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1

A robust functional-data-analysis method for data recovery in multichannel sensor systems.  

PubMed

Multichannel sensor systems are widely used in condition monitoring for effective failure prevention of critical equipment or processes. However, loss of sensor readings due to malfunctions of sensors and/or communication has long been a hurdle to reliable operations of such integrated systems. Moreover, asynchronous data sampling and/or limited data transmission are usually seen in multiple sensor channels. To reliably perform fault diagnosis and prognosis in such operating environments, a data recovery method based on functional principal component analysis (FPCA) can be utilized. However, traditional FPCA methods are not robust to outliers and their capabilities are limited in recovering signals with strongly skewed distributions (i.e., lack of symmetry). This paper provides a robust data-recovery method based on functional data analysis to enhance the reliability of multichannel sensor systems. The method not only considers the possibly skewed distribution of each channel of signal trajectories, but is also capable of recovering missing data for both individual and correlated sensor channels with asynchronous data that may be sparse as well. In particular, grand median functions, rather than classical grand mean functions, are utilized for robust smoothing of sensor signals. Furthermore, the relationship between the functional scores of two correlated signals is modeled using multivariate functional regression to enhance the overall data-recovery capability. An experimental flow-control loop that mimics the operation of coolant-flow loop in a multimodular integral pressurized water reactor is used to demonstrate the effectiveness and adaptability of the proposed data-recovery method. The computational results illustrate that the proposed method is robust to outliers and more capable than the existing FPCA-based method in terms of the accuracy in recovering strongly skewed signals. In addition, turbofan engine data are also analyzed to verify the capability of the proposed method in recovering non-skewed signals. PMID:25051452

Sun, Jian; Liao, Haitao; Upadhyaya, Belle R

2014-08-01

2

Physiological functions of the effects of the different bathing method on recovery from local muscle fatigue  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, mist saunas have been used in the home as a new bathing style in Japan. However, there are still few reports on the effects of bathing methods on recovery from muscle fatigue. Furthermore, the effect of mist sauna bathing on human physiological function has not yet been revealed. Therefore, we measured the physiological effects of bathing methods including the mist sauna on recovery from muscle fatigue. Methods The bathing methods studied included four conditions: full immersion bath, shower, mist sauna, and no bathing as a control. Ten men participated in this study. The participants completed four consecutive sessions: a 30-min rest period, a 10-min all out elbow flexion task period, a 10-min bathing period, and a 10-min recovery period. We evaluated the mean power frequency (MNF) of the electromyogram (EMG), rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), skin blood flow (SBF), concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb), and subjective evaluation. Results We found that the MNF under the full immersion bath condition was significantly higher than those under the other conditions. Furthermore, Tre, SBF, and O2Hb under the full immersion bath condition were significantly higher than under the other conditions. Conclusions Following the results for the full immersion bath condition, the SBF and O2Hb of the mist sauna condition were significantly higher than those for the shower and no bathing conditions. These results suggest that full immersion bath and mist sauna are effective in facilitating recovery from muscle fatigue. PMID:22980588

2012-01-01

3

Observation of locomotor functional recovery in adult complete spinal rats with BWSTT using semiquantitative and qualitative methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Experimental rat model of spinal cord transection.Setting:China rehabilitation research center.Objective:To investigate locomotor functional recovery in spinal rats with BWSTT using semiquantitative and qualitative methods.Methods:Five-day postoperative (dpo), adult female complete spinal rats (at T8 level) received 40 days of body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT). Signs of functional recovery were examined with average combined scores (ACOS) and Basso Beattie and Bresnahan

Y Zhang; S R Ji; C Y Wu; X H Fan; H J Zhou; G L Liu

2007-01-01

4

Neuroplasticity and functional recovery in multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

The development of therapeutic strategies that promote functional recovery is a major goal of multiple sclerosis (MS) research. Neuroscientific and methodological advances have improved our understanding of the brain’s recovery from damage, generating novel hypotheses for potential targets or modes of intervention and laying the foundation for the development of scientifically informed strategies promoting recovery in interventional studies. This Review aims to encourage the transition from characterization of recovery mechanisms to the development of strategies that promote recovery in MS. We discuss current evidence for functional reorganization that underlies recovery and its implications for development of new recovery-oriented strategies in MS. Promotion of functional recovery requires an improved understanding of recovery mechanisms modulated by interventions and the development of reliable measures of therapeutic effects. As imaging methods can be used to measure functional and structural alterations associated with recovery, this Review discusses their use as reliable markers to measure the effects of interventions. PMID:22986429

Tomassini, Valentina; Matthews, Paul M.; Thompson, Alan J.; Fugl?, Daniel; Geurts, Jeroen J.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Jones, Derek K.; Rocca, Maria A.; Wise, Richard G.; Barkhof, Frederik; Palace, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

5

Rapid method for assessing rod function using recovery of spatial contrast thresholds following a bleach.  

PubMed

Poor vision in low light is a common complaint of elderly people. This poorly understood phenomenon is likely to involve both receptoral and post receptoral mechanisms. We investigated the recovery of contrast thresholds for sine-wave gratings of low spatial frequencies and low mean luminance as a function of time in darkness after photo pigment bleaching. Thirteen subjects aged 30.4 (±10.7) years took part in the study. Contrast thresholds were measured for 15 min following almost complete photo pigment bleaching. The stimuli were achromatic sinusoidal gratings of 0.5, 1 and 2 cycle per degree (cpd) generated on a CRT monitor. They had mean luminance 0.01 cd m(-2) and subtended 10° in diameter. The dynamics of the recovery at each spatial frequency were modelled using monophasic and biphasic exponential decay functions. The data were best modelled by a bi-phasic decay with a distinct transition point around 7 min after the bleach. Both phases followed an exponential decay. The time constant (mean, standard error) for the first phase was 0.35 (0.04) min while for the second phase it was 5.15 (0.27) min. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). A control experiment revealed the second, slower phase was mediated by rod photoreceptors. Maximum contrast sensitivity was reached 15 min after a photic bleach. The dynamics of contrast sensitivity recovery follow two phases and these may be attributed to the cone and rod systems. PMID:25016055

Puell, M Cinta; Kelly, Jeremiah M F; Murray, Ian J

2014-08-01

6

Thermal Recovery Methods  

SciTech Connect

Thermal Recovery Methods describes the basic concepts of thermal recovery and explains the injection patterns used to exploit reservoir conditions. Basic reservoir engineering is reviewed with an emphasis on changes in flow characteristics caused by temperature. The authors discuss an energy balance for steam and combustion drive, and they explain in situ reactions. Heat loss, combustion drive, and steam displacement also are examined in detail, as well as cyclic steam injection, downhole ignition, well heating, and low-temperature oxidation. Contents: Thermal processes; Formation and reservoir evaluations; Well patterns and spacing; Flow and process equations; Laboratory simulation of thermal recovery; Heat loss and transmission; Displacement and production; Equipment; Basic data for field selection; Laboratory evaluation of combustion characteristics; Thermal properties of reservoirs and fluids.

White, P.D.; Moss, J.T.

1983-01-01

7

Practical Experiences from the USE of a Method for Active Functional Tests and Optimization of Coil Energy Recovery Loop Systems in AHUs  

E-print Network

A method, based on simulation models, for active functional tests and optimization of coil energy recovery loop systems in Air Handling Units (AHUs) have been developed and a first version implemented in the program Engineering Equation Solver (EES...

Eriksson, J.

2004-01-01

8

Predicting Functional Recovery after Acute Ankle Sprain  

PubMed Central

Introduction Ankle sprains are among the most common acute musculoskeletal conditions presenting to primary care. Their clinical course is variable but there are limited recommendations on prognostic factors. Our primary aim was to identify clinical predictors of short and medium term functional recovery after ankle sprain. Methods A secondary analysis of data from adult participants (N = 85) with an acute ankle sprain, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial was undertaken. The predictive value of variables (age, BMI, gender, injury mechanism, previous injury, weight-bearing status, medial joint line pain, pain during weight-bearing dorsiflexion and lateral hop test) recorded at baseline and at 4 weeks post injury were investigated for their prognostic ability. Recovery was determined from measures of subjective ankle function at short (4 weeks) and medium term (4 months) follow ups. Multivariate stepwise linear regression analyses were undertaken to evaluate the association between the aforementioned variables and functional recovery. Results Greater age, greater injury grade and weight-bearing status at baseline were associated with lower function at 4 weeks post injury (p<0.01; adjusted R square=0.34). Greater age, weight-bearing status at baseline and non-inversion injury mechanisms were associated with lower function at 4 months (p<0.01; adjusted R square=0.20). Pain on medial palpation and pain on dorsiflexion at 4 weeks were the most valuable prognostic indicators of function at 4 months (p< 0.01; adjusted R square=0.49). Conclusion The results of the present study provide further evidence that ankle sprains have a variable clinical course. Age, injury grade, mechanism and weight-bearing status at baseline provide some prognostic information for short and medium term recovery. Clinical assessment variables at 4 weeks were the strongest predictors of recovery, explaining 50% of the variance in ankle function at 4 months. Further prospective research is required to highlight the factors that best inform the expected convalescent period, and risk of recurrence. PMID:23940806

O’Connor, Sean R.; Bleakley, Chris M.; Tully, Mark A.; McDonough, Suzanne M.

2013-01-01

9

Magnesium fluoride recovery method  

DOEpatents

A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

Gay, Richard L. (Canoga Park, CA); McKenzie, Donald E. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1989-01-01

10

Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Acceptability and Recovery of Cortisol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared cortisol concentrations yielded using three saliva collection methods (passive drool, salivette, and sorbette) in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, as well as method acceptability for a sample of children (n = 39) with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. No cortisol concentration differences were observed between…

Putnam, Susan K.; Lopata, Christopher; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Neilans, Erik G.; Werth, Jilynn

2012-01-01

11

Method for enhanced oil recovery  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to an improved method for enhanced recovery of oil from relatively "cold" reservoirs by carbon dioxide flooding. In oil reservoirs at a temperature less than the critical temperature of 87.7.degree. F. and at a pore pressure greater than the saturation pressure of carbon dioxide at the temperature of the reservoir, the carbon dioxide remains in the liquid state which does not satisfactorily mix with the oil. However, applicants have found that carbon dioxide can be vaporized in situ in the reservoir by selectively reducing the pore pressure in the reservoir to a value less than the particular saturated vapor pressure so as to greatly enhance the mixing of the carbon dioxide with the oil.

Comberiati, Joseph R. (Morgantown, WV); Locke, Charles D. (Morgantown, WV); Kamath, Krishna I. (Chicago, IL)

1980-01-01

12

Promoting neurological recovery of function via metaplasticity  

E-print Network

The modification of synapses by neural activity has been proposed to be the substrate for experience-dependent brain development, learning, and recovery of visual function after brain injury. The effectiveness or ‘strength’ ...

Cho, Kathleen K.

13

Oil recovery method and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of recovering oil from a layer of oil at an oil spill site on a water surface, the method comprising the steps of: providing a vessel for transporting buoyant, oil absorbent material to the oil spill site, dispersing the oil absorbent material below the water surface at the oil spill site, whereby the dispersed oil absorbent material advances upward toward the layer of oil and the water surface and absorbs oil and water, containing the dispersed oil absorbent material on the water surface, transferring the contained oil absorbent material from the water surface to the vessel, removing oil and water from the oil absorbent material on the vessel, whereby the oil absorbent material from which oil and water is removed is reuseable.

Torrance, G.

