. Peters; Chris Miller; Rachel Brady; Jacob J. Bloomberg

2010-01-01

156

Functional analysis of limb recovery following autograft treatment of volumetric muscle loss in the quadriceps femoris.  

PubMed

Severe injuries to the extremities often result in muscle trauma and, in some cases, significant volumetric muscle loss (VML). These injuries continue to be challenging to treat, with few available clinical options, a high rate of complications, and often persistent loss of limb function. To facilitate the testing of regenerative strategies for skeletal muscle, we developed a novel quadriceps VML model in the rat, specifically addressing functional recovery of the limb. Our outcome measures included muscle contractility measurements to assess muscle function and gait analysis for evaluation of overall limb function. We also investigated treatment with muscle autografts, whole or minced, to promote regeneration of the defect area. Our defect model resulted in a loss of muscle function, with injured legs generating less than 55% of muscle strength from the contralateral uninjured control legs, even at 4 weeks post-injury. The autograft treatments did not result in significant recovery of muscle function. Measures of static and dynamic gait were significantly decreased in the untreated, empty defect group, indicating a decrease in limb function. Histological sections of the affected muscles showed extensive fibrosis, suggesting that this scarring of the muscle may be in part the cause of the loss of muscle function in this VML model. Taken together, these data are consistent with clinical findings of reduced muscle function in large VML injuries. This new model with quantitative functional outcome measures offers a platform on which to evaluate treatment strategies designed to regenerate muscle tissue volume and restore limb function. PMID:24280565

Li, Mon Tzu A; Willett, Nick J; Uhrig, Brent A; Guldberg, Robert E; Warren, Gordon L

2014-06-27

157

Recovery improvement of graphene-based gas sensors functionalized with nanoscale heterojunctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a development of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based gas sensors with a practical recovery by facile functionalization with tin dioxide nanoclusters. Upon the introduction of UV illumination to this nanostructure, the reaction on surfaces of tin dioxide nanoclusters was activated and thereby the nanoscale heterojunction barriers between the rGO sheet and the nanoclusters were developed. This lowered the conductance to quickly recover, which was intensified as the cluster density has reached to the percolation threshold. However, after the formation of the cluster percolating network, the sensor response has totally changed into a deterioration of the sensitivity as well as the recovery.

Kang, Il-Suk; So, Hye-Mi; Bang, Gyeong-Sook; Kwak, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Jeong-O.; Won Ahn, Chi

2012-09-01

158

Fast recovery of vacuum magnetic configuration of the W7-X stellarator using function parametrization and artificial neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

W7-X, a five-period, fully optimized stellarator, currently under construction at IPP-Greifswald, Germany, is built with superconducting coils to show the steady state capability of stellarators. However, the steady state needs continuous equilibrium information for monitoring and controlling the discharge. Although the timescales are long compared with tokamaks, the computational effort for calculating three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equilibria is also orders of magnitude higher. This has led us to start the development of a fast equilibrium recovery for W7-X. As a starting point and also for investigating the richness of magnetic configurations, of which only nine physically interesting examples have been examined till now, a fast recovery of vacuum magnetic configurations, described by the flux surface geometry and profile parameters, is carried out using the function parametrization (FP) and artificial neural networks (ANN) methods. Additionally, we parametrize the detectable major magnetic island chains (5/6, 5/5, 5/4) in the form of their locations, \\smash{r_eff^(is)} , and their width, w(is). The quality of FP recovery is compared with ANN, where the vacuum parameters are non-linearly regressed in terms of linear combinations of the coil currents. The results show that a quadratic FP model is generally sufficient for a good recovery of the parameters which are related to the magnetic axis. However, a cubic model is necessary for modelling accurately the magnetic island-related parameters. ANN models offer no improvement over the cubic FP model.

Sengupta, A.; McCarthy, P. J.; Geiger, J.; Werner, A.

2004-11-01

159

An expert system for screening enhanced oil recovery methods  

SciTech Connect

This paper demonstrates how a small expert system can be written with inexpensive shells (CLIPS and EXSHELL) and run on inexpensive personal computers. CLIPS is a forward-chaining rule-based system written in the C language. Rules are entered in a LISP-like format. EXSHELL is a backward-chaining rule-based system written in the PROLOG language. These shells were used to write a small expert system, an expert assistant, which is used to help petroleum engineers screen possible enhanced oil recovery candidate processes. Though the final candidate process is selected on the basis of an economic evaluation, the expert assistant greatly reduces the amount of work involved. The system selects the optimal collection of paths to the solutions and is easily updated as new data become available. This paper also demonstrates the utility and ease of use of these inexpensive shells, compares the approach used by each, and demonstrates the relative advantages of forward-chaining versus backward-chaining for this problem. 11 refs.

Parkinson, W.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Luger, G.F. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (USA). Dept. of Computer Science); Bretz, R.E.; Osowski, J.J. (New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (USA). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering)

1990-01-01

160

Viewing Nature Scenes Positively Affects Recovery of Autonomic Function Following Acute-Mental Stress  

PubMed Central

A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor.

2013-01-01

161

Therapeutic Validity and Effectiveness of Preoperative Exercise on Functional Recovery after Joint Replacement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Our aim was to develop a rating scale to assess the therapeutic validity of therapeutic exercise programmes. By use of this rating scale we investigated the therapeutic validity of therapeutic exercise in patients awaiting primary total joint replacement (TJR). Finally, we studied the association between therapeutic validity of preoperative therapeutic exercise and its effectiveness in terms of postoperative functional recovery. Methods (Quasi) randomised clinical trials on preoperative therapeutic exercise in adults awaiting TJR on postoperative recovery of functioning within three months after surgery were identified through database and reference screening. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk of bias and therapeutic validity. Therapeutic validity of the interventions was assessed with a nine-itemed, expert-based rating scale (scores range from 0 to 9; score ?6 reflecting therapeutic validity), developed in a four-round Delphi study. Effects were pooled using a random-effects model and meta-regression was used to study the influence of therapeutic validity. Results Of the 7,492 articles retrieved, 12 studies (737 patients) were included. None of the included studies demonstrated therapeutic validity and two demonstrated low risk of bias. Therapeutic exercise was not associated with 1) observed functional recovery during the hospital stay (Standardised Mean Difference [SMD]: ?1.19; 95%-confidence interval [CI], ?2.46 to 0.08); 2) observed recovery within three months of surgery (SMD: ?0.15; 95%-CI, ?0.42 to 0.12); and 3) self-reported recovery within three months of surgery (SMD ?0.07; 95%-CI, ?0.35 to 0.21) compared with control participants. Meta-regression showed no statistically significant relationship between therapeutic validity and pooled-effects. Conclusion Preoperative therapeutic exercise for TJR did not demonstrate beneficial effects on postoperative functional recovery. However, poor therapeutic validity of the therapeutic exercise programmes may have hampered potentially beneficial effects, since none of the studies met the predetermined quality criteria. Future review studies on therapeutic exercise should address therapeutic validity.

Hoogeboom, Thomas J.; Oosting, Ellen; Vriezekolk, Johanna E.; Veenhof, Cindy; Siemonsma, Petra C.; de Bie, Rob A.; van den Ende, Cornelia H. M.; van Meeteren, Nico L. U.

2012-01-01

162

Magnesium dietary manipulation and recovery of function following controlled cortical damage in the rat.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that dietary magnesium (Mg2+) deficiency prior to injury worsens recovery of function and that systemic administration of Mg2+ pre or post-injury significantly improves functional recovery. The purpose of the present study was to determine if manipulations in dietary Mg2+ would alter functional recovery following unilateral cortical injuries. Two weeks prior to injury, rats were placed on a customized diet enriched with Mg2+, deficient in Mg2+, or on a standard Mg2+ diet. Rats were then prepared with unilateral cortical contusion injuries (CCI) of the sensorimotor cortex. Two days following CCI, rats were tested on a battery of sensorimotor (vibrissae-forelimb placing and bilateral tactile adhesive removal tests), as well as the acquisition of reference memory in the Morris water maze. Serum analysis for Mg2+ prior to injury showed a diet-dependent modulation in levels. The Mg(2+)-enriched diet showed significantly higher levels of serum Mg2+ compared to the normal diet and the Mg(2+)-deficient diet showed significantly lower levels compared to the Mg(2+)-normal diet. On the placing and tactile removal tests Mg2+ deficiency significantly worsened recovery compared to the Mg(2+)-enriched and Mg(2+-)normal diet conditions. There were no statistically significant differences between the Mg(2+)-normal and Mg(2+)-enriched diets on the sensorimotor tests. On the acquisition of reference memory there were no significant difference between diet conditions; however, the Mg(2+)-deficient diet showed a trend toward impaired performance compared to the other diet conditions. The Mg(2+)-deficient diet resulted in a larger lesion cavity compared to the other diet conditions. These findings suggest that dietary Mg2+ modulates recovery of function. PMID:18557131

Hoane, Michael R; Gilbert, David R; Barbre, Adrianne B; Harrison, Stacy A

2008-03-01

163

Putative neurotrophic factors and functional recovery from peripheral nerve damage in the rat.  

PubMed Central

1. In rats, recovery of sensory-motor function following a crush lesion of the sciatic or tibial nerve was monitored by measuring foot reflex withdrawal from a local noxious stimulation of the foot sole. 2. Putative neurotrophic compounds were tested on this functional recovery model: melanocortins (peptides derived from ACTH (corticotropin) and alpha-MSH (melanotropin], gangliosides and nimodipine were effective whereas isaxonine and TRH (thyrotropin releasing hormone) were not. 3. Structure-activity studies with melanocortins revealed a similar effectiveness of alpha-MSH, [N-Leu4, D-Phe7]-alpha-MSH, desacetyl-alpha-MSH and the ACTH analogue ORG 2766, questioning the validity of the previously suggested notion that the melanotrophic properties of these peptides are responsible for their neurotrophic effect. 4. As recovery of function after peripheral nerve damage follows a similar time course in hypophysectomized (five days post operation) and sham-operated rats, effective melanocortin therapy does not mimic an endogenous peptide signal in the repair process from pituitary origin. 5. Subcutaneous treatment with ORG 2766 (7.5 micrograms kg-1 48 h-1) facilitates recovery of function following peripheral nerve damage in young (6-7 weeks old), mature (5 month old) and old (20 month old) rats. 6. In view of the diversity in structure of the effective neurotrophic factors and the complexity of nerve repair, the present data support the notion that peripheral nerve repair may be facilitated by different humoral factors likely to be active on different aspects of the recovery process.

Van der Zee, C. E.; Brakkee, J. H.; Gispen, W. H.

1991-01-01

164

Exploration method using harmonic functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmonic functions provide optimal potential maps for robot navigation in a previously explored static environment. Here we investigate the performance of an algorithm for exploration based on partial updates of a harmonic potential in an occupancy grid. We consider that while the robot moves it carries along an activation window whose size is of the order of the sensor's range.

Edson Prestes e Silva Jr.; Paulo Martins Engel; Marcelo Trevisan; Marco Aurélio Pires Idiart

2002-01-01

165

Recovery of prolactin function following spontaneous pregnancy in a woman with Sheehan's syndrome  

PubMed Central

Sheehan's syndrome (SS) presents with hypopituitarism after parturition, usually preceded by postpartum hemorrhage. The first symptom of the disorder is lactation failure because of lactotroph cell necrosis. Recovery of lactotroph function after initial insult has not been reported in the literature. We describe the evaluation of a case of SS in whom lactotroph function recovered after the second pregnancy. A young woman delivered her first child at the age of 25 years; delivery was followed by severe postpartum hemorrhage and required blood transfusion. Sheehan's syndrome was diagnosed because of lactotroph, corticotroph, thyrotroph and somatotroph failure and empty sella on MRI. She conceived twice spontaneously and had normal lactation after the second delivery; investigations confirmed the normal basal and stimulable prolactin levels. We presume that recovery of lactotroph function after the second pregnancy in a patient with SS is possibly because of stimulatory effect of estrogen and progesterone on residual lactotroph cells.

Laway, Bashir A.; Mir, Shahnaz A.; Zargar, Abdul H.

2013-01-01

166

Fluoxetine treatment promotes functional recovery in a rat model of cervical spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe condition leading to enduring motor deficits. When lesions are incomplete, promoting spinal cord plasticity might be a useful strategy to elicit functional recovery. Here we investigated whether long-term fluoxetine administration in the drinking water, a treatment recently demonstrated to optimize brain plasticity in several pathological conditions, promotes motor recovery in rats that received a C4 dorsal funiculus crush. We show that fluoxetine administration markedly improved motor functions compared to controls in several behavioral paradigms. The improved functional effects correlated positively with significant sprouting of intact corticospinal fibers and a modulation of the excitation/inhibition balance. Our results suggest a potential application of fluoxetine treatment as a non invasive therapeutic strategy for SCI-associated neuropathologies. PMID:23860568

Scali, Manuela; Begenisic, Tatjana; Mainardi, Marco; Milanese, Marco; Bonifacino, Tiziana; Bonanno, Giambattista; Sale, Alessandro; Maffei, Lamberto

2013-01-01

167

Role of Neurotrophins in Recovery of Phrenic Motor Function Following Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Many individuals who sustain a cervical spinal cord injury are unable to maintain adequate ventilation due to diaphragm muscle paralysis. These patients become dependent on mechanical ventilators and this situation is associated with ongoing problems with pulmonary clearance, infections, and lung injury leading to significant morbidity and reduced life expectancy. Therefore, functional recovery of rhythmic phrenic activity and the ability to generate expulsive forces would dramatically affect the quality of life of patients with cervical spinal cord injury. Neurotrophins are very promising in that they have been shown to play an important role in modulating functional neuroplasticity. Specifically, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acting via the tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (TrkB) has been implicated in neuroplasticity following spinal cord injury. Our central hypothesis is that functional recovery of rhythmic phrenic activity after cervical spinal cord injury is enhanced by an increase in BDNF/TrkB signaling in phrenic motoneurons, providing a novel therapeutic target for patients.

Sieck, Gary C.; Mantilla, Carlos B.

2009-01-01

168

Recovery of Renal Function in Patients with Accelerated Malignant Nephrosclerosis on Maintenance Dialysis with Management of Blood Pressure by Captopril  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of renal function to a self-sustaining level was observed in 4 patients with accelerated malignant hypertension who required chronic hemodialysis therapy. Excellent blood pressure control was achieved in all the patients on captopril therapy. Hemodialysis could be discontinued after 2–9 months of captopril therapy; on recovery of renal function levels of creatinine clearance became stable ranging from 28 to

Georges Mourad; Albert Mimran; Charles M. Mion

1985-01-01

169

A Paraperspective Factorization Method for Shape and Motion Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factorization method, first developed by Tomasi and Kanade, recovers both the shape of an object and its motion from a sequence of images, using many images and tracking many feature points to obtain highly redundant feature position information. The method robustly processes the feature trajec- tory information using singular value decomposition (SVD), taking advantage of the linear algebraic properties

Conrad J. Poelman; Takeo Kanade

1997-01-01

170

Recovery of Endothelial Function in Severe Falciparum Malaria: Relationship with Improvement in Plasma L-Arginine and Blood Lactate Concentrations  

PubMed Central

Background Severe malaria is characterized by microvascular obstruction, endothelial dysfunction, and reduced levels of L-arginine and nitric oxide (NO). L-Arginine infusion improves endothelial function in moderately severe malaria. Neither the longitudinal course of endothelial dysfunction nor factors associated with recovery have been characterized in severe malaria. Methods Endothelial function was measured longitudinally in adults with severe malaria (n = 49) or moderately severe malaria (n = 48) in Indonesia, using reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT). In a mixed-effects model, changes in RH-PAT index values in patients with severe malaria were related to changes in parasitemia, lactate, acidosis, and plasma L-arginine concentrations. Results Among patients with severe malaria, the proportion with endothelial dysfunction fell from 94% (46/49 patients) to 14% (6/42 patients) before discharge or death (P <.001). In severe malaria, the median time to normal endothelial function was 49 h (interquartile range, 20–70 h) after the start of antimalarial therapy. The mean increase in L-arginine concentrations in patients with severe malaria was 11 ?mol/L/24 h (95% confidence interval [CI], 9–13 ?mol/L/24 h), from a baseline of 49 ?mol/L (95% CI, 37–45 ?mol/L). Improvement of endothelial function in patients with severe malaria correlated with increasing levels of L-arginine (r = 0.56; P =.008) and decreasing levels of lactate (r = ?0.44; P =.001). Conclusions Recovery of endothelial function in severe malaria is associated with recovery from hypoargininemia and lactic acidosis. Agents that can improve endothelial NO production and endothelial function, such as L-arginine, may have potential as adjunctive therapy early during the course of severe malaria.

Yeo, Tsin W.; Lampah, Daniel A.; Gitawati, Retno; Tjitra, Emiliana; Kenangalem, Enny; McNeil, Yvette R.; Darcy, Christabelle J.; Granger, Donald L.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Lopansri, Bert K.; Price, Ric N.; Duffull, Stephen B.; Celermajer, David S.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

2009-01-01

171

IMPROVED METHOD FOR RECOVERY OF ENTERIC VIRUSES FROM WASTEWATER SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Various parameters involved in recovering indigenous enteric viruses from wastewater sludges aided by buffered beef extract elution and subsequent organic flocculation concentration were examined. Conditions were optimized to yield an overall effective method for use in environme...

172

Efficacy of the thin agar layer method for the recovery of stressed Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii).  

PubMed

Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) are emerging opportunistic pathogens for all age groups, and are of particular concern when it comes to infants. Prior to contaminating food, the organism may be exposed to a variety of stresses, leading to a generation of sublethally injured cells that may not be detected by selective media unless a protracted recovery period is included in the isolation procedure. This study evaluated the efficacy of the thin agar layer (TAL) method for the recovery of Cronobacter cells that had been exposed to various stress conditions. Five strains of C. sakazakii and C. muytjensii were exposed to starvation, heat, cold, acid, alkaline, chlorine, or ethanol, with or without further exposure to desiccation stress. The recovery of the stressed cells was determined on tryptone soy agar (TSA; nonselective control medium), violet red bile glucose agar (VRBGA; selective agar), Druggan-Forsythe-Iversen (DFI; selective agar), and TAL media (viz., VRBGA overlaid with TSA, and DFI overlaid with TSA). Regardless of stress type, there were no significant differences among the recoveries of stressed desiccated Cronobacter spp. cultures on TSA, DFI+TSA, and VRBGA+TSA, but there was significantly less recovery on VRBGA. The recovery of prestressed desiccated Cronobacter spp. on DFI+TSA was similar to that on TSA, whereas the recovery on VRBGA+TSA was lower. DFI+TSA performed better than VRBGA+TSA did in differentiating Cronobacter spp. within mixed bacterial cultures. The results of this study suggest the use of the TAL method DFI+TSA as an improved method for the direct recovery of stressed Cronobacter spp. PMID:21067681

Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Shaker, Reyad R; Al-Holy, Murad M; Al-Haddaq, Mohammed S; Olaimat, Amin N; Ayyash, Mutamed M; Al Ta'ani, Mahmoud K; Forsythe, Stephen J

2010-10-01

173

Ecto-domain phosphorylation promotes functional recovery from spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Inhibition of Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) can promote recovery following spinal cord injury. The ecto-domain of NgR can be phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA), which blocks activation of the receptor. Here, we found that infusion of PKA plus ATP into the damaged spinal cord can promote recovery of locomotor function. While significant elongation of cortical-spinal axons was not detectable even in the rats showing enhanced recovery, neuronal precursor cells were observed in the region where PKA plus ATP were directly applied. NgR1 was expressed in neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPs) derived from the adult spinal cord. Both an NgR1 antagonist NEP1-40 and ecto-domain phosphorylation of NgR1 promote neuronal cell production of the NSPs, in vitro. Thus, inhibition of NgR1 in NSPs can promote neuronal cell production, which could contribute to the enhanced recovery of locomotor function following infusion of PKA and ATP. PMID:24826969

Suehiro, Kenji; Nakamura, Yuka; Xu, Shuai; Uda, Youichi; Matsumura, Takafumi; Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Okamura, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Toshihide; Takei, Yoshinori

2014-01-01

174

Ecto-domain phosphorylation promotes functional recovery from spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) can promote recovery following spinal cord injury. The ecto-domain of NgR can be phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA), which blocks activation of the receptor. Here, we found that infusion of PKA plus ATP into the damaged spinal cord can promote recovery of locomotor function. While significant elongation of cortical-spinal axons was not detectable even in the rats showing enhanced recovery, neuronal precursor cells were observed in the region where PKA plus ATP were directly applied. NgR1 was expressed in neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPs) derived from the adult spinal cord. Both an NgR1 antagonist NEP1-40 and ecto-domain phosphorylation of NgR1 promote neuronal cell production of the NSPs, in vitro. Thus, inhibition of NgR1 in NSPs can promote neuronal cell production, which could contribute to the enhanced recovery of locomotor function following infusion of PKA and ATP.

Suehiro, Kenji; Nakamura, Yuka; Xu, Shuai; Uda, Youichi; Matsumura, Takafumi; Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Okamura, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Toshihide; Takei, Yoshinori

2014-01-01

175

PET Demonstrates Functional Recovery after Treatment by Danhong Injection in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate neuroprotection of Danhong injection (DHI) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET). Method. Rats were divided into 5 groups: sham group, ischemia-reperfusion untreated (IRU) group, DHI-1 group (DHI 1?mL/kg/d), DHI-2 group (DHI 2?mL/kg/d), and DHI-4 group (DHI 4?mL/kg/d). AII the treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with DHI daily for 14 days. The therapeutic effects in terms of cerebral infarct volume, neurological function, and cerebral glucose metabolism were evaluated. Expression of TNF-? and IL-1? was detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Levels of mature neuronal marker (NeuN), glial marker (GFAP), vascular density factor (vWF), and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Compared with the IRU group, rats treated with DHI showed dose dependent reductions in cerebral infarct volume and levels of proinflammatory cytokines, improvement of neurological function, and recovery of cerebral glucose metabolism. Meanwhile, the significantly increased numbers of neurons, gliocytes, and vessels and the recovery of glucose utilization were found in the peri-infarct region after DHI treatment using immunohistochemical analysis. Conclusion. This study demonstrated the metabolic recovery after DHI treatment by micro-PET imaging with 18F-FDG and the neuroprotective effects of DHI in a rat model of cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury.

Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Yuyan; He, Yu; Yang, Jiehong; Zhao, Tao; Fu, Wei; Xing, Panke; Wan, Haitong; Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong

2014-01-01

176

Improved method for recovery of peritonitis-causing microorganisms from peritoneal dialysate.  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of recovery of peritonitis-causing microorganisms from peritoneal dialysate fluid by using the Septi-Chek blood culture system (Roche Diagnostics, Div. Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., Nutley, N.J.) was compared with those of other conventional techniques, such as the 20-ml culture and the filtration methods. The recovery of microorganisms by using the Septi-Chek system was found to be as effective as the filtration of 250 ml of dialysate that used a modified Millipore filtration technique (Millipore Corp., Bedford, Mass.). Both methods were found to be superior to the 20-ml culture method. We suggest using the Septi-Chek method as the standard protocol for the culture of dialysate as a relatively inexpensive and labor-saving recovery technique.

Ryan, S; Fessia, S

1987-01-01

177

Recovery of Diaphragm Function following Mechanical Ventilation in a Rodent Model  

PubMed Central

Background Mechanical ventilation (MV) induces diaphragmatic muscle fiber atrophy and contractile dysfunction (ventilator induced diaphragmatic dysfunction, VIDD). It is unknown how rapidly diaphragm muscle recovers from VIDD once spontaneous breathing is restored. We hypothesized that following extubation, the return to voluntary breathing would restore diaphragm muscle fiber size and contractile function using an established rodent model. Methods Following 12 hours of MV, animals were either euthanized or, after full wake up, extubated and returned to voluntary breathing for 12 hours or 24 hours. Acutely euthanized animals served as controls (each n?=?8/group). Diaphragmatic contractility, fiber size, protease activation, and biomarkers of oxidative damage in the diaphragm were assessed. Results 12 hours of MV induced VIDD. Compared to controls diaphragm contractility remained significantly depressed at 12 h after extubation but rebounded at 24 h to near control levels. Diaphragmatic levels of oxidized proteins were significantly elevated after MV (p?=?0.002) and normalized at 24 hours after extubation. Conclusions These findings indicate that diaphragm recovery from VIDD, as indexed by fiber size and contractile properties, returns to near control levels within 24 hours after returning to spontaneous breathing. Besides the down-regulation of proteolytic pathways and oxidative stress at 24 hours after extubation further repairing mechanisms have to be determined.

Bruells, Christian S.; Bergs, Ingmar; Rossaint, Rolf; Du, Jun; Bleilevens, Christian; Goetzenich, Andreas; Weis, Joachim; Wiggs, Michael P.; Powers, Scott K.; Hein, Marc

2014-01-01

178

Function of transected or avulsed rectus muscles following recovery using an anterior orbitotomy approach  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To assess the function of muscles retrieved from a retrobulbar location using an anterior orbitotomy approach and to identify the prognostic factors favoring a good outcome. METHODS The records of all patients undergoing anterior orbitotomy for the retrieval of a transected or avulsed muscle in a retrobulbar location were reviewed. Ocular motility, before and after retrieval (with ductions scaled from ?4 to +4), was evaluated. RESULTS Record review identified 11 patients who had suffered trauma to 12 muscles (5 inferior, 6 medial, and 1 lateral rectus muscle). Ductions improved from ?4 ± 0.4 preoperatively to ?2.7 ± 0.9 postoperatively (P = 0.002); mean primary position deviation improved from 34? ± 14?-15? ± 9? (P < 0.001), and mean deviation in the field of action improved from 47? ± 20?-20? ± 22? (P = 0.02). Ductions improved by at least two units in three patients, all of whom had medial rectus trauma. Single binocular vision in primary gaze was achieved in 6 patients. Patients with medial rectus muscle injury and patients injured by sinus surgery had the lowest likelihood of recovering single binocular vision. CONCLUSIONS Our results are similar to historical series in which muscles were not retrieved and transpositions performed; however, muscle retrieval avoids risks associated with transposition surgeries such as anterior segment ischemia. Muscle recovery via the anterior orbitotomy approach may be reasonable to consider in those cases with a reasonable possibility of having active force generation postoperatively.

Pineles, Stacy L.; Laursen, Jessica; Goldberg, Robert A.; Demer, Joseph L.; Velez, Federico G.

2013-01-01

179

Graphical user interface (GUIDE) for the control of two methods of recovery profiles for tridimensional objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recovery profile of an object is of great interest in different technical, metrological and medical applications. In this work we present a system which, through a single graphical interface, we can set grid generation, acquisition and image processing for two different fringe projection methods; such as the Phase-Shifting method and the so-called Takeda method. Both techniques are aimed to obtain surfaces profiles through phase recovery. The use of the proposed system has the advantage that there is no need for decoupled systems for fringe projection for image acquisition and one for processing them. We present some preliminary results obtained using the proposed system.

Canchola Chávez, Marco A.; López Olazagasti, Estela; Ramírez Zavaleta, Gustavo; Ibarra Galitzia, Jorge; Tepichín Rodríguez, Eduardo

2012-10-01

180

Functional Motor Recovery from Motoneuron Axotomy Is Compromised in Mice with Defective Corticospinal Projections  

PubMed Central

Brachial plexus injury (BPI) and experimental spinal root avulsion result in loss of motor function in the affected segments. After root avulsion, significant motoneuron function is restored by re-implantation of the avulsed root. How much this functional recovery depends on corticospinal inputs is not known. Here, we studied that question using Celsr3|Emx1 mice, in which the corticospinal tract (CST) is genetically absent. In adult mice, we tore off right C5–C7 motor and sensory roots and re-implanted the right C6 roots. Behavioral studies showed impaired recovery of elbow flexion in Celsr3|Emx1 mice compared to controls. Five months after surgery, a reduced number of small axons, and higher G-ratio of inner to outer diameter of myelin sheaths were observed in mutant versus control mice. At early stages post-surgery, mutant mice displayed lower expression of GAP-43 in spinal cord and of myelin basic protein (MBP) in peripheral nerves than control animals. After five months, mutant animals had atrophy of the right biceps brachii, with less newly formed neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and reduced peak-to-peak amplitudes in electromyogram (EMG), than controls. However, quite unexpectedly, a higher motoneuron survival rate was found in mutant than in control mice. Thus, following root avulsion/re-implantation, the absence of the CST is probably an important reason to hamper axonal regeneration and remyelination, as well as target re-innervation and formation of new NMJ, resulting in lower functional recovery, while fostering motoneuron survival. These results indicate that manipulation of corticospinal transmission may help improve functional recovery following BPI.

Ding, Yuetong; Qu, Yibo; Feng, Jia; Wang, Meizhi; Han, Qi; So, Kwok-Fai; Wu, Wutian; Zhou, Libing

2014-01-01

181

MODIFICATION IN TECHNIQUE FOR NEUROVASCULAR BUNDLE PRESERVATION DURING RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY: ASSOCIATION BETWEEN TECHNIQUE AND RECOVERY OF ERECTILE FUNCTION  

PubMed Central

Purpose We recently modified our radical prostatectomy (RP) technique such that the neurovascular bundle (NVB) is completely mobilized off the prostate from the apex to above the seminal vesicles, including incision of Denonvilliers’ fascia, prior to urethral division and mobilization of the prostate off the rectum. We prospectively evaluated whether this modification in surgical technique was associated with an improvement in postoperative erectile function (EF) recovery. Materials and Methods Data from patients treated prior to technique modification was used to create a predictive model for EF at 6 months after RP using age, date of surgery, and nerve sparing (none vs unilateral vs bilateral) as predictors for patients who received the modified technique (MT) to estimate the expected outcomes had they received the standard technique (ST), and compared these with actual outcomes. Results Of 372 patients with evaluable data, 275 (74%) underwent the ST from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004 and 97 (26%) underwent the MT from January 1, 2005 through May 30, 2006. Sixty-five of the 97 patients (67%) receiving the MT had EF recovery at 6 months, whereas the expected probability of 6-month EF, had they received the ST, was 45%. The absolute improvement in EF recovery attributable to the MT was 22% (95% CI 5% to 40%; p = 0.013). Conclusions Technical modifications to NVB preservation during RP were associated with improved rates of EF recovery. Whether a causal association exists between change in technique and outcome requires further evaluation. Additionally, longer follow-up will be required to determine the effect our MT has on the quality of erections and overall EF recovery rates.

Masterson, Timothy A.; Serio, Angel M.; Mulhall, John P.; Vickers, Andrew J.; Eastham, James A.

2008-01-01

182

Method for energy recovery from solid hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method for achieving environmentally sound disposal of hazardous waste in an operating rotary kiln. It comprises a heated, rotating cylinder containing in-process mineral material. The method comprises: the steps of packaging the hazardous waste in containers and charging the containerized hazardous waste into the kiln to contact the mineral material at a point along the length of the kiln cylinder where the kiln gas temperature ranges from about 950{sup 0}C to about 1200{sup 0}C.

Benoit, M.R.; Hansen, E.R.; Reese, T.J.

1989-07-25

183

Routine methods for post-transportation accident recovery of spent fuel casks  

SciTech Connect

Spent fuel casks and other large radioactive material packages have been examined to determine whether the designs are adequate to allow the casks to be recovered using conventional recovery methods following a transportation accident. Casks and similar packages are typically designed with, and handled by, trunnions that support the package during transport. These trunnions are considered the best cask feature with which to grapple the cask once it is no longer in its usual shipping mode. Following a transport accident, the trunnions may be buried or entangled so that they are not readily accessible to initiate the recovery process. To evaluate the effectiveness of applying traditional recovery methods to spent fuel casks, a workshop was held in which a series of accidents involving casks were postulated; the modes of transportation considered included truck, rail, and barge. These participants knowledgeable in transport, handling, and, in some cases, recovery of large, heavy containers attended. Participants concluded that the physical recovery of a cask involved in an accident, irrespective of where the accident occurs, would be a straightforward rigging operation and that the addition of specific recovery features (e.g., additional trunnions) to the cask appears unnecessary.

