Note: This page contains sample records for the topic function recovery method from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Physiological functions of the effects of the different bathing method on recovery from local muscle fatigue  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, mist saunas have been used in the home as a new bathing style in Japan. However, there are still few reports on the effects of bathing methods on recovery from muscle fatigue. Furthermore, the effect of mist sauna bathing on human physiological function has not yet been revealed. Therefore, we measured the physiological effects of bathing methods including the mist sauna on recovery from muscle fatigue. Methods The bathing methods studied included four conditions: full immersion bath, shower, mist sauna, and no bathing as a control. Ten men participated in this study. The participants completed four consecutive sessions: a 30-min rest period, a 10-min all out elbow flexion task period, a 10-min bathing period, and a 10-min recovery period. We evaluated the mean power frequency (MNF) of the electromyogram (EMG), rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), skin blood flow (SBF), concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb), and subjective evaluation. Results We found that the MNF under the full immersion bath condition was significantly higher than those under the other conditions. Furthermore, Tre, SBF, and O2Hb under the full immersion bath condition were significantly higher than under the other conditions. Conclusions Following the results for the full immersion bath condition, the SBF and O2Hb of the mist sauna condition were significantly higher than those for the shower and no bathing conditions. These results suggest that full immersion bath and mist sauna are effective in facilitating recovery from muscle fatigue.

2012-01-01

2

Enhanced oil recovery methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been estimated that there are between 30 and 50 billion bbl of oil reserves in the US which could be recovered by tertiary recovery methods, usually referred to as enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. This is oil which is already found and identified but which will remain in place unless special effort involving any one of a number

J. Owen; J. Floyd

1981-01-01

3

Motor unit number estimation may be a useful method to evaluate motor function recovery after spinal cord transection in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Experimental rat study.Objective:To investigate changes in motor unit number estimation (MUNE) value of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle after thoracic spinal cord transection in rats and to correlate the MUNE with hindlimb motor function recovery.Setting:China Rehabilitation Research Center, Beijing, China.Methods:Twelve rats were subjected to spinal cord transection or sham surgery and then evaluated by MUNE and the Basso, Beattie

G-X Xiong; Y Guan; Y Hong; J-W Zhang; H Guan

2010-01-01

4

Secondary recovery method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a waterflood method of oil recovery. A slug of a light hydrocarbon crude-oil distillate having a boiling point below that of gas-oil is injected into the oil-bearing formation. An amount equal to between 10 and 20% of the pore volume of the formation is injected. The slug also contains between 2.5 and 10% by wt of a high-

1965-01-01

5

Electrochemical catalyst recovery method  

DOEpatents

A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

Silva, Laura J. (Richland, WA); Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA)

1995-01-01

6

Electrochemical catalyst recovery method  

DOEpatents

A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

1995-05-30

7

Predicting Functional Recovery after Acute Ankle Sprain  

PubMed Central

Introduction Ankle sprains are among the most common acute musculoskeletal conditions presenting to primary care. Their clinical course is variable but there are limited recommendations on prognostic factors. Our primary aim was to identify clinical predictors of short and medium term functional recovery after ankle sprain. Methods A secondary analysis of data from adult participants (N = 85) with an acute ankle sprain, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial was undertaken. The predictive value of variables (age, BMI, gender, injury mechanism, previous injury, weight-bearing status, medial joint line pain, pain during weight-bearing dorsiflexion and lateral hop test) recorded at baseline and at 4 weeks post injury were investigated for their prognostic ability. Recovery was determined from measures of subjective ankle function at short (4 weeks) and medium term (4 months) follow ups. Multivariate stepwise linear regression analyses were undertaken to evaluate the association between the aforementioned variables and functional recovery. Results Greater age, greater injury grade and weight-bearing status at baseline were associated with lower function at 4 weeks post injury (p<0.01; adjusted R square=0.34). Greater age, weight-bearing status at baseline and non-inversion injury mechanisms were associated with lower function at 4 months (p<0.01; adjusted R square=0.20). Pain on medial palpation and pain on dorsiflexion at 4 weeks were the most valuable prognostic indicators of function at 4 months (p< 0.01; adjusted R square=0.49). Conclusion The results of the present study provide further evidence that ankle sprains have a variable clinical course. Age, injury grade, mechanism and weight-bearing status at baseline provide some prognostic information for short and medium term recovery. Clinical assessment variables at 4 weeks were the strongest predictors of recovery, explaining 50% of the variance in ankle function at 4 months. Further prospective research is required to highlight the factors that best inform the expected convalescent period, and risk of recurrence.

O'Connor, Sean R.; Bleakley, Chris M.; Tully, Mark A.; McDonough, Suzanne M.

2013-01-01

8

Improved oil-recovery methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Already-found oil fields contain billions of barrels of oil that are not recoverable by conventional methods. The U.S. target for recovery by improved methods is about 60 billion barrels. This current tertiary oil target will be larger as more fields are discovered and expected advances in technology are made. The most promising means to recover this hard-to-get oil are by

Geffen

1976-01-01

9

Oil recovery apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oil recovery apparatus and method, particularly for removing oil and grease from the discharge of dishwashing machines or the like, provides a small size assembly employing the same principle as in U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,024. This apparatus and method employs single rotating discs of plastic or plastic coated material and each disk has a pair of scraper blades arranged

Lowe

1981-01-01

10

Method for improved oil recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-thermal, single-well method is described for improved oil recovery from a hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir with essentially no natural drive in which: (a) a volume of a chemical surfactant\\/cosurfactant\\/brine mixture, greater than a volume required to fill the well bore an immediate vicinity thereto into a well penetrating the reservoir, which surfactant\\/cosurfactant\\/brine mixture is preformulated to produce a stable, low interfacial

M. E. Hayes; G. R. Hass; R. Sharpe; E. Nestaas; M. V. Ostrovsky

1987-01-01

11

Surfactant waterflooding oil recovery method  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a novel surfactant fluid and an oil recovery method using the fluid for recovering oil from subterranean formations thereof by surfactant waterflooding process. The fluid comprises an alkylpolyalkoxyalkylene sulfonate or an alkylarylpolyalkoxyalkylene sulfonate and a stabilizing agent comprising a synergistic mixture of an alkanol and an alkyl phenol. The presence of the mixture of alkanol and phenol improves the phase stability of the fluid, increases the viscosity of the surfactant fluid, and reduces the adsorption of surfactant by the formation.

Kalfoglou, G.

1980-11-04

12

Recovery in schizophrenia: focus on neurocognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Recovery encompasses symptom remission and functional elements such as cognition, social functioning and quality of life. Personal recovery is also important in illness management to help the person stay on track with treatment and focus on activities unrelated to taking medication that maintain mental health. In the present study we aimed to identify neurocognitive functioning in two clinically stable groups of patients with personal recovery and non-recovered patients. The results showered generalized cognitive deficits in both groups while the non-recovery group was more impaired in verbal and visual memory, acoustic and tactile gnosis and neurodynamics and executing functioning. Interestingly the recovery group demonstrated lack of programming of actions and sufficient error monitoring and self-correction whereas the non-recovery group was significantly more impaired in all executive domains. The obtained results could be beneficial in identifying a target for psychosocial treatments and specifically cognitive remediation for patients with schizophrenia to facilitate the process of recovery. PMID:22945216

Zaytseva, Yuliya; Gurovich, Isaac Ya; Goland, Etel; Storozhakova, Yaina A

2012-09-01

13

Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Acceptability and Recovery of Cortisol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compared cortisol concentrations yielded using three saliva collection methods (passive drool, salivette, and sorbette) in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, as well as method acceptability for a sample of children (n = 39) with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. No cortisol concentration differences were observed between…

Putnam, Susan K.; Lopata, Christopher; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Neilans, Erik G.; Werth, Jilynn

2012-01-01

14

Recovery of renal function in dialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although recovery of renal functions in dialysis dependent patients is estimated to be greater than 1%, there are no indicators that actually suggest such revival of renal function. Residual renal function in dialysis patients is unreliable and seldom followed. Therefore renal recovery (RR) in dialysis dependent patients may remain unnoticed. We present a group of dialysis dependent patients who

Mahendra Agraharkar; Vasudevan Nair; Matthew Patlovany

2003-01-01

15

Surfactant waterflooding oil recovery method  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a novel surfactant fluid and an oil recovery method using the fluid for recovering oil from subterranean formations thereof by surfactant waterflooding process. The fluid comprises water and at least one surfactant, preferably including an alkylpolyalkoxyalkylene sulfonate or an alkylarylpolyalkoxyalkylene sulfonate and as an additive for reducing the rigidity of the interfacial film, a silicapolydialkylsiloxane such as a silica-polydimethylsiloxane. Reduction in rididity of the interfacial film occupied by surfactant molecules of which the hydrophobic portion is dissolved in the oil phase and the hydrophilic portion is dissolved in the aqueous phase, improves the effectiveness of the surfactant fluid for recovering oil from subterranean formations.

Kalfoglou, G.

1981-10-27

16

A Review of Many Improved Recovery Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 20 yr, members of the petroleum industry have proposed more than 15 new or novel recovery methods for increasing the ultimate oil or gas recovery. This study is a general review of these new methods. A simple description of the new and improved recovery processes and their range of application is presented. The methods discussed include wet

Paul Crawford

1970-01-01

17

Enhanced oil recovery. Secondary and tertiary methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary recovery methods discussed are pressure maintenance, waterflooding, and immiscible gas injection. Tertiary methods considered are hydrocarbon miscible flooding, CO miscible flooding, polymer-augmented waterflooding, micellar-polymer flooding, cyclic steam injection, steam drive, and in situ combustion. Oil recovery by nuclear stimulation is also considered. Other topics covered are material and research requirements of enhanced oil recovery (EOR), environmental aspects of EOR,

Schumacher

1978-01-01

18

High-resolution satellite image recovery by modulation transfer function (MTF) compensation method using phase congruency estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite imagery always has low-resolution causing poor application in practice because the serious degradation in imaging is resulted in many factors such as atmospheric turbulence, cloud, and aberration of optical system. To reconstruct the degraded remote sensing images with a high quality, we designed an algorithm to estimate the system modulation transfer function (MTF) accurately. Phase congruency is employed to detect the edges and corners of the image first, then the significant edges, which are utilized to estimate the edge spread function (ESF) using inclined edge method, are picked up from above features through a certain line detection measurement. An image restoration algorithm based on total variation (TV) is introduced to deconvolute the degraded image with the estimated MTF which is derived from the ESF. The experiments show that this method is adaptive and efficient to recover the remote sensing images taken from a Chinese Satellite. The restored images with a higher resolution and higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) will improve the applications greatly.

Shao, Xiaopeng; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Shaohui; Jin, Zhenhua; Du, Juan

2013-09-01

19

Assessing recovery in middle cerebral artery stroke using functional MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary objective: To understand the temporal evolution of brain reorganization during recovery from stroke. Research design: A patient who suffered left middle cerebral artery stroke 9 months earlier was studied on three occasions, ? 1 month apart. Methods and procedures: Brain activation was studied using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). During each session, the patient performed a finger-to-thumb opposition task,

D. G. Nair; A. Fuchs; S. Burkart; F. L. Steinberg; J. A. S. Kelso

2005-01-01

20

Functional connectivity metrics during stroke recovery.  

PubMed

We explore functional connectivity in nine subjects measured with 1.5T fMRI-BOLD in a longitudinal study of recovery from unilateral stroke affecting the motor area (Small et al., 2002). We found that several measures of complexity of covariance matrices show strong correlations with behavioral measures of recovery. In Schmah et al. (2010), we applied Linear and Quadratic Discriminants (LD and QD) computed on a principal components (PC) subspace to classify the fMRI volumes into "early" and "late" sessions. We demonstrated excellent classification accuracy with QD but not LD, indicating that potentially important differences in functional connectivity exist between the early and late sessions. Motivated by Mclntosh et al. (2008), who showed that EEG brain-signal variability and behavioral performance both increased with age during development, we investigated complexity of the covariance matrix for this longitudinal stroke recovery data set. We used three complexity measures: the sphericity index described by Abdi (2010); "unsupervised dimensionality", which is the number of PCs that minimizes unsupervised generalization error of a covariance matrix (Hansen et al., 1999); and "QD dimensionality", which is the number of PCs that minimizes the classification accuracy of QD. Although these approaches measure different kinds of complexity, all showed strong correlations with one or more behavioral tests: nine-hole peg test, hand grip test and pinch test. We could not demonstrate that either sphericity or unsupervised dimensionality were significantly different for the "early" and "late" sessions using a paired Wilcoxon test. However, the amount of relative behavioral improvement was correlated with sphericity of the overall covariance matrix (pooled across all sessions), as well as with the divergence of the eigenspectra between the "early" and "late" covariance matrices. Complexity measures that use the number of PCs (which optimize QD classification or unsupervised generalization) were correlated with the behavioral performance of the final session, but not with the relative improvement. These are suggestive, but limited, results given the sample size, restricted behavioral measurements and older 1.5T BOLD data sets. Nevertheless, they indicate one potentially fruitful direction for future data-driven fMRI studies of stroke recovery in larger, better-characterized longitudinal stroke data sets recorded at higher field strength. Finally, we produced sensitivity maps (Kjems et al., 2002) corresponding to both linear and quadratic discriminants for the "early" vs. "late" classification. These maps measure the influence of each voxel on the class assignments for a given classifier. Differences between the scaled sensitivity maps for the linear and quadratic discriminants indicate brain regions involved in changes in functional connectivity. These regions are highly variable across subjects, but include the cerebellum and the motor area contralateral to the lesion. PMID:21175012

Yourganov, G; Schmah, T; Small, S L; Rasmussen, P M; Strother, S C

2010-09-01

21

Prolonged Myocardial Hibernation Exacerbates Cardiomyocyte Degeneration and Impairs Recovery of Function After Revascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We sought to define the effects of time on contractile function, morphology and functional recovery after coronary revascularization in patients with dysfunctional but viable (hibernating) myocardium.Background. Functional recovery after coronary artery bypass graft surgery in patients with chronic myocardial hibernation is incomplete or delayed. The proposed cause is a progressive temporal degeneration of cardiomyocytes.Methods. In 32 patients with multivessel

Ernst R Schwarz; Friedrich A Schoendube; Sawa Kostin; Nicole Schmiedtke; Gernot Schulz; Udalrich Buell; Bruno J Messmer; John Morrison; Peter Hanrath; Juergen vom Dahl

1998-01-01

22

Actinide Recovery Method for Large Soil Samples  

SciTech Connect

A new Actinide Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides in very large soil samples. Diphonix Resin(r) is used eliminate soil matrix interferences and preconcentrate actinides after soil leaching or soil fusion. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin(r). After the resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be easily loaded onto small extraction-chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin(r), U-TEVA Resin(r) or TRU Resin(r) (Eichrom Industries). This method enables the application of small, selective extraction-columns to recover actinides from very large soil samples with high selectivity, consistent tracer recoveries and minimal liquid waste.

Maxwell, S.L. III [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Nichols, S.

1998-11-01

23

Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

Peru, Deborah A. (Bartlesville, OK)

1989-01-01

24

NUMERICAL RECOVERY OF THE SIGNED DISTANCE FUNCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We test several methods for computing the signed distance function which is very usefull not just for the level set methods. Both approaches, evolutinary based on the equation t = sign 0 (1 jr j) and direct based on the eikonal equation jr j = 1, are compared. We also derive new algorithm to solve more general problem jru(x)j =

TOM A S OBERHUBER

2004-01-01

25

Data warehousing methods and processing infrastructure for brain recovery research.  

PubMed

In order to accelerate translational neuroscience with the goal of improving clinical care it has become important to support rapid accumulation and analysis of large, heterogeneous neuroimaging samples and their metadata from both normal control and patient groups. We propose a multi-centre, multinational approach to accelerate the data mining of large samples and facilitate data-led clinical translation of neuroimaging results in stroke. Such data-driven approaches are likely to have an early impact on clinically relevant brain recovery while we simultaneously pursue the much more challenging model-based approaches that depend on a deep understanding of the complex neural circuitry and physiological processes that support brain function and recovery. We present a brief overview of three (potentially converging) approaches to neuroimaging data warehousing and processing that aim to support these diverse methods for facilitating prediction of cognitive and behavioral recovery after stroke, or other types of brain injury or disease. PMID:21175009

Gee, T; Kenny, S; Price, C J; Seghier, M L; Small, S L; Leff, A P; Pacurar, A; Strother, S C

2010-09-01

26

Incomplete functional recovery after delirium in elderly people: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Delirium often has a poor outcome, but why some people have incomplete recovery is not well understood. Our objective was to identify factors associated with short-term (by discharge) and long-term (by 6 month) incomplete recovery of function following delirium. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study of elderly patients with delirium seen by geriatric medicine services, function was assessed at

Melissa K Andrew; Susan H Freter; Kenneth Rockwood

2005-01-01

27

Renal function recovery in chronic dialysis patients.  

PubMed

Renal function recovery (RFR) from acute kidney injury requiring dialysis occurs at a high frequency. RFR from chronic dialysis, on the other hand, is an uncommon but well-recognized phenomenon, occurring at a rate of 1.0-2.4% according to data from large observational studies. The underlying etiology of renal failure is the single most important predicting factor of RFR in chronic dialysis patients. The disease types with the highest RFR rates are atheroembolic renal disease, systemic autoimmune disease, renovascular diseases, and scleroderma. The disease types with the lowest RFR rates are diabetic nephropathy and cystic kidney disease. Initial dialysis modality does not appear to influence RFR. Careful observation and history taking are needed to recognize the often nonspecific clinical and laboratory signs of RFR. When RFR is suspected in a chronic dialysis patient, a 24-hour urine urea and creatinine clearance should be measured. Based on the renal clearance, along with other clinical factors, the dialysis prescription may be gradually reduced until a complete discontinuation of dialysis. After RFR from maintenance dialysis, patients require close follow-up in an office setting for chronic kidney disease management. PMID:21166875

Chu, Jay K; Folkert, Vaughn W

2010-12-20

28

Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for flooding of a subterranean petroleum bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery, comprising the steps of providing at least one production well having at least one inlet within the subterranean petroleum bearing formation, and at least one injection well having at least one outlet within the subterranean petroleum bearing formation, injecting into the petroleum bearing formation through the injection well, a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution having a pH in the range of from about 8.25 to about 9.25 comprising from about 0.25 to about 5 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate, from about 0.05 to about 1.0 weight percent of petroleum recovery surfactant, and from about 1 to about 20 weight percent of sodium chloride, based on the total weight of the aqueous flooding solution, withdrawing through at least one inlet of the production wells, an oil and water mixture comprising petroleum from the subterranean petroleum bearing formation and at least a portion of the low alkaline pH sodium bicarbonate aqueous flooding solution, and separating the oil from the aqueous oil and water mixture.

Peru, D.A.

1989-04-04

29

RPC gas recovery by open loop method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RPC detectors require to be flushed with small but continuous flow of gas mixture. Dealing with large number of detectors, gas consumption to very large volumes. Gas flow is a running expense and constituent gases are too expensive to be treated as consumables. Exhaust gas mixture from detectors is a potential environmental hazard if discharged directly into the atmosphere. Storage of gases on a large scale also leads to inventory- and safety-related problems. A solution to these problems is the recovery and reuse of exhaust gas mixture from RPC detectors. Close loop method employs recirculation of exhausted gas mixture after purification, analysis and addition of top-up quantities. In open loop method, under consideration here, individual component gases are separated from gas mixture and reused as source. During open loop process, gases liquefiable at low pressures are separated from ones liquefiable at high pressure. The gas phase components within each group are successively separated by either fractional condensation or gravity separation. Gas mixture coming from RPC exhaust is first desiccated by passage through molecular sieve adsorbent type (3A+4A). Subsequent scrubbing over basic activated alumina removes toxic and acidic contaminants such as S2F10 produced during corona (arcing) discharge. In the first stage of separation isobutane and freon are concentrated by diffusion and liquefied by fractional condensation by cooling upto -30 °C. Liquefied gases are returned to source tanks. In the second stage of separation, argon and sulphur hexafluoride, the residual gases, are concentrated by settling due to density difference. SF6 is stored for recovery by condensation at high pressure while argon is further purified by thermal cracking of crossover impurities at 1000 °C followed by wet scrubbing.

Joshi, Avinash; Kalmani, S. D.; Mondal, N. K.; Satyanarayana, B.

2009-05-01

30

Recovery of functional enzyme from amyloid fibrils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyloid deposits, which accumulate in numerous diseases, are the final stage of multi-step protein conformational-conversion and oligomerization processes. The underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood, and particularly little is known about the reverse reaction. Here we show that phosphoglycerate kinase amyloid fibrils can be converted back into native protein. We achieved recovery with 60% efficiency, which is comparable to

Gergely Agócs; Katalin Solymosi; Andrea Varga; Károly Módos; Miklós Kellermayer; Péter Závodszky; Judit Fidy; Szabolcs Osváth

2010-01-01

31

Gender-related differences in recovery of locomotor function after spinal cord injury in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:In order to study the role of gender in recovery, we induced a thoracic compression spinal cord injury (SCI) separately in 2-month-old male and female C57Bl\\/6 mice.Objectives:We intended to assess effects of gender on recovery of hindlimb motor function and to correlate these with histomorphologic profiles of injured spinal cord tissue.Methods:Locomotor function was evaluated by three means: a modified

M Farooque; Z Suo; P M Arnold; M J Wulser; C-T Chou; R W Vancura; S Fowler; B W Festoff

2006-01-01

32

Plasticity of language-related brain function during recovery from stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose-This study was undertaken to correlate functional recovery from aphasia after acute stroke with the temporal evolution of the anatomic, physiological, and functional changes as measured by MRI. Methods-Blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast and echo-planar MRI were used to map language comprehension in 6 normal adults and in 2 adult patients during recovery from acute stroke presenting with aphasia.

K R Thulborn; P A Carpenter; M A Just

1999-01-01

33

Petroleum recovery: Reservoir engineering and recovery methods. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning field projects and supporting research on petroleum recovery and reservoir technology. Recovery agents and methods are discussed including responsive copolymers, microemulsions, surfactants, steam injection, gas injection, miscible displacement, and thermal processes. Reservoir modeling, simulation, and performance are examined. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-09-01

34

Oil recovery method utilizing an alkylarylpoxyalkylene sulfonate  

SciTech Connect

An alkylarylpolyalkoxyalkylene sulfonate alone or combined with a water soluble petroleum sulfonate surfactant is dissolved in water to form an effective surfactant fluid that is stable in high salinity environments. The surfactant fluid is injected into an underground petroleum-containing reservoir in an enhanced oil recovery process.

McCoy, D.R.

1984-08-14

35

Oil recovery method utilizing an alkylarylpoxyalkylene sulfonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alkylarylpolyalkoxyalkylene sulfonate alone or combined with a water soluble petroleum sulfonate surfactant is dissolved in water to form an effective surfactant fluid that is stable in high salinity environments. The surfactant fluid is injected into an underground petroleum-containing reservoir in an enhanced oil recovery process.

McCoy

1984-01-01

36

Integrase-directed recovery of functional genes from genomic libraries  

PubMed Central

Large population sizes, rapid growth and 3.8 billion years of evolution firmly establish microorganisms as a major source of the planet's biological and genetic diversity. However, up to 99% of the microorganisms in a given environment cannot be cultured. Culture-independent methods that directly access the genetic potential of an environmental sample can unveil new proteins with diverse functions, but the sequencing of random DNA can generate enormous amounts of extraneous data. Integrons are recombination systems that accumulate open reading frames (gene cassettes), many of which code for functional proteins with enormous adaptive potential. Some integrons harbor hundreds of gene cassettes and evidence suggests that the gene cassette pool may be limitless in size. Accessing this genetic pool has been hampered since sequence-based techniques, such as hybridization or PCR, often recover only partial genes or a small subset of those present in the sample. Here, a three-plasmid genetic strategy for the sequence-independent recovery of gene cassettes from genomic libraries is described and its use by retrieving functional gene cassettes from the chromosomal integron of Vibrio vulnificus ATCC 27562 is demonstrated. By manipulating the natural activity of integrons, we can gain access to the caches of functional genes amassed by these structures.

Rowe-Magnus, Dean A.

2009-01-01

37

Resting state ?-band functional connectivity and recovery after stroke.  

PubMed

After cerebral ischemia, disruption and subsequent reorganization of functional connections occur both locally and remote to the lesion. However, the unpredictable timing and extent of sensorimotor recovery reflects a gap in understanding of these underlying neural mechanisms. We aimed to identify the plasticity of alpha-band functional neural connections within the perilesional area and the predictive value of functional connectivity with respect to motor recovery of the upper extremity after stroke. Our results show improvements in upper extremity motor recovery in relation to distributed changes in MEG-based alpha band functional connectivity, both in the perilesional area and contralesional cortex. Motor recovery was found to be predicted by increased connectivity at baseline in the ipsilesional somatosensory area, supplementary motor area, and cerebellum, contrasted with reduced connectivity of contralesional motor regions, after controlling for age, stroke onset-time and lesion size. These findings support plasticity within a widely distributed neural network and define brain regions in which the extent of network participation predicts post-stroke recovery potential. PMID:22750324

Westlake, Kelly P; Hinkley, Leighton B; Bucci, Monica; Guggisberg, Adrian G; Byl, Nancy; Findlay, Anne M; Henry, Roland G; Nagarajan, Srikantan S

2012-06-27

38

Evaluation of special recovery methods: activities developed by Petrobras  

SciTech Connect

Petrobras has employed conventional recovery methods (water and/or gas injection) extensively. Estimates of reserves, both primary and secondary, are tabulated and compared for the principal Brazilian oil fields. Specific field data are given for 7 secondary recovery projects, employing steam injection, in situ combustion, carbon dioxide injection, polymer waterflooding, and surfactant waterflooding.

De Andrade, P.J.V.; De Andrade, G.M.

1981-03-01

39

Schwann cells seeded in acellular nerve grafts improve functional recovery.  

PubMed

Introduction: This study evaluated whether Schwann cells (SCs) from different nerve sources transplanted into cold-preserved acellular nerve grafts (CP-ANGs) would improve functional regeneration compared to nerve isografts. Methods: SCs isolated and expanded from motor and sensory branches of rat femoral and sciatic nerves were seeded into 14mm CP-ANGs. Growth factor expression, axonal regeneration, and functional recovery were evaluated in a14 mm rat sciatic injury model and compared to isografts. Results: At 14 days, motor or sensory-derived SCs increased expression of growth factors in CP-ANGs versus isografts. After 42 days, histomorphometric analysis found CP-ANGs with SCs and isografts had similar numbers of regenerating nerve fibers. At 84 days, muscle force generation was similar for CP-ANGs with SCs and isografts. SC source did not affect nerve fiber counts or muscle force generation. Discussion: SCs transplanted into CP-ANGs increase functional regeneration to isograft levels; however SC nerve source did not have an effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23625513

Jesuraj, Nithya J; Santosa, Katherine B; Macewan, Matthew R; Moore, Amy M; Kasukurthi, Rahul; Ray, Wilson Z; Flagg, Eric R; Hunter, Daniel A; Borschel, Gregory H; Johnson, Philip J; Mackinnon, Susan E; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E

2013-04-26

40

Etifoxine improves peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery  

PubMed Central

Peripheral nerves show spontaneous regenerative responses, but recovery after injury or peripheral neuropathies (toxic, diabetic, or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy syndromes) is slow and often incomplete, and at present no efficient treatment is available. Using well-defined peripheral nerve lesion paradigms, we assessed the therapeutic usefulness of etifoxine, recently identified as a ligand of the translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO), to promote axonal regeneration, modulate inflammatory responses, and improve functional recovery. We found by histologic analysis that etifoxine therapy promoted the regeneration of axons in and downstream of the lesion after freeze injury and increased axonal growth into a silicone guide tube by a factor of 2 after nerve transection. Etifoxine also stimulated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, and the effect was even stronger than for specific TSPO ligands. Etifoxine treatment caused a marked reduction in the number of macrophages after cryolesion within the nerve stumps, which was rapid in the proximal and delayed in the distal nerve stumps. Functional tests revealed accelerated and improved recovery of locomotion, motor coordination, and sensory functions in response to etifoxine. This work demonstrates that etifoxine, a clinically approved drug already used for the treatment of anxiety disorders, is remarkably efficient in promoting acceleration of peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Its possible mechanism of action is discussed, with reference to the neurosteroid concept. This molecule, which easily enters nerve tissues and regulates multiple functions in a concerted manner, offers promise for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries and axonal neuropathies.

Girard, Christelle; Liu, Song; Cadepond, Francoise; Adams, David; Lacroix, Catherine; Verleye, Marc; Gillardin, Jean-Marie; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Schumacher, Michael; Schweizer-Groyer, Ghislaine

2008-01-01

41

Functional recovery after implantation of artificial nerve grafts in the rat- a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare functional data of different nerve-gap bridging materials evaluated in rat experiments by means of a systematic review. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review was conducted, searching MEDLINE, HTS and CENTRAL to identify all trials evaluating functional recovery of artificial nerve conduits in the rat model. RESULTS: There was a trend towards

Nektarios Sinis; Armin Kraus; Nikolaos Tselis; Max Haerle; Frank Werdin; Hans-Eberhard Schaller

2009-01-01

42

Impaired Functional Recovery After Stroke in the Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—To identify if the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) exhibits impaired functional recovery after stroke compared with its normotensive reference strain, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). Methods—In study 1, a 2-mm distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (middle cerebral artery occlusion) was performed in both strains and recovery assessed using a 33-point neurological score. Because SHRSPs displayed much larger

J. K. McGill; L. Gallagher; H. V. O. Carswell; E. A. Irving; A. F. Dominiczak; I. M. Macrae

2010-01-01

43

Aging profoundly delays functional recovery from gustatory nerve injury.  

PubMed

The peripheral taste system remains plastic during adulthood. Sectioning the chorda tympani (CT) nerve, which sends sensory information from the anterior tongue to the central nervous system, causes degeneration of distal fibers and target taste buds. However, taste function is restored after about 40 days in young adult rodents. We tested whether aging impacts the reappearance of neural responses after unilateral CT nerve injury. Taste bud regeneration was minimal at day 50-65 after denervation, and most aged animals died before functional recovery could be assessed. A subset (n=3/5) of old rats exhibited normal CT responses at day 85 postsectioning, suggesting the potential for efficient recovery. The aged taste system is fairly resilient to sensory receptor loss and major functional changes in normal aging. However, injury to the taste system reveals a surprising vulnerability in old rodents. The gustatory system provides an excellent model to study mechanisms underlying delayed recovery from peripheral nerve injury. Strategies to accelerate recovery and restore normal function will be of interest, as the elderly population continues to grow. PMID:22387273

He, L; Yadgarov, A; Sharif, S; McCluskey, L P

2012-02-21

44

Recovery of hand function through mental practice: A study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The study aims to assess the therapeutic benefits of motor imagery training in stroke patients with persistent motor weakness. There is evidence to suggest that mental rehearsal of movement can produce effects normally attributed to practising the actual movements. Imagining hand movements could stimulate the redistribution of brain activity, which accompanies recovery of hand function, thus resulting in a

Magdalena Ietswaart; Marie Johnston; H Chris Dijkerman; Clare L Scott; Sara A Joice; Steven Hamilton; Ronald S MacWalter

2006-01-01

45

Relation between depression after stroke, antidepressant therapy, and functional recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to evaluate the effects of poststroke depression and antidepressant therapy on the improvement of motor scores and disability, to verify if the negative effects of poststroke depression on functional recovery could be counterbalanced by taking antidepressant drugs.RESULTS OBTAINED BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER REHABILITATIONon the Barthel index, Canadian neurological scale, and Rivermead mobility index—by 49 depressed patients with

G Gainotti; G Antonucci; C Marra; S Paolucci

2001-01-01

46

Gender Differences in the Functional Recovery after Acute Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose PurposezzInterest in gender differences in the effects of acute stroke is growing worldwide. However, gender differences in functional recovery after acute stroke in the Korean population have yet to be evaluated. The aim of this investigation was to compare long-term functional outcomes between male and female after acute stroke. Methods Patients with acute stroke were enrolled prospectively between January 2005 and January 2009. Baseline characteristics, risk factors, stroke subtypes, time delay from onset to arrival at a hospital, active treatment, and stroke severity were compared between male and female. Differences in mortality and disability at discharge, and at 3 months and 1 year after stroke onset were also investigated. Functional disabilities were categorized into two groups: good outcome (score on modified Rankin scale ?2) and poor outcome (score on modified Rankin scale >2). Results Among 1,055 patients with acute stroke, 575 were male (aged 64.83±11.98 years, mean±SD) and 480 were female (aged 70.09±13.02 years). There were no gender differences in mortality at 3 months and 1 year after stroke. The frequency of poor outcomes was higher in female patients than in male patients at discharge (39.8% versus 30.9%, respectively; p=0.003), the 3 months follow-up (32.3% versus 20.8%, respectively; p<0.001), and the 1 year follow-up (31.1% versus 18.7%, respectively; p=0.001). After adjusting for multiple confounding factors including age and stroke severity, the female gender persisted as a predictor of poor functional outcome at 3 months and 1 year after stroke. Conclusions Female patients have greater difficulty than male patients in recovering from a disabled state after acute stroke. Future studies should investigate the causes of this gender difference.

Kim, Ji-Sun; Roh, Hakjae; Ahn, Moo-Young; Hwang, Hye-Won

2010-01-01

47

Wastewater heat recovery method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention is comprised of a heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-01-01

48

Method and apparatus for recovery of subsea well equipment  

SciTech Connect

Method and apparatus are disclosed for recovering submerged equipment, such as a guide base and wellhead used in offshore well operations. A recovery tool, which includes an elongated member capable of extending from above the equipment into a well pipe and means for latching the recovery tool to the equipment and explosive means attached to the elongated member for severing the well pipe, is lowered from the water's surface to the equipment and then latched thereto. The explosive is then detonated to sever the well pipe. The recovery tool, together with the equipment and severed portion of the well pipe, is raised to the water's surface.

Darby, L.B.; Holley, J.A.

1980-01-01

49

Adaptive blind timing recovery methods for MSE optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a non-data-aided adaptive symbol timing offset correction algorithm to enhance the equalization performance in the presence of long delay spread multipath channel. The optimal timing phase offset in the presence of multipath channels is the one jointly optimized with the receiver equalizer. The jointly optimized timing phase offset with a given fixed length equalizer should produce a discrete time channel response for which the equalizer achieves the minimum mean squared error among other discrete time channel responses sampled by different timing phases. We propose a blind adaptive baseband timing recovery algorithm producing a timing offset close to the jointly optimal timing phase compared to other existing non-data-aided timing recovery methods. The proposed algorithm operates independently from the equalizer with the same computational complexity as the widely used Gardner timing recovery algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed timing recovery method can result in considerable enhancement of equalization performances.

Chung, Wonzoo

2012-12-01

50

Immunological methods of component selection and recovery  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention involves an immunological method of separating specifically-targeted cells or molecular structures from a mixed population under conditions which minimize damage to the cellular structure or the molecular integrity. The method is based upon the specific interaction of a label and an antibody directed against the label and the ability of a competitor to inhibit the interaction between the label and the antibody.

Lund; Garry (Edmonton, CA); Wegmann, deceased; Thomas (late of Edmonton, CA); Mosmann; Timothy (Edmonton, CA)

1996-05-21

51

Psychosocial treatments to promote functional recovery in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

A number of psychosocial treatments are available for persons with schizophrenia that include social skills training, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive remediation, and social cognition training. These treatments are reviewed and discussed in terms of how they address key components of functional recovery such as symptom stability, independent living, work functioning, and social functioning. We also review findings on the interaction between pharmacological and psychosocial treatments and discuss future directions in pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. Overall, these treatments provide a range of promising approaches to helping patients achieve better outcomes far beyond symptom stabilization. PMID:19176470

Kern, Robert S; Glynn, Shirley M; Horan, William P; Marder, Stephen R

2009-01-27

52

Methods and compositions for recovery of oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of recovering oil from a subterranean oil formation includes injecting into the formation an aqueous flooding medium which assumes a viscosity in oil-rich portions of the formation that is significantly less than the viscosity assumed by the flooding medium in portions of the formation low in oil content. The flooding medium acts to bypass the low oil content

1974-01-01

53

Narrative methods in a study of trauma recovery.  

PubMed

Multiple narrative perspectives can guide narrative research. The complexity of health narratives presents a significant challenge. Trauma recovery accounts are health narratives demonstrating successes as well as struggles. In this article, I describe a large-scale narrative study in which specific qualitative methods were combined to fit research aims, stories elicited, and emergent questions in the analysis process. Under my direction, an interdisciplinary team conducted this constructivist, feminist, narrative study describing the trauma recovery process. The study was focused on success or thriving in women surviving childhood maltreatment. I took an advocacy stance in favor of participants' interests, as is commensurate with a critical feminist standpoint. Through initial analyses the research team constructed a trauma recovery process termed "becoming resolute." Subanalyses were focused on key relationships, life trajectories, self-strategies, and perceptual changes. My purpose is to explain the various kinds and levels of analysis used here to provide options for others studying recovery narratives. PMID:20663939

Hall, Joanne M

2010-07-27

54

Recovery of Endocrine Function After Islet and Pancreas Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Long-standing type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with an absolute loss of endogenous insulin secretion (circulating C-peptide is undetectable) and a related defect in glucose counterregulation that is often complicated by hypoglycemia unawareness, markedly increasing the risk for severe hypoglycemia. Both the transplantation of isolated islets and a whole pancreas can restore ?-cell secretory capacity, improve glucose counterregulation, and return hypoglycemia awareness, thus alleviating severe hypoglycemia. The transplantation of islets may require more than one donor pancreas, and the recovery of endocrine function for now appears more durable with a whole pancreas; however, islet transplantation outcomes are steadily improving. Because not all patients with T1D experiencing severe hypoglycemia are candidates to receive a whole pancreas, and since not all pancreata are technically suitable for whole organ transplantation, islet and pancreas transplantation are evolving as complementary approaches for the recovery of endocrine function in patients with the most problematic T1D.

Rickels, Michael R.

2012-01-01

55

Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields that are developed using water flooding and thermal steam treatment are considered. The results of pilot testing of processes based on these methods carried out at West Siberian and Chinese oil fields are analysed. The attention is focused on the processes that make use of surfactant blends and alkaline buffer solutions

L K Altunina; V A Kuvshinov

2007-01-01

56

Elevated Cardiac Troponin I and Functional Recovery and Disability in Patients After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage experience myocardial injury at the time of rupture, but its effect on functional recovery and disability is unclear. Objective To describe the prevalence of myocardial injury, as indicated by high serum levels of cardiac troponin I (?0.3 ng/mL), within the first 5 days after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and the effect of the injury on 3-month functional recovery and disability. Methods In a prospective longitudinal study, 239 patients with Hunt/Hess grade 3 or greater and/or Fisher grade 2 or greater at admission had serum level of troponin I measured on days 0 to 5. Patients were interviewed at 3 months to evaluate functional recovery (Glasgow Outcome Scale) and functional disability (Modified Rankin Scale). Statistics included ?2 analysis, t tests, and binary logistic regression. Results Troponin values were elevated in 33.5% of the patients, and few patients in either group had a history of coronary artery disease (7.4% with troponin levels ? 0.3 ng/mL vs 2.7% with levels <0.3 ng/mL, P = .12). Higher troponin levels were significantly related to age and Hunt/Hess and Fisher grades, but not race, and were significantly associated with poorer functional recovery (P <.001) and more functional disability (P <.001). Even after controls for age, race, and more severe Hunt/Hess grades, higher levels remained a significant predictor of poorer functional recovery (P = .04) and disability (P= .01). Conclusion Elevated levels of cardiac troponin I after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage are common in patients with no cardiac history, are associated with severity of the hemorrhage, and are independently predictive of poorer functional recovery and increased disability.

Miketic, Joyce K.; Hravnak, Marilyn; Sereika, Susan M.; Crago, Elizabeth A.

2011-01-01

57

Functional Recovery of Older Hip-Fracture Patients after Interdisciplinary Intervention Follows Three Distinct Trajectories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose To assess the effects of an interdisciplinary intervention on the trajectories of functional recovery among older patients with hip fracture during 2 years after hospitalization. Design and Methods In a randomized controlled trial with 24-month follow-up, 162 patients [greater than or equal to]60 years were enrolled after hip-fracture…

Tseng, Ming-Yueh; Shyu, Yea-Ing L.; Liang, Jersey

2012-01-01

58

Functional Recovery of Older Hip-Fracture Patients after Interdisciplinary Intervention Follows Three Distinct Trajectories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose To assess the effects of an interdisciplinary intervention on the trajectories of functional recovery among older patients with hip fracture during 2 years after hospitalization. Design and Methods In a randomized controlled trial with 24-month follow-up, 162 patients [greater than or equal to]60 years were enrolled after hip-fracture…

Tseng, Ming-Yueh; Shyu, Yea-Ing L.; Liang, Jersey

2012-01-01

59

Functional Recovery of Chronic Ischemic Myocardium after Surgical Revascularization Correlates with Magnitude of Oxidative Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this study was to validate myocardial microdialysis measurements in patients after myocardial infarction with or without associated postoperative functional recovery in order to develop a highly sensitive tool for real-time in vivo detection of microcellular disorder during cardiac operations. Methods: In 20 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, microdialysis catheters were implanted into scar or hibernating

Jochen Pöling; Wolfgang Rees; Stephan Klaus; Ludger Bahlmann; Norbert Hübner; Matthias Heringlake; Vittorio Mantovani; Henning Warnecke

2008-01-01

60

Method for silicon nitride precursor solids recovery  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus are provided for collecting reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow from a reaction situs, wherein the gaseous outflow includes a condensable vapor. A condensate is formed of the condensable vapor on static mixer surfaces within a static mixer heat exchanger. The entrained reaction product solids are captured in the condensate which can be collected for further processing, such as return to the reaction situs. In production of silicon imide, optionally integrated into a production process for making silicon nitride caramic, wherein reactant feed gas comprising silicon halide and substantially inert carrier gas is reacted with liquid ammonia in a reaction vessel, silicon imide reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow comprising residual carrier gas and vaporized ammonia can be captured by forming a condensate of the ammonia vapor on static mixer surfaces of a static mixer heat exchanger.

Crosbie, Gary M. (Dearborn, MI); Predmesky, Ronald L. (Livonia, MI); Nicholson, John M. (Wayne, MI)

1992-12-15

61

METHOD FOR THE RECOVERY OF CESIUM VALUES  

DOEpatents

A method is given for recovering Cs/sup 137/ from radioactive waste solutions together with extraneous impurities. Ammonium alum is precipitated in the waste solution. The alum, which carries the cesium, is separated from the supernatant liquid and then dissolved in water. The resulting aqueous solution is then provided with a source of hydroxyl ions, which precipitates aluminum as the hydroxide, and the aluminum hydroxide is separated from the resulting liquid. This liquid, which contains anionic impurities together with ammonium and cesium, is passed through an anion exchange resin bed which removes the anionic impurities. The ammonium in the effluent is removed by destructive distiilation, leaving a substantiaily pure cesium salt in the effluent.

Rimshaw, S.J.

1960-02-16

62

Physiological response to water immersion: a method for sport recovery?  

PubMed

Recovery from exercise can be an important factor in performance during repeated bouts of exercise. In a tournament situation, where athletes may compete numerous times over a few days, enhancing recovery may provide a competitive advantage. One method that is gaining popularity as a means to enhance post-game or post-training recovery is immersion in water. Much of the literature on the ability of water immersion as a means to improve athletic recovery appears to be based on anecdotal information, with limited research on actual performance change. Water immersion may cause physiological changes within the body that could improve recovery from exercise. These physiological changes include intracellular-intravascular fluid shifts, reduction of muscle oedema and increased cardiac output (without increasing energy expenditure), which increases blood flow and possible nutrient and waste transportation through the body. Also, there may be a psychological benefit to athletes with a reduced cessation of fatigue during immersion. Water temperature alters the physiological response to immersion and cool to thermoneutral temperatures may provide the best range for recovery. Further performance-orientated research is required to determine whether water immersion is beneficial to athletes. PMID:16937951

Wilcock, Ian M; Cronin, John B; Hing, Wayne A

2006-01-01

63

Oil recovery mining method and apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

New and improved techniques, systems and equipment for the practical underground mining of petroleum from both virgin and depleted oil fields under certain geological conditions, are described. A method of drilling relatively small diameter, drainage-type oil wells using a fluid and cutting control assembly from within an access underground drilled tunnel, is provided. The fluid and cutting control assembly facilitates the safe underground drilling and installation of the small diameter, drainage-type oil wells which can be operated either under the natural pressures occurring in the geological strata, as gravity drain wells or by suitable secondary treatment measures artificially pressurized to facilitate drainage of oil from oil bearing strata into which such wells are drilled. Techniques and equipment to facilitate the safe drilling of such wells, placing them into production and thereafter controlling operation of the mine workings in a safe and reliable manner, is described, together with the control system, sensors and other equipment required for safe installation and operation of an underground petroleum mine.

1984-07-10

64

Work function recovery of air exposed molybdenum oxide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report substantial work function (WF) recovery of air exposed molybdenum oxide thin films with vacuum annealing. We observed a sharp reduction in the MoOx WF (from 6.8 eV to 5.6 eV) as well as a very thin layer of oxygen rich adsorbate on the MoOx film after an hour of air exposure. The WF of the exposed MoOx film started to gradually recover with increasing annealing temperature in vacuum, and the saturation in the WF recovery was observed at 450 °C with WF ~6.4 eV. We further studied the interface formation between the annealed MoOx and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc). The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of CuPc was observed to be almost pinned to the Fermi level, strongly suggesting the possibility of efficient hole injection with the vacuum annealed MoOx film.

Irfan, Irfan; James Turinske, Alexander; Bao, Zhenan; Gao, Yongli

2012-08-01

65

Synaptic Plasticity, Neurogenesis, and Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury research has greatly expanded in recent years, but our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the functional recovery that can occur over the weeks and months following the initial injury, is far from complete. To grasp the scope of the problem, it is important to begin by defining the sensorimotor pathways that might be involved by a spinal injury. This is done in the rodent and nonhuman primate, which are two of the most commonly used animal models in basic and translational spinal injury research. Many of the better known experimentally induced models are then reviewed in terms of the pathways they involve and the reorganization and recovery that have been shown to follow. The better understood neuronal mechanisms mediating such post-injury plasticity, including dendritic spine growth and axonal sprouting, are then examined.

Darian-Smith, Corinna

2010-01-01

66

Monitoring of thermal enhanced oil recovery processes with electromagnetic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in applying electromagnetic methods for imaging thermal enhanced oil recovery has progressed significantly during the past eighteen months. Working together with researchers at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and supported by a group of industrial sponsors we have focused our effort on field system development and doing field surveys connected with EOR operations. Field surveys were recently completed at the

Wilt

1992-01-01

67

Identification of water requirements for selected enhanced oil recovery methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water requirements for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) are thoroughly evaluated by using publicly available information, data from actual field applications, and information provided by knowledgeable EOR technologists in fourteen major oil companies. The different uses of water in selected EOR methods, as well as current research trends, are discussed. Water quantity and quality requirements are estimated for individual EOR processes

B. Royce; E. Kaplan; M. Garrell; T. M. Geffen

1982-01-01

68

Method and apparatus for recovery of combustible gas from waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus is disclosed for recovery of combustible gas formed from combustible refuse or vegetable matter in an enclosed space from which the combustible gas is collected. Water can be injected into the apparatus and the decay process initiated and promoted by activating a heating element projecting upwardly from the base of the apparatus into the material undergoing

Ricks

1980-01-01

69

Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions whereas the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

Kreuzmann, A.B.