1993-08-17

14

Promoting neurological recovery of function via metaplasticity  

PubMed Central

The modification of synapses by neural activity has been proposed to be the substrate for experience-dependent brain development, learning, and recovery of visual function after brain injury. The effectiveness or ‘strength’ of synaptic transmission can be persistently modified in response to defined patterns of pre- and post-synaptic activity. Well-studied examples of this type of synaptic plasticity are long-term potentiation and long-term depression. Can we exploit the current understanding of these mechanisms in order to strengthen brain connections that may have been weakened or impaired by sensory deprivation, disease or injury? Theoretically motivated research in the visual cortex has suggested ways to promote synaptic potentiation. The theoretical concept is that the type and extent of synaptic plasticity caused by patterns of activity depend critically on the recent prior history of synaptic or cellular activity. Studies in visual cortex strongly support this concept, and have suggested a mechanism for ‘metaplasticity’ – the plasticity of synaptic plasticity – based on activity-dependent modification of NMDA-receptor structure and function. The knowledge gained by these studies suggests ways in which recovery of function can be promoted. PMID:20209094

Cho, Kathleen KA; Bear, Mark F

2010-01-01

15

ARIES: A Transaction Recovery Method Supporting Fine-Granularity Locking  

E-print Network

and recovery using write-ahead logging (WAL). We introduce the paradigm of repeating history to redo all technique, need to be changed in the context of WAL. We compare ARIES to the WAL-based recovery methods

California at Irvine, University of

16

Modeling early recovery of physical function following hip and knee arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Information on early recovery after arthroplasty is needed to help benchmark progress and make appropriate decisions concerning patient rehabilitation needs. The purpose of this study was to model early recovery of physical function in patients undergoing total hip (THA) and knee (TKA) arthroplasty, using physical performance and self-report measures. METHODS: A sample of convenience of 152 subjects completed testing,

Deborah M Kennedy; Paul W Stratford; Steven E Hanna; Jean Wessel; Jeffrey D Gollish

2006-01-01

17

Method and apparatus for shale gas recovery  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for the in situ recovery of natural gas from an undisturbed shale bed formation in a condition ready for transmission through a gas pipeline to end users and substantially without the formation of liquid products. It comprises: forming a heater assembly having an elongated substantially cylindrical outer housing; providing the elongated heater assembly with an interior containing a fuel gas burner there within joined to an upwardly extending fuel gas supply line and including in the interior an upwardly extending product gas line disposed adjacent an upwardly extending combustion air line; drilling a borehole into a subterranean shale bed formation; and lowering the heater assembly into the borehole to a position surrounded by the shale bed formation with the borehole having been drilled to define a diameter relative the heater assembly housing insuring a close fit therebetween while providing a gas space therebetween.

Nielson, D.H.

1990-05-29

18

Simultaneous Bilateral MIS-TKA Results in Faster Functional Recovery  

PubMed Central

Simultaneous bilateral TKAs subject patients to more arduous and painful functional recovery and increased risk of hemodynamic complications than staged bilateral TKAs. Minimally invasive TKA (MIS-TKA) reportedly results in more rapid return of function by limiting the amount of soft tissue disruption. We asked whether bilateral MIS-TKA had advantages over conventional TKA with respect to faster functional recovery. We prospectively randomized 30 patients into an MIS group (mini-medial parapatellar approach, 15 patients) and a conventional group (conventional medial parapatellar approach, 15 patients). We recorded range of motion and the time required to regain the ability to walk without assistance. Functional recovery in the MIS group was faster in rehabilitation milestones of walking without assistance and gain in range of motion. Minimally invasive TKA may benefit patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral procedures with faster functional recovery. Level of Evidence: Level II, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18351423

Han, Ilkyu; Seong, Sang Cheol; Lee, Sahnghoon; Yoo, Jae Ho

2008-01-01

19

Functional taping of fractures of the 5th metacarpal results in a quicker recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractures of the fifth metacarpal can be treated non-operatively by plaster immobilisation or functional taping. In order to evaluate the better treatment policy, the two methods were compared in a prospective randomised series. We treated 25 patients with an ulnar gutter plaster-cast splintage and 25 with functional tape. Functional recovery was evaluated after one week and four weeks, three months

Menno Braakman; Esther E. Oderwald; Marleen H. H. J. Haentjens

1998-01-01

20

Infarct Size as Predictor of Systolic Functional Recovery after Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of modern therapy on functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are unknown. Objectives To evaluate the predictors of systolic functional recovery after anterior wall AMI in patients undergoing modern therapy (reperfusion, aggressive platelet antiaggregant therapy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers). Methods A total of 94 consecutive patients with AMI with ST-segment elevation were enrolled. Echocardiograms were performed during the in-hospital phase and after 6 months. Systolic dysfunction was defined as ejection fraction value < 50%. Results In the initial echocardiogram, 64% of patients had systolic dysfunction. Patients with ventricular dysfunction had greater infarct size, assessed by the measurement of total and isoenzyme MB creatine kinase enzymes, than patients without dysfunction. Additionally, 24.5% of patients that initially had systolic dysfunction showed recovery within 6 months after AMI. Patients who recovered ventricular function had smaller infarct sizes, but larger values of ejection fraction and E-wave deceleration time than patients without recovery. At the multivariate analysis, it can be observed that infarct size was the only independent predictor of functional recovery after 6 months of AMI when adjusted for age, gender, ejection fraction and E-wave deceleration time. Conclusion In spite of aggressive treatment, systolic ventricular dysfunction remains a frequent event after the anterior wall myocardial infarction. Additionally, 25% of patients show functional recovery. Finally, infarct size was the only significant predictor of functional recovery after six months of acute myocardial infarction. PMID:25004416

Minicucci, Marcos F.; Farah, Elaine; Fusco, Danieliso R.; Cogni, Ana Lucia; Azevedo, Paula S.; Okoshi, Katashi; Zanati, Silmeia G.; Matsubara, Beatriz B.; Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M.

2014-01-01

21

Connectivity-based approaches in stroke and recovery of function.  

PubMed

After focal damage, cerebral networks reorganise their structural and functional anatomy to compensate for both the lesion itself and remote effects. Novel developments in the analysis of functional neuroimaging data enable us to assess in vivo the specific contributions of individual brain areas to recovery of function and the effect of treatment on cortical reorganisation. Connectivity analyses can be used to investigate the effect of stroke on cerebral networks, and help us to understand why some patients make a better recovery than others. This systems-level view also provides insights into how neuromodulatory interventions might target pathological network configurations associated with incomplete recovery. In the future, such analyses of connectivity could help to optimise treatment regimens based on the individual network pathology underlying a particular neurological deficit, thereby opening the way for stratification of patients based on the possible response to an intervention. PMID:24457190

Grefkes, Christian; Fink, Gereon R

2014-02-01

22

Current review of thermal recovery methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the end of the 1950s, the first commercial installations of in situ combustion had been made and are still operating today. In the early 1960s, the main interest in thermal recovery shifted to cyclic steam injection for production of oil. Where applicable, the cyclic process has been very successful, and most California operators have fully developed their cyclic steam

Ramey; H. Jr

1974-01-01

23

Increased prosthetic valve gradients: Abnormal prosthetic function or pressure recovery?  

PubMed

The non-invasive evaluation of prosthetic valve function is challenging. The effects of flow rate, valvular geometry, leaflet motion, and pressure recovery all impact the Doppler assessment of prosthetic performance. Differentiating prosthesis obstruction from pressure recovery in patients who are found to have high Doppler velocities across an aortic valve prosthesis is critical in order to direct appropriate management. In this manuscript, we present two cases of patients with aortic valve prosthesis with high Doppler velocities and review the pathophysiology and evaluation of prosthesis function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24677668

Eleid, Mackram F; Thomas, James D; Nishimura, Rick A

2014-11-15

24

Is the recovery of functional balance and mobility accompanied by physiological recovery in people with severe impairments after stroke?  

PubMed

Background. Rehabilitation after severe stroke is often limited because of impairments in sensorimotor function. Functional and physiological recovery after severe stroke is poorly understood and has not been studied extensively. Objective. This study's purpose was to examine functional and physiological recovery of standing balance during inpatient rehabilitation in people with severe impairments after stroke. Methods. A total of 10 participants with severe impairments after stroke were evaluated monthly in a stroke rehabilitation unit with the following functional outcome measures: Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Clinical Outcome Variables Scale (COVS), and Chedoke McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA). Weight bearing (WB), center of pressure (COP) velocity, and electromyography (EMG) data were collected during quiet standing and during internal perturbation with a rapid nonparetic arm raise. Results. Cross-sectionally, there were moderate to strong correlations for EMG area and WB with CMSA and COVS. Additionally, the BBS was correlated with WB on the paretic side. Longitudinally, statistically significant improvement was found for functional measures but not for physiological measures. The mean BBS and COVS improved by 23 and 21 points, respectively. COP velocity decreased by 60.1% on the paretic leg but not significantly. Conclusions. During stroke rehabilitation, all participants improved functionally. Some patients improved physiologically, though near discharge, all participants remained very impaired. Future studies with larger sample sizes are needed to explore the capacity for physiological recovery in this population. PMID:24627335

Peters, Sue; Ivanova, Tanya D; Teasell, Robert; Garland, S Jayne

2014-11-01

25

Functional recovery after implantation of artificial nerve grafts in the rat- a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare functional data of different nerve-gap bridging materials evaluated in rat experiments by means of a systematic review. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review was conducted, searching MEDLINE, HTS and CENTRAL to identify all trials evaluating functional recovery of artificial nerve conduits in the rat model. RESULTS: There was a trend towards

Nektarios Sinis; Armin Kraus; Nikolaos Tselis; Max Haerle; Frank Werdin; Hans-Eberhard Schaller

2009-01-01

26

Comparing the local gravity field recovery based on radial base functions  

E-print Network

Functions · Boundary Element Method #12;· Possible improvements: ­ use directly ­ use elements with a finite · Modelling the potential of a single layer · Decomposing the boundary into finite elements: · AssumingComparing the local gravity field recovery based on radial base functions with the boundary element

Stuttgart, Universität

27

Optogenetic neuronal stimulation promotes functional recovery after stroke.  

PubMed

Clinical and research efforts have focused on promoting functional recovery after stroke. Brain stimulation strategies are particularly promising because they allow direct manipulation of the target area's excitability. However, elucidating the cell type and mechanisms mediating recovery has been difficult because existing stimulation techniques nonspecifically target all cell types near the stimulated site. To circumvent these barriers, we used optogenetics to selectively activate neurons that express channelrhodopsin 2 and demonstrated that selective neuronal stimulations in the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (iM1) can promote functional recovery. Stroke mice that received repeated neuronal stimulations exhibited significant improvement in cerebral blood flow and the neurovascular coupling response, as well as increased expression of activity-dependent neurotrophins in the contralesional cortex, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, and neurotrophin 3. Western analysis also indicated that stimulated mice exhibited a significant increase in the expression of a plasticity marker growth-associated protein 43. Moreover, iM1 neuronal stimulations promoted functional recovery, as stimulated stroke mice showed faster weight gain and performed significantly better in sensory-motor behavior tests. Interestingly, stimulations in normal nonstroke mice did not alter motor behavior or neurotrophin expression, suggesting that the prorecovery effect of selective neuronal stimulations is dependent on the poststroke environment. These results demonstrate that stimulation of neurons in the stroke hemisphere is sufficient to promote recovery. PMID:25136109

Cheng, Michelle Y; Wang, Eric H; Woodson, Wyatt J; Wang, Stephanie; Sun, Guohua; Lee, Alex G; Arac, Ahmet; Fenno, Lief E; Deisseroth, Karl; Steinberg, Gary K

2014-09-01

28

Adiponectin Promotes Functional Recovery after Podocyte Ablation  

PubMed Central

Low levels of the adipocyte-secreted protein adiponectin correlate with albuminuria in both mice and humans, but whether adiponectin has a causative role in modulating renal disease is unknown. Here, we first generated a mouse model that allows induction of caspase-8–mediated apoptosis specifically in podocytes upon injection of a construct-specific agent. These POD-ATTAC mice exhibited significant kidney damage, mimicking aspects of human renal disease, such as foot process effacement, mesangial expansion, and glomerulosclerosis. After the initial induction, both podocytes and filtration function recovered. Next, we crossed POD-ATTAC mice with mice lacking or overexpressing adiponectin. POD-ATTAC mice lacking adiponectin developed irreversible albuminuria and renal failure; conversely, POD-ATTAC mice overexpressing adiponectin recovered more rapidly and exhibited less interstitial fibrosis. In conclusion, these results suggest that adiponectin is a renoprotective protein after podocyte injury. Furthermore, the POD-ATTAC mouse provides a platform for further studies, allowing precise timing of podocyte injury and regeneration. PMID:23334396

Rutkowski, Joseph M.; Wang, Zhao V.; Park, Ae Seo Deok; Zhang, Jianning; Zhang, Dihua; Hu, Ming Chang; Moe, Orson W.; Susztak, Katalin

2013-01-01

29

Aging profoundly delays functional recovery from gustatory nerve injury  

PubMed Central

The peripheral taste system remains plastic during adulthood. Sectioning the chorda tympani (CT) nerve, which sends sensory information from the anterior tongue to the CNS, causes degeneration of distal fibers and target taste buds. However, taste function is restored after about 40 days in young adult rodents. We tested whether aging impacts the reappearance of neural responses after unilateral CT nerve injury. Taste bud regeneration was minimal at day 50–65 after denervation, and most aged animals died before functional recovery could be assessed. A subset (n=3/5) of old rats exhibited normal CT responses at day 85 post-sectioning, suggesting the potential for efficient recovery. The aged taste system is fairly resilient to sensory receptor loss and major functional changes in normal aging. However, injury to the taste system reveals a surprising vulnerability in old rodents. The gustatory system provides an excellent model to study mechanisms underlying delayed recovery from peripheral nerve injury. Strategies to accelerate recovery and restore normal function will be of interest as the elderly population continues to grow. PMID:22387273

He, Lianying; Yadgarov, Arkadiy; Sharif, Shan; McCluskey, Lynnette Phillips

2012-01-01

30

Recovery of vestibular function following hair cell destruction by streptomycin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Can the vestibular periphery of warm-blooded vertebrates recover functionally from severe sensory hair cell loss? Recent findings in birds suggest a mechanism for recovery but in fact no direct functional evidence has been reported. We produced vestibular hair cell lesions using the ototoxic agent streptomycin sulfate (600 mg/kg/day, 8 days, chicks, Gallus domesticus). Compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve were used as a direct measure of peripheral vestibular function. Vestibular thresholds, neural activation latencies and amplitudes were documented. Eight days of drug treatment elevated thresholds significantly (P < 0.001) and eliminated all but remnants of vestibular activity. Virtually complete physiological recovery occurred in all animals studied over a period of 70 days following treatment. Thresholds recovered within two weeks of drug treatment whereas the return of response morphologies including activation latencies and amplitudes required an additional 6-8 weeks.