Shappert, L.B.; Pope, R.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Best, R.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jones, R.H. [Jones (R.H.), Los Gatos, CA (United States)

1991-12-31

184

An Adaptive Method for Image Recovery in the DFT Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In image authentication research, a common approach is to divide a given image into a number of smaller blocks, and embed a fragile watermark into each block. The modifications can therefore be detected in th e blocks that have been tampered with. The literature includes many authentication techniques for detecting modifications only. In this paper, we propose a method for

Peining Tao; Ahmet M. Eskicioglu

2006-01-01

185

A method for image recovery in the DFT domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In image authentication research, a common approach is to divide a given image into a number of smaller blocks, and embed a fragile watermark into each and every block. The modifications can therefore be detected in the blocks that have been tampered with. The literature includes many authentication techniques for detecting modifications only. In this paper, we propose a method

Peining Tao; Ahmet M. Eskicioglu

2006-01-01

186

Modulation of early functional recovery of Achilles tendon to bone unit after transection by BPC 157 and methylprednisolone  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Objective and design:  In the presented study we compared the effect of stable peptide BPC 157 and methylprednisolone on early functional recovery\\u000a after Achilles tendon to bone transection in a rat model before collagen healing started.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material and methods:  Surgical transection of the right Achilles tendon to bone area was performed in seventy two Wistar Albino male rats. Healing\\u000a Achilles tendon

A. Krivic; M. Majerovic; I. Jelic; S. Seiwerth; P. Sikiric

2008-01-01

187

Method of predicting oil recovery in a five-spot steam flood  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented of predicting the recovery and performance of a 5-spot steam injection project, in which a realistic approach to pattern sweepout efficiencies is made. Published methods for radial systems were modified for the 5-spot pattern by approximating the streamlines with straight lines radiating out from the injection well and then converging to the producing well. In each

L. G. Davies; L. H. Silbergerg; B. H. Caudle

1967-01-01

188

[Recording of the recovery of fluorescence after bleaching as a method for cell research].  

PubMed

The main principles, experimental base and practical application of the method of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching registration are reviewed. The method allows to measure dynamics of the membrane components, to determine diffusion and convection constants, the cell fluorophor mobility etc. PMID:4089961

Posudin, Iu I

1985-11-01

189

Recovery based error estimation and adaptivity applied to a modified element-free Galerkin method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we propose an error estimator of the recovery type, which considers the equilibrium and boundary traction conditions, and an h-refinement procedure that is applied to the modified element-free Galerkin (MEFG) method. The approximate solution obtained by the MEFG method satisfies accurately the essential boundary condition. However, the approximate MEFG stress field presents some discontinuities on a neighborhood

R. Rossi; M. K. Alves

2004-01-01

190

Canine Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Promote Functional Recovery in Mice with Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Regenerative therapy has begun to be clinically applied in humans and dogs to treat neurological disorders, such as spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we show the therapeutic potential of transplantation of cultured canine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) into mice with SCI. Canine BMSC transplantation therapy was performed, immediately after the spinal cord was injured. Canine BMSC therapy enhanced functional recovery of the hind limbs in mice with SCI. Nestin-positive cells were observed only in the lesion of mice with SCI that received BMSCs. These results suggest that canine BMSCs promote functional recovery in mice with SCI and that migration of nestin-positive cells may contribute to the efficacy of the BMSC treatment.

ODA, Yasutaka; TANI, Kenji; ASARI, Yusuke; QUINTANILHA, Luiz Fernando; HARAGUCHI, Tomoya; MOMOTA, Yutaka; KATAYAMA, Masaaki; ITAMOTO, Kazuhito; NAKAZAWA, Hiroshi; TAURA, Yasuho

2014-01-01

191

Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.

Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley, NJ)

2011-03-08

192

Carvacrol Together with TRPC1 Elimination Improve Functional Recovery after Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract Death of Central Nervous System (CNS) neurons following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex process arising from a combination of factors, many of which are still unknown. It has been found that inhibition of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels constitutes an effective strategy for preventing death of CNS neurons following TBI. TRP channels are classified into seven related subfamilies, most of which are Ca2+ permeable and involved in many cellular functions, including neuronal cell death. We hypothesized that TRP channels of the TRPC subfamily may be involved in post-TBI pathophysiology and that the compound 5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol (carvacrol), by inhibition of TRP channels, may exert neuroprotective effect after TBI. To test these suppositions, carvacrol was given to mice after TBI and its effect on their functional recovery was followed for several weeks. Our results show that neurological recovery after TBI was significantly enhanced by application of carvacrol. To better define the type of the specific channel involved, the effect of carvacrol on the extent and speed of recovery after TBI was compared among mice lacking TRPC1, TRPC3, or TRPC5, relative to wild type controls. We found that neurological recovery after TBI was significantly enhanced by combining carvacrol with TRPC1 elimination, but not by the absence of TRPC3 or TRPC5, showing a synergistic effect between carvacrol application and TRPC1 elimination. We conclude that TRPC1-sensitive mechanisms are involved in TBI pathology, and that inhibition of this channel by carvacrol enhances recovery and should be considered for further studies in animal models and humans.

Peters, Maximilian; Trembovler, Victoria; Alexandrovich, Alexander; Parnas, Moshe; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Minke, Baruch

2012-01-01

193

Spaceflight-Induced Cardiovascular Changes and Recovery During NASA's Functional Task Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microgravity-induced physiological changes could impair a crewmember s performance upon return to a gravity environment. The Functional Task Test (FTT) is designed to correlate these physiological changes to performance in mission-critical tasks. The Recovery from Fall/Stand Test (RFST) simulates one such task, measuring the ability to recover from a prone position and the cardiovascular response to orthostasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate spaceflight-induced cardiovascular changes during the FTT. METHODS: Five astronauts participated in the FTT before 10-15 day missions, on landing day (R+0), and one (R+1), six (R+6) and thirty (R+30) days after landing. The RFST consisted of a 2-minute prone rest followed by a 3-minute stand during which heart rate (HR, Holter) and continuous blood pressure (BP, Finometer) were measured. Spectral heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated during the RFST to approximate autonomic function. Statistical analysis was performed with two-factor repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: During RFST, HR was higher on R+0 than preflight (p<0.004). This increase in HR persisted on R+1 and R+6 during the stand portion of RFST (p<0.026). BP was well-regulated on all test days. Parasympathetic activity was diminished on R+0 (p=0.035). Sympathovagal balance tended to be affected by spaceflight (main effect, p=0.072), appearing to be slightly elevated during postflight RFST except on R+30. Additionally, analysis of HR during the functional tasks yielded a higher HR on R+0 than preflight during 8 of 11 tasks analyzed, where all tasks had HR return to preflight values by R+30 (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Spaceflight causes an increase in HR, decrease in parasympathetic activity, and increase in sympathovagal balance, which we confirmed during RFST. These spaceflight-induced changes seen in the RFST, along with the increased postflight HR in most functional tasks, can be used to assess functional performance after short-duration spaceflight.

Arzeno, N. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, S. H.

2010-01-01

194

Functional and anatomic recovery in the monkey brain following excision of fetal encephalocele.  

PubMed

Teratogen-induced herniation of the occipital lobes (encephalocele) in monkey fetuses was repaired by amputation and cranioplasty in utero or postnatally. The in utero-treated animals had normal vision, CT scans indicated normal brain density, and autoradiographic visualization of the striate cortex by the [14C]-2-deoxyglucose mapping revealed almost complete functional and anatomic recovery. The animals treated postnatally were blind, and exhibited significant structural deficit in the operated area. PMID:3837881

Michejda, M; Bacher, J

195

Recovery of Vestibular Ocular Reflex Function and Balance Control after a Unilateral Peripheral Vestibular Deficit  

PubMed Central

This review describes the effect of unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit (UPVD) on balance control for stance and gait tests. Because a UPVD is normally defined based on vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) tests, we compared recovery observed in balance control with patterns of recovery in VOR function. Two general types of UPVD are considered; acute vestibular neuritis (AVN) and vestibular neurectomy. The latter was subdivided into vestibular loss after cerebellar pontine angle tumor surgery during which a vestibular neurectomy was performed, and vestibular loss following neurectomy to eliminate disabling Ménière’s disease. To measure balance control, body-worn gyroscopes, mounted near the body’s center of mass (CoM), were used. Measurement variables were the pitch (anterior–posterior) and roll (lateral) sway angles and angular velocities of the lower trunk/pelvis. Both patient groups showed balance deficits during stance tasks on foam, especially with eyes closed when stable balance control is normally highly dependent on vestibular inputs. Deficits during gait were also present and were more profound for complex gait tasks such as tandem gait than simple gait tasks. Major differences emerged between the groups concerning the severity of the deficit and its recovery. Generally, the effects of acute neuritis on balance control were more severe but recovered rapidly. Deficits due to vestibular neurectomy were less severe, but longer lasting. These results mostly paralleled recovery of deficits in VOR function. However, questions need to be raised about the effect on balance control of the two modes of neural plasticity occurring in the vestibular system following vestibular loss due to neuritis: one mode being the limited central compensation for the loss, and the second mode being some restoration of peripheral vestibular function. Future work will need to correlate deficits in balance control during stance and gait more exactly with VOR deficits and carefully consider the differences between insufficient central compensation compared to inadequate peripheral restoration of function.

Allum, J. H. J.

2012-01-01

196

Celecoxib Induces Functional Recovery After Intracerebral Hemorrhage With Reduction of Brain Edema and Perihematomal Cell Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor has been reported to have antiinflammatory, neuroprotective, and antioxidant effects in ischemia models. In this study, the authors examined whether a selective COX-2 inhibitor (cele-coxib) reduces cerebral inflammation and edema after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and whether functional recovery is sustained with longer treatment. ICH was induced using collagenase in adult rats. Celecoxib (10 or 20

Kon Chu; Sang-Wuk Jeong; Keun-Hwa Jung; So-Young Han; Soon-Tae Lee; Manho Kim; Jae-Kyu Roh

2004-01-01

197

A method for the recovery of DNA from agarose gels.  

PubMed Central

We describe a quick and versatile method for the isolation of DNA from agarose gels. The DNA is electrophoresed into a trough containing hydroxyapatite, where it is bound. The hydroxyapatite is taken out and the DNA eluted with phosphate buffer. By putting the hydroxyapatite on a small column of Sephadex G50, elution and subsequent removal of phosphate can be performed in one step. The DNA recovered can be used equally well in enzymatic incubations as DNA not purified through agarose gel electrophoresis. Several applications of this technique are described. Images

Tabak, H F; Flavell, R A

1978-01-01

198

Method for recovery of energy values of oily refinery sludges  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for disposal of oil refinery sludges containing hydrocarbons, sediment, and at least about 5 percent water by weight in an operating rotary kiln comprising a heated, rotating cylinder containing in-process mineral matter, the rotary kiln having a firing zone in which fuel is ignited. It comprises analyzing the oily refinery sludge to determine its composition, providing the oily refinery sludge as a dried bulk granular material having an energy content of at least about 4,000 BTU per pound, and charging the dried granular material to the firing zone of the rotary kiln as a bulk material and burning the bulk material therein.

Schreiber, R.J. Jr.; Lafser, F.A. Jr.; Yonely, C.

1992-01-07

199

Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite  

DOEpatents

High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

Reimann, George A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1986-01-01

200

Method of enhanced oil recovery employing thickened amphoteric surfactant solutions  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for recovering petroleum from a subterranean reservoir penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well comprising: injecting into the reservoir through the injection well a surfactant slug comprising an aqueous solution containing about 0.001 to about 5% by weight of an amphoteric surfactant and an effective amount of a high molecular weight homopolysaccharide gum thickener derived from fungus strains of the genus Schlerotium to provide the surfactant slug with a viscosity exceeding the viscosity of the petroleum in the reservoir; and recovering fluid from the production well.

Kalpakci, B.; Chan, K. S.

1985-11-26

201

Manual stimulation of facial muscles improves functional recovery after hypoglossal–facial anastomosis and interpositional nerve grafting of the facial nerve in adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facial nerve in humans is often prone to injuries requiring surgical intervention. In the best case, nerve reconstruction is achieved by a facial–facial anastomosis (FFA), i.e. suture of the proximal and distal stumps of the severed facial nerve. Although a method of choice, FFA rarely leads to a satisfactory functional recovery. We have recently devised and validated, in an

Orlando Guntinas-Lichius; Gregor Hundeshagen; Thomas Paling; Michael Streppel; Maria Grosheva; Andrey Irintchev; Emmanouil Skouras; Athanasia Alvanou; Srebrina K. Angelova; Stefanie Kuerten; Nektarios Sinis; Sarah A. Dunlop; Doychin N. Angelov

2007-01-01

202

Fluoxetine and the dentate gyrus: memory, recovery of function, and electrophysiology  

PubMed Central

Chronic fluoxetine increases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG). In view of the widespread clinical use of fluoxetine and the well-established role of the DG in memory, surprisingly few studies have examined the effects of fluoxetine on memory and hippocampal electrophysiology. Additionally, few studies have evaluated the potential for fluoxetine to promote recovery of function after DG damage. Therefore, we studied the effects of long-term administration of fluoxetine on both spatial-reference memory and working memory, recovery of function after intrahippocampal colchicine infusions, which can destroy 50-70% of DG granule cells, and electrophysiological responses in the DG to perforant path stimulation in freely moving rats. Chronic fluoxetine did not affect matching-to-place or reference-memory performance in intact rats in the Morris watermaze task. Surprisingly, in rats with DG damage, recovery of function on both tasks was adversely affected by chronic fluoxetine. Finally, unlike an earlier study that reported fluoxetine-induced increases in hippocampal population spike amplitudes and excitatory postsynaptic potential slopes in urethane-anesthetized rats, electrophysiological measures in DG of freely moving rats were not affected by chronic fluoxetine treatment.

Keith, Julian R.; Wu, Ying; Epp, Jonathon R.; Sutherland, Robert J.

2009-01-01

203

Indocyanine green clearance in evaluating the recovery of liver reserve function after superselective transarterial chemoembolization.  

PubMed

Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) may ravage normal liver tissues apart from the neoplastic nodules which offset the anti-tumor effect. This study aimed to evaluate the recovery of liver reserve function (LRF) after TACE by indocyanine green (ICG) clearance test and other routine liver function tests. Forty-six newly diagnosed HCC patients who had undergone TACE as the initial treatment from January 2011 to January 2012 were enrolled in this study. The effects of age, basic ICG clearance rate and interval time between two assessments on the recovery of LRF were analyzed. We found that ICG retention rate at the 15 minutes (ICGR15) was significantly increased after TACE (12.3+/-8.1% vs 16.8+/-12.1%, P<0.01) in all the 46 patients. In particular, the ICGR15 value was increased in older patients (age>55 years, 20.3+/-12.5% vs 13.7+/-7.2%, P<0.01). The interval of ICG test also affected the ICGR15 value (?47 days, 17.8+/-11.4% after vs 12.1+/-7.1% before TACE, P<0.01). Our data suggested that TACE decreased LRF, especially in older patients. ICG test was more sensitive to evaluate the recovery of LRF after TACE than the Child-Pugh grade and routine liver function tests. PMID:24322753

Chen, Xin; Zhang, Hai-Bing; Li, Zhong-Qi; Yu, Xiong-Fei; Yang, Mei-Fang; Wang, Hao-Hao; Teng, Li-Song

2013-12-01

204

Temperature fluctuations during deep temperature cryopreservation reduce PBMC recovery, viability and T-cell function.  

PubMed

The ability to analyze cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from biobanks for antigen-specific immunity is necessary to evaluate response to immune-based therapies. To ensure comparable assay results, collaborative research in multicenter trials needs reliable and reproducible cryopreservation that maintains cell viability and functionality. A standardized cryopreservation procedure is comprised of not only sample collection, preparation and freezing but also low temperature storage in liquid nitrogen without any temperature fluctuations, to avoid cell damage. Therefore, we have developed a storage approach to minimize suboptimal storage conditions in order to maximize cell viability, recovery and T-cell functionality. We compared the influence of repeated temperature fluctuations on cell health from sample storage, sample sorting and removal in comparison to sample storage without temperature rises. We found that cyclical temperature shifts during low temperature storage reduce cell viability, recovery and immune response against specific-antigens. We showed that samples handled under a protective hood system, to avoid or minimize such repeated temperature rises, have comparable cell viability and cell recovery rates to samples stored without any temperature fluctuations. Also T-cell functionality could be considerably increased with the use of the protective hood system compared to sample handling without such a protection system. This data suggests that the impact of temperature fluctuation on cell integrity should be carefully considered in future clinical vaccine trials and consideration should be given to optimal sample storage conditions. PMID:23850825

Germann, Anja; Oh, Young-Joo; Schmidt, Tomm; Schön, Uwe; Zimmermann, Heiko; von Briesen, Hagen

2013-10-01

205

The Recovery of Walking in Stroke Patients: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We reviewed the literature on walking recovery of stroke patients as it relates to the following subjects: epidemiology of walking dysfunction, recovery course of walking, and recovery mechanism of walking (neural control of normal walking, the evaluation methods for leg motor function, and motor recovery mechanism of leg). The recovery of walking…

Jang, Sung Ho

2010-01-01

206

Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients after Acute Kidney Injury: Patterns of Renal Functional Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and ObjectivesPatients who survive acute kidney injury (AKI), especially those with partial renal recovery, present a higher long-term mortality risk. However, there is no consensus on the best time to assess renal function after an episode of acute kidney injury or agreement on the definition of renal recovery. In addition, only limited data regarding predictors of recovery are available.Design,

Etienne Macedo; Dirce M. T. Zanetta; Regina C. R. M. Abdulkader

2012-01-01

207

Manual stimulation of forearm muscles does not improve recovery of motor function after injury to a mixed peripheral nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transection and re-anastomosis of the purely motor facial nerve leads to poor functional recovery. However, we have recently\\u000a shown in rat that manual stimulation (MS) of denervated vibrissal muscles reduces the number of polyinnervated motor endplates\\u000a and promotes full recovery of whisking. Here, we examined whether MS of denervated rat forearm muscles would also improve\\u000a recovery following transection and suture

N. Sinis; O. Guntinas-Lichius; A. Irintchev; E. Skouras; S. Kuerten; S. P. Pavlov; H. E. Schaller; S. A. Dunlop; D. N. Angelov

2008-01-01

208

Genistein augments prostaglandin-induced recovery of barrier function in ischemia-injured porcine ileum.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that PGE(2) enhances recovery of transmucosal resistance (R) in ischemia-injured porcine ileum via a mechanism involving chloride secretion. Because the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein amplifies cAMP-induced Cl(-) secretion, we postulated that genistein would augment PGE(2)-induced recovery of R. Porcine ileum subjected to 45 min of ischemia was mounted in Ussing chambers, and R and mucosal-to-serosal fluxes of [(3)H]N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl phenylalanine (FMLP) and [(3)H]mannitol were monitored as indicators of recovery of barrier function. Treatment with genistein (10(-4) M) and PGE(2) (10(-6) M) resulted in synergistic elevations in R and additive reductions in mucosal-to-serosal fluxes of [(3)H]FMLP and [(3)H]mannitol, whereas treatment with genistein alone had no effect. Treatment of injured tissues with genistein and either 8-bromo-cAMP (10(-4) M) or cGMP (10(-4) M) resulted in synergistic increases in R. However, treatment of tissues with genistein and the protein kinase C (PKC) agonist phorbol myristate acetate (10(-5)-10(-6) M) had no effect on R. Genistein augments recovery of R in the presence of cAMP or cGMP but not in the presence of PKC agonists. PMID:10666044

Blikslager, A T; Roberts, M C; Young, K M; Rhoads, J M; Argenzio, R A

2000-02-01

209

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

1988-05-04

210

Chronic Valproate Treatment Enhances Post-ischemic Angiogenesis and Promotes Functional Recovery in a Rat Model of Ischemic Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Enhanced angiogenesis facilitates neurovascular remodeling processes and promotes brain functional recovery after stroke. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that valproate (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, protects against experimental brain ischemia. The present study investigated whether VPA could enhance angiogenesis and promote long-term functional recovery after ischemic stroke. Methods Male rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion for up to 14 days. Assessed parameters were: locomotor function via rotarod test; infarct volume via T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging; microvessel density via immunohistochemistry; relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) via perfusion-weighted imaging; protein levels of pro-angiogenic factors via Western blotting; and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9 activities via gelatin zymography. Results Post-ischemic VPA treatment robustly improved the rotarod performance of MCAO rats on days 7 and 14 after ischemia, and significantly reduced brain infarction on day 14. Concurrently, VPA markedly enhanced microvessel density, facilitated endothelial cell proliferation, and increased rCBF in the ipsilateral cortex. The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? and its downstream pro-angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and MMP-2/9, were upregulated after MCAO and significantly potentiated by VPA in the ipsilateral cortex. Acetylation of histone-H3 and H4 was robustly increased by chronic VPA treatment. The beneficial effects of VPA on rotarod performance and microvessel density were abolished by HIF-1? inhibition. Conclusions Chronic VPA treatment enhances angiogenesis and promotes functional recovery after brain ischemia. These effects may involve HDAC inhibition and upregulation of HIF-1? and its downstream pro-angiogenic factors VEGF and MMP-2/9.

Wang, Zhifei; Tsai, Li-Kai; Munasinghe, Jeeva; Leng, Yan; Fessler, Emily Bame; Chibane, Fairouz; Leeds, Peter; Chuang, De-Maw

2012-01-01

211

Functional methods for waves in random media  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some basic ideas in functional methods for waves in random media are illustrated through a simple random differential equation. These methods are then generalized to solve certain random parabolic equations via an exponential representation given by the Feynman-Kac formula. It is shown that these functional methods are applicable to a number of problems in random wave propagation. They include the forward-scattering approximation in Gaussian white-noise media; the solution of the optical beam propagation problem by a phase-integral method; the high-frequency scattering by bounded random media; and a derivation of approximate moment equations from the functional integral representation.

Chow, P. L.

1981-01-01

212

Functional methods for waves in random media  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some basic ideas in functional methods for waves in random media are illustrated through a simple random differential equation. These methods are then generalized to solve certain random parabolic equations via an exponential representation given by the Feynman-Kac formula. It is shown that these functional methods are applicable to a number of problems in random wave propagation. They include the forward-scattering approximation in Gaussian white-noise media; the solution of the optical beam propagation problem by a phase-integral method; the high-frequency scattering by bounded random media, and a derivation of approximate moment equations from the functional integral representation.

Chow, P. L.

1981-01-01

213

Improved oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

This study presents information in oil recovery methods ranging from primary to enhanced. The text explains why recovery levels are not higher during primary and secondary recovery, and the purpose of tertiary recovery to improve productivity. Enhanced oil recovery methods described include thermal recovery (steam stimulation, steam flooding, and in situ combustion), miscible recovery (hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen), and chemically enhanced recovery (polymer flooding, surfactant flooding, and alkaline flooding). Technical factors and economic considerations in selecting recovery methods and projects are discussed.

Not Available

1982-01-01

214

Recovery of atrial transport function after a maze procedure for atrial fibrillation in conversion of a failing Fontan circulation.  

PubMed

Surgical ablation for atrial arrhythmias at conversion of atriopulmonary or ventriculopulmonary Fontan to a total cavopulmonary connection is feasible with recovery of both sinus rhythm and atrial transport function. Recovery of the patient's physical condition may take up to a year. (Neth Heart J 2008;16:170-2.). PMID:18566699

Bogers, A J J C; Kik, Ch; de Jong, P L; Meijboom, F J

2008-05-01

215

Experience-Associated Structural Events, Subependymal Cellular Proliferative Activity, and Functional Recovery After Injury to the Central Nervous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable structural plasticity is possible in the damaged neocortex and connected brain areas, and the potential for significant functional recovery remains even during the chronic phases of the recovery process. In this article, the authors review the literature on use-dependent morphologic events, focusing on the direct interaction of behavioral experience and structural changes associated with plasticity and degeneration. Experience-associated neural

Timothy Schallert; J. Leigh Leasure; Bryan Kolb

2000-01-01

216

Recovery of Copper from the Slag of Khatoonabad Flash Smelting Furnace by Flotation Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper loss in the slag of Khatoonabad flash smelting furnace is estimated to be about 1-3 %. At present, the electric slag cleaning furnace is used for the recovery of copper from slag. However, due to low recovery efficiency of electric furnace along with high consumption of electrical energy and water, selection of a method to enable minimum energy consumption and maximum recovery of copper seems to be essential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of copper recovery from this slag using flotation method, and to determine the effective parameters involved in the process. Based on the experiments conducted, the best results were obtained for pH 11.5, 60 g/t Z11 and R407 collectors with a weighing ratio of 3-2, 40 g/t of MIBC and A65 frothers with an equal weighting ratio and grinding time of 45 min. Under these conditions, the copper concentrate grade and recovery were 19 and 91.1 % in the rougher step, 27.4 and 96.3 % in the cleaner step, and 32 and 93 % in the recleaner step, respectively.

Karimi, Nader; Vaghar, Ramez; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza Tavakoli; Hashemi, Seyed Ahmad

2013-04-01

217

Physical Exercise Promotes Recovery of Neurological Function after Ischemic Stroke in Rats  

PubMed Central

Although physical exercise is an effective strategy for treatment of ischemic stroke, the underlying protective mechanisms are still not well understood. It has been recently demonstrated that neural progenitor cells play a vital role in the recovery of neurological function (NF) through differentiation into mature neurons. In the current study, we observed that physical exercise significantly reduced the infarct size and improved damaged neural functional recovery after an ischemic stroke. Furthermore, we found that the treatment not only exhibited a significant increase in the number of neural progenitor cells and neurons but also decreased the apoptotic cells in the peri-infarct region, compared to a control in the absence of exercise. Importantly, the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/Akt signaling pathway was dramatically activated in the peri-infarct region of rats after physical exercise training. Therefore, our findings suggest that physical exercise directly influences the NF recovery process by increasing neural progenitor cell count via activation of the IGF-1/Akt signaling pathway.

Zheng, Hai-Qing; Zhang, Li-Ying; Luo, Jing; Li, Li-Li; Li, Menglin; Zhang, Qingjie; Hu, Xi-Quan

2014-01-01

218

Association of home care needs and functional recovery among community-dwelling elderly hip fracture patients.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the home care needs and task difficulty of community-dwelling aged hip fracture and the association of functional recovery with care received. A cohort of hip fracture patients admitted to orthopedic wards for surgery was collected from August 2009 to December 2010. Patients transferred to long-term care facilities after surgery were excluded. Functional status (feeding, clothing, grooming, bathing, getting in/out of bed, walking, toileting, standing up/sitting down, and walking up/down stairs) and task difficulty for caregivers were recorded at discharge, one week and one month after discharge. In total, 116 patients (mean age: 79.4 ± 8.5 years, 51.7% males) were enrolled. The mean age of primary caregivers was 53.4 ± 14.2 years, and most were daughters or sons (54.3%), spouses (34.5%) or foreign workers (11.0%). The most common care needs were wound care (95.7%), medical visits (94.8%), cleaning and maintaining living quarters (92.2%) and vigilance to ensure patient safety (92.2%). The care needs and task difficulty significantly correlated with physical function before, one week and one month after discharge (r=-0.530, p<0.001; r=-0.326, p=0.001; r=-0.432, p<0.001; r=-0.684, p<0.001; and r=-0.475, p<0.001, respectively). The complex and taxing home care needs of community-dwelling elderly hip fracture patients were significantly associated with functional recovery. Comprehensive geriatric assessment and related special medical services may greatly help caregivers and promote the practice of aging in place. Further study is needed to develop appropriate caregiver education to promote the functional recovery of elderly hip fracture patients at home. PMID:23746577

Wu, Li-Chu; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Lin, Yu-Te; Ku, Yan-Chiou; Wang, Ruey-Hsia

2013-01-01

219

Long-term functional recovery and compensation after cerebral ischemia in rats.  

PubMed

Cerebral ischemia is one of the most common causes of disabilities in adults and leads to long-term motor and cognitive impairments with limited therapeutic possibilities. Treatment options have proven efficient in preclinical models of cerebral ischemia but have failed in the clinical setting. This limited translation may be due to the suitability of models used and outcomes measured as most studies have focused on the early period after injury with gross motor scales, which have limited correlation to the clinical situation. The aim of this study was to determine long-term functional outcomes after cerebral ischemia in rats, focusing on fine motor function, social and depressive behavior as clinically relevant measures. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effects of an anti-inflammatory treatment (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)) on functional recovery and compensation. Infarct volume was correlated with long-term (25 days) impairments in fine motor skills, but not with emotional components of behavior. Motor impairments could not be detected using conventional neurological tests and only detailed analysis allowed differentiation between recovery and compensation. Acute systemic administration of IL-1Ra (at reperfusion) led to a faster and more complete recovery, but delayed (24h) IL-1Ra treatment had no effect. In summary functional assessment after brain injury requires detailed motor tests in order to address long-term impairments and compensation processes that are mediated by intact tissues. Functional deficits in skilled movement after brain injury represent ideal predictors of long-term outcomes and should become standard measures in the assessment of preclinical animal models. PMID:24821402

Girard, Sylvie; Murray, Katie N; Rothwell, Nancy J; Metz, Gerlinde A S; Allan, Stuart M

2014-08-15

220

Cardiomyocyte-specific ablation of CD36 improves post-ischemic functional recovery.  

PubMed

Although pre-clinical evidence has suggested that partial inhibition of myocardial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and subsequent switch to greater glucose oxidation for ATP production can prevent ischemia/reperfusion injury, controversy about this approach persists. For example, mice with germline deletion of the FA transporter CD36, exhibited either impaired or unchanged post-ischemic functional recovery despite a 40-60% reduction in FAO rates. Because there are limitations to cardiac studies utilizing whole body CD36 knockout (totalCD36KO) mice, we have now generated an inducible and cardiomyocyte-specific CD36 KO (icCD36KO) mouse to better address the role of cardiomyocyte CD36 and its regulation of FAO and post-ischemic functional recovery. Four to six weeks following CD36 ablation, hearts from icCD36KO mice had significantly decreased FA uptake compared to controls, which was paralleled by significant reductions in intramyocardial triacylglycerol content. Analysis of cardiac energy metabolism using ex vivo working heart perfusions showed that reduced FAO rates were compensated by enhanced glucose oxidation in the hearts from icCD36KO mice. In contrast to the totalCD36KO mice, hearts from icCD36KO mice exhibited significantly improved functional recovery following ischemia/reperfusion (18min of global no-flow ischemia followed by 40min of aerobic reperfusion). This improved recovery was associated with lower calculated proton production prior to and following ischemia compared to controls. Moreover, the amount of ATP generated relative to cardiac work was significantly lower in the hearts from icCD36KO mice compared to controls, indicating significantly increased cardiac efficiency in the hearts from icCD36KO mice. These data provide genetic evidence that reduced FAO as a result of diminished CD36-mediated FA uptake improves post-ischemic cardiac efficiency and functional recovery. As such, targeting cardiomyocyte FA uptake and FAO via inhibition of CD36 in the adult myocardium may provide therapeutic benefit during ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:23948483

Nagendran, Jeevan; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas; Kienesberger, Petra C; Sung, Miranda M; Fung, David; Febbraio, Maria; Dyck, Jason R B

2013-10-01

221

Recovery of proteins from beef bone and the functionality of these proteins in sausage batters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four solutions [4% sodium chloride (control), 4% sodium chloride with 0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate (STP), 0.3% tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TTP) or 0.05 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH)] were used to extract proteins from beef bones. Three bone solution ratios (1:1, 1:4 or 1:10), three bone types [vertebra (lumbar), rib (4–7) and leg (femur)] and two methods of protein recovery from the extraction slurries

J. A. Boles; B. M. Rathgeber; P. J. Shand

2000-01-01

222

Effect of lacosamide on structural damage and functional recovery after traumatic brain injury in rats.  