1982-10-27

70

Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions wherein the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

Kreuzmann, Alvin B. (Cincinnati, OH)

1983-01-01

71

40 CFR Appendix D to Part 136 - Precision and Recovery Statements for Methods for Measuring Metals  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Recovery Statements for Methods for Measuring Metals D Appendix D to Part 136 Protection...Recovery Statements for Methods for Measuring Metals Two selected methods from âMethods...Accuracy An interlaboratory study on metal analyses by this method was...

2013-07-01

72

Functional activation studies of word processing in the recovery from aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some reviews on theories of recovery in aphasia put an emphasis on neural network models based on empirical data from evoked-potentials in aphasia as an approach to mapping recovery of cognitive function to neural structure. We will focus here on what we call an “anatomical” approach to look at recovery in aphasia. “Anatomical” theories of recovery stated by classical aphasiologists

Roland Zahn; Michael Schwarz; Walter Huber

2006-01-01

73

Method for the removal and recovery of mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate

C. E. Easterly; A. A. Vass; R. L. Tyndall

1997-01-01

74

Reconciling Stable Asymmetry with Recovery of Function: An Adaptive Systems Perspective on Functional Plasticity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary, written in response to Witelson's work (1987), examines alternative ways of determining how the developmentally stable functional asymmetry (hemispheric specialization) observed in neurologically intact children can be reconciled with the dramatic recovery of function often displayed following unilateral brain damage. (PCB)

Bullock, Daniel; And Others

1987-01-01

75

Differential trajectory of functional recovery and determinants for first time stroke survivors by using a LCGA approach: a hospital based analysis over a 1-year period.  

PubMed

Background: Functional outcome and the risk factors for stroke survivors have explored in previous study. However, a comprehensive understanding of the patterns and critical risk factors of functional recovery is limited. Aim: To explore the trajectory groups and determinants of functional recovery for ischemic stroke patients during 1 year after stroke. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: Inpatient. Population: First-time stroke patients. Method: A total of 367 first-time ischemic stroke patients from the Stroke Registry in the Chang Gung Hospital (SRICH) database were analyzed in this study. Study variables comprised demographic and disease characteristics, laboratory data, and functional outcome. The Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA) was used to identify various trajectory clusters and multinomial logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of functional recovery. Result: Five trajectory clusters of functional recovery were identified using the Barthel Index. Among five clusters of functional recovery, nearly 18% of first-ever ischemic stroke patients maintained functional dependence, whereas 82% of stroke patients demonstrated functional recovery; and the significant recovery time totaled three months after the stroke. Determinants for various trajectory clusters of functional recovery were body mass index and serum albumin level, especially a higher serum albumin concentration predicted a more favorable functional recovery. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that diverse functional recovery clusters persisted and serum albumin concentration at admission was a critical assessment factor. Clinical rehabilitation: Such information could be useful for identifying the different rehabilitation needs of varying trajectory groups and for effectively improving functional ability among the ischemic stroke population. PMID:23172406

Huang, H C; Chang, C H; Lee, T H; Chang, Y J; Ryu, S J; Chang, T Y; Huang, K L; Liu, C H; Chang, H J

2012-11-21

76

Functional Recovery Measures for Spinal Cord Injury: An Evidence-Based Review for Clinical Practice and Research  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: The end goal of clinical care and clinical research involving spinal cord injury (SCI) is to improve the overall ability of persons living with SCI to function on a daily basis. Neurologic recovery does not always translate into functional recovery. Thus, sensitive outcome measures designed to assess functional status relevant to SCI are important to develop. Method: Evaluation of currently available SCI functional outcome measures by a multinational work group. Results: The 4 measures that fit the prespecified inclusion criteria were the Modified Barthel Index (MBI), the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the Quadriplegia Index of Function (QIF), and the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM). The MBI and the QIF were found to have minimal evidence for validity, whereas the FIM and the SCIM were found to be reliable and valid. The MBI has little clinical utility for use in the SCI population. Likewise, the FIM applies mainly when measuring burden of care, which is not necessarily a reflection of functional recovery. The QIF is useful for measuring functional recovery but only in a subpopulation of people with SCI, and substantial validity data are still required. The SCIM is the only functional recovery outcome measure designed specifically for SCI. Conclusions: The multinational work group recommends that the latest version of the SCIM (SCIM III) continue to be refined and validated and subsequently implemented worldwide as the primary functional recovery outcome measure for SCI. The QIF may continue to be developed and validated for use as a supplemental tool for the nonambulatory tetraplegic population.

Anderson, Kim; Aito, Sergio; Atkins, Michal; Biering-S?rensen, Fin; Charlifue, Susan; Curt, Armin; Ditunno, John; Glass, Clive; Marino, Ralph; Marshall, Ruth; Mulcahey, Mary Jane; Post, Marcel; Savic, Gordana; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Catz, Amiram

2008-01-01

77

Reorganization of functional brain networks during the recovery of stroke: a functional MRI study.  

PubMed

Studies have demonstrated that reorganization of the cortex after stroke contributed to the recovery of motor function. However, these studies paid much more attention to the reorganization of motor-related brain regions and motor executive network which only contained tens of brain regions, ignoring the change in brain-wide network during the restoration of motor function. Based on this consideration, this paper investigated the functional reorganization of brain-wide network during the recovery after stroke from the perspective of graph theory. At four time points (less than 10 days, around 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 months) after stroke onset, we obtained the functional MRI (fMRI) data of stroke patients when they were doing finger tapping task. Based on the fMRI data, we constructed the brain-wide functional network which consisted of 264 putative functional areas for each subject at each time point. Then the topological parameters (e.g., characteristic path length and cluster coefficient) of these brain networks were examined. Results showed that the brain networks shifted towards a non-optimal topological configuration with low small-worldness during the process of recovery. And this finding may broaden our knowledge about the reorganization of brain function during recovery after stroke. PMID:23366837

Cheng, Lin; Wu, Zhiyuan; Fu, Yi; Miao, Fei; Sun, Junfeng; Tong, Shanbao

2012-01-01

78

Cortical recovery of swallowing function in wound botulism  

PubMed Central

Background Botulism is a rare disease caused by intoxication leading to muscle weakness and rapidly progressive dysphagia. With adequate therapy signs of recovery can be observed within several days. In the last few years, brain imaging studies carried out in healthy subjects showed activation of the sensorimotor cortex and the insula during volitional swallowing. However, little is known about cortical changes and compensation mechanisms accompanying swallowing pathology. Methods In this study, we applied whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) in order to study changes in cortical activation in a 27-year-old patient suffering from wound botulism during recovery from dysphagia. An age-matched group of healthy subjects served as control group. A self-paced swallowing paradigm was performed and data were analyzed using synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM). Results The first MEG measurement, carried out when the patient still demonstrated severe dysphagia, revealed strongly decreased activation of the somatosensory cortex but a strong activation of the right insula and marked recruitment of the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC). In the second measurement performed five days later after clinical recovery from dysphagia we found a decreased activation in these two areas and a bilateral cortical activation of the primary and secondary sensorimotor cortex comparable to the results seen in a healthy control group. Conclusion These findings indicate parallel development to normalization of swallowing related cortical activation and clinical recovery from dysphagia and highlight the importance of the insula and the PPC for the central coordination of swallowing. The results suggest that MEG examination of swallowing can reflect short-term changes in patients suffering from neurogenic dysphagia.

Teismann, Inga K; Steinstraeter, Olaf; Warnecke, Tobias; Zimmermann, Julian; Ringelstein, Erich B; Pantev, Christo; Dziewas, Rainer

2008-01-01

79

Predicting Myocardial Functional Recovery After Acute Myocardial Infarction: Relationship Between Myocardial Strain and Coronary Flow Reserve  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between myocardial strain and coronary flow reserve (CFR) in the prediction of myocardial functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Subjects and Methods Consecutive patients with anterior ST elevation AMI were analyzed. Left ventricular (LV) strain, determined by 2-dimensional speckle tracking imaging and CFR, determined by intracoronary flow measurement, were obtained on the same day, 3-5 days after primary percutaneous coronary intervention. A-strain was defined as the mean systolic longitudinal strain of 11 LV segments (out of 18) assumed to be supplied by the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Functional recovery was defined as improved wall motion >1 grade seen in at least 2 contiguous dysfunctional segments by echocardiography at the 6-month follow-up. Results Of 20 patients, 8 patients had preserved CFR (>2.0) and 12 patients had impaired CFR (?2.0). There were no differences between the 2 CFR groups in LV ejection fractions and wall motion score indices in the LAD territory. However, A-strain was greater in patients with preserved CFR than in patients with impaired CFR (-6.4±2.0% vs. -4.6±1.4%, p=0.03). A-strain and CFR correlated well with each other (r=-0.49, p=0.03). Ten of 20 patients showed functional recovery at 6 months. Of clinical and echocardiographic parameters, A-strain was the only predictor of recovery (odds ratio 2.02, 95% confidence interval=1.03-3.97, p=0.04). For predicting recovery, the sensitivity and specificity were 80.0% and 80.0%, respectively, for CFR (cutoff=1.60), and 60.0% and 90.0%, respectively, for A-strain (cutoff=-6.13%). Conclusion Myocardial strain correlates well with the extent of microvascular integrity and can be used as a noninvasive method for predicting recovery after AMI.

Park, Seong-Mi; Hong, Soon-Jun; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Ahn, Chul-Min; Lim, Do-Sun

2010-01-01

80

A method for estimating recovery coefficients in positron emission tomography  

SciTech Connect

Positron emission computed tomography suffers a loss of quantitation when structures in the field-of-view containing positron radioactivity are similar in size or smaller than the PET scanner resolution. In some neurological PET studies structures of interest are often in this size range, creating difficulty in interpretation of observed radiotracer concentrations. The authors have developed a straight forward method of calculating ''recovery coefficients'' for their NeuroECAT PET scanner using the geometrical and physical principles involved in annihilation radiation detection. The method involves calculating the geometric probability of detecting coincident gamma-rays for a sufficient number of points in the field-of-view. These points, located within the structures of interest, are selected by the Monte Carlo method. Projected data are created which then are used to form an image of the object. With this method they can adequately reproduce measured ''recovery coefficients'' of small spheres of activity in the Neuro ECAT. This method is extendable to calculating ''recovery coefficients'' from digitized anatomical data, to investigating the effects of non-uniform concentrations of activity in anatomical structures and it is useful for assessing potential designs of PET scanners.

Bice, A.N.; Wong, D.F.; Wagner, N.N. Jr.

1985-05-01

81

Glycerol accelerates recovery of barrier function in vivo.  

PubMed

Two studies were performed to evaluate the influence of glycerol on the recovery of damaged stratum corneum barrier function. Measurements of transepidermal water loss and capacitance were conducted in a 3-day follow-up after tape stripping (study 1) and a 7-day follow-up after a barrier damage due to a repeated washing with sodium lauryl sulphate. In study 1 a faster barrier repair (transepidermal water loss) was monitored in glycerol-treated sites. Significant differences between glycerol open vs. untreated and glycerol occluded vs. untreated were observed at day 3. Stratum corneum hydration showed significantly higher values in the sites treated with glycerol+occlusion, compared with all other sites. In study 2 a faster barrier repair was seen in glycerol-treated sites, with significant differences against untreated and base-treated sites 7 days after the end of the treatment. Stratum corneum hydration showed highest values in the glycerol treated sites after 3 days of treatment. Glycerol creates a stimulus for barrier repair and improves the stratum corneum hydration; stratum corneum hydration is not strictly related to barrier homeostasis and can be optimized by different mechanisms and pathways. The observed effects were based on the modulation of barrier repair and were not biased by the humectant effect of glycerol. As the glycerol-induced recovery of barrier function and stratum corneum hydration were observed even 7 days after the end of treatment, glycerol can be regarded as a barrier stabilizing and moisturizing compound. PMID:10598752

Fluhr, J W; Gloor, M; Lehmann, L; Lazzerini, S; Distante, F; Berardesca, E

1999-11-01

82

Comparison of Surface Sampling Methods for Virus Recovery from Fomites ? †  

PubMed Central

The role of fomites in infectious disease transmission relative to other exposure routes is difficult to discern due, in part, to the lack of information on the level and distribution of virus contamination on surfaces. Comparisons of studies intending to fill this gap are difficult because multiple different sampling methods are employed and authors rarely report their method's lower limit of detection. In the present study, we compare a subset of sampling methods identified from a literature review to demonstrate that sampling method significantly influences study outcomes. We then compare a subset of methods identified from the review to determine the most efficient methods for recovering virus from surfaces in a laboratory trial using MS2 bacteriophage as a model virus. Recoveries of infective MS2 and MS2 RNA are determined using both a plaque assay and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, respectively. We conclude that the method that most effectively recovers virus from nonporous fomites uses polyester-tipped swabs prewetted in either one-quarter-strength Ringer's solution or saline solution. This method recovers a median fraction for infective MS2 of 0.40 and for MS2 RNA of 0.07. Use of the proposed method for virus recovery in future fomite sampling studies would provide opportunities to compare findings across multiple studies.

Julian, Timothy R.; Tamayo, Francisco J.; Leckie, James O.; Boehm, Alexandria B.

2011-01-01

83

Laboratory methods for enhanced oil recovery core floods  

SciTech Connect

Current research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is investigating microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) systems for application to oil reservoirs. Laboratory corefloods are invaluable in developing technology necessary for a field application of MEOR. Methods used to prepare sandstone cores for experimentation, coreflooding techniques, and quantification of coreflood effluent are discussed in detail. A technique to quantify the small volumes of oil associated with laboratory core floods is described.

Robertson, E.P.; Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

1994-03-01

84

Choose the best heat-recovery method for thermal oxidizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal oxidation is current the most economically favorable add-on method of controlling hydrocarbon air emissions of moderate to low concentration (below 10,000 ppm). This concentration range covers emissions from a wide variety of chemical process industries (CPI) sources, including dryers, reactor vents, tank vents, and coaters. Thermal oxidizer systems consist of three basic sub-systems--burner, combustion chamber, and primary heat recovery.

Klobucar

1995-01-01

85

SPARC regulates microgliosis and functional recovery following cortical ischemia.  

PubMed

Secreted protein acidic rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein that modulates the activity of growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix to play multiple roles in tissue development and repair, such as cellular adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Throughout the CNS, SPARC is highly localized in mature ramified microglia, but its role in microglia--in development or during response to disease or injury--is not understood. In the postnatal brain, immature amoeboid myeloid precursors only induce SPARC expression after they cease proliferation and migration, and transform into mature, ramified resting microglia. SPARC null/CX3CR1-GFP reporter mice reveal that SPARC regulates the distribution and branching of mature microglia, with significant differences between cortical gray and white matter in both controls and SPARC nulls. Following ischemic and excitotoxic lesion, reactive, hypertrophic microglia rapidly downregulate and release SPARC at the lesion, concomitant with reactive, hypertrophic perilesion astrocytes upregulating SPARC. After photothrombotic stroke in the forelimb sensorimotor cortex, SPARC nulls demonstrate enhanced microgliosis in and around the lesion site, which accompanies significantly enhanced functional recovery by 32 d after lesion. Microglia from SPARC nulls also intrinsically proliferate at a greater rate in vitro--an enhanced effect that can be rescued by the addition of exogenous SPARC. SPARC is thus a novel regulator of microglial proliferation and structure, and, in addition to regulating glioma progression, may play an important role in differently regulating the gray and white matter microglial responses to CNS lesion--and modulating behavioral recovery--after injury. PMID:23467362

Lloyd-Burton, Samantha M; York, Elisa M; Anwar, Mohammad A; Vincent, Adele J; Roskams, A Jane

2013-03-01

86

Recovery of function after brain injury in man.  

PubMed

Late after-effects of cerebral trauma are difficult to study because patients tend to be seen for persisting symptoms, and not simply for their lesions. We have tried to avoid this bias by recalling periodically, over the years, 520 men with known brain injuries incurred in World War II or in Korea or Vietnam. These men are seen irrespective of clinical need and all undergo intensive behavioural and neurological assessment, which still continues. For such groups, recovery is impressive, though one third shows persistent intellectual loss. In addition, some tasks reveal specific deficits enduring unchanged, after th first 2-3 yr, for the 20-30 yr of follow-up (e.g. visual field defects, certain auditory discrimination losses, trouble on various complex perceptual tasks). These lasting deficits are linked to the site and size of focal injury, often representing remnants of more severe initially-present disorders. The extent of recovery is correlated with age at the time of trauma, the youngest faring best. Extension of such studies to cases of early brain damage (birth to five years), as indicated by hemiparesis, shows the familiar 'escape' of language after early left-hemisphere lesions but this is achieved at a price, the price being borne by non-verbal functions that normally depend on the integrity of the right hemisphere. PMID:1045991

Teuber, H L

1975-01-01

87

What is Recovery? Functioning and Recovery Stories of Self-Identified People in Recovery in a Services User Group and Their Peer Networks in Birmingham England  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was based on a peer snowballing method involving members of a service users group in Birmingham, United Kingdom, who were asked to identify and interview members of their peer networks who had achieved “sustained recovery” of one year. Two hundred and nineteen individuals were recruited who defined themselves as being in recovery, consisting of 132 individuals in medication

David W. Best; Teodora Groshkova; James Sadler; Ed Day; William L. White

2011-01-01

88

Sildenafil (Viagra) Induces Neurogenesis and Promotes Functional Recovery After Stroke in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—We tested the hypothesis that sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, promotes functional recovery and neurogenesis after stroke. Methods—Male Wistar rats were subjected to embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion. Sildenafil (Viagra) was administered orally for 7 consecutive days starting 2 or 24 hours after stroke onset at doses of 2 or 5 mg\\/kg per day. Ischemic rats

Ruilan Zhang; Ying Wang; Li Zhang; Zhenggang Zhang; Wayne Tsang; Mei Lu; Lijie Zhang; Michael Chopp

2010-01-01

89

Functional recovery of children and adolescents after cerebellar tumour resection.  

PubMed

This study examined whether lesions to the cerebellum obtained in early childhood are better compensated than lesions in middle childhood or adolescence. Since cerebellar lesions might affect motor as well a cognitive performance, posture, upper limb and working memory function were assessed in 22 patients after resection of a cerebellar tumour (age at surgery 1-17 years, minimum 3 years post-surgery). Working memory was only impaired in those patients who had received chemo- or radiation therapy. Postural sway was enhanced in 64% of the patients during dynamic posturography conditions, which relied heavily on vestibular input for equilibrium control. Upper limb function was generally less impaired, but 54% of the patients revealed prolonged deceleration times in an arm pointing task, which probably does not reflect a genuine cerebellar deficit but rather the patients' adopted strategy to avoid overshooting. Age at surgery, time since surgery or lesion volume were poor predictors of motor or cognitive recovery. Brain imaging analysis revealed that lesions of all eight patients with abnormal posture who did not receive chemo- and/or radiation therapy included the fastigial and interposed nuclei (NF and NI). In patients with normal posture, NI and NF were spared. In 11 out of 12 patients with abnormal deceleration time, the region with the highest overlap included the NI and NF and dorsomedial portions of the dentate nuclei in 10 out of 12 patients. We conclude that cerebellar damage inflicted at a young age is not necessarily better compensated. The lesion site is critical for motor recovery, and lesions affecting the deep cerebellar nuclei are not fully compensated at any developmental age in humans. PMID:15659424

Konczak, Jürgen; Schoch, Beate; Dimitrova, Albena; Gizewski, Elke; Timmann, Dagmar

2005-01-19

90

Dietary restriction started after spinal cord injury improves functional recovery.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury typically results in limited functional recovery. Here we investigated whether therapeutic dietary restriction, a multi-faceted, safe, and clinically-feasible treatment, can improve outcome from cervical spinal cord injury. The well-established notion that dietary restriction increases longevity has kindled interest in its potential benefits in injury and disease. When followed for several months prior to insult, prophylactic dietary restriction triggers multiple molecular responses and improves outcome in animal models of stroke and myocardial infarction. However, the efficacy of the clinically-relevant treatment of post-injury dietary restriction is unknown. Here we report that "every-other-day fasting" (EODF), a form of dietary restriction, implemented after rat cervical spinal cord injury was neuroprotective, promoted plasticity, and improved behavioral recovery. Without causing weight loss, EODF improved gait-pattern, forelimb function during ladder-crossing, and vertical exploration. In agreement, EODF preserved neuronal integrity, dramatically reduced lesion volume by >50%, and increased sprouting of corticospinal axons. As expected, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate levels, a ketone known to be neuroprotective, were increased by 2-3 fold on the fasting days. In addition, we found increased ratios of full-length to truncated trkB (receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor) in the spinal cord by 2-6 folds at both 5 days (lesion site) and 3 weeks after injury (caudal to lesion site) which may further enhance neuroprotection and plasticity. Because EODF is a safe, non-invasive, and low-cost treatment, it could be readily translated into the clinical setting of spinal cord injury and possibly other insults. PMID:18585708

Plunet, Ward T; Streijger, Femke; Lam, Clarrie K; Lee, Jae H T; Liu, Jie; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

2008-04-22

91

Method for the removal and recovery of mercury  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

Easterly, Clay E. (Knoxville, TN); Vass, Arpad A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

1997-01-01

92

Method for the removal and recovery of mercury  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

Easterly, C.E.; Vass, A.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

1997-01-28

93

Intermittent hypoxia induces functional recovery following cervical spinal injury  

PubMed Central

Respiratory-related complications are the leading cause of death in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Few effective SCI treatments are available after therapeutic interventions are performed in the period shortly after injury (e.g. spine stabilization and prevention of further spinal damage). In this review we explore the capacity to harness endogenous spinal plasticity induced by intermittent hypoxia to optimize function of surviving (spared) neural pathways associated with breathing. Two primary questions are addressed: 1) does intermittent hypoxia induce plasticity in spinal synaptic pathways to respiratory motor neurons following experimental SCI? and 2) can this plasticity improve respiratory function? In normal rats, intermittent hypoxia induces serotonin-dependent plasticity in spinal pathways to respiratory motor neurons. Early experiments suggest that intermittent hypoxia also enhances respiratory motor output in experimental models of cervical SCI, (cervical hemisection) and that the capacity to induce functional recovery is greater with longer durations post-injury. Available evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia-induced spinal plasticity has considerable therapeutic potential to treat respiratory insufficiency following chronic cervical spinal injury.

Vinit, Stephane; Lovett-Barr, Mary Rachael; Mitchell, Gordon S.

2009-01-01

94

Sparse signal recovery methods for multiplexing PET detector readout.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine imaging detectors are commonly multiplexed to reduce the number of readout channels. Because the underlying detector signals have a sparse representation, sparse recovery methods such as compressed sensing may be used to develop new multiplexing schemes. Random methods may be used to create sensing matrices that satisfy the restricted isometry property. However, the restricted isometry property provides little guidance for developing multiplexing networks with good signal-to-noise recovery capability. In this work, we describe compressed sensing using a maximum likelihood framework and develop a new method for constructing multiplexing (sensing) matrices that can recover signals more accurately in a mean square error sense compared to sensing matrices constructed by random construction methods. Signals can then be recovered by maximum likelihood estimation constrained to the support recovered by either greedy l? iterative algorithms or l?-norm minimization techniques. We show that this new method for constructing and decoding sensing matrices recovers signals with 4%-110% higher SNR than random Gaussian sensing matrices, up to 100% higher SNR than partial DCT sensing matrices 50%-2400% higher SNR than cross-strip multiplexing, and 22%-210% higher SNR than Anger multiplexing for photoelectric events. PMID:23475349

Chinn, Garry; Olcott, Peter D; Levin, Craig S

2013-02-26

95

Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterizing the resolution of severe alcohol and other drug problems in moral (reformation), religious (redemption), psychological (reconstruction), criminal (rehabilitation), or medical (recovery, remission) language reflects larger conceptualizations of the sources, solutions and claims for institutional ownership of alcohol and other drug problems. This article traces the history of the concept of recovery in America as applied to alcohol and other

William L. White

2005-01-01

96

Stressful life events predict delayed functional recovery following treatment for mania in bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Identifying predictors of functional recovery in bipolar disorder is critical to treatment efforts to help patients re-establish premorbid levels of role adjustment following an acute manic episode. The current study examined the role of stressful life events as potential obstacles to recovery of functioning in various roles. 65 patients with bipolar I disorder participated in a longitudinal study of functional recovery following clinical recovery from a manic episode. Stressful life events were assessed as predictors of concurrent vs. delayed recovery of role functioning in 4 domains (friends, family, home duties, work/school). Despite clinical recovery, a subset of patients experienced delayed functional recovery in various role domains. Moreover, delayed functional recovery was significantly associated with presence of one or more stressors in the prior 3 months, even after controlling for mood symptoms. Presence of a stressor predicted longer time to functional recovery in life domains, up to 112 days in work/school. Interventions that provide monitoring, support, and problem-solving may be needed to help prevent or mitigate the effects of stress on functional recovery.

Yan-Meier, Leslie; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Hammen, Constance L.; Gitlin, Michael; Sokolski, Kenneth; Altshuler, Lori

2010-01-01

97

Visual recovery after perinatal stroke evidenced by functional and diffusion MRI: case report  

PubMed Central

Background After perinatal brain injury, clinico-anatomic correlations of functional deficits and brain plasticity remain difficult to evaluate clinically in the young infant. Thus, new non-invasive methods capable of early functional diagnosis are needed in young infants. Case Presentation The visual system recovery in an infant with perinatal stroke is assessed by combining diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and event-related functional MRI (ER-fMRI). All experiments were done at 1.5T. A first DTI experiment was performed at 12 months of age. At 20 months of age, a second DTI experiment was performed and combined with an ER-fMRI experiment with visual stimuli (2 Hz visual flash). At 20 months of age, ER-fMRI showed significant negative activation in the visual cortex of the injured left hemisphere that was not previously observed in the same infant. DTI maps suggest recovery of the optic radiation in the vicinity of the lesion. Optic radiations in the injured hemisphere are more prominent in DTI at 20 months of age than in DTI at 12 months of age. Conclusion Our data indicate that functional cortical recovery is supported by structural modifications that concern major pathways of the visual system. These neuroimaging findings might contribute to elaborate a pertinent strategy in terms of diagnosis and rehabilitation.

Seghier, Mohamed L; Lazeyras, Francois; Zimine, Slava; Saudan-Frei, Sonja; Safran, Avinoam B; Huppi, Petra S

2005-01-01

98

Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery  

DOEpatents

A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (1) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (2) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the conate water of the production field; (3) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (4) mathematically comparing the maps from step (1) and step (3) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

1984-03-30

99

Neurturin enhances the recovery of erectile function following bilateral cavernous nerve crush injury in the rat  

PubMed Central

Background The molecular mechanisms responsible for the survival and preservation of function for adult parasympathetic ganglion neurons following injury remain incompletely understood. However, advances in the neurobiology of growth factors, neural development, and prevention of cell death have led to a surge of clinical interest for protective and regenerative neuromodulatory strategies, as surgical therapies for prostate, bladder, and colorectal cancers often result in neuronal axotomy and debilitating loss of sexual function or continence. In vitro studies have identified neurturin, a glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, as a neuromodulator for pelvic cholinergic neurons. We present the first in vivo report of the effects of neurturin upon the recovery of erectile function following bilateral cavernous nerve crush injury in the rat. Methods In these experiments, groups (n = 8 each) consisted of uninjured controls and animals treated with injection of albumin (blinded crush control group), extended release neurotrophin-4 or neurturin to the site of cavernous nerve crush injury (100 ?g per animal). After 5 weeks, recovery of erectile function (treatment effect) was assessed by cavernous nerve electrostimulation and peak aortic pressures were measured. Investigators were unblinded to specific treatments after statistical analyses were completed. Results Erectile dysfunction was not observed in the sham group (mean maximal intracavernous pressure [ICP] increase of 117.5 ± 7.3 cmH2O), whereas nerve injury and albumin treatment (control) produced a significant reduction in ICP elevation of 40.0 ± 6.3 cmH2O. Neurturin facilitated the preservation of erectile function, with an ICP increase of 55% at 62.0 ± 9.2 cmH2O (p < 0.05 vs control). Extended release neurotrophin-4 did not significantly enhance recovery of erectile function with an ICP change of 46.9 ± 9.6. Peak aortic blood pressures did not differ between groups. No significant pre- and post-treatment weight differences were observed between control, neurotrophin-4 and neurturin cohorts. All animals tolerated the five-week treatment course. Conclusion Treatment with neurturin at the site of cavernous nerve crush injury facilitates recovery of erectile function. Results support further investigation of neurturin as a neuroprotective and/or neuroregenerative agent facilitating functional recovery after cavernous or other pelvic autonomic nerve injuries.

Bella, Anthony J; Fandel, Thomas M; Tantiwongse, Kavirach; Brant, William O; Klein, Robert D; Garcia, Carlos A; Lue, Tom F

2007-01-01

100

Identification of water requirements for selected enhanced oil recovery methods  

SciTech Connect

Water requirements for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) are thoroughly evaluated by using publicly available information, data from actual field applications, and information provided by knowledgeable EOR technologists in fourteen major oil companies. The different uses of water in selected EOR methods, as well as current research trends, are discussed. Water quantity and quality requirements are estimated for individual EOR processes (steam drive; in situ combustion; and carbon dioxide, micellar-polymer, polymer, and caustic flooding) in those states and specific geographical locations where these processes will likely play major roles in future petroleum production by the year 2000. The estimated quantity requirements represent the total water needed from all sources (e.g., aquifers, lakes, produced water). A reduction in these quantities can be achieved by reinjecting all of the produced water potentially available for recycle (e.g., some is lost in oil and water separation and water treatment processes) in the oil recovery method. For injection water quality requirements, it is noted that not all of the water used for EOR needs to be fresh. The use of treated produced water can significantly reduce the quantities of fresh water that would be sought from other sources. Although no major EOR project to date has been abandoned because of water supply problems, competing regional uses for water, drought situations, and scarcity of high quality (e.g., low total dissolved solids) surface water and ground water could be impediments to certain projects in the near future. 4 figures, 14 tables.

Royce, B.; Kaplan, E.; Garrell, M.; Geffen, T.M.

1982-09-01

101

Single well tracer method to evaluate enhanced recovery  

DOEpatents

Data useful to evaluate the effectiveness of or to design an enhanced recovery process (the recovery process involving mobilizing and moving hydrocarbons through a hydrocarbon-bearing subterranean formation from an injection well to a production well by injecting a mobilizing fluid into the injection well) are obtained by a process which comprises sequentially: determining hydrocarbon saturation in the formation in a volume in the formation near a well bore penetrating the formation, injecting sufficient of the mobilizing fluid to mobilize and move hydrocarbons from a volume in the formation near the well bore penetrating the formation, and determining by the single well tracer method a hydrocarbon saturation profile in a volume from which hydrocarbons are moved. The single well tracer method employed is disclosed by U.S. Pat. No. 3,623,842. The process is useful to evaluate surfactant floods, water floods, polymer floods, CO.sub.2 floods, caustic floods, micellar floods, and the like in the reservoir in much less time at greatly reduced costs, compared to conventional multi-well pilot test.

Sheely, Jr., Clyde Q. (Ponca City, OK); Baldwin, Jr., David E. (Ponca City, OK)

1978-01-01

102

Methods for Enhanced Culture Recovery of Francisella tularensis  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis is found in a wide variety of hosts and extrahost environments, making culture recovery a diagnostic challenge. Here we demonstrate improved recovery times and good sensitivity (90%) when cultures were inoculated on the site of an investigation using fresh tissues. For contaminated specimens, antibiotic supplementation of enriched cysteine heart agar blood culture medium improved recovery of F. tularensis by 81.1%. For transport of tissues, immediate freezing yielded culture recovery rates as high as 94%.

Petersen, Jeannine M.; Schriefer, Martin E.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Montenieri, John A.; Carter, Leon G.; Stanley, Miles; Chu, May C.

2004-01-01

103

Are networks for residual language function and recovery consistent across aphasic patients?  

PubMed Central

Objectives: If neuroplastic changes in aphasia are consistent across studies, this would imply relatively stereotyped mechanisms of recovery which could guide the design of more efficient noninvasive brain stimulation treatments. To address this question, we performed a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of chronic aphasia after stroke. Methods: Functional neuroimaging articles using language tasks in patients with chronic aphasia after stroke (n = 105) and control subjects (n = 129) were collected. Activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis determined areas of consistent activity in each group. Functional homology between areas recruited by aphasic patients and controls was assessed by determining whether they activated under the same experimental conditions. Results: Controls consistently activated a network of left hemisphere language areas. Aphasic patients consistently activated some spared left hemisphere language nodes, new left hemisphere areas, and right hemisphere areas homotopic to the control subjects' language network. Patients with left inferior frontal lesions recruited right inferior frontal gyrus more reliably than those without. Some areas, including right dorsal pars opercularis, were functionally homologous with corresponding control areas, while others, including right pars triangularis, were not. Conclusions: The network of brain areas aphasic patients recruit for language functions is largely consistent across studies. Several recruitment mechanisms occur, including persistent function in spared nodes, compensatory recruitment of alternate nodes, and recruitment of areas that may hinder recovery. These findings may guide development of brain stimulation protocols that can be applied across populations of aphasic patients who share common attributes.

Messing, Samuel; Norise, Catherine; Hamilton, Roy H.

2011-01-01

104

Functional recovery after facial nerve crush is delayed in severe combined immunodeficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the current study was to determine if T and B lymphocytes play a role in functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. The time course of behavioral recovery following facial nerve crush injury at the stylomastoid foramen was established in scid mice which lack functional T and B cells and reconstituted scid mice as compared to wild-type mice.

Craig J. Serpe; Julie E. Tetzlaff; Susanna Coers; Virginia M. Sanders; Kathryn J. Jones

2002-01-01

105

Recovery after prolonged sleep deprivation: residual effects of slow-release caffeine on recovery sleep, sleepiness and cognitive functions.  

PubMed

A long work schedule often results in sleep deprivation, sleepiness, impaired performance and fatigue. We investigated the residual effects of slow-release caffeine (SRC) on sleep, sleepiness and cognitive performance during a 42-hour recovery period following a 64-hour continuous wakefulness period in 16 healthy males, according to a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Three hundred milligrams of SRC or placebo was given twice a day at 21:00 and 9:00 during the first 48 h of wakefulness. Recovery sleep was analysed with electroencephalography (EEG) and wrist actigraphy, daytime sleepiness with continuous EEG, sleep latency tests and actigraphy and cognitive functions with computerized tests from the NATO AGARD STRES battery. Both drug groups exhibited almost the same sleep architecture with a rebound of slow-wave sleep during both recovery nights and of REM sleep during the second night. Wakefulness level and cognitive functions were similarly impaired in both groups on the first day of recovery and partially returned to baseline on the second. To conclude, SRC appears to have no unwanted side-effects on recovery sleep, wakefulness and cognitive performance after a long period of sleep deprivation and might therefore be a useful choice over other psychostimulants for a long work schedule. PMID:15627809

Beaumont, Maurice; Batéjat, Denise; Coste, Olivier; Doireau, Philippe; Chauffard, Françoise; Enslen, Marc; Lagarde, Didier; Pierard, Christophe

2005-01-01

106

Steam enhanced oil recovery method using branched alkyl aromatic sulfonates  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of enhanced recovery of oil from a petroleum reservoir during gas injection into the reservoir. It comprises periodically injecting gas comprising steam and a solution of an anionic surfactant into the reservoir from a known depth interval in a well to form a foam in the presence of residual oil in high gas permeable channels of the reservoir. The anionic surfactant solution including an effective amount of an alkyl aromatic sulfonate component which has an average molecular weight of from 400 to 600 and at least one of the alkyl groups has a carbon content of from 15 to 30 carbon atoms and the alkyl group is branched with at least three tertiary or quaternary carbon atoms; contacting the reservoir fluids in the formation with the resulting foam and the gas away from the injection interval to assist movement of the reservoir fluids towards producing interval in the reservoir; and recovering oil from the producing interval.

Wall, R.G.; Friedmann, F.; Current, S.P.

1991-04-09

107

Steam enhanced oil recovery method using dialkyl aromatic sulfonates  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of enhanced recovery of oil from a petroleum reservoir during steam injection into the reservoir. It comprises: periodically injecting steam and an anionic surfactant into the reservoir from a known depth interval in a well to form a foam in the presence of residual oil in high stem permeable channels of the formation, the anionic surfactant including an effective amount of an alkyl aromatic sulfonate component having average molecular weight of from about 400 to about 600 and comprising at least 2 alkyl groups wherein one alkyl group is linear comprising from about 8 to about 30 carbon atoms and one alkyl group is branched comprising from 5 to about 25 carbon atoms; contacting the reservoir fluids in the formation with the resulting foam and the stem away from the injection interval to assist movement of the reservoir fluids toward a producing interval in the reservoir; and recovering oil from the producing interval.

Danzik, M.

1990-11-06

108

Kaolin calciner waste heat and feed recovery system and method  

SciTech Connect

In the method for producing a calcined kaolin pigment product, by feeding an aqueous slurry of kaolin to a spray drier which is provided with heated gases from a combustor, feeding the dried kaolin product from the spray drier to a calciner; and recovering the calcined product; the improvement is described enabling recovery of heat energy and calciner dust from the calciner, comprising: cycling the hot exhaust gases and entrained calciner dust from the calciner back to the spray drier by joining the exhaust gases and calciner dust with the heated combustor gases being provided to the calciner; and collecting the calciner dust from the drier and providing same together with the dried kaolin product as feed to the calciner.

Cummings, C.S.; Hudson, J.R.

1988-01-05

109

Method for recovery of oil from tilted reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

A method for recovering oil from a tilted oil-bearing reservoir having a water zone in fluid communication with and directly below an oil zone wherein a large amount of solvent is injected along the water-oil interface so that a part of the solvent fingers into the oil, lowering its viscosity and making the oil more mobile for production. The remainder of the solvent is driven through the reservoir by a water flood wherein the rate is controlled slow enough that gravity minimizes fingering of the water into the oil layer, sweeping oil toward the production well. Solvent stimulation of the producing well provides additional incremental recovery and encourages the flooded oil toward the production well.

Mcmillen, J.M.

1983-02-08

110

Acute Leptin Treatment Enhances Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Background Spinal cord injury is a major cause of long-term disability and has no current clinically accepted treatment. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, is best known as a regulator of food intake and energy expenditure. Interestingly, several studies have demonstrated that leptin has significant effects on proliferation and cell survival in different neuropathologies. Here, we sought to evaluate the role of leptin after spinal cord injury. Findings Based on its proposed neuroprotective role, we have evaluated the effects of a single, acute intraparenchymal injection of leptin in a clinically relevant animal model of spinal cord injury. As determined by quantitative Real Time-PCR, endogenous leptin and the long isoform of the leptin receptor genes show time-dependent variations in their expression in the healthy and injured adult spinal cord. Immunohistochemical analysis of post-injury tissue showed the long isoform of the leptin receptor expression in oligodendrocytes and, to a lesser extent, in astrocytes, microglia/macrophages and neurons. Moreover, leptin administered after spinal cord injury increased the expression of neuroprotective genes, reduced caspase-3 activity and decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules. In addition, histological analysis performed at the completion of the study showed that leptin treatment reduced microglial reactivity and increased caudal myelin preservation, but it did not modulate astroglial reactivity. Consequently, leptin improved the recovery of sensory and locomotor functioning. Conclusions Our data suggest that leptin has a prominent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory role in spinal cord damage and highlights leptin as a promising therapeutic agent.

Fernandez-Martos, Carmen Maria; Gonzalez, Pau; Rodriguez, Francisco Javier

2012-01-01

111

Recent developments in functional and structural imaging of aphasia recovery after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Functional and structural neuroimaging techniques can increase our knowledge about the neural processes underlying recovery from post-stroke language impairments (aphasia).Aims: In the present review we highlight recent developments in neuroimaging research of aphasia recovery.Main Contribution: We review (a) cross-sectional findings in aphasia with regard to local brain functions and functional connectivity, (b) structural and functional imaging findings using longitudinal

Marcus Meinzer; Stacy Harnish; Tim Conway; Bruce Crosson

2011-01-01

112

Toward a Terminology for Functional Recovery in Schizophrenia: Is Functional Remission a Viable Concept?  

PubMed Central

Recovery in schizophrenia is receiving increasing attention. Part of the increased focus is based on the recent working criteria for clinical remission in schizophrenia and the realization that many people with schizophrenia meet these criteria for remission. In this article, we consider whether functional disability can also be evaluated in a “remission” model. In so doing, we evaluate the concept of clinical remission, evaluate the possibility of remission of other generally stable features of schizophrenia such as negative symptoms, and make some heuristic terminological recommendations. We also propose a “level and breadth” model for the definition of functional remission and examine some of the alternate influences that could produce suboptimal everyday functioning, including effort, motivation, and societal barriers toward functional achievement.

Harvey, Philip D.; Bellack, Alan S.

2009-01-01

113

Serum Vitamin E Concentrations and Recovery of Physical Function During the Year After Hip Fracture  

PubMed Central

Background. Poor nutritional status after hip fracture is common and may contribute to physical function decline. Low serum concentrations of vitamin E have been associated with decline in physical function among older adults, but the role of vitamin E in physical recovery from hip fracture has never been explored. Methods. Serum concentrations of ?- and ?-tocopherol, the two major forms of vitamin E, were measured in female hip fracture patients from the Baltimore Hip Studies cohort 4 at baseline and at 2-, 6-, and 12-month postfracture follow-up visits. Four physical function measures—Six-Minute Walk Distance, Lower Extremity Gain Scale, Short Form-36 Physical Functioning Domain, and Yale Physical Activity Survey—were assessed at 2, 6, and 12 months postfracture. Generalized estimating equations modeled the relationship between baseline and time-varying serum tocopherol concentrations and physical function after hip fracture. Results. A total of 148 women aged 65 years and older were studied. After adjusting for covariates, baseline vitamin E concentrations were positively associated with Six-Minute Walk Distance, Lower Extremity Gain Scale, and Yale Physical Activity Survey scores (p < .1) and faster improvement in Lower Extremity Gain Scale and Yale Physical Activity Survey scores (p < .008). Time-varying vitamin E was also positively associated with Six-Minute Walk Distance, Lower Extremity Gain Scale, Yale Physical Activity Survey, and Short Form-36 Physical Functioning Domain (p < .03) and faster improvement in Six-Minute Walk Distance and Short Form-36 Physical Functioning Domain (p < .07). Conclusions. Serum concentrations of both ?- and ?-tocopherol were associated with better physical function after hip fracture. Vitamin E may represent a potentially modifiable factor related to recovery of postfracture physical function.

Miller, Ram R.; Hicks, Gregory E.; Orwig, Denise L.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Semba, Richard D.; Yu-Yahiro, Janet A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Magaziner, Jay; Shardell, Michelle D.

2011-01-01

114

Carbohydrate vs protein supplementation for recovery of neuromuscular function following prolonged load carriage  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined the effect of carbohydrate and whey protein supplements on recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage. Methods Ten male participants (body mass: 81.5 ± 10.5 kg, age: 28 ± 9 years, O2max: 55.0 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) completed three treadmill walking tests (2 hr, 6.5 km·h-1), carrying a 25 kg backpack consuming 500 ml of either: (1) Placebo (flavoured water) [PLA], (2) 6.4% Carbohydrate Solution [CHO] or (3) 7.0% Whey Protein Solution [PRO]. For three days after load carriage, participants consumed two 500 ml supplement boluses. Muscle performance was measured before and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after load carriage, during voluntary and electrically stimulated contractions. Results Isometric knee extension force decreased immediately after load carriage with no difference between conditions. During recovery, isometric force returned to pre-exercise values at 48 h for CHO and PRO but at 72 h for PLA. Voluntary activation decreased immediately after load carriage and returned to pre-exercise values at 24 h in all conditions (P = 0.086). During recovery, there were no differences between conditions for the change in isokinetic peak torque. Following reductions immediately after load carriage, knee extensor and flexor peak torque (60°·s-1) recovered to pre-exercise values at 72 h. Trunk extensor and flexor peak torque (15°·s-1) recovered to pre-exercise values at 24 h (P = 0.091) and 48 h (P = 0.177), respectively. Conclusion Recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage is improved with either carbohydrate or whey protein supplementation for isometric contractions but not for isokinetic contractions.

2010-01-01

115

Experience-Dependent Recovery of Visuospatial Functioning in Older Alcoholic Persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous recovery (time-dependent) of some cognitive functioning in alcoholic persons after drinking ceases has been convincingly demonstrated, but investigation of recovery that occurs because of exposure to specific environmental stimuli (experience-dependent) is in its infancy. To experimentally separate time- from experience-dependent recovery, two groups of alcoholic men over age 40 (N = 30) received four administrations of the Stark verbal

L. K. Forsberg; Mark S. Goldman

1985-01-01

116

Impairment and recovery of left motor function in patients with right hemiplegia.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the motor function of the left, supposedly unaffected, limbs of patients with an acute right vascular hemiplegia. METHODS: Fifteen patients with an acute vascular right hemiplegia and 16 matched healthy controls were studied. Motor function of the left limbs of each patient was evaluated on days 20 and 90 after their stroke using four validated tools (hand dynamometer, isokinetic dynamometer, finger tapping, and nine hole peg test). RESULTS: There was a significant impairment of motor function of the left limbs of patients at day 20 compared with controls. The impairment had recovered almost completely at day 90 after the stroke. CONCLUSION: These results show the bilateral cerebral representation of the human motor system and suggest the participation of ipsilateral motor pathways in recovery after a stroke.

Marque, P; Felez, A; Puel, M; Demonet, J F; Guiraud-Chaumeil, B; Roques, C F; Chollet, F

1997-01-01

117

The Function of Avoidance in Improving the Understanding of Disaster Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional avoidance as an intermittent coping mechanism is a necessary component in disaster recovery. By temporarily avoiding losses after disaster, survivors can secure basic needs and begin rebuilding. It is not until recovery projects are completed that mental health outcomes become apparent. Many individuals begin a healthy grieving process; however, for others, where avoidance extends past the completion of normalizing

Michele Many; Tonya Hansel; Michelle Moore; Zack Rosenburg; Howard Osofsky

2012-01-01

118

Monitoring of thermal enhanced oil recovery processes with electromagnetic methods  

SciTech Connect

Research in applying electromagnetic methods for imaging thermal enhanced oil recovery has progressed significantly during the past eighteen months. Working together with researchers at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and supported by a group of industrial sponsors we have focused our effort on field system development and doing field surveys connected with EOR operations. Field surveys were recently completed at the Lost Hills No.3 oil field and at UC Richmond Field station. At Lost Hills, crosshole EM data sets were collected before a new phase of steam injection for EOR and again four months after the onset of steaming. The two data sets were nearly identical suggesting that very little steam had been injected into this borehole. This is in accord with the operators records which indicate injectivity problems with this particular well. At Richmond we conducted a salt water injection monitoring experiment where 50,000 gallons of salt water were injected in a shallow aquifer and crosshole EM data were collected using the injection well and several observation wells. We applied the imaging code to some of the collected data and produced an image showing that the salt water slug has propagated 8--10 m from the injector into the aquifer. This result is partially confirmed by prior calculations and well logging data. Applying the EM methods to the problem of oil field characterization essentially means extending the borehole resistivity log into the region between wells. Since the resistivity of a sedimentary environment is often directly dependent on the fluids in the rock the knowledge of the resistivity distribution within an oil field can be invaluable for finding missed or bypassed oil or for mapping the overall structure. With small modification the same methods used for mapping EOR process can be readily applied to determining the insitu resistivity structure.