Jones, T. A.; Nelson, R. C.

1992-01-01

31

Recovery of Olfactory Function after an Anterior Craniofacial Approach  

PubMed Central

We assessed recovery of olfactory function in five consecutive patients who underwent surgical resection of midline skull base tumors using an anterior craniofacial approach in which the cribriform plate was mobilized with the dura. Olfactory function was evaluated before and after surgery using an intravenous olfactory test with prosultiamine and also a standard olfactory acuity test. Before surgery, one patient showed anosmia attributable to obstruction of the nasal cavity and olfactory cleft, and four patients showed normal olfactory function. After surgery, one patient was irreversibly anosmic, probably because of intradural dissection of the olfactory tracts. The other four patients, including the patient showing anosmia preoperatively, reported subjective recovery of olfaction 3 to 8 weeks after surgery. Intravenous and standard olfactory acuity tests indicated recovery of olfaction to the normal range in three patients and decreased olfactory function in one. With careful preservation of the olfactory system and of the integrity of the nasal cavity, olfactory function was found to recover after skull base resections via the anterior craniofacial approach. ImagesFigure 1p204-bFigure 3p205-b PMID:17171090

Saito, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Masakatsu; Fukuta, Keizo; Tachibana, Eiji; Yoshida, Jun

1999-01-01

32

Best recovery of the Laplace operator of a function from incomplete spectral data  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the problem of best recovery for a fractional power of the Laplacian of a smooth function on R{sup d} from an exact or approximate Fourier transform for it, which is known on some convex subset of R{sup d}. A series of optimal recovery methods is constructed. Information about the Fourier transform outside some ball centred at the origin proves redundant--it is not used by the optimal methods. These optimal methods differ in the way they 'process' key information. Bibliography: 12 titles.

Magaril-Il'yaev, Georgii G; Sivkova, Elena O

2012-04-30

33

Psychosocial Treatments to Promote Functional Recovery in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

A number of psychosocial treatments are available for persons with schizophrenia that include social skills training, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive remediation, and social cognition training. These treatments are reviewed and discussed in terms of how they address key components of functional recovery such as symptom stability, independent living, work functioning, and social functioning. We also review findings on the interaction between pharmacological and psychosocial treatments and discuss future directions in pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. Overall, these treatments provide a range of promising approaches to helping patients achieve better outcomes far beyond symptom stabilization. PMID:19176470

Kern, Robert S.; Glynn, Shirley M.; Horan, William P.; Marder, Stephen R.

2009-01-01

34

Transcranial brain stimulation to promote functional recovery after stroke  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) is increasingly used to enhance the recovery of function after stroke. The purpose of this review is to highlight and discuss some unresolved questions that need to be addressed to better understand and exploit the potential of NIBS as a therapeutic tool. Recent findings Recent meta-analyses showed that the treatment effects of NIBS in patients with stroke are rather inconsistent across studies and the evidence for therapeutic efficacy is still uncertain. This raises the question of how NIBS can be developed further to improve its therapeutic efficacy. Summary This review addressed six questions: How does NIBS facilitate the recovery of function after stroke? Which brain regions should be targeted by NIBS? Is there a particularly effective NIBS modality that should be used? Does the location of the stroke influence the therapeutic response? How often should NIBS be repeated? Is the functional state of the brain during or before NIBS relevant to therapeutic efficacy of NIBS? We argue that these questions need to be tackled to obtain sufficient mechanistic understanding of how NIBS facilitates the recovery of function. This knowledge will be critical to fully unfold the therapeutic effects of NIBS and will pave the way towards adaptive NIBS protocols, in which NIBS is tailored to the individual patient. PMID:24296641

Raffin, Estelle; Siebner, Hartwig R.

2014-01-01

35

Wastewater heat recovery method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention is comprised of a heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-01-01

36

Adaptive blind timing recovery methods for MSE optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a non-data-aided adaptive symbol timing offset correction algorithm to enhance the equalization performance in the presence of long delay spread multipath channel. The optimal timing phase offset in the presence of multipath channels is the one jointly optimized with the receiver equalizer. The jointly optimized timing phase offset with a given fixed length equalizer should produce a discrete time channel response for which the equalizer achieves the minimum mean squared error among other discrete time channel responses sampled by different timing phases. We propose a blind adaptive baseband timing recovery algorithm producing a timing offset close to the jointly optimal timing phase compared to other existing non-data-aided timing recovery methods. The proposed algorithm operates independently from the equalizer with the same computational complexity as the widely used Gardner timing recovery algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed timing recovery method can result in considerable enhancement of equalization performances.

Chung, Wonzoo

2012-12-01

37

Unexpected recovery of language function after massive left-hemisphere infarct: Coordinated psycholinguistic  

E-print Network

Unexpected recovery of language function after massive left-hemisphere infarct: Coordinated left-hemisphere infarct resulting from stroke that had occurred more than 10 years earlier. Lesion) a small area of subcortical infarction is also present in the right hemisphere. Method Each individual

38

Functional Recovery of Older Hip-Fracture Patients after Interdisciplinary Intervention Follows Three Distinct Trajectories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose To assess the effects of an interdisciplinary intervention on the trajectories of functional recovery among older patients with hip fracture during 2 years after hospitalization. Design and Methods In a randomized controlled trial with 24-month follow-up, 162 patients [greater than or equal to]60 years were enrolled after hip-fracture…

Tseng, Ming-Yueh; Shyu, Yea-Ing L.; Liang, Jersey

2012-01-01

39

Enhanced oil recovery using electrical methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy Oil Recovery is gaining much popularity because of huge consumption of oil in the modern industry. Main concern in the extraction of heavy oil is its high viscosity. Heating heavy oil by different electrical means has come out to be a promising solution for viscosity reduction. This includes the low frequency resistive heating, induction heating and high frequency microwave heating or the dielectric heating. Application of low frequency resistive heating is limited by the requirement of brine (conducting fluid) inside the reservoir while Induction heating is only applicable in the presence of ferrous elements in the reservoir. High frequency microwave heating can be used effectively for enhancing the oil productivity. Ultrasonic stimulation is another technique capable of reducing the viscosity of heavy oil without employing the heating techniques. Although many models have been presented addressing microwave heating of heavy oil but, no model has been found in the literature addressing the design of microwave sources and the experimental verification of the results. Similarly some authors have also addressed the ultrasonic stimulation of heavy oil but no one has discussed the behavior of ultrasonic waves at different power level along with the experimental verification. This thesis presents complete mathematical modeling of microwave heating, with numerical solution by considering two-dimensional radial model. In addition, the design, positioning, and orientation of the array of microwave antennas have also been considered in numerical simulations while results of some of the cases are also verified experimentally. Similarly, the Thesis discusses the ultrasonic modeling with numerical solution and experimental verification at different power levels and positioning of the ultrasonic transducer. These models present the results in the form of temperature & pressure distribution and productivity enhancement. For numerical simulations, a Finite Element Analysis based simulator has been used. Main focus was on the design and orientation of the array of microwave and ultrasonic sources and the validation of results with experiments. Results showed a good fit between the numerical simulations and the experimental procedures proving the efficiency of microwave and ultrasonic sources. It has also been found that microwaves and ultrasonic waves are beneficial for specific reservoir characterizations.

Rehman, Muhammad Moshin

40

A combined method of silver recovery from zinc cakes  

SciTech Connect

While processing zinc cakes with application of Weltz-technology silver remains unrecovered and goes into clinker. In order to prevent it the elaboration of effective silver recovery methods from zinc cakes before their weltzing becomes necessary. A combined method of zinc cakes treatment with leaching and flotation in a closed water circuit has been worked out. The technological scheme envisages the use of sulphgydril collectors in combination and comprises a series of consecutive operations: leaching, filtration, precipitation (cementing) and flotation. Total silver recovery is approximately 94%. The technology elaborated has been realized in a project by which the construction of a new shop is under way now.

Otrozhdenova, L.A.; Malinovskaya, N.D.; Maksimov, I.I.; Khodov, N.D.; Kuznetzov, O.K. [Joint-Stock Co. Mekhanobr Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1995-12-31

41

Preoperative Function and Gender Predict Pattern of Functional Recovery After Hip and Knee Arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender, preoperative function, and other variables were explored as predictors of recovery after total hip and knee arthroplasty. One hundred fifty-two subjects (63.8 ± 10.2 years) were repeatedly assessed in the first 4 postoperative months. Average recovery curves for the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, 6-minute walk test, and timed up and go test were characterized using hierarchical

Deborah M. Kennedy; Steven E. Hanna; Paul W. Stratford; Jean Wessel; Jeffrey D. Gollish

2006-01-01

42

Method and ducting system for hot gas heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and ducting system for collection of hot exhaust gases from paint curing oven heaters is disclosed for heat energy recovery in which a large collector duct is extended above the paint curing oven and into which is drawn large volumes of slightly warmed air heated by radiation from the paint curing oven or from secondary warm air sources.

1981-01-01

43

Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions wherein the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

Kreuzmann, Alvin B. (Cincinnati, OH)

1983-01-01

44

Functional recovery with total loss of all feedwater  

SciTech Connect

Safety assessment of design-basis events and other postulated events assume the unavailability of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system during such occurrences. The AFW is essential for mitigating the consequences of certain design-basis events and normally provides plant cooldown to shutdown cooling conditions. In the event AFW is unavailable concurrent with loss of main feedwater (MFW), an alternate system is required for plant cooldown and decay heat removal. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) Units 2 and 3 have condensate pump systems for emergency feedwater delivery. The SONGS emergency operating instruction (EOI) Functional Recovery' directs the plant operator to establish an alternate source of feedwater to the steam generators (SGs) by reducing the SG pressure and to initiate condensate flow to SGs to allow cooldown to shutdown cooling conditions. Analytical demonstration of the viability of this procedure and timing of operator actions, if any, would be usefle in EOI development, probabilistic risk assessment, and safety evaluation of design-basis events. A best-estimate thermal-hydraulics analysis of the Functional Recovery' from total loss of feedwater has been performed using the RETRAN transient analysis code. The RETRAN models have been developed for the SONGS ABB Combustion Engineering (C-E) pressurized water reactor (PWR) units. These models have been validated for these types of analyses.

Evinay, A.; Yackle, T.; Flournoy, B. (Southern California Edison, Irvice (United States))

1992-01-01

45

Plasticity of Language-Related Brain Function During Recovery from Stroke  

E-print Network

Plasticity of Language-Related Brain Function During Recovery from Stroke Keith R. Thulborn, MD, Ph to correlate functional recovery from aphasia after acute stroke with the temporal evolution of the anatomic during recovery from acute stroke presenting with aphasia. Perfusion, diffusion, sodium, and conventional

46

Methods for inoculation and recovery of Salmonella from chicken eggs.  