PubMed

In a subgroup of patients, traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in the occurrence of acute epileptic seizures or even status epilepticus, which are treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Recent experimental data, however, suggest that administration of AEDs at the early post-injury phase can compromise the recovery process. The present study was designed to assess the profile of a novel anticonvulsant, lacosamide (Vimpat) on post-TBI structural, motor and cognitive outcomes. Moderate TBI was induced by lateral fluid-percussion injury in adult rats. Treatment with 0.9% saline or lacosamide (30 mg/kg, i.p.) was started at 30 min post-injury and continued at 8h intervals for 3d (total daily dose 90 mg/kg/d). Rats were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups: sham-operated controls treated with vehicle (Sham-Veh) or lacosamide (Sham-LCM) and injured animals treated with vehicle (TBI-Veh) or lacosamide (TBI-LCM). As functional outcomes we tested motor recovery with composite neuroscore and beam-walking at 2, 7, and 15 d post-injury. Cognitive recovery was tested with the Morris water-maze at 12-14 d post-TBI. To assess the structural outcome, animals underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2 d post-TBI. At 16d post-TBI, rats were perfused for histology to analyze cortical and hippocampal neurodegeneration and axonal damage. Our data show that at 2 d post-TBI, both the TBI-Veh and TBI-LCM groups were equally impaired in neuroscore. Thereafter, motor recovery occurred similarly during the first week. At 2 wk post-TBI, recovery of the TBI-LCM group lagged behind that in the TBI-VEH group (p<0.05). Performance in beam-walking did not differ between the TBI-Veh and TBI-LCM groups. Both TBI groups were similarly impaired in the Morris water-maze at 2 wk post-TBI. MRI and histology did not reveal any differences in the cortical or hippocampal damage between the TBI-Veh and TBI-LCM groups. Taken together, acute treatment with LCM had no protective effects on post-TBI structural or functional impairment. Composite neuroscore in the TBI-LCM group lagged behind that in the TBI-Veh group at 15 d post-injury, but no compromise was found in other indices of post-TBI recovery in the LCM treated animals. PMID:24636248

Pitkänen, A; Immonen, R; Ndode-Ekane, X; Gröhn, O; Stöhr, T; Nissinen, J

2014-05-01

223

Recovery of afferent function and synaptic strength in hippocampal CA1 following traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Cortical contusion injury can result in the partial loss of ipsilateral CA3 neurons within 48 h, leading to a proportional reduction in the number of afferent fibers to CA1 stratum radiatum. While the loss of afferent input to CA1 exhibits a remarkable, albeit incomplete, recovery over the next few weeks, little is known about the functional status of presynaptic afferents during the depletion and recovery phases following injury. Here, we prepared hippocampal slices from adult Sprague Dawley rats at 2, 7, and 14 days after lateral cortical contusion injury and measured fiber volley (FV) amplitudes extracellularly in CA1 stratum radiatum. Field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs) were also measured and plotted as a function of FV amplitude to assess relative synaptic strength of residual and/or regenerated synaptic contacts. At 2 days post-injury, FV amplitude and synaptic strength were markedly reduced in the ipsilateral, relative to the contralateral, hippocampus. FV amplitude in ipsilateral CA1 showed a complete recovery by 7 days, indicative of a post-injury sprouting response. Synaptic strength in ipsilateral CA1 also showed a dramatic recovery over this time; however, EPSP-to-FV curves remained slightly suppressed at both the 7 and 14 day time points. Despite these deficits, ipsilateral slices retained the capacity to express long-term potentiation, indicating that at least some mechanisms for synaptic plasticity remain intact, or are compensated for. These results are in agreement with anatomical evidence showing a profound deafferentation, followed by a remarkable re-enervation, of ipsilateral CA1 in the first few weeks after traumatic brain injury. Although plasticity mechanisms appear to remain intact, synaptic strength deficits in CA1 could limit information throughput in the hippocampus, leading to persistent memory dysfunction. PMID:19604098

Norris, Christopher M; Scheff, Stephen W

2009-12-01

224

Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir

J. W. Castle; R. A. Bridges; C. J. Lorinovich; Fred J. Molz; C. L. Dinwiddie; S. Lu

2003-01-01

225

Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity is needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir

James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz

2003-01-01

226

QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMPROVED RECOVERY: APPLICATION TO HEAVY OIL SANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity has the potential to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involves application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved

James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz; Ronald W. Falta; Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Scott E. Brame; Robert A. Bridges

2002-01-01

227

Method of a Fuzzy Cluster Analysis to Evaluate Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuzzy clustering analysis is a widely used fuzzy mathematics method ,which could be applied in various fields. Based on the fuzzy set theory, application of fuzzy clustering analysis in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) was studied. At first, strains which had ability to produce biosurfactant were selected as part of the statistical indicators. Then data were corrected and standardized by

Yongjun Zhou; Jing Wang; Ming Li; Jing Tian; Guang Ji; Hanping Dong; Li Yu

2012-01-01

228

Practical foundations of the RVM (recovery voltage method for oil\\/paper insulation diagnosis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The original research into the application of Recovery Voltage Measurement to diagnosis of oil-paper insulation is described in detail. The goal of this research was to thoroughly review the conventional diagnostics used on oil immersed paper insulation systems in large power transformers and, after fundamental laboratory measurements and on-site measurements of power transformers, to propose a method for the future

G. Csepes; I. Hamos; R. Brooks; V. Karius

1998-01-01

229

Methods for recovery of deep terrestrial subsurface sediments for microbiological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Methods for the aseptic recovery of sediments from the terrestrial deep subsurface for microbiological analyses are defined. Sediments were recovered from depths > 300 m by rotary drilling techniques using bentonite drilling fluids. Four sampling tools were successfully used and compared for their ability to retrieve different types of subsurface materials. Upon retrieval, sediments were pared and processed under

T. J. Phelps; C. B. Fliermans; T. R. Garland; S. M. Pfiffner; D. C. White

1989-01-01

230

The modulation function and realizing method of holographic functional screen.  

PubMed

The modulation function of holographic functional screen (HFS) in the real-time, large-size full-color (RLF), three-dimensional (3D) display system is derived from angular spectrum analysis. The directional laser speckle (DLS) method to realize the HFS is proposed. A HFS by the DLS method was fabricated and used in the experiment. Experimental results show that the HFS is valid in the RLF 3D display, and that the derived modulation function is valuable for the design of the HFS. The research results are important to realize the RLF 3D display system which will find many applications such as holographic video. PMID:21197055

Yu, Chongxiu; Yuan, Jinhui; Fan, Frank C; Jiang, C C; Choi, Sam; Sang, Xinzhu; Lin, Chang; Xu, Daxiong

2010-12-20

231

A biomaterials approach to peripheral nerve regeneration: bridging the peripheral nerve gap and enhancing functional recovery  

PubMed Central

Microsurgical techniques for the treatment of large peripheral nerve injuries (such as the gold standard autograft) and its main clinically approved alternative—hollow nerve guidance conduits (NGCs)—have a number of limitations that need to be addressed. NGCs, in particular, are limited to treating a relatively short nerve gap (4 cm in length) and are often associated with poor functional recovery. Recent advances in biomaterials and tissue engineering approaches are seeking to overcome the limitations associated with these treatment methods. This review critically discusses the advances in biomaterial-based NGCs, their limitations and where future improvements may be required. Recent developments include the incorporation of topographical guidance features and/or intraluminal structures, which attempt to guide Schwann cell (SC) migration and axonal regrowth towards their distal targets. The use of such strategies requires consideration of the size and distribution of these topographical features, as well as a suitable surface for cell–material interactions. Likewise, cellular and molecular-based therapies are being considered for the creation of a more conductive nerve microenvironment. For example, hurdles associated with the short half-lives and low stability of molecular therapies are being surmounted through the use of controlled delivery systems. Similarly, cells (SCs, stem cells and genetically modified cells) are being delivered with biomaterial matrices in attempts to control their dispersion and to facilitate their incorporation within the host regeneration process. Despite recent advances in peripheral nerve repair, there are a number of key factors that need to be considered in order for these new technologies to reach the clinic.

Daly, W.; Yao, L.; Zeugolis, D.; Windebank, A.; Pandit, A.

2012-01-01

232

Recovery of Functional Status After Stroke in a Tri-Ethnic Population  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine recovery of functional status for white, black, and Hispanic patients who have had a stroke from the time of admission to inpatient medical rehabilitation to 12 months after discharge. Design A longitudinal study that used information from the Stroke Recovery in Underserved Population database, a prospective observational study of persons with stroke who received inpatient medical rehabilitation services during 2005-2006. Setting Eleven inpatient rehabilitation facilities located across diverse regions of the United States, including California, Florida, Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, New Jersey, New York (2), Texas (2), and Washington, DC. Participants A total of 990 adults aged 55 years or older who had a stroke and were admitted to 1 of 11 inpatient medical rehabilitation facilities in the United States were interviewed at 4 time points, including admission to and discharge from an inpatient medical rehabilitation facility and 3 and 12 months after discharge. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure Functional status as measured by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Results For the total sample, FIM ratings increased from admission to discharge and from discharge to 3-month follow-up, with little recovery occurring between 3 and 12 months. In random effects mixed models, at 3-month follow-up, both black and Hispanic patients had lower FIM ratings than did white patients. At 12-month follow-up, black and white patients were similar; however, Hispanic patients continued to have lower FIM ratings compare with white patients. Racial/ethnic group, age, length of stay, and medical comorbidities were significant predictors of total FIM ratings over the 4 time points. Conclusions Persons 55 years and older who have had a stroke, regardless of race/ethnicity, appear to benefit from inpatient medical rehabilitation. Most functional status gains occur during inpatient medical rehabilitation and continue in the first few months after discharge, with little change afterward.

Berges, Ivonne-M.; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Seale, Gary S.; Ostir, Glenn V.

2012-01-01

233

Comparison of methods for determining the hydrologic recovery time after forest disturbance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in forest hydrology changes after forest disturbance vary among catchments. Although studies have summarized the initial runoff changes following forest disturbance, the estimates of long-term recovery time are less frequently reported. To understand the mechanisms of long-term recovery processes and to predict the long-term changes in streamflow after forest disturbance, it is important to compare recovery times after disturbance. However, there is no clear consensus regarding the best methodology for such research, especially for watershed studies that were not designed as paired watersheds. We compared methods of determining the hydrologic recovery time to determine if there is a common method for sites in any hydroclimatic setting. We defined the hydrologic recovery time to be the time of disturbance to the time when hydrological factors first recovered to pre-disturbance levels. We acquired data on long-term rainfall and runoff at 16 sites in northeastern USA and Japan that had at least 10 years (and up to 50 years) of post disturbance data. The types of disturbance include harvesting, diseases and insect damages. We compared multiple indices of hydrological response including annual runoff, annual runoff ratio (annual runoff/annual rainfall), annual loss (annual rainfall-annual runoff), fiftieth-percentile annual flow, and seasonal water balance. The results showed that comparing annual runoff to a reference site was most robust at constraining the recovery time, followed by using pre-disturbance data as reference data and calculating the differences in annual runoff from pre-disturbance levels. However, in case of small disturbance at sites without reference data or long-term pre-disturbance data, the inter-annual variation of rainfall makes the effect of disturbance unclear. We found that annual loss had smaller inter-annual variation, and defining recovery time with annual loss was best in terms of matching the results from paired watersheds. The inter-annual variation of evapotranspiration is small in the northeastern USA and Japan because evapotranspiration is usually energy limited in these areas. This study found annual loss method was the best for determining hydrologic recovery time at 16 of the northeastern USA and Japan sites. Including more sites with different climate, disturbance types and management regimes will allow us further refine our assessment of the best method across diverse watersheds and types of disturbances.

Oda, T.; Green, M.; Ohte, N.; Urakawa, R.; Endo, I.; Scanlon, T. M.; Sebestyen, S. D.; McGuire, K. J.; Katsuyama, M.; Fukuzawa, K.; Tague, C.; Hiraoka, M.; Fukushima, K.; Giambelluca, T. W.

2013-12-01

234

Spaceflight-induced cardiovascular changes and recovery during NASA's Functional Task Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microgravity-induced physiologic changes could impair a crewmember's performance upon return to a gravity environment. The Functional Task Test aims to correlate these physiologic alterations with changes in performance during mission-critical tasks. In this study, we evaluated spaceflight-induced cardiovascular changes during 11 functional tasks in 7 Shuttle astronauts before spaceflight, on landing day, and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. Mean heart rate was examined during each task and autonomic activity was approximated by heart rate variability during the Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, a 2-min prone rest followed by a 3-min stand. Heart rate was increased on landing day during all of the tasks, and remained elevated 6 days after landing during 6 of the 11 tasks. Parasympathetic modulation was diminished and sympathovagal balance was increased on landing day. Additionally, during the stand test 6 days after landing, parasympathetic modulation remained suppressed and heart rate remained elevated compared to preflight levels. Heart rate and autonomic activity were not different from preflight levels 30 days after landing. We detected changes in heart rate and autonomic activity during a 3-min stand and a variety of functional tasks, where cardiovascular deconditioning was still evident 6 days after returning from short-duration spaceflight. The delayed recovery times for heart rate and parasympathetic modulation indicate the necessity of assessing functional performance after long-duration spaceflight to ensure crew health and safety.

Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, Michael B.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Platts, Steven H.

2013-11-01

235

Functional sensory function recovery of random-pattern abdominal skin flap in the repair of fingertip skin defects  

PubMed Central

The fingertip skin defect is a common hand injury often accompanied by tendon or bone exposure, and is normally treated with flaps. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional sensory recovery of random-pattern abdominal skin flap in the repair of fingertip cutaneous deficiency. A total of 23 patients, aged between 18 and 50 years (mean age, 31 years) with fingertip cutaneous deficiency (30 digits) were treated with random-pattern abdominal skin flaps. The post-debridement defect area measured from 0.7×1.2 to 2.5×3 cm. The flap pedicle was divided three weeks after surgery, which marked the onset of the second stage. A second surgery was performed on 2 patients after 3 months and on another set of 2 patients after 6 months to create a thinner flap. Tissue was dissected during surgery for a histological examination. All the flaps survived and the post-operative follow-up ranged from 2 weeks to 6 months. Patients were satisfied with the appearance of their fingers and the flaps. All flaps demonstrated satisfactory flexibility and texture and sensory recovery was achieved. Only 4 patients were subjected to a second surgery to make the flap thinner. The flaps for the 3-month tissue section had several low-density, free nerve endings, whereas those of the 6-month section had more intensive free nerve endings, nerve tracts, tactile cells and lamellar corpuscles. Random-pattern abdominal skin flap therefore repairs fingertip skin defects achieving sensory recovery.

YU, YA-DONG; ZHANG, YING-ZE; BI, WEI-DONG; WU, TAO

2013-01-01

236

Women's voices on recovery: A multi-method study of the complexity of recovery from child sexual abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe current study was exploratory and used multiple methods to examine patterns of stability and change in resilient functioning across 7 years of early adulthood. Second, qualitative data were used to examine in greater detail survivors’ own narratives about correlates of healing.

Victoria L. Banyard; Linda M. Williams

2007-01-01

237

Neurocognitive function EEG measurement method and system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An efficient, objective testing method and system for evaluating changes in mental function is described. The method and system are based on measuring an individual's behavioral responses and brain function during a brief cognitive test battery and passive control conditions. The method and system is designed to assess an individual's fundamental cognitive functions, and whether those functions have been significantly affected by a variety of factors such as progressive disease processes, medication, stress, fatigue, training, or the passage of time. The method and system can be used to determine whether drugs being evaluated to treat diseases or conditions affecting cognitive brain function have a significant positive effect on delaying or improving the symptoms of such a disease or condition, especially during clinical trials for drug approval and subsequent marketing. The method and system may also be employed as part of the successful diagnosis or ongoing treatment of neurological diseases or conditions that directly or indirectly affect human neurocognitive performance. The method and system may also be used to determine transitory changes in overall cognitive function due to emotional stress or fatigue, and more long lasting changes in overall cognitive function following training and educational programs.

2005-09-20

238

Functional Recovery in Spinal Stenosis: Understanding the Activated Patient. Inclusive Dates: 06/01/06 - 09/30/07.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current research study sought to understand how activation may add to an individuals functional recovery after surgery for lumbar spine disease. Patient activation is an aggregate concept encompassing broad areas of beliefs, motivation, locus of contr...

R. L. Skolasky

2007-01-01

239

Detection of myocardial viability by contrast echocardiography in acute infarction predicts recovery of resting function and contractile reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesWe sought to determine whether myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) performed before and early after primary coronary stenting (PCS) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) could predict recovery of resting left ventricular systolic function and contractile reserve.

Eduardo Balcells; Eric R Powers; Wolfgang Lepper; Todd Belcik; Kevin Wei; Michael Ragosta; Habib Samady; Jonathan R Lindner

2003-01-01

240

Recovery of Functional Impairment after Acute Illness and Mortality: One-Year Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Functional status in older people is a dynamic situation, which makes it necessary to evaluate functional capacity at different times to determinate their prognostic value. Objective: To examine the association between functional status (baseline and change after acute illness) and mortality and functional changes at 1 year. Methods: Hospital-based prospective longitudinal cohort study of all patients over 65 years

Juan J. Baztán; César P. Gálvez; Alberto Socorro

2009-01-01

241

Optimization of the purification methods for recovery of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to optimize the purification of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus. Recombinant flounder growth hormone (r-fGH) was expressed by Escherichia coli in form of inclusion body or as soluble protein under different inducing conditions. The inclusion body was renatured using two recovery methods, i.e., dilution and dialysis. Thereafter, the refolded protein was purified by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography and r-fGH was obtained by cleavage of thrombin. For soluble products, r-fGH was directly purified from the lysates by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography. ELISA-receptor assay demonstrated that despite its low receptor binding activity, the r-fGH purified from refolded inclusion body had a higher yield (2.605 mg L-1) than that from soluble protein (1.964 mg L-1). Of the tested recovery methods, addition of renaturing buffer (pH 8.5) into denatured inclusion body yielded the best recovery rate (17.9%). This work provided an optimized purification method for high recovery of r-fGH, thus contributing to the application of r-fGH to aquaculture.

Zang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xuecheng; Mu, Xiaosheng; Liu, Bin

2013-03-01

242

Intrathecal Morphine Attenuates Recovery of Function after a Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Prior work has shown that a high dose (20?mg/kg) of systemic morphine, required to produce significant analgesia in the acute phase of a contusion injury, undermines the long-term health of treated subjects and increases lesion size. Moreover, a single dose of systemic morphine in the early stage of injury (24?h post-injury) led to symptoms of neuropathic pain 3 weeks later, in the chronic phase. The present study examines the locus of the effects using intrathecal morphine administration. Subjects were treated with one of three doses (0, 30, or 90??g) of intrathecal morphine 24?h after a moderate contusion injury. The 90-?g dose produced significant analgesia when subjects were exposed to noxious stimuli (thermal and incremented shock) below the level of injury. Yet, despite analgesic efficacy, intrathecal morphine significantly attenuated the recovery of locomotor function and increased lesion size rostral to the injury site. A single dose of 30 or 90??g of intrathecal morphine also decreased weight gain, and more than doubled the incidence of mortality and autophagia when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Morphine is one of the most effective pharmacological agents for the treatment of neuropathic pain and, therefore, is indispensable for the spinally injured. Treatment can, however, adversely affect the recovery process. A morphine-induced attenuation of recovery may result from increases in immune cell activation and, subsequently, pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the contused spinal cord.

Moreno, Georgina; Woller, Sarah; Puga, Denise; Hoy, Kevin; Balden, Robyn; Grau, James W.

2009-01-01

243

A High-Level Control Structure Recovery Method Based on Propositional Calculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method to recovery high-level control structures from binary executables, which is based on propositional calculus. Firstly, this method formalizes the control dependence relation between low-level instructions to propositional variables. Then these variables can be propagated and calculated follow the execution path of the object code, and high-level control structures can be identified by some specified results

Jingbo Zhang; Rongcai Zhao; Jianmin Pang; Wen Fu

2009-01-01

244

Improvement of recoveries for the determination of protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water using method 1623  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed method 1623 for simultaneous detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water. Method 1623 includes four major steps: filtration, immunomagnetic separation (IMS), fluorescent antibody (FA) staining and microscopic examination. It was noted that the recovery levels following IMS-FA and FA staining were high, averaging more than 92.0% and 89.0% for C. parvum

Jiangyong Hu; Yaoyu Feng; Say Leong Ong; Wun Jern Ng; Lianfa Song; Xiaolan Tan; Xiaona Chu

2004-01-01

245

Does Phototherapy Enhance Skeletal Muscle Contractile Function and Postexercise Recovery? A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Context Recently, researchers have shown that phototherapy administered to skeletal muscle immediately before resistance exercise can enhance contractile function, prevent exercise-induced cell damage, and improve postexercise recovery of strength and function. Objective To critically evaluate original research addressing the ability of phototherapeutic devices, such as lasers and light-emitting diodes (LEDs), to enhance skeletal muscle contractile function, reduce exercise-induced muscle fatigue, and facilitate postexercise recovery. Data Sources We searched the electronic databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Scopus, and Rehabilitation & Physical Medicine without date limitations for the following key words: laser therapy, phototherapy, fatigue, exercise, circulation, microcirculation, and photobiomodulation. Study Selection Eligible studies had to be original research published in English as full papers, involve human participants, and receive a minimum score of 7 out of 10 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Data Extraction Data of interest included elapsed time to fatigue, total number of repetitions to fatigue, total work performed, maximal voluntary isometric contraction (strength), electromyographic activity, and postexercise biomarker levels. We recorded the PEDro scores, beam characteristics, and treatment variables and calculated the therapeutic outcomes and effect sizes for the data sets. Data Synthesis In total, 12 randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. However, we excluded data from 2 studies, leaving 32 data sets from 10 studies. Twenty-four of the 32 data sets contained differences between active phototherapy and sham (placebo-control) treatment conditions for the various outcome measures. Exposing skeletal muscle to single-diode and multidiode laser or multidiode LED therapy was shown to positively affect physical performance by delaying the onset of fatigue, reducing the fatigue response, improving postexercise recovery, and protecting cells from exercise-induced damage. Conclusions Phototherapy administered before resistance exercise consistently has been found to provide ergogenic and prophylactic benefits to skeletal muscle.

Borsa, Paul A; Larkin, Kelly A; True, Jerry M

2013-01-01

246

Human mesenchymal stem cell transplantation promotes functional recovery following acute spinal cord injury in rats.  

PubMed

Many attempts have been made in animals to produce cellular regeneration in the spinal cord using a variety of transplanted cell types. The present study was to investigate whether transplantation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into the spinal cord after contusion injury promotes a functional outcome. Spinal cord injury (SCI) was induced using an NYU impactor and hMSCs were transplanted 1 week after SCI. Behavioral testing was performed weekly for 2 months. Somatosensory (SSEPs) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded to determine functional recovery. Hindlimb performance was modestly improved in the transplanted group based on BBB scaling and pain tests. SSEP latencies in the transplanted group were significantly shorter than in the media-treated group. Pathologically, LacZ and hTau positive cells were located at the injury and adjacent sites. The data indicate improvement in functional outcome in animals treated with hMSC transplantation compared to media-treated animals. PMID:17474317

Lee, Kyung Hee; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung; Choi, Ji Soo; Jeun, Sin-Soo; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Sung-Soo; Yoon, Do Heum; Lee, Bae Hwan

2007-01-01

247

Carboxy alkyl esters of Uncaria tomentosa augment recovery of sensorineural functions following noise injury.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that hydrophilic chemotypes of the medicinal vine Uncaria tomentosa (UT) would facilitate recovery of sensorineural functions following exposure to a damaging level of noise. The particular chemotypes investigated were carboxy alkyl esters (CAE) which are known to exhibit multifunctional cytoprotective properties that include: enhanced cellular DNA repair, antioxidation and anti-inflammation. Long-Evans rats were divided into four treatment groups: vehicle-control, noise-only, CAE-only and CAE+noise. The noise exposure was an 8kHz octave band of noise at 105dB SPL for 4h. Outer hair cell (OHC) function was measured with the cubic 2f(1)-f(2) distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) at the start of the study (baseline) and at time-points that corresponded to 1day, 1week and 4weeks post-noise exposure to determine within-group effects. Compound action potentials to puretone stimuli were recorded from the VIIIth craniofacial nerve at 4weeks post-noise exposure to determine between-group effects. Additionally, cytocochleograms were constructed for each row of OHCs from each group. Noise exposure produced significant sensorineural impairments. However, CAE treatment facilitated almost complete recovery of OHC function and limited the magnitude of cell loss. The loss of neural sensitivity to puretone stimuli was inhibited with CAE treatment. Therefore, it appears that the multifunctional cytoprotective capacity of CAE from UT may generalize to otoprotection from acoustic over-exposure. PMID:21762882

Guthrie, O'neil W; Gearhart, Caroline A; Fulton, Sherry; Fechter, Laurence D

2011-08-17

248

Celecoxib accelerates functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in the rat  

PubMed Central

The inflammatory response appears to be essential in the modulation of the degeneration and regeneration process after peripheral nerve injury. In injured nerves, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is strongly upregulated around the injury site, possibly playing a role in the regulation of the inflammatory response. In this study we investigated the effect of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, on functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in rats. Unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury was performed on 10 male Wistar rats. Animals on the experimental group (n = 5) received celecoxib (10 mg/kg ip) immediately before the crush injury and daily for 7 days after the injury. Control group (n = 5) received normal saline at equal regimen. A sham group (n = 5), where sciatic nerve was exposed but not crushed, was also evaluated. Functional recovery was then assessed by calculating the sciatic functional index (SFI) on days 0,1,7,14 and 21 in all groups, and registering the day of motor and walking onset. In comparison with control group, celecoxib treatment (experimental group) had significant beneficial effects on SFI, with a significantly better score on day 7. Anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib should be considered in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, but further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of its neuroprotective effects.

2008-01-01

249

Functional recovery of fluid drainage precedes lymphangiogenesis in acute murine foreleg lymphedema  

PubMed Central

Secondary lymphedema in humans is a common consequence of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) to treat breast cancer. It is commonly hypothesized that lymphatic growth is required to increase fluid drainage and ameliorate lymphedema. Although there is a pronounced alteration in the balance of interstitial forces regulating fluid transport that sustains the chronic form of lymphedema, it is presently unknown whether changes occur to the balance of interstitial forces during acute lymphedema that may play a role in the recovery of fluid drainage. Here, we compared the relative importance of lymphangiogenesis of lymphatic vessels and interstitial flows for restoring fluid drainage and resolving acute lymphedema in the mouse foreleg after ALND. We found that removal of the axillary lymph nodes reduced lymph drainage in the foreleg at days 0 and 5 postsurgery, with fluid tracer spreading interstitially through subcutaneous tissues. Interstitial fluid drainage returned to normal by day 10, whereas functional regrowth of lymphatic vessels was first detected by indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography at day 15, demonstrating that the recovery of interstitial fluid drainage preceded the regrowth of lymphatic vessels. This was confirmed by the administration of VEGF receptor-3-neutralizing antibodies, which completely blocks lymphatic regrowth. It was found that the recovery of interstitial fluid drainage and the natural resolution of acute lymphedema produced by ALND were not hindered by VEGF receptor-3 neutralization, demonstrating that interstitial fluid drainage recovery and the resolution of acute lymphedema are lymphangiogenesis independent. The data highlight the central role of the interstitial environment in adapting to lymphatic injury to increase fluid drainage.

Mendez, Uziel; Brown, Emily M.; Ongstad, Emily L.; Slis, Justin R.

2012-01-01

250

Co-Transplantation of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells from Mucosa and Bulb Origin Enhances Functional Recovery after Peripheral Nerve Lesion  

PubMed Central

Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) represent an interesting candidate for cell therapy and could be obtained from olfactory mucosa (OM-OECs) or olfactory bulbs (OB-OECs). Recent reports suggest that, depending on their origin, OECs display different functional properties. We show here the complementary and additive effects of co-transplanting OM-OECs and OB-OECs after lesion of a peripheral nerve. For this, a selective motor denervation of the laryngeal muscles was performed by a section/anastomosis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). Two months after surgery, recovery of the laryngeal movements and synkinesis phenonema were analyzed by videolaryngoscopy. To complete these assessments, measure of latency and potential duration were determined by electrophysiological recordings and myelinated nerve fiber profiles were defined based on toluidine blue staining. To explain some of the mechanisms involved, tracking of GFP positive OECs was performed. It appears that transplantation of OM-OECs or OB-OECs displayed opposite abilities to improve functional recovery. Indeed, OM-OECs increased recuperation of laryngeal muscles activities without appropriate functional recovery. In contrast, OB-OECs induced some functional recovery by enhancing axonal regrowth. Importantly, co-transplantation of OM-OECs and OB-OECs supported a major functional recovery, with reduction of synkinesis phenomena. This study is the first which clearly demonstrates the complementary and additive properties of OECs obtained from olfactory mucosa and olfactory bulb to improve functional recovery after transplantation in a nerve lesion model.

Bon-Mardion, Nicolas; Duclos, Celia; Genty, Damien; Jean, Laetitia; Boyer, Olivier; Marie, Jean-Paul

2011-01-01

251

Topiramate promotes neurite outgrowth and recovery of function after nerve injury.  

PubMed

Topiramate is a structurally novel neurotherapeutic agent with a unique combination of pharmacological properties and currently is available in most world markets for treating several seizure disorders. Because its pharmacological profile was suggestive of possible activity as a neuroprotectant, topiramate was evaluated and found to be active in several animal models of stroke or neuropathic pain. This prompted an evaluation of topiramate as a possible neurotrophic agent. In this study, topiramate enhanced the recovery of facial nerve function after injury when administered orally at therapeutically relevant doses, and significantly increased neurite outgrowth in cell cultures derived from fetal rat cortical and hippocampal tissues. PMID:11303740

Smith-Swintosky, V L; Zhao, B; Shank, R P; Plata-Salaman, C R

2001-04-17

252

Short- and long-term effect of rTMS on motor function recovery after ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

This review discusses the clinical results that were obtained by applying rTMS in acute and chronic ischemic stroke patients. These studies included only the recovery of motor disability and dysphagia. In summary, two approaches have been used when employing rTMS as a potential therapy for the treatment of stroke. The most direct approach involves applying rTMS directly over the affected hemisphere in an attempt to increase excitability and plasticity of damaged circuits to improve motor function. The second approach has taken advantage of the concept of interhemispheric balance in which damage to the stroke hemisphere is exacerbated by increased inhibition from the intact non-stroke hemisphere. In this case, inhibitory rTMS is applied to the non-stroke hemisphere with the intention of reducing interhemispheric inhibition and restoring the balance of excitation between the motor cortices.The overall procedure remains to be optimized, in particular regarding the number of rTMS sessions, frequency and intensity of stimulation and the exact timing of rTMS application after stroke. Cortical stimulation is an effective method for improving functional recovery of acute and chronic stroke. PMID:20714077

Khedr, Eman M; Fetoh, Noha Abo-El

2010-01-01

253

Functional recovery in lumbar spine surgery: a controlled trial of health behavior change counseling to improve outcomes.  

PubMed

In 2001, the Institute of Medicine issued a challenge to the American health care system to improve the quality of care by focusing on six major areas: safety, effectiveness, patient-centeredness, timeliness, efficiency, and equity. The patient-centered model of care directly addresses important limits of surgical care of the lumbar spine, i.e., the lack of effective methods for increasing patient participation and engagement in post-operative follow-up. Recent evidence indicates that post-surgical outcomes are better among those with higher patient activation. We therefore developed an intervention based on the principles of motivational interviewing to increase patient activation: the Functional Recovery in Lumbar Spine Surgery Health Behavior Change Counseling (HBCC) intervention. The HBCC was designed to maximize post-operative engagement and participation in physical therapy and home exercise, to improve functional recovery, and to decrease pain in individuals undergoing elective lumbar spine surgery. From December 2009 through October 2012, 120 participants were recruited and divided into two groups: those receiving (intervention group, 60) and not receiving (control group, 60) the HBCC intervention. The current manuscript provides a detailed description of the theoretical framework and study design of the HBCC and describes the implementation of this health behavior intervention in a university-based spine service. The HBCC provides a model for conducting health behavioral research in a real-world setting. PMID:23816487

Skolasky, Richard L; Riley, Lee H; Maggard, Anica M; Bedi, Saaniya; Wegener, Stephen T

2013-09-01

254

Fgf2 improves functional recovery--decreasing gliosis and increasing radial glia and neural progenitor cells after spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Objectives A major impediment for recovery after mammalian spinal cord injury (SCI) is the glial scar formed by proliferating reactive astrocytes. Finding factors that may reduce glial scarring, increase neuronal survival, and promote neurite outgrowth are of major importance for improving the outcome after SCI. Exogenous fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) has been shown to decrease injury volume and improve functional outcome; however, the mechanisms by which this is mediated are still largely unknown. Methods In this study, Fgf2 was administered for 2 weeks in mice subcutaneously, starting 30 min after spinal cord hemisection. Results Fgf2 treatment decreased the expression of TNF-a at the lesion site, decreased monocyte/macrophage infiltration, and decreased gliosis. Fgf2 induced astrocytes to adopt a polarized morphology and increased expression of radial markers such as Pax6 and nestin. In addition, the levels of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), expressed by glia, were markedly decreased. Furthermore, Fgf2 treatment promotes the formation of parallel glial processes, “bridges,” at the lesion site that enable regenerating axons through the injury site. Additionally, Fgf2 treatment increased Sox2-expressing cells in the gray matter and neurogenesis around and at the lesion site. Importantly, these effects were correlated with enhanced functional recovery of the left paretic hind limb. Conclusions Thus, early pharmacological intervention with Fgf2 following SCI is neuroprotective and creates a proregenerative environment by the modulation of the glia response.