Wilt, M.

1992-09-01

119

Methods of protecting neuronal function  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention is generally directed to potassium adenosine triphosphate ("K.sub.ATP ") channel opening compositions. The present invention also relates to the use of K.sub.ATP channel openers in therapeutic applications. The K.sub.ATP channel opening compositions of the present invention include diazoxide (7-chloro-3-methyl-2H-1,2,4-benzo-thiadiazine 1,1-dioxide) and aprikalim. According to the present invention, diazoxide and aprikalim can be used independently, or in combination. The present also relates to therapeutic methods for protecting neuronal function utilizing K.sub.ATP channel openers. Methods of the present invention may be advantageous for protecting neuronal function, prior to medical procedures, after stroke-like events or other events associated with reductions in blood flow, and/or for preserving tissues or organs against cellular injury and death during removal, storage, transplantation or reattachment.

2001-11-06

120

Thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus for exploiting deep well reservoirs utilizes electric downhole steam generators to provide supplemental heat to generate high quality steam from hot pressurized water which is heated at the surface. A downhole electric heater placed within a well bore for local heating of the pressurized liquid water into steam is powered by electricity from the above-ground gas turbine-driven electric generators fueled by any clean fuel such as natural gas, distillate or some crude oils, or may come from the field being stimulated. Heat recovered from the turbine exhaust is used to provide the hot pressurized water. Electrical power may be cogenerated and sold to an electric utility to provide immediate cash flow and improved economics. During the cogeneration period (no electrical power to some or all of the downhole units), the oil field can continue to be stimulated by injecting hot pressurized water, which will flash into lower quality steam at reservoir conditions. The heater includes electrical heating elements supplied with three-phase alternating current or direct current. The injection fluid flows through the heater elements to generate high quality steam to exit at the bottom of the heater assembly into the reservoir. The injection tube is closed at the bottom and has radial orifices for expanding the injection fluid to reservoir pressure.

Stahl, Charles R. (Scotia, NY); Gibson, Michael A. (Houston, TX); Knudsen, Christian W. (Houston, TX)

1987-01-01

121

Alternative Methods for Copper Recovery from Dump Leach Liquors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines conducted large-scale laboratory copper ore leaching tests to enable improving copper recovery from large dump-leaching operations. This was done by comparing leaching progress when copper was recovered from recycled leach liquor eithe...

B. W. Madsen R. D. Groves

1981-01-01

122

PLANKTON RESPIRATION AND BIOMASS AS FUNCTIONAL INDICATORS OF RECOVERY IN RESTORED PRAIRIE WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Reliable ecological indicators of wetland integrity are necessary for assessing recovery of restored wetlands, yet little consensus currently exists on which indicators are most appropriate. We employed indicators derived from simple, standard measures of ecosystem function selec...

123

Traumatic brain injury shows better functional recovery than brain tumor: a rehabilitative perspective.  

PubMed

Background: The similar symptoms seen in the brain tumor (BT) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) population. However, functional comparisons between these two diagnostic groups have been limited. Aim: To compare functional outcomes in patients with supratentorial BT and TBI after early rehabilitation. Design: This was a retrospective database analysis. Setting. Patients admitted to an Acute Care Unit as inpatient (Hacettepe Hospital, Ankara-Turkey). Population. The population included patients with BT and TBI. Methods: Thirty-four patients with BT and TBI were matched one-to-one by lesion side and sex. The Barthel Index was used to assess functional status at the pre- and postrehabilitation. The change rate and efficiency in BI were also calculated. The time between injury onset and admission to rehabilitation (the onset to admission interval, OAI) and length of stay in rehabilitation (LOS rehab) were recorded. In addition, the influence of lesion side (left and right) and age on functional outcome were analyzed. Results: The functional level was significantly lower in TBI patients than in patients BT before rehabilitation (P<0.05). The post-rehabilitation BI score was similar in patients with BT and TBI (P>0.05). Patients with TBI had greater the change rate and efficiency in BI (P<0.05). The OAI and LOS rehab was longer in patients with TBI (P<0.05). In terms of lesion side comparisons, no differences were found (P>0.05). The age had no effect on functional outcome in patients with TBI and BT (P>0.05), expect the age group 45-59 (P<0.05). Conclusion: The early rehabilitation program improved functional ability of patients with brain tumors, as well as patients with traumatic brain injury. Despite the lower functional status, patients with TBI displayed better functional recovery than patients with BT. Lesion side had no effect on functional outcome in patients with TBI and BT. Differences in functional status begin to appear even in patients with TBI between 45 and 59 years. Further investigations with more detailed outcome instruments are required to better understand the qualitative limitations of a patient's recovery. Clinical Rehabilitation Impact: Patients with TBI will make functional gains comparable with patients with brain tumors in a similar rehabilitation setting. PMID:23558698

Bilgin, S; Kose, N; Karakaya, J; Mut, M

2013-04-05

124

Associations between gait patterns, brain lesion factors and functional recovery in stroke patients.  

PubMed

Brain CT scans and neurological condition were evaluated in 74 stroke patients. Firstly, we found that using a classification-tree technique based on CT scan parameters (an innovative method, analyzing four parameters simultaneously) coincided with our previously proposed kinematic artificial neural network (ANN) classification technique for 71.3% of patients. Lesion size and location were found to be the most significant CT scan predictors of gait classification. Secondly, we sought to gauge post-rehabilitation functional recovery in patients within the same three groups of gait pattern. We found significant differences in scores between the three gait pattern groups, before and after rehabilitation (Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.001), while significant improvement was observed in each group (Wilcoxon text; p<0.01). We conclude that patient classification into pathological gait groups on the basis of gait or CT scan parameters may serve as an early predictor of future functional outcome. PMID:21937234

Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Wit, Andrzej; Krawczyk, Maciej; Zaborski, Jacek; Gajewski, Jan

2011-09-19

125

Intracoronary trimetazidine does not improve recovery of regional function in a porcine model of repeated ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effect of trimetazidine (TMZ) on recovery of regional cardiac function in anesthetized open-chest pigs, subjected to fifteen 2-minute occlusions of the left anterior descending coronary artery, separated by 2 minutes of reperfusion and a 120-minute recovery period. Regional myocardial function was evaluated by sonomicrometry-derived segment lengthening and the area enclosed by the left ventricular pressure-segment length loop

M. M. G. Koning; R. Krams; C. S. Xiao; J. R. Meegen; K. Bezstarosti; J. M. J. Lamers; P. D. Verdouw

1993-01-01

126

Partial functional recovery after complete spinal cord transection by combined chondroitinase and clenbuterol treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord injury not only disrupts axonal tracts but also causes gliotic, fibrotic, and Schwannotic scarring with resulting\\u000a deposition of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) which prevent axonal reconnection and recovery of locomotor function.\\u000a Here, we determined whether recovery of locomotor function could be promoted after complete transection, by degrading CSPGs\\u000a enzymatically within the injury site with chondroitinase ABC (chABC) together

Fusheng Bai; Hong Peng; Joseph D. Etlinger; Richard J. Zeman

2010-01-01

127

Enhanced oil recovery with hydrophobically associating polymers containing n-vinyl-pyrrolidone functionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to a method for enhanced recovery of petroleum from a subterranean oil-bearing formation. More particularly, this invention relates to secondary or tertiary recovery of oil employing a polymer-thickened aqueous drive fluid. The polymeric viscosifier for the drive fluid is selected from a class of hydrophobically associating, water soluble polymers containing one or more water soluble monomers and

J. B. Bridgewater; S. J. Pace; G. Gardner; D. N. Schulz

1987-01-01

128

Physiological, Sensory, and Functional Measures in a Model of Wrist Muscle Injury and Recovery  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of muscle rehabilitation modalities, it is first necessary to develop a model to test measures that would assess physiological, sensory, and functional muscle recovery. This study attempted to develop such a model for wrist injury. Subjects: Healthy male and female adults (n = 25). Methods: Subjects performed wrist muscle damage assessment, soreness, discomfort, difficulty, and functional motor task tests before and 1, 2, and 7 days after eccentric wrist muscle contractions. Wrist-related motor task tests, including the perception of discomfort and difficulty during performance, were also conducted. Results: At 24 hours post–eccentric exercises, wrist extension and flexion force declined (p < 0.05) and soreness (p < 0.05) and circumference (p < 0.05) increased; all returned to normal by 7 days post-exercise. At 24 and 48 hours post-exercise, perception of discomfort and difficulty was elevated during performance of motor tasks (p < 0.05). The completion speed of motor tasks was unaffected at any time post–eccentric exercise (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Loss of wrist muscle force, increased soreness, task discomfort, and difficulty were noted following eccentric exercise. However, subjects appeared able to compensate, such that the speed of completion of motor tasks was not slowed. Longer or more specific motor tasks may be necessary to mimic real work performance decrement and recovery.

Brown, Lindsay; Brant, Aron; Enns, Deborah; Bryden, Pamela J.

2008-01-01

129

Functional re-recruitment of dysfunctional brain areas predicts language recovery in chronic aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional recovery in response to a brain lesion, such as a stroke, can even occur years after the incident and may be accelerated by effective rehabilitation strategies. In eleven chronic aphasia patients, we administered a short-term intensive language training to improve language functions and to induce cortical reorganization under rigorously controlled conditions. Overt naming performance was assessed during functional magnetic

Marcus Meinzer; Tobias Flaisch; Caterina Breitenstein; Christian Wienbruch; Thomas Elbert; Brigitte Rockstroh

2008-01-01

130

Recent developments in functional and structural imaging of aphasia recovery after stroke  

PubMed Central

Background Functional and structural neuroimaging techniques can increase our knowledge about the neural processes underlying recovery from post-stroke language impairments (aphasia). Aims In the present review we highlight recent developments in neuroimaging research of aphasia recovery. Main Contribution We review (a) cross-sectional findings in aphasia with regard to local brain functions and functional connectivity, (b) structural and functional imaging findings using longitudinal (intervention) paradigms, (c) new adjunct treatments that are guided by functional imaging techniques (e.g., electrical brain stimulation) and (d) studies related to the prognosis of language recovery and treatment responsiveness after stroke. Conclusions More recent developments in data acquisition and analysis foster better understanding and more realistic modelling of the neural substrates of language recovery after stroke. Moreover, the combination of different neuroimaging protocols can provide converging evidence for neuroplastic brain remodelling during spontaneous and treatment-induced recovery. Researchers are also beginning to use sophisticated imaging analyses to improve accuracy of prognosis, which may eventually improve patient care by allowing for more efficient treatment planning. Brain stimulation techniques offer a new and exciting way to improve the recovery potential after stroke.

Meinzer, Marcus; Harnish, Stacy; Conway, Tim; Crosson, Bruce

2010-01-01

131

Modifying expression of EphA4 and its downstream targets improves functional recovery after stroke.  

PubMed

Functional recovery after stroke varies greatly between patients, potentially due to differences in gene expression. Several processes like angiogenesis, neurogenesis, axonal reorganization and synaptic plasticity act in concert to restore neurological functions. The ephrin family has known roles in all these processes. EphA4 is the most abundant ephrin receptor in the nervous system. Therefore, we investigated whether EphA4 affects functional recovery from stroke, and evaluated the potential of this receptor as a therapeutic target. Motor recovery after photothrombotic stroke was studied in transgenic mice in which expression of EphA4 was reduced. Furthermore, blocking a downstream target of EphA4, ROCK (Rho-associated kinase), by two different compounds was evaluated in the same model. Motor recovery after photothrombotic stroke was markedly enhanced in transgenic mice with reduced levels of EphA4, whereas infarct sizes were similar compared with non-transgenic controls. Pharmacological inhibition of the EphA4 signaling cascade using two ROCK inhibitors,Y-27632 and fasudil, improved motor function of mice after stroke. Infarct size was comparable in all groups studied, suggesting that the benefit obtained by EphA4 inhibition is not neuroprotective in nature but due to an effect on the mechanisms underlying recovery. Our findings show that reduction of EphA4 improves motor function after experimental stroke and demonstrate that ROCK inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance recovery after ischemic stroke. PMID:23418304

Lemmens, Robin; Jaspers, Tom; Robberecht, Wim; Thijs, Vincent N

2013-02-14

132

Some nonlinear\\/adaptive methods for fast recovery of the missing samples of signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an iterative method for recovery of the missing samples of signals is investigated in detail, and some novel linear, nonlinear, and adaptive extrapolation techniques are proposed to be used along with it to increase the convergence rate of the recovery system. The proposed methods would remarkably speed up the convergence rate, save processing power, and reduce the

Mahmoud Ghandi; Mohammad Mahdi Jahani Yekta; Farokh Marvasti

2008-01-01

133

Does physical activity change predict functional recovery in low back pain? Protocol for a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Activity advice and prescription are commonly used in the management of low back pain (LBP). Although there is evidence for advising patients with LBP to remain active, facilitating both recovery and return to work, to date no research has assessed whether objective measurements of free living physical activity (PA) can predict outcome, recovery and course of LBP. Methods An observational longitudinal study will investigate PA levels in a cohort of community-dwelling working age adults with acute and sub-acute LBP. Each participant's PA level, functional status, mood, fear avoidance behaviours, and levels of pain, psychological distress and occupational activity will be measured on three occasions during for 1 week periods at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year. Physical activity levels will be measured by self report, RT3 triaxial accelerometer, and activity recall questionnaires. The primary outcome measure of functional recovery will be the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Free living PA levels and changes in functional status will be quantified in order to look at predictive relationships between levels and changes in free living PA and functional recovery in a LBP population. Discussion This research will investigate levels and changes in activity levels of an acute LBP cohort and the predictive relationship to LBP recovery. The results will assess whether occupational, psychological and behavioural factors affect the relationship between free living PA and LBP recovery. Results from this research will help to determine the strength of evidence supporting international guidelines that recommend restoration of normal activity in managing LBP. Trial registration [Clinical Trial Registration Number, ACTRN12609000282280

Hendrick, Paul; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Bell, Melanie L; Hale, Leigh; Hurley, Deirdre A; McDonough, Suzanne M; Melloh, Markus; Baxter, David G

2009-01-01

134

Profound differences in spontaneous long-term functional recovery after defined spinal tract lesions in the rat.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare spontaneous functional recovery after different spinal motor tract lesions in the rat spinal cord using three methods of analysis, the BBB, the rope test, and the CatWalk. We transected the dorsal corticospinal tract (CSTx) or the rubrospinal tract (RSTx) or the complete dorsal half of the spinal cord (Hx) at thoracic level T8. Functional recovery was monitored for 31 weeks. We found no recovery of consistent inter limb coordination in any experimental group over time using the BBB locomotor rating scale. Quantitative CatWalk analysis revealed significant differences between experimental groups for inter limb coordination (RI). RSTx and Hx animals showed a significant decrease in the RI, and only in the RSTx group did the RI improve from 6 weeks post-lesion onward. Significant differences between experimental groups in step sequence patterns and base of support were also observed. In the rope test all experimental groups had significantly higher error percentages compared to control animals. Tracing of the CST revealed enhanced collateral formation rostral to the lesion in the CSTx group, not in other groups. The results presented here show that locomotor function in all, but CSTx groups gradually improved over time. This is important for studies that employ pharmacological, cell-, and/or gene therapy- based interventions to improve axonal regeneration and functional recovery after spinal cord injury. PMID:16430370

Hendriks, William T J; Eggers, Ruben; Ruitenberg, Marc J; Blits, Bas; Hamers, Frank P T; Verhaagen, Joost; Boer, Gerard J

2006-01-01

135

Influence of low-power luminescent red light on recovery of contractile function of the heart in the post-ischemic period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of incoherent low-power luminescent red light (Lumir) on recovery of cardiac contractile function during post-ischemic period was investigate. The method of isolated heart was used. Considerable reduce of heart rate was observe.d It is proved, that Lumir contributes to accelerated recovery of contractile function of myocardium. The physiotherapeutic procedure led also to improvement of heart rate and to stabilization of relaxation speed in post- ischemic period.

Malinovskaya, Svetlana L.; Drugova, Olga V.; Monich, Victor A.; Mukhina, Irin V.

1997-12-01

136

Oil recovery method utilizing a dicyclopentadiene derived ethoxysulfonate  

SciTech Connect

A dicyclopentadiene derived ethoxysulfonate alone or combined with a petroleum sulfonate surfactant is dissolved in water to form an effective surfactant fluid that is stable in high salinity and/or high temperature environments. The surfactant fluid is injected into an underground petroleum-containing reservoir in an enhanced oil recovery process. 10 claims.

McCoy, D.R.; Gipson, R.M.; Naylor, C.G.

1984-01-17

137

Method for Recovery of Viruses from Milk and Milk Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modification of the plaque-forming unit assay was developed for recovery of viruses from milk and milk products. Viruses were assayed on primary cell cul- tures of Cercopitheeus aethiops (African green) monkey kidneys under an overlay medimu. The medium contained 0.95% clarified Ionagar no. 2, Eagle's minimum essential medium with nonessential amino acids in Hanks' balanced salt solution with- out

R. Sullivan; R. B. Read Jr.

1968-01-01

138

Validation study of a web-based assessment of functional recovery after radical prostatectomy  

PubMed Central

Background Good clinical care of prostate cancer patients after radical prostatectomy depends on careful assessment of post-operative morbidities, yet physicians do not always judge patient symptoms accurately. Logistical problems associated with using paper questionnaire limit their use in the clinic. We have implemented a web-interface ("STAR") for patient-reported outcomes after radical prostatectomy. Methods We analyzed data on the first 9 months of clinical implementation to evaluate the validity of the STAR questionnaire to assess functional outcomes following radical prostatectomy. We assessed response rate, internal consistency within domains, and the association between survey responses and known predictors of sexual and urinary function, including age, time from surgery, nerve sparing status and co-morbidities. Results Of 1581 men sent an invitation to complete the instrument online, 1235 responded for a response rate of 78%. Cronbach's alpha was 0.84, 0.86 and 0.97 for bowel, urinary and sexual function respectively. All known predictors of sexual and urinary function were significantly associated with survey responses in the hypothesized direction. Conclusions We have found that web-based assessment of functional recovery after radical prostatectomy is practical and feasible. The instrument demonstrated excellent psychometric properties, suggested that validity is maintained when questions are transferred from paper to electronic format and when patients give responses that they know will be seen by their doctor and added to their clinic record. As such, our system allows ready implementation of patient-reported outcomes into routine clinical practice.

2010-01-01

139

Resource-recovery facilities: Production and cost functions, and debt-financing issues  

SciTech Connect

Some of the fiscal questions relating to resource-recovery, or trash-burning, facilities are addressed. Production and cost functions for resource-recovery facilities are estimated using regression analysis. Whether or not there are returns to scale are addressed using the production and cost-function framework. Production functions are also estimated using data envelopment analysis (DEA), and results are compared to the regression results. DEA is a linear-program-based technique that can provide information about the production process. The data used to estimate the production and cost functions were collected from the Resource Recovery Yearbook. Once the decision is made to construct a resource-recovery facility, it needs to be financed. The high cost of these facilities usually prohibits financing construction out of regular operating revenues. Therefore, the issues a government faces when debt is used to finance a resource-recovery facility are analyzed. The most important public policy finding is that increasing economies of scale do not seem to be present for resource-recovery facilities.

Simonsen, W.S.

1991-01-01

140

Recovery of methanotrophs from disturbance: population dynamics, evenness and functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity is claimed to be essential for ecosystem functioning, but is threatened by anthropogenic disturbances. Prokaryotes have been assumed to be functionally redundant and virtually inextinguishable. However, recent work indicates that microbes may well be sensitive to environmental disturbance. Focusing on methane-oxidizing bacteria as model organisms, we simulated disturbance-induced mortality by mixing native with sterilized paddy soil in two ratios,

Adrian Ho; Claudia Lüke; Peter Frenzel

2011-01-01

141

Combined effects of acrobatic exercise and magnetic stimulation on the functional recovery after spinal cord lesions.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to determine whether physical exercise combined with epidural spinal cord magnetic stimulation could improve recovery after injury of the spinal cord. Spinal cord lesioning in mice resulted in reduced locomotor function and negatively affected the muscle strength tested in vitro. Acrobatic exercise attenuated the behavioral effects of spinal cord injury. The exposure to magnetic fields facilitated further this improvement. The progress in behavioral recovery was correlated with reduced muscle degeneration and enhanced muscle contraction. The acrobatic exercise combined with stimulation with magnetic fields significantly facilitates behavioral recovery and muscle physiology in mice following spinal cord injury. PMID:18986227

Ahmed, Zaghloul; Wieraszko, Andrzej

2008-10-01

142

[Spontaneous recovery of function in central nervous system lesions].  

PubMed

A rewiev of the mechanisms responsible for the spontaneous recuperation of function in patients with lesions of the central nervous sistem is made. The spontaneous reorganization theories of the nervous structures and the vicarious function are also referred to. In the last two decades experimental contributions have been accentuated, specially the one conducted by the group of researchers directed by Windle and Guth, who had shown the possibility of regeneration in the central nervous system, as well Lawrende and Kuypers, Brodal, Goldberger and others, which defended the vircarious function as the probable mechanisms of recuperation. PMID:1191098

Anghinah, A

1975-12-01

143

Delayed recovery of adrenocortical and testicular function after chemotherapy of human trypanosomiasis.  

PubMed

The following indicators of pituitary, adreno-cortical and testicular function were measured in 58 male African trypanosomiasis patients from Western Kenya; plasma cortisol, luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels. The measurements were carried out by specific radioimmunoassay methods in early and late stage infected patients on admission to hospital and in both groups of patients after one month of chemotherapy. Packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin levels were also measured in all the patients to determine the extent of their anaemia and success of recovery. High parasitaemia, anaemia and clinical symptoms of human trypanosomiasis were found in the infected patients and were eliminated with chemotherapy in the infected/treated patients. Increased levels of cortisol and decreased concentrations of testosterone without significant changes in LH levels were evident in the infected patients; this condition remained unchanged even after one month of chemotherapy. Evidence is thus provided of persistent hormonal perturbations which probably indicate residual endocrine organ damage. PMID:7942356

Kimata, D M; Makawiti, D W; Tengekyon, K M; Dadzie, S; Waindi, E N

1994-06-01

144

Functional imaging of motor recovery after stroke: Remaining challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stroke is a leading cause of disability in the United States and is likely to have an increasing impact on disability worldwide.\\u000a In order to develop more effective rehabilitation techniques, it is critical to understand the mechanisms underlying the mature\\u000a brain’s capacity to reorganize and restore neurologic function. Over the past decade, functional brain imaging has been a\\u000a principal investigational

John W. Krakauer

2004-01-01

145

Watering, Fertilization, and Slurry Inoculation Promote Recovery of Biological Crust Function in Degraded Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological soil crusts are very sensitive to human-induced disturbances and are in a degraded state in many areas throughout their range. Given their importance in the functioning of arid and semiarid ecosystems, restoring these crusts may contribute to the recovery of ecosystem functionality in degraded areas. We conducted a factorial microcosm experiment to evaluate the effects of inoculation type (discrete

Fernando T. Maestre; Noelia Martín; Beatriz Díez; Rosario López-Poma; Fernando Santos; Ignacio Luque; Jordi Cortina

2006-01-01

146

Transplantation of embryonic stem cells overexpressing Bcl2 promotes functional recovery after transient cerebral ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study tested the hypothesis that transplantation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into rat cortex after a severe focal ischemia would promote structural repair and functional recovery. Overexpression of the human anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 in ES cells was tested for increasing survival and differentiation of transplanted cells and promoting functional benefits. Mouse ES cells, pretreated with retinoic acid to induce

Ling Wei; Lin Cui; B. Joy Snider; Mark Rivkin; Steven S. Yu; Chul-Sang Lee; Larry D. Adams; David I. Gottlieb; Eugene M. Johnson Jr.; Shan Ping Yu; Dennis W. Choi

2005-01-01

147

Partial functional recovery after complete spinal cord transection by combined chondroitinase and clenbuterol treatment.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury not only disrupts axonal tracts but also causes gliotic, fibrotic, and Schwannotic scarring with resulting deposition of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) which prevent axonal reconnection and recovery of locomotor function. Here, we determined whether recovery of locomotor function could be promoted after complete transection, by degrading CSPGs enzymatically within the injury site with chondroitinase ABC (chABC) together with treatment with the beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, clenbuterol, a neuroprotective agent which can promote regrowth of lower motoneurons. Partial recovery of locomotor function was observed 8-12 weeks postinjury only after combined chABC and clenbuterol treatment. The recovery of locomotor function coincided with the presence of axons caudal to the injury site arising from neurons of the reticular, vestibular, and red nuclei also only with combined chABC and clenbuterol treatment. Axons myelinated by Schwann cells were most prominent in the transection site in the combined treatment group. Clenbuterol treatment activated cAMP response element binding protein within retrogradely traced neurons which has been associated with axonal regrowth. ChABC treatment decreased scarring due to both CSPG and collagen deposition as well as the gap between intact regions of the spinal cord. ChABC also increased numbers of phagocytic cells which remove myelin debris as well as populations of astrocytes thereby aiding blood-spinal cord barrier reformation. Together the results suggest that chABC and clenbuterol can act synergistically to promote recovery of locomotor function. PMID:20552220

Bai, Fusheng; Peng, Hong; Etlinger, Joseph D; Zeman, Richard J

2010-06-16

148

Development of mobility control methods to improve oil recovery by COâ. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the efficiency of oil recovery from most reservoirs is disappointingly low, scientific research into the mechanisms of oil displacement promises to be very productive. An increasingly popular, but not fully understood or exploited oil recovery process uses highly compressed COâ as a displacing fluid to force the crude oil from reservoir rock. This report discusses concepts, methods, and results

J. P. Heller; J. J. Taber

1984-01-01

149

F-wave amplitudes indicate evolving spinal autonomy during spontaneous recovery of hindlimb function in rat spinal cord contusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Experimental rat model of spinal cord contusion.Objectives:To reveal the extent of spinal autonomy contributing to recovery of hindlimb function.Setting:Experimental laboratory of a neurosurgical university department.Methods:F-wave amplitudes as a probe for spinal cord excitability were recorded from both sciatic nerves (lumbar segments L2–L5) before and after an experimental spinal cord contusion performed in the lower thoracic spinal cord. Additionally, transcranial

C Wedekind; R Ullrich; N Klug

2006-01-01

150

Long-term follow-up of thoratec ventricular assist device bridge-to-recovery patients successfully removed from support after recovery of ventricular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:In certain forms of severe heart failure there is sufficient improvement in cardiac function during ventricular assist device (VAD) support to allow removal of the device. However, it is critical to know whether there is sustained recovery of the heart and long-term patient survival if VAD bridging to recovery is to be considered over the option of transplantation.

David J Farrar; William R Holman; Lawrence R McBride; Robert L Kormos; Timothy B Icenogle; Paul J Hendry; Charles H Moore; Daniel Y Loisance; Aly El-Banayosy; Howard Frazier

2002-01-01

151

The role of functional magnetic resonance imaging in the study of brain development, injury, and recovery in the newborn.  

PubMed

Development of brain functions and the structural-functional correlates of brain injury remain difficult to evaluate in the young infant. Thus, new noninvasive methods capable of early functional diagnosis are needed. This review describes the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for studying localization of brain function in the developing brain when standard clinical investigations are not available or conclusive. This promising neuroimaging technique has been successfully used in healthy newborns and in newborns with brain injury using different paradigms, including passive visual, somato-sensorial, and auditory stimulation. We summarize the major findings of previous fMRI studies in young infants, describe ongoing methodological challenges, and propose exciting future developments in using resting-state protocols and functional connectivity techniques to assist in evaluating early life brain function and its recovery from injury. PMID:20109975

Seghier, Mohamed L; Hüppi, Petra S

2010-02-01

152

Functional recovery of children and adolescents after cerebellar tumour resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study examined whether lesions to the cerebellum obtained in early childhood are better compensated than lesions in middle childhood or adolescence. Since cerebel- lar lesions might affect motor as well a cognitive perform- ance, posture, upper limb and working memory function were assessed in 22 patients after resection of a cerebellar tumour (age at surgery 1-17 years, minimum

Jurgen Konczak; Beate Schoch; Albena Dimitrova; Elke Gizewski; Dagmar Timmann

2005-01-01

153

Hyperinnervation during Adrenal Regeneration Influences the Rate of Functional Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rat adrenal cortex has the uncommon ability to demonstrate morphological and functional regeneration after injury-induced loss of cortical tissue. Peripheral nerves are involved in tissue regeneration and healing after injury, implying that nerves may also be involved in modulating the regeneration of the adrenal cortex. Studies were initiated to assess changes in adrenal innervation during cortical tissue regeneration subsequent

Yvonne M. Ulrich-Lai; William C. Engeland

2000-01-01

154

Rational Functions and Potential for Rigorous Sensor Model Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

achieve a higher accuracy and to be effective for implementa- Rational functions (RFs) have been applied in photogrammetry tion. Madani (1999) discussed advantages and disadvantages of and remote sensing to represent the transformation between RFs compared with rigorous sensor models. He tested the accu- the image space and object space whenever the rigorous model racy of the RF solution using

Ruijin Ma; Rong Xing Li

155

Effect of dimephosphon on functional recovery of damaged spinal cord.  

PubMed

The effect of endolumbar dimephosphon perfusion in dogs with spinal cord contusion was studied by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation and stimulation electromyography. Treatment with dimephosphon contributed to preservation of conduction function of the spinal cord and decrease in excitability of spinal motoneurons in the perifocal zone. PMID:16984091

Eremeev, A M; Tumakaev, R F; Yafarova, G G; Ibragimov, Ya Kh; Pleshchinskii, I N

2006-02-01

156

Resting State Alpha-band Functional Connectivity and Recovery after Stroke  

PubMed Central

After cerebral ischemia, disruption and subsequent reorganization of functional connections occur both locally and remote to the lesion. However, the unpredictable timing and extent of sensorimotor recovery reflects a gap in understanding of these underlying neural mechanisms. We aimed to identify plasticity of alpha-band functional neural connections within the perilesional area and the predictive value of functional connectivity with respect to motor recovery of the upper extremity after stroke. Our results show improvements in upper extremity motor recovery in relation to distributed changes in MEG-based alpha band functional connectivity, both in the perilesional area and contralesional cortex. Motor recovery was found to be predicted by increased connectivity at baseline in the ipsilesional somatosensory area, supplementary motor area, and cerebellum, contrasted with reduced connectivity of contralesional motor regions, after controlling for age, stroke onset-time and lesion size. These findings support plasticity within a widely distributed neural network and define brain regions in which the extent of network participation predicts post-stroke recovery potential

Westlake, Kelly P.; Hinkley, Leighton B.; Bucci, Monica; Guggisberg, Adrian G.; Findlay, Anne M.; Byl, Nancy; Henry, Roland G.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

2013-01-01

157

Using knowledge of development to promote recovery of function after brain damage.  

PubMed

Knowledge of normal development of brain-behavior relations plays an important role in understanding how the plasticity of the nervous system can be used to promote recovery of function following brain damage. Aspects of the other articles in this issue are used in justification of the value of such developmental knowledge. Also, the development of amblyopia and its remediation in adulthood is discussed as a model for developing other techniques for ensuring recovery of function after stroke. Although the articles in this issue establish an excellent context for improving actual recovery of function (rather than compensation for deficits), much still needs to be discovered about how we can use developmental knowledge, along with knowledge of the plasticity of the nervous system, to improve remediation techniques. PMID:22415922

Michel, George F

2012-04-01

158

False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method  

PubMed Central

Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10 × 10?3 to 1.86 CFU/cm2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (?1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

Piepel, Greg F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

2012-01-01

159

Functional recovery of hibernating myocardium after coronary bypass surgery: Does it coincide with improvement in perfusion  

SciTech Connect

To determine the relationship between functional recovery and improvement in perfusion after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), 49 patients were studied. Radionuclide angiography was performed before, 1 month after, and 6 to 12 months after CABG to evaluate regional wall motion. Exercise thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging was done before and 1 month after CABG to assess regional perfusion. Preoperative asynergy was observed in 108 segments, and 74 of them showed an improvement in wall motion 1 month after CABG (segment A). Sixty-six of these segments (89%) were associated with an improvement in perfusion. Eight segments that had not improved 1 month after CABG demonstrated a delayed recovery of wall motion 6 to 12 months after CABG (segment B). However, seven of eight segments (88%) already showed an improvement in perfusion 1 month after CABG. A total of 82 segments exhibited functional recovery after CABG and were considered hibernating segments. In the preoperative study segment B more frequently had areas of akinesis or dyskinesis than segment A (75% vs 34%, p less than 0.05). The mean percent thallium-201 uptake in segment B was lower than that in segment A (74% {plus minus} 9% vs 83% {plus minus} 8%, p less than 0.05). Functional recovery of hibernating myocardium usually coincided with an improvement in perfusion. However, delayed functional recovery after reperfusion was observed in some instances. Severe asynergy and severe thallium-201 defects were more frequently observed in these segments with delayed recovery. Hibernating myocardium might remain stunned during those recovery periods.

Takeishi, Y.; Tono-oka, I.; Kubota, I.; Ikeda, K.; Masakane, I.; Chiba, J.; Abe, S.; Tsuiki, K.; Komatani, A.; Yamaguchi, I. (First Department of Internal Medicine, Yamagata University School of Medicine (Japan))

1991-09-01

160

Functional recovery in parkinsonian monkeys treated with GDNF  

Microsoft Academic Search

PARKINSON 's disease results from the progressive degeneration of dopamine neurons that innervate the striatum1,2. In rodents, glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) stimulates an increase in midbrain dopamine levels, protects dopamine neurons from some neurotoxins, and maintains injured dopamine neurons3-9. Here we extend the rodent studies to an animal closer to the human in brain organization and function, by evaluating the

Don M. Gash; Zhiming Zhang; Aliza Ovadia; Wayne A. Cass; Ai Yi; Linda Simmerman; Deborah Russell; David Martin; Paul A. Lapchak; Frank Collins; Barry J. Hoffer; Greg A. Gerhard

1996-01-01

161

Recovery Method of Bred Tritium from Solid Breeders  

SciTech Connect

It is required to develop an efficient tritium fueling cycle keeping the overall tritium breeding ratio larger than 1.0 and a reliable tritium confinement system assuring the radiation safety of tritium in construction of the D-T fusion reactor. The blanket is the place where the tritium recovery system has contact with the cooling system for electricity generation at the elevated temperature. Therefore, design of efficient means to recover bred tritium with minimum permeation loss is to be made.It is proposed in this study to construct a recovery system using the Pd alloy with adsorption bed after a precious metal catalyst bed. Effects of existence of water on dissociation reaction of hydrogen on palladium alloy membrane and on recombination reaction are discussed in this study for the case when 800 Pa of water vapor is introduced to the permeation primary side and/or permeation secondary side for the case when water vapor co-existed, and it was observed that water vapor prevents hydrogen permeation through palladium alloy at the lower temperature than 473K.

Furukubo, Yu-ya [Kyushu University (Japan); Fukuda, Ken-ichi [Kyushu University (Japan); Nishikawa, Masabumi [Kyushu University (Japan); Beloglazov, Sergey [Forschungzentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

2005-07-15

162

Analytical recovery of protozoan enumeration methods: have drinking water QMRA models corrected or created bias?  

PubMed

Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a tool to evaluate the potential implications of pathogens in a water supply or other media and is of increasing interest to regulators. In the case of potentially pathogenic protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts), it is well known that the methods used to enumerate (oo)cysts in samples of water and other media can have low and highly variable analytical recovery. In these applications, QMRA has evolved from ignoring analytical recovery to addressing it in point-estimates of risk, and then to addressing variation of analytical recovery in Monte Carlo risk assessments. Often, variation of analytical recovery is addressed in exposure assessment by dividing concentration values that were obtained without consideration of analytical recovery by random beta-distributed recovery values. A simple mathematical proof is provided to demonstrate that this conventional approach to address non-constant analytical recovery in drinking water QMRA will lead to overestimation of mean pathogen concentrations. The bias, which can exceed an order of magnitude, is greatest when low analytical recovery values are common. A simulated dataset is analyzed using a diverse set of approaches to obtain distributions representing temporal variation in the oocyst concentration, and mean annual risk is then computed from each concentration distribution using a simple risk model. This illustrative example demonstrates that the bias associated with mishandling non-constant analytical recovery and non-detect samples can cause drinking water systems to be erroneously classified as surpassing risk thresholds. PMID:23481286

Schmidt, P J; Emelko, M B; Thompson, M E

2013-02-18

163

Bog bilberry anthocyanin extract improves motor functional recovery by multifaceted effects in spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic efficiency of bog bilberry anthocyanin extract (BBAE) treatment starting 1 d after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats and to investigate the underlying mechanism. The BBAE contained cyanidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-galactoside and malvidin-3-glucoside. SCI models were induced using the weight-drop method in Sprague-Dawley rats and additionally with sham group (laminectomy only). The animals were divided into four groups: vehicle-treated group; 10 mg/kg BBAE-treated group; 20 mg/kg BBAE-treated group; sham group. BBAE-treated or vehicle-treated group was administered orally at one day after SCI and then daily for 8 weeks. Locomotor functional recovery was assessed during the 8 weeks post operation period by performing a Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor score test. At the end of study, the animals were killed, and 1.5 cm segments of spinal cord encompassing the injury site were removed for immunohistochemistry, histopathological and western blotting analysis. Immunohistochemistry for GFAP, aggrecan, neurocan and NeuN was used to assess the degree of astrocytic glial scar formation and neuron survival. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis for TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1? was used to evaluate the anti-inflammation effect of BBAE. To evaluate its inhibition effect on the astrocytes, we performed the MTT assay and immunohistochemistry for Ki67 in vitro. Results show that the BBAE-treated animals showed significantly better locomotor functional recovery, neuron death and smaller glial scar formation after spinal cord injury in vivo. In addition, BBAE administration could inhibit astrocyte proliferation in vivo and vitro. Therefore, BBAE may be useful as a promising therapeutic agent for SCI. PMID:23001399

Wang, Jun; Ma, Chuan; Rong, Wei; Jing, Hao; Hu, Xing; Liu, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Liang; Wei, Feng; Liu, Zhongjun

2012-09-22

164

STAT3 promotes corticospinal remodelling and functional recovery after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

If and how neurons remodel their connections after CNS injury critically influences recovery of function. Here, we investigate the role of the growth-initiating transcription factor STAT3 during remodelling of the injured corticospinal tract (CST). Endogenous STAT3 expression in lesioned cortical projection neurons is transient but can be sustained by viral gene transfer. Sustained activation of STAT3 enhances remodelling of lesioned CST fibres and induces de novo formation of collaterals from unlesioned CST fibres. In a unilateral pyramidotomy paradigm, this recruitment of unlesioned fibres leads to the formation of midline crossing circuits that establish ipsilateral forelimb activation and functional recovery. PMID:23928811

Lang, Claudia; Bradley, Peter M; Jacobi, Anne; Kerschensteiner, Martin; Bareyre, Florence M

2013-08-09

165

Don't Worry and Be Positive: What helps the most in functional recovery one year after hip fracture? An exit interview  

PubMed Central

Background Studies that examined factors associated with functional recovery one year following hip fractures came mainly from clinicians’ or researchers’ perspectives. Few studies examine factors that facilitate functional recovery from the patients’ perspective. Methods Subjects (n=62) were community-dwelling older adults age 65+ who sustained a hip fracture, received surgical repairs, and post-acute rehabilitation. Data were collected at one-year following post-acute rehabilitation. Content analysis was used for the descriptive study. Results Participants reported that rehabilitation services greatly facilitated their recovery. Participants also recognized the importance of their own internal drive or motivation, and noted that it was essential to maintain a positive attitude and to fully engage in the recommended rehabilitation activities. Conclusion The keys to functional recovery were active participation in rehabilitation and following instructions from care providers. In addition, self-determination, positive attitude, and social support play significant roles in making rehabilitation work.

Young, Yuchi; Resnick, Barbara

2009-01-01

166

Laterality affects spontaneous recovery of contralateral hand motor function following motor cortex injury in rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to test whether brain laterality influences spontaneous recovery of hand motor function after controlled brain injuries to arm areas of M1 and lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) of the hemisphere contralateral to the preferred hand in rhesus monkeys. We hypothesized that monkeys with stronger hand preference would exhibit poorer recovery of skilled hand use after such brain injury. Degree of handedness was assessed using a standard dexterity board task in which subjects could use either hand to retrieve small food pellets. Fine hand/digit motor function was assessed using a modified dexterity board before and after the M1 and LPMC lesions in ten monkeys. We found a strong negative relationship between the degree of handedness and the recovery of manipulation skill, demonstrating that higher hand preference was associated with poorer recovery of hand fine motor function. We also observed that monkeys with larger lesions within M1 and LPMC had greater initial impairment of manipulation and poorer recovery of reaching skill. We conclude that monkeys with a stronger hand preference are likely to show poorer recovery of contralesional hand fine motor skill after isolated brain lesions affecting the lateral frontal motor areas. These data may be extended to suggest that humans who exhibit weak hand dominance, and perhaps individuals who use both hands for fine motor tasks, may have a more favorable potential for recovery after a unilateral stroke or brain injury affecting the lateral cortical motor areas than individuals with a high degree of hand dominance. PMID:23652723

Darling, Warren G; Helle, Nicole; Pizzimenti, Marc A; Rotella, Diane L; Hynes, Stephanie M; Ge, Jizhi; Stilwell-Morecraft, Kimberly S; Morecraft, Robert J

2013-05-08

167

Review of statistical methods used in enhanced-oil-recovery research and performance prediction. [131 references  

SciTech Connect

Recent literature in the field of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) was surveyed to determine the extent to which researchers in EOR take advantage of statistical techniques in analyzing their data. In addition to determining the current level of reliance on statistical tools, another objective of this study is to promote by example the greater use of these tools. To serve this objective, the discussion of the techniques highlights the observed trend toward the use of increasingly more sophisticated methods and points out the strengths and pitfalls of different approaches. Several examples are also given of opportunities for extending EOR research findings by additional statistical manipulation. The search of the EOR literature, conducted mainly through computerized data bases, yielded nearly 200 articles containing mathematical analysis of the research. Of these, 21 were found to include examples of statistical approaches to data analysis and are discussed in detail in this review. The use of statistical techniques, as might be expected from their general purpose nature, extends across nearly all types of EOR research covering thermal methods of recovery, miscible processes, and micellar polymer floods. Data come from field tests, the laboratory, and computer simulation. The statistical methods range from simple comparisons of mean values to multiple non-linear regression equations and to probabilistic decision functions. The methods are applied to both engineering and economic data. The results of the survey are grouped by statistical technique and include brief descriptions of each of the 21 relevant papers. Complete abstracts of the papers are included in the bibliography. Brief bibliographic information (without abstracts) is also given for the articles identified in the initial search as containing mathematical analyses using other than statistical methods.

Selvidge, J.E.

1982-06-01

168

Screening and Laboratory Flow Studies for Evaluating EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) Methods: Topical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerous steps are involved in evaluating enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods for field application. Technical screening guides should be consulted for initial determination of applicability, followed by a comprehensive analysis of fluid, rock, and rock-f...

G. O. Goodlett M. M. Honarpour P. Sarathi T. H. Chung D. K. Olsen

1986-01-01

169

EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR SAMPLING, RECOVERY, AND ENUMERATION OF BACTERIA APPLIED TO THE PHYLLOPANE  

EPA Science Inventory

Determining the fate and survival of genetically engineered microorganisms released into the environment requires the development and application of accurate and practical methods of detection and enumeration. everal experiments were performed to examine quantitative recovery met...

170

Opposing Trends of Religious Attendance and Religiosity in Predicting Elders’ Functional Recovery after an Acute Myocardial Infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the role of religion and spirituality in older adults’ functional recovery following an AMI. Participants were interviewed within 2 weeks of the AMI about their religious beliefs. Functional recovery was evaluated using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) at one month and seven months. We found that those who reported attending religious services more frequently had better functional

Kathryn Remmes Martin; Becca R. Levy

2006-01-01

171

Integrated Treatment to Achieve Functional Recovery for First-Episode Psychosis  

PubMed Central

This study describes an integrated treatment approach that was implemented to enhance functional recovery in first-episode psychotic patients. Patients were randomized to two treatment conditions: either to an integrated treatment approach: pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatment, and psychoeducation (experimental group: N = 39) or to medication alone (control group: N = 34). Patients were evaluated at baseline and after one year of treatment. Functional recovery was assessed according to symptomatic and functional remission. At the end of treatment, experimental patients showed a 94.9% of symptomatic remission compared to 58.8% of the control group. Functional remission was 56.4% for the experimental group and 3.6% for the control group, while 56.4% of the experimental group met both symptomatic and functional remission criteria and were considered recovered compared to 2.9% of the control group.

Valencia, Marcelo; Juarez, Francisco; Ortega, Hector

2012-01-01

172

Method for improving sulfonate surfactants used in enhanced recovery processing in subterranean oil-bearing formations  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for reducing formation plugging impurities in a sulfonate surfactant used in enhanced oil recovery operations which comprises contacting said surfactant with an effective amount of an aldehyde having from 1 to about 18 carbon atoms. In a preferred instance, a method is disclosed for the treatment of sulfonate surfactants useful in enhanced recovery processing to substantially reduce the formation plugging impurities, typically inorganic sulfite salts.

Froning, H.; Powers, G.W.; Taggart, D.L.

1981-07-07

173

Whole-body vibration as a method of recovery for soccer players  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether superimposed whole-body vibration could improve the recovery-related effects of a traditional cool-down in high-level soccer players. Sixteen high-level junior soccer players performed a repeated-sprint ability test, after which they performed a traditional cool-down, with (experimental group) or without (control group) superimposed whole-body vibration. Functional recovery was measured through vertical jump height

Pedro J. Marin; Raúl Zarzuela; Fernando Zarzosa; Azael J. Herrero; Nuria Garatachea; Matthew R. Rhea; David García-López

2012-01-01

174

Whole-body vibration as a method of recovery for soccer players  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether superimposed whole-body vibration could improve the recovery-related effects of a traditional cool-down in high-level soccer players. Sixteen high-level junior soccer players performed a repeated-sprint ability test, after which they performed a traditional cool-down, with (experimental group) or without (control group) superimposed whole-body vibration. Functional recovery was measured through vertical jump height

Pedro J. Marin; Raúl Zarzuela; Fernando Zarzosa; Azael J. Herrero; Nuria Garatachea; Matthew R. Rhea; David García-López

2011-01-01

175

A Minimax Method for Learning Functional Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT In this letter a minimax,method for learning functional networks is presented. The idea of the method is to minimize the maximum absolute error between predicted and observed values. In addition, the invertible functions appearing in the model are assumed to be linear convex combinations of invertible functions. This guaran- tees the invertibility of the resulting approximations. The learning method

Enrique Castillo; José Manuel Gutiérrez; Angel Cobo; Carmen Castillo

2000-01-01

176

A Minimax Method for Learning Functional Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a minimax method for learning functional networks is presented. The idea of the method is to minimize themaximum absolute error between predicted and observed values. In addition, the invertible functions appearing in the modelare assumed to be linear convex combinations of invertible functions. This guarantees the invertibilityof the resulting approximations. The learning method leads to a linear

E. Castillo; J. M. Gutiírrez; A. Cobo; C. Castillo

2000-01-01

177

The effect of seizures on recovery of function following cortical contusion in the rat.  