PubMed

Various methods of applying inoculum and recovering low numbers of artificially inoculated Salmonella typhimurium on eggs were evaluated. Inoculation methods tested were suspending cells in 1) .85% saline; 2) 1% peptone; 3) sterile chicken fecal paste; or 4) a 1:10 dilution of chicken feces in .85% saline. Sampling methods tested were 1) shell and membrane massage; and 2) mortar and pestle grinding of shells and membranes. The method that yielded the best recovery of low numbers of Salmonella was as follows: 1) apply cell suspension in 1% peptone to egg; 2) sample egg by a hand crush and massage of shell and membranes in 50 mL of buffered peptone; 3) incubate shell and membranes in buffered peptone overnight and then plate onto selective agar. Methods that did not improve sensitivity of recovery included varying the inoculum drying time, addition of FeSO4 or Cleland's reagent to the recovery medium, and varying the temperature of the inoculum to affect penetration. PMID:1754543

Berrang, M E; Cox, N A; Bailey, J S; Blankenship, L C

1991-11-01

47

Differences and similarities between functional and personal recovery in an Asian population: a cluster analytic approach.  

PubMed

This study gathers empirical data to test whether two forms of recovery are related: (1) the traditional outcome-based notion of recovery from a mental illness, which is called "functional recovery," and (2) the more recent, consumer-based concept of recovery in mental illness, which is called "personal recovery." A total of 150 Chinese outpatients were recruited, 75 with bipolar disorder and 75 with schizophrenia, as determined by structured clinical interview. Participants were reported to be in clinical remission for at least the previous 6 months by treating psychiatrists. Personal recovery was measured with the Stages of Recovery Scale, and functional recovery was measured with residential and employment status. In addition to clinical and demographic data, self-report measures included functioning (confirmed through chart review) and a survey of the participant's assessment of the importance of various elements of recovery. Personal recovery was significantly correlated with functional recovery; small effect size suggested that the two domains are far from identical. The strength of this correlation was stronger for participants with schizophrenia than for those with bipolar disorder. A cluster analysis also suggested that residential and employment statuses, along with personal recovery scores, were useful in differentiating participants. Patients were more likely to reach better recovery outcomes if they were female, married, had higher family income, and perceived social roles as less important to their recovery. Consistent with the consumer literature, personal recovery is related but still distinct from functional recovery. Personal recovery has more to do with life circumstances than with functioning status alone. PMID:24575912

Tse, Samson; Davidson, Larry; Chung, Ka-fai; Ng, King Lam; Yu, Chong Ho

2014-01-01

48

Influence of the Emotional Response to Surgery on Functional Recovery During 6 Months After Hip Arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether the emotional response to hip arthroplasty predicted functional recovery after controlling for preoperative function and surgical trauma. Mood and fatigue were measured in 102 consecutive patients preoperatively and 3 days postoperatively. Time of achievement of functional milestones indicated recovery in hospital, and functional status was measured preoperatively and 1 and 6 months postoperatively. Circulating C-reactive protein and

Peter Salmon; George M. Hall; Denise Peerbhoy

2001-01-01

49

Comparison of Surface Sampling Methods for Virus Recovery from Fomites ? †  

PubMed Central

The role of fomites in infectious disease transmission relative to other exposure routes is difficult to discern due, in part, to the lack of information on the level and distribution of virus contamination on surfaces. Comparisons of studies intending to fill this gap are difficult because multiple different sampling methods are employed and authors rarely report their method's lower limit of detection. In the present study, we compare a subset of sampling methods identified from a literature review to demonstrate that sampling method significantly influences study outcomes. We then compare a subset of methods identified from the review to determine the most efficient methods for recovering virus from surfaces in a laboratory trial using MS2 bacteriophage as a model virus. Recoveries of infective MS2 and MS2 RNA are determined using both a plaque assay and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, respectively. We conclude that the method that most effectively recovers virus from nonporous fomites uses polyester-tipped swabs prewetted in either one-quarter-strength Ringer's solution or saline solution. This method recovers a median fraction for infective MS2 of 0.40 and for MS2 RNA of 0.07. Use of the proposed method for virus recovery in future fomite sampling studies would provide opportunities to compare findings across multiple studies. PMID:21821742

Julian, Timothy R.; Tamayo, Francisco J.; Leckie, James O.; Boehm, Alexandria B.

2011-01-01

50

A Model for Functional Recovery and Cortical Reintegration after Hemifacial Composite Tissue Allotransplantation  

PubMed Central

Background The ability to achieve optimal functional recovery is important in both face and hand transplantation. The purpose of this study was to develop a functional rat hemifacial transplant model optimal for studying both functional outcome and cortical reintegration in composite tissue allotransplantation. Methods Five syngeneic transplants with motor and sensory nerve appositions (group 1) and five syngeneic transplants without nerve appositions (group 2) were performed. Five allogeneic transplants were performed with motor and sensory nerve appositions (group 3). Lewis (RT1l) rats were used for syngeneic transplants and Brown-Norway (RT1n) donors and Lewis (RT1l) recipients were used for allogeneic transplants. Allografts received cyclosporine A monotherapy. Functional recovery was assessed by recordings of nerve conduction velocity and cortical neural activity evoked by facial nerve and sensory (tactile) stimuli, respectively. Results All animals in groups 1 and 3 showed evidence of motor function return on nerve conduction testing, whereas animals in group 2, which did not have nerve appositions, did not show electrical activity on electromyographic analysis (p < 0.001). All animals in groups 1 and 3 showed evidence of reafferentation on recording from the somatosensory cortex after whisker stimulation. Animals in group 2 did not show a cortical response on stimulation of the whiskers (p < 0.001). Conclusion The authors have established a hemiface transplant model in the rat that has several modalities for the comprehensive study of motor and sensory recovery and cortical reintegration after composite tissue allotransplantation. PMID:19182661

Washington, Kia M.; Solari, Mario G.; Sacks, Justin M.; Horibe, Elaine K.; Unadkat, Jignesh V.; Carvell, George E.; Simons, Daniel J.; Lee, W. P. Andrew

2011-01-01

51

Noradrenergic pharmacotherapy, intracerebral infusion and adrenal transplantation promote functional recovery after cortical damage.  

PubMed

The research described in this review briefly summarizes evidence that short term pharmacological enhancement of noradrenergic (NA) synaptic activity, combined with symptom relevant experience (SRE), promotes functional recovery of some symptoms of cortical damage in rat, cat and human beings even when treatment is initiated from days to weeks after injury. A summary is provided of the numerous drugs tested in rodent cortical injury models which have been proven useful for predicting beneficial or harmful effects on behavioral outcome in human stroke. The pattern of drug effects indicates a central role for NA in functional recovery. Additionally, studies of the effects of direct intraventricular infusion of monoamine neurotransmitters are reviewed and further support the hypothesized role of NA in recovery from some symptoms of cortical injury. The site of NA/SRE interaction to promote recovery from hemiplegia apparently involves the cerebellar hemisphere contralateral to the cortical injury. Microinfusions of NA into the contra- but not ipsilateral cerebellar hemisphere dramatically enhance recovery. Furthermore, like its systemic action, microinfusion of the alpha 1-NA receptor antagonist, phenoxybenzamine, reinstates hemiplegia. A "permanent" symptom of motor cortex injury in the cat is the complete loss of tactile placing contralateral to the injury which does not spontaneously recover for as long as seven years after ablation. This postural reflex is temporarily restored for 8-12 hours following amphetamine administration. However, this permanently lost reflex can be enduringly restored by transplanting catecholamine secreting adrenal tissue into the wound cavity. The experiment is reviewed in detail and involves chromaffin cell autografts into the frontal cortex ablation wound cavity producing a restoration of tactile placing for the 7-10 month duration of the study. This enduring restoration of tactile placing is considered a result of the release of catecholamines into the CNS from the grafted chromaffin cells found, by histochemical methods, surviving 7-10 months after transplant. Lastly, we attribute these delayed treatment effects to an attenuation of a diaschisis, or remote functional depression, in morphologically intact areas anatomically connected to the area of injury. The widespread reduction of glycolytic and oxidative metabolism, produced by focal cortical injury, is normalized by the same treatment which alleviates symptoms and is worsened by drugs which exacerbate deficits. These data support the hypothesis that providing SRE during a period of enhanced NA synaptic activity produces an enduring functional recovery after cortical injury by attenuating remote functional depression. This treatment for enhancing recovery is especially attractive since it is effective even when begun weeks after cortical damage. PMID:8018752

Feeney, D M; Weisend, M P; Kline, A E

1993-01-01

52

Noradrenergic Pharmacotherapy, Intracerebral Infusion and Adrenal Transplantation Promote Functional Recovery After Cortical Damage  

PubMed Central

The research described in this review briefly summarizes evidence that short term pharmacological enhancement of noradrenergic (NA) synaptic activity, combined with symptom relevant experience (SRE), promotes functional recovery of some symptoms of cortical damage in rat, cat and human beings even when treatment is initiated from days to weeks after injury. A summary is provided of the numerous drugs tested in rodent cortical injury models which have been proven useful for predicting beneficial or harmful effects on behavioral outcome in human stroke. The pattern of drug effects indicates a central role for NA in functional recovery. Additionally, studies of the effects of direct intraventricular infusion of monoamine neurotransmitters are reviewed and further support the hypothesized role of NA in recovery from some symptoms of cortical injury. The site of NA/SRE interaction to promote recovery from hemiplegia apparently involves the cerebellar hemisphere contralateral to the cortical injury. Microinfusions of NA into the contra- but not ipsilaterai cerebellar hemisphere dramatically enhance recovery. Furthermore, like its systemic action, microinfusion of the ?1- NA receptor antagonist, phenoxybenzamine, reinstates hemiplegia. A “permanent” symptom of motor cortex injury in the cat is the complete loss of tactile placing contralateral to the injury which does not spontaneously recover for as long as seven years after ablation. This posturai reflex is temporarily restored for 8-12 hours following amphetamine administration. However, this permanently lost reflex can be enduringly restored by transplanting catecholamine secreting adrenal tissue into the wound cavity. The experiment is reviewed in detail and involves chromaffin cell autografts into the frontal cortex ablation wound cavity producing a restoration of tactile placing for the 7-10 month duration of the study. This enduring restoration of tactile placing is considered a result of the release of catecholamines into the CNS from the grafted chromaffin cells found, by histochemical methods, surviving 7-10 months after transplant. Lastly, we attribute these delayed treatment effects to an attenuation of a diaschisis, or remote functional depression, in morphologically intact areas anatomically connected to the area of injury. The widespread reduction of glycolytic and oxidative metabolism, produced by focal cortical injury, is normalized by the same treatment which alleviates symptoms and is worsened by drugs which exacerbate deficits. These data support the hypothesis that providing SRE during a period of enhanced NA synaptic activity produces an enduring functional recovery after cortical injury by attenuating remote functional depression. This treatment for enhancing recovery is especially attractive since it is effective even when begun weeks after cortical damage. PMID:8018752

Feeney, Dennis M.; Weisend, Michael P.; Kline, Anthony E.

1993-01-01

53

Subthreshold continuous electrical stimulation facilitates functional recovery of facial nerve after crush injury in rabbit.  