Goldshmit, Yona; Frisca, Frisca; Pinto, Alexander R; Pebay, Alice; Tang, Jean-Kitty K Y; Siegel, Ashley L; Kaslin, Jan; Currie, Peter D

2014-01-01

255

Recovery of Protective Activity in Rabies Virus Vaccines Concentrated and Purified by Four Different Methods  

PubMed Central

Rabies vaccines concentrated by ultrafiltration, zinc acetate precipitation, ammonium sulfate precipitation, or aluminum phosphate gel adsorption were compared with respect to recovery of protective activity and purity, as measured by protective activity per mg of protein. Vaccine obtained by ammonium sulfate precipitation had a better recovery rate and a higher purity than those prepared by the other methods. Potent vaccines were also obtained by the zinc acetate precipitation and aluminum phosphate gel adsorption methods, whereas ultrafiltration was the least satisfactory method from the standpoint of vaccine purity. Chromatography of virus concentrated by ultrafiltration on a cellulose ion exchange column reduced the level of nonviral proteins. The protective activity data obtained for the vaccines examined in these experiments were found to correlate with the vaccine's complement fixation titer per mg of protein.

Aasletad, H. G.; Wiktor, T. J.

1972-01-01

256

Agar Underlay Method for Recovery of Sublethally Heat-Injured Bacteria  

PubMed Central

A method of recovering sublethally heat-injured bacteria was developed. The procedure (termed the agar underlay method) uses a nonselective agar underlaid with a selective medium. In a two-chambered petri dish, the Lutri plate (LP), a nonselective agar is inoculated with a population of sublethally heat-injured bacteria. After a 2-h repair incubation period, selective agar is added to the bottom chamber of the LP and incubated. By diffusing through the nonselective top agar, selective agents from the underlay medium impart selectivity to the system. By the agar underlay method, recovery rates of the heat-injured food-borne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium were not different (P > 0.05) from recovery rates determined with nonselective media. Sublethally heat-injured cells (60°C for 1.5 min in buffer or 80°C for 30 s on meat surfaces) grew and produced a typical colony morphology and color reaction when the agar underlay procedure was used with the appropriate respective selective agars. Unlike agar overlay methods for injury repair, the agar underlay procedure allows the typical selective-medium colony morphology to develop and allows colonies to be more easily picked for further characterization. Higher recovery rates of heat-injured fecal enterococci from bovine fecal samples and total coliforms from animal waste lagoons were obtained by the agar underlay method with selective agars than by direct plating on the respective selective media.

Kang, D. H.; Siragusa, G. R.

1999-01-01

257

An automatic adaptive refinement procedure for the reproducing kernel particle method. Part I: Stress recovery and a posteriori error estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, an adaptive refinement procedure using the reproducing kernel particle method (RKPM) for the solution of 2D elastostatic problems is suggested. This adaptive refinement procedure is based on the Zienkiewicz and Zhu (ZZ) error estimator for the a posteriori error estimation and an adaptive finite point mesh generator for new point mesh generation. The presentation of the work is divided into two parts. In Part I, concentration will be paid on the stress recovery and the a posteriori error estimation processes for the RKPM. The proposed error estimator is different from most recovery type error estimators suggested previously in such a way that, rather than using the least-squares fitting approach, the recovery stress field is constructed by an extraction function approach. Numerical studies using 2D benchmark boundary value problems indicated that the recovered stress field obtained is more accurate and converges at a higher rate than the RKPM stress field. In Part II of the study, concentration will be shifted to the development of an adaptive refinement algorithm for the RKPM.

Lee, C. K.; Shuai, Y. Y.

2007-08-01

258

Gradient Recovery Methods for Improved Stresses and Strain Rates in Geodynamic Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deformation of the lithosphere is characterized by strongly non-linear constitutive laws which produce strong localization in response to tectonic stresses. In geodynamics models the structures developed during localizaton may be represented by discontinuous means such as crack or fault models, or as very fine shear bands. However, in each case, the orientation of the fabric and the evolving damage is controlled by the modelled stress and strain rate fields. In order to ensure the evolution is well resolved and not dominated by numerical artifacts, it is essential to compute accurate stresses, pressures and strain-rates. The same issue arises in models where strong shear heating is present as this is computed throughout the domain as the product of local stress and strain rates. In standard Finite Element Methods, limitations in accuracy exist as the stress and strain-rate are not primary variables and are typically discontinuous across element boundaries. Several recovery methods can be employed to recreate a continuous field with a rate of convergence (with mesh refinement) equivalent to that for to the primary variables. For hybrid FE Methods, not all of these recovery schemes are possible. We have made extensive use of a Finite Element method combined with a Lagrangian Integration Points, (FELIP) (L. Mores et al 2003) which is very well suited to describing strain-dependent localization in highly deforming media. Here we discuss methods for obtaining highly convergent stresses and strain rates for FE methods where standard superconvergent patch methods cannot be applied. We have found that the best post-processing recovery methods, considering computational cost, element type and precision, are Superconvergent Patch Recovery (O. C. Zienkiewicz, J. Z. Zhu 1992) which is only suitable for elements with superconvergent points and Recovery By Equilibrium in Patches (REP --- B. Boroomand O.C Zienkiewicz 1997) which is suitable for all element types and quantities. Results using the above methods, will be discussed when applying them to geological applications as well as analytic solutions, comparing time taken, memory used and accuracy of the recovered variables.

Sharples, W. K.; Moresi, L. N.; May, D. A.; Giordani, J.; Lemiale, V.

2006-12-01

259

Postoperative complications do not influence the pattern of early lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer in patients at risk  

PubMed Central

Background The pattern and factors influencing the lung function recovery in the first postoperative days are still not fully elucidated, especially in patients at increased risk. Methods Prospective study on 60 patients at increased risk, who underwent a lung resection for primary lung cancer. Inclusion criteria: complete resection and one or more known risk factors in form of COPD, cardiovascular disorders, advanced age or other comorbidities. Previous myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularization or stenting, cardiac rhythm disorders, arterial hypertension and myocardiopathy determined the increased cardiac risk. The severity of COPD was graded according to GOLD criteria. The trend of the postoperative lung function recovery was assessed by performing spirometry with a portable spirometer. Results Cardiac comorbidity existed in 55%, mild and moderate COPD in 20% and 35% of patients respectively. Measured values of FVC% and FEV1% on postoperative days one, three and seven, showed continuous improvement, with significant difference between the days of measurement, especially between days three and seven. There was no difference in the trend of the lung function recovery between patients with and without postoperative complications. Whilst pO2 was decreasing during the first three days in a roughly parallel fashion in patients with respiratory, surgical complications and in patients without complications, a slight hypercapnia registered on the first postoperative day was gradually abolished in all groups except in patients with cardiac complications. Conclusion Extent of the lung resection and postoperative complications do not significantly influence the trend of the lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer.

2014-01-01

260

How does the milk removal method affect teat tissue and teat recovery in dairy ewes?  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study how machine milking (MM) carried out in suitable conditions affects teat wall thickness and teat canal length and their return after milking to pre-milking conditions, in comparison with other milk extraction methods considered biological referents: lamb suckling (LS), milk removal by catheter (RC) and hand milking (HM). Three Latin square experiments were designed, using 11 ewes in the first experiment (LS), 13 in the second (RC) and 12 in the third (HM). Each of the Latin squares was divided into two periods: in the first, the left gland of each animal was machine milked and the corresponding treatment (LS, RC and HM) was applied to the right gland. Subsequently, in the second period the extraction methods were interchanged. During the experimental period, 4 sampling days were carried out (2 in each experimental period), where ultrasound scans were taken before (B) and immediately after milking (A) and at 1 (1 h), 2 (2 h), 3 (3 h), 4 (4 h), 6 (6 h), 8 (8 h) and 10 (10 h) hours after milking finished. Teat wall thickness (TWT), teat wall area (TWA), teat end area (TEWA) and teat canal length (TCL) were measured in all the ultrasound images. MM increased TWT after milking compared with RC. TWT, TWA, TEWA and TCL were lower (P<0·05) in HM than in MM. No significant differences (P>0·05) were found between LS and MM for any variable. The extraction method affected the recovery time of the variables, with total teat recovery at 6 h after RC and 4 h after HM. In the case of LS, the TEWA and TCL values were recovered sooner, as of 3 h. Teat recovery time after MM was similar to the extraction method with which it was compared in each experiment. Thus, considering the similar increase in wall thickness and their recovery time compared with the reference methods, it was concluded that machine milking, carried out in optimum conditions and respecting the time interval between milkings usually applied on sheep farms (8-12 h), would not affect teat integrity. Moreover, given the variability observed in teat thickness recovery time between the different experiments, further research should be carried out to study which factors intrinsic and extrinsic to the animal may affect the teat wall thickness and recovery time after machine milking. PMID:24914749

Alejandro, Manuel; Roca, Amparo; Romero, Gema; Díaz, Jose Ramon

2014-08-01

261

Fabrication of pseudo-ceramide-based lipid microparticles for recovery of skin barrier function.  

PubMed

The recovery of skin barrier functions was investigated with pseudo-ceramide-based lipid microparticles. The microparticles were prepared by using a fluid bed technique where lipid components (a pseudo-ceramide, cholesterol and a fatty acid) were coated on a sugar seed, and a polymer was subsequently coated on the lipid microparticles. The microparticles contained large amount of pseudo-ceramide, and the pseudo-ceramide was in the form of lamellar structures mixed with other lipid components. In addition, the microparticles were stably dispersed in aqueous media or emulsion systems without any disruption of the microparticles' structures, thereby supplying sufficient amount of the pseudo-ceramide to skins for improving skin barrier functions such as preventing water loss. Such a role of the microparticles was proven by evaluating in vivo the efficacy of the lipid microparticles in reducing a trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) of impaired murine skins. As a result, the novel pseudo-ceramide-based lipid microparticles for barrier recovery may potentially be applied in the field of dermatology, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. PMID:22361356

Kim, Do-Hoon; Park, Woo Ram; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Cho, Eun Chul; An, Eun Jung; Kim, Jin-Woong; Oh, Seong-Geun

2012-06-01

262

Functional and Transcriptomic Recovery of Infarcted Mouse Myocardium Treated with Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells  

PubMed Central

Although bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMNC) have been extensively used in cell therapy for cardiac diseases, little mechanistic information is available to support reports of their efficacy. To address this shortcoming, we compared structural and functional recovery and associated global gene expression profiles in post-ischaemic myocardium treated with BMNC transplantation. BMNC suspensions were injected into cardiac scar tissue 10 days after experimental myocardial infarction. Six weeks later, mice undergoing BMNC therapy were found to have normalized antibody repertoire and improved cardiac performance measured by ECG, treadmill exercise time and echocardiography. After functional testing, gene expression profiles in cardiac tissue were evaluated using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Expression of more than 18% of the 11981 quantified unigenes was significantly altered in the infarcted hearts. BMNC therapy restored expression of 2099 (96.2%) of the genes that were altered by infarction but led to altered expression of 286 other genes, considered to be a side effect of the treatment. Transcriptional therapeutic efficacy, a metric calculated using a formula that incorporates both recovery and side effect of treatment, was 73%. In conclusion, our results confirm a beneficial role for bone marrow-derived cell therapy and provide new information on molecular mechanisms operating after BMNC transplantation on post ischemic heart failure in mice.

Lachtermacher, Stephan; Esporcatte, Bruno L. B.; da Silva de Azevedo Fortes, Fabio; Rocha, Nazareth Novaes; Montalvao, Fabricio; Costa, Patricia C.; Belem, Luciano; Rabischoffisky, Arnaldo; Neto, Hugo C. C. Faria; Vasconcellos, Rita; Iacobas, Dumitru A.; Iacobas, Sanda; Spray, David C.; Thomas, Neil M.; Goldenberg, Regina C. S.; de Carvalho, Antonio C. Campos

2011-01-01

263

Forced Exercise Enhances Functional Recovery after Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  

PubMed Central

Caveolin is the principal protein of caveolae and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. To investigate whether changed expression of caveolins has a pivotal role in focal cerebral ischemia, we induced middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)-reperfusion and examined expression of caveolins, inflammatory activation markers, and mediators of autophagic cell death. We also treated MCAo rats with forced exercise to determine its effects on neurological outcome. Particularly, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were used to compare the effects of hypertension on focal cerebral ischemia. All MCAo groups showed neurological deficiencies, motor dysfunction, and disruption of balancing ability; however, these pathological changes were more severe in SHR than WKY rats. Expression of caveolins was decreased in MCAo brain tissue, whereas the levels of iNOS and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) increased. Additionally, LC3-II and beclin-1 levels were elevated in the MCAo groups. Forced exercise attenuated both molecular and behavioral changes in MCAo animals, but SHR rats showed delayed functional recovery and residual molecular changes when compared to WKY rats. These results suggest that forced exercise may be beneficial for promoting functional recovery following cerebral ischemia through caveolin-dependent mechanisms or interactions between caveolins and these signaling molecules in ischemic brain regions.

Park, Sookyoung; Shin, Jinhee; Hong, Yunkyung; Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Seunghoon; Park, Kanghui; Lkhagvasuren, Tserentogtokh; Lee, Sang-Rae; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Hong, Yonggeun

2012-01-01

264

Applying parameter-estimation methods to recovery-test and slug-test analyses.  

PubMed

Parameter-estimation methods, including an exhaustive-search method and PEST (Parameter ESTimation) software, were applied to recovery-test data and slug-test data to obtain best estimates of transmissivity (T) by minimizing the sums of residuals. Each residual represents the difference between the field-measured water-level value and the value calculated by the appropriate non-linear equation. The exhaustive-search method in both cases involves computing the sums of residuals for an array of transmissivity and storativity values selected by the user for testing. Two new Fortran programs are presented that employ the exhaustive-search method. They utilize Picking's method for analyzing recovery-test data and the analytical equation for analyzing slug-test data derived by Cooper, Bredehoeft, and Papadopulos. Picking's method involves application of the Papadopulos and Cooper's equation for drawdown in finite-diameter wells. Utilizing field data reported in the literature, the estimated transmissivity values from the exhaustive-search methods were compared to the literature values obtained by type-curve matching techniques. The exhaustive-search values corresponded closely to the curve-matching values. Estimates for T were also obtained from recovery-test and slug-test data from two sites in southeastern Pennsylvania. For these sites, the PEST program was also applied to the data to evaluate the accuracy of the exhaustive-search methods. The results from the two methods were generally in good agreement. The two new Fortran programs are practical tools for the hydrogeologist, as they require less time compared to type-curve matching and the PEST method, and they yield accurate estimates of transmissivity. PMID:19930470

Mills, Andrew C

2010-01-01

265

Factors Affecting Recovery of Functional Status in Older Adults After Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To explore factors influencing functional status over time after cancer surgery in adults aged 65 and older. DESIGN Secondary data analysis of combined data subsets. SETTING Five prospective, longitudinal oncology nurse-directed clinical studies conducted at three academic centers in the northwest and northeast United States. PARTICIPANTS Three hundred sixteen community-residing patients diagnosed with digestive system, thoracic, genitourinary, and gynecological cancers treated primarily with surgery. MEASUREMENTS Functional status, defined as performance of current life roles, was measured using the Enforced Social Dependency Scale and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Survey (using physical component summary measures) after surgery (baseline) and again at 3 and 6 months. Number of symptoms, measured using the Symptom Distress Scale, quantified the effect of each additional common cancer symptom on functional status. RESULTS After controlling for cancer site and stage, comorbidities, symptoms, psychological status, treatment, and demographic variables, functional status was found to be significantly better at 3 and 6 months after surgery than at baseline. Factors associated with better functional status included higher income and better mental health. Factors associated with poorer average functional status were a greater number of symptoms and comorbidities. Persons reporting three or more symptoms experienced statistically significant and clinically meaningful poorer functional status than those without symptoms. Persons reporting three or more comorbidities were also found to have poorer functional status than those without comorbidities. No significant relationship existed between age and functional status in patients aged 65 and older. CONCLUSION Factors other than age affect recovery of functional status in older adults after cancer surgery.

Van Cleave, Janet H.; Egleston, Brian L.; McCorkle, Ruth

2011-01-01

266

Impact of Processing Method on Recovery of Bacteria from Wipes Used in Biological Surface Sampling  

PubMed Central

Environmental sampling for microbiological contaminants is a key component of hygiene monitoring and risk characterization practices utilized across diverse fields of application. However, confidence in surface sampling results, both in the field and in controlled laboratory studies, has been undermined by large variation in sampling performance results. Sources of variation include controlled parameters, such as sampling materials and processing methods, which often differ among studies, as well as random and systematic errors; however, the relative contributions of these factors remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the relative impacts of sample processing methods, including extraction solution and physical dissociation method (vortexing and sonication), on recovery of Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Burkholderia thailandensis and Escherichia coli) bacteria from directly inoculated wipes. This work showed that target organism had the largest impact on extraction efficiency and recovery precision, as measured by traditional colony counts. The physical dissociation method (PDM) had negligible impact, while the effect of the extraction solution was organism dependent. Overall, however, extraction of organisms from wipes using phosphate-buffered saline with 0.04% Tween 80 (PBST) resulted in the highest mean recovery across all three organisms. The results from this study contribute to a better understanding of the factors that influence sampling performance, which is critical to the development of efficient and reliable sampling methodologies relevant to public health and biodefense.

Olson, Nathan D.; Filliben, James J.; Morrow, Jayne B.

2012-01-01

267

Clinical and transitional care: considerations to optimize functional recovery following hip fracture.  

PubMed

Between 30% and 40% of community-dwelling older adults in the United States fall at least once each year, and approximately 10% of these falls are associated with a major injury such as a hip fracture. Return to maximum level of functional status following surgery requires individualized rehabilitation programs and may involve multiple care transitions. Using an individual example, this article provides context for meeting rehabilitation goals during transitional care following hip fractures. Understanding recommended clinical management strategies during the acute perioperative period and the rationale for postsurgical rehabilitation decisions based on clinical assessment, program eligibility, and Medicare coverage will allow all health professionals to provide optimal guidance and maximize functional recovery for older adults with hip fractures. PMID:23675645

Eckard, Travis; Cadogan, Mary P

2013-06-01

268

Carrier recovery methods for a dual-mode modem: A design approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dual mode model with selectable QPSK or 16-QASK modulation schemes is discussed. The theoretical reasoning as well as the practical trade-offs made during the development of a modem are presented, with attention given to the carrier recovery method used for coherent demodulation. Particular attention is given to carrier recovery methods that can provide little degradation due to phase error for both QPSK and 16-QASK, while being insensitive to the amplitude characteristic of a 16-QASK modulation scheme. A computer analysis of the degradation is symbol error rate (SER) for QPSK and 16-QASK due to phase error is prresented. Results find that an energy increase of roughly 4 dB is needed to maintain a SER of 1X10(-5) for QPSK with 20 deg of phase error and 16-QASK with 7 deg phase error.

Richards, C. W.; Wilson, S. G.

1984-01-01

269

Effectiveness of poliovirus concentration and recovery from treated wastewater by two electropositive filter methods.  

PubMed

Enteric viruses are often present in low numbers in various water matrices. Virus sampling therefore involves multiple concentration steps to condense large samples down to small volumes for detection by cell culture or molecular assays. The NanoCeram® Virus Sampler has been demonstrated to be effective for the recovery of viruses from tap water, surface waters, and seawater. The goal of this study was to evaluate a new method using NanoCeram® filters for the recovery of poliovirus 1 (PV-1) from treated wastewater. Activated sludge effluent samples were spiked with PV-1 and concentrated in side-by-side tests by two methods: (1) NanoCeram® filtration, elution with sodium polyphosphate buffer, secondary concentration via centrifugal ultrafiltration; and (2) 1MDS filtration, elution with beef extract, secondary concentration via organic flocculation. The virus retention and elution efficiencies did not differ significantly between the two methods. In contrast, the secondary concentrate volume was smaller for the NanoCeram® method (8.4 vs. 30 mL) and the secondary concentration efficiencies were different between the two methods with 98 % for centrifugal ultrafiltration (NanoCeram® and 45 % for organic flocculation (1MDS). The overall method efficiencies were significantly different (P ? 0.05) with the NanoCeram® method yielding a 57 % and the 1MDS a 23 % virus recovery. In addition, there appeared to be less interference with viral detection via polymerase chain reaction with the NanoCeram® concentrates. This NanoCeram® method therefore is able to efficiently recover PV-1 from large volumes of wastewater and may serve as an inexpensive alternative to the standard 1MDS filter method for such applications. PMID:23412726

Soto-Beltran, Marcela; Ikner, Luisa A; Bright, Kelly R

2013-06-01

270

Index of microcirculatory resistance as predictor for microvascular functional recovery in patients with anterior myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

IMR is useful for assessing the microvascular dysfunction after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). It remains unknown whether index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) reflects the functional outcome in patients with anterior myocardial infarction (AMI) with or without microvascular obstruction (MO).This study was performed to evaluate the clinical value of the IMR for assessing myocardial injury and predicting microvascular functional recovery in patients with AMI undergoing primary PCI. We enrolled 34 patients with first anterior AMI. After successful primary PCI, the mean distal coronary artery pressure (P(a)), coronary wedge pressure (P(cw)), mean aortic pressure (P(a)), mean transit time (T(mn)), and IMR (P(d)* hyperemic T(mn)) were measured. The presence and extent of MO were measured using cardiac magnetic resonance image (MRI). All patients underwent follow-up echocardiography after 6 months. We divided the patients into two groups according to the existence of MO (present; n = 16, absent; n = 18) on MRI. The extent of MO correlated with IMR (r = 0.754; P < 0.001), P(cw) (r = 0.404; P = 0.031), and P(cw)/P(d) of infarct-related arteries (r = 0.502; P = 0.016). The IMR was significantly correlated with the ?Regional wall motion score index (r = -0.61, P < 0.01) and ?Left ventricular ejection fraction (r = -0.52, P < 0.01), implying a higher IMR is associated with worse functional improvement. Therefore, Intracoronary wedge pressures and IMR, as parameters for specific and quantitative assessment of coronary microvascular dysfunction, are reliable on-site predictors of short-term myocardial viability and Left ventricle functional recovery in patients undergoing primary PCI for AMI. PMID:22969250

Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Yoo, Tae-Kyung; Lim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Mi-Young; Koh, Jong-Hoon

2012-09-01

271

FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY FOLLOWING MOTOR CORTEX LESIONS IN NON-HUMAN PRIMATES: EXPERIMENTAL IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN STROKE PATIENTS  

PubMed Central

This review discusses selected classical works and contemporary research on recovery of contralesional fine hand motor function following lesions to motor areas of the cerebral cortex in non-human primates. Findings from both the classical literature and contemporary studies show that lesions of cortical motor areas induce paresis initially, but are followed by remarkable recovery of fine hand/digit motor function that depends on lesion size and post-lesion training. Indeed, in recent work where considerable quantification of fine digit function associated with grasping and manipulating small objects has been observed, very favorable recovery is possible with minimal forced use of the contralesional limb. Studies of the mechanisms underlying recovery have shown that following small lesions of the digit areas of primary motor cortex (M1), there is expansion of the digit motor representations into areas of M1 that did not produce digit movements prior to the lesion. However, after larger lesions involving the elbow, wrist and digit areas of M1, no such expansion of the motor representation was observed, suggesting that recovery was due to other cortical or subcortical areas taking over control of hand/digit movements. Recently, we showed that one possible mechanism of recovery after lesion to the arm areas of M1 and lateral premotor cortex is enhancement of corticospinal projections from the medially located supplementary motor area (M2) to spinal cord laminae containing neurons which have lost substantial input from the lateral motor areas and play a critical role in reaching and digit movements. Because human stroke and brain injury patients show variable, and usually poorer, recovery of hand motor function than that of nonhuman primates after motor cortex damage, we conclude with a discussion of implications of this work for further experimentation to improve recovery of hand function in human stroke patients.

Darling, Warren G.; Pizzimenti, Marc A.; Morecraft, Robert J.

2013-01-01

272

Finding function: evaluation methods for functional genomic data  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate evaluation of the quality of genomic or proteomic data and computational methods is vital to our ability to use them for formulating novel biological hypotheses and directing further experiments. There is currently no standard approach to evaluation in functional genomics. Our analysis of existing approaches shows that they are inconsistent and contain substantial functional biases that render the resulting evaluations misleading both quantitatively and qualitatively. These problems make it essentially impossible to compare computational methods or large-scale experimental datasets and also result in conclusions that generalize poorly in most biological applications. Results We reveal issues with current evaluation methods here and suggest new approaches to evaluation that facilitate accurate and representative characterization of genomic methods and data. Specifically, we describe a functional genomics gold standard based on curation by expert biologists and demonstrate its use as an effective means of evaluation of genomic approaches. Our evaluation framework and gold standard are freely available to the community through our website. Conclusion Proper methods for evaluating genomic data and computational approaches will determine how much we, as a community, are able to learn from the wealth of available data. We propose one possible solution to this problem here but emphasize that this topic warrants broader community discussion.

Myers, Chad L; Barrett, Daniel R; Hibbs, Matthew A; Huttenhower, Curtis; Troyanskaya, Olga G

2006-01-01

273

A New Method of Proactive Recovery Mechanism for Large-Scale Network Failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel recovery mechanism from large-scale network failures caused by earthquakes, ter- rorist attacks, large-scale power outages and software bugs. Our method, which takes advantage of overlay networking technologies, pre-calculates multiple routing configurations to prevent possible simultaneous network failures and selects one configuration immediately after detecting the failures. Through numerical calculation results using actual AS-level topology, we

Takuro Horie; Go Hasegawa; Satoshi Kamei; Masayuki Murata

2009-01-01

274

Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands  

SciTech Connect

Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

Castle, J.W.; Molz, F.J.; Brame, S.E.; Falta, R.W.

2003-02-07

275

Optimal control design of fuel processing system by linear quadratic Gaussian and loop transfer recovery method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an optimal control system which consists of both feedforward and state?feedback controllers designed using a well?developed linear quadratic Gaussian and loop transfer recovery (LQG\\/LTR) method for a fuel processing system (FPS). This FPS uses natural gas as fuel and reacts with atmospheric air through a catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) response. The control objective is focused on the

2008-01-01

276

QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMPROVED RECOVERY: APPLICATION TO HEAVY OIL SANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity is needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California’s heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involves application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved

James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz; Robert A. Bridges; Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Caitlin J. Lorinovich; Silong Lu

2000-01-01

277

Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbons  

DOEpatents

Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes from water and from hydrocarbons. A palladium membrane, when utilized in cooperation with a nickel catalyst in a reactor, has been found to drive reactions such as water gas shift, steam reforming and methane cracking to substantial completion by removing the product hydrogen from the reacting mixture. In addition, ultrapure hydrogen is produced, thereby eliminating the need for an additional processing step.

Willms, R. Scott (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

278

Erectile Function Recovery Rate after Radical Prostatectomy: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Erectile function recovery (EFR) rates after radical prostatectomy (RP) vary greatly based on a number of factors, such as erectile dysfunction (ED) definition, data acquisition means, time-point postsurgery, and population studied. Aim To conduct a meta-analysis of carefully selected reports from the available literature to define the EFR rate post-RP. Main Outcome Measures EFR rate after RP. Methods An EMBASE and MEDLINE search was conducted for the time range 1985–2007. Articles were assessed blindly by strict inclusion criteria: report of EFR data post-RP, study population ?50 patients, ?1 year follow-up, nerve-sparing status declared, no presurgery ED, and no other prostate cancer therapy. Meta-analysis was conducted to determine the EFR rate and relative risks (RR) for dichotomous subgroups. Results A total of 212 relevant studies were identified; only 22 (10%) met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed (9,965 RPs, EFR data: 4,983 subjects). Mean study population size: 226.5, standard deviation = 384.1 (range: 17–1,834). Overall EFR rate was 58%. Single center series publications (k = 19) reported a higher EFR rate compared with multicenter series publications (k = 3): 60% vs. 33%, RR = 1.82, P = 0.001. Studies reporting ?18-month follow-up (k = 10) reported higher EFR rate vs. studies with <18-month follow-up (k = 12), 60% vs. 56%, RR = 1.07, P = 0.02. Open RP (k = 16) and laparoscopic RP (k = 4) had similar EFR (57% vs. 58%), while robot-assisted RP resulted in a higher EFR rate (k = 2), 73% compared with these other approaches, P = 0.001. Patients <60 years old had a higher EFR rate vs. patients ?60 years, 77% vs. 61%, RR = 1.26, P = 0.001. Conclusions These data indicate that most of the published literature does not meet strict criteria for reporting post-RP EFR. Single and multiple surgeon series have comparable EFR rates, but single center studies have a higher EFR. Younger men have higher EFR and no significant difference in EFR between ORP and LRP is evident.

Tal, Raanan; Alphs, Hannah H.; Krebs, Paul; Nelson, Christian J.; Mulhall, John P.

2014-01-01

279

Method of making low work function component  

DOEpatents

A method for fabricating a component is disclosed. The method includes: providing a member having an effective work function of an initial value, disposing a sacrificial layer on a surface of the member, disposing a first agent within the member to obtain a predetermined concentration of the agent at said surface of the member, annealing the member, and removing the sacrificial layer to expose said surface of the member, wherein said surface has a post-process effective work function that is different from the initial value.

Robinson, Vance (Niskayuna, NY); Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Michael, Joseph Darryl (Delmar, NY)

2011-11-15

280

Round robin investigation of methods for the recovery of poliovirus from drinking water.  

PubMed Central

Six laboratories actively involved in water virology research participated in a methods evaluation study, conducted under the auspices of the American Society for Testing and Materials Committee on Viruses in the Aquatic Environment, Task Force on Drinking Water. Each participant was asked to examine the Viradel (virus adsorption-elution) method with cartridge-type Filterite filters for virus adsorption and organic flocculation and aluminum hydroxide-hydroextraction for reconcentration. Virus was adsorbed to filter media at pH 3.5 and eluted with either glycine buffer (pH 10.5) or beef extract-glycine (pHG 9.0). Considerable variation was noted in the quantity of virus recovered from four 100-liter samples of dechlorinated tapwater seeded with low (350 to 860 PFU) and high (1,837 to 4,689 PFU) doses of poliovirus type 1. To have a more uniform standard of comparison, all the test samples were reassayed in one laboratory, where titers were also determined for the virus seed. Test results of the Viradel-organic flocculation method indicated that the average percentage of virus recovery for low-input experiments was 66%, with a range of 8 to 20% in two laboratories, 49 to 63% in three laboratories, and 198% in one laboratory. For the high-input experiments, two laboratories reported recoveries of 6 to 12%, and four laboratories reported recoveries of 26 to 46%. For the Viradel aluminum hydroxide-hydroextraction procedure, two laboratories recovered 9 to 11%, whereas four obtained 17 to 34% for low-input experiments. For the high-input tests, two laboratories reported a recovery of 3 to 5%, and four recovered 11 to 18% of the seeded virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Melnick, J L; Safferman, R; Rao, V C; Goyal, S; Berg, G; Dahling, D R; Wright, B A; Akin, E; Stetler, R; Sorber, C

1984-01-01

281

Round robin investigation of methods for the recovery of poliovirus from drinking water.  