PubMed

The effect of seizures on recovery of motor function was studied in rats following unilateral contusion of the sensorimotor cortex. Animals receiving two electroconvulsive seizures (ECSs) within the first 24 hours postcontusion showed accelerated recovery of beam-walking ability, reduced volume of necrosis and less spontaneous activity compared to animals receiving only contusions. Animals receiving seven ECSs after contusion had an even smaller volume of necrosis and also reduced spontaneous activity compared to the two ECS group and to controls receiving contusions alone. However, for recovery of beam-walking ability, the seven ECS group did not differ from control rats receiving only contusions. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of seizures on catcholamines, gamma-amino butyric acid, cerebral blood flow and possible effects on remote functional depression after brain injury. PMID:3454667

Feeney, D M; Bailey, B Y; Boyeson, M G; Hovda, D A; Sutton, R L

178

Minimax Methods for Indefinite Functionals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper contains the written of a series of lectures presented by the author at the American Mathematical Society Summer Institute on Nonlinear Functional Analysis and Nonlinear Differential Equations. These lectures are an introduction to minimax tech...

P. H. Rabinowitz

1984-01-01

179

Evaluating Recovery of Hydrologic Function Following Road Restoration Treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Logging roads fundamentally alter landscape processes. Their effects on erosion, land stability, and vegetation patterns are clear; however, their effects on subsurface hydrologic flow patterns are less researched and not as well understood. We present field measurements and numerical modeling to assess the impacts of logging roads and road removal approaches on hydrologic processes on the Clearwater National Forest in northern Idaho. The active road removal program and the high densities of legacy roads make the Clearwater an ideal location for this study. During the last 10 years, the Clearwater National Forest in partnership with the Nez Perce Tribe, removed over 950 km of roads. Specifically, we measured the saturated hydraulic conductivity over recontoured road treatments that range from 1 to 10 years in age. We also examined roads that have been abandoned roads for periods of 10 to 30 years and allowed to re-vegetate without active restoration treatment. We compare these results with the hydraulic conductivities of never-roaded areas. As expected, the hydraulic conductivity varied spatially for each road condition. But, the conductivity of recontoured roads was more than two times higher than that of abandoned roads. Conductivities also varied with vegetation, with higher rates associated with greater shrub and tree vegetation compared to grasses and forbs. The lowest values were found in areas with the highest percentages of non-native forbs. The observed variations in hydraulic conductivity were incorporated in a two-dimensional variably saturated flow model to assess the impacts of roads on subsurface flow paths. The results suggest even after 30 years of successful forest revegetation, roads left intact on the hillside may exert strong controls on the hydrologic function of hillsides and watersheds.

Lloyd, R.; Lohse, K. A.; Ferre, T. A.

2010-12-01

180

Locomotor pattern in paraplegic patients: training effects and recovery of spinal cord function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that a locomotor pattern can be induced and utilized by paraplegic patients under conditions of body unloading using a moving treadmill. The present study investigated the behaviour of the locomotor pattern and also the relationship of its development to the spontaneous recovery of spinal cord function assessed by clinical and electrophysiological (tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials

V Dietz; M Wirz; A Curt; G Colombo

1998-01-01

181

Functional recovery of patients with brain tumor or acute stroke after rehabilitation: A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the locomotor functional recovery of patients with brain tumor and patients with stroke. Each patient with a brain tumor was matched to a patient with stroke according to the lesion side. Twenty-one patients operated for intracranial tumors and 21 patients with stroke were studied. The mean ages (± standard deviation) of patients

D. Geler-Kulcu; G. Gulsen; E. Buyukbaba; D. Ozkan

2009-01-01

182

Spontaneous corti - cospinal axonal plasticity and functional recovery after adult central nervous system injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

were made in adult rats in the rostral cervical spinal cord or caudal medulla. Following complete lesions of the dorsal corticospinal motor pathway, which contains more than 95% of all corticospinal axons, spontaneous sprouting from the ventral corticospinal tract occurred onto medial motoneuron pools in the cervical spinal cord; this sprout- ing was paralleled by functional recovery. Combined lesions of

Norbert Weidner; Arvin Ner; Nima Salimi; Mark H. Tuszynski

2001-01-01

183

Key-Recovery Attacks on Universal Hash Function Based MAC Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses key recovery and universal forgery at- tacks on several MAC algorithms based on universal hash functions. The attacks use a substantial number of verification queries but eventually allow for universal forgeries instead of existential or multiple forgeries. This means that the security of the algorithms completely collapses once a few forgeries are found. Some of these attacks

Helena Handschuh; Bart Preneel

2008-01-01

184

The development of drawing in children with congenital focal brain injury: Evidence for limited functional recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with pre- or perinatal injury to right hemisphere (RH) brain regions show impairment of spatial integrative functions similar to that observed among adults with comparable injury. Unlike adults, children show considerable improvement with development on a range of spatial construction tasks which require spatial integration. Such gains could reflect true recovery of spatial integrative abilities. Alternatively, the improvement could

Joan Stiles; Doris Trauner; Murray Engel; Ruth Nass

1997-01-01

185

Reorganization of Functional Connectivity as a Correlate of Cognitive Recovery in Acquired Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cognitive processes require a functional interaction between specialized multiple, local and remote brain regions. Although these interactions can be strongly altered by an acquired brain injury, brain plasticity allows network reorganization to be principally responsible for recovery. The present work evaluates the impact of brain injury on…

Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Paul, Nuria; Ordonez, Victoria E.; Demuynck, Olivier; Bajo, Ricardo; Campo, Pablo; Bilbao, Alvaro; Ortiz, Tomas; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestu, Fernando

2010-01-01

186

Disturbance and recovery of microbial community structure and function following Hurricane Frances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Disturbance and recovery influence microbial com- munity structure and ecosystem functions in most natural environments. This study from a hypersaline Bahamian lagoon details the response of a benthic cyanobacterial mat to disturbance by Hurricane Frances, a category-4 storm. Clone libraries of cyano- bacterial small subunit r-RNA genes and nitrogenase genes revealed significant shifts in cyanobacterial and diazotroph community composition

Anthony C. Yannarell; Timothy F. Steppe; Hans W. Paerl

2007-01-01

187

A brain-computer interface to support functional recovery.  

PubMed

Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) register changes in brain activity and utilize this to control computers. The most widely used method is based on registration of electrical signals from the cerebral cortex using extracranially placed electrodes also called electroencephalography (EEG). The features extracted from the EEG may, besides controlling the computer, also be fed back to the patient for instance as visual input. This facilitates a learning process. BCI allow us to utilize brain activity in the rehabilitation of patients after stroke. The activity of the cerebral cortex varies with the type of movement we imagine, and by letting the patient know the type of brain activity best associated with the intended movement the rehabilitation process may be faster and more efficient. The focus of BCI utilization in medicine has changed in recent years. While we previously focused on devices facilitating communication in the rather few patients with locked-in syndrome, much interest is now devoted to the therapeutic use of BCI in rehabilitation. For this latter group of patients, the device is not intended to be a lifelong assistive companion but rather a 'teacher' during the rehabilitation period. PMID:23859968

Kjaer, Troels W; Sørensen, Helge B

2013-07-08

188

A critical view on spike recovery for accuracy evaluation of analytical method for medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

Papers published in the last two years concerning quantitative analysis of medicinal herbs were searched from Scopus database and viewed to critically discuss reliability of spike recovery for evaluating the accuracy of analytical methods for medicinal herbs without testing extraction efficiencies of analytes. This issue was raised regarding different strategies of analytical method development, i.e., with or without testing extraction efficiencies, employed in these papers, and experimentally verified on an example of determining three major bioactive components aloe-emodin, rhein and emodin of rhubarb by high performance liquid chromatography. The simple experiment was particularly designed to compare the difference between the recoveries of spiked analytes and the extraction efficiencies of native analytes in the sample with the same extraction durations. The results showed that the overall extraction efficiencies of three native analytes with extraction duration of 3, 5, 10 and 20 min was unacceptable from about 73% to 94%, whereas the spike recovery values with the same extraction durations found to be acceptable from nearly 97% to 103%, indicating that spike recovery may not always reflect the true value of the analytical accuracy, and that the spike recovery may be unreliable for accuracy evaluation of analytical methods for medicinal herbs when the extraction efficiencies of analytes were not properly tested. Extraction efficiencies of analytes should always be tested in method development, so that spike recovery can really represent the accuracy of analytical methods for medicinal herbs. PMID:22264848

Xu, Jun; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Shen, Hong; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Yan, Ru; Li, Song-Lin; Xu, Hong-Xi

2012-01-05

189

Crocin enhanced functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats.  

PubMed

Objective(s): Crocin is a constituent of saffron and has many biological functions. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) injection of crocin on sciatic nerve regeneration in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four rats were divided into 9 groups: groups 1-4 (intact + normal saline and intact + crocin at doses of 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg, respectively); group 5 (sham surgery + normal saline); groups 6-9 (crush + normal saline and crush + crocin at doses of 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg, respectively). Normal saline and crocin were IP injected for 10 consecutive days after induction of a standard crush injury in left sciatic nerve. Footprints were obtained 1 day before and weekly after induction of nerve injury for evaluation of sciatic functional index (SFI). Blood samples were taken for evaluation of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Histopathological changes of sciatic nerve were investigated by light microscopy. Results: Sciatic nerve crush-injured rats showed SFI values reduction, increased plasma MDA levels and produced Wallerian degeneration in sciatic nerve. Crocin at a dose of 5 mg/kg had no significant effects. At doses of 20 and 80 mg/kg, crocin accelerated the SFI recovery, decreased MDA levels and reduced Wallerian degeneration severity. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the neuroprotective effects afforded by crocin may be due in part to reduction of free radicals-induced toxic effects. PMID:23638296

Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Ahmadian, Elham; Hamidhoseyni, Abbas

2013-01-01

190

Recovery of Coloured Surface Reflectances Using the Photometric Stereo Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We discuss a fast and efficient method to estimate the surface reflectance values with respect to different ,wavelength ,of light. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations ,show ,that surfaces rendered ,using ,surface reflectances obtained by the ,proposed ,method ,are more ,realistic when compared,with conventional rendering methods. ,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Department of Electrical Engineering, I-Shou Univeristy, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Chia-yen Chen; Reinhard Klette; Ramakrishna Kakarala; Chi-fa Chen

191

Timing of recovery of lung function after severe hypoxemic respiratory failure in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the timing of recovery of lung function after severe acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) in children.\\u000a Design: A serial observational follow-up study of clinical and lung function measurements up to 53 months after acute illness. Setting: University pediatric intensive care unit in a national children's hospital. Patients: Five critically ill children aged 5–14 years. Interventions: None Results:

N. D. B. Golder; R. C. Tasker

1998-01-01

192

Stem Cell Mediation of Functional Recovery after Stroke in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRegenerative strategies of stem cell grafting have been demonstrated to be effective in animal models of stroke. In those studies, the effectiveness of stem cells promoting functional recovery was assessed by behavioral testing. These behavioral studies do, however, not provide access to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the observed functional outcome improvement.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsIn order to address the underlying mechanisms

Pedro Ramos-Cabrer; Carles Justicia; Dirk Wiedermann; Mathias Hoehn; Christoph Kleinschnitz

2010-01-01

193

Organism-sediment interactions govern post-hypoxia recovery of ecosystem functioning.  

PubMed

Hypoxia represents one of the major causes of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning loss for coastal waters. Since eutrophication-induced hypoxic events are becoming increasingly frequent and intense, understanding the response of ecosystems to hypoxia is of primary importance to understand and predict the stability of ecosystem functioning. Such ecological stability may greatly depend on the recovery patterns of communities and the return time of the system properties associated to these patterns. Here, we have examined how the reassembly of a benthic community contributed to the recovery of ecosystem functioning following experimentally-induced hypoxia in a tidal flat. We demonstrate that organism-sediment interactions that depend on organism size and relate to mobility traits and sediment reworking capacities are generally more important than recovering species richness to set the return time of the measured sediment processes and properties. Specifically, increasing macrofauna bioturbation potential during community reassembly significantly contributed to the recovery of sediment processes and properties such as denitrification, bedload sediment transport, primary production and deep pore water ammonium concentration. Such bioturbation potential was due to the replacement of the small-sized organisms that recolonised at early stages by large-sized bioturbating organisms, which had a disproportionately stronger influence on sediment. This study suggests that the complete recovery of organism-sediment interactions is a necessary condition for ecosystem functioning recovery, and that such process requires long periods after disturbance due to the slow growth of juveniles into adult stages involved in these interactions. Consequently, repeated episodes of disturbance at intervals smaller than the time needed for the system to fully recover organism-sediment interactions may greatly impair the resilience of ecosystem functioning. PMID:23185440

Van Colen, Carl; Rossi, Francesca; Montserrat, Francesc; Andersson, Maria G I; Gribsholt, Britta; Herman, Peter M J; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda; Ysebaert, Tom; Middelburg, Jack J

2012-11-21

194

No effect of fibrin sealant on drain output or functional recovery following simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may lead to anemia, blood transfusions, and increased total costs. Also, bleeding into the periarticular tissue may cause swelling and a reduction in quadriceps strength, thus impairing early functional recovery. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we analyzed the possible effect of fibrin sealant on blood loss and early functional recovery in a fast-track setting. Methods 24 consecutive patients undergoing bilateral simultaneous TKA were included. 10 mL of fibrin sealant (Evicel) was sprayed onto one knee whereas the contralateral knee had saline. Drain output, the primary outcome, was measured from knee drains removed exactly 24 h after surgery. Secondary outcomes (knee swelling, pain, strength of knee extension, and range of movement (ROM)) were evaluated up to 21 days after surgery. Results The drain output in knees treated with fibrin sealant and placebo was similar (582 mL and 576 mL, respectively). Likewise, no statistically significant differences were found between groups regarding swelling, pain, strength of knee extension, and ROM. Interpretation Fibrin sealant as a local hemostatic in TKA showed no benefit in reducing drain output or in facilitating early functional recovery when used with a tourniquet, tranexamic acid, and a femoral bone plug.

2013-01-01

195

Dichotomy in the Post-ischemic Metabolic and Functional Recovery Profiles of Isolated Blood versus Buffer-perfused Heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that buffer- and blood-perfused hearts differ in their post-ischemic functional recoveries. The present study was designed to: (i) compare ischemia-induced contracture and post-ischemic functional recovery, and (ii) investigate whether the recovery profiles were related to either the release of purines and norepinephrine or high-energy phosphate content. Rat hearts (n=8\\/group) were perfused at 37°C with buffer (60 mmHg)

Manuel Galiñanes; Palmira Bernocchi; Vincenzo Argano; Anna Cargnoni; Roberto Ferrari; David J. Hearse

1996-01-01

196

Blockade of interleukin-6 receptor suppresses inflammatory reaction and facilitates functional recovery following olfactory system injury.  

PubMed

We previously reported that anti-inflammatory treatment with steroids improves recovery outcome in an olfactory nerve injury model. Clinically, however, steroid administration is not recommended in the acute phase of head injury because of concerns regarding side effects and no evidence of its efficacy. Recently, it has been reported that interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays an important role in the inflammatory reaction. The present study investigates if anti-IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) antibody can facilitate functional recovery in the olfactory system following injury. Rat anti-mouse IL-6R antibody (MR16-1) was intraperitoneally injected to severe olfactory nerve injury model mice immediately after the nerve transection (NTx). Histological assessment of recovery within the olfactory bulb was made at 5-70 days. X-gal staining labeled the degenerating and regenerating olfactory nerve fibers and immunohistochemical staining detected the presence of reactive astrocytes and macrophages/microglia. MR16-1-injected animals showed significantly smaller areas of injury-associated tissue, fewer astrocytes and macrophages/microglia, and an increase in regenerating nerve fibers. Olfactory function assessments using both an olfactory avoidance behavioral test and evoked potential testing showed improved functional recovery in MR16-1-injected mice. These findings suggest that blockade of IL-6R could provide a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of olfactory dysfunction following head injuries. PMID:23603508

Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Tamari, Kengo; Miyamura, Tomotaka; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

2013-04-18

197

Defining Recovery from an Eating Disorder: Conceptualization, Validation, and Examination of Psychosocial Functioning and Psychiatric Comorbidity  

PubMed Central

Conceptually, eating disorder recovery should include physical, behavioral, and psychological components, but such a comprehensive approach has not been consistently employed. Guided by theory and recent recovery research, we identified a “fully recovered” group (n=20) based on physical (body mass index), behavioral (absence of eating disorder behaviors), and psychological (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire) indices, and compared them with groups of partially recovered (n=15), active eating disorder (n=53), and healthy controls (n=67). The fully recovered group was indistinguishable from controls on all eating disorder-related measures used, while the partially recovered group was less disordered than the active eating disorder group on some measures, but not on body image. Regarding psychosocial functioning, both the fully and partially recovered groups had psychosocial functioning similar to the controls, but there was a pattern of more of the partially recovered group reporting eating disorder aspects interfering with functioning. Regarding other psychopathology, the fully recovered group was no more likely than the controls to experience current Axis I pathology, but they did have elevated rates of current anxiety disorder. Results suggest that a stringent definition of recovery from an eating disorder is meaningful. Clinical implications and future directions regarding defining eating disorder recovery are discussed.

Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Harney, Megan B.; Maldonado, Christine R.; Lawson, Melissa A.; Robinson, D. Paul; Smith, Roma; Tosh, Aneesh

2009-01-01

198

UPDATED METHODS FOR ESTIMATING RECOVERY FACTORS FOR GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important aspect of geothermal resource assessment methodology is the development of geothermal resource models consistent with the production histories of exploited geothermal fields. The primary method applied in past United States Geological Survey (USGS) assessments was the volume method, in which the recoverable heat is estimated from the thermal energy available in a reservoir of uniformly porous and permeable

Colin F. Williams

199

A Paraperspective Factorization Method for Shape and Motion Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factorization method, first developed by Tomasi and Kanade, recovers both the shape of an object and its motion from a sequence of images, using many images and tracking many feature points to obtain highly redundant feature position information. The method robustly processes the feature trajec- tory information using singular value decomposition (SVD), taking advantage of the linear algebraic properties

Conrad J. Poelman; Takeo Kanade

1997-01-01

200

Method for intersymbol interference removal in data recovery  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

In recovering data originally written on a carrier of magnetic media after a catastrophic failure, data may be read without prior knowledge of the write channel by which the data was originally written and in the presence of intersymbol interference of the readback signal. This is accomplished by forming an image of the spatial response function of the magnetoresistive transducer used to recover the data and by forming an image of the raw data read from the carrier of magnetic media by the magnetoresistive transducer for which the response function has been characterized. An image of the distribution of virtual magnetic charge on the carrier of magnetic media is obtained through deconvolution of the image of the response function of the magnetoresistive transducer and the raw readback signal. The readback signal corresponding to the data originally written on the carrier of magnetic media is then recovered by spatial differentiation of the image of virtual magnetic charge. Further improvement in image quality of the resulting image is accomplished through a noise reduction technique such as by the application of an arctangent function to the data prior to differentiation.

Mayergoyz; Isaak D. (Rockville, MD); Tse; Chun (Beltsville, MD); Krafft; Charles S. (Owings Mills, MD)

2006-02-21

201

Racial/ethnic variation in recovery of motor function in stroke survivors: role of informal caregivers.  

PubMed

Research documents that African American and Latinos who have experienced an acute stroke recover more slowly than Caucasians in the United States. This descriptive study examines (1) the variation in Caucasian, Puerto Rican, and African American motor function after stroke; (2) the association between caregiver attributes and motor recovery after stroke; and (3) the degree to which caregiver attributes explain the variation in motor recovery between different racial/ethnic groups. One hundred and thirty-five veterans who had been hospitalized after an acute stroke, released home, and identified an informal caregiver were enrolled in the study. Veterans and caregivers were surveyed at five time points over the course of 24 months. Results indicate that Puerto Ricans show greater impairment and African Americans show less impairment at discharge from the hospital compared with Caucasians. Caregiver characteristics mediate the racial/ethnic differences in impairment at discharge and motor recovery across time. PMID:19533536

Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Rittman, Maude; Hinojosa, Ramon; Rodriguez, William

2009-01-01

202

Recovery rates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using five decontamination methods.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains one of the leading infectious diseases in resource limited countries of the world, including Nigeria. For optimal care of patients with pulmonary TB, effective decontamination methods are required for isolation and identification of M. tuberculosis from other fast growing organisms found in sputum samples of infected patients. Five methods of sputum decontamination including the Petroff, oxalic, bleach, simplified concentration and Kudoh methods were assessed prior to mycobacterial culture. In all, thirty human sputum samples were processed and results analysed after eight weeks of incubation. Overall, there was a significant difference in the growth yield using the different methods (Friedman test statistic, Q(K) = 36.3; P < 0.05). Again, a significant difference (Friedman test statistic, Q(K) = 48.0; P < 0.05) was observed between the valuable and non-valuable yield of mycobacteria. Furthermore, the simplified concentration method had the best performance in terms of pure culture growth/minimal media contamination coupled with a cost benefit ratio of 0.10; the bleach method being the least. Given these findings, coupled with laboratory challenges in developing countries as well as ease of use on the field/cost effectiveness; we propose the simplified concentration as an optimal decontamination method for use in resource limited settings where TB remains an endemic problem. PMID:23678654

Falodun, O I; Adesokan, H K; Cadmus, S I B

2012-12-01

203

Contracts and grants for cooperative research on enhanced oil and gas recovery and improved drilling methods. Progress review No. 11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short status reports of various enhanced recovery projects sponsored by ERDA are given. The methods include micellar polymer flooding, COâ flooding, improved waterflooding, thermal recovery, massive hydraulic fracturing, and chemical explosive fracturing. (LK)

Linville

1977-01-01

204

Contracts and Grants for Cooperative Research on Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery and Improved Drilling Methods. Progress Review No. 11.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Short status reports of various enhanced recovery projects sponsored by ERDA are given. The methods include micellar polymer flooding, CO sub 2 flooding, improved waterflooding, thermal recovery, massive hydraulic fracturing, and chemical explosive fractu...

B. Linville

1977-01-01

205

Sensorimotor training promotes functional recovery and somatosensory cortical map reactivation following cervical spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Sensorimotor activity has been shown to play a key role in functional recovery after partial spinal cord injury (SCI). Most studies in rodents have focused on the rehabilitation of hindlimb locomotor functions after thoracic or lumbar SCI, whereas forelimb motor and somatosensory abilities after cervical SCI remain largely uninvestigated, despite the high incidence of such injuries in humans. Moreover, little is known about the neurophysiological substrates of training-induced recovery in supraspinal structures. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of a training procedure combining both motor and sensory stimulation on behavioral performance and somatosensory cortical map remodeling after cervical (C4-C5) spinal hemisection in rats. This SCI severely impaired both sensory and motor capacities in the ipsilateral limbs. Without training, post-lesion motor capacities gradually improved, whereas forepaw tactile abilities remained impaired. Consistently, no stimulus-evoked responses were recorded within the forepaw representational zone in the primary somatosensory (S1) cortex at 2 months after the SCI. However, our data reveal that with training started from the 7th day post-lesion, a nearly complete recovery (characterized by an early and rapid improvement of motor functions) was associated with a gradual compensation of tactile deficits. Furthermore, the recovery of tactile abilities was correlated with the areal extent of reactivation of S1 cortex forepaw representations. Rehabilitative training promoted post-lesion adaptive plasticity, probably by enhancing endogenous activity within spared spinal and supraspinal circuits and pathways sustaining sensory and motor functions. This study highlights the beneficial effect of sensorimotor training in motor improvement and its critical influence on tactile recovery after SCI. PMID:20092578

Martinez, Marina; Brezun, Jean-Michel; Zennou-Azogui, Yoh'i; Baril, Nathalie; Xerri, Christian

2009-12-10

206

Schnurri regulates hemocyte function to promote tissue recovery after DNA damage  

PubMed Central

Tissue recovery after injury requires coordinated regulation of cell repair and apoptosis, removal of dead cells and regeneration. A critical step in this process is the recruitment of blood cells that mediate local inflammatory and immune responses, promoting tissue recovery. Here we identify a new role for the transcriptional regulator Schnurri (Shn) in the recovery of UV-damaged Drosophila retina. Using an experimental paradigm that allows precise quantification of tissue recovery after a defined dose of UV, we find that Shn activity in the retina is required to limit tissue damage. This function of Shn relies on its transcriptional induction of the PDGF-related growth factor Pvf1, which signals to tissue-associated hemocytes. We show that the Pvf1 receptor PVR acts in hemocytes to induce a macrophage-like morphology and that this is required to limit tissue loss after irradiation. Our results identify a new Shn-regulated paracrine signaling interaction between damaged retinal cells and hemocytes that ensures recovery and homeostasis of the challenged tissue.

Kelsey, Ellen Miriam; Luo, Xi; Bruckner, Katja; Jasper, Heinrich

2012-01-01

207

Fluoxetine treatment promotes functional recovery in a rat model of cervical spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe condition leading to enduring motor deficits. When lesions are incomplete, promoting spinal cord plasticity might be a useful strategy to elicit functional recovery. Here we investigated whether long-term fluoxetine administration in the drinking water, a treatment recently demonstrated to optimize brain plasticity in several pathological conditions, promotes motor recovery in rats that received a C4 dorsal funiculus crush. We show that fluoxetine administration markedly improved motor functions compared to controls in several behavioral paradigms. The improved functional effects correlated positively with significant sprouting of intact corticospinal fibers and a modulation of the excitation/inhibition balance. Our results suggest a potential application of fluoxetine treatment as a non invasive therapeutic strategy for SCI-associated neuropathologies. PMID:23860568

Scali, Manuela; Begenisic, Tatjana; Mainardi, Marco; Milanese, Marco; Bonifacino, Tiziana; Bonanno, Giambattista; Sale, Alessandro; Maffei, Lamberto

2013-01-01

208

Role of Neurotrophins in Recovery of Phrenic Motor Function Following Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Many individuals who sustain a cervical spinal cord injury are unable to maintain adequate ventilation due to diaphragm muscle paralysis. These patients become dependent on mechanical ventilators and this situation is associated with ongoing problems with pulmonary clearance, infections, and lung injury leading to significant morbidity and reduced life expectancy. Therefore, functional recovery of rhythmic phrenic activity and the ability to generate expulsive forces would dramatically affect the quality of life of patients with cervical spinal cord injury. Neurotrophins are very promising in that they have been shown to play an important role in modulating functional neuroplasticity. Specifically, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acting via the tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (TrkB) has been implicated in neuroplasticity following spinal cord injury. Our central hypothesis is that functional recovery of rhythmic phrenic activity after cervical spinal cord injury is enhanced by an increase in BDNF/TrkB signaling in phrenic motoneurons, providing a novel therapeutic target for patients.

Sieck, Gary C.; Mantilla, Carlos B.

2009-01-01

209

Comparison of methods for recovery of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus from seeded laundry fabrics.  

PubMed Central

To assess the effect of laundry procedures on fabric-associated bacteria, a standard method of enumeration is needed. We evaluated six methods for enumeration of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus seeded (10(2) and 10(5) CFU/100 cm2 of fabric area) onto sterilized hospital sheets and terry . Two methods involved maceration of seeded swatches in broth followed by passage of the broth through a 0.45-micron-pore-size, 47-mm-diameter filter membrane. Three methods involved agitation of seeded swatches in broth with a paint shaker and membrane filtration of the broth to recover eluted bacterial cells, and the final method involved direct enumeration of cells on fabrics by overlaying seeded swatches with agar containing triphenyltetrazolium chloride as an indicator. The most convenient recovery method employed a 90-s agitation followed by serial dilution of broths and membrane filtration. This method provided 44/57% (low seed/high seed) recovery of E. coli from sheets and 133/31% from terry and 34/74% recovery of S. aureus from sheets and 58/57% from terry . Although maceration provided similar recovery of E. coli and S. aureus, it is a less-practical method. The direct enumeration method was ineffective for enumerating gram-positive bacteria. We conclude that either the agitation or maceration method used enumerated the seeded bacteria to within 1 log10 of their expected number and can be used to assess the bactericidal effectiveness of various steps in the laundering process.

Cody, H J; Smith, P F; Blaser, M J; LaForce, F M; Wang, W L

1984-01-01

210

Acupuncture for functional recovery after stroke: a systematic review of sham-controlled randomized clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Background Acupuncture is frequently advocated as an adjunct treatment during stroke rehabilitation. The aim of this review was to assess its effectiveness in this setting. Methods We searched 25 databases and 12 major Korean traditional medicine journals from their inception to October 2009. We included randomized controlled trials, with no language restrictions, that compared the effects of acupuncture (with or without electrical stimulation) with sham acupuncture. We assessed the methodologic quality of the trials using the Cochrane risk-of-bias criteria and the PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) scale. Results Ten of 664 potentially relevant studies met our inclusion criteria. For acute and subacute stages after stroke, we included seven trials. A meta-analysis of the five studies that assessed functionality did not show a significant difference in favour of acupuncture, with high heterogeneity. A post-hoc sensitivity analysis of three trials with low risk of bias did not show beneficial effects of acupuncture on activities of daily living at the end of the intervention period (n = 244; standard mean difference 0.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] ?0.18 to 0.32; I2 = 0%) or after follow-up (n = 244; standard mean difference 0.10, 95% CI ?0.15 to 0.35; I2 = 0%). For the chronic stage after stroke, three trials tested effects of acupuncture on function according to the Modified Ashworth Scale; all failed to show favourable effects. Interpretation Our meta-analyses of data from rigorous randomized sham-controlled trials did not show a positive effect of acupuncture as a treatment for functional recovery after stroke.

Kong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Myeong Soo; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Song, Yung-Sun; Ernst, Edzard

2010-01-01

211

Adaptive recovery of motion blur point spread function from differently exposed images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motion due to digital camera movement during the image capture process is a major factor that degrades the quality of images and many methods for camera motion removal have been developed. Central to all techniques is the correct recovery of what is known as the Point Spread Function (PSF). A very popular technique to estimate the PSF relies on using a pair of gyroscopic sensors to measure the hand motion. However, the errors caused either by the loss of the translational component of the movement or due to the lack of precision in gyro-sensors measurements impede the achievement of a good quality restored image. In order to compensate for this, we propose a method that begins with an estimation of the PSF obtained from 2 gyro sensors and uses a pair of under-exposed image together with the blurred image to adaptively improve it. The luminance of the under-exposed image is equalized with that of the blurred image. An initial estimation of the PSF is generated from the output signal of 2 gyro sensors. The PSF coefficients are updated using 2D-Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithms with a coarse-to-fine approach on a grid of points selected from both images. This refined PSF is used to process the blurred image using known deblurring methods. Our results show that the proposed method leads to superior PSF support and coefficient estimation. Also the quality of the restored image is improved compared to 2 gyro only approach or to blind image de-convolution results.

Albu, Felix; Florea, Corneliu; Drîmbarean, Alexandru; Zamfir, Adrian

2010-01-01

212

RECOVERY OF WASTE PVC COATED PET FABRICS BY SWELLING METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focused on investigating a novel recycling technique, swelling method, to recovering PVC coated PET fabrics. This technique used a chemical as a swelling agent to swell the only PVC component in the coated fabric. This process degrades the mechanical properties of PVC component which allows it to be broken into small pieces and detached from the PET fabric

Sabit Adanur; Zhenwei Hou

213

Thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of stimulating the flow of oil from a reservoir formation traversed by a bore hole. It consists of: providing an above-ground hydrocarbon powered turbine-driven electric generator to produce electrical power, supplying water in heat exchange relation to the exhaust from the turbine to produce pressurized hot water simultaneously with the power generation, positioning electric heating

C. R. Stahl; M. A. Gibson; C. W. Kaudsen

1987-01-01

214

A new digestion method for recovery of MMMFs from lungs.  

PubMed

A new tissue digestion method is proposed to recover man-made mineral fibers (MMMFs) from lungs, which is an improved Kjeldahl method using microwaves. Tissue digestion is carried out under five different conditions in this experiment, and the most suitable condition is found as follows; dried rat lung (0.5 g of wet weight) is put into a flask with 0.1 ml of H2SO4 and 2.0 ml of HNO3, and treated by microwaves for 5 min. After the treatment, 1.0 ml of H2O2 is added immediately and the sample is treated again under the same condition. Pure samples of glass fibers and refractory ceramic fibers are treated by this proposed method. Numbers and sizes of the fibers are measured before and after the treatment on enlarged photos taking by a scanning electron microscope. As no significant changes are observed in fiber dimensions and numbers, the proposed method is shown to be applicable to recover these MMMFs from lungs. PMID:10441902

Ishimatsu, S; Oyabu, T; Hori, H; Tanaka, I

1999-07-01

215

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and

James D. Westhoff; Arnold E. Harak

1989-01-01

216

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus or utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000°F in a burner to remove residual char nd produce

J. D. Westhoff; A. E. Harak

1989-01-01

217

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000\\/degree\\/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce

J. D. Westhoff; A. E. Harak

1988-01-01

218

Routine methods for post-transportation accident recovery of spent fuel casks  

SciTech Connect

Spent fuel casks and other large radioactive material packages have been examined to determine whether the designs are adequate to allow the casks to be recovered using conventional recovery methods following a transportation accident. Casks and similar packages are typically designed with, and handled by, trunnions that support the package during transport. These trunnions are considered the best cask feature with which to grapple the cask once it is no longer in its usual shipping mode. Following a transport accident, the trunnions may be buried or entangled so that they are not readily accessible to initiate the recovery process. To evaluate the effectiveness of applying traditional recovery methods to spent fuel casks, a workshop was held in which a series of accidents involving casks were postulated; the modes of transportation considered included truck, rail, and barge. These participants knowledgeable in transport, handling, and, in some cases, recovery of large, heavy containers attended. Participants concluded that the physical recovery of a cask involved in an accident, irrespective of where the accident occurs, would be a straightforward rigging operation and that the addition of specific recovery features (e.g., additional trunnions) to the cask appears unnecessary.

Shappert, L.B.; Pope, R.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Best, R.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jones, R.H. [Jones (R.H.), Los Gatos, CA (United States)

1991-12-31

219

Routine methods for post-transportation accident recovery of spent fuel casks  

SciTech Connect

Spent fuel casks and other large radioactive material packages have been examined to determine whether the designs are adequate to allow the casks to be recovered using conventional recovery methods following a transportation accident. Casks and similar packages are typically designed with, and handled by, trunnions that support the package during transport. These trunnions are considered the best cask feature with which to grapple the cask once it is no longer in its usual shipping mode. Following a transport accident, the trunnions may be buried or entangled so that they are not readily accessible to initiate the recovery process. To evaluate the effectiveness of applying traditional recovery methods to spent fuel casks, a workshop was held in which a series of accidents involving casks were postulated; the modes of transportation considered included truck, rail, and barge. These participants knowledgeable in transport, handling, and, in some cases, recovery of large, heavy containers attended. Participants concluded that the physical recovery of a cask involved in an accident, irrespective of where the accident occurs, would be a straightforward rigging operation and that the addition of specific recovery features (e.g., additional trunnions) to the cask appears unnecessary.

Shappert, L.B.; Pope, R.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Best, R.E. (Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)); Jones, R.H. (Jones (R.H.), Los Gatos, CA (United States))

1991-01-01

220

Intermittent fasting improves functional recovery after rat thoracic contusion spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in a loss of motor and sensory function. Currently there are no validated effective clinical treatments. Previously we found in rats that dietary restriction, in the form of every-other-day fasting (EODF), started prior to (pre-EODF), or after (post-EODF) an incomplete cervical SCI was neuroprotective, increased plasticity, and promoted motor recovery. Here we examined if EODF initiated prior to, or after, a T10 thoracic contusion injury would similarly lead to enhanced functional recovery compared to ad libitum feeding. Additionally, we tested if a group fed every day (pair-fed), but with the same degree of restriction as the EODF animals (?25% calorie restricted), would also promote functional recovery, to examine if EODF's effect is due to overall calorie restriction, or is specific to alternating sequences of 24-h fasts and ad libitum eating periods. Behaviorally, both pre- and post-EODF groups exhibited better functional recovery in the regularity indexed BBB ambulatory assessment, along with several parameters of their walking pattern measured with the CatWalk device, compared to both the ad-libitium-fed group as well as the pair-fed group. Several histological parameters (intensity and symmetry of serotonin immunostaining caudal to the injury and gray matter sparing) correlated with functional outcome; however, no group differences were observed. Thus besides the beneficial effects of EODF after a partial cervical SCI, we now report that alternating periods of fasting (but not pair-fed) also promotes improved hindlimb locomotion after thoracic spinal cord contusion, demonstrating its robust effect in two different injury models. PMID:21219083

Jeong, Mi-ae; Plunet, Ward; Streijger, Femke; Lee, Jae H T; Plemel, Jason R; Park, Sophia; Lam, Clarrie K; Liu, Jie; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

2011-03-01

221

Intermittent Fasting Improves Functional Recovery after Rat Thoracic Contusion Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in a loss of motor and sensory function. Currently there are no validated effective clinical treatments. Previously we found in rats that dietary restriction, in the form of every-other-day fasting (EODF), started prior to (pre-EODF), or after (post-EODF) an incomplete cervical SCI was neuroprotective, increased plasticity, and promoted motor recovery. Here we examined if EODF initiated prior to, or after, a T10 thoracic contusion injury would similarly lead to enhanced functional recovery compared to ad libitum feeding. Additionally, we tested if a group fed every day (pair-fed), but with the same degree of restriction as the EODF animals (?25% calorie restricted), would also promote functional recovery, to examine if EODF's effect is due to overall calorie restriction, or is specific to alternating sequences of 24-h fasts and ad libitum eating periods. Behaviorally, both pre- and post-EODF groups exhibited better functional recovery in the regularity indexed BBB ambulatory assessment, along with several parameters of their walking pattern measured with the CatWalk device, compared to both the ad-libitium-fed group as well as the pair-fed group. Several histological parameters (intensity and symmetry of serotonin immunostaining caudal to the injury and gray matter sparing) correlated with functional outcome; however, no group differences were observed. Thus besides the beneficial effects of EODF after a partial cervical SCI, we now report that alternating periods of fasting (but not pair-fed) also promotes improved hindlimb locomotion after thoracic spinal cord contusion, demonstrating its robust effect in two different injury models.

Jeong, Mi-ae; Plunet, Ward; Streijger, Femke; Lee, Jae H.T.; Plemel, Jason R.; Park, Sophia; Lam, Clarrie K.; Liu, Jie

2011-01-01

222

Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.

Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley, NJ)

2011-03-08

223

Mass recovery methods for trichloroethylene in plant tissue.  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring expenses form a significant fraction of the costs associated with remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater sites. A novel monitoring method that could result in significant cost savings is the use of plants as monitoring devices; previous work indicates that plant tissue samples, especially trunk (core) and branch samples, can be used to delineate soil and groundwater plumes at phytoremediation sites. An important factor in reducing the uncertainty associated with this sampling method is development of a technique to analyze, both consistently and accurately, the chemicals stored in plant tissue samples. The present research presents a simple, robust, and inexpensive technique to recover most of the contaminant in plant branch tissue, irrespective of the age or species of the plant. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was the chemical analyzed. A number of headspace and solvent extraction techniques in the literature were evaluated, including headspace extraction at different incubation times and temperatures and solvent extraction using hexane or hot methanol. Extraction using hot methanol was relatively fast, simple, and reliable; this method recovered more than 89% of the TCE present in branches of five different tree species.

Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, M. C.; Werth, C. J.; Energy Systems; Univ. of Illionis

2009-06-01

224

Recovery of function following regeneration of the damaged retina in the adult newt, Notophthalmus viridescens.  

PubMed

The red-spotted newt, Notophthalmus viridescens, is one of few adult vertebrate organisms that has retained the remarkable ability to regenerate a complete retina following injury or removal. The aim of this study was to develop a non-invasive method to monitor recovery of components within the retinal circuitry, in vivo, following surgical removal (retinectomy) of the adult newt retina. A novel and reproducible protocol was established for full-field electroretinography in the intact newt retina. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were measured at the corneal surface. The effects of dilation and external body temperature on the ERG amplitudes were measured as well as the reproducibility in recording ERGs in the same animal over time. Retinectomies were conducted on 15 newts, and the a- and b-wave amplitudes were measured prior to retinectomy and at various timepoints after retinectomy. Surgical removal of the retina resulted in an initial loss of ERG a- and b-waves, representing loss of photoreceptor cells and cells of the inner nuclear layer. The ERG amplitudes recovered to baseline levels by 15 weeks post-retinectomy, indicative of subsequent restoration of retinal function after regeneration. PMID:22729667

Beddaoui, Margaret; Coupland, Stuart G; Tsilfidis, Catherine

2012-06-23

225

Meshless Galerkin methods using radial basis functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combine the theory of radial basis functions with the field of Galerkin methods to solve partial differential equations. After a general description of the method we show convergence and derive error estimates for smooth problems in arbitrary dimensions.

Holger Wendland

1999-01-01

226

Method of removing bitumen from tar sand for subsequent recovery of the bitumen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is given of removing bitumen from tar sand for subsequent recovery of the bitumen. The method comprises submerging tar sand in a sufficient amount of a circulating solvent in which the bitumen is soluble, and, while the tar sand is so submerged, sonicating within the solvent with a sufficient amount of sonic energy to break apart any connections

L. I. Jr. Hart; J. J. Schmidt-Collerus; L. R. Burroughs

1977-01-01

227

Comparison of Six DNA Extraction Methods for Recovery of Fungal DNA as Assessed by Quantitative PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of fungal pathogens in clinical samples by PCR requires the use of extraction methods that efficiently lyse fungal cells and recover DNA suitable for amplification. We used quantitative PCR assays to measure the recovery of DNA from two important fungal pathogens subjected to six DNA extraction methods. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia or Candida albicans yeast cells were added to

David N. Fredricks; Caitlin Smith; Amalia Meier

2005-01-01

228

An Automated Method for the Recovery of Urinary Nitrogen in Nitrogen Balance Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method previouslydescribed for the total automation of nitrogen measurements from solid biologic material has been adapted for automating nitrogen recovery from urine following micro-Kjeldahl digestion. Standard solutionsgave reproducible curves which were linear between the limits of 25 and 100 mg. of N2 ped liter. Comparative studieswith the Markham (1) procedure revealed mean nitrogen recoveriesfor the automated method of 106%.

M. John; T. Peaston; Sandra Wilson; Judith Pemberton

229

Method for the recovery of minerals and production of by-products from coal ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the recovery of mineral values from ash derived from coal gasification and combustion which ash contains carbon, magnetite, cenospheres and mineral values including aluminum and iron. The method comprises: (a) screening the ash to provide a first carbon and cenosphere-containing ash fraction which contains the major portion of the cenospheres and carbon present in the

R. A. Schmeda; R. A. Ashworth; L. A. Rodriguez; A. A. Padilla; N. B. Spake; W. W. Berry

1987-01-01

230

Detection of Loxosceles species venom in dermal lesions: A comparison of 4 venom recovery methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective:Loxosceles species spider envenomations may produce necrotic, disfiguring dermal inflammatory lesions resembling neutrophilic dermatoses. With definitive treatment options lacking, clinicians are reluctant to obtain invasive biopsy specimens for diagnostic analysis. We compared less invasive venom collection methods and determined the time limit after inoculation for feasible venom recovery in an animal model. Methods: Nine New Zealand rabbits were randomized

Diann M. Krywko; Hernan F. Gomez

2002-01-01

231

Method of controlling scale in oil recovery operations  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a method of producing highly viscous minerals from a subterranean formation by injection of an acidic, thermal vapor stream without substantial scale buildup in downstream piping, pumps and well bore. The process comprises heating the formation by injection of heat, preferably in the form of a thermal vapor stream composed of combustion gases and steam and injecting an acidic compound simultaneously with the thermal vapor stream into the formation at a temperature above the dew point of the thermal vapor stream. The acidic, thermal vapor stream increases the solubility of metal ions in connate water and thus reduces scaling in the downstream equipment during the production of viscous hydrocarbons.

Krajicek, R.W.

1981-08-11

232

Method of controlling scale in oil recovery operations  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of producing highly viscous minerals from a subterranean formation by injection of an acidic, thermal vapor stream without substantial scale buildup in downstream piping, pumps and well bore. The process comprises heating the formation by injection of heat, preferably in the form of a thermal vapor stream composed of combustion gases and steam and injecting an acidic compound simultaneously with the thermal vapor stream into the formation at a temperature above the dew point of the thermal vapor stream. The acidic, thermal vapor stream increases the solubility of metal ions in connate water and thus reduces scaling in the downstream equipment during the production of viscous hydrocarbons.

Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

1981-01-01

233

Comparison of different culture methods on bacterial recovery in hemodialysis fluids.  

PubMed

To examine the culture method that could provide the highest bacterial recovery, 143 reverse osmosis water samples used in hemodialysis were collected for comparison of the media (Tryptic Soy Agar, TSA vs Reasoner's 2A Agar, R2A), the temperature (20 degrees C vs 37 degrees C), the duration of incubation (48-hour vs 7-day), and the culture technique (membrane filtration vs spread plate methods). The European Best Practice Guideline method, R2A at 20 degrees Cfor 7-day incubation provided higher bacterial recovery than the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) method, TSA at 37 degrees C for 48-hour incubation. The membrane filtration method gave better yield than the spread plate method. As such, the European Best Practice Guideline method in combination with the membrane filtration technique would be the culture method of choice for hemodialysis fluids. PMID:15825714

Punakabutra, Napawan; Nunthapisud, Pongpun; Pisitkun, Trairak; Tiranathanagul, Khajohn; Tungsanga, Kriang; Eiam-Ong, Somchai

2004-11-01

234

Women's Voices on Recovery: A Multi-Method Study of the Complexity of Recovery from Child Sexual Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The current study was exploratory and used multiple methods to examine patterns of stability and change in resilient functioning across 7 years of early adulthood. Second, qualitative data were used to examine in greater detail survivors' own narratives about correlates of healing. Method: This study was longitudinal and used both…

Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.

2007-01-01

235

Steam injection method and apparatus for recovery of oil  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for recovering oil from an oil bearing formation utilizing steam injected into the formation. A working fluid is heated at the surface to produce a reversible, chemical reaction, particularly a reforming reaction in a reforming/methanation reaction cycle. The products of the reforming reaction are transported at near ambient temperatures to a downhole heat exchanger through which water is circulated. There a catalyst triggers the methanation reaction, liberating heat energy to convert the water to steam. The products of the methanation reaction are recirculated to the surface to repeat the cycle. In one embodiment the products of the methanation reaction are injected into the formation along with the steam. Various catalysts, and various systems for heating the working fluid are disclosed.

Meeks, T.; Rhoades, C.A.