PubMed

We sought to determine whether electrical stimulation (ES) with subthreshold, continuous, low-frequency impulses is a viable clinical method for improving functional recovery after facial nerve crush injury. In 10 rabbits, bilateral crush injuries were made on the facial nerve by compression for 30 s with mosquito forceps, causing complete facial paralysis. Subthreshold continuous direct current ES with 20-Hz square-wave pulses was applied to the proximal stump on one side for 4 weeks. Vibrissae movement returned significantly earlier on the ES side, with a less variable recovery time. Electrophysiologically, the stimulated side had a significantly shorter latency, longer duration, and faster conduction velocity. Light and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the electrical stimulation also markedly decreased Wallerian degeneration. The average numbers of fluorescent, double-labeled nerve cells were significantly different between the ES and non-ES sides. This study shows that subthreshold, continuous, low-frequency ES immediately after a crush injury of the facial nerve results in earlier recovery of facial function and shorter overall recovery time. PMID:21254091

Kim, Jin; Han, Su Jin; Shin, Dong Hyun; Lee, Won-Sang; Choi, Jae Young

2011-02-01

54

Arterial Injury and Endothelial Repair: Rapid Recovery of Function after Mechanical Injury in Healthy Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Objective. Previous studies suggest a protracted course of recovery after mechanical endothelial injury; confounders may include degree of injury and concomitant endothelial dysfunction. We sought to define the time course of endothelial function recovery using flow-mediated dilation (FMD), after ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) and mechanical injury in patients and healthy volunteers. The contribution of circulating CD133+/CD34+/VEGFR2+ “endothelial progenitor” (EPC) or repair cells to endothelial repair was also examined. Methods. 28 healthy volunteers aged 18–35 years underwent transient forearm ischaemia induced by cuff inflation around the proximal biceps and radial artery mechanical injury induced by inserting a wire through a cannula. A more severe mechanical injury was induced using an arterial sheath and catheter inserted into the radial artery of 18 patients undergoing angiography. Results. IR and mechanical injury produced immediate impairment of FMD (from 6.5 ± 1.2% to 2.9 ± 2.2% and from 7.4 ± 2.3% to 1.5 ± 1.6% for IR and injury, resp., each P < 0.001) but recovered within 6 hours and 2 days, respectively. FMD took up to 4 months to recover in patients. Circulating EPC did not change significantly during the injury/recovery period in all subjects. Conclusions. Recovery of endothelial function after IR and mechanical injury is rapid and not associated with a change in circulating EPC. PMID:24719774

Hunt, Joanne; Donald, Ann; Chowienczyk, Phil

2014-01-01

55

An efficient method of noroviruses recovery from oysters and clams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noroviruses (NoVs) are widespread causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Outbreaks of NoVs caused diseases are commonly ascribed to the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The concentration and RNA extraction of NoVs are crucial steps of detecting NoVs in shellfish. This study aimed to select a simple, rapid and highly efficient recovery method of NoVs detection with real-time RT-PCR. Four methods of recovering GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs from spiked digestive tissues of oysters and clams, respectively, were compared, of them, the method involving proteinase K and PEG 8000 was found the most efficient. With this method, 9.3% and 13.1% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from oysters and 9.6% and 12.3% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from clams, respectively. This method was further used to detect NoVs in 84 oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) and 86 clams ( Ruditapes philippinarum) collected from 10 coastal cities in China from Jan. 2011 to Feb. 2012. The NoVs isolation rates were 10.47% of clams (9/86) and 7.14% of oysters (6/84). All the detected NoVs belonged to genotype GII. The NoVs recovery method selected is efficient for NoVs detection in oysters and clams.

Zhou, Deqing; Ma, Liping; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Lin; Su, Laijin; Li, Xinguang

2013-03-01

56

Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation  

DOEpatents

A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

Sisemore, Clyde J. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01

57

Method for the removal and recovery of mercury  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

Easterly, Clay E. (Knoxville, TN); Vass, Arpad A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

1997-01-01

58

Method for the removal and recovery of mercury  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

Easterly, C.E.; Vass, A.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

1997-01-28

59

Heterogeneity and the Longitudinal Recovery of Functioning During Inpatient Psychiatric Rehabilitation for Treatment-Refractory Severe Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Few studies adequately capture the heterogeneity of severe mental illness (SMI) in recovery outcomes. In this study, we examine the between-person and within-person variance in the longitudinal recovery of key functional domains during a comprehensive inpatient psychiatric rehabilitation program for a severe, treatment-refractory population with SMI. Method. We reviewed clinical assessment data collected over 10 years from an inpatient

Nancy H. Liu; Kee-Hong Choi; Felice Reddy; William D. Spaulding

2011-01-01

60

Sparse signal recovery methods for multiplexing PET detector readout.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine imaging detectors are commonly multiplexed to reduce the number of readout channels. Because the underlying detector signals have a sparse representation, sparse recovery methods such as compressed sensing may be used to develop new multiplexing schemes. Random methods may be used to create sensing matrices that satisfy the restricted isometry property. However, the restricted isometry property provides little guidance for developing multiplexing networks with good signal-to-noise recovery capability. In this work, we describe compressed sensing using a maximum likelihood framework and develop a new method for constructing multiplexing (sensing) matrices that can recover signals more accurately in a mean square error sense compared to sensing matrices constructed by random construction methods. Signals can then be recovered by maximum likelihood estimation constrained to the support recovered by either greedy l? iterative algorithms or l?-norm minimization techniques. We show that this new method for constructing and decoding sensing matrices recovers signals with 4%-110% higher SNR than random Gaussian sensing matrices, up to 100% higher SNR than partial DCT sensing matrices 50%-2400% higher SNR than cross-strip multiplexing, and 22%-210% higher SNR than Anger multiplexing for photoelectric events. PMID:23475349

Chinn, Garry; Olcott, Peter D; Levin, Craig S

2013-05-01

61

Functional taping of fractures of the 5th metacarpal results in a quicker recovery.  

PubMed

Fractures of the fifth metacarpal can be treated non-operatively by plaster immobilisation or functional taping. In order to evaluate the better treatment policy, the two methods were compared in a prospective randomised series. We treated 25 patients with an ulnar gutter plaster-cast splintage and 25 with functional tape. Functional recovery was evaluated after one week and four weeks, three months and six months. Mobility, power-grip, pulling- and torque strengths were measured. The change in fracture angulation was calculated at the one and four-week follow-up. Residual symptoms were evaluated after six months. The functional tape group showed significant earlier functional recovery. After six months, there were no significant differences between the groups with regard to functional and anatomical results or the number of patients with residual symptoms. In both groups, we noted a change in fracture angulation only in those fractures that had been reduced. We conclude that fractures of the 5th metacarpal are better treated by functional taping than by cast immobilisation. PMID:9659472

Braakman, M; Oderwald, E E; Haentjens, M H

1998-01-01

62

Methods for improved recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from cheese.  

PubMed Central

Method of homogenization (Waring blender versus stomacher), type of diluent (tryptose broth [TB] versus aqueous 2% trisodium citrate), and temperature of diluent (20 versus 40 degrees C) were compared for recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from freshly made and ripened Colby cheese. By using direct plating on McBride listeria agar, significantly higher numbers of L. monocytogenes were recovered when cheese samples were (i) homogenized for 2 min with the blender rather than the stomacher (P less than 0.01), (ii) diluted in trisodium citrate rather than TB (P less than 0.01), and (iii) diluted in diluents at 40 rather than 20 degrees C (P less than 0.05). Based on these results, a new diluent/enrichment medium was developed by adding 2% trisodium citrate to TB (TBC). Despite superior results with the blender, biosafety concerns led to use of the stomacher for homogenization of cheese samples; hence, the stomaching time was increased to 3 min. Results obtained by direct plating indicated that recovery of L. monocytogenes from Colby cheese and from curd samples taken during manufacture of brick cheese increased when samples were diluted 1:10 in TBC at 45 degrees C and stomached for 3 min, as compared with similarly treated samples diluted in TB at 25 degrees C. A similar comparison of both diluents for recovery of L. monocytogenes from cold-pack cheese food yielded bacterial counts which were not significantly different. Recovery of L. monocytogenes from cold-enriched (at 4 degrees C for up to 8 weeks) samples of Colby cheese and cold-pack cheese food was generally similar for samples homogenized in TBC or TB. PMID:3145706

Yousef, A E; Ryser, E T; Marth, E H

1988-01-01

63

Neuromotor recovery from stroke: computational models at central, functional, and muscle synergy level  

PubMed Central

Computational models of neuromotor recovery after a stroke might help to unveil the underlying physiological mechanisms and might suggest how to make recovery faster and more effective. At least in principle, these models could serve: (i) To provide testable hypotheses on the nature of recovery; (ii) To predict the recovery of individual patients; (iii) To design patient-specific “optimal” therapy, by setting the treatment variables for maximizing the amount of recovery or for achieving a better generalization of the learned abilities across different tasks. Here we review the state of the art of computational models for neuromotor recovery through exercise, and their implications for treatment. We show that to properly account for the computational mechanisms of neuromotor recovery, multiple levels of description need to be taken into account. The review specifically covers models of recovery at central, functional and muscle synergy level. PMID:23986688

Casadio, Maura; Tamagnone, Irene; Summa, Susanna; Sanguineti, Vittorio

2013-01-01

64

Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery  

DOEpatents

A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the CSAMT technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (a) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (b) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the connate water of the production field; (c) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (d) mathematically comparing the maps from step (a) and step (c) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

Lee, David O. (Albuquerque, NM); Montoya, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Wayland, Jr., James R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1987-01-01

65

Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery  

DOEpatents

A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (1) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (2) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the conate water of the production field; (3) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (4) mathematically comparing the maps from step (1) and step (3) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

1984-03-30

66

Functional recovery after facial nerve crush is delayed in severe combined immunodeficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the current study was to determine if T and B lymphocytes play a role in functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. The time course of behavioral recovery following facial nerve crush injury at the stylomastoid foramen was established in scid mice which lack functional T and B cells and reconstituted scid mice as compared to wild-type mice.

Craig J. Serpe; Julie E. Tetzlaff; Susanna Coers; Virginia M. Sanders; Kathryn J. Jones

2002-01-01

67

Combined geophysical methods for mapping infiltration pathways at the Aurora Water Aquifer recharge and recovery site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although aquifer recharge and recovery systems are a sustainable, decentralized, low cost, and low energy approach for the reclamation, treatment, and storage of post- treatment wastewater, they can suffer from poor infiltration rates and the development of a near-surface clogging layer within infiltration ponds. One such aquifer recharge and recovery system, the Aurora Water site in Colorado, U.S.A, functions at about 25% of its predicted capacity to recharge floodplain deposits by flooding infiltration ponds with post-treatment wastewater extracted from river bank aquifers along the South Platte River. The underwater self-potential method was developed to survey self-potential signals at the ground surface in a flooded infiltration pond for mapping infiltration pathways. A method for using heat as a groundwater tracer within the infiltration pond used an array of in situ high-resolution temperature sensing probes. Both relatively positive and negative underwater self-potential anomalies are consistent with observed recovery well pumping rates and specific discharge estimates from temperature data. Results from electrical resistivity tomography and electromagnetics surveys provide consistent electrical conductivity distributions associated with sediment textures. A lab method was developed for resistivity tests of near-surface sediment samples. Forward numerical modeling synthesizes the geophysical information to best match observed self- potential anomalies and provide permeability distributions, which is important for effective aquifer recharge and recovery system design, and optimization strategy development.

Jasper, Cameron A.

68

Method of Correlated Basis Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of correlated basis functions provides a means of systematically exploiting our intuitive understanding of real physical systems. Here we seek especially to develop a formalism for describing systems of strongly interacting fermions, for example, nuclei and liquid He3, using a complete set of correlated functions Psim=FPhim(Phim, F2Phim)12. F is taken as a product of two-body factors, i

John W. Clark; Paul Westhaus

1966-01-01

69

Driving Functional Behavioral Recovery Using Activity-Dependent Stimulation  

E-print Network

The purpose of this project was to determine if artificially linking spared motor and sensory areas following a cortical lesion would lead to increased behavioral recovery on a skilled reaching task. Sensory-motor integration ...

Guggenmos, David

2012-12-31

70

The effects of ADL on recovery of swallowing function in stroke patients after acute phase.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the association between the degree of recovery from dysphagia and changes in functional independence measure (FIM) items in stroke patients after acute phase by conducting a historical cohort study, because none explains the effects of activities of daily living (ADL) on recovery of swallowing function. Study patients included hospitalised stroke patients after acute phase in whom dysphagia was confirmed (n = 72). Change in nutritional intake method score was examined for association with age, days from stroke onset to admission, length of hospital stay and change in FIM score. Moreover, to examine characteristics of patients who were removed from tube feeding, all patients who required tube feeding at the time of admission were divided into two groups comprising those who required tube feeding at discharge and those who did not. A significant and positive association was observed between change in nutritional intake method and FIM for all items other than self-care of bathing, locomotion of stairs and problem solving. Patients who were removed from tube feeding were significantly younger than those who required tube feeding at the time of discharge (P < 0·041) and also showed significantly higher FIM scores for transfer and all cognitive FIM items at the time of admission (P < 0·05). This study demonstrated that nutritional intake methods improve in conjunction with FIM improvements in patients with dysphagia following the acute phase of stroke. Our results suggest that the age and cognitive function may influence the recovery of patient ability of oral intake. PMID:25041090

Nakayama, E; Tohara, H; Hino, T; Sato, M; Hiraba, H; Abe, K; Ueda, K

2014-12-01

71

Oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs by steam injection methods  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to develop accurate models for predicting oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs by steam injection. This objective is being met through an integrated experimental, numerical, and analytical study of the recovery mechanisms that control oil recovery for this process. These mechanisms include capillary imbibition, thermal expansion, gas generation from chemical reactions, and temperature-dependent thermal properties.