PubMed

Six laboratories actively involved in water virology research participated in a methods evaluation study, conducted under the auspices of the American Society for Testing and Materials Committee on Viruses in the Aquatic Environment, Task Force on Drinking Water. Each participant was asked to examine the Viradel (virus adsorption-elution) method with cartridge-type Filterite filters for virus adsorption and organic flocculation and aluminum hydroxide-hydroextraction for reconcentration. Virus was adsorbed to filter media at pH 3.5 and eluted with either glycine buffer (pH 10.5) or beef extract-glycine (pHG 9.0). Considerable variation was noted in the quantity of virus recovered from four 100-liter samples of dechlorinated tapwater seeded with low (350 to 860 PFU) and high (1,837 to 4,689 PFU) doses of poliovirus type 1. To have a more uniform standard of comparison, all the test samples were reassayed in one laboratory, where titers were also determined for the virus seed. Test results of the Viradel-organic flocculation method indicated that the average percentage of virus recovery for low-input experiments was 66%, with a range of 8 to 20% in two laboratories, 49 to 63% in three laboratories, and 198% in one laboratory. For the high-input experiments, two laboratories reported recoveries of 6 to 12%, and four laboratories reported recoveries of 26 to 46%. For the Viradel aluminum hydroxide-hydroextraction procedure, two laboratories recovered 9 to 11%, whereas four obtained 17 to 34% for low-input experiments. For the high-input tests, two laboratories reported a recovery of 3 to 5%, and four recovered 11 to 18% of the seeded virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6320720

Melnick, J L; Safferman, R; Rao, V C; Goyal, S; Berg, G; Dahling, D R; Wright, B A; Akin, E; Stetler, R; Sorber, C

1984-01-01

282

Watering, fertilization, and slurry inoculation promote recovery of biological crust function in degraded soils.  

PubMed

Biological soil crusts are very sensitive to human-induced disturbances and are in a degraded state in many areas throughout their range. Given their importance in the functioning of arid and semiarid ecosystems, restoring these crusts may contribute to the recovery of ecosystem functionality in degraded areas. We conducted a factorial microcosm experiment to evaluate the effects of inoculation type (discrete fragments vs slurry), fertilization (control vs addition of composted sewage sludge), and watering frequency (two vs five times per week) on the cyanobacterial composition, nitrogen fixation, chlorophyll content, and net CO2 exchange rate of biological soil crusts inoculated on a semiarid degraded soil from SE Spain. Six months after the inoculation, the highest rates of nitrogen fixation and chlorophyll a content were found when the biological crusts were inoculated as slurry, composted sewage sludge was added, and the microcosms were watered five times per week. Net CO2 exchange rate increased when biological crusts were inoculated as slurry and the microcosms were watered five times per week. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints and phylogenetic analyses indicated that most of the cyanobacterial species already present in the inoculated crust had the capability to spread and colonize the surface of the surrounding soil. These analyses showed that cyanobacterial communities were less diverse when the microcosms were watered five times per week, and that watering frequency (followed in importance by the addition of composted sewage sludge and inoculation type) was the treatment that most strongly influenced their composition. Our results suggest that the inoculation of biological soil crusts in the form of slurry combined with the addition of composted sewage sludge could be a suitable technique to accelerate the recovery of the composition and functioning of biological soil crusts in drylands. PMID:16710791

Maestre, Fernando T; Martín, Noelia; Díez, Beatriz; López-Poma, Rosario; Santos, Fernando; Luque, Ignacio; Cortina, Jordi

2006-10-01

283

Coronary Flow Velocity Pattern and Recovery of Regional Left Ventricular Function  

PubMed Central

Coronary flow velocity pattern (CFVP) recorded within 3 days of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been reported to be useful in predicting left ventricular (LV) function. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate, via transthoracic Doppler echocardiography, whether the relationship between CFVP and recovery of LV function persists. Our study group comprised 37 patients with 1st anterior-wall acute myocardial infarction who underwent successful PCI for lesions in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). The CFVP in the LAD was recorded at 24–48 hours, 7 days, and 4 weeks after PCI. Myocardial contrast echocardiography was performed at 24–48 hours after PCI. The diastolic deceleration time (DDT) at each stage correlated significantly with the regional LV wall-motion score index at 6-month follow-up (r=–0.58 at 24–48 hr, –0.57 at day 7, and –0.50 at week 4; P <0.01 for all). The mean DDT increased over time. Optimal cutoff values for DDT to predict regional LV wall-motion score indices of <2.0 were 327 ms at 24–48 hours (sensitivity, 0.78; specificity, 0.64), 495 ms at day 7 (sensitivity, 0.75; specificity, 0.69), and 525 ms at week 4 (sensitivity, 0.83; specificity, 0.69). The DDT at 24–48 hours significantly correlated, better than the peak creatine kinase value, with reperfusion (r=0.68, P <0.01) as defined by myocardial contrast echocardiography. In conclusion, CFVP in the LAD can be used, within 4 weeks after PCI, to predict the recovery of regional LV function in patients with reperfused anterior-wall acute myocardial infarction.

Zhang, Yue-Li; Wei, Meng; Han, Bei-Bei; Xue, Xiao-Pei; Zhang, Wei-Xing; Wang, Man

2010-01-01

284

Functional motor recovery is improved due to local placement of GDNF microspheres after delayed nerve repair.  

PubMed

The majority of bioengineering strategies to promote peripheral nerve regeneration after injury have focused on therapies to bridge large nerve defects while fewer therapies are being developed to treat other nerve injuries, such as nerve transection. We constructed delivery systems using fibrin gels containing either free GDNF or polylactide-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres with GDNF to treat delayed nerve repair, where ELISA verified GDNF release. We determined the formulation of microspheres containing GDNF that optimized nerve regeneration and functional recovery in a rat model of delayed nerve repair. Experimental groups underwent delayed nerve repair and treatment with GDNF microspheres in fibrin glue at the repair site or control treatments (empty microspheres or free GDNF without microspheres). Contractile muscle force, muscle mass, and MUNE were measured 12 weeks following treatment, where GDNF microspheres (2 weeks formulation) were superior compared to either no GDNF or short-term release of free GDNF to nerve. Nerve histology distal to the repair site demonstrated increased axon counts and fiber diameters due to GDNF microspheres (2 weeks formulation). GDNF microspheres partially reversed the deleterious effects of chronic nerve injury, and recovery was slightly favored with the 2 weeks formulation compared to the 4 weeks formulation. PMID:23239194

Wood, Matthew D; Gordon, Tessa; Kemp, Stephen W P; Liu, Edward H; Kim, Howard; Shoichet, Molly S; Borschel, Gregory H

2013-05-01

285

Work function recovery of air exposed molybdenum oxide thin films with vacuum annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report substantial work function (WF) recovery of air exposed molybdenum oxide thin films with vacuum annealing. The high WF (˜6.8 eV) of thermally evaporated MoOx thin film was observed to decrease sharply to ˜5.6 eV with an air exposure of one hour. The drop in the WF was accompanied with a very thin layer of oxygen rich adsorbate on the MoOx film. The WF of the exposed MoOx film started to gradually recover with increasing annealing temperature in a vacuum chamber having base pressure of 8 x 10-11 torr. The saturation in the WF recovery was observed around 460 ^oC, with WF ˜6.4 eV. The adsorb layer was found to be removed after the vacuum annealing. We further studied the interface formation between the annealed MoOx and copper pthalocynine (CuPc). The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of CuPc was observed to be almost pinned to the Fermi level, strongly suggesting an efficient hole injection through the vacuum annealed MoOx film.

Irfan, Irfan; Turniske, Alexander; Bao, Zhenan; Gao, Yongli

2012-02-01

286

Recovery of hair cell function after damage induced by gentamicin in organ culture of rat vestibular maculae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we report the functional and morphological evidence of hair cell recovery after damages induced by gentamicin (GM) in cultured explants of rat vestibular maculae. We evaluated mechano-electrical transduction (MET) function in hair cells, by measuring Ca2+ responses in the explants with fura-2 when hair bundles were stimulated. After the MET testing, hair bundles were observed in high resolution by

Akiko Taura; Ken Kojima; Juichi Ito; Harunori Ohmori

2006-01-01

287

Functional Recovery of Paraplegic Rats and Motor Axon Regeneration in Their Spinal Cords by Olfactory Ensheathing Glia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axonal regeneration in the lesioned mammalian central nervous system is abortive, and this causes permanent disabilities in individuals with spinal cord injuries. In adult rats, olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) transplants successfully led to functional and structural recovery after complete spinal cord transection. From 3 to 7 months post surgery, all OEG-transplanted animals recovered locomotor functions and sensorimotor reflexes. They presented

Almudena Ramón-Cueto; M. Isabel Cordero; Fernando F. Santos-Benito; Jesús Avila

2000-01-01

288

Cellular Delivery of Neurotrophin3 Promotes Corticospinal Axonal Growth and Partial Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The injured adult mammalian spinal cord shows little spontaneous recovery after injury. In the present study, the contribution of projections in the dorsal half of the spinal cord to functional loss after adult spinal cord injury was examined, together with the effects of transgenic cellular delivery of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) on morphological and functional disturbances. Adult rats underwent bilateral dorsal column

R. Grill; K. Murai; A. Blesch; F. H. Gage; M. H. Tuszynski

1997-01-01

289

Computationally efficient method to construct scar functions.  

PubMed

The performance of a simple method [E. L. Sibert III, E. Vergini, R. M. Benito, and F. Borondo, New J. Phys. 10, 053016 (2008)] to efficiently compute scar functions along unstable periodic orbits with complicated trajectories in configuration space is discussed, using a classically chaotic two-dimensional quartic oscillator as an illustration. PMID:22463306

Revuelta, F; Vergini, E G; Benito, R M; Borondo, F

2012-02-01

290

Petroleum recovery. Volume 1. Reservoir engineering and recovery methods. 1974--1975 (citations from the Engineering Index data base). Report for 1974--75  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal recovery methods and well stimulation using waterflooding, steam injection, gas injection, and fluid injection techniques are discussed in this bibliography covering worldwide research. Topic areas cover fire flooding, caustic water flooding, miscible displacement, microemulsion flooding, polymer flooding, carbon dioxide miscible flooding, control of water mobility using polymers, and heat loss calculations. Reservoir modeling and simulation studies and studies pertaining

Hundemann

1977-01-01

291

Acetyl-L-carnitine treatment following spinal cord injury improves mitochondrial function correlated with remarkable tissue sparing and functional recovery.  

PubMed

We have recently documented that treatment with the alternative biofuel, acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC, 300 mg/kg), as late as 1 h after T10 contusion spinal cord injury (SCI), significantly maintained mitochondrial function 24 h after injury. Here we report that after more severe contusion SCI centered on the L1/L2 segments that are postulated to contain lamina X neurons critical for locomotion (the "central pattern generator"), ALC treatment resulted in significant improvements in acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and long-term hind limb function. Although control-injured rats were only able to achieve slight movements of hind limb joints, ALC-treated animals produced consistent weight-supported plantar steps 1 month after injury. Such landmark behavioral improvements were significantly correlated with increased tissue sparing of both gray and white matter proximal to the injury, as well as preservation of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in lamina X rostral to the injury site. These findings signify that functional improvements with ALC treatment are mediated, in part, by preserved locomotor circuitry rostral to upper lumbar contusion SCI. Based on beneficial effects of ALC on mitochondrial bioenergetics after injury, our collective evidence demonstrate that preventing mitochondrial dysfunction acutely "promotes" neuroprotection that may be associated with the milestone recovery of plantar, weight-supported stepping. PMID:22445934

Patel, S P; Sullivan, P G; Lyttle, T S; Magnuson, D S K; Rabchevsky, A G

2012-05-17

292

Methods for Functional Assessment After C7 Spinal Cord Hemisection in the Rhesus Monkey  

PubMed Central

Background Reliable outcome measures are essential for preclinical modeling of spinal cord injury (SCI) in primates. Measures need to be sensitive to both increases and decreases in function in order to demonstrate potential positive or negative effects of therapeutics. Objectives To develop behavioral tests and analyses to assess recovery of function after SCI in the nonhuman primate. Methods In all, 24 male rhesus macaques were subjected to complete C7 lateral hemisection. The authors scored recovery of function in an open field and during hand tasks in a restraining chair. In addition, EMG analyses were performed in the open field, during hand tasks, and while animals walked on a treadmill. Both control and treated monkeys that received candidate therapeutics were included in this report to determine whether the behavioral assays were capable of detecting changes in function over a wide range of outcomes. Results The behavioral assays are shown to be sensitive to detecting a wide range of motor functional outcomes after cervical hemisection in the nonhuman primate. Population curves on recovery of function were similar across the different tasks; in general, the population recovers to about 50% of baseline performance on measures of forelimb function. Conclusions The behavioral outcome measures that the authors developed in this preclinical nonhuman primate model of SCI can detect a broad range of motor recovery. A set of behavioral assays is an essential component of a model that will be used to test efficacies of translational candidate therapies for SCI.

Nout, Yvette S.; Ferguson, Adam R.; Strand, Sarah C.; Moseanko, Rod; Hawbecker, Stephanie; Zdunowski, Sharon; Nielson, Jessica L.; Roy, Roland R.; Zhong, Hui; Rosenzweig, Ephron S.; Brock, John H.; Courtine, Gregoire; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Tuszynski, Mark H.; Beattie, Michael S.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.

2012-01-01

293

The function of 'functional': a mixed methods investigation  

PubMed Central

Objective The term ‘functional’ has a distinguished history, embodying a number of physiological concepts, but has increasingly come to mean ‘hysterical’. The DSM-V working group proposes to use ‘functional’ as the official diagnostic term for medically unexplained neurological symptoms (currently known as ‘conversion disorder’). This study aimed to explore the current neurological meanings of the term and to understand its resilience. Design Mixed methods were used, first interviewing the neurologists in a large UK region and then surveying all neurologists in the UK on their use of the term. Results The interviews revealed four dominant uses—‘not organic’, a physical disability, a brain disorder and a psychiatric problem—as well as considerable ambiguity. Although there was much dissatisfaction with the term, the ambiguity was also seen as useful when engaging with patients. The survey confirmed these findings, with a majority adhering to a strict interpretation of ‘functional’ to mean only ‘not organic’, but a minority employing it to mean different things in different contexts - and endorsing the view that ‘functional’ would one day be a neurological construct again. Conclusions ‘Functional’ embodies real divisions in neurologists' conceptualisation of unexplained symptoms and, perhaps, between those of patients and neurologists: its diversity of meanings allows it to be a common term while meaning different things to different people, or at different times, and thus conceal some of the conflict in a particularly contentious area. This flexibility may help explain the term's longevity.

Armstrong, David; Wessely, Simon C

2012-01-01

294

Oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs by steam injection methods. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Oil recovery by steam injection is a proven, successful technology for nonfractured reservoirs, but has received only limited study for fractured reservoirs. Preliminary studies suggest recovery efficiencies in fractured reservoirs may be increased by as much as 50% with the application of steam relative to that of low temperature processes. The key mechanisms enhancing oil production at high temperature are the differential thermal expansion between oil and the pore volume, and the generation of gases within matrix blocks. Other mechanisms may also contribute to increased production. These mechanisms are relatively independent of oil gravity, making steam injection into naturally fractured reservoirs equally attractive to light and heavy oil deposits. The objectives of this research program are to quantify the amount of oil expelled by these recovery mechanisms and to develop a numerical model for predicting oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs during steam injection. The experimental study consists of constructing and operating several apparatuses to isolate each of these mechanisms. The first measures thermal expansion and capillary imbibition rates at relatively low temperature, but for various lithologies and matrix block shapes. The second apparatus measures the same parameters, but at high temperatures and for only one shape. A third experimental apparatus measures the maximum gas saturations that could build up within a matrix block. A fourth apparatus measures thermal conductivity and diffusivity of porous media. The numerical study consists of developing transfer functions for oil expulsion from matrix blocks to fractures at high temperatures and incorporating them, along with the energy equation, into a dual porosity thermal reservoir simulator. This simulator can be utilized to make predictions for steam injection processes in naturally-fractured reservoirs. Analytical models for capillary imbibition have also been developed.

Reis, J.C.; Miller, M.A.

1995-05-01

295

Comparison of sample preparation methods for the recovery of foodborne pathogens from fresh produce.  

PubMed

Sample preparation methods (pummeling, pulsifying, sonication, and shaking by hand) were compared for achieving maximum recovery of foodborne pathogens from iceberg lettuce, perilla leaves, cucumber, green pepper, and cherry tomato. Antimicrobial and dehydration effects also were examined to investigate causes of poor recovery of pathogens. Each produce type was inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus at 6.0 log CFU/cm(2), and samples were prepared using the four methods. Bacterial populations recovered from the five types of produce were significantly different (P < 0.05) according to sample preparation methods and produce type. The bacterial populations recovered from pummeled and pulsified samples were higher (P < 0.05) than those recovered from sonicated and hand-shaken samples, except for cherry tomato. The number of bacteria recovered from produce was reduced (P < 0.05) from that of the inoculum by 0.16 to 2.69 log CFU/cm(2). Although extracts of iceberg lettuce, perilla leaves, cucumber, and green pepper had no antimicrobial activity, the populations of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, B. cereus, and L. monocytogenes in cherry tomato extract were slightly reduced after these treatments (P < 0.05). The pathogen populations on perilla leaves and cherry tomatoes decreased by >2 log CFU/cm(2) after exposure to 40% relative humidity for 1 h. No reduction was observed when the five pathogens were exposed to 90% relative humidity. These data suggest that pummeling and pulsifying are optimal sample preparation methods for detection of microorganisms. Acidic produce such as cherry tomato should be treated with a method that does not cause sample breakdown so that acid stress on the bacteria can be minimized. Dehydration stress also affects recovery of pathogens from produce. PMID:22980003

Kim, Se-Ri; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Won-Il; Park, Kyeong-Hun; Yun, Hye-Jeong; Chung, Duck Hwa; Yun, Jong Chul; Ryu, Kyoung Yul

2012-07-01

296

Uncoupling PSD-95 interactions leads to rapid recovery of cortical function after focal stroke.  

PubMed

Since the most significant ischemic sequelae occur within hours of stroke, it is necessary to understand how neuronal function changes during this time. While histologic and behavioral models show the extent of stroke-related damage, only in vivo recordings can illustrate changes in brain activity during stroke and validate effectiveness of neuroprotective compounds. Spontaneous and evoked field potentials (fEPs) were recorded in the deep layers of the cortex with a linear microelectrode array for 3?hours after focal stroke in anesthetized rats. Tat-NR2B9c peptide, which confers neuroprotection by uncoupling the PSD-95 protein from N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), was administered 5?minutes before ischemia. Evoked field potentials were completely suppressed within 3?minutes of infarct in all ischemic groups. Evoked field potential recovery after stroke in rats treated with Tat-NR2B9c (83% of baseline) was greater compared with stroke-only (61% of baseline) or control peptide (Tat-NR2B-AA; 67% of baseline) groups (P<0.001). Electroencephalography (EEG) power was higher in Tat-NR2B9c-treated animals at both 20?minutes and 1?hour (50% and 73% of baseline, respectively) compared with stroke-only and Tat-NR2B-AA-treated rats (P<0.05). Tat-NR2B9c significantly reduces stroke-related cortical dysfunction as evidenced by greater recovery of fEPs and EEG power; illustrating the immediate effects of the compound on poststroke brain function. PMID:24022623

Srejic, Luka R; Hutchison, William D; Aarts, Michelle M

2013-12-01

297

Serotonin transporter genotype modulates functional connectivity between amygdala and PCC/PCu during mood recovery  

PubMed Central

The short (S) allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with increased susceptibility to depression. Previous neuroimaging studies have consistently showed increased amygdala activity during the presentation of negative stimuli or regulation of negative emotion in the homozygous short allele carriers, suggesting the key role of amygdala response in mediating increased risk for depression. The brain default mode network (DMN) has also been shown to modulate amygdala activity. However, it remains unclear whether 5-HTTLPR genetic variation modulates functional connectivity (FC) between the amygdala and regions of DMN. In this study, we re-analyzed our previous imaging dataset and examined the effects of 5-HTTLPR genetic variation on amygdala connectivity. A total of 15 homozygous short (S/S) and 15 homozygous long individuals (L/L) were scanned in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during four blocks: baseline, sad mood, mood recovery, and return to baseline. The S/S and L/L groups showed a similar pattern of FC and no differences were found between the two groups during baseline and sad mood scans. However, during mood recovery, the S/S group showed significantly reduced anti-correlation between amygdala and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu) compared to the L/L group. Moreover, PCC/PCu-amygdala connectivity correlated with amygdala activity in the S/S group but not the L/L group. These results suggest that 5-HTTLPR genetic variation modulates amygdala connectivity which subsequently affects its activity during mood regulation, providing an additional mechanism by which the S allele confers depression risk.

Fang, Zhuo; Zhu, Senhua; Gillihan, Seth J.; Korczykowski, Marc; Detre, John A.; Rao, Hengyi

2013-01-01

298

Acetyl salicylic acid locally enhances functional recovery after sciatic nerve transection in rat.  

PubMed

Local effect of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) on peripheral nerve regeneration was studied using a rat sciatic nerve transection model. Forty-five male healthy White Wistar rats were divided into three experimental groups (n = 15), randomly: Sham-operation (SHAM), control (SIL), and ASA-treated (SIL/ASA) groups. In SHAM group after anesthesia left sciatic nerve was exposed through a gluteal muscle incision and after homeostasis the muscle was sutured. In SIL group the left sciatic nerve was exposed the same way and transected proximal to tibio-peroneal bifurcation leaving a 10-mm gap. Proximal and distal stumps were each inserted into a silicone tube and filled with 10 ?l phosphate buffered solution. In SIL/ASA group defect was bridged using a silicone tube filled with 10 ?l acetyl salisylic acid (0.1 mg/ml). Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of five animals each and were studied 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery. Data were analyzed statistically by factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Bonferroni test for pair-wise comparisons. Functional study confirmed faster and better recovery of regenerated axons in SIL/ASA than in SIL group (p < 0.05). Gastrocnemius muscle mass in SIL/ASA was significantly more than in SIL group. Morphometric indices of regenerated fibers showed that the number and diameter of the myelinated fibers in SIL/ASA were significantly higher than in control group. In immuohistochemistry, location of reactions to S-100 in SIL/ASA was clearly more positive than in SIL group. Response to local treatment of ASA demonstrates that it influences and improves functional recovery of peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:24140781

Mohammadi, Rahim; Amini, Keyvan; Abdollahi-Pirbazari, Mehdi; Yousefi, Alireza

2013-01-01

299

Treatment with bone marrow mononuclear cells induces functional recovery and decreases neurodegeneration after sensorimotor cortical ischemia in rats.  

PubMed

We evaluated the beneficial effect of treatment with bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) in a rat model of focal ischemia induced by thermocoagulation of the blood vessels in the left sensorimotor cortex. BMMC were obtained from donor rats and injected into the femoral vein one day after ischemia. BMMC-treated animals received approx. 3 x 10(7) cells and control animals received PBS. Animals were evaluated for functional sensorimotor recovery weekly with behavioral tests and for changes in neurodegeneration and structural plasticity with histochemical and immunostaining techniques, respectively. The BMMC-treated group showed a significant recovery of function in the cylinder test 14, 21 and 28 days after ischemia. In the beam test, both groups showed improvement, with a tendency for faster recovery in the BMMC-treated group. In the adhesive test, both groups did not showed significant recovery of function. FJC(+) cell counting revealed significant decrease in the neurodegeneration in the periphery of the lesion in the BMMC-treated group. The analyses by immunoblotting revealed no significant difference in the expression of GAP-43 and synaptophysin between the groups. Thus, our results showed beneficial effects of the treatment with BMMC, which promoted significant functional recovery and decreased neurodegeneration. These results suggest that the therapy with BMMC is effective and might be a protocol of treatment for stroke in humans, alternative to the therapy proposed with the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:19368806

Giraldi-Guimarães, Arthur; Rezende-Lima, Maíra; Bruno, Fernando Pereira; Mendez-Otero, Rosalia

2009-02-01

300

Rapid recovery of serratus anterior muscle function after microneurolysis of long thoracic nerve injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Injury to the long thoracic nerve is a common cause of winging scapula. When the serratus anterior muscle is unable to function, patients often lose the ability to raise their arm overhead on the affected side. METHODS: Serratus anterior function was restored through decompression, neurolysis, and tetanic electrical stimulation of the long thoracic nerve. This included partial release of

Rahul K Nath; Sonya E Melcher

2007-01-01

301

Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

2004-01-01

302

Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose- response curves and recovery of function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation- induced disruption of dopaminergic function disrupts a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of the dopaminergic system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, spatial learning and memory (Morris water maze), and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current presentation will review the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are in fact common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity. Supported by N.A.S.A. Grant NAG9-1190.

Rabin, B.; Joseph, J.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

303

Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity.

Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

2004-01-01

304

Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function.  

PubMed

Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity. PMID:15803623

Rabin, B M; Joseph, J A; Shukitt-Hale, B

2004-01-01

305

Application to induction motor faults diagnosis of the amplitude recovery method combined with FFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a signal processing method - amplitude recovery method (abbreviated to ARM) - that can be used as the signal pre-processing for fast Fourier transform (FFT) in order to analyze the spectrum of the other-order harmonics rather than the fundamental frequency in stator currents and diagnose subtle faults in induction motors. In this situation, the ARM functions as a filter that can filter out the component of the fundamental frequency from three phases of stator currents of the induction motor. The filtering result of the ARM can be provided to FFT to do further spectrum analysis. In this way, the amplitudes of other-order frequencies can be extracted and analyzed independently. If the FFT is used without the ARM pre-processing and the components of other-order frequencies, compared to the fundamental frequency, are fainter, the amplitudes of other-order frequencies are not able easily to extract out from stator currents. The reason is when the FFT is used direct to analyze the original signal, all the frequencies in the spectrum analysis of original stator current signal have the same weight. The ARM is capable of separating the other-order part in stator currents from the fundamental-order part. Compared to the existent digital filters, the ARM has the benefits, including its stop-band narrow enough just to stop the fundamental frequency, its simple operations of algebra and trigonometry without any integration, and its deduction direct from mathematics equations without any artificial adjustment. The ARM can be also used by itself as a coarse-grained diagnosis of faults in induction motors when they are working. These features can be applied to monitor and diagnose the subtle faults in induction motors to guard them from some damages when they are in operation. The diagnosis application of ARM combined with FFT is also displayed in this paper with the experimented induction motor. The test results verify the rationality and feasibility of the ARM. It should be clarified that the ARM must be applied in three phases of currents in electrical machines. For a single phase of alternating current or direct current, it can do nothing. However, since three-phase electrical machines have a dominant position in the application field in modern economic society and it is natural and convenient to acquire three phases of stator currents during the three-phase electrical machines are tested, it is necessary and meaningful to develop the ARM to diagnose and guard them.

Liu, Yukun; Guo, Liwei; Wang, Qixiang; An, Guoqing; Guo, Ming; Lian, Hao

2010-11-01

306

ISS Contingency Attitude Control Recovery Method for Loss of Automatic Thruster Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, the attitude control issues associated with International Space Station (ISS) loss of automatic thruster control capability are discussed and methods for attitude control recovery are presented. This scenario was experienced recently during Shuttle mission STS-117 and ISS Stage 13A in June 2007 when the Russian GN&C computers, which command the ISS thrusters, failed. Without automatic propulsive attitude control, the ISS would not be able to regain attitude control after the Orbiter undocked. The core issues associated with recovering long-term attitude control using CMGs are described as well as the systems engineering analysis to identify recovery options. It is shown that the recovery method can be separated into a procedure for rate damping to a safe harbor gravity gradient stable orientation and a capability to maneuver the vehicle to the necessary initial conditions for long term attitude hold. A manual control option using Soyuz and Progress vehicle thrusters is investigated for rate damping and maneuvers. The issues with implementing such an option are presented and the key issue of closed-loop stability is addressed. A new non-propulsive alternative to thruster control, Zero Propellant Maneuver (ZPM) attitude control method is introduced and its rate damping and maneuver performance evaluated. It is shown that ZPM can meet the tight attitude and rate error tolerances needed for long term attitude control. A combination of manual thruster rate damping to a safe harbor attitude followed by a ZPM to Stage long term attitude control orientation was selected by the Anomaly Resolution Team as the alternate attitude control method for such a contingency.

Bedrossian, Nazareth; Bhatt, Sagar; Alaniz, Abran; McCants, Edward; Nguyen, Louis; Chamitoff, Greg

2008-01-01

307

A novel sampling method for the sparse recovery of infrared sea surveillance images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The compressive sensing framework states that a signal which has sparse representation in a known basis may be reconstructed from samples obtained from a sub-Nyquist sampling rate. Due to its inherent properties, the Fourier domain is widely used in compressive sensing applications. Sparse signal recovery applications making use of a small number of Fourier Transform coe±cients have made solutions to large scale data recovery problems, i.e. images, applicable and more practical. The sparse reconstruction of two dimensional images is performed by making use of sampling patterns generated by taking into consideration the general frequency characteristics of natural images. In this work, instead of forming a general sampling pattern for infrared images of sea-surveillance scenarios, a special sampling pattern has been obtained by making use of a new iterative algorithm that uses a database containing images recorded under similar conditions to extract important frequency characteristics. It has been shown by experimental results that, the proposed sampling pattern provides better sparse recovery performance compared to the baseline sampling methods proposed in the literature.

Cakir, Serdar; Uzeler, Hande; Aytaç, Tayfun

2013-10-01

308

A new method to study shape recovery of red blood cells using multiple optical trapping.  

PubMed Central

In this new method for studying the shape recovery of deformed red blood cells, three optical traps ("optical tweezers") induce a parachute-shaped red cell deformation, which is comparable to the deformation in small capillaries. The shape recovery is recorded, and a relaxation time is obtained for each individual red blood cell. The sensitivity of this technique for the detection of differences in relaxation times is demonstrated on subpopulations of density-separated red blood cells: "young" cells have shorter (162 ms) and "old" cells have longer (353 ms) relaxation times compared with the total population (271 ms). The relaxation time is remarkably shorter (114 ms) when the plasma surrounding the cells is replaced by a phosphate-buffered saline solution. The main advantages of this technique are the relatively short measuring and preparation time and the physiological type of deformation and shape recovery in which all relevant cell properties play a role. Therefore, especially when automated further, the technique may be a powerful tool for the study of (sub)populations of pathological red blood cells. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3

Bronkhorst, P J; Streekstra, G J; Grimbergen, J; Nijhof, E J; Sixma, J J; Brakenhoff, G J

1995-01-01

309

Comparison of Six DNA Extraction Methods for Recovery of Fungal DNA as Assessed by Quantitative PCR  

PubMed Central

The detection of fungal pathogens in clinical samples by PCR requires the use of extraction methods that efficiently lyse fungal cells and recover DNA suitable for amplification. We used quantitative PCR assays to measure the recovery of DNA from two important fungal pathogens subjected to six DNA extraction methods. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia or Candida albicans yeast cells were added to bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and subjected to DNA extraction in order to assess the recovery of DNA from a defined number of fungal propagules. In order to simulate hyphal growth in tissue, Aspergillus fumigatus conidia were allowed to form mycelia in tissue culture media and then harvested for DNA extraction. Differences among the DNA yields from the six extraction methods were highly significant (P < 0.0001) in each of the three experimental systems. An extraction method based on enzymatic lysis of fungal cell walls (yeast cell lysis plus the use of GNOME kits) produced high levels of fungal DNA with Candida albicans but low levels of fungal DNA with Aspergillus fumigatus conidia or hyphae. Extraction methods employing mechanical agitation with beads produced the highest yields with Aspergillus hyphae. The MasterPure yeast method produced high levels of DNA from C. albicans but only moderate yields from A. fumigatus. A reagent from one extraction method was contaminated with fungal DNA, including DNA from Aspergillus and Candida species. In conclusion, the six extraction methods produce markedly differing yields of fungal DNA and thus can significantly affect the results of fungal PCR assays. No single extraction method was optimal for all organisms.