1983-02-08

236

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

1988-05-04

237

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus or utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000{degrees}F in a burner to remove residual char nd produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capital and operating costs.

Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

1989-11-14

238

Carvacrol together with TRPC1 elimination improve functional recovery after traumatic brain injury in mice.  

PubMed

Death of Central Nervous System (CNS) neurons following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex process arising from a combination of factors, many of which are still unknown. It has been found that inhibition of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels constitutes an effective strategy for preventing death of CNS neurons following TBI. TRP channels are classified into seven related subfamilies, most of which are Ca(2+) permeable and involved in many cellular functions, including neuronal cell death. We hypothesized that TRP channels of the TRPC subfamily may be involved in post-TBI pathophysiology and that the compound 5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol (carvacrol), by inhibition of TRP channels, may exert neuroprotective effect after TBI. To test these suppositions, carvacrol was given to mice after TBI and its effect on their functional recovery was followed for several weeks. Our results show that neurological recovery after TBI was significantly enhanced by application of carvacrol. To better define the type of the specific channel involved, the effect of carvacrol on the extent and speed of recovery after TBI was compared among mice lacking TRPC1, TRPC3, or TRPC5, relative to wild type controls. We found that neurological recovery after TBI was significantly enhanced by combining carvacrol with TRPC1 elimination, but not by the absence of TRPC3 or TRPC5, showing a synergistic effect between carvacrol application and TRPC1 elimination. We conclude that TRPC1-sensitive mechanisms are involved in TBI pathology, and that inhibition of this channel by carvacrol enhances recovery and should be considered for further studies in animal models and humans. PMID:22994850

Peters, Maximilian; Trembovler, Victoria; Alexandrovich, Alexander; Parnas, Moshe; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Minke, Baruch; Shohami, Esther

2012-11-16

239

Glutamate dehydrogenase activity in motor cortex neurons during recovery of impaired visual function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions 1.Recovery of visual function after a period of visual deprivation results in significant normalization of glutamate dehydrogenase activity in nerve cell bodies and processes of layers III and V of the motor cortex.2.Enzyme activity changes are accompanied by a significant decrease in neuronal size.3.The normalization rates of neurons in layer III exceed those of neurons in layer V.4.The morphochemical

M. M. Busnyuk

1981-01-01

240

Acrylamide-induced effects on general and neurospecific cellular functions during exposure and recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal cytotoxicity, morphological changes and alterations in cell physiological and neurochemical functions were studied in differentiated human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells during exposure to acrylamide and during a subsequent recovery period after cessation of exposure. Acrylamide induced a 20% reduction in the number of neurites per cell at 0.21 mmol\\/L and 20% decrease in the protein synthesis rate at 0.17 mmol\\/L

M. Nordin-Andersson; E. Walum; P. Kjellstrand; A. Forsby

2003-01-01

241

A study on additional early physiotherapy after stroke and factors affecting functional recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate whether additional early physiotherapy after stroke improved functional recovery in stroke patients.Design: A prospective, randomized, controlled study.Setting: One stroke ward and an acute stroke unit in a large teaching hospital, southern China.Subjects: Patients with first-onset stroke consecutively admitted to the stroke centre.Interventions: One group (n = 78) received additional early physiotherapy (AEP) for 45 minutes, five days

Yannan Fang; Xiaohua Chen; Hua Li; Jianwen Lin; Ruxun Huang; insheng Zeng

2003-01-01

242

Improvement of functional recovery of transected peripheral nerve by means of artery grafts filled with diclofenac.  

PubMed

The objective was to assess the effect of topically administered diclofenac on peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Eighty male healthy white Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups (n = 20), randomly: In transected group (TC), left sciatic nerve was transected and stumps were fixed in the adjacent muscle. In treatment group defect was bridged using an artery graft (AG/DICLO) filled with 10 ?L diclofenac (0.1 mg/kg). In artery graft group (AG), the graft was filled with phosphate-buffered saline alone. In sham-operated group (SHAM), sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups of five animals each and regenerated nerve fibers were studied 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after surgery. Behavioral testing, sciatic nerve functional study, gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indices confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in AG/DICLO than AG group (p < 0.05). In immunohistochemistry, location of reactions to S-100 in AG/DICLO was clearly more positive than that in AG group. When loaded in an artery graft, diclofenac improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve. Topical application of this readily available agent offers the benefit of cost savings as well as avoiding the complications associated with systemic administration. PMID:23354315

Mohammadi, Rahim; Hirsaee, Mohammad-Adel; Amini, Keyvan

2013-01-23

243

Recovery of time on limits of stability from functional fatigue in Division II collegiate athletes.  

PubMed

Health and fitness professionals working with athletes could establish effective and safe practice and training programs if recovery time on dynamic balance from exertion was available. Research investigating the time needed to recover dynamic limits of stability (LOS) from exertion has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the recovery timeline on LOS from functional fatigue in collegiate athletes. Eighteen athletes (11 men, 7 women) from Division II collegiate soccer team who passed prescreening tests to identify their fitness levels were randomly tested on 2 different days by condition (fatigue or nonfatigue). Functional fatigue was determined by using the Borg 15-point rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale. Subjects were tested on LOS on the Biodex Balance System pre, post, 10, 15, and 20 minutes for each condition. The main effect for condition was not significant (F() = 0.004, p = 0.948), whereas the main effect for time was significant (F(4,64) = 6.167, p < 0.001). The RPE scoring revealed the significant main effect in FATIGUE (F(2.69, 45.73) = 234.8, p < 0.001). In conclusion, 20 minutes of functional activity will likely have a negative influence on dynamic balance, with balance recovery occurring within 10 minutes after the cessation of exercise in Division II collegiate soccer athletes. Moreover, the level of exertion measured by RPE would correspond to athletes' ability to control their center of mass. PMID:21478766

Ishizuka, Toshimitsu; Hess, Rebecca A; Reuter, Ben; Federico, Marc S; Yamada, Yosuke

2011-07-01

244

Assessments of lung digestion methods for recovery of fibers  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of the pulmonary hazards associated with exposure to fibrous materials tends to be more complicated than assessments required for particulate materials. Fibers are defined by aspect ratios and it is generally considered that physical dimensions play an important role in the pathogenesis of fiber-related lung diseases. Several digestion techniques have been used to recover fibers from exposed lung tissue for clearance studies. Because many of the digestion fluids are corrosive (e.g., bleach, KOH), it is conceivable that the dimensions of recovered fibers are modified during the tissue digestion process, thus creating erroneous data. Accordingly, the authors evaluated two lung digestion methods to assess whether the physical dimensions of bulk samples of fibers were altered following simulated digestion processing. Aliquots of crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos, Kevlar aramid, wollastonite, polyacrylonitrile (pan)-based carbon, and glass fibers were incubated with either saline, bleach, or KOH and then filtered. Scanning electron microscopy techniques were utilized to measure the physical dimensions (i.e., lengths and diameters) of at least 160 fibers per treatment group of each fiber type. Their results showed that the lengths and diameters of glass fibers and wollastonite were altered after treatment with KOH. In addition, treatment with bleach produced a small reduction in both asbestos fiber-type diameters, and greater changes in Kevlar and wollastonite diameters and carbon fiber lengths.

Warheit, D.B.; Hwang, H.C.; Achinko, L. (E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Newark DE (United States))

1991-04-01

245

Effects of Fast Functional Electrical Stimulation Gait Training on Mechanical Recovery in Post-Stroke Gait  

PubMed Central

Stroke leads to gait impairments that can negatively influence quality of life. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied during fast walking is an effective gait rehabilitation strategy that can lead to improvements in gait performance, walking speed and endurance, balance, activity, and participation post-stroke. The effect of FastFES gait training on mechanical energy utilization is not well understood. The objective of this study was to test the effects of 12-weeks of FastFES gait training on mechanical recovery indices of post-stroke gait. Kinematic data were collected from 11 stroke survivors before and after 12-weeks of FastFES training. Mechanical recovery was calculated from the positive changes in vertical, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral components of COM energy. The average mechanical recovery increased from 34.5% before training to 40.0% after training. The increase was statistically significant (p=.014). The average self-selected walking speed increased from 0.4m/s to 0.7m/s after the 12-week FastFES training. The results indicate that the subjects were better able to generate and utilize the external mechanical energy of walking after FastFES gait training. FastFES gait training has the capacity to increase the gait speed, improve the mechanical recovery, and reduce the mechanical energy expenditure of stroke survivors when they walk.

Hakansson, Nils A.; Kesar, Trisia; Reisman, Darcy; Binder-Macleod, Stuart; Higginson, Jill S.

2011-01-01

246

Recuperación funcional en la lumbalgia incapacitante: eficacia de una intervención cognitivo-conductual temprana Functional recovery in low back pain: efficacy of an early cognitive behavioral intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the efficacy of an early cognitive behavioral intervention in the functional recovery of the low back pain. Patients and methods: Subjects with an episode of Temporary Work Disability (TWD) of 4 weeks of duration due to low back pain were selected. Efficacy variables included duration of TWD episodes, duration of TWD

León Mateos L; Jover Jover JA; Abásolo Alcázar L; Loza Santamaría E; Pérez Nieto MA; Redondo Delgado MM

247

Loss of hsp70.1 Decreases Functional Motor Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Mice.  

PubMed

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are specifically induced by various forms of stress. Hsp70.1, a member of the hsp70 family is known to play an important role in cytoprotection from stressful insults. However, the functional role of Hsp70 in motor function after spinal cord injury (SCI) is still unclear. To study the role of hsp70.1 in motor recovery following SCI, we assessed locomotor function in hsp70.1 knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) mice via the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale, before and after spinal hemisection at T13 level. We also examined lesion size in the spinal cord using Luxol fast blue/cresyl violet staining. One day after injury, KO and WT mice showed no significant difference in the motor function due to complete paralysis following spinal hemisection. However, when it compared to WT mice, KO mice had significantly delayed and decreased functional outcomes from 4 days up to 21 days after SCI. KO mice also showed significantly greater lesion size in the spinal cord than WT mice showed at 21 days after spinal hemisection. These results suggest that Hsp70 has a protective effect against traumatic SCI and the manipulation of the hsp70.1 gene may help improve the recovery of motor function, thereby enhancing neuroprotection after SCI. PMID:20631888

Kim, Hyun Jeong; Jung, Ji-In; Kim, Youngkyung; Lee, Jae-Seon; Yoon, Young Wook; Kim, Junesun

2010-06-30

248

Pitch-based methods for speech detection and automatic frequency recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many applications for which it is desireable to reliably detect the presence of speech. Examples of these applications are speech compression, voice activated devices and machine speech recognition. In this paper, a method of speech detection is developed which uses a frequency-domain pitch-based signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimate. This method takes full advantage of the spectral structure of pitch, which is the primary speech excitation function. The primary output of the detection algorithm is a decision that speech is present or not present. In addition, the algorithm provides an estimate of the speech SNR which may be used to estimate signal quality. This SNR estimate is important for applications such as estimating the reliability of machine-based recognition processes. Additional advantages of this method are that it is independent of signal gain and it works well under adverse conditions such as poor SNR and in the presence of interference. A by-product of the pitch-based detection process is a method for automatic recovery of frequency offset of mistuned analog speech. Mistuning is a condition which can arise in the demodulation of single-side-band amplitude-modulated (SSB-AM) speech if the precise carrier is not used in the demodulation process. This can cause severe problems since speech becomes nearly unintelligible if it is mistuned more than 100 Hz. The methods presented here use a double complex correlation of the complex speech spectrum to recover the carrier offset. This process provides significantly better resolution than more conventional correlation processes based on the speech power- spectrum.

Nelson, Douglas J.; Pencak, Joseph

1995-06-01

249

Chronic Valproate Treatment Enhances Post-ischemic Angiogenesis and Promotes Functional Recovery in a Rat Model of Ischemic Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Enhanced angiogenesis facilitates neurovascular remodeling processes and promotes brain functional recovery after stroke. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that valproate (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, protects against experimental brain ischemia. The present study investigated whether VPA could enhance angiogenesis and promote long-term functional recovery after ischemic stroke. Methods Male rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion for up to 14 days. Assessed parameters were: locomotor function via rotarod test; infarct volume via T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging; microvessel density via immunohistochemistry; relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) via perfusion-weighted imaging; protein levels of pro-angiogenic factors via Western blotting; and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9 activities via gelatin zymography. Results Post-ischemic VPA treatment robustly improved the rotarod performance of MCAO rats on days 7 and 14 after ischemia, and significantly reduced brain infarction on day 14. Concurrently, VPA markedly enhanced microvessel density, facilitated endothelial cell proliferation, and increased rCBF in the ipsilateral cortex. The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? and its downstream pro-angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and MMP-2/9, were upregulated after MCAO and significantly potentiated by VPA in the ipsilateral cortex. Acetylation of histone-H3 and H4 was robustly increased by chronic VPA treatment. The beneficial effects of VPA on rotarod performance and microvessel density were abolished by HIF-1? inhibition. Conclusions Chronic VPA treatment enhances angiogenesis and promotes functional recovery after brain ischemia. These effects may involve HDAC inhibition and upregulation of HIF-1? and its downstream pro-angiogenic factors VEGF and MMP-2/9.

Wang, Zhifei; Tsai, Li-Kai; Munasinghe, Jeeva; Leng, Yan; Fessler, Emily Bame; Chibane, Fairouz; Leeds, Peter; Chuang, De-Maw

2012-01-01

250

Reduced Heart Rate Recovery Is Associated with Poorer Cognitive Function in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older adults has been associated with varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction. Several mechanisms may explain this association, including impaired cardiovascular reactivity to autonomic nervous system (ANS) signaling. Reduced heart rate recovery following a stress test may be considered an indication of impaired ANS function (i.e., reduced parasympathetic activity). Participants were 47 older adults (53–83 years) who underwent a treadmill stress test and were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery upon entry to phase II cardiac rehabilitation. Reduced parasympathetic activity was associated with impaired cognitive performance on a measure of global cognitive function and on tasks of speeded executive function and confrontation naming. These relationships suggest that changes in autonomic function may be mechanistically related to the impaired cognitive function prevalent in CVD patients.

Keary, Therese A.; Galioto, Rachel; Hughes, Joel; Waechter, Donna; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Rosneck, James; Josephson, Richard; Gunstad, John

2012-01-01

251

The Recovery of Walking in Stroke Patients: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We reviewed the literature on walking recovery of stroke patients as it relates to the following subjects: epidemiology of walking dysfunction, recovery course of walking, and recovery mechanism of walking (neural control of normal walking, the evaluation methods for leg motor function, and motor recovery mechanism of leg). The recovery of walking…

Jang, Sung Ho

2010-01-01

252

Structural and functional alterations to rat medial prefrontal cortex following chronic restraint stress and recovery  

PubMed Central

Chronic stress has been shown in animal models to result in altered dendritic morphology of pyramidal neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). It has been hypothesized that the stress-induced dendritic retractions and spine loss lead to disrupted connectivity that results in stress-induced functional impairment of mPFC. While these alterations were initially viewed as a neurodegenerative event, it has recently been established that stress induced dendritic alterations are reversible if animals are given time to recover from chronic stress. However, whether spine growth accompanies dendritic extension remains to be demonstrated. It is also not known if recovery-phase dendritic extension allows for re-establishment of functional capacity. The goal of this study, therefore, was to characterize the structural and functional effects of chronic stress and recovery on the infralimbic (IL) region of the rat mPFC. We compared neuronal morphology of layer V IL pyramidal neurons from animals subjected to 21 days of chronic restraint stress (CRS) to those that experienced CRS followed by a 21 day recovery period. Layer V pyramidal cell functional capacity was assessed by intra-IL long-term potentiation (LTP) both in the absence and presence of SKF38393, a dopamine receptor partial agonist and a known PFC LTP modulator. We found that stress-induced IL apical dendritic retraction and spine loss co-occur with receptor-mediated impairments to catecholaminergic facilitation of synaptic plasticity. We also found that while post-stress recovery did not reverse distal dendritic retraction, it did result in over-extension of proximal dendritic neuroarchitecture and spine growth as well as a full reversal of CRS-induced impairments to catecholaminergic-mediated synaptic plasticity. Our results support the hypothesis that disease-related PFC dysfunction is a consequence of network disruption secondary to altered structural and functional plasticity and that circuitry reestablishment may underlie elements of recovery. Accordingly, we believe that pharmacological treatments targeted at preventing dendritic retraction and spine loss or encouraging circuitry reestablishment and stabilization may be advantageous in the prevention and treatment of mood and anxiety disorders.

Goldwater, Deena S.; Pavlides, Constantine; Hunter, Richard G.; Bloss, Erik B.; Hof, Patrick R.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Morrison, John H.

2009-01-01

253

Incomplete factorization methods for fully implicit simulation of enhanced oil recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several incomplete factorization methods (ILU) for strongly nonsymmetric block-banded systems are developed. These systems result from the coupled partial differential equations which occur in the simulation of enhanced oil recovery. Several approximations using natural, diagonal (D2) and alternating diagonal (D4) orderings are used with ORTHOMIN acceleration. These methods can all be used in conjunction with the COMBINATIVE method for multi-phase

G. A. Behie

1984-01-01

254

Experience-Associated Structural Events, Subependymal Cellular Proliferative Activity, and Functional Recovery After Injury to the Central Nervous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable structural plasticity is possible in the damaged neocortex and connected brain areas, and the potential for significant functional recovery remains even during the chronic phases of the recovery process. In this article, the authors review the literature on use-dependent morphologic events, focusing on the direct interaction of behavioral experience and structural changes associated with plasticity and degeneration. Experience-associated neural

Timothy Schallert; J. Leigh Leasure; Bryan Kolb

2000-01-01

255

Association of home care needs and functional recovery among community-dwelling elderly hip fracture patients.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the home care needs and task difficulty of community-dwelling aged hip fracture and the association of functional recovery with care received. A cohort of hip fracture patients admitted to orthopedic wards for surgery was collected from August 2009 to December 2010. Patients transferred to long-term care facilities after surgery were excluded. Functional status (feeding, clothing, grooming, bathing, getting in/out of bed, walking, toileting, standing up/sitting down, and walking up/down stairs) and task difficulty for caregivers were recorded at discharge, one week and one month after discharge. In total, 116 patients (mean age: 79.4±8.5 years, 51.7% males) were enrolled. The mean age of primary caregivers was 53.4±14.2 years, and most were daughters or sons (54.3%), spouses (34.5%) or foreign workers (11.0%). The most common care needs were wound care (95.7%), medical visits (94.8%), cleaning and maintaining living quarters (92.2%) and vigilance to ensure patient safety (92.2%). The care needs and task difficulty significantly correlated with physical function before, one week and one month after discharge (r=-0.530, p<0.001; r=-0.326, p=0.001; r=-0.432, p<0.001; r=-0.684, p<0.001; and r=-0.475, p<0.001, respectively). The complex and taxing home care needs of community-dwelling elderly hip fracture patients were significantly associated with functional recovery. Comprehensive geriatric assessment and related special medical services may greatly help caregivers and promote the practice of aging in place. Further study is needed to develop appropriate caregiver education to promote the functional recovery of elderly hip fracture patients at home. PMID:23746577

Wu, Li-Chu; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Lin, Yu-Te; Ku, Yan-Chiou; Wang, Ruey-Hsia

2013-06-06

256

ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR ALKALINE EARTH DETERMINATIONS IN SUPPORT OF THE STRONTIUM90 RECOVERY PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods were established for the determination of Sr, Ba, and Ca in Sr\\/; sup 90\\/ recovery samples. Emphasis was placed on speed and simplicity at some ; sacrifice in precision and accuracy. Trace concentrations of Ca and Sr in ; process chemicals were determined flame photometrically aiser separation by co-; precipitation with an estimated relative standard deviation of plus or

R. Ko; A. C. Leaf; W. Y. Matsumoto; H. A. Treibs; M. R. Weiler

1961-01-01

257

Oil recovery method using sulfonate surfactants derived from extracted aromatic feedstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oil recovery method is disclosed which uses a particular class of alkylaryl sulfonate surfactants. The surfactants are derived from an extracted aromatic feedstock consisting essentially of benzene, toluene, xylenes, and lesser amounts of ethylbenzene, trimethylbenzenes, and tetramethylbenzenes. The aromatic feedstock is then alkylated with linear a-olefins to favor second-carbon attachment, and sulfonated to result in surfactants having high oil

H. S. Aldrich; Th. L. Ashcraft; M. C. Puerto; R. L. Reed

1984-01-01

258

Actinides recovery from molten salt\\/liquid metal system by electrochemical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical methods were examined for the recovery of actinides from the electrorefiner which is used in pyrometallurgical reprocessing of spent metal fuel for fast reactors. Uranium was successfully collected at the solid steel cathode from both liquid cadmium and molten salt solvents. In electrotransport from liquid cadmium, the behavior of uranium and rare earths was as expected by a computer

Masatoshi Iizuka; Tadafumi Koyama; Naruhito Kondo; Reiko Fujita; Hiroshi Tanaka

1997-01-01

259

Method of removing bitumen from tar sand for subsequent recovery of the bitumen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for removing bitumen from tar sand for subsequent recovery of the bitumen. Tar sand is submerged in a sufficient amount of a circulating solvent in which the bitumen is soluble. While the tar sand is so submerged, the slurry is subjected to sonic energy to break apart any connections between sand granules and to remove bitumen

L. I. Jr. Hart; J. J. Schmidt-Collerus; L. R. Burroughs

1977-01-01

260

Method for recovery and recycling of heat from hot gases in metallurigical processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to a method and an apparatus for the recovery and recycling of heat from hot exhaust gases, specifically from exhaust gases in metallurgical processes and from warm gases having an exiting temperature of below about 800° C. According to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, warm or hot exhaust fuel gases transfer their retained heat

Ratschat

1984-01-01

261

Apparatus and method for recovery of bituminous products from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method are described for 1) reducing agglomerated masses of tar sand, and 2) recovering as a bituminous product the bituminous matrix material. The apparatus includes a vessel which is divided into an attrition zone enclosed by a screen member, a sand separation zone, and a product recovery zone. The vessel accommodates liquid which is a solvent into

L. A. Johanson; K. L. Noall; B. T. Porritt

1978-01-01

262

Apparatus and method for recovery of bituminous products from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method are disclosed for (1) reducing agglomerated masses of tar sand and (2) recovering as a bituminous product the bituminous matrix material therefrom. The apparatus includes a vessel which is divided into an attrition zone enclosed by a screen member, a sand separation zone and a product recovery zone. The vessel accommodates liquid which is, advantageously, a

B. T. Porritt; L. A. Johanson; K. L. Noall

1978-01-01

263

Composition and method for enhanced oil recovery utilizing aqueous polyacrylamide solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composition and method are described for the enhanced recovery of liquid hydrocarbons from a subterranean reservoir. There is injected into the reservoir via one or more injection wells a displacement fluid consisting of an aqueous solution of a polyacrylamide thickener and OK Liquid detergent composition. Liquid hydrocarbons are recovered via one or more production wells. The aqueous solution is

1977-01-01

264

EXTRACTION METHODS FOR RECOVERY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM FORTIFIED DRY SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recovery of 8 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dry soils, each fortified at 800 ng/g soil, was studied in relation to the extraction method and time of extraction. Extraction procedures studied on desiccator-dried soils were modifications of EPA low-and high-level purge-and...

265

Steam flooding gains status as recovery method for heavy, high viscosity crudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-pressure steam injection is rapidly gaining status as an accepted successful procedure for increasing the recovery of oil from wells which have been partially depleted by primary production methods. This operation is particularly well adapted to formations which contain low gravity, high viscosity crude oils. Although the first commercially successful application of the technique was in Venezuela's Bolivar Coastal fields,

J. P. Fanaritis; J. D. Kimmel

1965-01-01

266

Selective Recovery of Platinum Group Metals From Spent Automobile Catalyst by Integrated Ion Exchange Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective Recovery of platinum group metals (PGMs), such as Pd, Pt and Rh, from spent automobile catalyst has been investigated by integrated ion exchange method using dihexyl sulfide (DHS) impregnated resin and commercial weak anion exchange resin (Diaion WA-21) as adsorbents. Batchwise adsorption revealed DHS impregnated resin possesses the selective adsorption ability for Pd and WA-21 possesses selectivity for all

Shuhei Tanaka; Akinori Harada; Syouhei Nishihama; Kazuharu Yoshizuka

2012-01-01

267

Level Set Methods for Curvature Flow, Image Enchancement, and Shape Recovery in Medical Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Level set methods are powerful numerical techniques for tracking the evolution ofinterfaces moving under a variety of complex motions. They are based on computingviscosity solutions to the appropriate equations of motion, using techniques borrowedfrom hyperbolic conservation laws. In this paper, we review some of the applicationsof this work to curvature motion, the construction of minimal surfaces, image enhancement,and shape recovery.

R. Malladi; J. a. Sethian

1997-01-01

268

Spaceflight-induced cardiovascular changes and recovery during NASA's Functional Task Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microgravity-induced physiologic changes could impair a crewmember's performance upon return to a gravity environment. The Functional Task Test aims to correlate these physiologic alterations with changes in performance during mission-critical tasks. In this study, we evaluated spaceflight-induced cardiovascular changes during 11 functional tasks in 7 Shuttle astronauts before spaceflight, on landing day, and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. Mean heart rate was examined during each task and autonomic activity was approximated by heart rate variability during the Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, a 2-min prone rest followed by a 3-min stand. Heart rate was increased on landing day during all of the tasks, and remained elevated 6 days after landing during 6 of the 11 tasks. Parasympathetic modulation was diminished and sympathovagal balance was increased on landing day. Additionally, during the stand test 6 days after landing, parasympathetic modulation remained suppressed and heart rate remained elevated compared to preflight levels. Heart rate and autonomic activity were not different from preflight levels 30 days after landing. We detected changes in heart rate and autonomic activity during a 3-min stand and a variety of functional tasks, where cardiovascular deconditioning was still evident 6 days after returning from short-duration spaceflight. The delayed recovery times for heart rate and parasympathetic modulation indicate the necessity of assessing functional performance after long-duration spaceflight to ensure crew health and safety.

Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, Michael B.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Platts, Steven H.

2013-11-01

269

Convergence Properties of KKR Green Function Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most multiple scattering theory (MST) electronic structure methods (e.g. KKR, KKR-CPA, impurity Greens function, O[N] LSMS method(Yang Wang et al. Phys. Rev. Letters 75), 2867,(1995)) make use of a expression for the single particle Green function that is based on a single center expansion(J. S. Faulkner and G. M. Stocks, Phys. Rev. B 21),3222, (1980). Because the electronic structure is

N. Y. Moghadam; G. M. Stocks; X.-G. Zhang; D. M. C. Nicholson; W. A. Shelton; Yang Wang; J. S. Faulkner

1998-01-01

270

Optimization of the purification methods for recovery of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to optimize the purification of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus. Recombinant flounder growth hormone (r-fGH) was expressed by Escherichia coli in form of inclusion body or as soluble protein under different inducing conditions. The inclusion body was renatured using two recovery methods, i.e., dilution and dialysis. Thereafter, the refolded protein was purified by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography and r-fGH was obtained by cleavage of thrombin. For soluble products, r-fGH was directly purified from the lysates by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography. ELISA-receptor assay demonstrated that despite its low receptor binding activity, the r-fGH purified from refolded inclusion body had a higher yield (2.605 mg L-1) than that from soluble protein (1.964 mg L-1). Of the tested recovery methods, addition of renaturing buffer (pH 8.5) into denatured inclusion body yielded the best recovery rate (17.9%). This work provided an optimized purification method for high recovery of r-fGH, thus contributing to the application of r-fGH to aquaculture.

Zang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xuecheng; Mu, Xiaosheng; Liu, Bin

2013-03-01

271

Fluorescence photobleaching recovery method with pulse-position modulation of bleaching/probing irradiation.  

PubMed

The fluorescence photobleaching recovery method with pulse-position modulation (PPM) of bleaching/probing irradiation is presented. This approach is modification of previously announced photobleaching recovery under decaying photobleaching (FRDP) approach, which employs the amplitude control of irradiation intensity. Underlying idea was to solve the problem of setup nonlinearity by methodical modification that was successfully done. The irradiation intensity is series of equal bleach-probe pulses with increasing distance. The more sophisticated series was proposed as a convolution of subseries, which one characterizing its own time scale. It allows to detect the fluorescence kinetics in the wide range of time and of different nature simultaneously. The method was applied on model systems as FITC-HSA in the water/glycerol mixture and FITC-DMPE in the POPC multibilayers. The method allowed to detect and investigate diffusion processes, presence immobile fraction, effect of limited area of liposomes and reversible fluorescence kinetics. PMID:19353244

Glazachev, Yu I

2009-04-08

272

Hypochlorite digestion method for efficient recovery of PHB from Alcaligenes faecalis.  

PubMed

We reported the optimum amount of PHB accumulated by Alcaligenes faecalis during its 24 h growth under nitrogen deficient conditions. After 24 h incubation decrease in the amount of PHB was recorded. Hypochlorite digestion of biomass of organism followed by extraction with a solvent system consisting of 1:1 mixture of ethanol and acetone resulted in efficient recovery of PHB vis-à-vis earlier methods. This solvent system gave a high recovery yield, i.e. 5.6 gL(-1) vis-à-vis earlier reported yield, 1.34 gL(-1) (by same method), 0.63 gL(-1) (by chloroform extraction method) and 1.1 gL(-1) (by dispersion method). PMID:23100774

Sayyed, R Z; Gangurde, N S; Chincholkar, S B

2009-06-17

273

Limited sample recovery in coupled methods of high-performance liquid chromatography of synthetic polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex polymer systems, which exhibit multiple distributions in their molecular parameters can be characterized by coupled\\u000a liquid chromatographic methods. The latter combine entropic (exclusion) and enthalpic (interaction) retention mechanisms.\\u000a However, recent experimental results suggest that some coupled liquid chromatographic methods may suffer from incomplete sample\\u000a recovery. This refers, for example, to liquid chromatography under critical conditions of enthalpic interactions and

D. Berek; A. Russ

2006-01-01

274

Methods to determine storativity of infinite confined aquifers from a recovery test.  

PubMed

Starting from the equations of Theis and Cooper-Jacob, two new mathematical methods are proposed for interpreting the residual drawdown data for an infinite confined aquifer. Under Theis' assumptions and using the Cooper-Jacob approximation, the principal aquifer characteristics of transmissivity, pumping storativity, and recovery storativity are expressed without any correction or additional assumption. An actual case is used for illustration and confirms the validity of proposed equations and methods. PMID:12113357

Chenaf, Djaouida; Chapuis, Robert P

275

A soil toxicity test using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and an effective method of recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for recovering nematodes from soils in an efficient, reproducible, and non-destructive manner has been developed. It was used to conduct short-term soil toxicity tests using the soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and several different soil types spiked with copper chloride. The recovery method, which involves centrifugation through a colloidal silica suspension, allows the nematodes to be extracted from

Steven G. Donkin; David B. Dusenbery

1993-01-01

276

Upper-Extremity Functional Electric Stimulation-Assisted Exercises on a Workstation in the Subacute Phase of Stroke Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kowalczewski J, Gritsenko V, Ashworth N, Ellaway P, Prochazka A. Upper-extremity functional electric stimulationassisted exercises on a workstation in the sub- acute phase of stroke recovery. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2007; 88:833-9. Objective: To test the efficacy of functional electric stimu- lation (FES)assisted exercise therapy (FES-ET) on a work- station in the subacute phase of recovery from a stroke. Design:

Jan Kowalczewski; Valeriya Gritsenko; Nigel Ashworth; Peter Ellaway; Arthur Prochazka

2007-01-01

277

Intrathecal Morphine Attenuates Recovery of Function after a Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Prior work has shown that a high dose (20?mg/kg) of systemic morphine, required to produce significant analgesia in the acute phase of a contusion injury, undermines the long-term health of treated subjects and increases lesion size. Moreover, a single dose of systemic morphine in the early stage of injury (24?h post-injury) led to symptoms of neuropathic pain 3 weeks later, in the chronic phase. The present study examines the locus of the effects using intrathecal morphine administration. Subjects were treated with one of three doses (0, 30, or 90??g) of intrathecal morphine 24?h after a moderate contusion injury. The 90-?g dose produced significant analgesia when subjects were exposed to noxious stimuli (thermal and incremented shock) below the level of injury. Yet, despite analgesic efficacy, intrathecal morphine significantly attenuated the recovery of locomotor function and increased lesion size rostral to the injury site. A single dose of 30 or 90??g of intrathecal morphine also decreased weight gain, and more than doubled the incidence of mortality and autophagia when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Morphine is one of the most effective pharmacological agents for the treatment of neuropathic pain and, therefore, is indispensable for the spinally injured. Treatment can, however, adversely affect the recovery process. A morphine-induced attenuation of recovery may result from increases in immune cell activation and, subsequently, pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the contused spinal cord.

Moreno, Georgina; Woller, Sarah; Puga, Denise; Hoy, Kevin; Balden, Robyn; Grau, James W.

2009-01-01

278

Recovery of functional DNA inserts by electroendosmotic elution during gel electrophoresis.  

PubMed Central

In contrast to all previous preparative electrophoresis apparatus which used a pump, electroendosmotic elution uses bound electrical charges at the end of the separating gel to generate a buffer flow. The electroendosmotic flow increased with increasing currents and decreasing buffer concentrations: its exact characteristics for the built apparatus were determined. The electroendosmotic device was able to separate two DNA fragments differing in size by only 5% with a recovery over 95%. As demonstrated in practical examples of recovery and uses of DNA inserts, up to 10 micrograms of DNA per band can be loaded at a time. The recovered DNA can be used directly for nick-translation, ligation... without further treatment. The performances of the method are expected to improve still further if the charge density and pores of the electroendosmotic medium can be "made-to-order" to provide a better flow profile of the eluting buffer. Images

Tan, H V; Kitzis, A; Berthollet, T; Hamard, G; Beldjord, C; Benarous, R

1988-01-01

279

Human mesenchymal stem cell transplantation promotes functional recovery following acute spinal cord injury in rats.  

PubMed

Many attempts have been made in animals to produce cellular regeneration in the spinal cord using a variety of transplanted cell types. The present study was to investigate whether transplantation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into the spinal cord after contusion injury promotes a functional outcome. Spinal cord injury (SCI) was induced using an NYU impactor and hMSCs were transplanted 1 week after SCI. Behavioral testing was performed weekly for 2 months. Somatosensory (SSEPs) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded to determine functional recovery. Hindlimb performance was modestly improved in the transplanted group based on BBB scaling and pain tests. SSEP latencies in the transplanted group were significantly shorter than in the media-treated group. Pathologically, LacZ and hTau positive cells were located at the injury and adjacent sites. The data indicate improvement in functional outcome in animals treated with hMSC transplantation compared to media-treated animals. PMID:17474317

Lee, Kyung Hee; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung; Choi, Ji Soo; Jeun, Sin-Soo; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Sung-Soo; Yoon, Do Heum; Lee, Bae Hwan

2007-01-01

280

Rapid T1 Mapping of Mouse Myocardium with Saturation Recovery Look-Locker Method  

PubMed Central

Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) using gadolinium or manganese provides unique characterization of myocardium and its pathology. In the current study, an ECG-triggered saturation recovery Look-Locker (SRLL) method was developed and validated for fast cardiac T1 mapping in small animal models. By sampling the initial portion of the longitudinal magnetization recovery curve, high temporal resolution (~3 min) can be achieved at a high spatial resolution (195×390 µm2) in mouse heart without the aid of parallel imaging or EPI. Validation studies were performed both in vitro on a phantom and in vivo on C57BL/6 mice (n=6). Our results showed a strong agreement between T1 measured by SRLL and by the standard saturation recovery method in vitro or inversion recovery Look-Locker in vivo. The utility of SRLL in DEC-MRI studies was demonstrated in manganese-enhanced MRI experiments in mice. Our results suggest that SRLL can provide rapid and accurate cardiac T1 mapping for studies utilizing small animal models.

Li, Wen; Griswold, Mark; Yu, Xin

2010-01-01

281

Recovery of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function in the rat after prolonged treatment with betamethasone  

PubMed Central

1. Betamethasone caused growth retardation, adrenal atrophy and impaired hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity in the rat. 2. In spite of the profound impairment, recovery of normal HPA function was rapid, but the growth retardation persisted. 3. The ability of the pituitary gland to secrete basal corticotrophin (ACTH), recovered more rapidly and the adrenocorticotrophic response to stress less rapidly than the ability of the adrenal cortex to respond to ACTH. 4. The degree of HPA suppression was not determined by the total dose of steroid. 5. The possible significance of the results is discussed.

Hodges, J. R.; Mitchley, Susan

1970-01-01

282

Promoting recovery of sexual functioning after radical prostatectomy with group-based stress management: The role of interpersonal sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Objective Treatment for localized carcinoma of the prostate (PCa) is frequently associated with decrements in sexual functioning and satisfaction. Given the highly interpersonal nature of these decrements, interpersonal problems (such as interpersonal sensitivity) may affect recovery of sexual functioning after PCa treatment by interfering with physician and partner communication and through distorted cognitions surrounding sexual dysfunction. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of interpersonal sensitivity on several treatment indicators, including response to a group based psychosocial intervention. Methods Participants were 101 older men recovering from radical prostatectomy and were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a 10-wk group-based cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention. Measures included the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) and the Sexual Functioning subscale of the UCLA quality of life measure. Results At baseline, interpersonal sensitivity was related to a belief linking sexual dysfunction to core male identity (r = .29, p < .05). Using hierarchical regression, we found that (a) the CBSM intervention was effective in promoting sexual recovery in all participants and that (b) this effect was moderated by interpersonal sensitivity, such that individuals with higher levels of interpersonal sensitivity made larger improvements in sexual functioning in response to CBSM. Conclusions CBSM was effective for improving sexual function after radical prostatectomy. Individuals with higher levels of interpersonal sensitivity were more likely to perceive sexual dysfunction as a threat to masculine identity and made larger gains in the CBSM intervention. Results and relevance to the older male cancer patient are discussed from the perspective of interpersonal theory.

Molton, Ivan R.; Siegel, Scott D.; Penedo, Frank J.; Dahn, Jason R.; Kinsinger, David; Traeger, Lara N.; Schneiderman, Neil; Antoni, Michael H.

2008-01-01

283

Agar Underlay Method for Recovery of Sublethally Heat-Injured Bacteria  

PubMed Central

A method of recovering sublethally heat-injured bacteria was developed. The procedure (termed the agar underlay method) uses a nonselective agar underlaid with a selective medium. In a two-chambered petri dish, the Lutri plate (LP), a nonselective agar is inoculated with a population of sublethally heat-injured bacteria. After a 2-h repair incubation period, selective agar is added to the bottom chamber of the LP and incubated. By diffusing through the nonselective top agar, selective agents from the underlay medium impart selectivity to the system. By the agar underlay method, recovery rates of the heat-injured food-borne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium were not different (P > 0.05) from recovery rates determined with nonselective media. Sublethally heat-injured cells (60°C for 1.5 min in buffer or 80°C for 30 s on meat surfaces) grew and produced a typical colony morphology and color reaction when the agar underlay procedure was used with the appropriate respective selective agars. Unlike agar overlay methods for injury repair, the agar underlay procedure allows the typical selective-medium colony morphology to develop and allows colonies to be more easily picked for further characterization. Higher recovery rates of heat-injured fecal enterococci from bovine fecal samples and total coliforms from animal waste lagoons were obtained by the agar underlay method with selective agars than by direct plating on the respective selective media.

Kang, D. H.; Siragusa, G. R.

1999-01-01

284

Recovery of motor and cognitive function after cerebellar lesions in a songbird: role of estrogens.  

PubMed

In addition to its key role in complex motor function, the cerebellum is increasingly recognized to have a role in cognition. Songbirds are particularly good models for the investigation of motor and cognitive processes but little is known about the role of the songbird cerebellum in these processes. To explore cerebellar function in a songbird, we lesioned the cerebellum of adult female zebra finches and examined the effects on a spatial working memory task and on motor function during this task. There is evidence for steroid synthesis in the songbird brain and neurosteroids may have an impact on some forms of neural plasticity in adult songbirds. We therefore hypothesized that neurosteroids would affect motor and cognitive function after a cerebellar injury. We found that cerebellar lesions produced deficits in motor and cognitive aspects of a spatial task. In line with our prediction, birds in which estrogen synthesis was blocked had impaired performance in our spatial task compared with those that had estrogen synthesis blocked but estrogen replaced. There was no clear effect of estrogen replacement on motor function. We also found that lesions induced expression of the estrogen synthetic enzyme aromatase in reactive astrocytes and Bergmann glia around a cerebellar lesion. These data suggest that the cerebellum of songbirds mediates both motor and cognitive function and that estrogens may improve the recovery of cognitive aspects of cerebellar function after injury. PMID:19302157

Spence, Rory D; Zhen, Yin; White, Stephanie; Schlinger, Barney A; Day, Lainy B

2009-03-01

285

Applying parameter-estimation methods to recovery-test and slug-test analyses.  

PubMed

Parameter-estimation methods, including an exhaustive-search method and PEST (Parameter ESTimation) software, were applied to recovery-test data and slug-test data to obtain best estimates of transmissivity (T) by minimizing the sums of residuals. Each residual represents the difference between the field-measured water-level value and the value calculated by the appropriate non-linear equation. The exhaustive-search method in both cases involves computing the sums of residuals for an array of transmissivity and storativity values selected by the user for testing. Two new Fortran programs are presented that employ the exhaustive-search method. They utilize Picking's method for analyzing recovery-test data and the analytical equation for analyzing slug-test data derived by Cooper, Bredehoeft, and Papadopulos. Picking's method involves application of the Papadopulos and Cooper's equation for drawdown in finite-diameter wells. Utilizing field data reported in the literature, the estimated transmissivity values from the exhaustive-search methods were compared to the literature values obtained by type-curve matching techniques. The exhaustive-search values corresponded closely to the curve-matching values. Estimates for T were also obtained from recovery-test and slug-test data from two sites in southeastern Pennsylvania. For these sites, the PEST program was also applied to the data to evaluate the accuracy of the exhaustive-search methods. The results from the two methods were generally in good agreement. The two new Fortran programs are practical tools for the hydrogeologist, as they require less time compared to type-curve matching and the PEST method, and they yield accurate estimates of transmissivity. PMID:19930470

Mills, Andrew C

2009-11-20

286

Continuous covariates in mark-recapture-recovery analysis: a comparison of methods.  

PubMed

Time varying, individual covariates are problematic in experiments with marked animals because the covariate can typically only be observed when each animal is captured. We examine three methods to incorporate time varying, individual covariates of the survival probabilities into the analysis of data from mark-recapture-recovery experiments: deterministic imputation, a Bayesian imputation approach based on modeling the joint distribution of the covariate and the capture history, and a conditional approach considering only the events for which the associated covariate data are completely observed (the trinomial model). After describing the three methods, we compare results from their application to the analysis of the effect of body mass on the survival of Soay sheep (Ovis aries) on the Isle of Hirta, Scotland. Simulations based on these results are then used to make further comparisons. We conclude that both the trinomial model and Bayesian imputation method perform best in different situations. If the capture and recovery probabilities are all high, then the trinomial model produces precise, unbiased estimators that do not depend on any assumptions regarding the distribution of the covariate. In contrast, the Bayesian imputation method performs substantially better when capture and recovery probabilities are low, provided that the specified model of the covariate is a good approximation to the true data-generating mechanism. PMID:20163405

Bonner, Simon J; Morgan, Byron J T; King, Ruth

2010-12-01

287

Impact of processing method on recovery of bacteria from wipes used in biological surface sampling.  

PubMed

Environmental sampling for microbiological contaminants is a key component of hygiene monitoring and risk characterization practices utilized across diverse fields of application. However, confidence in surface sampling results, both in the field and in controlled laboratory studies, has been undermined by large variation in sampling performance results. Sources of variation include controlled parameters, such as sampling materials and processing methods, which often differ among studies, as well as random and systematic errors; however, the relative contributions of these factors remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the relative impacts of sample processing methods, including extraction solution and physical dissociation method (vortexing and sonication), on recovery of Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Burkholderia thailandensis and Escherichia coli) bacteria from directly inoculated wipes. This work showed that target organism had the largest impact on extraction efficiency and recovery precision, as measured by traditional colony counts. The physical dissociation method (PDM) had negligible impact, while the effect of the extraction solution was organism dependent. Overall, however, extraction of organisms from wipes using phosphate-buffered saline with 0.04% Tween 80 (PBST) resulted in the highest mean recovery across all three organisms. The results from this study contribute to a better understanding of the factors that influence sampling performance, which is critical to the development of efficient and reliable sampling methodologies relevant to public health and biodefense. PMID:22706055

Downey, Autumn S; Da Silva, Sandra M; Olson, Nathan D; Filliben, James J; Morrow, Jayne B

2012-06-15

288

A Method Improving the Accuracy of Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching Analysis  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching has been an established technique of quantifying the mobility of molecular species in cells and cell membranes for more than 30 years. However, under nonideal experimental conditions, the current methods of analysis still suffer from occasional problems; for example, when the signal/noise ratio is low, when there are temporal fluctuations in the illumination, or when there is bleaching during the recovery process. We here present a method of analysis that overcomes these problems, yielding accurate results even under nonideal experimental conditions. The method is based on circular averaging of each image, followed by spatial frequency analysis of the averaged radial data, and requires no prior knowledge of the shape of the bleached area. The method was validated using both simulated and experimental fluorescence recovery after photobleaching data, illustrating that the diffusion coefficient of a single diffusing component can be determined to within ?1%, even for small signal levels (100 photon counts), and that at typical signal levels (5000 photon counts) a system with two diffusion coefficients can be analyzed with <10% error.

Jonsson, Peter; Jonsson, Magnus P.; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O.; Hook, Fredrik

2008-01-01

289

Factors Affecting Recovery of Functional Status in Older Adults After Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To explore factors influencing functional status over time after cancer surgery in adults aged 65 and older. DESIGN Secondary data analysis of combined data subsets. SETTING Five prospective, longitudinal oncology nurse-directed clinical studies conducted at three academic centers in the northwest and northeast United States. PARTICIPANTS Three hundred sixteen community-residing patients diagnosed with digestive system, thoracic, genitourinary, and gynecological cancers treated primarily with surgery. MEASUREMENTS Functional status, defined as performance of current life roles, was measured using the Enforced Social Dependency Scale and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Survey (using physical component summary measures) after surgery (baseline) and again at 3 and 6 months. Number of symptoms, measured using the Symptom Distress Scale, quantified the effect of each additional common cancer symptom on functional status. RESULTS After controlling for cancer site and stage, comorbidities, symptoms, psychological status, treatment, and demographic variables, functional status was found to be significantly better at 3 and 6 months after surgery than at baseline. Factors associated with better functional status included higher income and better mental health. Factors associated with poorer average functional status were a greater number of symptoms and comorbidities. Persons reporting three or more symptoms experienced statistically significant and clinically meaningful poorer functional status than those without symptoms. Persons reporting three or more comorbidities were also found to have poorer functional status than those without comorbidities. No significant relationship existed between age and functional status in patients aged 65 and older. CONCLUSION Factors other than age affect recovery of functional status in older adults after cancer surgery.

Van Cleave, Janet H.; Egleston, Brian L.; McCorkle, Ruth

2011-01-01

290

Manually-stimulated recovery of motor function after facial nerve injury requires intact sensory input.  