Reis, J.; Miller, M.

1991-01-01

72

Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint arthroplasty but are considered resource intensive. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been shown to improve quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength and clinical function in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) however it has not been previously investigated as a prehabilitation modality. METHODS: This pilot study assessed the compliance

Raymond J Walls; Gavin McHugh; Donal J O'Gorman; Niall M Moyna; John M O'Byrne

2010-01-01

73

Carbohydrate vs protein supplementation for recovery of neuromuscular function following prolonged load carriage  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined the effect of carbohydrate and whey protein supplements on recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage. Methods Ten male participants (body mass: 81.5 ± 10.5 kg, age: 28 ± 9 years, O2max: 55.0 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) completed three treadmill walking tests (2 hr, 6.5 km·h-1), carrying a 25 kg backpack consuming 500 ml of either: (1) Placebo (flavoured water) [PLA], (2) 6.4% Carbohydrate Solution [CHO] or (3) 7.0% Whey Protein Solution [PRO]. For three days after load carriage, participants consumed two 500 ml supplement boluses. Muscle performance was measured before and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after load carriage, during voluntary and electrically stimulated contractions. Results Isometric knee extension force decreased immediately after load carriage with no difference between conditions. During recovery, isometric force returned to pre-exercise values at 48 h for CHO and PRO but at 72 h for PLA. Voluntary activation decreased immediately after load carriage and returned to pre-exercise values at 24 h in all conditions (P = 0.086). During recovery, there were no differences between conditions for the change in isokinetic peak torque. Following reductions immediately after load carriage, knee extensor and flexor peak torque (60°·s-1) recovered to pre-exercise values at 72 h. Trunk extensor and flexor peak torque (15°·s-1) recovered to pre-exercise values at 24 h (P = 0.091) and 48 h (P = 0.177), respectively. Conclusion Recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage is improved with either carbohydrate or whey protein supplementation for isometric contractions but not for isokinetic contractions. PMID:20157419

2010-01-01

74

Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles  

DOEpatents

A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

2013-06-11

75

Pulmonary Function Predicting Confirmed Recovery From Lower-Respiratory Symptoms in World Trade Center-Exposed Firefighters, 2001 to 2010  

PubMed Central

Background: We examined the relationship between pulmonary function (FEV1) and confirmed recovery from three lower-respiratory symptoms (LRSs) (cough, dyspnea, and wheeze) up to 9 years after symptom onset. Methods: The study included white and black male World Trade Center (WTC)-exposed firefighters who reported at least one LRS on a medical monitoring examination during the first year after September 11, 2001. Confirmed recovery was defined as reporting no LRSs on two consecutive and all subsequent examinations. FEV1 was assessed at the first post-September 11, 2001, examination and at each examination where symptom information was ascertained. We used stratified Cox regression models to analyze FEV1, WTC exposure, and other variables in relation to confirmed symptom recovery. Results: A total of 4,368 firefighters met inclusion criteria and were symptomatic at year 1, of whom 1,592 (36.4%) experienced confirmed recovery. In univariable models, first post-September 11, 2001, concurrent, and difference between first post-September 11, 2001, and concurrent FEV1 values were all significantly associated with confirmed recovery. In adjusted analyses, both first post-September 11, 2001, FEV1 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07 per 355-mL difference; 95% CI, 1.04-1.10) and FEV1 % predicted (HR, 1.08 per 10% predicted difference; 95% CI, 1.04-1.12) predicted confirmed recovery. WTC exposure had an inverse association with confirmed recovery in the model with FEV1, with the earliest arrival group less likely to recover than the latest arrival group (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.58-0.92). Conclusions: Higher FEV1 and improvement in FEV1 after September 11, 2001, predicted confirmed LRS recovery, supporting a physiologic basis for recovery and highlighting consideration of spirometry as part of any postexposure respiratory health assessment. PMID:22576633

Soo, Jackie; Hall, Charles B.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Schwartz, Theresa M.; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

2012-01-01

76

Factors Associated With Neurological Recovery of Brainstem Function Following Postoperative Conformal Radiation Therapy for Infratentorial Ependymoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To identify risk factors associated with incomplete neurological recovery in pediatric patients with infratentorial ependymoma treated with postoperative conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods: The study included 68 patients (median age +- standard deviation of 2.6 +- 3.8 years) who were followed for 5 years after receiving CRT (54-59.4 Gy) and were assessed for function of cranial nerves V to VII and IX to XII, motor weakness, and dysmetria. The mean (+- standard deviation) brainstem dose was 5,487 (+-464) cGy. Patients were divided into four groups representing those with normal baseline and follow-up, those with abnormal baseline and full recovery, those with abnormal baseline and partial or no recovery, and those with progressive deficits at 12 (n = 62 patients), 24 (n = 57 patients), and 60 (n = 50 patients) months. Grouping was correlated with clinical and treatment factors. Results: Risk factors (overall risk [OR], p value) associated with incomplete recovery included gender (male vs. female, OR = 3.97, p = 0.036) and gross tumor volume (GTV) (OR/ml = 1.23, p = 0.005) at 12 months, the number of resections (>1 vs. 1; OR = 23.7, p = 0.003) and patient age (OR/year = 0.77, p = 0.029) at 24 months, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting (Yes vs. No; OR = 21.9, p = 0.001) and GTV volume (OR/ml = 1.18, p = 0.008) at 60 months. An increase in GTV correlated with an increase in the number of resections (p = 0.001) and CSF shunting (p = 0.035); the number of resections correlated with CSF shunting (p < 0.0001), and male patients were more likely to undergo multiple tumor resections (p = 0.003). Age correlated with brainstem volume (p < 0.0001). There were no differences in outcome based on the absolute or relative volume of the brainstem that received more than 54 Gy. Conclusions: Incomplete recovery of brainstem function after CRT for infratentorial ependymoma is related to surgical morbidity and the volume and the extent of tumor.

Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.or [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Chitti, Ramana M. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Sanford, Robert A. [Semmes-Murphy Neurological Institute, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Khan, Raja B. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

2010-02-01

77

Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats.  

PubMed

Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a promising strategy for peripheral nerve repair. PMID:24076387

Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin

2013-10-18

78

Monitoring of thermal enhanced oil recovery processes with electromagnetic methods  

SciTech Connect

Research in applying electromagnetic methods for imaging thermal enhanced oil recovery has progressed significantly during the past eighteen months. Working together with researchers at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and supported by a group of industrial sponsors we have focused our effort on field system development and doing field surveys connected with EOR operations. Field surveys were recently completed at the Lost Hills No.3 oil field and at UC Richmond Field station. At Lost Hills, crosshole EM data sets were collected before a new phase of steam injection for EOR and again four months after the onset of steaming. The two data sets were nearly identical suggesting that very little steam had been injected into this borehole. This is in accord with the operators records which indicate injectivity problems with this particular well. At Richmond we conducted a salt water injection monitoring experiment where 50,000 gallons of salt water were injected in a shallow aquifer and crosshole EM data were collected using the injection well and several observation wells. We applied the imaging code to some of the collected data and produced an image showing that the salt water slug has propagated 8--10 m from the injector into the aquifer. This result is partially confirmed by prior calculations and well logging data. Applying the EM methods to the problem of oil field characterization essentially means extending the borehole resistivity log into the region between wells. Since the resistivity of a sedimentary environment is often directly dependent on the fluids in the rock the knowledge of the resistivity distribution within an oil field can be invaluable for finding missed or bypassed oil or for mapping the overall structure. With small modification the same methods used for mapping EOR process can be readily applied to determining the insitu resistivity structure.

Wilt, M.

1992-09-01

79

Thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus for exploiting deep well reservoirs utilizes electric downhole steam generators to provide supplemental heat to generate high quality steam from hot pressurized water which is heated at the surface. A downhole electric heater placed within a well bore for local heating of the pressurized liquid water into steam is powered by electricity from the above-ground gas turbine-driven electric generators fueled by any clean fuel such as natural gas, distillate or some crude oils, or may come from the field being stimulated. Heat recovered from the turbine exhaust is used to provide the hot pressurized water. Electrical power may be cogenerated and sold to an electric utility to provide immediate cash flow and improved economics. During the cogeneration period (no electrical power to some or all of the downhole units), the oil field can continue to be stimulated by injecting hot pressurized water, which will flash into lower quality steam at reservoir conditions. The heater includes electrical heating elements supplied with three-phase alternating current or direct current. The injection fluid flows through the heater elements to generate high quality steam to exit at the bottom of the heater assembly into the reservoir. The injection tube is closed at the bottom and has radial orifices for expanding the injection fluid to reservoir pressure.

Stahl, Charles R. (Scotia, NY); Gibson, Michael A. (Houston, TX); Knudsen, Christian W. (Houston, TX)

1987-01-01

80

Continuous flow, evaporative-type thermal energy recovery apparatus and method for thermal energy recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous flow, evaporative-type thermal energy recovery apparatus comprises an evaporator unit to which are supplied continuous pressurized flows of hot water and air, and in which a portion of the hot water is evaporated into the air, preferably to completely saturate the air with moisture. Connected to receive the resulting flow of pressurized, water saturated air from the evaporator

Bissell

1978-01-01

81

Does physical activity change predict functional recovery in low back pain? Protocol for a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Activity advice and prescription are commonly used in the management of low back pain (LBP). Although there is evidence for advising patients with LBP to remain active, facilitating both recovery and return to work, to date no research has assessed whether objective measurements of free living physical activity (PA) can predict outcome, recovery and course of LBP. Methods An observational longitudinal study will investigate PA levels in a cohort of community-dwelling working age adults with acute and sub-acute LBP. Each participant's PA level, functional status, mood, fear avoidance behaviours, and levels of pain, psychological distress and occupational activity will be measured on three occasions during for 1 week periods at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year. Physical activity levels will be measured by self report, RT3 triaxial accelerometer, and activity recall questionnaires. The primary outcome measure of functional recovery will be the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Free living PA levels and changes in functional status will be quantified in order to look at predictive relationships between levels and changes in free living PA and functional recovery in a LBP population. Discussion This research will investigate levels and changes in activity levels of an acute LBP cohort and the predictive relationship to LBP recovery. The results will assess whether occupational, psychological and behavioural factors affect the relationship between free living PA and LBP recovery. Results from this research will help to determine the strength of evidence supporting international guidelines that recommend restoration of normal activity in managing LBP. Trial registration [Clinical Trial Registration Number, ACTRN12609000282280] PMID:19895697

Hendrick, Paul; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Bell, Melanie L; Hale, Leigh; Hurley, Deirdre A; McDonough, Suzanne M; Melloh, Markus; Baxter, David G

2009-01-01

82

Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a promising strategy for peripheral nerve repair.

Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin, E-mail: chengleiyx@126.com

2013-10-18

83

Novel method for graphene functionalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a novel method to obtain a stable dispersion of graphene in water using carbon quantum dots as surface active agents. In this way it is possible to achieve graphene concentrations in dispersion up to 2.7 mg ml−1. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV–Vis measurements confirmed the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups in the graphene–carbon quantum dot (gCQD) structure, responsible for its good solubility in water. The stability of the gCQD dispersion is due to π–π interactions formed between graphene and graphene-like sites of carbon quantum dots. According to Raman spectroscopy, as well as transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy analysis, graphene sheets consist of several layers.

Kepi?, D.; Markovi?, Z.; Jovanovi?, S.; Holclajtner Antunovi?, I.; Kleut, D.; Todorovi? Markovi?, B.