Fredricks, David N.; Smith, Caitlin; Meier, Amalia

2005-01-01

310

Microscale Electrode Implantation during Nerve Repair: Effects on Nerve Morphology, Electromyography, and Recovery of Muscle Contractile Function  

PubMed Central

Background Our goal is to develop a peripheral nerve electrode with long-term stability and fidelity for use in nerve-machine interfaces. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) use silicon probes that contain multi-channel actuators, sensors, and electronics. We tested the null hypothesis that implantation of MEMS probes do not have a detrimental effect on peripheral nerve function or regeneration. Methods A rat hindlimb, peroneal nerve model was utilized in all experimental groups: a) intact nerve (Control, n= 10); b) nerve division and repair (Repair, n= 9); and c) Nerve division, insertion of MEMS probe, and repair (Repair + Probe, n=9). Nerve morphology, nerve to muscle compound action potential (CMAP) studies, walking tracks, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle function tests were evaluated following an 80 day recovery. Results Repair and Repair + Probe showed no differences in axon count, axon size, percent non-neural area, CMAP amplitude, latency, muscle mass, muscle force, or walking track scores. Though there was some local fibrosis around each MEMS probe, this did not lead to measurable detrimental effects in any anatomic or functional outcome measurements. Conclusions The lack of a significant difference between Repair and Repair + Probe groups in histology, CMAP, walking tracks, and muscle force suggests that MEMS electrodes are compatible with regenerating axons and show promise for establishing chemical and electrical interfaces with peripheral nerves.

Urbanchek, Melanie G; Wei, Benjamin; Egeland, Brent M; Abidian, Mohammad R; Kipke, Daryl R; Cederna, Paul S

2011-01-01

311

Compositions and methods for restoring pulmonary function  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention relates to compositions and methods that restore pulmonary function, preferably inhibiting or arresting the constriction of the bronchial tubes when administered to mammals, including humans. The pulmonary restorative composition for improving respiratory health comprises an effective amount of Gnaphalium obtusifolium L., more commonly known as rabbit tobacco, sweet everlasting and other historical names; Liquidambar, more commonly known as sweet gum; and Verbascum, more commonly known as mullein. Optionally, the composition may include at least of one additional herbal nutrient selected from the group Prunus avium, more commonly known as wild cherry; Althaea officinalis, more commonly known as marshmallow or mallow; Prunus amygdalus, more commonly known as peach; and Eucalyptus; and may include glucose. Also disclosed are methods for restoring or maintaining pulmonary function by the administration of the composition of the invention.

2013-03-19

312

Wave function methods for fractional electrons.  

PubMed

Determining accurate chemical potentials is of considerable interest in various chemical and physical contexts: from small molecular charge-transfer complexes to bandgap in bulk materials such as semi-conductors. Chemical potentials are typically evaluated either by density functional theory, or, alternatively, by computationally more intensive Greens function based GW computations. To calculate chemical potentials, the ground state energy needs to be defined for fractional charges. We thus explore an extension of wave function theories to fractional charges, and investigate the ionization potential and electron affinity as the derivatives of the energy with respect to the electron number. The ultimate aim is to access the chemical potential of correlated wave function methods without the need of explicitly changing the numbers of electrons, making the approach readily applicable to bulk materials. We find that even though second order perturbation theory reduces the fractional charge error considerably compared to Hartree-Fock and standard density functionals, higher order perturbation theory is more accurate and coupled-cluster approaches are even more robust, provided the electrons are bound at the Hartree-Fock level. The success of post-HF approaches to improve over HF relies on two equally important aspects: the integer values are more accurate and the Coulomb correlation between the fractionally occupied orbital and all others improves the straight line behavior significantly as identified by a correction to Hartree-Fock. Our description of fractional electrons is also applicable to fractional spins, illustrating the ability of coupled-cluster singles and doubles to deal with two degenerate fractionally occupied orbitals, but its inadequacy for three and more fractional spins, which occur, for instance, for spherical atoms and when dissociating double bonds. Our approach explores the realm of typical wave function methods that are applied mostly in molecular chemistry, but become available to the solid state community and offer the advantage of an integrated approach: fundamental gap, relative energies, and optimal geometries can be obtained at the same level. PMID:23968072

Steinmann, Stephan N; Yang, Weitao

2013-08-21

313

Element functions of discrete operator difference method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discrete scheme called discrete operator difference for differential equations was given. Several difference elements\\u000a for plate bending problems and plane problems were given. By investigating these elements, the ability of the discrete forms\\u000a expressing to the element functions was talked about. In discrete operator difference method, the displacements of the elements\\u000a can be reproduced exactly in the discrete forms

Tian Zhong-xu; Tang Li-min; Liu Zheng-xing

2002-01-01

314

Rapid method for recovery of strongylid third stage larvae of parasitic nematodes from small soil samples.  

PubMed

Livestock with access to pasture is generally exposed to infections with parasitic nematode species by uptake of infective third stage larvae (L3) with the grass. L3 can survive on pasture and particularly also in the soil up to several months and sometimes even longer, depending on temperature and humidity. As indicators for health and productivity of grazing animals it is important to determine the intensity and species spectrum of parasitic nematode larvae by analysing grass as well as soil samples. A rapid method for the recovery of L3 using a centrifugal-flotation technique from soil samples of 50-500g was developed. The method takes advantage of the low specific weight of larvae to separate them from equal sized soil and debris particles by centrifuging them in a saturated sugar solution. A stack of differently sized sieves is used to achieve elimination of larger particles, dust and sugar from the sample to enable easy counting of larvae. Independent of the number of larvae used for inoculation of the samples a mean recovery of 75.3% was obtained. The recovery rates obtained ranged between 60.8% and 88.0% which demonstrates a considerably lower variability compared to earlier approaches and therefore a more precise estimation of the actual numbers of parasite larvae in soil is achieved. Further advantages over already developed methods are the use of easy, affordable and eco-friendly materials, the simplicity of the procedure and a faster processing time with the possibility to examine up to 20 samples per day. PMID:24768626

Knapp-Lawitzke, Friederike; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina

2014-07-01

315

Local stabilization of microtubule assembly improves recovery of facial nerve function after repair.  

PubMed

Within a recent study on the recovery of vibrissae motor performance after facial nerve repair in blind (strain SD/RCS) and sighted (strain SD) rats, we found that, despite persisting myotopic disorganization in the facial nucleus, the blind animals fully restored vibrissal whisking. Searching for the morphological substrates of this improved recovery, we compared the amount of cytoskeletal proteins in the leading edge of elongating axons between both strains. Since our results showed an enhanced expression of neuronal class III beta-tubulin in the blind rats, we wondered whether this was due to an increased synthesis or to a delayed turnover of microtubules. In the present report, we approached this question applying established pharmacological agents to the transected buccal branch of the facial nerve in sighted Wistar rats perturbing either microtubule assembly towards stabilization (enhanced polymerization with 10 microg/ml taxol) or towards increased synthesis (challenged by destabilization with 100 microg/ml nocodazole and 20 microg/ml vinblastine). Evaluation of the effect(s) 2 months later included estimation of (i) vibrissae motor performance by video-based motion analysis, (ii) the degree of collateral axonal branching by double retrograde neuronal labeling with crystals of Fluoro-Gold and DiI and (iii) the pattern of motor end-plate reinnervation (proportions of mono- and poly-reinnervated) in the largest extrinsic vibrissal muscle, the m. levator labii superioris. We found that only stabilization of microtubules with 10 microg/ml taxol reduced intramuscular axonal sprouting and polyinnervation of the motor end-plates, which was accompanied by improved restoration of function. PMID:17963754

Grosheva, Maria; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Angelova, Srebrina K; Kuerten, Stefanie; Alvanou, Athanasia; Streppel, Michael; Skouras, Emmanouil; Sinis, Nektarios; Pavlov, Stoyan; Angelov, Doychin N

2008-01-01

316

Sustained delivery of nicotinamide limits cortical injury and improves functional recovery following traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Previously, we have demonstrated that nicotinamide (NAM), a neuroprotective soluble B-group vitamin, improves recovery of function following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, no prior studies have examined whether NAM is beneficial following continuous infusions over 7 days post-TBI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preclinical efficacy of NAM treatment as it might be delivered clinically; over several days by slow infusion. Rats were prepared with either unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) injuries or sham procedures and divided into three groups: CCI-NAM, CCI-vehicle and sham. Thirty minutes following CCI, Alzet osmotic mini-pumps were implanted subcutaneously. NAM was delivered at a rate of 50 mg/kg/day for 7 days immediately post-CCI. On day 7 following injury, the pumps were removed and blood draws were collected for serum NAM and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) analyses. Starting on day 2 post-CCI, animals were tested on a battery of sensorimotor tests (bilateral tactile adhesive removal, locomotor placing and limb-use asymmetry). Continuous infusion of NAM resulted in a significant serum elevation in NAM, but not NAD+. Statistical analyses of the tactile removal and locomotor placing data revealed that continuous administration of NAM significantly reduced the initial magnitude of the injury deficit and improved overall recovery compared to the vehicle-treated animals. NAM treatment also significantly decreased limb-use asymmetries compared to vehicle-treated animals. The overall extent of the cortical damage was also reduced by NAM treatment. No detrimental effects were seen following continuous infusion. The present results suggest that NAM delivered via a clinically relevant therapeutic regimen may truncate behavioral damage following TBI. Thus our results offer strong support for translation into the clinical population.

Goffus, Andrea M; Anderson, Gail D

2010-01-01

317

[Effects of FO-1561 on postischemic cerebral functional and metabolic recovery in experimental cerebral ischemia].  

PubMed

Effects of S-adenosyl-L-methionine sulfate tosylate (FO-1561) on postischemic cerebral functional and metabolic recovery in experimental cerebral ischemia were investigated. Severe bilateral forebrain ischemia in rats was induced by four-vessel occlusion with reducing the mean arterial pressure to 100-110 mmHg. After forebrain ischemia had been maintained for 30 minutes, recirculation was started by removal of the arterial clamps of bilateral common carotid arteries and by increasing systemic arterial pressure to the preischemic level. The EEG was continuously recorded from gold-coated screws inserted bilaterally in the parietal bones with the tips in extradural position, against a reference inserted prefrontal bone. Analysis of power spectrum of EEG activity was done by Berg Fourier Analyser. The brains were frozen in situ with liquid nitrogen before, during and after ischemia and then chiselled out during irrigation with liquid nitrogen. Concentrations of ATP in brain tissue were determined with high performance liquid chromatography. FO-1561, 100 mg/kg, was given intravenously, immediately after recirculation. After recirculation there was a tendency that EEG power spectrum in FO-1561-treated animals contained higher percentage of beta wave compared to that in control animals, while delta wave was lesser in FO-1561-treated animals. At 90 minutes following recirculation, ATP level in control animals was 2.17 +/- 0.05 mumol/g (mean +/- SE) and 2.42 +/- 0.03 mumol/g (mean +/- SE) in FO-1561-treated animals. Thus, recovery of ATP level was significantly better in FO-1561-treated animals than in control animals (p less than 0.01). PMID:3814437

Mabe, H; Ohara, S; Nagai, H

1986-11-01

318

Rolipram promotes functional recovery after contusive thoracic spinal cord injury in rats.  

PubMed

Numerous animal model studies in the past decade have demonstrated that pharmacological elevation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) alone, or in combination with other treatments, can promote axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. Elevation of cAMP via the phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, rolipram, decreases neuronal sensitivity to myelin inhibitors, increases growth potential and is neuroprotective. Rolipram's ability to cross the blood-brain barrier makes it a practical and promising treatment for CNS regeneration. However, several studies have questioned the efficacy of rolipram when given alone. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of continuous administration of rolipram, given alone for 2 weeks, following a moderate T10 contusion injury in rat. Functional recovery was evaluated using the 21-point Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor recovery scale and the beam walk. We used three-dimensional (3D) instrumented gait analysis to allow detailed assessment and quantification of hindlimb motion. The amount of the damaged tissue and spared white matter was estimated stereologically. Our results show that administration of rolipram following acute spinal cord contusion results in improved motor performance at each time-point. Dynamic assessment of foot motion during treadmill walking revealed a significantly decreased external rotation during the entire step cycle after 8 weeks in rolipram-treated animals. Stereological analysis revealed no significant differences in lesion volume and length. By contrast, spared white matter was significantly higher in the group treated with rolipram. Our results suggest a therapeutic role for rolipram delivered alone following acute SCI. PMID:23295392

Costa, Luís M; Pereira, José E; Filipe, Vítor M; Magalhães, Luís G; Couto, Pedro A; Gonzalo-Orden, José M; Raimondo, Stefania; Geuna, Stefano; Maurício, Ana C; Nikulina, Elena; Filbin, Marie T; Varejão, Artur S P

2013-04-15

319

Electrical stimulation of cerebellar fastigial nucleus promotes the expression of growth arrest and DNA damage inducible gene ? and motor function recovery in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rats.  

PubMed

This study focused on the effects of electrical stimulation of cerebellar fastigial nucleus on the expression of growth arrest and DNA damage inducible gene ? (Gadd45?) and on motor function recovery after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham I/R (control group), I/R (I/R group), I/R with sham stimulation and I/R with electrical stimulation at 6h, 12h, 24h, 2d and 3d after I/R. Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion was established by nylon monofilament occlusion method. Fastigial nucleus (FN) electrical stimulation was applied at 2h after ischemia for 1h. The changes in the expression of Gadd45? were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western-blot respectively. Another group of rats were divided into the same 4 groups. Montoya staircase test score was used to test the motor function of affected forelimb. The levels of Gadd45? were significantly elevated after I/R injury. FN electrical stimulation treatment elevated the expression of Gadd45? further and improved motor function recovery. These results suggest that FN electrical stimulation can promote the expression of Gadd45? and motor function recovery after focal cerebral ischemia. PMID:22634525

Liu, Bin; Li, Jianrui; Li, Longling; Yu, Lehua; Li, Changqing

2012-06-27

320

Functional recovery of anterior semicircular canal afferents following hair cell regeneration in birds.  

PubMed

Streptomycin sulfate (1.2 g/kg i.m.) was administered for 5 consecutive days to 5-7-day-old white Leghorn chicks; this causes damage to semicircular canal hair cells that ultimately regenerate to reform the sensory epithelium. During the recovery period, electrophysiological recordings were taken sequentially from anterior semicircular canal primary afferents using an indentation stimulus of the canal that has been shown to mimic rotational stimulation. Chicks were assigned to an early (14-18 days; n = 8), intermediate (28-34 days; n = 5), and late (38-58 days; n = 4) period based on days after treatment. Seven untreated chicks, 15-67 days old, provided control data. An absence of background and indent-induced discharge was the prominent feature of afferents in the early period: only "silent" afferents were encountered in 5/8 experiments. In several of these chicks, fascicles of afferent fibers were seen extending up to the epithelium that was void of hair cells, and intra- and extracellular biocytin labeling revealed afferent processes penetrating into the supporting cell layer of the crista. In 3/8 chicks 74 afferents could be characterized, and they significantly differed from controls (n = 130) by having a lower discharge rate and a negligible response to canal stimulation. In the intermediate period there was considerable variability in discharge properties of 121 afferents, but as a whole the number of "silent" fibers in the canal nerve diminished, the background rate increased, and a response to canal stimulation detected. Individually biocytin-labeled afferents had normal-appearing terminal specializations in the sensory epithelium by 28 days poststreptomycin. In the late period, afferents (n = 58) remained significantly different from controls in background discharge properties and response gain. The evidence suggests that a considerable amount of variability exists between chicks in the return of vestibular afferent function following ototoxic injury and that the secretory function of regenerating hair cells might become functional before their transducer function. PMID:12162365

Boyle, Richard; Highstein, Stephen M; Carey, John P; Xu, Jinping

2002-06-01

321

Functional recovery of anterior semicircular canal afferents following hair cell regeneration in birds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Streptomycin sulfate (1.2 g/kg i.m.) was administered for 5 consecutive days to 5-7-day-old white Leghorn chicks; this causes damage to semicircular canal hair cells that ultimately regenerate to reform the sensory epithelium. During the recovery period, electrophysiological recordings were taken sequentially from anterior semicircular canal primary afferents using an indentation stimulus of the canal that has been shown to mimic rotational stimulation. Chicks were assigned to an early (14-18 days; n = 8), intermediate (28-34 days; n = 5), and late (38-58 days; n = 4) period based on days after treatment. Seven untreated chicks, 15-67 days old, provided control data. An absence of background and indent-induced discharge was the prominent feature of afferents in the early period: only "silent" afferents were encountered in 5/8 experiments. In several of these chicks, fascicles of afferent fibers were seen extending up to the epithelium that was void of hair cells, and intra- and extracellular biocytin labeling revealed afferent processes penetrating into the supporting cell layer of the crista. In 3/8 chicks 74 afferents could be characterized, and they significantly differed from controls (n = 130) by having a lower discharge rate and a negligible response to canal stimulation. In the intermediate period there was considerable variability in discharge properties of 121 afferents, but as a whole the number of "silent" fibers in the canal nerve diminished, the background rate increased, and a response to canal stimulation detected. Individually biocytin-labeled afferents had normal-appearing terminal specializations in the sensory epithelium by 28 days poststreptomycin. In the late period, afferents (n = 58) remained significantly different from controls in background discharge properties and response gain. The evidence suggests that a considerable amount of variability exists between chicks in the return of vestibular afferent function following ototoxic injury and that the secretory function of regenerating hair cells might become functional before their transducer function.

Boyle, Richard; Highstein, Stephen M.; Carey, John P.; Xu, Jinping

2002-01-01

322

Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function  

PubMed Central

The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay.

Carmel, Jason B.; Martin, John H.

2014-01-01

323

Acute Delivery of EphA4-Fc Improves Functional Recovery after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

Abstract Blocking the action of inhibitory molecules at sites of central nervous system injury has been proposed as a strategy to promote axonal regeneration and functional recovery. We have previously shown that genetic deletion or competitive antagonism of EphA4 receptor activity promotes axonal regeneration and functional recovery in a mouse model of lateral hemisection spinal cord injury. Here we have assessed the effect of blocking EphA4 activation using the competitive antagonist EphA4-Fc in a rat model of thoracic contusive spinal cord injury. Using a ledged tapered balance beam and open-field testing, we observed significant improvements in recovery of locomotor function after EphA4-Fc treatment. Consistent with functional improvement, using high-resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging at 16.4T, we found that rats treated with EphA4-Fc had a significantly increased cross-sectional area of the dorsal funiculus caudal to the injury epicenter compared with controls. Our findings indicate that EphA4-Fc promotes functional recovery following contusive spinal cord injury and provides further support for the therapeutic benefit of treatment with the competitive antagonist in acute cases of spinal cord injury.

Spanevello, Mark Damien; Tajouri, Sophie Ines; Mirciov, Cornel; Kurniawan, Nyoman; Pearse, Martin John; Fabri, Louis Jerry; Owczarek, Catherine Mary; Hardy, Matthew Philip; Bradford, Rebecca Anne; Ramunno, Melanie Louise; Turnley, Ann Maree; Ruitenberg, Marc Jan

2013-01-01

324

Enhanced Functional Recovery in MRL/MpJ Mice after Spinal Cord Dorsal Hemisection  

PubMed Central

Adult MRL/MpJ mice have been shown to possess unique regeneration capabilities. They are able to heal an ear-punched hole or an injured heart with normal tissue architecture and without scar formation. Here we present functional and histological evidence for enhanced recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI) in MRL/MpJ mice. A control group (C57BL/6 mice) and MRL/MpJ mice underwent a dorsal hemisection at T9 (thoracic vertebra 9). Our data show that MRL/MpJ mice recovered motor function significantly faster and more completely. We observed enhanced regeneration of the corticospinal tract (CST). Furthermore, we observed a reduced astrocytic response and fewer micro-cavities at the injury site, which appear to create a more growth-permissive environment for the injured axons. Our data suggest that the reduced astrocytic response is in part due to a lower lesion-induced increase of cell proliferation post-SCI, and a reduced astrocytic differentiation of the proliferating cells. Interestingly, we also found an increased number of proliferating microglia, which could be involved in the MRL/MpJ spinal cord repair mechanisms. Finally, to evaluate the molecular basis of faster spinal cord repair, we examined the difference in gene expression changes in MRL/MpJ and C57BL/6 mice after SCI. Our microarray data support our histological findings and reveal a transcriptional profile associated with a more efficient spinal cord repair in MRL/MpJ mice.

Thuret, Sandrine; Thallmair, Michaela; Horky, Laura L.; Gage, Fred H.

2012-01-01

325

The phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram delivered after a spinal cord lesion promotes axonal regeneration and functional recovery.  

PubMed

Although there is no spontaneous regeneration of mammalian spinal axons after injury, they can be enticed to grow if cAMP is elevated in the neuronal cell bodies before the spinal axons are cut. Prophylactic injection of cAMP, however, is useless as therapy for spinal injuries. We now show that the phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor rolipram (which readily crosses the blood-brain barrier) overcomes inhibitors of regeneration in myelin in culture and promotes regeneration in vivo. Two weeks after a hemisection lesion at C3/4, with embryonic spinal tissue implanted immediately at the lesion site, a 10-day delivery of rolipram results in considerable axon regrowth into the transplant and a significant improvement in motor function. Surprisingly, in rolipram-treated animals, there was also an attenuation of reactive gliosis. Hence, because rolipram promotes axon regeneration, attenuates the formation of the glial scar, and significantly enhances functional recovery, and because it is effective when delivered s.c., as well as post-injury, it is a strong candidate as a useful therapy subsequent to spinal cord injury. PMID:15173585

Nikulina, Elena; Tidwell, J Lille; Dai, Hai Ning; Bregman, Barbara S; Filbin, Marie T

2004-06-01

326

Environmental Experience Modulates Ischemia-Induced Amyloidogenesis and Enhances Functional Recovery  

PubMed Central

Abstract In this study, we examined whether ischemia-induced amyloidogenesis could be modulated by environmental “experience,” and whether this modulation is associated with improved cognitive functioning. Rats were subjected to either global ischemia or sham surgery and then were randomly assigned to either enriched environment housing (EE) or socially paired housing (controls). After 14 days of differential environmental housing, the rats were tested in the water maze. Our results show decreased C-terminal fragments of the ?-amyloid precursor protein (?APP) and decreased amyloid beta (A?) load in the ischemic EE rats compared to the ischemic control animals. In addition, A? oligomerization was significantly decreased in the ischemic EE animals compared to the ischemic control rats. Further, significantly increased levels of neprilysin, but not insulin-degrading enzyme, amyloid-degrading enzymes, were seen in the ischemic EE rats compared to the ischemic control animals. Behavioral analyses showed that ischemic EE rats performed significantly better on the memory task compared to the ischemic control group. These results suggest that use of multi-sensory environmental enrichment following cerebral ischemia may reduce the accumulation of A? peptide in the more pathologic oligomeric form, and consequently may enhance functional recovery.

Rogozinska, Magdalena; Woods, Julie

2009-01-01

327

Comparison of the Recovery Patterns of Language and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Post-Traumatic Language Processing Deficits and in Patients with Aphasia Following a Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the…

Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

2008-01-01

328

Method for printing functional protein microarrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Piezoelectric dispensing of proteins from borosilicate glass capillaries is a popular method of protein biochip fabrication that offers the advantages of sample recovery and noncontact with the printing substrate. However, little regard has been given to the quantitative aspects of dispensing minute volumes (1 nL or less) at the low protein concentrations (20 micrograms/mL or less) typically used in microprinting. Specifically, loss of protein sample due to nonspecific adsorption to the glass surface of the dispensing capillaries can limit the amount of protein delivered to the substrate. We demonstrate the benefits of a low ionic strength buffer containing the carrier protein BSA that effectively minimizes the ionic strength-dependent phenomenon of nonspecific protein adsorption to borosilicate glass. Over the concentration range of 20-2.5 micrograms/mL, the dispensing of a reference IgG in 10 mM PBS including 0.1% BSA resulted in the deposition of 3.6- to 44-fold more IgG compared to the deposition of IgG in standard 150 mM PBS in the absence of BSA. Furthermore, when the IgG was dispensed with carrier protein, the resulting spots exhibited a more uniform morphology. In a direct immunoassay for cholera toxin, capture antibody spots dispensed in 10 mM PBS containing 0.1% BSA produced fluorescent signals that were 2.8- to 4.3-fold more intense than antibody spots that were dispensed in 150 mM PBS without BSA. Interestingly, no differences were observed in the specific activities of the capture antibodies as a result of printing in the different buffers. The implications of these results on the future development of protein biochips are discussed.

Delehanty, James B.; Ligler, Frances S.

2003-01-01

329

Development and Validation of an Instrument to Predict Functional Recovery in Tibial Fracture Patients: The Somatic Pre-Occupation and Coping (SPOC) Questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the role of patients’ beliefs in their likelihood of recovery from severe physical trauma. Methods We developed and validated an instrument designed to capture the impact of patients’ beliefs on functional recovery from injury; the Somatic Pre-occupation and Coping (SPOC) questionnaire. At 6-weeks post-surgical fixation, we administered the SPOC questionnaire to 359 consecutive patients with operatively managed tibial shaft fractures. We constructed multivariable regression models to explore the association between SPOC scores and functional outcome at 1-year, as measured by return to work and short form-36 (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores. Results In our adjusted multivariable regression models that included pre-injury SF-36 scores, SPOC scores at 6-weeks post-surgery accounted for 18% of the variation in SF-36 PCS scores and 18% of SF-36 MCS scores at 1-year. In both models, 6-week SPOC scores were a far more powerful predictor of functional recovery than age, gender, fracture type, smoking status, or the presence of multi-trauma. Our adjusted analysis found that for each 14 point increment in SPOC score at 6-weeks (14 chosen on the basis of half a standard deviation of the mean SPOC score) the odds of returning to work at 1-year decreased by 40% (odds ratio = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.73). Conclusion The SPOC questionnaire is a valid measurement of illness beliefs in tibial fracture patients and is highly predictive of their long-term functional recovery. Future research should explore if these results extend to other trauma populations and if modification of unhelpful illness beliefs is feasible and would result in improved functional outcomes.

Busse, Jason W.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Mandel, Scott; Sanders, David; Schemitsch, Emil; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Wai, Eugene; Walter, Stephen D.

2011-01-01

330

Microbiological methods for the water recovery systems test, revision 1.1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current microbiological parameters specified to verify microbiological quality of Space Station Freedom water quality include the enumeration of total bacteria, anaerobes, aerobes, yeasts and molds, enteric bacteria, gram positives, gram negatives, and E. coli. In addition, other parameters have been identified as necessary to support the Water Recovery Test activities to be conducted at the NASA/MSFC later this year. These other parameters include aerotolerant eutrophic mesophiles, legionellae, and an additional method for heterotrophic bacteria. If inter-laboratory data are to be compared to evaluate quality, analytical methods must be eliminated as a variable. Therefore, each participating laboratory must utilize the same analytical methods and procedures. Without this standardization, data can be neither compared nor validated between laboratories. Multiple laboratory participation represents a conservative approach to insure quality and completeness of data. Invariably, sample loss will occur in transport and analyses. Natural variance is a reality on any test of this magnitude and is further enhanced because biological entities, capable of growth and death, are specific parameters of interest. The large variation due to the participation of human test subjects has been noted with previous testing. The resultant data might be dismissed as 'out of control' unless intra-laboratory control is included as part of the method or if participating laboratories are not available for verification. The purpose of this document is to provide standardized laboratory procedures for the enumeration of certain microorganisms in water and wastewater specific to the water recovery systems test. The document consists of ten separate cultural methods and one direct count procedure. It is not intended nor is it implied to be a complete microbiological methods manual.

Rhoads, Tim; Kilgore, M. V., Jr.; Mikell, A. T., Jr.

1990-01-01

331

Recovery of metals from waste printed circuit boards by a mechanical method using a water medium.  

PubMed

Research on the recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCB) is at the forefront of environmental pollution prevention and resource recycling. To effectively crush waste PCB and to solve the problem of secondary pollution from fugitive odors and dust created during the crushing process, a wet impacting crusher was employed to achieve comminution liberation of the PCB in a water medium. The function of water in the crushing process was analyzed. When using slippery hammerheads, a rotation speed of 1470 rpm, a water flow of 6m(3)/h and a sieve plate aperture of 2.2mm, 95.87% of the crushed product was sized less than 1mm. 94.30% of the metal was in this grade of product. Using smashed material graded -1mm for further research, a Falcon concentrator was used to recover the metal from the waste PCB. Engineering considerations were the liberation degree, the distribution ratio of the metal and a way to simplify the technology. The separation mechanism for fine particles of different densities in a Falcon concentrator was analyzed in detail and the separation process in the segregation and separation zones was deduced. Also, the magnitude of centrifugal acceleration, the back flow water pressure and the feed slurry concentration, any of which might affect separation results, were studied. A recovery model was established using Design-Expert software. Separating waste PCB, crushed to -1mm, with the Falcon separator gave a concentrated product graded 92.36% metal with a recovery of 97.05%. To do this the reverse water pressure was 0.05 MPa, the speed transducer frequency was set at 30 Hz and the feed density was 20 g/l. A flow diagram illustrating the new technique of wet impact crushing followed by separation with a Falcon concentrator is provided. The technique will prevent environmental pollution from waste PCB and allow the effective recovery of resources. Water was used as the medium throughout the whole process. PMID:19121892

Duan, Chenlong; Wen, Xuefeng; Shi, Changsheng; Zhao, Yuemin; Wen, Baofeng; He, Yaqun

2009-07-15

332

Modified Interior Distance Functions (Theory and Methods)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we introduced and developed the theory of Modified Interior Distance Functions (MIDF's). The MIDF is a Classical Lagrangian (CL) for a constrained optimization problem which is equivalent to the initial one and can be obtained from the latter by monotone transformation both the objective function and constraints. In contrast to the Interior Distance Functions (IDF's), which played a fundamental role in Interior Point Methods (IPM's), the MIDF's are defined on an extended feasible set and along with center, have two extra tools, which control the computational process: the barrier parameter and the vector of Lagrange multipliers. The extra tools allow to attach to the MEDF's very important properties of Augmented Lagrangeans. One can consider the MIDFs as Interior Augmented Lagrangeans. It makes MIDF's similar in spirit to Modified Barrier Functions (MBF's), although there is a fundamental difference between them both in theory and methods. Based on MIDF's theory, Modified Center Methods (MCM's) have been developed and analyzed. The MCM's find an unconstrained minimizer in primal space and update the Lagrange multipliers, while both the center and the barrier parameter can be fixed or updated at each step. The MCM's convergence was investigated, and their rate of convergence was estimated. The extension of the feasible set and the special role of the Lagrange multipliers allow to develop MCM's, which produce, in case of nondegenerate constrained optimization, a primal and dual sequences that converge to the primal-dual solutions with linear rate, even when both the center and the barrier parameter are fixed. Moreover, every Lagrange multipliers update shrinks the distance to the primal dual solution by a factor 0 less than gamma less than 1 which can be made as small as one wants by choosing a fixed interior point as a 'center' and a fixed but large enough barrier parameter. The numericai realization of MCM leads to the Newton MCM (NMCM). The approximation for the primal minimizer one finds by Newton Method followed by the Lagrange multipliers update. Due to the MCM convergence, when both the center and the barrier parameter are fixed, the condition of the MDF Hessism and the neighborhood of the primal ninimizer where Newton method is 'well' defined remains stable. It contributes to both the complexity and the numerical stability of the NMCM.

Polyak, Roman A.

1995-01-01

333

Kinetic quantitation of cerebral PET-FDG studies without concurrent blood sampling: statistical recovery of the arterial input function.  