PubMed

We have recently shown in rat that daily manual stimulation (MS) of vibrissal muscles promotes recovery of whisking and reduces polyinnervation of muscle fibers following repair of the facial nerve (facial-facial anastomosis, FFA). Here, we examined whether these positive effects were: (1) correlated with alterations of the afferent connections of regenerated facial motoneurons, and (2) whether they were achieved by enhanced sensory input through the intact trigeminal nerve. First, we quantified the extent of total synaptic input to motoneurons in the facial nucleus using synaptophysin immunocytochemistry following FFA with and without subsequent MS. We found that, without MS, this input was reduced compared to intact animals. The number of synaptophysin-positive terminals returned to normal values following MS. Thus, MS appears to counteract the deafferentation of regenerated facial motoneurons. Second, we performed FFA and, in addition, eliminated the trigeminal sensory input to facial motoneurons by extirpation of the ipsilateral infraorbital nerve (IONex). In this paradigm, without MS, vibrissal motor performance and pattern of end-plate reinnervation were as aberrant as after FFA without MS. MS did not influence the reinnervation pattern after IONex and functional recovery was even worse than after IONex without MS. Thus, when the sensory system is intact, MS restores normal vibrissal function and reduces the degree of polyinnervation. When afferent inputs are abolished, these effects are eliminated or even reversed. We conclude that rehabilitation strategies must be carefully designed to take into account the extent of motor and/or sensory damage. PMID:18381213

Pavlov, Stoyan P; Grosheva, Maria; Streppel, Michael; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Irintchev, Andrey; Skouras, Emmanouil; Angelova, Srebrina K; Kuerten, Stefanie; Sinis, Nektarios; Dunlop, Sarah A; Angelov, Doychin N

2008-03-05

291

Fabrication of pseudo-ceramide-based lipid microparticles for recovery of skin barrier function.  

PubMed

The recovery of skin barrier functions was investigated with pseudo-ceramide-based lipid microparticles. The microparticles were prepared by using a fluid bed technique where lipid components (a pseudo-ceramide, cholesterol and a fatty acid) were coated on a sugar seed, and a polymer was subsequently coated on the lipid microparticles. The microparticles contained large amount of pseudo-ceramide, and the pseudo-ceramide was in the form of lamellar structures mixed with other lipid components. In addition, the microparticles were stably dispersed in aqueous media or emulsion systems without any disruption of the microparticles' structures, thereby supplying sufficient amount of the pseudo-ceramide to skins for improving skin barrier functions such as preventing water loss. Such a role of the microparticles was proven by evaluating in vivo the efficacy of the lipid microparticles in reducing a trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) of impaired murine skins. As a result, the novel pseudo-ceramide-based lipid microparticles for barrier recovery may potentially be applied in the field of dermatology, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. PMID:22361356

Kim, Do-Hoon; Park, Woo Ram; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Cho, Eun Chul; An, Eun Jung; Kim, Jin-Woong; Oh, Seong-Geun

2012-02-07

292

Functional effect of short-term immobilization: kinematic changes and recovery on reaching-to-grasp.  

PubMed

Although previous investigations agree in showing significant cortical modifications related to short-term limb immobilization, little is known about the functional changes induced by non-use. To address this issue, we studied the kinematic effect of 10h of hand immobilization. In order to prevent any movement, right handed healthy participants wore on their dominant hand a soft bandage. They were requested to perform the same reaching-to-grasping task immediately after immobilization, 1 day before (baseline 1) and in other two following days without non-use (baseline 2 and baseline 3). While no differences were found among baseline conditions, an increase of the total duration of reaching movement together with an anticipation of the time to peak velocity were observed in the first trial after immobilization. Interestingly, these initial effects decreased quickly trial-by-trial, following an exponential function till reaching values equal to those observed in the control conditions. The present findings show firstly that the transport phase of the reaching-to-grasp task was affected by a temporary reduction of sensory and motor information. Secondly, a trial-by-trial recovery of the immobilization-related changes, likely driven by the sensory inputs and motor outputs associated to the repetition of the movement has been observed. All together these results confirm a fundamental role of a continuous stream of sensorimotor signals in maintaining motor efficiency and in driving recovery process. PMID:22521828

Bassolino, M; Bove, M; Jacono, M; Fadiga, L; Pozzo, T

2012-04-19

293

Prophylactic dietary restriction may promote functional recovery and increase lifespan after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) is limited, and the injury results in a dramatic reduction in long-term lifespan. Prophylactic dietary restriction (DR) robustly extends animal lifespan, and is beneficial in models of neuronal insult. In rats, we found that one form of DR, every-other-day-fasting (EODF), which started 1 month prior to a cervical SCI improved functional recovery, resulted in greater numbers of neurons surrounding the injury site, and a approximately 45% reduction in lesion size compared to the control group. In the light of the low-risk implementation of prophylactic EODF, the clinical translation as a treatment prior to elective subacute or chronic interventions is attractive. There are numerous secondary complications after human SCI, including a 13- to 25-year reduction in lifespan. DR consistently increases median and maximal lifespan in a large range of organisms, including non-human primates. Animal research suggests that EODF might reduce many of the secondary complications people with SCI suffer from. Dietary interventions may provide the possibility to improve the quality and span of life for individuals with SCI. PMID:20590533

Plunet, Ward T; Lam, Clarrie K; Lee, Jae H T; Liu, Jie; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

2010-06-01

294

Effect of stroke volume variability- guided intraoperative fluid restriction on gastrointestinal functional recovery.  

PubMed

To investigate the effect of stroke volume variability(SVV)-guided intraoperative fluid restriction on gastrointestinal functional recovery and postoperative outcome after gastrointestinal surgery. Forty ASA I-II patients undergoing elective gastrointestinal surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=20 each):group A routine fluid administration and group B restricted fluid administration. SW value was maintained at 5-7 in group A and 11-13 in group B. All patients received general anesthesia, tracheal catheterized and mechanical ventilation. Hemodynamic monitoring parameters (MBP, HR, CVP, CO) were noted at 5 time points. The hemodynamic parameters were maintained within normal limits during operation in both groups. The intraoperative intravenous fluid volume in group B was significant less than in group A (p<0.01).Urine output in group A was significant less than in group B (p<0.05). Stroke volume variation measured from Edwards Flotrac sensor and Edwards Vigileo monitor could be a security and sensitive parameter as an index of volume administration. In elective gastrointestinal surgery, volume resuscitation with a goal SVV of11-13 not only reduced intravenous fluid volume but also maintained the stable hemodynamic and tissue perfusion, enhanced gastrointestinal functional recovery and reduced the length of hospital stay PMID:22626878

Wang, Ping; Wang, Hong-Wei; Zhong, Tai-Di

295

Effectiveness of poliovirus concentration and recovery from treated wastewater by two electropositive filter methods.  

PubMed

Enteric viruses are often present in low numbers in various water matrices. Virus sampling therefore involves multiple concentration steps to condense large samples down to small volumes for detection by cell culture or molecular assays. The NanoCeram® Virus Sampler has been demonstrated to be effective for the recovery of viruses from tap water, surface waters, and seawater. The goal of this study was to evaluate a new method using NanoCeram® filters for the recovery of poliovirus 1 (PV-1) from treated wastewater. Activated sludge effluent samples were spiked with PV-1 and concentrated in side-by-side tests by two methods: (1) NanoCeram® filtration, elution with sodium polyphosphate buffer, secondary concentration via centrifugal ultrafiltration; and (2) 1MDS filtration, elution with beef extract, secondary concentration via organic flocculation. The virus retention and elution efficiencies did not differ significantly between the two methods. In contrast, the secondary concentrate volume was smaller for the NanoCeram® method (8.4 vs. 30 mL) and the secondary concentration efficiencies were different between the two methods with 98 % for centrifugal ultrafiltration (NanoCeram® and 45 % for organic flocculation (1MDS). The overall method efficiencies were significantly different (P ? 0.05) with the NanoCeram® method yielding a 57 % and the 1MDS a 23 % virus recovery. In addition, there appeared to be less interference with viral detection via polymerase chain reaction with the NanoCeram® concentrates. This NanoCeram® method therefore is able to efficiently recover PV-1 from large volumes of wastewater and may serve as an inexpensive alternative to the standard 1MDS filter method for such applications. PMID:23412726

Soto-Beltran, Marcela; Ikner, Luisa A; Bright, Kelly R

2013-02-08

296

FANCD2 regulates BLM complex functions independently of FANCI to promote replication fork recovery.  

PubMed

Fanconi Anemia (FA) and Bloom Syndrome share overlapping phenotypes including spontaneous chromosomal abnormalities and increased cancer predisposition. The FA protein pathway comprises an upstream core complex that mediates recruitment of two central players, FANCD2 and FANCI, to sites of stalled replication forks. Successful fork recovery depends on the Bloom's helicase BLM that participates in a larger protein complex ('BLMcx') containing topoisomerase III alpha, RMI1, RMI2 and replication protein A. We show that FANCD2 is an essential regulator of BLMcx functions: it maintains BLM protein stability and is crucial for complete BLMcx assembly; moreover, it recruits BLMcx to replicating chromatin during normal S-phase and mediates phosphorylation of BLMcx members in response to DNA damage. During replication stress, FANCD2 and BLM cooperate to promote restart of stalled replication forks while suppressing firing of new replication origins. In contrast, FANCI is dispensable for FANCD2-dependent BLMcx regulation, demonstrating functional separation of FANCD2 from FANCI. PMID:23658231

Chaudhury, Indrajit; Sareen, Archana; Raghunandan, Maya; Sobeck, Alexandra

2013-05-08

297

Method of making low work function component  

SciTech Connect

A method for fabricating a component is disclosed. The method includes: providing a member having an effective work function of an initial value, disposing a sacrificial layer on a surface of the member, disposing a first agent within the member to obtain a predetermined concentration of the agent at said surface of the member, annealing the member, and removing the sacrificial layer to expose said surface of the member, wherein said surface has a post-process effective work function that is different from the initial value.

Robinson, Vance (Niskayuna, NY); Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Michael, Joseph Darryl (Delmar, NY)

2011-11-15

298

Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands  

SciTech Connect

Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity is needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.

2003-02-07

299

Measuring recovery from general anaesthesia using critical flicker frequency: A comparison of two methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical flicker frequency (CFF) is the frequency at which a flickering light appears steady. It is a sensitive measure for\\u000a assessing recovery from anaesthesia. The CFF is almost always determined with the method of limits by which the flickering\\u000a frequency is progressively decreased (or increased) until the patient reports a change from fusion to flicker (or flicker\\u000a to fusion). This

Y. Salib; G. Plourde; K. Alloul; A. Provost; A. Moore

1992-01-01

300

Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands  

SciTech Connect

Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.; Brame, Scott; Current, Caitlin J.

2003-02-07

301

Dispermic Androgenesis as a Method for Recovery of Endangered Sturgeon Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of the recovery of endangered sturgeon species is considered, with special reference to the production of\\u000a androgenetic nucleocytoplasmic hybrids by dispermic androgenesis. The method of dispermic androgenesis, developed for sturgeon\\u000a fishes, includes genetic inactivation of eggs, their insemination with concentrated sperm (to cause polyspermy), and heat\\u000a shock to facilitate the fusion of male pronuclei. The restoration of the

Anna S. Grunina; Alexander V. Recoubratsky; Vladimir A. Barmintsev; Ekaterina D. Vasil’eva; Mikhail S. Chebanov

302

Recovery of americium from nitric acid solutions containing calcium by different co-precipitation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of americium from nitric acid solutions was studied by co-precipitation as hydroxide with various ions like calcium, ferric, nickel using sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide. Studies were also carried out to recover americium using lanthanum fluoride and bismuth phosphate co-precipitation. All the methods are able to co-precipitate Am quantitatively. However, co-precipitation of Am with optimum concentration iron using ammonia

M. M. Charyulu; K. Venugopal Chetty; D. G. Phal; Veena Sagar; Sagar D. M. Sagar; S. M. Pawar; R. Swarup; V. V. Ramakrishna; V. Venugopal

2002-01-01

303

Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbons  

DOEpatents

Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes from water and from hydrocarbons. A palladium membrane, when utilized in cooperation with a nickel catalyst in a reactor, has been found to drive reactions such as water gas shift, steam reforming and methane cracking to substantial completion by removing the product hydrogen from the reacting mixture. In addition, ultrapure hydrogen is produced, thereby eliminating the need for an additional processing step.

Willms, R. Scott (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

304

Disparity between functional recovery and daily use of the upper and lower extremities during subacute stroke rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Background Although inpatient rehabilitation may enhance an individual’s functional ability after stroke, it is not known whether these improvements are accompanied by an increase in daily use of the arms and legs. Objective To determine the change in daily use of the upper and lower extremities of stroke patients during rehabilitation and to compare these values with that of community-dwelling older adults. Methods A total of 60 stroke patients underwent functional assessments and also wore 3 accelerometers for 3 consecutive weekdays on admission to rehabilitation and 3 weeks later prior to hospital discharge. The number of steps and upper-extremity activity counts were measured over the waking hours and during daily use for occupational therapy and physical therapy (PT) sessions. Healthy older adults (n = 40) also wore 3 accelerometers for 5 consecutive days. Results Stroke patients demonstrated a significant increase in mobility function, and this was accompanied by an increase in daily walking over the entire day as well as in PT. However, increases in daily walking were found predominantly in patients who were wheelchair users (and not walkers) at the time of admission. Control walking values (5202 steps) were more than 17 times that of stroke patients. Despite significant improvements in paretic hand function, no increase in daily use of the paretic or nonparetic hand was found over the entire day or in PT. Conclusions. A disparity between functional recovery and increases in daily use of the upper and lower extremities was found during inpatient stroke rehabilitation.

Rand, Debbie; Eng, Janice J.

2011-01-01

305

A data recovery method for light strip image based on two-CCD technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic principle of light-section method is described in this paper, which is used for 3-dimensional surface measurement usually. According to the line-covered and line-broken questions in image acquisition, we proposed a data recovery method based on two-CCD technology. Firstly, images are obtained by two CCDs which are of symmetrical installation. Then, a weighted image fusion method is used for data fusion of two images, the data processing algorithm and the key steps are described in detail. Finally, the experiment is conducted on practical images, and the result shows good performance.

Ji, Tao; Wang, Wencheng

2010-07-01

306

Chemical and biochemical methods for recovery Ti and Al from fly ashes  

SciTech Connect

The aim of paper is the possibility of recovery Ti and Al from the fly ash from power plant Opatovice. Fly ash from this power plant is typified by the highest level of Al and Ti. In this work are surveyed three possibilities of processing of these materials by the Bayer method, sintering method and their combination as well as bacterial extraction by Bacillus genus. From the results it follows that for this sample the best combination is the Bayer and Sintering method, where the yield of Al to the solution moves from 53 to 76% and Ti from 55 to 64%.

Feeko, P.; Kusnierova, M.; Eablik, V.; Styriakova, E.

1999-07-01

307

FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY IN RATS WITH ISCHEMIC PARAPLEGIA AFTER SPINAL GRAFTING OF HUMAN SPINAL STEM CELLS  

PubMed Central

Transient spinal cord ischemia in humans can lead to the development of permanent paraplegia with prominent spasticity and rigidity. Histopathological analysis of spinal cords in animals with ischemic spastic paraplegia show a selective loss of small inhibitory interneurons in previously ischemic segments but with a continuing presence of ventral ?-motoneurons and descending cortico-spinal and rubro-spinal projections. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of human spinal stem cells (hSSCs) implanted spinally in rats with fully developed ischemic paraplegia on the recovery of motor function and corresponding changes in motor evoked potentials. In addition the optimal time frame for cell grafting after ischemia and the optimal dosing of grafted cells were also studied. Spinal cord ischemia was induced for 10 min using intra-aortic balloon and systemic hypotension. In the functional recovery study, hSSCs (10 000–30 000 cells/0.5 ?l/injection) were grafted into spinal central gray matter of L2-L5 segments at 21 days after ischemia. Animals were immunosuppressed with Prograf (1mg/kg or 3mg/kg) for the duration of the study. After cell grafting the recovery of motor function was assessed periodically using BBB scoring system and correlated with the recovery of motor evoked potentials. At predetermined times after grafting (2–12 weeks), animals were perfusion-fixed and the survival, and maturation of implanted cells were analyzed using antibodies recognizing human-specific antigens: nuclear protein (hNUMA), neural cell adhesion molecule (hMOC), neuron-specific enolase (hNSE) and synapthophysin (hSYN) as well as the non-human specific antibodies TUJ1, GFAP, GABA, GAD65 and GLYT2. After cell grafting a time-dependent improvement in motor function and suppression of spasticity and rigidity was seen and this improvement correlated with the recovery of motor evoked potentials. Immunohistochemical analysis of grafted lumbar segments at 8 and 12 weeks after grafting revealed intense hNSE immunoreactivity, an extensive axo-dendritic outgrowth as well as rostrocaudal and dorsoventral migration of implanted NUMA-positive cells. An intense hSYN immunoreactivity was identified within the grafts and in the vicinity of persisting ?-motoneurons. On average, 64% of hSYN terminals were GAD65 immunoreactive which corresponded to GABA immunoreactivity identified in 40–45% of NUMA-positive grafted cells. The most robust survival of grafted cells was seen when cells were grafted 21 days after ischemia. As defined by cell survival and laminar distribution, the optimal dose of injected cells was 10 000–30 000 cells per injection. These data indicate that spinal grafting of hSSCs can represent an effective therapy for patients with spinal ischemic paraplegia.

Cizkova, Dasa; Kakinohana, Osamu; Kucharova, Karolina; Marsala, Silvia; Johe, Karl; Hazel, Thomas; Hefferan, Michael P.; Marsala, Martin

2009-01-01

308

Current Developments in Nuclear Density Functional Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density functional theory (DFT) became a universal approach to compute ground-state and excited configurations of many-electron systems held together by an external one-body potential in condensed-matter, atomic, and molecular physics. At present, the DFT strategy is also intensely studied and applied in the area of nuclear structure. The nuclear DFT, a natural extension of the self-consistent mean-field theory, is a tool of choice for computations of ground-state properties and low-lying excitations of medium-mass and heavy nuclei. Over the past thirty-odd years, a lot of experience was accumulated in implementing, adjusting, and using the density-functional methods in nuclei. This research direction is still extremely actively pursued. In particular, current developments concentrate on (i) attempts to improve the performance and precision delivered by the nuclear density-functional methods, (ii) derivations of density functionals from first principles rooted in the low-energy chromodynamics and effective theories, and (iii) including effects of low-energy correlations and symmetry restoration. In this study, we present an overview of recent results and achievements gained in nuclear density-functional methods.

Dobaczewski, Jacek

2011-09-01

309

Round robin investigation of methods for the recovery of poliovirus from drinking water.  

PubMed Central

Six laboratories actively involved in water virology research participated in a methods evaluation study, conducted under the auspices of the American Society for Testing and Materials Committee on Viruses in the Aquatic Environment, Task Force on Drinking Water. Each participant was asked to examine the Viradel (virus adsorption-elution) method with cartridge-type Filterite filters for virus adsorption and organic flocculation and aluminum hydroxide-hydroextraction for reconcentration. Virus was adsorbed to filter media at pH 3.5 and eluted with either glycine buffer (pH 10.5) or beef extract-glycine (pHG 9.0). Considerable variation was noted in the quantity of virus recovered from four 100-liter samples of dechlorinated tapwater seeded with low (350 to 860 PFU) and high (1,837 to 4,689 PFU) doses of poliovirus type 1. To have a more uniform standard of comparison, all the test samples were reassayed in one laboratory, where titers were also determined for the virus seed. Test results of the Viradel-organic flocculation method indicated that the average percentage of virus recovery for low-input experiments was 66%, with a range of 8 to 20% in two laboratories, 49 to 63% in three laboratories, and 198% in one laboratory. For the high-input experiments, two laboratories reported recoveries of 6 to 12%, and four laboratories reported recoveries of 26 to 46%. For the Viradel aluminum hydroxide-hydroextraction procedure, two laboratories recovered 9 to 11%, whereas four obtained 17 to 34% for low-input experiments. For the high-input tests, two laboratories reported a recovery of 3 to 5%, and four recovered 11 to 18% of the seeded virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Melnick, J L; Safferman, R; Rao, V C; Goyal, S; Berg, G; Dahling, D R; Wright, B A; Akin, E; Stetler, R; Sorber, C

1984-01-01

310

Computationally efficient method to construct scar functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of a simple method [E. L. Sibert III, E. Vergini, R. M. Benito, and F. Borondo, New J. Phys.NJOPFM1367-263010.1088/1367-2630/10/5/053016 10, 053016 (2008)] to efficiently compute scar functions along unstable periodic orbits with complicated trajectories in configuration space is discussed, using a classically chaotic two-dimensional quartic oscillator as an illustration.

Revuelta, F.; Vergini, E. G.; Benito, R. M.; Borondo, F.

2012-02-01

311

Wall function method with conservation property  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation express conservation of momentum and mass, respectively. Therefore, numerical schemes to solve these equations have to conserve these quantities numerically to get an accurate solution. For simulations of turbulent flows, various kinds of turbulence models are commonly introduced in the numerical scheme. Some models are used with the wall function method, which can

Takanori Hino

1990-01-01

312

Kernel method and system of functional equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduced by Knuth and subsequently developed by Banderier et al., Prodinger, and others, the kernel method is a powerful tool for solving power series equations in the form of F(z,t)=A(z,t)F(z0,t)+B(z,t) and several variations. Recently, Hou and Mansour [Q.-H. Hou, T. Mansour, Kernel Method and Linear Recurrence System, J. Comput. Appl. Math. (2007), (in press).] presented a systematic method to solve equation systems of two variables , where is a matrix, and and are vectors of rational functions in z and t. In this paper we generalize this method to another type of rational function matrices, i.e., systems of functional equations. Since the types of equation systems we are interested in arise frequently in various enumeration questions via generating functions, our tool is quite useful in solving enumeration problems. To illustrate this, we provide several applications, namely the recurrence relations with two indices, and counting descents in signed permutations.

Mansour, Toufik; Song, Chunwei

2009-02-01

313

Myocardial viability assessment in patients with highly impaired left ventricular function: comparison of delayed enhancement, dobutamine stress MRI, end-diastolic wall thickness, and TI 201 SPECT with functional recovery after revascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods with Tl201 single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) and the “gold standard” for viability assessment, functional recovery after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Twenty patients (64±7.3 years) with severely impaired left ventricular function (ejection fraction [EF] 28.6±8.7%) underwent MRI and SPECT before and 6 months after CABG. Wall-motion abnormalities were assessed

M. Gutberlet; M. Fröhlich; S. Mehl; H. Amthauer; H. Hausmann; R. Meyer; H. Siniawski; J. Ruf; M. Plotkin; T. Denecke; B. Schnackenburg; R. Hetzer; R. Felix

2005-01-01

314

Outcome measures: evolution in clinical trials of neurological/functional recovery in spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The need to determine the beneficial effect of the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) requires clearly defined standardized measures of the severity of injury and how well the function is restored. Improved neurological recovery should be linked to increased capacity to perform tasks such as walking, reaching and grasping, which results in meaningful gains in mobility and self-care. Measurements of recovery, capacity, mobility and self-care are the outcomes used to determine the benefits from the treatment and have evolved over the last century with contributions by the mentors and protégés of Sir Ludwig Guttmann, whom we honor today. Randomized clinical trials in the past 20 years have taught us many lessons as to which outcome measures have the greatest validity and reliability. The International Standards for Neurological Classification of SCI have become the clinical gold standard for measurement of severity, but would benefit from pathophysiological surrogates to better understand the mechanisms of recovery. Measurements of walking capacity have emerged as valid/reliable/responsive and upper extremity measures are in development, which help distinguish neurological improvement from rehabilitation adaptation. Performance of self-care and mobility has been linked to capacity and severity outcomes. In addition, new partnerships between clinical trial entities, professional societies, industry and federal agencies should facilitate identification of priorities and uniformity of measurement standards. Our ultimate goal is to improve the quality of life of those individuals with SCI whom we serve, but we must focus our investigative efforts carefully, systematically and rigorously as clinical scientists. PMID:20125111

Ditunno, J F

2010-02-02

315

The function of 'functional': a mixed methods investigation  

PubMed Central

Objective The term ‘functional’ has a distinguished history, embodying a number of physiological concepts, but has increasingly come to mean ‘hysterical’. The DSM-V working group proposes to use ‘functional’ as the official diagnostic term for medically unexplained neurological symptoms (currently known as ‘conversion disorder’). This study aimed to explore the current neurological meanings of the term and to understand its resilience. Design Mixed methods were used, first interviewing the neurologists in a large UK region and then surveying all neurologists in the UK on their use of the term. Results The interviews revealed four dominant uses—‘not organic’, a physical disability, a brain disorder and a psychiatric problem—as well as considerable ambiguity. Although there was much dissatisfaction with the term, the ambiguity was also seen as useful when engaging with patients. The survey confirmed these findings, with a majority adhering to a strict interpretation of ‘functional’ to mean only ‘not organic’, but a minority employing it to mean different things in different contexts - and endorsing the view that ‘functional’ would one day be a neurological construct again. Conclusions ‘Functional’ embodies real divisions in neurologists' conceptualisation of unexplained symptoms and, perhaps, between those of patients and neurologists: its diversity of meanings allows it to be a common term while meaning different things to different people, or at different times, and thus conceal some of the conflict in a particularly contentious area. This flexibility may help explain the term's longevity.

Armstrong, David; Wessely, Simon C

2012-01-01

316

Stimulation of trigeminal afferents improves motor recovery after facial nerve injury: functional, electrophysiological and morphological proofs.  

PubMed

Recovery of mimic function after facial nerve transection is poor: the successful regrowth of axotomized motoneurons to their targets is compromised by (1) poor axonal navigation and excessive collateral branching, (2) abnormal exchange of nerve impulses between adjacent regrowing axons, and (3) insufficient synaptic input to facial motoneurons. As a result, axotomized motoneurons get hyperexcitable and unable to discharge. Since improvement of growth cone navigation and reduction of the ephaptic cross talk between axons turn out be very difficult, we concentrated our efforts on the third detrimental component and proposed that an intensification of the trigeminal input to axotomized electrophysiologically silent facial motoneurons might improve specificity of reinnervation. To test our hypothesis we compared behavioral, electrophysiological, and morphological parameters after single reconstructive surgery on the facial nerve (or its buccal branch) with those obtained after identical facial nerve surgery but combined with direct or indirect stimulation of the ipsilateral infraorbital (ION) nerve. We found that in all cases, trigeminal stimulation was beneficial for the outcome by improving the quality of target reinnervation and recovery of vibrissa! motor performance. PMID:23322155

Skouras, Emmanouil; Pavlov, Stoyan; Bendella, Habib; Angelov, Doychin N

2013-01-01

317

Inhibition of astroglial nuclear factor ?B reduces inflammation and improves functional recovery after spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

In the central nervous system (CNS), the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-?B is a key regulator of inflammation and secondary injury processes. After trauma or disease, the expression of NF-?B–dependent genes is highly activated, leading to both protective and detrimental effects on CNS recovery. We demonstrate that selective inactivation of astroglial NF-?B in transgenic mice expressing a dominant negative (dn) form of the inhibitor of ?B? under the control of an astrocyte-specific promoter (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP]–dn mice) leads to a dramatic improvement in functional recovery 8 wk after contusive spinal cord injury (SCI). Histologically, GFAP mice exhibit reduced lesion volume and substantially increased white matter preservation. In parallel, they show reduced expression of proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines, such as CXCL10, CCL2, and transforming growth factor–?2, and of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans participating in the formation of the glial scar. We conclude that selective inhibition of NF-?B signaling in astrocytes results in protective effects after SCI and propose the NF-?B pathway as a possible new target for the development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of SCI.

Brambilla, Roberta; Bracchi-Ricard, Valerie; Hu, Wen-Hui; Frydel, Beata; Bramwell, Annmarie; Karmally, Shaffiat; Green, Edward J.; Bethea, John R.

2005-01-01

318

Work function recovery of air exposed molybdenum oxide thin films with vacuum annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report substantial work function (WF) recovery of air exposed molybdenum oxide thin films with vacuum annealing. The high WF (˜6.8 eV) of thermally evaporated MoOx thin film was observed to decrease sharply to ˜5.6 eV with an air exposure of one hour. The drop in the WF was accompanied with a very thin layer of oxygen rich adsorbate on the MoOx film. The WF of the exposed MoOx film started to gradually recover with increasing annealing temperature in a vacuum chamber having base pressure of 8 x 10-11 torr. The saturation in the WF recovery was observed around 460 ^oC, with WF ˜6.4 eV. The adsorb layer was found to be removed after the vacuum annealing. We further studied the interface formation between the annealed MoOx and copper pthalocynine (CuPc). The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of CuPc was observed to be almost pinned to the Fermi level, strongly suggesting an efficient hole injection through the vacuum annealed MoOx film.

Irfan, Irfan; Turniske, Alexander; Bao, Zhenan; Gao, Yongli

2012-02-01

319

Controlled trial of zinc supplementation during recovery from malnutrition: effects on growth and immune function.  

PubMed

To evaluate the effect of zinc on growth and immune function, 32 marasmic infants were selected on admission to the nutrition recovery center; 16 received 2 mg/kg daily of elemental zinc supplement as acetate and the remaining received a placebo. Immunity was assessed by skin-test response, T-cell blastic proliferation immunoglobulins, and infectious morbidity. Weight-for-length gain for initial 60 days in Zn-supplemented group was 9% of standard vs 3% for placebo (p less than 0.05). Energy intake was similar in both groups. Incidence of infections, especially pyoderma, was significantly higher in placebo group: 10 of 16 vs 3 of 16 in the supplemented group (p less than 0.025). Plasma Zn was correlated with number of febrile days in the prospective month (r = -0.66, p less than 0.05). The percent anergic infants decreased and serum IgA increased significantly only in Zn-supplemented group. Zinc supplementation has significant effects on weight gain and host defense mechanisms despite normal plasma levels. Zinc supplementation is recommended for optimal recovery from marasmus. PMID:3103416

Castillo-Duran, C; Heresi, G; Fisberg, M; Uauy, R

1987-03-01

320

Functional Recovery of Paraplegic Rats and Motor Axon Regeneration in Their Spinal Cords by Olfactory Ensheathing Glia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axonal regeneration in the lesioned mammalian central nervous system is abortive, and this causes permanent disabilities in individuals with spinal cord injuries. In adult rats, olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) transplants successfully led to functional and structural recovery after complete spinal cord transection. From 3 to 7 months post surgery, all OEG-transplanted animals recovered locomotor functions and sensorimotor reflexes. They presented

Almudena Ramón-Cueto; M. Isabel Cordero; Fernando F. Santos-Benito; Jesús Avila

2000-01-01

321

Functional recovery in chronic paraplegic rats after co-grafts of fetal brain and adult peripheral nerve tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDIn recent years, experimental studies have sought some type of functional improvement in traumatic paraplegia by transplanting neural tissue into the injured spinal cord. The aim of this work is to study the possibility of functional recovery in chronic paraplegic rats after co-transplantation of fetal cerebral tissue and adult peripheral nerve tissue.METHODSSeventy adult female Wistar rats were subjected to spinal

Mercedes Zurita; Jesús Vaquero; Santiago Oya; Jesús Montilla

2001-01-01

322

Oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs by steam injection methods. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Oil recovery by steam injection is a proven, successful technology for nonfractured reservoirs, but has received only limited study for fractured reservoirs. Preliminary studies suggest recovery efficiencies in fractured reservoirs may be increased by as much as 50% with the application of steam relative to that of low temperature processes. The key mechanisms enhancing oil production at high temperature are the differential thermal expansion between oil and the pore volume, and the generation of gases within matrix blocks. Other mechanisms may also contribute to increased production. These mechanisms are relatively independent of oil gravity, making steam injection into naturally fractured reservoirs equally attractive to light and heavy oil deposits. The objectives of this research program are to quantify the amount of oil expelled by these recovery mechanisms and to develop a numerical model for predicting oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs during steam injection. The experimental study consists of constructing and operating several apparatuses to isolate each of these mechanisms. The first measures thermal expansion and capillary imbibition rates at relatively low temperature, but for various lithologies and matrix block shapes. The second apparatus measures the same parameters, but at high temperatures and for only one shape. A third experimental apparatus measures the maximum gas saturations that could build up within a matrix block. A fourth apparatus measures thermal conductivity and diffusivity of porous media. The numerical study consists of developing transfer functions for oil expulsion from matrix blocks to fractures at high temperatures and incorporating them, along with the energy equation, into a dual porosity thermal reservoir simulator. This simulator can be utilized to make predictions for steam injection processes in naturally-fractured reservoirs. Analytical models for capillary imbibition have also been developed.

Reis, J.C.; Miller, M.A.

1995-05-01

323

Comparison of sample preparation methods for the recovery of foodborne pathogens from fresh produce.  

PubMed

Sample preparation methods (pummeling, pulsifying, sonication, and shaking by hand) were compared for achieving maximum recovery of foodborne pathogens from iceberg lettuce, perilla leaves, cucumber, green pepper, and cherry tomato. Antimicrobial and dehydration effects also were examined to investigate causes of poor recovery of pathogens. Each produce type was inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus at 6.0 log CFU/cm(2), and samples were prepared using the four methods. Bacterial populations recovered from the five types of produce were significantly different (P < 0.05) according to sample preparation methods and produce type. The bacterial populations recovered from pummeled and pulsified samples were higher (P < 0.05) than those recovered from sonicated and hand-shaken samples, except for cherry tomato. The number of bacteria recovered from produce was reduced (P < 0.05) from that of the inoculum by 0.16 to 2.69 log CFU/cm(2). Although extracts of iceberg lettuce, perilla leaves, cucumber, and green pepper had no antimicrobial activity, the populations of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, B. cereus, and L. monocytogenes in cherry tomato extract were slightly reduced after these treatments (P < 0.05). The pathogen populations on perilla leaves and cherry tomatoes decreased by >2 log CFU/cm(2) after exposure to 40% relative humidity for 1 h. No reduction was observed when the five pathogens were exposed to 90% relative humidity. These data suggest that pummeling and pulsifying are optimal sample preparation methods for detection of microorganisms. Acidic produce such as cherry tomato should be treated with a method that does not cause sample breakdown so that acid stress on the bacteria can be minimized. Dehydration stress also affects recovery of pathogens from produce. PMID:22980003

Kim, Se-Ri; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Won-Il; Park, Kyeong-Hun; Yun, Hye-Jeong; Chung, Duck Hwa; Yun, Jong Chul; Ryu, Kyoung Yul

2012-07-01

324

99mTc-Tetrofosmin SPECT for Prediction of Functional Recovery Defined by MRI in Patients with Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction: Additional Value of Gated SPECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to evaluate gated 99mTc-tetrofosmin SPECT for prediction of functional recovery proven by sequential MRI. 99mTc-labeled tetrofosmin is a recently introduced tracer for myocardial perfusion. However, its role for viability assessment is still under investigation. Methods: 99mTc-tetrofosmin uptake in 19 patients with coronary artery disease and severe left ventricular dysfunction was correlated to regional wall thickening before

Jens C. Stollfuss; Felix Haas; Ichiro Matsunari; Jodi Neverve; Stephan Nekolla; Sybille Ziegler; Markus Schwaiger

325

Recovery of jaw muscle function following injection of a myotoxic agent (lidocaine-epinephrine).  

PubMed

Intramuscular injection of 2% lidocaine hydrochloride with epinephrine (1:100,000) bilaterally into the masseter muscles of growing rats resulted in a 30% to 40% decrease in maximal stimulated bite force at 3 days following injection. By 6 days postinjection, bite force had begun to increase, but significant differences from control bite force levels were still present 15 days postinjection. By 25 days postinjection, recovery to control values was complete. These data are consistent with previously documented fiber destruction and subsequent regeneration following exposure to this and other local anesthetic agents. It is suggested that local myotoxic effects produced by the administration of such drugs may result in a transient functional deficit in the injected muscle(s) that may persist for up to 2 weeks. PMID:3856815

Hinton, R J; Dechow, P C; Carlson, D S

1985-03-01

326

Injury and recovery in the developing brain: evidence from functional MRI studies of prematurely born children  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Functional MRI (fMRI) might provide important insights into emerging data that suggest that recovery from injury can occur in the brains of children born prematurely. Strategies employing auditory stimulation demonstrate blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activation in preterm infants as young as 33 weeks' gestational age, and reliable BOLD signal in response to visual stimulation occurs at term-equivalent age. Strategies based on fMRI are particularly suited to the study of language and memory, and emerging data are likely to provide insights into perplexing reports that have demonstrated improving cognitive scores but persistent volumetric and microstructural changes in frontotemporal language systems in the prematurely born. Even when sex, gestational age and early medical and environmental interventions are taken into account, fMRI data from several investigators suggest the engagement of alternative neural networks for language and memory in the developing preterm brain.

Ment, Laura R; Constable, R Todd

2009-01-01

327

Applications of Radial Basis Functions: Sobolev-Orthogonal Functions, Radial Basis Functions and Spectral Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we consider an application of Sobolev-orthogonal functions and radial basis function to the numerical solution of partial differential equations. We develop the fundamentals of a spectral method, present examples via reaction-diffusion parti...

A. Iserles M. D. Buhmann S. P. Norsett

2001-01-01

328

REM sleep loss and recovery regulates blood-brain barrier function.  

PubMed

The functions of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have remained elusive since more than 50 years. Previous reports have identified several independent processes affected by the loss and subsequent recovery of REM sleep (hippocampal neurogenesis, brain stem neuronal cell death, and neurotransmitter content in several brain regions); however, a common underlying mechanism has not been found. We propose that altered brain homeostasis secondary to blood-brain barrier breakdown may explain all those changes induced by REM sleep loss. Therefore, the present report aimed to study the consequences of REM sleep restriction upon blood-brain barrier permeability to Evans blue. REM sleep restriction was induced by the multiple platform technique; male rats were REM sleep restricted 20h daily (with 4h sleep opportunity) during 10 days; control groups included large platform and intact rats. To study blood-brain barrier permeability Evans blue was intracardially administered; stained brains were sliced and photographed for optical density quantification. An independent experiment was carried out to elucidate the mechanism of blood-brain breakdown by transmission electron microscopy. REM sleep restriction increased blood-brain barrier permeability to Evans blue in the whole brain as compared to both control groups. Brief periods of sleep recovery rapidly and effectively restored the severe alteration of blood-brain barrier function by reducing blood-to-brain transfer of Evans blue. The mechanism of blood-brain barrier breakdown involved increased caveolae formation at brain endothelial cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that REM sleep regulates the physical barrier properties of the blood-brain barrier. PMID:23713739

Gómez-González, Beatriz; Hurtado-Alvarado, Gabriela; Esqueda-León, Enrique; Santana-Miranda, Rafael; Rojas-Zamorano, José Ángel; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Javier

2013-08-01

329

Why use a connectivity-based approach to study stroke and recovery of function?  

PubMed Central

The brain is organized into a set of widely distributed networks. Therefore, although structural damage from stroke is focal, remote dysfunction can occur in regions connected to the area of lesion. Historically, neuroscience has focused on local processing due in part to the absence of tools to study the function of distributed networks. In this article we discuss how a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of stroke can be attained using resting state functional connectivity BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (resting state fcMRI). Resting state fcMRI has a number of advantages over task-evoked fMRI for studying brain network reorganization in response to stroke, including the ability to image subjects with a broad range of impairments and the ability to study multiple networks simultaneously. We describe our rationale for using resting state connectivity as a tool for investigating the neural substrates of stroke recovery in a heterogeneous population of stroke patients and discuss the main questions we hope to answer, in particular whether resting state fcMRI measures in the acute phase of stroke can predict subsequent recovery. Early results suggest that disruption of inter-hemispheric connectivity in the somatomotor network and the dorsal attention network is more strongly associated with behavioral impairment in those domains than is intra-hemispheric connectivity within either the lesioned or unaffected hemisphere. We also observe in the somatomotor network an interesting interaction between corticospinal tract damage and decreased inter-hemispheric connectivity that suggests that both processes combine to contribute to neuromotor impairment after stroke. A connectivity-based approach will provide greater insight into network reorganization in the acute and chronic phases after stroke and will contribute to improving prognostic ability and the development of therapeutic interventions.

Carter, Alex R.; Shulman, Gordon L.; Corbetta, Maurizio

2013-01-01

330

Application to induction motor faults diagnosis of the amplitude recovery method combined with FFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a signal processing method - amplitude recovery method (abbreviated to ARM) - that can be used as the signal pre-processing for fast Fourier transform (FFT) in order to analyze the spectrum of the other-order harmonics rather than the fundamental frequency in stator currents and diagnose subtle faults in induction motors. In this situation, the ARM functions as a filter that can filter out the component of the fundamental frequency from three phases of stator currents of the induction motor. The filtering result of the ARM can be provided to FFT to do further spectrum analysis. In this way, the amplitudes of other-order frequencies can be extracted and analyzed independently. If the FFT is used without the ARM pre-processing and the components of other-order frequencies, compared to the fundamental frequency, are fainter, the amplitudes of other-order frequencies are not able easily to extract out from stator currents. The reason is when the FFT is used direct to analyze the original signal, all the frequencies in the spectrum analysis of original stator current signal have the same weight. The ARM is capable of separating the other-order part in stator currents from the fundamental-order part. Compared to the existent digital filters, the ARM has the benefits, including its stop-band narrow enough just to stop the fundamental frequency, its simple operations of algebra and trigonometry without any integration, and its deduction direct from mathematics equations without any artificial adjustment. The ARM can be also used by itself as a coarse-grained diagnosis of faults in induction motors when they are working. These features can be applied to monitor and diagnose the subtle faults in induction motors to guard them from some damages when they are in operation. The diagnosis application of ARM combined with FFT is also displayed in this paper with the experimented induction motor. The test results verify the rationality and feasibility of the ARM. It should be clarified that the ARM must be applied in three phases of currents in electrical machines. For a single phase of alternating current or direct current, it can do nothing. However, since three-phase electrical machines have a dominant position in the application field in modern economic society and it is natural and convenient to acquire three phases of stator currents during the three-phase electrical machines are tested, it is necessary and meaningful to develop the ARM to diagnose and guard them.

Liu, Yukun; Guo, Liwei; Wang, Qixiang; An, Guoqing; Guo, Ming; Lian, Hao

2010-11-01

331

A new method to study shape recovery of red blood cells using multiple optical trapping.  

PubMed

In this new method for studying the shape recovery of deformed red blood cells, three optical traps ("optical tweezers") induce a parachute-shaped red cell deformation, which is comparable to the deformation in small capillaries. The shape recovery is recorded, and a relaxation time is obtained for each individual red blood cell. The sensitivity of this technique for the detection of differences in relaxation times is demonstrated on subpopulations of density-separated red blood cells: "young" cells have shorter (162 ms) and "old" cells have longer (353 ms) relaxation times compared with the total population (271 ms). The relaxation time is remarkably shorter (114 ms) when the plasma surrounding the cells is replaced by a phosphate-buffered saline solution. The main advantages of this technique are the relatively short measuring and preparation time and the physiological type of deformation and shape recovery in which all relevant cell properties play a role. Therefore, especially when automated further, the technique may be a powerful tool for the study of (sub)populations of pathological red blood cells. PMID:8580310

Bronkhorst, P J; Streekstra, G J; Grimbergen, J; Nijhof, E J; Sixma, J J; Brakenhoff, G J

1995-11-01

332

Compositions and methods for restoring pulmonary function  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention relates to compositions and methods that restore pulmonary function, preferably inhibiting or arresting the constriction of the bronchial tubes when administered to mammals, including humans. The pulmonary restorative composition for improving respiratory health comprises an effective amount of Gnaphalium obtusifolium L., more commonly known as rabbit tobacco, sweet everlasting and other historical names; Liquidambar, more commonly known as sweet gum; and Verbascum, more commonly known as mullein. Optionally, the composition may include at least of one additional herbal nutrient selected from the group Prunus avium, more commonly known as wild cherry; Althaea officinalis, more commonly known as marshmallow or mallow; Prunus amygdalus, more commonly known as peach; and Eucalyptus; and may include glucose. Also disclosed are methods for restoring or maintaining pulmonary function by the administration of the composition of the invention.

Brown; Gerald (Piedmont, AL)

2013-03-19

333

Wave function methods for fractional electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining accurate chemical potentials is of considerable interest in various chemical and physical contexts: from small molecular charge-transfer complexes to bandgap in bulk materials such as semi-conductors. Chemical potentials are typically evaluated either by density functional theory, or, alternatively, by computationally more intensive Greens function based GW computations. To calculate chemical potentials, the ground state energy needs to be defined for fractional charges. We thus explore an extension of wave function theories to fractional charges, and investigate the ionization potential and electron affinity as the derivatives of the energy with respect to the electron number. The ultimate aim is to access the chemical potential of correlated wave function methods without the need of explicitly changing the numbers of electrons, making the approach readily applicable to bulk materials. We find that even though second order perturbation theory reduces the fractional charge error considerably compared to Hartree-Fock and standard density functionals, higher order perturbation theory is more accurate and coupled-cluster approaches are even more robust, provided the electrons are bound at the Hartree-Fock level. The success of post-HF approaches to improve over HF relies on two equally important aspects: the integer values are more accurate and the Coulomb correlation between the fractionally occupied orbital and all others improves the straight line behavior significantly as identified by a correction to Hartree-Fock. Our description of fractional electrons is also applicable to fractional spins, illustrating the ability of coupled-cluster singles and doubles to deal with two degenerate fractionally occupied orbitals, but its inadequacy for three and more fractional spins, which occur, for instance, for spherical atoms and when dissociating double bonds. Our approach explores the realm of typical wave function methods that are applied mostly in molecular chemistry, but become available to the solid state community and offer the advantage of an integrated approach: fundamental gap, relative energies, and optimal geometries can be obtained at the same level.

Steinmann, Stephan N.; Yang, Weitao

2013-08-01

334

Association of serotonin-1A and 2A receptor promoter polymorphisms with depressive symptoms and functional recovery in elderly persons after hip fracture  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is common after hip fracture and is associated with poorer functional recovery. Polymorphisms of the serotonin 1a (5HTR1A) and 2a receptors (5HTR2A) are associated with depression; therefore, we examined their association with depressive symptoms and functional recovery after hip fracture. Methods 145 elderly women were followed for 12 months after hip fracture. Depressive symptoms were measured with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Functional status was measured by Lower Extremity Physical and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living scales (LPADLs and IADLs). Time-adjusted general linear regression models compared mean GDS between those with and without risk alleles for 5HTR1A and 5HTR2A. Results Women with 1–2 copies of the 5HTR1A (?1019) G allele had higher GDS scores (Adjusted Mean Difference=0.59; 95% CI, 0.12–1.06), and poorer IADL scores (Adjusted Mean Difference=0.24; 95%CI ?0.002–0.49), compared to those without this allele, controlling for potential confounders and 5HTR2A. Depressive symptoms partly accounted for poorer IADL recovery. Women with 1–2 copies of the 5HTR2A (?1438) C allele did not have significantly higher GDS scores (Adjusted Mean Difference=0.34; 95%CI, ?0.20–0.87) and had better IADL scores (Adjusted Mean Difference=?0.40; 95%CI ?0.74--0.06) than those with A/A genotype. Limitations The findings are limited by small sample size and the use of a screening scale to measure depression. Conclusions The 5HTR1A (?1019) G allele is associated with increased depressive symptoms after hip fracture, which in turn accounts for poorer functional recovery. These results suggest a role for serotonergic genetic variation in elderly persons’ resilience and recovery from medical events.