2014-09-01

84

The General Weakness Syndrome Therapy (GymNAST) study: protocol for a cohort study on recovery on walking function  

PubMed Central

Introduction Critical illness myopathy (CIM) and polyneuropathy (CIP) are common complications of critical illness that frequently occur together. Both cause so called intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired muscle weakness. This weakness of limb muscles increases morbidity and delay rehabilitation and recovery of walking ability. Although full recovery has been reported people with severe weakness may take months to improve walking. Focused physical rehabilitation of people with ICU-acquired muscle weakness is therefore of great importance. However, although physical rehabilitation is common, detailed knowledge about the pattern and the time course of recovery of walking function are not well understood. Therefore, the aim of the General Weakness Syndrome Therapy (GymNAST) study is to describe the time course of recovery of walking function and other activities of daily living in these patients. Methods and analysis We conduct a prospective cohort study of people with ICU-acquired muscle weakness with defined diagnosis of CIM or CIP. Based on our sample size calculation, approximately 150 patients will be recruited from the ICU of our hospital in Germany. Amount and content of physical rehabilitation, clinical tests for example, muscle strength and motor function and neuropsychological assessments will be used as independent variables. The primary outcomes will include recovery of walking function and mobility. Secondary outcomes will include global motor function, activities in daily life and participation. Ethics and dissemination The study is being carried out in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki and conducted with the approval of the local medical Ethics Committee (Landesärztekammer Sachsen, Germany, reference number EK-BR-32/13-1) and with the understanding and written consent of each patient's guardian. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to the medical society and general public. PMID:25344484

Mehrholz, Jan; Muckel, Simone; Oehmichen, Frank; Pohl, Marcus

2014-01-01

85

Differential recovery of volitional motor function, lateralized cognitive function, dopamine agonist-induced rotation and dopaminergic parameters in monkeys made hemi-parkinsonian by intracarotid MPTP infusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is still controversy regarding the fequency and extent of spontaneous functional recovery in primate models of parkinsonism, perhaps in part stemming from the variety of ways in which recovery has been assessed. The present study examined functional recovery in monkeys made unilaterally parkinsonian by intracarotid infusion of MPTP. Monkeys were evaluated prior to lesioning and for at least 1

J. S. Schneider; T. I. Lidsky; T. Hawks; J. C. Mazziotta; J. M. Hoffman

1995-01-01

86

Functional Recovery After Facial and Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To systematically record rat facial nerve re- covery following crush injury to the main trunk with re- spect to ocular and vibrissial function and to compare the rates of facial and sciatic nerve recovery from crush injury in the same animals. This serves as a means of vali- dating the functional parameters of facial nerve recov- ery against the

Tessa A. Hadlock; James Heaton; Mack Cheney; Susan E. Mackinnon

2005-01-01

87

Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Measures of the Febrile Reaction and the Recovery of Somatovisceral Functions and Sleep in Endotoxemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroencephalographic methods were used to study the effects of total sleep deprivation on thermoregulatory measures of\\u000a the fever response in pigeons (Columba livia): brain temperature, peripheral vasomotor reactions, thoracic muscle contractile activity, and the recovery of somatic functions\\u000a and the time characteristics of waking and sleep in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia. Sleep deprivation during\\u000a the period in which the quantity of

K. V. Lapshina; I. V. Ekimova

2010-01-01

88

Method for induced flow recovery of shallow crude oil deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for enhancing recovery of crude oil from a producing formation comprising the steps of: drilling a first hole and at least one second hole from a surface of the ground into the producing formation; blasting with suitable charges the producing formation by introducing into the producing formation through the second hole the suitable charges and then

Theis

1987-01-01

89

An improved method for ultra fast recovery diode testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiconductor manufacturers are expending a great deal of effort in designing ultra fast recovery diodes to complement high voltage, high current switching devices, such as IGBTs, that are available today. Circuit designers trying to use these diodes and semiconductor designers trying to evaluate new manufacturing processes are being misled by test results measured on test fixtures that have not changed

Jamie Catt

1994-01-01

90

A review of microbial injury and recovery methods in food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of injured microorganisms in food and their recovery during culturing procedures is critical. Microbial injury is characterized by the capability of a microorganism to return to normalcy during a resuscitation process in which the damaged essential components are repaired. Injury of microorganisms can be induced by sublethal heat, freezing, freeze-drying, drying, irradiation, high hydrostatic pressure, aerosolization, dyes, sodium

V. C. H. Wu

2008-01-01

91

The influence of functional electrical stimulation on hand motor recovery in stroke patients: a review  

PubMed Central

Neuromuscular stimulation has been used as one potential rehabilitative treatment option to restore motor function and improve recovery in patients with paresis. Especially stroke patients who often regain only limited hand function would greatly benefit from a therapy that enhances recovery and restores movement. Multiple studies investigated the effect of functional electrical stimulation on hand paresis, the results however are inconsistent. Here we review the current literature on functional electrical stimulation on hand motor recovery in stroke patients. We discuss the impact of different parameters such as stage after stoke, degree of impairment, spasticity and treatment protocols on the functional outcome. Importantly, we outline the results from recent studies investigating the cortical effects elicited by functional electrical stimulation giving insights into the underlying mechanisms responsible for long-term treatment effects. Bringing together the findings from present research it becomes clear that both, treatment outcomes as well as the neurophysiologic mechanisms causing functional recovery, vary depending on patient characteristics. In order to develop unified treatment guidelines it is essential to conduct homogenous studies assessing the impact of different parameters on rehabilitative success. PMID:25276333

2014-01-01

92

Thermographic evaluation of hind paw skin temperature and functional recovery of locomotion after sciatic nerve crush in rats  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: Peripheral nerves are often damaged by direct mechanical injury, diseases, and tumors. The peripheral nerve injuries that result from these conditions can lead to a partial or complete loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions, which in turn are related to changes in skin temperature, in the involved segments of the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in hind paw skin temperature after sciatic nerve crush in rats in an attempt to determine whether changes in skin temperature correlate with the functional recovery of locomotion. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (n?=?7), sham (n?=?25), and crush (n?=?25). All groups were subjected to thermographic, functional, and histological assessments. RESULTS: ?T in the crush group was different from the control and sham groups at the 1st, 3rd and 7rd postoperative days (p<0.05). The functional recovery from the crush group returned to normal values between the 3rd and 4th week post-injury, and morphological analysis of the nerve revealed incomplete regeneration at the 4th week after injury. DISCUSSION: This study is the first demonstration that sciatic nerve crush in rats induces an increase in hind paw skin temperature and that skin temperature changes do not correlate closely with functional recovery PMID:21876984

Z. Sacharuk, Viviane; A. Lovatel, Gisele; Ilha, Jocemar; Marcuzzo, Simone; Severo do Pinho, Alexandre; L. Xavier, Leder; A. Zaro, Milton; Achaval, Matilde

2011-01-01

93

Hyperinnervation during Adrenal Regeneration Influences the Rate of Functional Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rat adrenal cortex has the uncommon ability to demonstrate morphological and functional regeneration after injury-induced loss of cortical tissue. Peripheral nerves are involved in tissue regeneration and healing after injury, implying that nerves may also be involved in modulating the regeneration of the adrenal cortex. Studies were initiated to assess changes in adrenal innervation during cortical tissue regeneration subsequent

Yvonne M. Ulrich-Lai; William C. Engeland

2000-01-01

94

SLEEP, Vol. 33, No. 8, 2010 1013 Neurobehavioral Recovery Dynamics from Sleep Restriction--Banks et al RECOVERY OF NEUROBEHAVIORAL FUNCTIONS  

E-print Network

SLEEP, Vol. 33, No. 8, 2010 1013 Neurobehavioral Recovery Dynamics from Sleep Restriction--Banks et al RECOVERY OF NEUROBEHAVIORAL FUNCTIONS FROM CHRONIC CURTAILMENT OF SLEEP DURATION AS A RESULT the fact that a common sleep pattern for millions of people involves sleep restriction for 5 weekdays

Pennsylvania, University of

95

Resting State Alpha-band Functional Connectivity and Recovery after Stroke  

PubMed Central

After cerebral ischemia, disruption and subsequent reorganization of functional connections occur both locally and remote to the lesion. However, the unpredictable timing and extent of sensorimotor recovery reflects a gap in understanding of these underlying neural mechanisms. We aimed to identify plasticity of alpha-band functional neural connections within the perilesional area and the predictive value of functional connectivity with respect to motor recovery of the upper extremity after stroke. Our results show improvements in upper extremity motor recovery in relation to distributed changes in MEG-based alpha band functional connectivity, both in the perilesional area and contralesional cortex. Motor recovery was found to be predicted by increased connectivity at baseline in the ipsilesional somatosensory area, supplementary motor area, and cerebellum, contrasted with reduced connectivity of contralesional motor regions, after controlling for age, stroke onset-time and lesion size. These findings support plasticity within a widely distributed neural network and define brain regions in which the extent of network participation predicts post-stroke recovery potential PMID:22750324

Westlake, Kelly P.; Hinkley, Leighton B.; Bucci, Monica; Guggisberg, Adrian G.; Findlay, Anne M.; Byl, Nancy; Henry, Roland G.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

2013-01-01

96

Inhibition of CXCL12 signaling attenuates the postischemic immune response and improves functional recovery after stroke  

PubMed Central

After stroke, brain inflammation in the ischemic hemisphere hampers brain tissue reorganization and functional recovery. Housing rats in an enriched environment (EE) dramatically improves recovery of lost neurologic functions after experimental stroke. We show here that rats housed in EE after stroke induced by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (pMCAO), showed attenuated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the ischemic core and the surrounding peri-infarct area, including a significant reduction in the stroke-induced chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its natural ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12). To mimic beneficial effects of EE, we studied the impact of inhibiting CXCL12 action on functional recovery after transient MCAO (tMCAO). Rats treated with the specific CXCL12 receptor antagonist 1-[4-(1,4,8,11-tetrazacyclotetradec-1-ylmethyl)phenyl]methyl]-1,4,8,11-tetrazacyclo-tetradecan (AMD3100) showed improved recovery compared with saline-treated rats after tMCAO, without a concomitant reduction in infarct size. This was accompanied by a reduction of infiltrating immune cells in the ischemic hemisphere, particularly cluster of differentiation 3-positive (CD3+) and CD3+/CD4+ T cells. Spleen atrophy and delayed death of splenocytes, induced by tMCAO, was prevented by AMD3100 treatment. We conclude that immoderate excessive activation of the CXCL12 pathway after stroke contributes to depression of neurologic function after stroke and that CXCR4 antagonism is beneficial for the recovery after stroke. PMID:23632969

Ruscher, Karsten; Kuric, Enida; Liu, Yawei; Walter, Helene L; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Englund, Elisabet; Wieloch, Tadeusz

2013-01-01

97

Methods of making functionalized nanorods  

DOEpatents

A process for forming functionalized nanorods. The process includes providing a substrate, modifying the substrate by depositing a self-assembled monolayer of a bi-functional molecule on the substrate, wherein the monolayer is chosen such that one side of the bi-functional molecule binds to the substrate surface and the other side shows an independent affinity for binding to a nanocrystal surface, so as to form a modified substrate. The process further includes contacting the modified substrate with a solution containing nanocrystal colloids, forming a bound monolayer of nanocrystals on the substrate surface, depositing a polymer layer over the monolayer of nanocrystals to partially cover the monolayer of nanocrystals, so as to leave a layer of exposed nanocrystals, functionalizing the exposed nanocrystals, to form functionalized nanocrystals, and then releasing the functionalized nanocrystals from the substrate.

Gur, Ilan (San Francisco, CA); Milliron, Delia (Berkeley, CA); Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Liu, Haitao (Berkeley, CA)

2012-01-10

98

Functional recovery of hibernating myocardium after coronary bypass surgery: Does it coincide with improvement in perfusion  

SciTech Connect

To determine the relationship between functional recovery and improvement in perfusion after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), 49 patients were studied. Radionuclide angiography was performed before, 1 month after, and 6 to 12 months after CABG to evaluate regional wall motion. Exercise thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging was done before and 1 month after CABG to assess regional perfusion. Preoperative asynergy was observed in 108 segments, and 74 of them showed an improvement in wall motion 1 month after CABG (segment A). Sixty-six of these segments (89%) were associated with an improvement in perfusion. Eight segments that had not improved 1 month after CABG demonstrated a delayed recovery of wall motion 6 to 12 months after CABG (segment B). However, seven of eight segments (88%) already showed an improvement in perfusion 1 month after CABG. A total of 82 segments exhibited functional recovery after CABG and were considered hibernating segments. In the preoperative study segment B more frequently had areas of akinesis or dyskinesis than segment A (75% vs 34%, p less than 0.05). The mean percent thallium-201 uptake in segment B was lower than that in segment A (74% {plus minus} 9% vs 83% {plus minus} 8%, p less than 0.05). Functional recovery of hibernating myocardium usually coincided with an improvement in perfusion. However, delayed functional recovery after reperfusion was observed in some instances. Severe asynergy and severe thallium-201 defects were more frequently observed in these segments with delayed recovery. Hibernating myocardium might remain stunned during those recovery periods.