PubMed

Kinetic quantitation of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) studies via compartmental modeling usually requires the time-course of the radio-tracer concentration in the arterial blood as an arterial input function (AIF). For human and animal imaging applications, significant practical difficulties are associated with direct arterial sampling and as a result there is substantial interest in alternative methods that require no blood sampling at the time of the study. A fixed population template input function derived from prior experience with directly sampled arterial curves is one possibility. Image-based extraction, including requisite adjustment for spillover and recovery, is another approach. The present work considers a hybrid statistical approach based on a penalty formulation in which the information derived from a priori studies is combined in a Bayesian manner with information contained in the sampled image data in order to obtain an input function estimate. The absolute scaling of the input is achieved by an empirical calibration equation involving the injected dose together with the subject's weight, height and gender. The technique is illustrated in the context of (18)F -Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET studies in humans. A collection of 79 arterially sampled FDG blood curves are used as a basis for a priori characterization of input function variability, including scaling characteristics. Data from a series of 12 dynamic cerebral FDG PET studies in normal subjects are used to evaluate the performance of the penalty-based AIF estimation technique. The focus of evaluations is on quantitation of FDG kinetics over a set of 10 regional brain structures. As well as the new method, a fixed population template AIF and a direct AIF estimate based on segmentation are also considered. Kinetics analyses resulting from these three AIFs are compared with those resulting from radially sampled AIFs. The proposed penalty-based AIF extraction method is found to achieve significant improvements over the fixed template and the segmentation methods. As well as achieving acceptable kinetic parameter accuracy, the quality of fit of the region of interest (ROI) time-course data based on the extracted AIF, matches results based on arterially sampled AIFs. In comparison, significant deviation in the estimation of FDG flux and degradation in ROI data fit are found with the template and segmentation methods. The proposed AIF extraction method is recommended for practical use. PMID:19709971

O'Sullivan, F; Kirrane, J; Muzi, M; O'Sullivan, J N; Spence, A M; Mankoff, D A; Krohn, K A

2010-03-01

334

Salmon fibrin treatment of spinal cord injury promotes functional recovery and density of serotonergic innervation.  

PubMed

The neural degeneration caused by spinal cord injury leaves a cavity at the injury site that greatly inhibits repair. One approach to promoting repair is to fill the cavity with a scaffold to limit further damage and encourage regrowth. Injectable materials are advantageous scaffolds because they can be placed as a liquid in the lesion site then form a solid in vivo that precisely matches the contours of the lesion. Fibrin is one type of injectable scaffold, but risk of infection from blood borne pathogens has limited its use. We investigated the potential utility of salmon fibrin as an injectable scaffold to treat spinal cord injury since it lacks mammalian infectious agents and encourages greater neuronal extension in vitro than mammalian fibrin or Matrigel®, another injectable material. Female rats received a T9 dorsal hemisection injury and were treated with either salmon or human fibrin at the time of injury while a third group served as untreated controls. Locomotor function was assessed using the BBB scale, bladder function was analyzed by measuring residual urine, and sensory responses were tested by mechanical stimulation (von Frey hairs). Histological analyses quantified the glial scar, lesion volume, and serotonergic fiber density. Rats that received salmon fibrin exhibited significantly improved recovery of both locomotor and bladder function and a greater density of serotonergic innervation caudal to the lesion site without exacerbation of pain. Rats treated with salmon fibrin also exhibited less autophagia than those treated with human fibrin, potentially pointing to amelioration of sensory dysfunction. Glial scar formation and lesion size did not differ significantly among groups. The pattern and timing of salmon fibrin's effects suggest that it acts on neuronal populations but not by stimulating long tract regeneration. Salmon fibrin clearly has properties distinct from those of mammalian fibrin and is a beneficial injectable scaffold for treatment of spinal cord injury. PMID:22414309

Sharp, Kelli G; Dickson, Amanda R; Marchenko, Steve A; Yee, Kelly M; Emery, Pauline N; Laidmåe, Ivo; Uibo, Raivo; Sawyer, Evelyn S; Steward, Oswald; Flanagan, Lisa A

2012-05-01

335

Salmon fibrin treatment of spinal cord injury promotes functional recovery and density of serotonergic innervation  

PubMed Central

The neural degeneration caused by spinal cord injury leaves a cavity at the injury site that greatly inhibits repair. One approach to promoting repair is to fill the cavity with a scaffold to limit further damage and encourage regrowth. Injectable materials are advantageous scaffolds because they can be placed as a liquid in the lesion site then form a solid in vivo that precisely matches the contours of the lesion. Fibrin is one type of injectable scaffold, but risk of infection from blood borne pathogens has limited its use. We investigated the potential utility of salmon fibrin as an injectable scaffold to treat spinal cord injury since it lacks mammalian infectious agents and encourages greater neuronal extension in vitro than mammalian fibrin or Matrigel®, another injectable material. Female rats received a T9 dorsal hemisection injury and were treated with either salmon or human fibrin at the time of injury while a third group served as untreated controls. Locomotor function was assessed using the BBB scale, bladder function was analyzed by measuring residual urine, and sensory responses were tested by mechanical stimulation (von Frey hairs). Histological analyses quantified the glial scar, lesion volume, and serotonergic fiber density. Rats that received salmon fibrin exhibited significantly improved recovery of both locomotor and bladder function and a greater density of serotonergic innervation caudal to the lesion site without exacerbation of pain. Rats treated with salmon fibrin also exhibited less autophagia than those treated with human fibrin, potentially pointing to amelioration of sensory dysfunction. Glial scar formation and lesion size did not differ significantly among groups. The pattern and timing of salmon fibrin’s effects suggest that it acts on neuronal populations but not by stimulating long tract regeneration. Salmon fibrin clearly has properties distinct from those of mammalian fibrin and is a beneficial injectable scaffold for treatment of spinal cord injury.

Sharp, Kelli G.; Dickson, Amanda R.; Marchenko, Steve A.; Yee, Kelly M.; Emery, Pauline N.; Laidmae, Ivo; Uibo, Raivo; Sawyer, Evelyn S.; Steward, Oswald; Flanagan, Lisa A.

2012-01-01

336

Method of enhancing recovery of petroleum from an oil-bearing formation  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of enhancing recovery of petroleum from an oil bearing formation during injection of a non-condensable gas comprising at least periodically injecting a preformed foam into the oil bearing formation, the preformed foam comprises a mixture of the gas, water and an effective foam-forming amount of an alpha olefin sulfonate (AOS), the AOS comprising a mixture of hydroxysulfonates and alkene-sulfonates and further wherein the hydroxy-sulfonates comprise 3-hydroxy- and 4-hydroxy-sulfonates with the ratio of 3-hydroxy-sulfonates to 4-hydroxy-sulfonates being at least about 3. This patent also describes a method of enhancing recovery of petroleum from an oil bearing formation during injection of a non-condensable gas comprising at least periodically injecting a preformed foam into the oil bearing formation, the preformed foam comprises a mixture of the gas, water and an effective foam forming amount of an alpha olefin sulfonate (AOS), wherein the AOS comprises a mixture of hydroxysulfonates and alkene-sulfonates and further wherein the hydroxy sulfonates comprise 3-hydroxy-sulfonates which are present in an amount of at least about 20% by weight of the AOS.

Marquis, D.M.

1991-12-31

337

Using ecological function to develop recovery criteria for depleted species: sea otters and kelp forests in the Aleutian archipelago.  

PubMed

Recovery criteria for depleted species or populations normally are based on demographic measures, the goal being to maintain enough individuals over a sufficiently large area to assure a socially tolerable risk of future extinction. Such demographically based recovery criteria may be insufficient to restore the functional roles of strongly interacting species. We explored the idea of developing a recovery criterion for sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in the Aleutian archipelago on the basis of their keystone role in kelp forest ecosystems. We surveyed sea otters and rocky reef habitats at 34 island-time combinations. The system nearly always existed in either a kelp-dominated or deforested phase state, which was predictable from sea otter density. We used a resampling analysis of these data to show that the phase state at any particular island can be determined at 95% probability of correct classification with information from as few as six sites. When sea otter population status (and thus the phase state of the kelp forest) was allowed to vary randomly among islands, just 15 islands had to be sampled to estimate the true proportion that were kelp dominated (within 10%) with 90% confidence. We conclude that kelp forest phase state is a more appropriate, sensitive, and cost-effective measure of sea otter recovery than the more traditional demographically based metrics, and we suggest that similar approaches have broad potential utility in establishing recovery criteria for depleted populations of other functionally important species. PMID:20088959

Estes, James A; Tinker, M Tim; Bodkin, James L

2010-06-01

338

Theoretical Estimation of Cannulation Methods for Left Ventricular Assist Device Support as a Bridge to Recovery  

PubMed Central

Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support under cannulation connected from the left atrium to the aorta (LA-AA) is used as a bridge to recovery in heart failure patients because it is non-invasive to ventricular muscle. However, it has serious problems, such as valve stenosis and blood thrombosis due to the low ejection fraction of the ventricle. We theoretically estimated the effect of the in-series cannulation, connected from ascending aorta to descending aorta (AA-DA), on ventricular unloading as an alternative to the LA-AA method. We developed a theoretical model of a LVAD-implanted cardiovascular system that included coronary circulation. Using this model, we compared hemodynamic responses according to various cannulation methods such as LA-AA, AA-DA, and a cannulation connected from the left ventricle to ascending aorta (LV-AA), under continuous and pulsatile LVAD supports. The AA-DA method provided 14% and 18% less left ventricular peak pressure than the LA-AA method under continuous and pulsatile LVAD conditions, respectively. The LA-AA method demonstrated higher coronary flow than AA-DA method. Therefore, the LA-AA method is more advantageous in increasing ventricular unloading whereas the AA-DA method is a better choice to increase coronary perfusion.

Lim, Ki Moo; Lee, Jeong Sang; Song, Jin-Ho; Youn, Chan-Hyun; Choi, Jae-Sung

2011-01-01

339

Contralateral and ipsilateral EMG responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation during recovery of arm and hand function after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationship between the recovery of hand and arm function in a group of hemiplegic stroke patients and the presence of short-latency EMG responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in 4 different upper limb muscles (deltoid, biceps, extensor digitorum communis and the first dorsal interosseous). Twenty-one patients were examined within 5 weeks of stroke (median 2 weeks), and

A. Turton; S. Wroe; N. Trepte; C. Fraser; R. N. Lemon

1996-01-01

340

Multi-function vegetation recovery techniques on the land for coal gangue dump in Fushun mining area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the researches of site quality evaluation and plants community succession investigation on land for coal gangue dump (LCGD) in Fushun mining area, the multi-function vegetation recovery techniques were put into effect on LCGD in Fushun mining area. Firstly the standard fields were chosen and the soil environmental factors were investigated. Then the vegetation population distribution was systematically investigated

Chen Wang

2012-01-01

341

Effects of intensive repetition of a new facilitation technique on motor functional recovery of the hemiplegic upper limb and hand  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the effects on the hemiplegic upper limb of repetitive facilitation exercises (RFEs) using a novel facilitation technique, in which the patient's intention to move the hemiplegic upper limb or finger was followed by realization of the movement using multiple sensory stimulations. Methods Twenty-three stroke patients were enrolled in a cross-over study in which 2-week RFE sessions (100 repetitions each of five-to-eight types of facilitation exercise per day) were alternated with 2-week conventional rehabilitation (CR) sessions, for a total of four sessions. Treatments were begun with the 2-week RFE session in one group and the 2-week CR session in the second group. Results After the first 2-week RFE session, both groups showed improvements in the Brunnstrom stages of the upper limb and the hand, in contrast to the small improvements observed during the first CR session. The Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Function (STEF) score, which evaluates the ability of manipulating objects, in both groups improved during both sessions. After the second 2-week RFE and CR sessions, both groups showed little further improvement except in the STEF score. Conclusion The novel RFEs promoted the functional recovery of the hemiplegic upper limb and hand to a greater extent than the CR sessions.

Kawahira, Kazumi; Shimodozono, Megumi; Etoh, Seiji; Kamada, Katsuya; Noma, Tomokazu; Tanaka, Nobuyuki

2010-01-01

342

Pseudophosphatases: methods of analysis and physiological functions.  

PubMed

Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key enzymes in the regulation of cellular homeostasis and signaling pathways. Strikingly, not all PTPs bear enzymatic activity. A considerable fraction of PTPs are enzymatically inactive and are known as pseudophosphatases. Despite the lack of activity they execute pivotal roles in development, cell biology and human disease. The present review is focused on the methods used to identify pseudophosphatases, their targets, and physiological roles. We present a strategy for detailed enzymatic analysis of inactive PTPs, regulation of inactive PTP domains and identification of binding partners. Furthermore, we provide a detailed overview of human pseudophosphatases and discuss their regulation of cellular processes and functions in human pathologies. PMID:24064037

Kharitidi, Dmitri; Manteghi, Sanaz; Pause, Arnim

2014-01-15

343

Role of drugs in recovery of metabolic function of rat brain following severe hypoglycemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe hypoglycemia with isoelectric EEG induced extensive deterioration of the energy state and gross alteration of amino acid contents on the rat cerebral and cerebellar cortex. During recovery, tissue glucose concentration returned to normal, while both lactate and pyruvate concentrations increased to above normal. In the recovery period, the ATP concentration increased but the adenine nucleotide pool remained reduced, even

Gianni Benzi; Roberto F. Villa; Maurizia Dossena; Lorena Vercesi; Antonella Gorini; Ornella Pastoris

1984-01-01

344

The effect of a Variable Yield Function on the profitability of an integrated ABE fermentation product recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A published process for the fermentative production and recovery of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) has been modelled and analysed. Postulation of a Variable Yield Function has led to an unexpected Value Function. Given a desired ABE production range of 1.6×106 kg per year to 32×106 kg per year, and a typical fixed (or variable) cost term, ?, of $0.4 per kg ABE,

R. D. Tanner; D. Hunkeler; N. Qureshi; I. S. Maddox

1996-01-01

345

Pharmacogenetics of Modafinil After Sleep Loss: Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Genotype Modulates Waking Functions But Not Recovery Sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep loss impairs waking functions and is homeostatically compensated in recovery sleep. The mechanisms underlying the consequences of prolonged wakefulness are unknown. The stimulant modafinil may promote primarily dopaminergic neurotransmission. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the breakdown of cerebral dopamine. A functional Val158Met polymorphism reduces COMT activity, and Val\\/Val homozygous individuals presumably have lower dopaminergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex than do

S Bodenmann; S Xu; UFO Luhmann; M Arand; W Berger; HH Jung; HP Landolt

2009-01-01

346

Sensory experience during locomotion promotes recovery of function in adult visual cortex.  

PubMed

Recovery from sensory deprivation is slow and incomplete in adult visual cortex. In this study, we show that visual stimulation during locomotion, which increases the gain of visual responses in primary visual cortex, dramatically enhances recovery in the mouse. Excitatory neurons regained normal levels of response, while narrow-spiking (inhibitory) neurons remained less active. Visual stimulation or locomotion alone did not enhance recovery. Responses to the particular visual stimuli viewed by the animal during locomotion recovered, while those to another normally effective stimulus did not, suggesting that locomotion promotes the recovery only of the neural circuits that are activated concurrent with the locomotion. These findings may provide an avenue for improving recovery from amblyopia in humans.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02798.001. PMID:24970838

Kaneko, Megumi; Stryker, Michael P

2014-01-01

347

Sensory experience during locomotion promotes recovery of function in adult visual cortex  

PubMed Central

Recovery from sensory deprivation is slow and incomplete in adult visual cortex. In this study, we show that visual stimulation during locomotion, which increases the gain of visual responses in primary visual cortex, dramatically enhances recovery in the mouse. Excitatory neurons regained normal levels of response, while narrow-spiking (inhibitory) neurons remained less active. Visual stimulation or locomotion alone did not enhance recovery. Responses to the particular visual stimuli viewed by the animal during locomotion recovered, while those to another normally effective stimulus did not, suggesting that locomotion promotes the recovery only of the neural circuits that are activated concurrent with the locomotion. These findings may provide an avenue for improving recovery from amblyopia in humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02798.001

Kaneko, Megumi; Stryker, Michael P

2014-01-01

348

Clinical Comparison of 30-Day Mortalities and 6-Month Functional Recoveries after Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Patients with or without End-Stage Renal Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to determine 30-day mortality and 6-month functional recovery rates in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (S-ICH) patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and to compare the outcomes of these patients and S-ICH patients without ESRD. Methods The medical records of 1943 S-ICH patients from January 2000 to December 2011 were retrospectively analyzed with focus on demographic, radiological, and laboratory characteristics. Results A total of 1558 supratentorial S-ICH patients were included in the present study and 102 (6.5%) were ESRD patients. The 30-day mortality of the S-ICH patients with ESRD was 53.9%, and 29.4% achieved good functional recovery at 6 months post-S-ICH. Multivariate analysis showed that age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, pupillary abnormality, ventricular extension of hemorrhage, hemorrhagic volume, hematoma enlargement, anemia, and treatment modality were independently associated with 30-day mortality in S-ICH patients with ESRD (p<0.05), and that GCS score, volume of hemorrhage, conservative treatment, and shorter hemodialysis duration was independently associated with good functional recovery at 6 months post-S-ICH in patients with ESRD (p<0.05). Conclusion This retrospective study showed worse outcome after S-ICH in patients with ESRD than those without ESRD; 30-day mortality was four times higher and the functional recovery rate was significantly lower in S-ICH patients with ESRD than in S-ICH patients without ESRD.

Kim, Kang Rae

2013-01-01

349

Basic fibroblast growth factor stimulates functional recovery after neonatal lesions of motor cortex in rats.  

PubMed

Rats were given bilateral lesions of the motor cortex on the tenth day of life, and then received a daily subcutaneously injection of either basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) or vehicle for 7 consecutive days. In adulthood, they were trained and assessed on a skilled forelimb reaching task. Although all lesion groups were impaired at skilled reaching, the postnatal day 10-lesioned group that received FGF-2 was less impaired than the lesion group that received the vehicle. Furthermore, the lesioned rats that received FGF-2 showed a filling of the lesion cavity with tissue, whereas the lesioned vehicle-treated rats still had a prominent lesion cavity. The functionality of the tissue filling the cavity, tissue surrounding it, and tissue from the motor cortex (in control rats) was assessed using intracortical microstimulation, and showed that stimulation of some sites from the filled cavity could evoke movement. The rats were perfused and processed for Golgi-Cox staining. Medium spiny neurons from the striatum were drawn and analyzed, and the results suggest that postnatal day 10 lesions of the motor cortex induced an increase in the length and complexity of these cells compared with those of non-lesioned rats. Our results suggest that FGF-2 may play an important role in recovery from early brain damage. PMID:15951120

Monfils, M-H; Driscoll, I; Vandenberg, P M; Thomas, N J; Danka, D; Kleim, J A; Kolb, B

2005-01-01

350

Quantitative, functional, morphological and ultrastructural recovery of platelets as predictor for cryopreservation.  

PubMed

Cryopreservation of platelets is of great interest, since it could extend the shelf life of therapeutic platelet concentrates and facilitate stockpiling and inventory control in blood banking. Despite the use of many cryopreservation procedures the optimal cryopreservation procedure is not defined yet. We have compared the cryopreservation of human platelets by various protocols employing controlled-rate and non-controlled-rate freezing procedures in combination with different concentrations of DMSO (6% and 10%) or 5% DMSO + 6% HES combination. After storage for 1 to 3 months, samples were thawed and analyzed. Measurements included cell recovery, platelet viability according to hypotonic shock response (HSR), platelet aggregation with ADP, morphological and ultrastructural properties of defrozen platelets. Our findings show that the application of our original procedure for controlled-rate freezing consisting of six cooling steps (cooling rate 1 degree C/min) with compensation of released heat of fusion (cooling rate 2 degrees C/min) has significantly influenced the quality of thawed platelets. At the same time, a concentration of 6% DMSO proved to be the most effective. In summary, cryopreservation of human platelets using controlled-rate freezing procedure in combination with lower (6%) DMSO concentration resulted in less damage from freezing and higher recovered function of platelets. PMID:12803111

Balint, Bela; Vuceti?, Dusan; Trajkovi?-Laki?, Zlatija; Petakov, Marijana; Bugarski, Diana; Brajuskovi?, Goran; Taseski, Jovan

2002-01-01

351

The efficacy of antioxidants in functional recovery of spinal cord injured rats: an experimental study.  

PubMed

A total of 30 female Sprague-Dawley rats (180-220 g) subjected to spinal cord injury (SCI) were divided into three groups of ten rats each. Group 1 served as control (SCI + Saline), Group 2 received daily dose of ascorbic acid 2,000 mg/kg body weight and group 3 rats received alpha tocopherol daily with the dose of 2,000 mg/kg body weight for 14 days. The Spontaneous coordinate activity (SCA), Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) and Tarlov locomotor scores were used to assess functional recovery of SCI rats. Compared to group 1, group 2 showed statistically insignificant improvement in the SCA, BBB and Tarlov scores at the end of the study. Compared to group 1, group 3 showed statistically significant improvement in the SCA (P < 0.001), BBB (P < 0.001) and Tarlov (P < 0.01) scores at the end of the study. In conclusion, the administration of alpha-tocopherol enhances the reparative effects against SCI and it is more effective than ascorbic acid. PMID:22068217

Robert, Asirvatham Alwin; Zamzami, Marwan; Sam, Asirvatham Edwin; Al Jadid, Maher; Al Mubarak, Sultan

2012-08-01

352

Ectopic expression of human angiopoietin-1 promotes functional recovery and neurogenesis after focal cerebral ischemia.  

PubMed

Neuropathologic processes such as cerebral ischemia can enhance neurogenesis. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) emerges as a critical regulator of physiological and pathological angiogenesis during embryonic and postnatal life. Although Ang1 could protect peripheral vasculature from vascular leakage following ischemic injury, the role of Ang1 in long-term neurological recovery after ischemic stroke remains elusive. This study aims to examine whether Ang1 overexpression via lentivirus-mediated gene transfer enhances neurovascular remodeling and improves functional outcome in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Our results demonstrated that lentivirus-mediated Ang1 gene transfer led to improved neurological behavior and reduced infarction volume, and protected against blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage in the ischemic rats. In addition, we revealed that these effects of Ang1 are related to the ability of Ang1 to increase vascular density and accelerate endogenous neuronal differentiation. These findings suggest that Ang1 is a promising agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia. PMID:24607344

Meng, Z; Li, M; He, Q; Jiang, S; Zhang, X; Xiao, J; Bai, Y

2014-05-16

353

cAMP and Schwann cells promote axonal growth and functional recovery after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Central neurons regenerate axons if a permissive environment is provided; after spinal cord injury, however, inhibitory molecules are present that make the local environment nonpermissive. A promising new strategy for inducing neurons to overcome inhibitory signals is to activate cAMP signaling. Here we show that cAMP levels fall in the rostral spinal cord, sensorimotor cortex and brainstem after spinal cord contusion. Inhibition of cAMP hydrolysis by the phosphodiesterase IV inhibitor rolipram prevents this decrease and when combined with Schwann cell grafts promotes significant supraspinal and proprioceptive axon sparing and myelination. Furthermore, combining rolipram with an injection of db-cAMP near the graft not only prevents the drop in cAMP levels but increases them above those in uninjured controls. This further enhances axonal sparing and myelination, promotes growth of serotonergic fibers into and beyond grafts, and significantly improves locomotion. These findings show that cAMP levels are key for protection, growth and myelination of injured CNS axons in vivo and recovery of function. PMID:15156204

Pearse, Damien D; Pereira, Francisco C; Marcillo, Alexander E; Bates, Margaret L; Berrocal, Yerko A; Filbin, Marie T; Bunge, Mary Bartlett

2004-06-01

354

Mutations in lipid transporter ABCA12 in harlequin ichthyosis and functional recovery by corrective gene transfer  

PubMed Central

Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is a devastating skin disorder with an unknown underlying cause. Abnormal keratinocyte lamellar granules (LGs) are a hallmark of HI skin. ABCA12 is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family, and members of the ABCA subfamily are known to have closely related functions as lipid transporters. ABCA3 is involved in lipid secretion via LGs from alveolar type II cells, and missense mutations in ABCA12 have been reported to cause lamellar ichthyosis type 2, a milder form of ichthyosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that HI might be caused by mutations that lead to serious ABCA12 defects. We identify 5 distinct ABCA12 mutations, either in a compound heterozygous or homozygous state, in patients from 4 HI families. All the mutations resulted in truncation or deletion of highly conserved regions of ABCA12. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that ABCA12 localized to LGs in normal epidermal keratinocytes. We confirmed that ABCA12 defects cause congested lipid secretion in cultured HI keratinocytes and succeeded in obtaining the recovery of LG lipid secretion after corrective gene transfer of ABCA12. We concluded that ABCA12 works as an epidermal keratinocyte lipid transporter and that defective ABCA12 results in a loss of the skin lipid barrier, leading to HI. Our findings not only allow DNA-based early prenatal diagnosis but also suggest the possibility of gene therapy for HI.

Akiyama, Masashi; Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Yoriko; Sakai, Kaori; McMillan, James R.; Goto, Maki; Arita, Ken; Tsuji-Abe, Yukiko; Tabata, Nobuko; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Sasaki, Rikako; Sawamura, Daisuke; Shimizu, Hiroshi

2005-01-01

355

A Triple Redundant Controller which Adopts the TimeSharing Fault Recovery Method and its Application to a Power Converter Controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel fault recovery method, in which memory copy from a normal system to a fault detected system is executed in time-sharing fashion, has been implemented in a triple redundant controller. This method reduces data copy bandwidth required for recovery of the fault detected system, and allows non-stop fault recovery with only a little hardware overhead, even when the controller

Kotaro Shimamura; Yuichiro Morita; Yoshitaka Takahashi; Takashi Hotta; Shigeta Ueda; Mikiya Nohara; Mitsuyasu Kido; Seji Tanaka; Kazuhiro Imaie; Koji Sakamoto; Tatsuhito Nakajima

1998-01-01

356

Neuropsychologic and Functional Recovery From Severe Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Without Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To test the hypothesis that neuropsychologic test results and functional outcome will be abnormal if hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is not used in patients with severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Methods: For a 1-year interval, we retrospectively identified all CO-poisoned patients who were comatose on presentation at a large, urban tertiary hospital and did not receive HBO therapy. Prospectively,

Lindell K Weaver; Ramona O Hopkins; Valerie Larson-Lohr

1996-01-01

357

Sepiapterin enhances angiogenesis and functional recovery in mice after myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Uncoupling of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been implicated in left ventricular (LV) remodeling and dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that inducible NOS (iNOS) plays a crucial role in LV remodeling after MI, depending on its coupling status. MI was created in wild-type, iNOS-knockout (iNOS(-/-)), endothelial NOS-knockout (eNOS(-/-)), and neuronal NOS-knockout (nNOS(-/-)) mice. iNOS and nNOS expressions were increased after MI associated with an increase in nitrotyrosine formation. The area of myocardial fibrosis and LV end-diastolic volume and ejection fraction were more deteriorated in eNOS(-/-) mice compared with other genotypes of mice 4 wk after MI. The expression of GTP cyclohydrolase was reduced, and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) was depleted in the heart after MI. Oral administration of sepiapterin after MI increased dihydrobiopterin (BH(2)), BH(4), and BH(4)-to-BH(2) ratio in the infarcted but not sham-operated heart. The increase in BH(4)-to-BH(2) ratio was associated with inhibition of nitrotyrosine formation and an increase in nitrite plus nitrate. However, this inhibition of NOS uncoupling was blunted in iNOS(-/-) mice. Sepiapterin increased capillary density and prevented LV remodeling and dysfunction after MI in wild-type, eNOS(-/-), and nNOS(-/-) but not iNOS(-/-) mice. N(?)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester abrogated sepiapterin-induced increase in nitrite plus nitrate and angiogenesis and blocked the beneficial effects of sepiapterin on LV remodeling and function. These results suggest that sepiapterin enhances angiogenesis and functional recovery after MI by activating the salvage pathway for BH(4) synthesis and increasing bioavailable nitric oxide predominantly derived from iNOS. PMID:21890687

Shimazu, Takayuki; Otani, Hajime; Yoshioka, Kei; Fujita, Masanori; Okazaki, Toru; Iwasaka, Toshiji

2011-11-01

358

Functional recovery of supersensitive dopamine receptors after intrastriatal grafts of fetal substantia nigra  

SciTech Connect

Interruption of the ascending dopamine neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway, by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion in rats, produced a significant loss of the dopamine transport complexes labeled with the phencyclidine derivative (3H)BTCP. This loss of dopamine innervation in the striatum was present at least 12 to 14 months after lesioning and was functionally manifested by ipsilateral rotation of the animals in response to amphetamine. In these same animals, in comparison to controls, there was a significant increase in the number (Bmax) of (3H)SCH 23390-labeled D-1 receptors in the striatum (36.7%) and the substantia nigra (35.1%) and a 54.4% increase in the number (Bmax) of (3H)sulpiride-labeled striatal D-2 receptors without an apparent change in affinity (Kd). Ten to twelve months after the transplantation of homologous fetal substantia nigra into the denervated striatum, there was a significant decrease in amphetamine-induced turning behavior. In these animals, there was an ingrowth of dopamine nerve terminals in the striatum as demonstrated by a return of (3H)BTCP binding. Accompanying this reinnervation was the normalization of D-1 and D-2 receptors to control values in the striatum as well as the return of D-1 receptors to prelesion densities in the substantia nigra. In a subgroup of transplanted rats, amphetamine continued to induce ipsilateral turning. In these animals both D-1 and D-2 receptors remained supersensitive. These results support the hypothesis that the functional recovery of transplanted animals is due, in part, to reinnervation of the striatum. In addition, long-term alterations in receptor density may be related to the behavioral deficits that are associated with the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat.

Dawson, T.M.; Dawson, V.L.; Gage, F.H.; Fisher, L.J.; Hunt, M.A.; Wamsley, J.K. (Univ. of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City (USA))

1991-03-01

359

Effect of method of analysis on iron content of beef from advanced meat recovery systems.  

PubMed

A field survey was conducted by the USDA, Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) to provide analytical data on meat obtained from beef cervical vertebrae processed by advanced meat recovery (AMR) systems. As a result, an added iron performance standard was proposed to limit the amount of marrow in AMR products. The performance standard was based on iron content of hand boned lean compared to AMR lean. Iron content was determined by a hydrochloric wet ash digestion method. The same samples were then analyzed using dry ash digestion. The objectives of the study were to determine differences in iron content of the survey samples due to the digestion method and the impact of this difference on the added iron performance standard. Iron values by the dry ash method were approximately double those of the wet ash method. The difference was a result of incomplete volatilization of the organic matrix by hydrochloric acid in the wet ash procedure. The performance standards developed from the wet and dry ash methods were 1.8 and 3.2 mg added iron 100(-1) g, respectively. Added iron levels from the dry ash method greater than 3.2 mg 100(-1) g were present in 60% of the AMR lean indicating that some marrow was present or that factors other than amount of iron in hand boned lean should be considered before a performance standard is established. PMID:22062165

Windham, W R; Field, R A

2000-12-01

360

Spontaneous recovery of hindlimb movement in completely spinal cord transected mice: a comparison of assessment methods and conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:To compare results obtained with a variety of locomotor rating scales in Th9\\/10 spinal cord transected (Tx) mice.Objectives:To assess spontaneous recovery with a variety of rating scales to find the most sensitive methods for assessing recovery levels in Tx mice and differences associated with gender and condition.Setting:Laval University Medical Center, Neuroscience Unit & Laval University, Department of Anatomy and

R V Ung; N P Lapointe; C Tremblay; A Larouche; P A Guertin; PA Guertin

2007-01-01

361

Development of novel EOR (enhanced oil recovery) methods: Foams for mobility control in surfactant flooding  

SciTech Connect

The use of foam as a novel method for mobility control in surfactant flooding was investigated. This report presents an initial evaluation of the potential application of foam as a mobility control agent behind a low concentration surfactant flood. This enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process involves the injection of alternate slugs of gas and surfactant solution as drive fluids behind the active surfactant slug front as an alternative to the use of polymers in order to eliminate unfavorable surfactant-polymer interactions. Experiments were performed to determine in situ foam generation and propagation using varying concentrations of surfactants in a Berea sandstone core. An apparatus was designed and built to accurately measure differential pressures along sections of the core. Bottle or shake tests using the various concentrations of surfactants and experiments to determine the effect of foam flow on reducing mobility and involved steady-state measurement of differential pressures in the presence of foam were performed. Coreflood displacement experiments in the presence of oil were performed using varying concentrations of surfactants to compare various injection modes and oil recovery efficiency. 15 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

Llave, F.M.; Sturm, J.M.; Olsen, D.K.