Lenze, Eric J.; Shardell, Michelle; Ferrell, Robert E.; Orwig, Denise; Yu-Yahiro, Janet; Hawkes, William; Fredman, Lisa; Miller, Ram; Magaziner, Jay

2008-01-01

335

Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity.

Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

2004-01-01

336

Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose- response curves and recovery of function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation- induced disruption of dopaminergic function disrupts a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of the dopaminergic system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, spatial learning and memory (Morris water maze), and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current presentation will review the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are in fact common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity. Supported by N.A.S.A. Grant NAG9-1190.

Rabin, B.; Joseph, J.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

337

Human Adult Dental Pulp Stem Cells Enhance Poststroke Functional Recovery Through Non-Neural Replacement Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), derived from third molar teeth, are multipotent and have the capacity to differentiate into neurons under inductive conditions both in vitro and following transplantation into the avian embryo. In this study, we demonstrate that the intracerebral transplantation of human DPSCs 24 hours following focal cerebral ischemia in a rodent model resulted in significant improvement in forelimb sensorimotor function at 4 weeks post-treatment. At this time, 2.3 ± 0.7% of engrafted cells had survived in the poststroke brain and demonstrated targeted migration toward the stroke lesion. In the peri-infarct striatum, transplanted DPSCs differentiated into astrocytes in preference to neurons. Our data suggest that the dominant mechanism of action underlying DPSC treatment that resulted in enhanced functional recovery is unlikely to be due to neural replacement. Functional improvement is more likely to be mediated through DPSC-dependent paracrine effects. This study provides preclinical evidence for the future use of human DPSCs in cell therapy to improve outcome in stroke patients.

Leong, Wai Khay; Henshall, Tanya L.; Arthur, Agnes; Kremer, Karlea L.; Lewis, Martin D.; Helps, Stephen C.; Field, John; Hamilton-Bruce, Monica A.; Warming, Scott; Manavis, Jim; Vink, Robert; Gronthos, Stan

2012-01-01

338

What is the role of brain mechanisms underlying arousal in recovery of motor function after structural brain injuries?  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Standard neurorehabilitation approaches have limited impact on motor recovery in patients with severe injuries. Consideration of the contributions of impaired arousal offers a novel approach to understand and enhance recovery. Recent findings Animal and human neuroimaging studies are elucidating the neuroanatomical bases of arousal and of arousal regulation, the process by which the cerebrum mobilizes resources. Studies of patients with disorders of consciousness have revealed that recovery of these processes is associated with marked improvements in motor performance. Recent studies have also demonstrated that patients with less severe brain injuries also have impaired arousal, manifesting as diminished sustained attention, fatigue and apathy. In these less severely injured patients it is difficult to connect disorders of arousal with motor recovery due to a lack of measures of arousal independent of motor function. Summary Arousal impairment is common after brain injury and likely plays a significant role in recovery of motor function. A more detailed understanding of this connection will help to develop new therapeutic strategies applicable for a wide range of patients. This requires new tools that continuously and objectively measure arousal in patients with brain injury, to correlate with detailed measures of motor performance and recovery.

Schiff, Nicholas D.

2013-01-01

339

Sperm elution: an improved two phase recovery method for sexual assault samples.  

PubMed

This report describes the validation of a two phase cell recovery technique for the elution of two common cell types, epithelia and spermatozoa, from frequently examined items submitted as part of sexual assault casework. Furthermore, separation of cell types prior to microscopic examination of cell pellets improves the scientist's confidence in observing and scoring spermatozoa that may be present. During the validation, Orchid Cellmark's Sperm Elution© method consistently recovered a greater number of spermatozoa from simulated sexual assault items and swabs taken following consensual sexual intercourse compared to a water extraction technique. On average the Sperm Elution method recovered over twice the number of spermatozoa compared to the water method. The ability to separate the cell types present allows a rapid microscope slide search for spermatozoa and faster DNA extraction protocol in comparison to Cellmark's previous preferential method. PMID:23380059

Hulme, Paul; Lewis, Jennie; Davidson, Geraldine

2012-05-28

340

Microscale Electrode Implantation during Nerve Repair: Effects on Nerve Morphology, Electromyography, and Recovery of Muscle Contractile Function  

PubMed Central

Background Our goal is to develop a peripheral nerve electrode with long-term stability and fidelity for use in nerve-machine interfaces. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) use silicon probes that contain multi-channel actuators, sensors, and electronics. We tested the null hypothesis that implantation of MEMS probes do not have a detrimental effect on peripheral nerve function or regeneration. Methods A rat hindlimb, peroneal nerve model was utilized in all experimental groups: a) intact nerve (Control, n= 10); b) nerve division and repair (Repair, n= 9); and c) Nerve division, insertion of MEMS probe, and repair (Repair + Probe, n=9). Nerve morphology, nerve to muscle compound action potential (CMAP) studies, walking tracks, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle function tests were evaluated following an 80 day recovery. Results Repair and Repair + Probe showed no differences in axon count, axon size, percent non-neural area, CMAP amplitude, latency, muscle mass, muscle force, or walking track scores. Though there was some local fibrosis around each MEMS probe, this did not lead to measurable detrimental effects in any anatomic or functional outcome measurements. Conclusions The lack of a significant difference between Repair and Repair + Probe groups in histology, CMAP, walking tracks, and muscle force suggests that MEMS electrodes are compatible with regenerating axons and show promise for establishing chemical and electrical interfaces with peripheral nerves.

Urbanchek, Melanie G; Wei, Benjamin; Egeland, Brent M; Abidian, Mohammad R; Kipke, Daryl R; Cederna, Paul S

2011-01-01

341

Oil recovery method using sulfonate surfactants derived from extracted aromatic feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

An oil recovery method is disclosed which uses a particular class of alkylaryl sulfonate surfactants. The surfactants are derived from an extracted aromatic feedstock consisting essentially of benzene, toluene, xylenes, and lesser amounts of ethylbenzene, trimethylbenzenes, and tetramethylbenzenes. The aromatic feedstock is then alkylated with linear a-olefins to favor second-carbon attachment, and sulfonated to result in surfactants having high oil solubilization parameters and whose phase behavior is substantially independent of temperature over 120/sup 0/-250/sup 0/ Fahrenheit.

Aldrich, H.S.; Ashcraft, Th.L.; Puerto, M.C.; Reed, R.L.

1984-06-05

342

Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands  

SciTech Connect

This project involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field, California. Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contained approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley.

Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred W.; Bridges, Robert A.; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.; Lorinovich, Caitlin J.; Lu, Silong

2003-02-07

343

Guidelines for improving organic carbon recovery by the wet oxidation method.  

PubMed

The study of soil degradation processes as well as the monitoring of environmental quality often yields large sample batches in which organic carbon is the key property to be determined. A description is given for a rapid method to analyse organic carbon by wet oxidation; the reaction is carried out with 3ml K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and 6ml H(2)SO(4) in small vials, and Cr(3+) resulting from organic C oxidation is determined by spectrophotometry. No special equipment is needed and handling is reduced to a minimum, enabling over 100 samples per day to be analysed. There is one important detail in the operation protocol: the vials are placed inside an insulator block during oxidation. Heat insulation retards the cooling of vials, which results in a high organic C recovery (over 0.90). The improved method is feasible, simple, and easy to perform. Reproducibility was lower than 10% and recoveries from certified reference materials were about 90%. The simplified method is recommended for widespread organic C content sampling. PMID:17320928

Mingorance, M D; Barahona, E; Fernández-Gálvez, J

2007-02-23

344

Voluntary exercise following traumatic brain injury: brain-derived neurotrophic factor upregulation and recovery of function.  

PubMed

Voluntary exercise leads to an upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and associated proteins involved in synaptic function. Activity-induced enhancement of neuroplasticity may be considered for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Given that during the first postinjury week the brain is undergoing dynamic restorative processes and energetic changes that may influence the outcome of exercise, we evaluated the effects of acute and delayed exercise following experimental TBI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either sham or lateral fluid-percussion injury (FPI) and were housed with or without access to a running wheel (RW) from postinjury days 0-6 (acute) or 14-20 (delayed). FPI alone resulted in significantly elevated levels of hippocampal phosphorylated synapsin I and phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element-binding-protein (CREB) at postinjury day 7, of which phosphorylated CREB remained elevated at postinjury day 21. Sham and delayed FPI-RW rats showed increased levels of BDNF, following exercise. Exercise also increased phosphorylated synapsin I and CREB in sham rats. In contrast to shams, the acutely exercised FPI rats failed to show activity-dependent BDNF upregulation and had significant decreases of phosphorylated synapsin I and total CREB. Additional rats were cognitively assessed (learning acquisition and memory) by utilizing the Morris water maze after acute or delayed RW exposure. Shams and delayed FPI-RW animals benefited from exercise, as indicated by a significant decrease in the number of trials to criterion (ability to locate the platform in 7 s or less for four consecutive trials), compared with the delayed FPI-sedentary rats. In contrast, cognitive performance in the acute FPI-RW rats was significantly impaired compared with all the other groups. These results suggest that voluntary exercise can endogenously upregulate BDNF and enhance recovery when it is delayed after TBI. However, when exercise is administered to soon after TBI, the molecular response to exercise is disrupted and recovery may be delayed. PMID:15051152

Griesbach, G S; Hovda, D A; Molteni, R; Wu, A; Gomez-Pinilla, F

2004-01-01

345

Sustained delivery of nicotinamide limits cortical injury and improves functional recovery following traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Previously, we have demonstrated that nicotinamide (NAM), a neuroprotective soluble B-group vitamin, improves recovery of function following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, no prior studies have examined whether NAM is beneficial following continuous infusions over 7 days post-TBI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preclinical efficacy of NAM treatment as it might be delivered clinically; over several days by slow infusion. Rats were prepared with either unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) injuries or sham procedures and divided into three groups: CCI-NAM, CCI-vehicle and sham. Thirty minutes following CCI, Alzet osmotic mini-pumps were implanted subcutaneously. NAM was delivered at a rate of 50 mg/kg/day for 7 days immediately post-CCI. On day 7 following injury, the pumps were removed and blood draws were collected for serum NAM and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) analyses. Starting on day 2 post-CCI, animals were tested on a battery of sensorimotor tests (bilateral tactile adhesive removal, locomotor placing and limb-use asymmetry). Continuous infusion of NAM resulted in a significant serum elevation in NAM, but not NAD+. Statistical analyses of the tactile removal and locomotor placing data revealed that continuous administration of NAM significantly reduced the initial magnitude of the injury deficit and improved overall recovery compared to the vehicle-treated animals. NAM treatment also significantly decreased limb-use asymmetries compared to vehicle-treated animals. The overall extent of the cortical damage was also reduced by NAM treatment. No detrimental effects were seen following continuous infusion. The present results suggest that NAM delivered via a clinically relevant therapeutic regimen may truncate behavioral damage following TBI. Thus our results offer strong support for translation into the clinical population.

Goffus, Andrea M; Anderson, Gail D

2010-01-01

346

Structural methods for studying IRES function.  

PubMed

Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) substitute RNA sequences for some or all of the canonical translation initiation protein factors. Therefore, an important component of understanding IRES function is a description of the three-dimensional structure of the IRES RNA underlying this mechanism. This includes determining the degree to which the RNA folds, the global RNA architecture, and higher resolution information when warranted. Knowledge of the RNA structural features guides ongoing mechanistic and functional studies. In this chapter, we present a roadmap to structurally characterize a folded RNA, beginning from initial studies to define the overall architecture and leading to high-resolution structural studies. The experimental strategy presented here is not unique to IRES RNAs but is adaptable to virtually any RNA of interest, although characterization of RNA-protein interactions requires additional methods. Because IRES RNAs have a specific function, we present specific ways in which the data are interpreted to gain insight into that function. We provide protocols for key experiments that are particularly useful for studying IRES RNA structure and that provide a framework onto which additional approaches are integrated. The protocols we present are solution hydroxyl radical probing, RNase T1 probing, native gel electrophoresis, sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation, and strategies to engineer RNA for crystallization and to obtain initial crystals. PMID:17913644

Kieft, Jeffrey S; Costantino, David A; Filbin, Megan E; Hammond, John; Pfingsten, Jennifer S

2007-01-01

347

Acute delivery of EphA4-Fc improves functional recovery after contusive spinal cord injury in rats.  

PubMed

Blocking the action of inhibitory molecules at sites of central nervous system injury has been proposed as a strategy to promote axonal regeneration and functional recovery. We have previously shown that genetic deletion or competitive antagonism of EphA4 receptor activity promotes axonal regeneration and functional recovery in a mouse model of lateral hemisection spinal cord injury. Here we have assessed the effect of blocking EphA4 activation using the competitive antagonist EphA4-Fc in a rat model of thoracic contusive spinal cord injury. Using a ledged tapered balance beam and open-field testing, we observed significant improvements in recovery of locomotor function after EphA4-Fc treatment. Consistent with functional improvement, using high-resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging at 16.4T, we found that rats treated with EphA4-Fc had a significantly increased cross-sectional area of the dorsal funiculus caudal to the injury epicenter compared with controls. Our findings indicate that EphA4-Fc promotes functional recovery following contusive spinal cord injury and provides further support for the therapeutic benefit of treatment with the competitive antagonist in acute cases of spinal cord injury. PMID:23557244

Spanevello, Mark Damien; Tajouri, Sophie Ines; Mirciov, Cornel; Kurniawan, Nyoman; Pearse, Martin John; Fabri, Louis Jerry; Owczarek, Catherine Mary; Hardy, Matthew Philip; Bradford, Rebecca Anne; Ramunno, Melanie Louise; Turnley, Ann Maree; Ruitenberg, Marc Jan; Boyd, Andrew Wallace; Bartlett, Perry Francis

2013-06-15

348

Ethanol Extract of Chinese Propolis Facilitates Functional Recovery of Locomotor Activity after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

An ethanol extract of Chinese propolis (EECP) was given intraperitoneally to rats suffering from hemitransection of half of their spinal cord (left side) at the level of the 10th thoracic vertebra to examine the effects of the EECP on the functional recovery of locomotor activity and expression of mRNAs of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and neurotrophic factors in the injury site. Daily administration of EECP after the spinal cord injury ameliorated the locomotor function, which effect was accompanied by a reduced lesion size. Furthermore, the EECP suppressed iNOS gene expression, thus reducing NO generation, and also increased the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 mRNAs in the lesion site, suggesting that the EECP reduced the inflammatory and apoptotic circumstances through attenuation of iNOS mRNA expression and facilitation of mRNA expression of neurotrophins in the injured spinal cord. These results suggest that Chinese propolis may become a promising tool for wide use in the nervous system for reducing the secondary neuronal damage following primary physical injury.

Kasai, Masaki; Fukumitsu, Hidefumi; Soumiya, Hitomi; Furukawa, Shoei

2011-01-01

349

Ethanol extract of chinese propolis facilitates functional recovery of locomotor activity after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

An ethanol extract of Chinese propolis (EECP) was given intraperitoneally to rats suffering from hemitransection of half of their spinal cord (left side) at the level of the 10th thoracic vertebra to examine the effects of the EECP on the functional recovery of locomotor activity and expression of mRNAs of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and neurotrophic factors in the injury site. Daily administration of EECP after the spinal cord injury ameliorated the locomotor function, which effect was accompanied by a reduced lesion size. Furthermore, the EECP suppressed iNOS gene expression, thus reducing NO generation, and also increased the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 mRNAs in the lesion site, suggesting that the EECP reduced the inflammatory and apoptotic circumstances through attenuation of iNOS mRNA expression and facilitation of mRNA expression of neurotrophins in the injured spinal cord. These results suggest that Chinese propolis may become a promising tool for wide use in the nervous system for reducing the secondary neuronal damage following primary physical injury. PMID:20953390

Kasai, Masaki; Fukumitsu, Hidefumi; Soumiya, Hitomi; Furukawa, Shoei

2010-09-08

350

Recovery of a Function Involving Gene Duplication by Retroposition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The duplication of DNA sequences contributes to genomic plasticity and is known to be one of the key factors responsible for evolution. The mechanisms underlying these rare events, which have been frequently mentioned by authors performing genomic analysis, have not yet been completely elucidated. These mechanisms were approached here in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using a positive selection screen based on a particular mutated allele of the URA2 gene. Spontaneous revertants containing a duplication of the terminal part of the URA2 gene were selected and analyzed. Some important features of the duplicated regions, such as their chromosome location, size, and insertion sites, were characterized. The events selected correspond to a single inter- or intrachromosomal gene duplication process. The duplicated ATCase sequence is generally punctuated by a poly(A) tract and is always located in Ty1 sequences. In addition, the activation of a Ty1 transcription process increased the frequency of the duplication events. All in all, these data suggest that the duplication mechanism involves the reverse transcription of mRNA and the subsequent integration of the cDNA into a Ty1 area. The Ty1 elements and the retrotransposon-encoded function are key factors contributing to chromosomal reshaping. The genomic rearrangements described constitute experimental evidence for the recovery of a function involving duplication by retroposition.

Schacherer, Joseph; Tourrette, Yves; Souciet, Jean-Luc; Potier, Serge; de Montigny, Jacky

2004-01-01

351

Enhanced Functional Recovery in MRL/MpJ Mice after Spinal Cord Dorsal Hemisection  

PubMed Central

Adult MRL/MpJ mice have been shown to possess unique regeneration capabilities. They are able to heal an ear-punched hole or an injured heart with normal tissue architecture and without scar formation. Here we present functional and histological evidence for enhanced recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI) in MRL/MpJ mice. A control group (C57BL/6 mice) and MRL/MpJ mice underwent a dorsal hemisection at T9 (thoracic vertebra 9). Our data show that MRL/MpJ mice recovered motor function significantly faster and more completely. We observed enhanced regeneration of the corticospinal tract (CST). Furthermore, we observed a reduced astrocytic response and fewer micro-cavities at the injury site, which appear to create a more growth-permissive environment for the injured axons. Our data suggest that the reduced astrocytic response is in part due to a lower lesion-induced increase of cell proliferation post-SCI, and a reduced astrocytic differentiation of the proliferating cells. Interestingly, we also found an increased number of proliferating microglia, which could be involved in the MRL/MpJ spinal cord repair mechanisms. Finally, to evaluate the molecular basis of faster spinal cord repair, we examined the difference in gene expression changes in MRL/MpJ and C57BL/6 mice after SCI. Our microarray data support our histological findings and reveal a transcriptional profile associated with a more efficient spinal cord repair in MRL/MpJ mice.

Thuret, Sandrine; Thallmair, Michaela; Horky, Laura L.; Gage, Fred H.

2012-01-01

352

Is exposure to enriched environment beneficial for functional post-lesional recovery in temporal lobe epilepsy?  

PubMed

Exposure to enriched environment has been shown to induce robust neuronal plasticity in both intact and injured adult central nervous system, including up-regulation of multiple neurotrophic factors, enhanced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and improved spatial learning and memory function. Neuronal plasticity, though mostly adaptive and abnormal, also occurs during certain neurodegenerative conditions such as the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The TLE is characterized by hippocampal neurodegeneration, aberrant mossy fiber sprouting, spontaneous recurrent motor seizures, cognitive deficits, and abnormally enhanced neurogenesis during the early phase and dramatically declined neurogenesis during the chronic phase of the disease. As environmental enrichment has been found to be beneficial for treating animal models of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases, there is considerable interest in determining the efficacy of this strategy for preventing or treating chronic TLE after the initial precipitating brain injury. This review first discusses the proof of principle behind the potential application of the environmental enrichment strategy for preventing or treating TLE after brain injury. The subsequent chapters confer the portrayed beneficial effects of enrichment for functional post-lesional recovery in TLE and the possible complications which may arise from housing epilepsy-prone or epileptic rats in enriched environmental conditions. The final segment discusses studies that are essential for further understanding the efficacy of this approach for preventing or treating TLE. PMID:18178250

Dhanushkodi, Anandh; Shetty, Ashok K

2007-11-28

353

Astrocytic changes in the hippocampus and functional recovery after cerebral ischemia are facilitated by rehabilitation training.  

PubMed

In this study we examined whether astrocytic and basic fibroblast growth factor changes after cerebral ischemia can be influenced by rehabilitation training and if these changes are associated with functional improvement. After receiving either ischemia or sham surgery, male adult Wistar rats were assigned to one of two rehabilitation training group: complex environment housing (EC) or paired housing as controls (CON). Rats were tested in the water maze after 14 days of rehabilitation training. Results showed increased expression of reactive astrocytes (GFAP) in all ischemic animals and in the sham EC rats with a significant overall increased seen in the ischemia EC housed animals. The pattern of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) expression seen was somewhat similar to that of GFAP. Behavioral data showed that even though all animals learned to perform the water maze task over time, the ischemia CON rats took longer to learn the task while all the ischemia EC animals performed as well as the sham groups. Regression analysis showed that increased GFAP was able to explain some of the variances in the behavioral parameters in the water maze of the ischemia EC rats suggesting that the activation of astrocytes in this group probably mediated enhanced functional recovery. Lastly, it is possible that the favorable effect of astrocyte activation after cerebral ischemia was mediated by FGF-2. PMID:16621046

Briones, Teresita L; Woods, Julie; Wadowska, Magdalena; Rogozinska, Magdalena; Nguyen, Mai

2006-04-18

354

Beneficial effect of beraprost, a prostacyclin-mimetic agent, on post-hypoxic recovery of cardiac function and metabolism in rabbit isolated hearts.  

PubMed Central

1. The present study was undertaken to determine whether beraprost, a stable prostacyclin-mimetic agent, may exert a beneficial effect on post-hypoxic recovery of cardiac function and metabolism. Isolated rabbit hearts were perfused by the Langendorff method for 20 min under glucose-free hypoxic conditions, followed by 45 min reoxygenation in the presence of glucose, and their functional and metabolic changes with or without beraprost-treatment were examined. 2. Hypoxic insult induced cessation of cardiac contractile force, depletion of myocardial high-energy phosphates, accumulation of tissue calcium, and release of creatine kinase and ATP metabolites. Subsequent reoxygenation resulted in a poor recovery of cardiac contractile force (less than 10% of the pre-hypoxic value), a poor restoration of high-energy phosphates, and increase in calcium content. A further release of creatine kinase and ATP metabolites from the heart was observed during reoxygenation. 3. Treatment with 0.45 microM beraprost during the whole hypoxic period resulted in a significant suppression of the increase in tissue calcium, and the release of creatine kinase and ATP metabolites during hypoxic perfusion. This treatment also elicited a significant post-hypoxic recovery of the cardiac contractile force and the tissue high-energy phosphates. Reoxygenation-induced release of creatine kinase and ATP metabolites was also prevented by treatment with beraprost. 4. When hearts were treated with prostacyclin sodium (0.50 microM) in the same manner for the purpose of comparison, similar improvement of post-hypoxic contractile and metabolic recovery were observed. 5. These results demonstrate that treatment with either beraprost or prostacyclin is beneficial for post-hypoxic recovery of cardiac function and metabolism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Tanonaka, K.; Maruyama, Y.; Takeo, S.

1991-01-01

355

Methods for the analysis of intestinal function.  

PubMed Central

The intestinal tract, an organ of considerable complexity, requires application of numerous techniques for analysis of its physiology and perturbations by toxicologic agents. This review describes the methodology of importance in analysis of the absorptive function of the intestine and the transit of intestinal contents. Methods for studying absorption are categorized according to the technique for administering the test substance such as inclusion in the diet or by gastric and intestinal placement and the method of quantitating the degree of absorption such as determining the appearance of a test substance in systemic fluids or its disappearance from its site of administration in the intestine. In vitro techniques which have no in vivo analogs, such as the use of the everted sac, are briefly described and their limitations emphasized. Procedures of importance in the clinical diagnosis of malabsorption or in the experimental analysis of absorptive function in man are included and distinguished from techniques used in animal models. In addition, methods for studying aspects of gastrointestinal motility, including the use of luminal markers and analysis of the contractile and electrical activity of intestinal smooth muscle, are reviewed. Images FIGURE 2.

Walsh, C T; Levine, R R

1979-01-01

356

Comparison of the Recovery Patterns of Language and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Post-Traumatic Language Processing Deficits and in Patients with Aphasia Following a Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the…

Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

2008-01-01

357

Recovery comparison of two virus concentration methods from wastewater using cell culture and real-time PCR.  

PubMed

Enteric viruses are shed in the feces and may be present in environmental waters. Their detection in wastewater, even at low concentration, is a major challenge. In this study, recoveries of Echovirus 7 (EV7), virions and RNA in wastewater, using virus concentration methods were determined to evaluate the detection of infectious viruses and the possibility of recovering viral genomes. Two virus concentration methods, PEG precipitation method and two-phase separation method, were applied to recovery experiments of EV7-virions from wastewater, in parallel with recovery experiments of EV7 RNA. The titration of EV7 virions was carried out by cell culture using human rhabdomyosarcoma tumor tissue and the EV7 RNA quantification was performed by real-time PCR. The mean recovery yields of EV7 virions using the PEG precipitation method and the two-phase separation method were 78.5 ± 10.99 and 83.1 ± 0.28 %, respectively. Besides, EV7 RNA recoveries obtained using the PEG precipitation method were four times higher than those using the two-phase separation method. According to our results, the two methods enable to concentrate both infectious viruses and viral genomes. Moreover, considering the protocol time and cost together with the ratio of the EV7 virion recovery to the EV7 RNA recovery, the two-phase separation method (83.1/2.71 %, or 30.6) seems to be more appropriate for selective concentration of viral virions than the PEG precipitation method (78.5/10.33 %, or 7.6). PMID:22767318

Amdiouni, Hasna; Maunula, Leena; Hajjami, Kawtar; Faouzi, Abdellah; Soukri, Abdelaziz; Nourlil, Jalal

2012-07-06

358

Adiabatic methods in the functional Schroedinger picture  

SciTech Connect

A prescription is given to specify the high-k behavior for the Gaussian width of a Schroedinger wave functional for a scalar field in a Robertson-Walker flat background. The prescription corresponds to a construction which produces nearly Minkowski behavior for the high-frequency modes, and is analogous to the well-known ''adiabatic method'' previously developed in the canonical formalism. The specified high-k behavior leads to divergences in which agree with the poles appearing in the DeWitt-Schwinger expansion of this quantity.

Lieberman, B.; Rogers, B.

1988-12-15

359

Method of enhancing recovery of petroleum from an oil-bearing formation  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of enhancing recovery of petroleum from an oil bearing formation during injection of a non-condensable gas comprising at least periodically injecting a preformed foam into the oil bearing formation, the preformed foam comprises a mixture of the gas, water and an effective foam-forming amount of an alpha olefin sulfonate (AOS), the AOS comprising a mixture of hydroxysulfonates and alkene-sulfonates and further wherein the hydroxy-sulfonates comprise 3-hydroxy- and 4-hydroxy-sulfonates with the ratio of 3-hydroxy-sulfonates to 4-hydroxy-sulfonates being at least about 3. This patent also describes a method of enhancing recovery of petroleum from an oil bearing formation during injection of a non-condensable gas comprising at least periodically injecting a preformed foam into the oil bearing formation, the preformed foam comprises a mixture of the gas, water and an effective foam forming amount of an alpha olefin sulfonate (AOS), wherein the AOS comprises a mixture of hydroxysulfonates and alkene-sulfonates and further wherein the hydroxy sulfonates comprise 3-hydroxy-sulfonates which are present in an amount of at least about 20% by weight of the AOS.

Marquis, D.M.

1991-12-31

360

Development and Validation of an Instrument to Predict Functional Recovery in Tibial Fracture Patients: The Somatic Pre-Occupation and Coping (SPOC) Questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the role of patients’ beliefs in their likelihood of recovery from severe physical trauma. Methods We developed and validated an instrument designed to capture the impact of patients’ beliefs on functional recovery from injury; the Somatic Pre-occupation and Coping (SPOC) questionnaire. At 6-weeks post-surgical fixation, we administered the SPOC questionnaire to 359 consecutive patients with operatively managed tibial shaft fractures. We constructed multivariable regression models to explore the association between SPOC scores and functional outcome at 1-year, as measured by return to work and short form-36 (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores. Results In our adjusted multivariable regression models that included pre-injury SF-36 scores, SPOC scores at 6-weeks post-surgery accounted for 18% of the variation in SF-36 PCS scores and 18% of SF-36 MCS scores at 1-year. In both models, 6-week SPOC scores were a far more powerful predictor of functional recovery than age, gender, fracture type, smoking status, or the presence of multi-trauma. Our adjusted analysis found that for each 14 point increment in SPOC score at 6-weeks (14 chosen on the basis of half a standard deviation of the mean SPOC score) the odds of returning to work at 1-year decreased by 40% (odds ratio = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.73). Conclusion The SPOC questionnaire is a valid measurement of illness beliefs in tibial fracture patients and is highly predictive of their long-term functional recovery. Future research should explore if these results extend to other trauma populations and if modification of unhelpful illness beliefs is feasible and would result in improved functional outcomes.

Busse, Jason W.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Mandel, Scott; Sanders, David; Schemitsch, Emil; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Wai, Eugene; Walter, Stephen D.

2011-01-01

361

Measurement of acceleration: a new method of monitoring neuromuscular function.  

PubMed

A new method for monitoring neuromuscular function based on measurement of acceleration is presented. The rationale behind the method is Newton's second law, stating that the acceleration is directly proportional to the force. For measurement of acceleration, a piezo-electric ceramic wafer was used. When this piezo electrode was fixed to the thumb, an electrical signal proportional to the acceleration was produced whenever the thumb moved in response to nerve stimulation. The electrical signal was registered and analysed in a Myograph 2000 neuromuscular transmission monitor. In 35 patients anaesthetized with halothane, train-of-four ratios measured with the accelerometer (ACT-TOF) were compared with simultaneous mechanical train-of-four ratios (FDT-TOF). Control ACT-TOF ratios were significantly higher than control FDT-TOF ratios: 116 +/- 12 and 98 +/- 4 (mean +/- s.d.), respectively. In five patients not given any relaxant during the anaesthetic procedure (20-60 min), both responses were remarkably constant. In 30 patients given vecuronium, a close linear relationship was found during recovery between ACT-TOF and FDT-TOF ratios. It is concluded that the method fulfils the basic requirements for a simple and reliable clinical monitoring tool. PMID:2830760

Viby-Mogensen, J; Jensen, E; Werner, M; Nielsen, H K

1988-01-01

362

Salmon fibrin treatment of spinal cord injury promotes functional recovery and density of serotonergic innervation  

PubMed Central

The neural degeneration caused by spinal cord injury leaves a cavity at the injury site that greatly inhibits repair. One approach to promoting repair is to fill the cavity with a scaffold to limit further damage and encourage regrowth. Injectable materials are advantageous scaffolds because they can be placed as a liquid in the lesion site then form a solid in vivo that precisely matches the contours of the lesion. Fibrin is one type of injectable scaffold, but risk of infection from blood borne pathogens has limited its use. We investigated the potential utility of salmon fibrin as an injectable scaffold to treat spinal cord injury since it lacks mammalian infectious agents and encourages greater neuronal extension in vitro than mammalian fibrin or Matrigel®, another injectable material. Female rats received a T9 dorsal hemisection injury and were treated with either salmon or human fibrin at the time of injury while a third group served as untreated controls. Locomotor function was assessed using the BBB scale, bladder function was analyzed by measuring residual urine, and sensory responses were tested by mechanical stimulation (von Frey hairs). Histological analyses quantified the glial scar, lesion volume, and serotonergic fiber density. Rats that received salmon fibrin exhibited significantly improved recovery of both locomotor and bladder function and a greater density of serotonergic innervation caudal to the lesion site without exacerbation of pain. Rats treated with salmon fibrin also exhibited less autophagia than those treated with human fibrin, potentially pointing to amelioration of sensory dysfunction. Glial scar formation and lesion size did not differ significantly among groups. The pattern and timing of salmon fibrin’s effects suggest that it acts on neuronal populations but not by stimulating long tract regeneration. Salmon fibrin clearly has properties distinct from those of mammalian fibrin and is a beneficial injectable scaffold for treatment of spinal cord injury.

Sharp, Kelli G.; Dickson, Amanda R.; Marchenko, Steve A.; Yee, Kelly M.; Emery, Pauline N.; Laidmae, Ivo; Uibo, Raivo; Sawyer, Evelyn S.; Steward, Oswald; Flanagan, Lisa A.

2012-01-01

363

Correlation functions in the holographic replica method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disorder has long been a difficult subject in condensed matter systems and the The replica method is a well-known tool in this field. Implementing the replica method the AdS/CFT correspondence has been proposed and discussed in literatures. We point out, for any CFT that has a holographic dual and to the leading order of the large- N expansion, the corrections due to the presence of random disorder to any connected correlation functions vanish identically, provided that the disorder strength is normalized as discussed in literatures and that the symmetry among replicas is unbroken. Same must hold true to any observables that are determined by the connected correlation functions through a linear relation. This behavior resembles strongly that of a free theory where disorder is coupled to the fundamental field. We demonstrate this by both the means of holographic principle and field theory analysis in a toy model. We also propose ways of evaluating the non-zero sub-leading effects perturbatively in terms of the disorder strength and discuss a novel possibility of defining a new holographic dual if we adopt a different normalization for the disorder strength.

Shang, Yanwen

2012-12-01

364

Brain lactate is an obligatory aerobic energy substrate for functional recovery after hypoxia: further in vitro validation.  

PubMed

This study used the rat hippocampal slice preparation and the monocarboxylate transporter inhibitor, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (4-CIN), to assess the obligatory role that lactate plays in fueling the recovery of synaptic function after hypoxia upon reoxygenation. At a concentration of 500 microM, 4-CIN blocked lactate-supported synaptic function in hippocampal slices under normoxic conditions in 15 min. The inhibitor had no effect on glucose-supported synaptic function. Of control hippocampal slices exposed to 10-min hypoxia, 77.8 +/- 6.8% recovered synaptic function after 30-min reoxygenation. Of slices supplemented with 500 microM 4-CIN, only 15 +/- 10.9% recovered synaptic function despite the large amount of lactate formed during the hypoxic period and the abundance of glucose present before, during, and after hypoxia. These results indicate that 4-CIN, when present during hypoxia and reoxygenation, blocks lactate transport from astrocytes, where the bulk of anaerobic lactate is formed, to neurons, where lactate is being utilized aerobically to support recovery of function after hypoxia. These results unequivocally validate that brain lactate is an obligatory aerobic energy substrate for posthypoxia recovery of function. PMID:9202338

Schurr, A; Payne, R S; Miller, J J; Rigor, B M

1997-07-01

365

Endogenous fraction and urinary recovery of purine derivatives obtained by different methods in Nellore cattle.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to assess the endogenous fraction of purine derivative (PD) excretion, urinary recovery, and intestinal digestibility of purines in Nellore heifers. For both experiments, 8 Nellore heifers fitted with ruminal and abomasal cannulas were allocated to two 4 × 4 Latin squares. The diets were based on corn silage and concentrate (60 and 40% DM basis, respectively); feces and urine samples were obtained by total collection, and abomasal DM flow was estimated using indigestible NDF as an internal marker. In Exp. I, 4 of the 8 heifers (BW 258 ± 20 kg) were also fitted with ileal cannula. The planned treatments were 4 different DMI: 1.2, 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4% of BW (DM basis). The endogenous losses and purine recovery as urinary PD were estimated using linear regression between daily urinary PD excretion (Y) and daily abomasal flow of purine bases (X), expressed in millimoles per kilogram of BW(0.75). In Exp. II, the same 8 Nellore heifers (BW of 296 ± 15 kg) were fed at 1.37% BW (DM basis). The treatments were the infusion of purines (RNA from torula yeast, type VI, Sigma) into the abomasum in increasing amounts (0, 33, 66, and 100 mmol/d). All statistical analyses were performed using the PROC MIXED procedure in SAS. In Exp. I, the DMI range was 1.16 to 1.84% of BW and did not affect (P > 0.05) the apparent RNA digestibility in the small intestine, which had a mean of 75.6%, and a true digestibility of 93.0%. The mean ratio of the N-RNA to the total-N in the ruminal bacteria was 0.137. The daily urinary PD excretion (Y, mmol/kg of BW(0.75)) was a function of RNA flow in the abomasum (X, mmol/kg of BW(0.75)): Y = 0.860X + 0.460, where 0.860 and 0.460 were the PD recovery of purines and the endogenous fraction (in mmol/kg of BW(0.75)), respectively. In Exp. II, the daily urinary PD excretion was a function of RNA flow in the abomasum: Y = 0.741X + 0.301, where 0.741 and 0.301 were the recovery of PD in urine of infused purines and the endogenous losses (in mmol/kg of BW(0.75)), respectively. In conclusion, our data suggest that in Nellore heifers the respective values of endogenous PD excretion (mmol/kg of BW(0.75)), urinary recovery of the purines absorbed in the abomasum, and true digestibility of RNA in the small intestine were 0.30, 0.80, and 0.93. PMID:20889688

Barbosa, A M; Valadares, R F D; Valadares Filho, S C; Pina, D S; Detmann, E; Leão, M I

2010-10-01

366

Recovery from aphasia as a function of language therapy in an early bilingual patient demonstrated by fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about the recovery of language functions in bilingual aphasic patients who suffer from left-hemispheric stroke is scarce. Here, we present the case of an early bilingual patient (German\\/French) with chronic aphasia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate neural correlates of language performance during an overt picture naming task in German and French (a) 32 months after

M. Meinzer; J. Obleser; T. Flaisch; C. Eulitz; B. Rockstroh

2007-01-01

367

Effect of Cell Therapy on Recovery of Cognitive Functions in Rats during the Delayed Period after Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of systemic transplantation of human stem cells from various tissues on cognitive functions of the brain\\u000a in rats during the delayed period after experimental brain injury. Stem cells were shown to increase the efficacy of medical\\u000a treatment with metabolic and symptomatic drugs for recovery of cognitive functions. They accelerated the formation of the\\u000a conditioned defense response.

L. M. Roshal; A. F. Tzyb; L. N. Pavlova; G. N. Soushkevitch; J. B. Semenova; L. P. Javoronkov; O. I. Kolganova; A. G. Konoplyannikov; A. S. Shevchuk; V. V. Yujakov; O. V. Karaseva; T. F. Ivanova; T. A. Chernyshova; O. A. Konoplyannikova; L. N. Bandurko; M. V. Marey; G. T. Sukhikh

2009-01-01

368

Local injection of lentivirus encoding LINGO-1 shRNA promotes functional recovery in rats with complete spinal cord transaction.  

PubMed

Study Design. We used a complete spinal cord transaction model and locomotor function, histological and immunohistochemical examinations to evaluate the effects of local injection of lentivirus/LINGO-1-shRNA (VL) on spinal cord injury (SCI) rats.Objective. To demonstrate the neuroregenerative and neuroprotective effects of LINGO-1 RNAi on complete transaction SCI rats.Summary of Background Data. LINGO-1 has been reported as a negative regulator of axonal sprouting and its antagonist was determined to improved functional outcomes in SCI rats. However, it has not been assessed whether blockade of LINGO-1 mediated by lentivirus vectors could stimulate neural recovery after SCI.Methods. Complete spinal cord transaction was made at T10 level. Suspension of lentivirus vectors encoding LINGO-1-shRNA was injected into the lesion gap. Controls received control vectors (VC) in the same manner and the sham group was subjected to laminectomy only. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale and surface righting reflex test were used to evaluate functional outcomes. Finally, the spinal cords were harvested for histological and immunohistochemical analysis.Results. The treatment with VL improved BBB scores and surface righting reflex after SCI. Tissue repair was facilitated and the cavity area was significantly decreased in VL treated animals. More sprouting and myelinated nerve fibers were detected within the injured site in the VL group as compared to the control. In addition, the number of survival neurons and oligodendrocytes around the epicenter was notably higher under the VL condition.Conclusion. Local injection of lentivirus/LINGO-1-shRNA after complete transaction of spinal cord resulted in meaningful histological and functional outcomes in rats. The mechanism of VL protection may be related to its promotion of axonal sprouting, remyelination and cell survival. PMID:23759802

Cen, Jingsheng; Wu, Hongfu; Wang, Jue; Ren, Xianyue; Zhang, Hongwu; Wang, Jingnan; Wan, Yong; Deng, Yubin

2013-06-11

369

The efficacy of antioxidants in functional recovery of spinal cord injured rats: an experimental study.  

PubMed

A total of 30 female Sprague-Dawley rats (180-220 g) subjected to spinal cord injury (SCI) were divided into three groups of ten rats each. Group 1 served as control (SCI + Saline), Group 2 received daily dose of ascorbic acid 2,000 mg/kg body weight and group 3 rats received alpha tocopherol daily with the dose of 2,000 mg/kg body weight for 14 days. The Spontaneous coordinate activity (SCA), Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) and Tarlov locomotor scores were used to assess functional recovery of SCI rats. Compared to group 1, group 2 showed statistically insignificant improvement in the SCA, BBB and Tarlov scores at the end of the study. Compared to group 1, group 3 showed statistically significant improvement in the SCA (P < 0.001), BBB (P < 0.001) and Tarlov (P < 0.01) scores at the end of the study. In conclusion, the administration of alpha-tocopherol enhances the reparative effects against SCI and it is more effective than ascorbic acid. PMID:22068217

Robert, Asirvatham Alwin; Zamzami, Marwan; Sam, Asirvatham Edwin; Al Jadid, Maher; Al Mubarak, Sultan

2011-11-08

370

Acrylamide-induced effects on general and neurospecific cellular functions during exposure and recovery.  

PubMed

Basal cytotoxicity, morphological changes and alterations in cell physiological and neurochemical functions were studied in differentiated human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells during exposure to acrylamide and during a subsequent recovery period after cessation of exposure. Acrylamide induced a 20% reduction in the number of neurites per cell at 0.21 mmol/L and 20% decrease in the protein synthesis rate at 0.17 mmol/L after 72 h of exposure. Furthermore, the basal level of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and receptor-activated (carbachol, 0.1 mmol/L) Ca2+ fluxes increased by 49% and 21%, respectively, at 0.25 mmol/L. These observations were made at noncytotoxic acrylamide concentrations, signifying specific neurotoxic alterations. Forty-eight hours after cessation of acrylamide exposure, the SH-SY5Y cells had recovered, i.e., the number of neurites per cell as well as the basal level of [Ca2+]i and rate of protein synthesis were comparable to those of control cells. The general calpain inhibitor calpeptin decreased the acrylamide-induced (0.5 mmol/L) neurite degeneration, determined as reduction in number of neurites per cell, from 52% to 17% as compared to control cells, which further supports the hypothesis that an increased [Ca2+]i plays a significant role for acrylamide-induced axonopathy. PMID:12661986

Nordin-Andersson, M; Walum, E; Kjellstrand, P; Forsby, A

2003-02-01

371

Functional recovery after decompressive operation for thoracic and lumbar spine fractures.  

PubMed

A series of 105 operative cases of thoracic and lumbar spine trauma is presented. All patients underwent an anterior decompression and fusion via the lateral extracavity approach with or without an accompanying posterior internal stabilization procedure (modified Weiss springs or Harrington distraction rods). All patients were allowed to plateau neurologically before reconstructive spine surgery was performed. The patient's neurological grade at the time of surgery and after recovery was assessed according to a seven-grade scale presented herein. None of the 34 patients with a motor and sensory complete myelopathy recovered any function below the level in injury. Of the 10 motor-complete patients with some sensory perception, 4 improved neurologically; however, only 1 of these improved to a state of limited ambulation. The rest remained nonambulatory. Of the 33 patients with significantly disabling incomplete motor and sensory myelopathies, 17 improved to a level of minimal neurological deficit; only 3 patients were left nonambulatory. Of the 21 patients whose physical finding demonstrated a minimal neurological deficit preoperatively, 17 recovered to a normal neurological state. Seven patients were neurologically normal preoperatively and were unchanged postoperatively. Reconstruction of the spine with an anterior decompression and an accompanying stabilization procedure, when appropriate, leads to a better neurological outcome than that expected with either a conservative, nonoperative approach or an operative posterior stabilization approach. PMID:3785624

Benzel, E C; Larson, S J

1986-11-01

372

Effects of Rolipram on Adult Rat Oligodendrocytes and Functional Recovery after Contusive Cervical Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Traumatic human spinal cord injury causes devastating and long-term hardships. These are due to the irreparable primary mechanical injury and secondary injury cascade. In particular, oligodendrocyte cell death, white matter axon damage, spared axon demyelination, and the ensuing dysfunction in action potential conduction lead to the initial deficits and impair functional recovery. For these reasons, and that oligodendrocyte and axon survival may be related, various neuroprotective strategies after SCI are being investigated. We previously demonstrated that oligodendrocytes in the adult rat epicenter ventrolateral funiculus express 3?-5?-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent phosphodiesterase 4 subtypes and that their death was attenuated up to 3 days after contusive cervical spinal cord injury when rolipram, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4, was administered. Here, we report that 1) there are more oligodendrocyte somata in the adult rat epicenter ventrolateral funiculus, 2) descending and ascending axonal conductivity in the ventrolateral funiculus improves, and that 3) there are fewer hindlimb footfall errors during grid-walking at 5 weeks after contusive cervical spinal cord injury when rolipram is delivered for 2 weeks. This is the first demonstration of improved descending and ascending long-tract axonal conductivity across a spinal cord injury with this pharmacological approach. Since descending long-tract axonal conductivity did not return to normal, further evaluations of the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic window of rolipram as well as optimal combinations are necessary before consideration for neuroprotection in humans with spinal cord injury.

Beaumont, Eric; Whitaker, Christopher M.; Burke, Darlene A.; Hetman, Michal; Onifer, Stephen M.

2009-01-01

373

Quantitative, functional, morphological and ultrastructural recovery of platelets as predictor for cryopreservation.  

PubMed

Cryopreservation of platelets is of great interest, since it could extend the shelf life of therapeutic platelet concentrates and facilitate stockpiling and inventory control in blood banking. Despite the use of many cryopreservation procedures the optimal cryopreservation procedure is not defined yet. We have compared the cryopreservation of human platelets by various protocols employing controlled-rate and non-controlled-rate freezing procedures in combination with different concentrations of DMSO (6% and 10%) or 5% DMSO + 6% HES combination. After storage for 1 to 3 months, samples were thawed and analyzed. Measurements included cell recovery, platelet viability according to hypotonic shock response (HSR), platelet aggregation with ADP, morphological and ultrastructural properties of defrozen platelets. Our findings show that the application of our original procedure for controlled-rate freezing consisting of six cooling steps (cooling rate 1 degree C/min) with compensation of released heat of fusion (cooling rate 2 degrees C/min) has significantly influenced the quality of thawed platelets. At the same time, a concentration of 6% DMSO proved to be the most effective. In summary, cryopreservation of human platelets using controlled-rate freezing procedure in combination with lower (6%) DMSO concentration resulted in less damage from freezing and higher recovered function of platelets. PMID:12803111

Balint, Bela; Vuceti?, Dusan; Trajkovi?-Laki?, Zlatija; Petakov, Marijana; Bugarski, Diana; Brajuskovi?, Goran; Taseski, Jovan

2002-01-01

374

Mobilized peripheral blood cells administered intravenously produce functional recovery in stroke.  