1989-01-01

362

Folic Acid Enhances Early Functional Recovery in a Piglet Model of Pediatric Head Injury  

PubMed Central

For stroke and spinal cord injury, folic acid supplementation has been shown to enhance neurodevelopment and to provide neuroprotection. We hypothesized that folic acid would reduce brain injury and improve neurological outcome in a neonatal piglet model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), using 4 experimental groups of 3- to 5-day-old female piglets. Two groups were intubated, anesthetized and had moderate brain injury induced by rapid axial head rotation without impact. One group of injured (Inj) animals received folic acid (Fol; 80 ?g/kg) by intraperitoneal (IP) injection 15 min following injury, and then daily for 6 days (Inj + Fol; n = 7). The second group of injured animals received an IP injection of saline (Sal) at the same time points (Inj + Sal; n = 8). Two uninjured (Uninj) control groups (Uninj + Fol, n = 8; Uninj + Sal, n = 7) were intubated, anesthetized and received folic acid (80 ?g/kg) or saline by IP injection at the same time points as the injured animals following a sham procedure. Animals underwent neurobehavioral and cognitive testing on days 1 and 4 following injury to assess behavior, memory, learning and problem solving. Serum folic acid and homocysteine levels were collected prior to injury and again before euthanasia. The piglets were euthanized 6 days following injury, and their brains were perfusion fixed for histological analysis. Folic acid levels were significantly higher in both Fol groups on day 6. Homocysteine levels were not affected by treatment. On day 1 following injury, the Inj + Fol group showed significantly more exploratory interest, and better motor function, learning and problem solving compared to the Inj + Sal group. Inj + Fol animals had a significantly lower cognitive composite dysfunction score compared to all other groups on day 1. These functional improvements were not seen on day 4 following injury. Axonal injury measured by ?-amyloid precursor protein staining 6 days after injury was not affected by treatment. These results suggest that folic acid may enhance early functional recovery in this piglet model of pediatric head injury. This is the first study to describe the application of complex functional testing to assess an intervention outcome in a swine model of TBI.

Naim, Maryam Y.; Friess, Stuart; Smith, Colin; Ralston, Jill; Ryall, Karen; Helfaer, Mark A.; Margulies, Susan S.

2011-01-01

363

Folic acid enhances early functional recovery in a piglet model of pediatric head injury.  

PubMed

For stroke and spinal cord injury, folic acid supplementation has been shown to enhance neurodevelopment and to provide neuroprotection. We hypothesized that folic acid would reduce brain injury and improve neurological outcome in a neonatal piglet model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), using 4 experimental groups of 3- to 5-day-old female piglets. Two groups were intubated, anesthetized and had moderate brain injury induced by rapid axial head rotation without impact. One group of injured (Inj) animals received folic acid (Fol; 80 ?g/kg) by intraperitoneal (IP) injection 15 min following injury, and then daily for 6 days (Inj + Fol; n = 7). The second group of injured animals received an IP injection of saline (Sal) at the same time points (Inj + Sal; n = 8). Two uninjured (Uninj) control groups (Uninj + Fol, n = 8; Uninj + Sal, n = 7) were intubated, anesthetized and received folic acid (80 ?g/kg) or saline by IP injection at the same time points as the injured animals following a sham procedure. Animals underwent neurobehavioral and cognitive testing on days 1 and 4 following injury to assess behavior, memory, learning and problem solving. Serum folic acid and homocysteine levels were collected prior to injury and again before euthanasia. The piglets were euthanized 6 days following injury, and their brains were perfusion fixed for histological analysis. Folic acid levels were significantly higher in both Fol groups on day 6. Homocysteine levels were not affected by treatment. On day 1 following injury, the Inj + Fol group showed significantly more exploratory interest, and better motor function, learning and problem solving compared to the Inj + Sal group. Inj + Fol animals had a significantly lower cognitive composite dysfunction score compared to all other groups on day 1. These functional improvements were not seen on day 4 following injury. Axonal injury measured by ?-amyloid precursor protein staining 6 days after injury was not affected by treatment. These results suggest that folic acid may enhance early functional recovery in this piglet model of pediatric head injury. This is the first study to describe the application of complex functional testing to assess an intervention outcome in a swine model of TBI. PMID:21212637

Naim, Maryam Y; Friess, Stuart; Smith, Colin; Ralston, Jill; Ryall, Karen; Helfaer, Mark A; Margulies, Susan S

2010-01-01

364

Whey Proteins Are More Efficient than Casein in the Recovery of Muscle Functional Properties following a Casting Induced Muscle Atrophy  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whey supplementation, as compared to the standard casein diet, on the recovery of muscle functional properties after a casting-induced immobilization period. After an initial (I0) evaluation of the contractile properties of the plantarflexors (isometric torque-frequency relationship, concentric power-velocity relationship and a fatigability test), the ankle of 20 male adult rats was immobilized by casting for 8 days. During this period, rats were fed a standard diet with 13% of casein (CAS). After cast removal, rats received either the same diet or a diet with 13% of whey proteins (WHEY). A control group (n?=?10), non-immobilized but pair-fed to the two other experimental groups, was also studied and fed with the CAS diet. During the recovery period, contractile properties were evaluated 7 (R7), 21 (R21) and 42 days (R42) after cast removal. The immobilization procedure induced a homogeneous depression of average isometric force at R7 (CAS: ? 19.0±8.2%; WHEY: ? 21.7±8.4%; P<0.001) and concentric power (CAS: ? 26.8±16.4%, P<0.001; WHEY: ? 13.5±21.8%, P<0.05) as compared to I0. Conversely, no significant alteration of fatigability was observed. At R21, isometric force had fully recovered in WHEY, especially for frequencies above 50 Hz, whereas it was still significantly depressed in CAS, where complete recovery occurred only at R42. Similarly, recovery of concentric power was faster at R21 in the 500?700°/s range in the WHEY group. These results suggest that recovery kinetics varied between diets, the diet with the whey proteins promoting a faster recovery of isometric force and concentric power output as compared to the casein diet. These effects were more specifically observed at force level and movement velocities that are relevant for functional abilities, and thus natural locomotion.

Martin, Vincent; Ratel, Sebastien; Siracusa, Julien; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Combaret, Lydie; Guillet, Christelle; Dardevet, Dominique

2013-01-01

365

Analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage: a Rayleigh-based method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) is an important technique for energy conservation. A controlling factor for the economic feasibility of HT-ATES is the recovery efficiency. Due to the effects of density-driven flow (free convection), HT-ATES systems applied in permeable aquifers typically have lower recovery efficiencies than conventional (low-temperature) ATES systems. For a reliable estimation of the recovery efficiency it is, therefore, important to take the effect of density-driven flow into account. A numerical evaluation of the prime factors influencing the recovery efficiency of HT-ATES systems is presented. Sensitivity runs evaluating the effects of aquifer properties, as well as operational variables, were performed to deduce the most important factors that control the recovery efficiency. A correlation was found between the dimensionless Rayleigh number (a measure of the relative strength of free convection) and the calculated recovery efficiencies. Based on a modified Rayleigh number, two simple analytical solutions are proposed to calculate the recovery efficiency, each one covering a different range of aquifer thicknesses. The analytical solutions accurately reproduce all numerically modeled scenarios with an average error of less than 3 %. The proposed method can be of practical use when considering or designing an HT-ATES system.

Schout, Gilian; Drijver, Benno; Gutierrez-Neri, Mariene; Schotting, Ruud

2013-10-01

366

Biomaterial-based interventions for neuronal regeneration and functional recovery in rodent model of spinal cord injury: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Context There is considerable interest in translating laboratory advances in neuronal regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI). A multimodality approach has been advocated for successful functional neuronal regeneration. With this goal in mind several biomaterials have been employed as neuronal bridges either to support cellular transplants, to release neurotrophic factors, or to do both. A systematic review of this literature is lacking. Such a review may provide insight to strategies with a high potential for further investigation and potential clinical application. Objective To systematically review the design strategies and outcomes after biomaterial-based multimodal interventions for neuronal regeneration in rodent SCI model. To analyse functional outcomes after implantation of biomaterial-based multimodal interventions and to identify predictors of functional outcomes. Methods A broad PubMed, CINHAL, and a manual search of relevant literature databases yielded data from 24 publications; 14 of these articles included functional outcome information. Studies reporting behavioral data in rat model of SCI and employing biodegradable polymer-based multimodal intervention were included. For behavioral recovery, studies using severe injury models (transection or severe clip compression (>16.9 g) or contusion (50 g/cm)) were categorized separately from those investigating partial injury models (hemisection or moderate-to-severe clip compression or contusion). Results The cumulative mean improvements in Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores after biomaterial-based interventions are 5.93 (95% CI = 2.41 ? 9.45) and 4.44 (95% CI = 2.65 – 6.24) for transection and hemisection models, respectively. Factors associated with improved outcomes include the type of polymer used and a follow-up period greater than 6 weeks. Conclusion The functional improvement after implantation of biopolymer-based multimodal implants is modest. The relationship with neuronal regeneration and functional outcome, the effects of inflammation at the site of injury, the prolonged survival of supporting cells, the differentiation of stem cells, the effective delivery of neurotrophic factors, and longer follow-up periods are all topics for future elucidation. Future investigations should strive to further define specific factors associated with improved functional outcomes in clinically relevant models.

Krishna, Vibhor; Konakondla, Sanjay; Nicholas, Joyce; Varma, Abhay; Kindy, Mark; Wen, Xuejun

2013-01-01

367

Hydrometallurgical recovery of germanium from coal gasification fly ash. Solvent extraction method  

SciTech Connect

This article is concerned with a simple hydrometallurgical method for the selective recovery of germanium from fly ash (FA) generated in an integrated gasification with combined cycle (IGCC) process. The method is based on the leaching of FA with water and a subsequent concentration and selective separation of germanium by a solvent method. Regarding the leaching step, the different operational conditions studied were liquid/solid (L/S) ratio and time of contact. The solvent extraction method was based on germanium complexation with catechol (CAT) in an aqueous solution followed by the extraction of the Ge-CAT complex with an extracting organic reagent diluted in an organic solvent. The main factors examined during the extraction tests were aqueous phase/organic phase (AP/OP) volumetric ratio, aqueous phase pH, amounts of reagents, and time of contact. Germanium extraction yields were higher than 90%. Alkaline and acid stripping of organic extracts were studied obtaining the best results with 1M NaOH (85%). A high-purity germanium solution was obtained. Experimental data presented in this work show that the extraction of germanium by the solvent method designed can be selective toward germanium, and this element can be effectively separated from arsenic, molybdenum, nickel, antimony, vanadium, and zinc.

Arroyo, F.; Fernandez-Pereira, C. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

2008-05-15

368

Influence of recovery methods and extenders on bull epididymal spermatozoa quality.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two extraction methods in combination with two different extenders in bull epididymal sperm collection. Testes from 23 sexually mature Limousine bulls were collected at the abattoir. Epididymal sperm recovery was performed using both the float-up (FL) and the retrograde flushing (RF) technique. Within extraction methods, half testes were processed with a Tris egg yolk extender and half with a Tris egg yolk-free extender. Sperm concentration, motility, viability and morphology were evaluated. Sperm concentration was not significantly different between methods. Flushing technique was significantly better than the FL method in terms of sperm quality, considering total motility (80.3 ± 2.3% vs 71.6 ± 2.0%, p < 0.001, respectively) and viability (84.5 ± 1.5% vs 77.2 ± 1.3%, p < 0.001, respectively). Egg yolk influenced positively motility and morphology in the FL method, whereas decreased viability in flushed samples. Results suggest the use of the RF technique to collect cattle epididymal sperm. PMID:22107087

Turri, F; Madeddu, M; Gliozzi, T M; Gandini, G; Pizzi, F

2012-10-01

369

Sensitivity, variability, and recovery of functional and structural endpoints of an aquatic community exposed to herbicides.  

PubMed

A mesocosm study with three photosystem-II inhibitors and an equipotent mixture was performed to address the value of functional and structural endpoints in evaluating the impact of herbicides on aquatic systems. The herbicides atrazine, diuron, and isoproturon were dosed in the ratio of their relative potencies as HC30 for the single substance treatments and as 1/3 HC30 for the mixture treatment to obtain comparable effect concentrations. To investigate the effects of the three herbicides and their mixture on photosynthesis of the whole system, the physical-chemical parameters pH, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity were monitored. To address effects on photosynthesis more specifically, the photosynthetic efficiency of phytoplankton and three submersed macrophytes (Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Potamogeton lucens) were investigated applying in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator for their activity. As a structural endpoint, the species abundance and community structure of the phytoplankton community was determined. Effects were continuously monitored over a five week period of constant exposure, and during a 3 month post-exposure period. The sensitivity, expressed as maximum effect during constant exposure, was higher for the structural parameters (total and single species abundances and PRC) than for the functional parameters. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for the physical-chemical parameters was below 10%, for the photosynthesis measurement of the phytoplankton and macrophytes below 10 and 30%, respectively. Structural parameters, however, yielded higher variability with mean CVs for phytoplankton abundance data and single sensitive species reaching up to 96%. Effects on the phytoplankton photosynthesis measured via in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence were constant during the exposure period; whereas macrophytes recovered quickly from photosynthesis inhibition despite constant exposure. Effects on total system photosynthesis, determined via physical-chemical parameters, lasted for a shorter period than for the phytoplankton photosynthesis demonstrating the importance of the macrophytes for total primary production. Thus, the evaluation of effects on communities in model ecosystems such as micro- and mesocosms should not be based on structural endpoints only due to their comparably high inherent variability. Instead, we recommend complementing the risk assessment with data obtained from sensitive functional endpoints addressing the specific mode of action of the respective compound for the most sensitive group of organisms to avoid over-estimation of the recovery potential of the aquatic system. PMID:22153306

Knauer, Katja; Hommen, Udo

2012-04-01

370

Actinides recovery from molten salt/liquid metal system by electrochemical methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical methods were examined for the recovery of actinides from the electrorefiner which is used in pyrometallurgical reprocessing of spent metal fuel for fast reactors. Uranium was successfully collected at the solid steel cathode from both liquid cadmium and molten salt solvents. In electrotransport from liquid cadmium, the behavior of uranium and rare earths was as expected by a computer simulation code based on the diffusion layer model at the interface between the electrolyte and the electrodes. In electroreduction from the molten salt electrolyte, a considerable amount of uranium was reduced at the Cd?Li anode by direct chemical reduction with lithium, especially at a lower anodic current density. The decrease in collection efficiency of uranium due to the direct chemical reduction would be avoided by maintaining the anode potential higher than the deposition potential of uranium.

Iizuka, Masatoshi; Koyama, Tadafumi; Kondo, Naruhito; Fujita, Reiko; Tanaka, Hiroshi

1997-08-01

371

[Influence of different recovery methods on the activity of nitrification granular sludge].  

PubMed

Aerobic nitrifying granule sludge cultivated in sequential batch reactor (SBR) was used to investigate the critical activity point of granules and the effect of different ammonia concentration and aeration time on reactivation after storage. The results showed that there was big difference in the activity (SOUR, 02/VSS) of nitrifying bacteria after different storage time. The specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR) of granules before storage was 13. 15 mg.(g h)-1. After a storage period of 20 days, the SOUR decreased by 1.26 mg.(g.h)-1 , after 5 cycles of reactivation, the ammonia removal efficiency was already increased to 95% while the SOUR was recovered to 13.87 mg.(g.h)-1. But after a storage period of 30 days, the SOUR decreased by 11.63 mg.(g.h)-1, after 51 cycles of reactivation, the ammonia removal efficiecny only eached 92. 64% while the SOUR was recovered to 14.92 mg.(g.h)-1. Meanwhile, this storage method required a longer recovery time. Therefore, we put forward that the critical activity of denitrifying granular sludge should be the activity when activity recovery starts and the nitrifying bacteria SOUR begins to decline. On the basis of the critical activity, we began to restore the activity when the activity of the denitrifying bacteria was reduced to critical activity, and then started a new storage cycle. This storage method was named dynamic storage. Different influent ammonia concentrations of 20, 30 and40 mg.L-1 were applied to reactivate the aerobic granules. Highest SOUR could be achieved when fed with an ammonia concentration of 40 mg.L-1 after reactivation. After three times of dynamic storage, the SOUR remained stable. Different aeration time of 1, 2 and 3 h was applied to reactivate the aerobic granules. Highest SOUR could be obtained when aeration time of 1 h was applied after reactivation and remained stable along with dynamic storage. PMID:24364320

Guo, Xiu-Li; Gao, Da-Wen; Lu, Jian-Cong

2013-10-01

372

Active subnetwork recovery with a mechanism-dependent scoring function; with application to angiogenesis and organogenesis studies  

PubMed Central

Background The learning active subnetworks problem involves finding subnetworks of a bio-molecular network that are active in a particular condition. Many approaches integrate observation data (e.g., gene expression) with the network topology to find candidate subnetworks. Increasingly, pathway databases contain additional annotation information that can be mined to improve prediction accuracy, e.g., interaction mechanism (e.g., transcription, microRNA, cleavage) annotations. We introduce a mechanism-based approach to active subnetwork recovery which exploits such annotations. We suggest that neighboring interactions in a network tend to be co-activated in a way that depends on the “correlation” of their mechanism annotations. e.g., neighboring phosphorylation and de-phosphorylation interactions may be more likely to be co-activated than neighboring phosphorylation and covalent bonding interactions. Results Our method iteratively learns the mechanism correlations and finds the most likely active subnetwork. We use a probabilistic graphical model with a Markov Random Field component which creates dependencies between the states (active or non-active) of neighboring interactions, that incorporates a mechanism-based component to the function. We apply a heuristic-based EM-based algorithm suitable for the problem. We validated our method’s performance using simulated data in networks downloaded from GeneGO against the same approach without the mechanism-based component, and two other existing methods. We validated our methods performance in correctly recovering (1) the true interaction states, and (2) global network properties of the original network against these other methods. We applied our method to networks generated from time-course gene expression studies in angiogenesis and lung organogenesis and validated the findings from a biological perspective against current literature. Conclusions The advantage of our mechanism-based approach is best seen in networks composed of connected regions with a large number of interactions annotated with a subset of mechanisms, e.g., a regulatory region of transcription interactions, or a cleavage cascade region. When applied to real datasets, our method recovered novel and biologically meaningful putative interactions, e.g., interactions from an integrin signaling pathway using the angiogenesis dataset, and a group of regulatory microRNA interactions in an organogenesis network.

2013-01-01

373

Recovery Discontinuous Galerkin Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov Method for all-speed flows  

SciTech Connect

There is an increasing interest to develop the next generation simulation tools for the advanced nuclear energy systems. These tools will utilize the state-of-art numerical algorithms and computer science technology in order to maximize the predictive capability, support advanced reactor designs, reduce uncertainty and increase safety margins. In analyzing nuclear energy systems, we are interested in compressible low-Mach number, high heat flux flows with a wide range of Re, Ra, and Pr numbers. Under these conditions, the focus is placed on turbulent heat transfer, in contrast to other industries whose main interest is in capturing turbulent mixing. Our objective is to develop singlepoint turbulence closure models for large-scale engineering CFD code, using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) or Large Eddy Simulation (LES) tools, requireing very accurate and efficient numerical algorithms. The focus of this work is placed on fully-implicit, high-order spatiotemporal discretization based on the discontinuous Galerkin method solving the conservative form of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The method utilizes a local reconstruction procedure derived from weak formulation of the problem, which is inspired by the recovery diffusion flux algorithm of van Leer and Nomura [?] and by the piecewise parabolic reconstruction [?] in the finite volume method. The developed methodology is integrated into the Jacobianfree Newton-Krylov framework [?] to allow a fully-implicit solution of the problem.

HyeongKae Park; Robert Nourgaliev; Vincent Mousseau; Dana Knoll

2008-07-01

374

Method for the recovery of silver from waste photographic fixer solutions  

DOEpatents

The method of the present invention is directed to the recovery of silver from spent photographic fixer solutions and for providing an effluent essentially silver-free that is suitable for discharge into commercial sewage systems. The present method involves the steps of introducing the spent photographic fixer solution into an alkaline hypochlorite solution. The oxidizing conditions of the alkaline hypochlorite solution are maintained during the addition of the fixer solution so that the silver ion complexing agents of thiosulfate and sulfite ions are effectively destroyed. Hydrazine monohydrate is then added to the oxidizing solution to form a reducing solution to effect the formation of a precipitate of silver which can be readily removed by filtration or decanting. Experimental tests indicate that greater than 99.99% of the original silver in the spent photographic fixer can be efficiently removed by practicing the present method. Also, the chemical and biological oxygen demand of the remaining effluent is significantly reduced so as to permit the discharge thereof into sewage systems at levels in compliance with federal and state environmental standards.

Posey, Franz A. (Concord, TN); Palko, Aloysius A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01

375

Assessment of cardiac function and myocardial morphology using small animal Look-Locker inversion recovery (SALLI) MRI in rats.  

PubMed

Small animal magnetic resonance imaging is an important tool to study cardiac function and changes in myocardial tissue. The high heart rates of small animals (200 to 600 beats/min) have previously limited the role of CMR imaging. Small animal Look-Locker inversion recovery (SALLI) is a T1 mapping sequence for small animals to overcome this problem. T1 maps provide quantitative information about tissue alterations and contrast agent kinetics. It is also possible to detect diffuse myocardial processes such as interstitial fibrosis or edema. Furthermore, from a single set of image data, it is possible to examine heart function and myocardial scarring by generating cine and inversion recovery-prepared late gadolinium enhancement-type MR images. The presented video shows step-by-step the procedures to perform small animal CMR imaging. Here it is presented with a healthy Sprague-Dawley rat, however naturally it can be extended to different cardiac small animal models. PMID:23912668

Jeuthe, Sarah; O H-Ici, Darach; Kemnitz, Ulrich; Dietrich, Thore; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Berger, Felix; Kuehne, Titus; Messroghli, Daniel

2013-01-01

376

Early left ventricular function recovery after trap-door coronary transfer repair of ALCAPA in an adult patient.  

PubMed

Anomalous origin of the left coronary from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital malformation, which may result in myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and sudden death if left untreated. Despite frequently advanced pathologic changes, there seems to be significant potential for the recovery of myocardial function in individuals with left ventricular dysfunction after the establishment of physiologic coronary circulation, particularly in the pediatric population. Reports of ALCAPA repair in adulthood are scarce and little information exists regarding the response of the left ventricle to revascularization in this age group. In this report, repair of ALCAPA in a significantly symptomatic adult patient with ventricular dysfunction is described, leading to an early recovery of left ventricular function. PMID:16153280

Contrafouris, Constantinos A; Giannopoulos, Nicolas M; Chatzis, Andrew C; Antoniades, Aias; Zavaropoulos, Prodromos N; Kirvassilis, George V; Kremastinos, Dimitrios T; Sarris, George E

2005-01-01

377

Recovery of pituitary function following treatment of an unruptured giant cavernous carotid aneurysm using Surpass flow-diverting stents.  

PubMed

Giant aneurysms arising from the cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) can mimic pituitary adenomas and may cause pituitary dysfunction due to their mass effect on the pituitary gland. We report a case of a 56-year-old man presenting with impotence, fatigue and panhypopituitarism who was found to have a giant unruptured aneurysm arising from the right cavernous ICA with severe mass effect on the pituitary gland. The patient underwent endovascular treatment of the giant aneurysm using two telescoping Surpass flow-diverting stents. At 6-month follow-up, repeat cerebral angiography showed Raymond grade II occlusion of the aneurysm with a small neck remnant. At the 10-month follow-up the patient showed full recovery of his pituitary function and clinical resolution of impotence and fatigue. This is the first report of occlusion of a giant cavernous carotid aneurysm using next generation Surpass flow-diverting stents leading to complete recovery of pituitary function. PMID:24798360

Tan, Lee A; Sandler, Victoria; Todorova-Koteva, Kristina; Levine, Laurence; Lopes, Demetrius K; Moftakhar, Roham

2014-01-01

378

Role of drugs in recovery of metabolic function of rat brain following severe hypoglycemia.  

PubMed

Severe hypoglycemia with isoelectric EEG induced extensive deterioration of the energy state and gross alteration of amino acid contents on the rat cerebral and cerebellar cortex. During recovery, tissue glucose concentration returned to normal, while both lactate and pyruvate concentrations increased to above normal. In the recovery period, the ATP concentration increased but the adenine nucleotide pool remained reduced, even if the ADP and AMP contents were close to normal. Phosphocreatine was restored to normal concentration with reciprocal changes in creatine content. During recovery there was a rise in glutamate and glutamine concentrations, gamma-aminobutyrate content returning to normal value. Ammonia and aspartate decreased below normal, while alanine increased above normal. The effect of some pharmacological agents on the posthypoglycemic recovery was tested: (a) Ergot alkaloids (dihydroergocristine, dihydroergocriptine, dihydroergocornine); (b) Vinca minor alkaloids (vincamine TPS, (-) eburnamonine); (c) Rauwolfia serpentina alkaloids (reserpine, raubasine); (d) synthetic agent (piracetam). During the posthypoglycemic recovery, these different agents exhibited different, or even contrasting, interferences on glycolytic metabolites, amino acids and energy-rich phosphates. The metabolic alterations in the cerebellar cortex were qualitatively of the same character of those in neocortex. However, the metabolic alterations were less extensive and more sensitive to drug action. PMID:6504232

Benzi, G; Villa, R F; Dossena, M; Vercesi, L; Gorini, A; Pastoris, O

1984-07-01

379

Synergist muscle ablation and recovery from nerve-repair grafting: contractile and metabolic function  

PubMed Central

After nerve-repair grafting of medial gastrocnemius muscle, there is incomplete recovery of specific force and sustainable power, perhaps due to overcompensation by synergistic muscles. We hypothesized that increased workload due to synergist ablation would enhance graft recovery. Contractile and metabolic properties of control and nerve-repair grafted muscles, with and without synergist ablation, were determined after 120 days recovery. Specific force (N/cm2) and normalized power (W/kg) were less in the experimental groups compared with controls. Sustained power (W/kg) in the synergist-ablated nerve-repair grafted muscle was higher than nerve-repair grafted muscle, returning to control values. GLUT-4 protein was higher and glycogen content was diminished in both synergist-ablated groups. In summary, synergist ablation did not enhance the recovery of specific force or normalized power, but sustained power did recover, suggesting that metabolic and not mechanical parameters were responsible for this recovery. The enhanced endurance after synergist ablation was accompanied by increased GLUT-4 protein, suggesting a role for increased uptake of circulating glucose during contraction.

Larkin, Lisa M.; Kuzon, William M.; Halter, Jeffrey B.

2009-01-01

380

Myocardial viability assessment by endocardial electroanatomic mapping: comparison with metabolic imaging and functional recovery after coronary revascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe objective of this study was to compare electroanatomic mapping for the assessment of myocardial viability with nuclear metabolic imaging using positron emission computed tomography (PET) and with data on functional recovery after successful myocardial revascularization.BACKGROUNDAnimal experiments and first clinical studies suggested that electroanatomic endocardial mapping identifies the presence and absence of myocardial viability.METHODSForty-six patients with prior (?2 weeks) myocardial

Karl-Christian Koch; Juergen vom Dahl; Monika Wenderdel; Bernd Nowak; Wolfgang M Schaefer; Alexander Sasse; Christoph Stellbrink; Udalrich Buell; Peter Hanrath

2001-01-01

381

Histone deacetylase inhibitor ITF2357 is neuroprotective, improves functional recovery, and induces glial apoptosis following experimental traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite efforts aimed at developing novel therapeutics for traumatic brain injury (TBI), no specific pharmacological agent is currently clinically available. Here, we show that the pan-histone deacety- lase (HDAC) inhibitor ITF2357, a compound shown to be safe and effective in humans, improves functional recovery and attenuates tissue damage when adminis- tered as late as 24 h postinjury. Using a well-character-

N. A. Shein; Nikolaos Grigoriadis; Alexander G. Alexandrovich; Constantina Simeonidou; Athanasios Lourbopoulos; Eleni Polyzoidou; Victoria Trembovler; Paolo Mascagni; Charles A. Dinarello; Esther Shohami

2009-01-01

382

Recovery methods for detection and quantification of Campylobacter depend on meat matrices and bacteriological or PCR tools.  

PubMed

Campylobacter is one of the main causes of human foodborne bacterial disease associated with meat consumption in developed countries. Therefore, the most effective approach for recovery and detection of Campylobacter from meat should be determined. Two hundred ninety pork skin and chine samples were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 and two strains of Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter cells were then recovered from suspensions and enumerated by direct plating. Campylobacter recovery was evaluated by comparing results for two methods of sample collection (swabbing and mechanical pummeling) and three recovery fluids (peptone water, 5% glucose serum, and demineralized water). End-point multiplex PCR was performed to evaluate the compatibility of the recovery fluids with direct PCR detection techniques. Mean recovery ratios differed significantly between pork skin and chine samples. Ratios were higher for mechanical pummeling (0.53 for pork skin and 0.49 for chine) than for swabbing (0.31 and 0.13, respectively). For pork skin, ratios obtained with peptone water (0.50) and with glucose serum (0.55) were higher than those obtained with demineralized water (0.16). Significant differences were not observed for chine samples. Direct multiplex PCR detection of Campylobacter was possible with pork skin samples. The tools for Campylobacter recovery must be appropriate for the meat matrix to be evaluated. In this study, less than 66% of inoculated Campylobacter was recovered from meat. This underestimation must be taken into account for quantitative risk analysis of Campylobacter infection. PMID:16995511

Fosse, J; Laroche, M; Rossero, A; Fédérighi, M; Seegers, H; Magras, C

2006-09-01

383

Recovery of coliphages from wastewater effluents and polluted lake water by the magnetite-organic flocculation method.  

PubMed

A magnetite-organic flocculation method was developed for the concentration of coliphages from wastewater effluents and polluted lake water. A high percent (68 to 100%) recovery of coliphages from sewage effluents was achieved by this procedure. Coliphage recovery from Lake Alice, a sewage-contaminated lake, showed phage concentrations ranging from 2.3 X 10(2) to 1.9 X 10(3) plaque-forming units per liter. This method is simple and inexpensive and may be carried out under field conditions. PMID:7013703

Bitton, G; Chang, L T; Farrah, S R; Clifford, K

1981-01-01

384

Evaluation of isokinetic and isometric strength measures for monitoring muscle function recovery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

Knezevic, OM, Mirkov, DM, Kadija, M, Milovanovic, D, and Jaric, S. Evaluation of isokinetic and isometric strength measures for monitoring muscle function recovery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Strength Cond Res 28(6): 1722-1731, 2014-Although various strength tests and their outcome measures have been proposed for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR), their measurement properties still remain relatively underexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal construct validity of the standard isokinetic (IKT) and isometric test (IMT), and of the IMT of alternating consecutive maximal contractions (ACMC). In addition, the concurrent validity of ACMC was assessed and compared with the validity of IMT. The strength of quadriceps and hamstrings in 20 male athletes with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury were assessed before ACLR, 4 and 6 months after ACLR, by means of IMT, ACMC, and IKT performed at 60 and 180°·s. Significant between-session differences in muscle strength variables were found in the involved quadriceps (F > 6.5; p ? 0.05), but not in the uninvolved leg (F < 2.5; p > 0.05). Coefficients of variations in the uninvolved leg (all below 13.5%) were lower than the involved leg (11.7-22.1%). Intraclass correlation coefficients were moderate-to-high for the uninvolved leg and low-to-high for quadriceps of the involved leg. The concurrent validity of ACMC with respect to the IKT (r = 0.57-0.92; p ? 0.05) was comparable with the validity of IMT (r = 0.52-0.87; p ? 0.05). We conclude that the explored longitudinal construct validity of most of the evaluated variables could be sufficiently sensitive to detect the effects of the applied rehabilitation procedures. In addition, the obtained sensitivity and concurrent validity and the potential advantages of ACMC over IMT, all suggest that ACMC could be a particularly promising method for routine testing of neuromuscular function after ACLR. PMID:24169472

Knezevic, Olivera M; Mirkov, Dragan M; Kadija, Marko; Milovanovic, Darko; Jaric, Slobodan

2014-06-01

385