PubMed

Filgratism (granulocyte colony stimulating factor, G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) have replaced bone marrow (BM) as a preferred source of autologous stem cells, in light of the faster hematologic recovery and lesser supportive care requirement exhibited by PBPC transplants. Other hematopoietic stem cells, like the human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells (hUCBs), and nonhematopoietic stem cells have been shown to improve motor function in rodent models of injury and degenerative disease. In the present study we transplanted either G-CSF-mobilized PBPCs or hUCBs in rats 24 h after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and assessed their behavioral abnormalities in spontaneous activity and spontaneous motor asymmetry. In both transplanted groups of rats we observed a significant reduction of the stroke-induced hyperactivity compared with nontransplanted, stroked animals. In addition, transplantation of G-CSF PBPC and hUCB cells prevented the development of extensive motor asymmetry. Our findings raise the possibility that PBPCs could provide a novel transplantation therapy to treat stroke. PMID:12911133

Willing, Alison E; Vendrame, Martina; Mallery, Jennifer; Cassady, C Jordan; Davis, Cyndy D; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Sanberg, Paul R

2003-01-01

375

Development of novel EOR (enhanced oil recovery) methods: Foams for mobility control in surfactant flooding  

SciTech Connect

The use of foam as a novel method for mobility control in surfactant flooding was investigated. This report presents an initial evaluation of the potential application of foam as a mobility control agent behind a low concentration surfactant flood. This enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process involves the injection of alternate slugs of gas and surfactant solution as drive fluids behind the active surfactant slug front as an alternative to the use of polymers in order to eliminate unfavorable surfactant-polymer interactions. Experiments were performed to determine in situ foam generation and propagation using varying concentrations of surfactants in a Berea sandstone core. An apparatus was designed and built to accurately measure differential pressures along sections of the core. Bottle or shake tests using the various concentrations of surfactants and experiments to determine the effect of foam flow on reducing mobility and involved steady-state measurement of differential pressures in the presence of foam were performed. Coreflood displacement experiments in the presence of oil were performed using varying concentrations of surfactants to compare various injection modes and oil recovery efficiency. 15 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

Llave, F.M.; Sturm, J.M.; Olsen, D.K.

1989-01-01

376

Screening and laboratory flow studies for evaluating EOR (enhanced oil recovery) methods: Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Numerous steps are involved in evaluating enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods for field application. Technical screening guides should be consulted for initial determination of applicability, followed by a comprehensive analysis of fluid, rock, and rock-fluid interactions. Before displacement studies, decisions concerning type of core, core size, and experimental apparatus are made considering scaling laws, dispersive effects, duplication of reservoir conditions, and the unique parameters of the particular EOR method being considered. Experimental flooding techniques and interpretation of subsequent results for each type of EOR method are discussed in this report. EOR methods discussed include polymer flooding, surfactant-polymer flooding, alkaline flooding, thermal, and miscible and immiscible gas displacement. The critical flow study parameters are considered for each method. What can be learned from each type of coreflood experiment is described, and limitations are given. Specific techniques used in carrying out each type of coreflood experiment are presented. The coreflooding aspects of emerging EOR technologies, such as microbial methods and emulsion blocking in steamflooding, are examined. 82 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs.

Goodlett, G.O. Jr.; Honarpour, M.M.; Sarathi, P.; Chung, T.H.; Olsen, D.K.

1986-11-01

377

Spontaneous recovery of hindlimb movement in completely spinal cord transected mice: a comparison of assessment methods and conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:To compare results obtained with a variety of locomotor rating scales in Th9\\/10 spinal cord transected (Tx) mice.Objectives:To assess spontaneous recovery with a variety of rating scales to find the most sensitive methods for assessing recovery levels in Tx mice and differences associated with gender and condition.Setting:Laval University Medical Center, Neuroscience Unit & Laval University, Department of Anatomy and

R V Ung; N P Lapointe; C Tremblay; A Larouche; P A Guertin; PA Guertin

2007-01-01

378

Epidural spinal-cord stimulation facilitates recovery of functional walking following incomplete spinal-cord injury.  

PubMed

We investigated a novel treatment paradigm for developing functional ambulation in wheelchair-dependent individuals with chronic, incomplete spinal-cord injury. By coordinating epidural stimulation of the dorsal structures of the spinal cord with partial weight bearing treadmill therapy, we observed improvement in treadmill and over-ground ambulation in an individual with chronic incomplete tetraplegia. The application of partial weight-bearing therapy alone was not sufficient to achieve functional ambulation over ground, though treadmill ambulation improved significantly. Combining epidural spinal-cord stimulation (ESCS, T10-T12 vertebral levels) with partial weight-bearing therapy resulted in further improvement during treadmill ambulation. Moreover, the combination of therapies facilitated the transfer of the learned gait into over ground ambulation. Performance improvements were elicited by applying continuous, charge-balanced, monophasic pulse trains at a frequency of 40-60 Hz, a pulse duration of 800 micros, and an amplitude determined by the midpoint (50%) between the sensory and motor threshold values. The participant initially reported a reduction in sense of effort for over ground walking from 8/10 to 3/10 (Borg scale), and was able to double his walking speed. After several weeks of over ground training, he reached maximum walking speeds of 0.35 m/s, and was able to ambulate over 325 m. We propose that ESCS facilitated locomotor recovery in this patient by augmenting the use-dependent plasticity created by partial weight bearing therapy. Confirmation of these promising results in a controlled study of groups of spinal-cord-injured subjects is warranted. PMID:15068185

Carhart, Michael R; He, Jiping; Herman, Richard; D'Luzansky, S; Willis, Wayne T

2004-03-01

379

Whole-body vibration improves functional recovery in spinal cord injured rats.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a relatively novel form of exercise used to improve neuromuscular performance in healthy individuals. Its usefulness as a therapy for patients with neurological disorders, in particular spinal cord injury (SCI), has received little attention in clinical settings and, surprisingly, even less in animal SCI models. We performed severe compression SCI at a low-thoracic level in Wistar rats followed by daily WBV starting 7 (10 rats) or 14 (10 rats) days after injury (WBV7 and WBV14, respectively) and continued over a 12-week post-injury period. Rats with SCI but no WBV training (sham, 10 rats) and intact animals (10 rats) served as controls. Compared to sham-treated rats, WBV did not improve BBB score, plantar stepping, or ladder stepping during the 12-week period. Accordingly, WBV did not significantly alter plantar H-reflex, lesion volume, serotonergic input to the lumbar spinal cord, nor cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs to lumbar motoneurons at 12 weeks after SCI. However, compared to sham, WBV14, but not WBV7, significantly improved body weight support (rump-height index) during overground locomotion and overall recovery between 6-12 weeks and also restored the density of synaptic terminals in the lumbar spinal cord at 12 weeks. Most remarkably, WBV14 led to a significant improvement of bladder function at 6-12 weeks after injury. These findings provide the first evidence for functional benefits of WBV in an animal SCI model and warrant further preclinical investigations to determine mechanisms underpinning this noninvasive, inexpensive, and easily delivered potential rehabilitation therapy for SCI. PMID:23157611

Wirth, Felicitas; Schempf, Greta; Stein, Gregor; Wellmann, Katharina; Manthou, Marilena; Scholl, Carolin; Sidorenko, Malina; Semler, Oliver; Eisel, Leonie; Harrach, Rachida; Angelova, Srebrina; Jaminet, Patrick; Ankerne, Janina; Ashrafi, Mahak; Ozsoy, Ozlem; Ozsoy, Umut; Schubert, Harald; Abdulla, Diana; Dunlop, Sarah A; Angelov, Doychin N; Irintchev, Andrey; Schönau, Eckhard

2013-04-03

380

Role of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase in Postischemic Recovery of Heart Contractile Function  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) which are converted to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) by soluble epoxide hydrolase (Ephx2, sEH). To examine the functional role of sEH in the heart, mice with targeted disruption of the Ephx2 gene were studied. Hearts from sEH null mice have undetectable levels of sEH mRNA and protein and cannot convert EETs to DHETs. sEH null mice have normal heart anatomy and basal contractile function, but have higher fatty acid epoxide:diol ratios in plasma and cardiomyocyte cell culture media compared with wild type (WT). sEH null hearts have improved recovery of left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and less infarction compared with WT hearts after 20 minutes ischemia. Perfusion with the putative EET receptor antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (10 to 100 nmol/L) before ischemia abolishes this cardioprotective phenotype. Inhibitor studies demonstrate that perfusion with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitors wortmannin (200 nmol/L) or LY294002 (5 ?mol/L), the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP) inhibitor glibenclamide (1 ?mol/L), the mitochondrial KATP (mitoKATP) inhibitor 5-hydroxydecanoate (100 to 200 ?mol/L), or the Ca2+-sensitive K+ channel (KCa) inhibitor paxilline (10 ?mol/L) abolishes the cardioprotection in sEH null hearts. Consistent with increased activation of the PI3K cascade, sEH null mice exhibit increased cardiac expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) phospho-protein after ischemia. Together, these data suggest that targeted disruption of sEH increases the availability of cardioprotective EETs that work by activating PI3K signaling pathways and K+ channels.

Seubert, John M.; Sinal, Christopher J.; Graves, Joan; DeGraff, Laura M.; Bradbury, J. Alyce; Lee, Craig R.; Goralski, Kerry; Carey, Michelle A.; Luria, Ayala; Newman, John W.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Falck, John R.; Roberts, Holly; Rockman, Howard A.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Zeldin, Darryl C.

2007-01-01

381

Functional recovery of supersensitive dopamine receptors after intrastriatal grafts of fetal substantia nigra  

SciTech Connect

Interruption of the ascending dopamine neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway, by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion in rats, produced a significant loss of the dopamine transport complexes labeled with the phencyclidine derivative (3H)BTCP. This loss of dopamine innervation in the striatum was present at least 12 to 14 months after lesioning and was functionally manifested by ipsilateral rotation of the animals in response to amphetamine. In these same animals, in comparison to controls, there was a significant increase in the number (Bmax) of (3H)SCH 23390-labeled D-1 receptors in the striatum (36.7%) and the substantia nigra (35.1%) and a 54.4% increase in the number (Bmax) of (3H)sulpiride-labeled striatal D-2 receptors without an apparent change in affinity (Kd). Ten to twelve months after the transplantation of homologous fetal substantia nigra into the denervated striatum, there was a significant decrease in amphetamine-induced turning behavior. In these animals, there was an ingrowth of dopamine nerve terminals in the striatum as demonstrated by a return of (3H)BTCP binding. Accompanying this reinnervation was the normalization of D-1 and D-2 receptors to control values in the striatum as well as the return of D-1 receptors to prelesion densities in the substantia nigra. In a subgroup of transplanted rats, amphetamine continued to induce ipsilateral turning. In these animals both D-1 and D-2 receptors remained supersensitive. These results support the hypothesis that the functional recovery of transplanted animals is due, in part, to reinnervation of the striatum. In addition, long-term alterations in receptor density may be related to the behavioral deficits that are associated with the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat.

Dawson, T.M.; Dawson, V.L.; Gage, F.H.; Fisher, L.J.; Hunt, M.A.; Wamsley, J.K. (Univ. of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City (USA))

1991-03-01

382

Folic Acid Enhances Early Functional Recovery in a Piglet Model of Pediatric Head Injury  

PubMed Central

For stroke and spinal cord injury, folic acid supplementation has been shown to enhance neurodevelopment and to provide neuroprotection. We hypothesized that folic acid would reduce brain injury and improve neurological outcome in a neonatal piglet model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), using 4 experimental groups of 3- to 5-day-old female piglets. Two groups were intubated, anesthetized and had moderate brain injury induced by rapid axial head rotation without impact. One group of injured (Inj) animals received folic acid (Fol; 80 ?g/kg) by intraperitoneal (IP) injection 15 min following injury, and then daily for 6 days (Inj + Fol; n = 7). The second group of injured animals received an IP injection of saline (Sal) at the same time points (Inj + Sal; n = 8). Two uninjured (Uninj) control groups (Uninj + Fol, n = 8; Uninj + Sal, n = 7) were intubated, anesthetized and received folic acid (80 ?g/kg) or saline by IP injection at the same time points as the injured animals following a sham procedure. Animals underwent neurobehavioral and cognitive testing on days 1 and 4 following injury to assess behavior, memory, learning and problem solving. Serum folic acid and homocysteine levels were collected prior to injury and again before euthanasia. The piglets were euthanized 6 days following injury, and their brains were perfusion fixed for histological analysis. Folic acid levels were significantly higher in both Fol groups on day 6. Homocysteine levels were not affected by treatment. On day 1 following injury, the Inj + Fol group showed significantly more exploratory interest, and better motor function, learning and problem solving compared to the Inj + Sal group. Inj + Fol animals had a significantly lower cognitive composite dysfunction score compared to all other groups on day 1. These functional improvements were not seen on day 4 following injury. Axonal injury measured by ?-amyloid precursor protein staining 6 days after injury was not affected by treatment. These results suggest that folic acid may enhance early functional recovery in this piglet model of pediatric head injury. This is the first study to describe the application of complex functional testing to assess an intervention outcome in a swine model of TBI.

Naim, Maryam Y.; Friess, Stuart; Smith, Colin; Ralston, Jill; Ryall, Karen; Helfaer, Mark A.; Margulies, Susan S.

2011-01-01

383

Analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage: a Rayleigh-based method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) is an important technique for energy conservation. A controlling factor for the economic feasibility of HT-ATES is the recovery efficiency. Due to the effects of density-driven flow (free convection), HT-ATES systems applied in permeable aquifers typically have lower recovery efficiencies than conventional (low-temperature) ATES systems. For a reliable estimation of the recovery efficiency it is, therefore, important to take the effect of density-driven flow into account. A numerical evaluation of the prime factors influencing the recovery efficiency of HT-ATES systems is presented. Sensitivity runs evaluating the effects of aquifer properties, as well as operational variables, were performed to deduce the most important factors that control the recovery efficiency. A correlation was found between the dimensionless Rayleigh number (a measure of the relative strength of free convection) and the calculated recovery efficiencies. Based on a modified Rayleigh number, two simple analytical solutions are proposed to calculate the recovery efficiency, each one covering a different range of aquifer thicknesses. The analytical solutions accurately reproduce all numerically modeled scenarios with an average error of less than 3 %. The proposed method can be of practical use when considering or designing an HT-ATES system.

Schout, Gilian; Drijver, Benno; Gutierrez-Neri, Mariene; Schotting, Ruud

2013-10-01

384

Influence of recovery methods and extenders on bull epididymal spermatozoa quality.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two extraction methods in combination with two different extenders in bull epididymal sperm collection. Testes from 23 sexually mature Limousine bulls were collected at the abattoir. Epididymal sperm recovery was performed using both the float-up (FL) and the retrograde flushing (RF) technique. Within extraction methods, half testes were processed with a Tris egg yolk extender and half with a Tris egg yolk-free extender. Sperm concentration, motility, viability and morphology were evaluated. Sperm concentration was not significantly different between methods. Flushing technique was significantly better than the FL method in terms of sperm quality, considering total motility (80.3 ± 2.3% vs 71.6 ± 2.0%, p < 0.001, respectively) and viability (84.5 ± 1.5% vs 77.2 ± 1.3%, p < 0.001, respectively). Egg yolk influenced positively motility and morphology in the FL method, whereas decreased viability in flushed samples. Results suggest the use of the RF technique to collect cattle epididymal sperm. PMID:22107087

Turri, F; Madeddu, M; Gliozzi, T M; Gandini, G; Pizzi, F

2011-11-22

385

Whey Proteins Are More Efficient than Casein in the Recovery of Muscle Functional Properties following a Casting Induced Muscle Atrophy  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whey supplementation, as compared to the standard casein diet, on the recovery of muscle functional properties after a casting-induced immobilization period. After an initial (I0) evaluation of the contractile properties of the plantarflexors (isometric torque-frequency relationship, concentric power-velocity relationship and a fatigability test), the ankle of 20 male adult rats was immobilized by casting for 8 days. During this period, rats were fed a standard diet with 13% of casein (CAS). After cast removal, rats received either the same diet or a diet with 13% of whey proteins (WHEY). A control group (n?=?10), non-immobilized but pair-fed to the two other experimental groups, was also studied and fed with the CAS diet. During the recovery period, contractile properties were evaluated 7 (R7), 21 (R21) and 42 days (R42) after cast removal. The immobilization procedure induced a homogeneous depression of average isometric force at R7 (CAS: ? 19.0±8.2%; WHEY: ? 21.7±8.4%; P<0.001) and concentric power (CAS: ? 26.8±16.4%, P<0.001; WHEY: ? 13.5±21.8%, P<0.05) as compared to I0. Conversely, no significant alteration of fatigability was observed. At R21, isometric force had fully recovered in WHEY, especially for frequencies above 50 Hz, whereas it was still significantly depressed in CAS, where complete recovery occurred only at R42. Similarly, recovery of concentric power was faster at R21 in the 500?700°/s range in the WHEY group. These results suggest that recovery kinetics varied between diets, the diet with the whey proteins promoting a faster recovery of isometric force and concentric power output as compared to the casein diet. These effects were more specifically observed at force level and movement velocities that are relevant for functional abilities, and thus natural locomotion.

Martin, Vincent; Ratel, Sebastien; Siracusa, Julien; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Combaret, Lydie; Guillet, Christelle; Dardevet, Dominique

2013-01-01

386

Whey Proteins Are More Efficient than Casein in the Recovery of Muscle Functional Properties following a Casting Induced Muscle Atrophy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whey supplementation, as compared to the standard casein diet, on the recovery of muscle functional properties after a casting-induced immobilization period. After an initial (I0) evaluation of the contractile properties of the plantarflexors (isometric torque-frequency relationship, concentric power-velocity relationship and a fatigability test), the ankle of 20 male adult rats was immobilized by casting for 8 days. During this period, rats were fed a standard diet with 13% of casein (CAS). After cast removal, rats received either the same diet or a diet with 13% of whey proteins (WHEY). A control group (n?=?10), non-immobilized but pair-fed to the two other experimental groups, was also studied and fed with the CAS diet. During the recovery period, contractile properties were evaluated 7 (R7), 21 (R21) and 42 days (R42) after cast removal. The immobilization procedure induced a homogeneous depression of average isometric force at R7 (CAS: - 19.0±8.2%; WHEY: - 21.7±8.4%; P<0.001) and concentric power (CAS: - 26.8±16.4%, P<0.001; WHEY: - 13.5±21.8%, P<0.05) as compared to I0. Conversely, no significant alteration of fatigability was observed. At R21, isometric force had fully recovered in WHEY, especially for frequencies above 50 Hz, whereas it was still significantly depressed in CAS, where complete recovery occurred only at R42. Similarly, recovery of concentric power was faster at R21 in the 500-700°/s range in the WHEY group. These results suggest that recovery kinetics varied between diets, the diet with the whey proteins promoting a faster recovery of isometric force and concentric power output as compared to the casein diet. These effects were more specifically observed at force level and movement velocities that are relevant for functional abilities, and thus natural locomotion. PMID:24069411

Martin, Vincent; Ratel, Sébastien; Siracusa, Julien; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Combaret, Lydie; Guillet, Christelle; Dardevet, Dominique

2013-09-19

387

Determinants of short and long term functional recovery after hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly: role of inflammatory markers  

PubMed Central

Background Hospitalization for older patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with functional decline. Little is know about the relationship between inflammatory markers and determinants of functional status in this population. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, C-reactive protein (CRP) and Activities of Daily Living, and to identify risk factors associated with one year mortality or hospital readmission. Methods 301 consecutive patients hospitalized for CAP (mean age 73.9 ± 5.3 years) in a University affiliated hospital over 18 month period were included. All patients were evaluated on admission to identify baseline demographic, microbiological, cognitive and functional characteristics. Serum levels for TNF-? and CRP were collected at the same time. Reassessment of functional status at discharge, and monthly thereafter till 3 months post discharge was obtained and compared with preadmission level to document loss or recovery of functionality. Outcome was assessed by the composite endpoint of hospital readmission or death from any cause up to one year post hospital discharge. Results 36% of patients developed functional decline at discharge and 11% had persistent functional impairment at 3 months. Serum TNF-? (odds ratio [OR] 1.12, 95% CI 1.08–1.15; p < 0.001) and the Charlson Index (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.71; p = 0.001) but not age, CRP, or cognitive status were independently associated with loss of functionality at the time of hospital discharge. Lack of recovery in functional status at 3 months was associated with impaired cognitive ability and preadmission comorbidities. In Cox regression analysis, persistent functional impairment at 3 months, impaired cognitive function, and the Charlson Index were highly predictive of one year hospital readmission or death. Conclusion Serum TNF-? levels can be useful in determining patients at risk for functional impairment following hospitalization from CAP. Old patients with impaired cognitive function and preexisting comorbidities who exhibit delay in functional recovery at 3 months post discharge may be at high risk for hospital readmission and death. With the scarcity of resources, a future risk stratification system based on these findings might be proven helpful to target older patients who are likely to benefit from interventional strategies.

El Solh, Ali; Pineda, Lilibeth; Bouquin, Pam; Mankowski, Corey

2006-01-01

388

Efficient recovery-based error estimation for the smoothed finite element method for smooth and singular linear elasticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An error control technique aimed to assess the quality of smoothed finite element approximations is presented in this paper. Finite element techniques based on strain smoothing appeared in 2007 were shown to provide significant advantages compared to conventional finite element approximations. In particular, a widely cited strength of such methods is improved accuracy for the same computational cost. Yet, few attempts have been made to directly assess the quality of the results obtained during the simulation by evaluating an estimate of the discretization error. Here we propose a recovery type error estimator based on an enhanced recovery technique. The salient features of the recovery are: enforcement of local equilibrium and, for singular problems a "smooth + singular" decomposition of the recovered stress. We evaluate the proposed estimator on a number of test cases from linear elastic structural mechanics and obtain efficient error estimations whose effectivities, both at local and global levels, are improved compared to recovery procedures not implementing these features.

González-Estrada, Octavio A.; Natarajan, Sundararajan; Ródenas, Juan José; Nguyen-Xuan, Hung; Bordas, Stéphane P. A.

2013-07-01

389

Accelerated radiation damping for increased spin equilibrium (ARISE): a new method for controlling the recovery of longitudinal magnetization.  

PubMed

Control of the longitudinal magnetization in fast gradient-echo (GRE) sequences is an important factor in enabling the high efficiency of balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) sequences. We introduce a new method for accelerating the return of the longitudinal magnetization to the +z-axis that is independent of externally applied RF pulses and shows improved off-resonance performance. The accelerated radiation damping for increased spin equilibrium (ARISE) method uses an external feedback circuit to strengthen the radiation damping (RD) field. The enhanced RD field rotates the magnetization back to the +z-axis at a rate faster than T(1) relaxation. The method is characterized in GRE phantom imaging at 3T as a function of feedback gain, phase, and duration, and compared with results from numerical simulations of the Bloch equations incorporating RD. A short period of feedback (10 ms) during a refocused interval of a crushed GRE sequence allowed greater than 99% recovery of the longitudinal magnetization when very little T(2) relaxation had time to occur. An appropriate application might be to improve navigated sequences. Unlike conventional flip-back schemes, the ARISE "flip-back" is generated by the spins themselves, thereby offering a potentially useful building block for enhancing GRE sequences. PMID:18956463

Huang, Susie Y; Witzel, Thomas; Wald, Lawrence L

2008-11-01

390

The effects of amphetamine on recovery of function in animal models of cerebral injury: A critical appraisal  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic strategies to promote recovery from stroke are now beginning to utilize current knowledge of neural plasticity and the neuromodulatory role of physical rehabilitation. Current interests are also focused on adjuvant therapies that may enhance plasticity associated with recovery and rehabilitation. Amphetamine was one of the earliest pharmacological interventions and continues to show promising results as an adjuvant treatment for recovery of function in pre-clinical animal studies. This drug is a potent modulator of neurological function and cortical excitation, acting primarily through norepinephrine and dopamine mechanisms to enhance arousal and attention, and thus, to facilitate learning of motor skills. Although the results from the pre-clinical studies have been primarily positive, they have not translated well to clinical trials, which have yielded mixed results. This review addresses some of the conflicting evidence from pre-clinical studies conducted between 1982 and 2008 in order to better understand how to optimize the clinical application of amphetamine as an adjuvant therapy for stroke recovery. Among many of the factors that relate to differences in outcome, it is likely that both amphetamine dose and the timing of the intervention with respect to the time of injury affected the outcome.

Barbay, Scott; Nudo, Randolph J.

2010-01-01

391

Muscle function recovery in golden retriever muscular dystrophy after AAV1-U7 exon skipping.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder resulting from lesions of the gene encoding dystrophin. These usually consist of large genomic deletions, the extents of which are not correlated with the severity of the phenotype. Out-of-frame deletions give rise to dystrophin deficiency and severe DMD phenotypes, while internal deletions that produce in-frame mRNAs encoding truncated proteins can lead to a milder myopathy known as Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). Widespread restoration of dystrophin expression via adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated exon skipping has been successfully demonstrated in the mdx mouse model and in cardiac muscle after percutaneous transendocardial delivery in the golden retriever muscular dystrophy dog (GRMD) model. Here, a set of optimized U7snRNAs carrying antisense sequences designed to rescue dystrophin were delivered into GRMD skeletal muscles by AAV1 gene transfer using intramuscular injection or forelimb perfusion. We show sustained correction of the dystrophic phenotype in extended muscle areas and partial recovery of muscle strength. Muscle architecture was improved and fibers displayed the hallmarks of mature and functional units. A 5-year follow-up ruled out immune rejection drawbacks but showed a progressive decline in the number of corrected muscle fibers, likely due to the persistence of a mild dystrophic process such as occurs in BMD phenotypes. Although AAV-mediated exon skipping was shown safe and efficient to rescue a truncated dystrophin, it appears that recurrent treatments would be required to maintain therapeutic benefit ahead of the progression of the disease. PMID:22968479

Vulin, Adeline; Barthélémy, Inès; Goyenvalle, Aurélie; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Beley, Cyriaque; Griffith, Graziella; Benchaouir, Rachid; le Hir, Maëva; Unterfinger, Yves; Lorain, Stéphanie; Dreyfus, Patrick; Voit, Thomas; Carlier, Pierre; Blot, Stéphane; Garcia, Luis

2012-09-11

392

Attenuating the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Improves Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous CNS myelin abnormalities; yet, its direct role in traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced demyelination is not known. The UPR is an evolutionarily conserved cell defense mechanism initiated to restore endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis in response to various cellular stresses including infection, trauma, and oxidative damage. However, if uncompensated, the UPR triggers apoptotic cell death. We demonstrate that the three signaling branches of UPR including the PERK, ATF6, and IRE1? are rapidly initiated in a mouse model of contusive SCI specifically at the injury epicenter. Immunohistochemical analyses of the various UPR markers revealed that in neurons, the UPR appeared at 6 and 24-h post-SCI. In contrast, in oligodendrocytes and astroglia, UPR persisted at least for up to 3 days post-SCI. The UPR-associated proapoptotic transcriptional regulator CHOP was among the UPR markers upregulated in neurons and oligodendrocytes, but not in astrocytes, of traumatized mouse spinal cords. To directly analyze its role in SCI, WT and CHOP null mice received a moderate T9 contusive injury. Deletion of CHOP led to an overall attenuation of the UPR after contusive SCI. Furthermore, analyses of hindlimb locomotion demonstrated a significant functional recovery that correlated with an increase in white-matter sparing, transcript levels of myelin basic protein, and Claudin 11 and decreased oligodendrocyte apoptosis in CHOP null mice in contrast to WT animals. Thus, our study provides evidence that the UPR contributes to oligodendrocyte loss after traumatic SCI.

OHRI, SUJATA SARASWAT; MADDIE, MELISSA A.; ZHAO, YONGMEI; QIU, MENGSHENG S.; HETMAN, MICHAL; WHITTEMORE, SCOTT R.

2012-01-01

393

Optimal swab processing recovery method for detection of bioterrorism-related Francisella tularensis by real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Francisella tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia, is regarded as a potential bioterrorism agent. The advent of bioterrorism has heightened awareness of the need for validated methods for processing environmental samples. In this study we determined the optimal method for processing environmental swabs for the recovery and subsequent detection of F. tularensis by the use of real-time PCR assays. Four

Roblena E. Walker; Jeannine M. Petersen; Kenyatta W. Stephens; Leslie A. Dauphin

2010-01-01

394

Transplantated mesenchymal stem cells derived from embryonic stem cells promote muscle regeneration and accelerate functional recovery of injured skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

We previously established that mesenchymal stem cells originating from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells (E-MSCs) showed markedly higher potential for differentiation into skeletal muscles in vitro than common mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Further, the E-MSCs exhibited a low risk for teratoma formation. Here we evaluate the potential of E-MSCs for differentiation into skeletal muscles in vivo and reveal the regeneration and functional recovery of injured muscle by transplantation. E-MSCs were transplanted into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle 24?h following direct clamping. After transplantation, the myogenic differentiation of E-MSCs, TA muscle regeneration, and re-innervation were morphologically analyzed. In addition, footprints and gaits of each leg under spontaneous walking were measured by CatWalk XT, and motor functions of injured TA muscles were precisely analyzed. Results indicate that >60% of transplanted E-MSCs differentiated into skeletal muscles. The cross-sectional area of the injured TA muscles of E-MSC-transplanted animals increased earlier than that of control animals. E-MSCs also promotes re-innervation of the peripheral nerves of injured muscles. Concerning function of the TA muscles, we reveal that transplantation of E-MSCs promotes the recovery of muscles. This is the first report to demonstrate by analysis of spontaneous walking that transplanted cells can accelerate the functional recovery of injured muscles. Taken together, the results show that E-MSCs have a high potential for differentiation into skeletal muscles in vivo as well as in vitro. The transplantation of E-MSCs facilitated the functional recovery of injured muscles. Therefore, E-MSCs are an efficient cell source in transplantation. PMID:23914336

Ninagawa, Nana Takenaka; Isobe, Eri; Hirayama, Yuri; Murakami, Rumi; Komatsu, Kazumi; Nagai, Masataka; Kobayashi, Mami; Kawabata, Yuka; Torihashi, Shigeko

2013-08-01

395

Discontinuous Radial Basis Function Approximations for Meshfree Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meshfree methods with discontinuous radial basis functions and their numerical implementation for elastic problems are presented.\\u000a We study the following radial basis functions: the multiquadratic (MQ), the Gaussian basis functions and the thin-plate basis\\u000a functions. These radial basis functions are combined with step function enrichments directly or with enriched Shepard functions.\\u000a The formulation is coupled with level set methods and

Jingxiao Xuand; Ted Belytschko

396

Recovery of vocal cord function after thyroid lobectomy for hashimoto’s thyroiditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is a well-described autoimmune thyroid disorder. The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient presenting with vocal cord paralysis and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis who spontaneously recovered function after surgery. Options for management of a paralyzed vocal cord are reviewed.Methods: A 29-year-old man presented with 3 months of hoarseness. Indirect laryngoscopy showed

Roy Frederick Thomas; Sam Kim; Douglas M. Sorensen

2004-01-01

397

Nonparametric methods for deconvolving multiperiodic functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiperiodic functions, or functions that can be represented as finite additive mixtures of periodic functions, arise in problems related to stellar radiation. There they represent the overall variation in radiation intensity with time. The individual periodic components generally correspond to different sources of radiation and have intrinsic physical meaning provided that they can be 'deconvolved' from the mixture. We suggest

Peter Hall; Jiying Yin

2003-01-01

398

Recovery Discontinuous Galerkin Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov Method for all-speed flows  

SciTech Connect

There is an increasing interest to develop the next generation simulation tools for the advanced nuclear energy systems. These tools will utilize the state-of-art numerical algorithms and computer science technology in order to maximize the predictive capability, support advanced reactor designs, reduce uncertainty and increase safety margins. In analyzing nuclear energy systems, we are interested in compressible low-Mach number, high heat flux flows with a wide range of Re, Ra, and Pr numbers. Under these conditions, the focus is placed on turbulent heat transfer, in contrast to other industries whose main interest is in capturing turbulent mixing. Our objective is to develop singlepoint turbulence closure models for large-scale engineering CFD code, using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) or Large Eddy Simulation (LES) tools, requireing very accurate and efficient numerical algorithms. The focus of this work is placed on fully-implicit, high-order spatiotemporal discretization based on the discontinuous Galerkin method solving the conservative form of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The method utilizes a local reconstruction procedure derived from weak formulation of the problem, which is inspired by the recovery diffusion flux algorithm of van Leer and Nomura [?] and by the piecewise parabolic reconstruction [?] in the finite volume method. The developed methodology is integrated into the Jacobianfree Newton-Krylov framework [?] to allow a fully-implicit solution of the problem.

HyeongKae Park; Robert Nourgaliev; Vincent Mousseau; Dana Knoll

2008-07-01

399

Recovery of the locomotor function after prolonged microgravity exposure. I. Head-trunk movement and locomotor equilibrium during various tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of locomotor function was investigated in seven cosmonauts exposed to microgravity for 6 months. Crew members executed a locomotor task with visual cues (eyes open, EO) and without them (eyes closed, EC). The locomotor task consisted of ascending a two-step staircase, jumping down from a 30-cm high platform, and finally walking 4 m in the straight-ahead direction. Subjects were tested

Grégoire Courtine; Thierry Pozzo

2004-01-01

400

Secretion of EGF-like domain of heregulin? promotes axonal growth and functional recovery of injured sciatic nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB) signaling pathways control Schwann cells during axonal regeneration\\u000a in an injured peripheral nervous system. We investigated whether a persistent supply of recombinant NRG1 to the injury site\\u000a could improve axonal growth and recovery of sensory and motor functions in rats during nerve regeneration. We generated a\\u000a recombinant adenovirus expressing a secreted

Insil Joung; Minjoo Yoo; Ji Hyoun Woo; Chi Young Chang; Hwon Heo; Yunhee Kim Kwon

2010-01-01

401

Quantitative Rest Technetium99m Tetrofosmin Imaging in Predicting Functional Recovery After Revascularization: Comparison With Rest–Redistribution Thallium201  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study was undertaken to 1) compare the regional myocardial tracer distributions between rest technetium (Tc)-99m tetrofosmin and rest–redistribution thallium (Tl)-201 images in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction; and 2) assess the comparative values of these agents for predicting functional recovery after revascularization.Background. Tc-99m tetrofosmin is a new myocardial perfusion imaging agent, but its role

Ichiro Matsunari; Susumu Fujino; Junichi Taki; Junji Senma; Takahiko Aoyama; Takanobu Wakasugi; Jun-ichi Hirai; Takashi Saga; Shinichiro Yamamoto; Norihisa Tonami

1997-01-01

402

Glial growth factor 2 promotes functional recovery with treatment initiated up to 7 days after permanent focal ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Neuregulins are a family of growth factors essential for normal cardiac and nervous system development. The EGF-like domain of neuregulins contains the active site which binds and activates signaling cascades through ErbB receptors. A neuregulin-1 gene EGF-like fragment demonstrated neuroprotection in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke model and drastically reduced infarct volume (Xu et al., 2004). Here we use a permanent MCAO rat model to initially compare two products of the neuregulin-1 gene and also assess levels of recovery with acute versus delayed time to treatment. In the initial study full-length glial growth factor 2 (GGF2) and an EGF-like domain fragment were compared with acute intravenous delivery. In a second study GGF2 only was delivered starting at 24h, 3 days or 7 days after permanent ischemia was induced. In both studies daily intravenous administration continued for 10 days. Recovery of neurological function was assessed using limb placing and body swing tests. GGF2 had similar functional improvements compared to the EGF-like domain fragment at equimolar doses, and a higher dose of GGF2 demonstrated more robust functional improvements compared to a lower dose. GGF2 improved sensorimotor recovery with all treatment paradigms, even enhancing recovery of function with a delay of 7 days to treatment. Histological assessments did not show any associated reduction in infarct volume at either 48 h or 21 days post-ischemic event. Neurorestorative effects of this kind are of great potential clinical importance, given the difficulty of delivering neuroprotective therapies within a short time after an ischemic event in human patients. If confirmed by additional work including additional data on mechanism(s) of improved outcome with verification in other stroke models, one can make a compelling case to bring GGF2 to clinical trials as a neurorestorative approach to improving outcome following stroke injury. PMID:20691195

Iaci, Jennifer F; Ganguly, Anindita; Finklestein, Seth P; Parry, Tom J; Ren, Jingmei; Saha, Subhash; Sietsma, Dana K; Srinivas, Maya; Vecchione, Andrea M; Caggiano, Anthony O

2010-08-04

403

Amide-Functionalized Aliphatic Amine Extractants for Co(II) and Zn(II) Recovery from Acidic Chloride Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel series of amido-functionalized amine reagents has been developed, which are designed for the extraction of anionic metal chloride complexes according to the following equationThe new reagents were investigated for Zn(II), Co(II), and Fe(III) recovery in order to establish conditions under which the selectivity for base metals over Fe(III) could be achieved. They were found to be much stronger

R. J. Ellis; J. Chartres; P. A. Tasker; K. C. Sole

2011-01-01

404

Method for improving sulfonate surfactants used in enhanced recovery processing in subterranean oil-bearing formations  

SciTech Connect

Formation plugging impurities in a sulfonate surfactant used in enhanced oil recovery operations are reduced by contacting the surfactant with an effective amount of an aldehyde having from 10 to 18 carbon atoms. The treatment of sulfonate surfactants useful in enhanced recovery processing substantially reduces the formation plugging impurities, typically inorganic sulfite salts. 7 claims.

Powers, G.W. Jr.; Froning, H.R.; Taggart, D.L.

1981-07-07

405

Comparison of the effects of erythropoietin and anakinra on functional recovery and gene expression in a traumatic brain injury model  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to compare the effects of two inflammatory modulators, erythropoietin (EPO) and anakinra, on functional recovery and brain gene expression following a cortical contusion impact (CCI) injury. Dosage regimens were designed to provide serum concentrations in the range obtained with clinically approved doses. Functional recovery was assessed using both motor and spatial learning tasks and neuropathological measurements conducted in the cortex and hippocampus. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine the effect on gene expression at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days post-CCI. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to evaluate the effect on relevant functional categories. EPO and anakinra treatment resulted in significant changes in brain gene expression in the CCI model demonstrating acceptable brain penetration. At all three time points, EPO treatment resulted in significantly more differentially expressed genes than anakinra. For anakinra at 24 h and EPO at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days, the genes in the top 3 functional categories were involved in cellular movement, inflammatory response and cell-to-cell signaling. For EPO, the majority of the genes in the top 10 canonical pathways identified were associated with inflammatory and immune signaling processes. This was true for anakinra only at 24 h post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). The immunomodulation effects of EPO and anakinra did not translate into positive effects on functional behavioral and lesion studies. Treatment with either EPO or anakinra failed to induce significant beneficial effects on recovery of function or produce any significant effects on the prevention of injury induced tissue loss at 30 days post-injury. In conclusion, treatment with EPO or anakinra resulted in significant effects on gene expression in the brain without affecting functional outcome. This suggests that targeting these inflammatory processes alone may not be sufficient for preventing secondary injuries after TBI.

Anderson, Gail D.; Peterson, Todd C.; Vonder Haar, Cole; Kantor, Eric D.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Hoane, Michael R.

2013-01-01

406

Comparison of the effects of erythropoietin and anakinra on functional recovery and gene expression in a traumatic brain injury model.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to compare the effects of two inflammatory modulators, erythropoietin (EPO) and anakinra, on functional recovery and brain gene expression following a cortical contusion impact (CCI) injury. Dosage regimens were designed to provide serum concentrations in the range obtained with clinically approved doses. Functional recovery was assessed using both motor and spatial learning tasks and neuropathological measurements conducted in the cortex and hippocampus. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine the effect on gene expression at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days post-CCI. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to evaluate the effect on relevant functional categories. EPO and anakinra treatment resulted in significant changes in brain gene expression in the CCI model demonstrating acceptable brain penetration. At all three time points, EPO treatment resulted in significantly more differentially expressed genes than anakinra. For anakinra at 24 h and EPO at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days, the genes in the top 3 functional categories were involved in cellular movement, inflammatory response and cell-to-cell signaling. For EPO, the majority of the genes in the top 10 canonical pathways identified were associated with inflammatory and immune signaling processes. This was true for anakinra only at 24 h post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). The immunomodulation effects of EPO and anakinra did not translate into positive effects on functional behavioral and lesion studies. Treatment with either EPO or anakinra failed to induce significant beneficial effects on recovery of function or produce any significant effects on the prevention of injury induced tissue loss at 30 days post-injury. In conclusion, treatment with EPO or anakinra resulted in significant effects on gene expression in the brain without affecting functional outcome. This suggests that targeting these inflammatory processes alone may not be sufficient for preventing secondary injuries after TBI. PMID:24151467

Anderson, Gail D; Peterson, Todd C; Vonder Haar, Cole; Kantor, Eric D; Farin, Fred M; Bammler, Theo K; Macdonald, James W; Hoane, Michael R

2013-10-17

407

Evaluation of a rapid method for recovery of norovirus and hepatitis A virus from oysters and blue mussels.  

PubMed

Foodborne outbreaks caused by noroviruses (NoVs) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are often linked to consumption of contaminated shellfish. The objective of this study was to identify an appropriate virus recovery method for real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR detection and subsequently to evaluate this method on shellfish bioaccumulated with virus in a collaborative study. Five methods were compared for recovery of NoV GII.7 and feline calicivirus from spiked digestive tissue of oysters and mussels. A method based on proteinase K digestion followed by NucliSENS miniMAG extraction was found to be the most efficient with a 50% limit of detection (LOD(50)) of 62 and 12 RT-PCR U/1.5 g digestive tissue for NoV GII.7 in oysters and mussels, respectively. Evaluation of the method in four laboratories found the percentage of sensitivity, based on low/high levels of virus bioaccumulated in oysters, to be 33/80 for NoV GI.3b, 13/92 for NoV GII.4 and 50/42 for HAV. A specificity of 100% was found for all three viruses in non-bioaccumulated oysters. As process control Mengovirus (vMC(0)) showed an average recovery of 1.8% from oysters and 1.2% from mussels. The study demonstrates that this recovery method can be useful for harmonized data generation and routine viral analyses of shellfish. PMID:20603152

Uhrbrand, Katrine; Myrmel, Mette; Maunula, Leena; Vainio, Kirsti; Trebbien, Ramona; Nørrung, Birgit; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

2010-07-13

408

A fixed point method for homotopic l0-minimization with application to MR image recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method for highly-undersampled Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) reconstruction is presented. One of the principal challenges faced in clinical MR imaging is the fundamental linear relation between net exam duration and admissible spatial resolution. Increased scan duration diminishes patient comfort while increasing the risk of susceptibility to motion artifact and limits the ability to depict many physiological events at high temporal rates. With the recent development of Compressive Sampling theory, several authors have successfully demonstrated that clinical MR images possessing a sparse representation in some transform domain can be accurately reconstructed even when sampled at rates well below the Nyquist limit by casting the recovery as a convex l1-minimization problem. While l1-based techniques offer a sizeable advantage over Nyquist-limited methods, they nonetheless require a modest degree of over-sampling above the true theoretical minimum sampling rate in order to guarantee the achievability of exact reconstruction. In this work, we present a reconstruction model based on homotopic approximation of the l0 quasi-norm and discuss the ability of this technique to reconstruct undersampled MR images at rates even lower than are achievable than with l1-minimization and arbitrarily close to the true minimum sampling rate. A semi-implicit numerical solver is presented for efficient numerical computation of the reconstruction process and several examples depicting the capability for accurate MRI reconstructions from highly-undersampled K-space data are presented.

Trzasko, Joshua D.; Manduca, Armando

2008-04-01

409

Method for the recovery of minerals and production of by-products from coal ash  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for the recovery of mineral values from ash derived from coal gasification and combustion which ash contains carbon, magnetite, cenospheres and mineral values including aluminum and iron. The method comprises: (a) screening the ash to provide a first carbon and cenosphere-containing ash fraction which contains the major portion of the cenospheres and carbon present in the ash as well as mineral values and a second ash fraction; (b) separating and recovering cenospheres from the first ash fraction to yield a mineral value and carbon-containing ash fraction; (c) removing and recovering the carbon from the carbon-containing ash fraction by froth flotation to separate the carbon from mineral values contained in the fraction; (d) subjecting the mineral value-containing ash fraction produced in step (c) to wet magnetic separation to yield a non-magnetic ash fraction and a magnetite-rich fraction; (e) subjecting the second ash fraction to dry magnetic separation to produce a non-magnetic ash fraction and a magnetite-rich fraction; and (f) subjecting the magnetite-rich fraction resulting from step (e) to wet magnetic separation to yield a non-magnetic ash fraction.

Schmeda, R.A.; Ashworth, R.A.; Rodriguez, L.A.; Padilla, A.A.; Spake, N.B.; Berry, W.W.

1987-03-24

410

Cortical electrical stimulation with varied low frequencies promotes functional recovery and brain remodeling in a rat model of ischemia.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated whether fully implantable CES with low current density and varying low-frequency burst impulse train enhances functional recovery and promotes brain remodeling in both the ipsilesional and contralesional cortex. Adult rats received occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery for 120min. One week after ischemia, electrodes were implanted to rats with CES lasting 2 weeks followed by 4-week observation period. After 2-week stimulation and 4-week observation period, body weight (BW) of the rats in CES group was higher than that in no stimulation (NS) group. Limb placement test, foot-fault test and beam walking test demonstrate that CES significantly enhanced functional recovery. Immunohistochemical study has shown that CES enhanced angiogenesis and dendritic sprouting, and suppressed inflammatory response in the ischemic cortex. CES also promoted dendritic sprouting and suppressed inflammatory response in the contralesional cortex. These results suggest the stimulation protocol is safe, and greatly improves functional recovery and brain remodeling in the 4 weeks following 2 weeks stimulation. PMID:22850246

Cheng, Xuan; Li, Tao; Zhou, Haihan; Zhang, Qian; Tan, Jie; Gao, Wenwei; Wang, Jiahui; Li, Chengyan; Duan, Yanwen Y

2012-07-28

411

Modeling of Salivary Production Recovery After Radiotherapy Using Mixed Models: Determination of Optimal Dose Constraint for IMRT Planning and Construction of Convenient Tools to Predict Salivary Function  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The mathematical relationship between the dose to the parotid glands and salivary gland production needs to be elucidated. This study, which included data from patients included in a French prospective study assessing the benefit of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (RT), sought to elaborate a convenient and original model of salivary recovery. Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and December 2004, 44 patients were included (35 with oropharyngeal and 9 with nasopharyngeal cancer). Of the 44 patients, 24 were treated with intensity-modulated RT, 17 with three-dimensional conformal RT, and 2 with two-dimensional RT. Stimulated salivary production was collected for {<=}24 months after RT. The data of salivary production, time of follow-up, and dose to parotid gland were modeled using a mixed model. Several models were developed to assess the best-fitting variable for the dose level to the parotid gland. Results: Models developed with the dose to the contralateral parotid fit the data slightly better than those with the dose to both parotids, suggesting that contralateral and ipsilateral parotid glands are not functionally