Takeishi, Y.; Tono-oka, I.; Kubota, I.; Ikeda, K.; Masakane, I.; Chiba, J.; Abe, S.; Tsuiki, K.; Komatani, A.; Yamaguchi, I. (First Department of Internal Medicine, Yamagata University School of Medicine (Japan))

1991-09-01

99

Functional recovery in parkinsonian monkeys treated with GDNF  

Microsoft Academic Search

PARKINSON 's disease results from the progressive degeneration of dopamine neurons that innervate the striatum1,2. In rodents, glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) stimulates an increase in midbrain dopamine levels, protects dopamine neurons from some neurotoxins, and maintains injured dopamine neurons3-9. Here we extend the rodent studies to an animal closer to the human in brain organization and function, by evaluating the

Don M. Gash; Zhiming Zhang; Aliza Ovadia; Wayne A. Cass; Ai Yi; Linda Simmerman; Deborah Russell; David Martin; Paul A. Lapchak; Frank Collins; Barry J. Hoffer; Greg A. Gerhard

1996-01-01

100

Symmetry Restoration and Functional Recovery before and after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aims of this study were to evaluate the functional recovery before and after ACL reconstruction and to evaluate the sensitivity to change in performance-based and self-report outcomes prior to and after ACL reconstruction and to determine if these changes represent clinically relevant improvement. Methods Eighty-three athletes participated in this study. Athletes were tested after an ACL injury, after pre-operative training, and 6 and 12 months after ACL reconstruction. Athletes completed quadriceps strength testing, hop testing, and self-reported questionnaires for knee function (International Knee Documentation Committee subjective knee form, Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale, and the Global Rating Scale of Perceived Function) at each testing period. Results A significant interaction of limb by time was seen in normalized quadriceps strength, and single, triple, and 6-meter timed hop, where the involved limb improved more than the uninvolved limb over time. A main effect of time was noted for performance-based limb symmetry indexes and self-report measures. Conclusion Limb-to-limb asymmetries are reduced and normal limb symmetry is restored after perturbation training and aggressive quadriceps strengthening and returned to similar levels 6 months after reconstruction. Performance-based values on the involved limb and self-reported outcomes are sensitive to change over time and these were clinically relevant improvements. Level of evidence Level II prognostic study PMID:22349604

Logerstedt, David; Lynch, Andrew; Axe, Michael J.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

2012-01-01

101

Bog bilberry anthocyanin extract improves motor functional recovery by multifaceted effects in spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic efficiency of bog bilberry anthocyanin extract (BBAE) treatment starting 1 d after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats and to investigate the underlying mechanism. The BBAE contained cyanidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-galactoside and malvidin-3-glucoside. SCI models were induced using the weight-drop method in Sprague-Dawley rats and additionally with sham group (laminectomy only). The animals were divided into four groups: vehicle-treated group; 10 mg/kg BBAE-treated group; 20 mg/kg BBAE-treated group; sham group. BBAE-treated or vehicle-treated group was administered orally at one day after SCI and then daily for 8 weeks. Locomotor functional recovery was assessed during the 8 weeks post operation period by performing a Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor score test. At the end of study, the animals were killed, and 1.5 cm segments of spinal cord encompassing the injury site were removed for immunohistochemistry, histopathological and western blotting analysis. Immunohistochemistry for GFAP, aggrecan, neurocan and NeuN was used to assess the degree of astrocytic glial scar formation and neuron survival. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis for TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1? was used to evaluate the anti-inflammation effect of BBAE. To evaluate its inhibition effect on the astrocytes, we performed the MTT assay and immunohistochemistry for Ki67 in vitro. Results show that the BBAE-treated animals showed significantly better locomotor functional recovery, neuron death and smaller glial scar formation after spinal cord injury in vivo. In addition, BBAE administration could inhibit astrocyte proliferation in vivo and vitro. Therefore, BBAE may be useful as a promising therapeutic agent for SCI. PMID:23001399

Wang, Jun; Ma, Chuan; Rong, Wei; Jing, Hao; Hu, Xing; Liu, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Liang; Wei, Feng; Liu, Zhongjun

2012-12-01

102

A Novel Method for the Diagnosis of Neurocardiogenic Syncope: Heart Rate Recovery Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Neurocardiogenic syncope is a common and challenging problem in clinical practice. Heart rate recovery after the first minute of exercise is mainly controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate heart rate recovery as an index of parasympathetic tonus for the diagnosis of neurocardiogenic syncope. Methods and Results: Ninety five patients (mean

Kudret Aytemir; Hikmet Yorgun; Alper Kepez; Hakan Aksoy; Erol Tulumen; Onur Sinan Deveci; Hilmi Özkutlu; Ali Oto

2009-01-01

103

Exploiting Laguerre Functions to Regularize Contaminant Source History Recovery Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of recovering contaminant source histories in the subsurface represents a highly multidimensional (in reality, infinite-dimensional) inverse problem, even if the location of the source and all groundwater parameters are known precisely. Essentially, one attempts to determine a time series of concentrations at the source location based on concentrations measured down gradient. The inverse problem defined by the advection dispersion equation is known to be unstable, and cannot be solved for real data without some sort of regularizing constraint, usually enforcing temporal smoothness. A number of techniques for this task have been previously discussed in the literature, including Bayesian techniques and classical regularization techniques, such as Tikhonov regularization. Recently the authors have presented a new technique exploiting the convolution and orthogonality properties of Laguerre functions to model contaminant transport between a source and a receptor as an input-output system, using only linear algebra. This technique generalizes well to inverse modelling, an approach that will be presented for the first time. The new inverse technique works by expanding both an analytic forward model and observed monitoring well data in the same Laguerre function basis, and then computing, by linear algebra alone, the inverse solution. The inversion of the low-order terms of the Laguerre series can be shown to be numerically stable, and also to enforce smoothness on the recovered solution (implicitly containing a sort of regularizing constraint). This approach has a number of advantages over existing techniques. It allows direct estimation of the source history, obviating the need for running multiple forward models (as in MCMC Bayesian approaches), and avoids the need for selecting an arbitrary penalty functional (as in Tikhonov regularization). Simulation results comparing the performance of this approach to existing approaches will be presented.

Hansen, S. K.; Kueper, B. H.

2012-12-01

104

Recovery of erectile function by the oral administration of apomorphine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Apomorphine has been reported to be effective in causing erections in animals and man when administered parenterally. The side effects, notably nausea, have seriously limited its clinical usefulness. We formulated apomorphine for controlled sublingual absorption and herein report on four preliminary studies evaluating efficacy and side effects in men with no documentable organic cause of erectile dysfunction.Methods. Patients complaining

Jeremy P. W. Heaton; Alvaro Morales; Michael A. Adams; Brenda Johnston; Ragab El-Rashidy

1995-01-01

105

Functional Recovery of Denervated Skeletal Muscle with Sensory or Mixed Nerve Protection: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Functional recovery is usually poor following peripheral nerve injury when reinnervation is delayed. Early innervation by sensory nerve has been indicated to prevent atrophy of the denervated muscle. It is hypothesized that early protection with sensory axons is adequate to improve functional recovery of skeletal muscle following prolonged denervation of mixed nerve injury. In this study, four groups of rats received surgical denervation of the tibial nerve. The proximal and distal stumps of the tibial nerve were ligated in all animals except for those in the immediate repair group. The experimental groups underwent denervation with nerve protection of peroneal nerve (mixed protection) or sural nerve (sensory protection). The experimental and unprotected groups had a stage II surgery in which the trimmed proximal and distal tibial nerve stumps were sutured together. After 3 months of recovery, electrophysiological, histological and morphometric parameters were assessed. It was detected that the significant muscle atrophy and a good preserved structure of the muscle were observed in the unprotected and protective experimental groups, respectively. Significantly fewer numbers of regenerated myelinated axons were observed in the sensory-protected group. Enhanced recovery in the mixed protection group was indicated by the results of the muscle contraction force tests, regenerated myelinated fiber, and the results of the histological analysis. Our results suggest that early axons protection by mixed nerve may complement sensory axons which are required for promoting functional recovery of the denervated muscle natively innervated by mixed nerve. PMID:24244555

Li, Qing Tian; Zhang, Pei Xun; Yin, Xiao Feng; Han, Na; Kou, Yu Hui; Deng, Jiu Xu; Jiang, Bao Guo

2013-01-01

106

False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method  

SciTech Connect

Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10x10^-3 to 1.86 CFU/cm^2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (>1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm^2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

Krauter, Paula; Piepel, Gregory F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matthew S.; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

2012-02-01

107

False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method  

PubMed Central

Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10 × 10?3 to 1.86 CFU/cm2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (?1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions. PMID:22138998

Piepel, Greg F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

2012-01-01

108

False-negative rate and recovery efficiency performance of a validated sponge wipe sampling method.  

PubMed

Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10 × 10(-3) to 1.86 CFU/cm(2)). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD(90) (?1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm(2) on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions. PMID:22138998

Krauter, Paula A; Piepel, Greg F; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G; Einfeld, Wayne

2012-02-01

109

Methods for functional brain imaging  

E-print Network

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has demonstrated the potential for non-invasive mapping of structure and function (fMRI) in the human brain. In this thesis, we propose a series of methodological developments towards ...

Witzel, Thomas, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

110

Edaravone promotes functional recovery after mechanical peripheral nerve injury  

PubMed Central

Edaravone has been shown to reduce ischemia/reperfusion-induced peripheral nerve injury. However, the therapeutic effect of edaravone on peripheral nerve injury caused by mechanical factors is unknown. In the present study, we established a peripheral nerve injury model by crushing the sciatic nerve using hemostatic forceps, and then administered edaravone 3 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The sciatic functional index and superoxide dismutase activity of the sciatic nerve were increased, and the malondialdehyde level was decreased in animals in the edaravone group compared with those in the model group. Bcl-2 expression was increased, but Bax expression was decreased in anterior horn cells of the L4-6 spinal cord segments. These results indicated that edaravone has a neuroprotective effect following peripheral nerve injury caused by mechanical factors through alleviating free radical damage to cells and inhibiting lipid peroxidation, as well as regulating apoptosis-related protein expression. PMID:25374594

Zhang, Teng; Li, Zhengwei; Dong, Jianli; Nan, Feng; Li, Tao; Yu, Qing

2014-01-01

111

40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart F of... - Method for Testing Recovery Devices for Use With Small Appliances  

... false Method for Testing Recovery Devices for...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...Part 82—Method for Testing Recovery Devices for...approved third party testing laboratory with test stands...

2014-07-01

112

40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart F of... - Method for Testing Recovery Devices for Use With Small Appliances  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Method for Testing Recovery Devices for...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...Part 82—Method for Testing Recovery Devices for...approved third party testing laboratory with test stands...

2013-07-01

113

40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart F of... - Method for Testing Recovery Devices for Use With Small Appliances  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Method for Testing Recovery Devices for...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...Part 82—Method for Testing Recovery Devices for...approved third party testing laboratory with test stands...

2011-07-01

114

40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart F of... - Method for Testing Recovery Devices for Use With Small Appliances  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Method for Testing Recovery Devices for...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...Part 82—Method for Testing Recovery Devices for...approved third party testing laboratory with test stands...

2012-07-01

115

Analytical recovery of protozoan enumeration methods: have drinking water QMRA models corrected or created bias?  

PubMed

Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a tool to evaluate the potential implications of pathogens in a water supply or other media and is of increasing interest to regulators. In the case of potentially pathogenic protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts), it is well known that the methods used to enumerate (oo)cysts in samples of water and other media can have low and highly variable analytical recovery. In these applications, QMRA has evolved from ignoring analytical recovery to addressing it in point-estimates of risk, and then to addressing variation of analytical recovery in Monte Carlo risk assessments. Often, variation of analytical recovery is addressed in exposure assessment by dividing concentration values that were obtained without consideration of analytical recovery by random beta-distributed recovery values. A simple mathematical proof is provided to demonstrate that this conventional approach to address non-constant analytical recovery in drinking water QMRA will lead to overestimation of mean pathogen concentrations. The bias, which can exceed an order of magnitude, is greatest when low analytical recovery values are common. A simulated dataset is analyzed using a diverse set of approaches to obtain distributions representing temporal variation in the oocyst concentration, and mean annual risk is then computed from each concentration distribution using a simple risk model. This illustrative example demonstrates that the bias associated with mishandling non-constant analytical recovery and non-detect samples can cause drinking water systems to be erroneously classified as surpassing risk thresholds. PMID:23481286

Schmidt, P J; Emelko, M B; Thompson, M E

2013-05-01

116

Modifying lipid rafts promotes regeneration and functional recovery.  

PubMed

Ideal strategies to ameliorate CNS damage should promote both neuronal survival and axon regeneration. The receptor Neogenin promotes neuronal apoptosis. Its ligand prevents death, but the resulting repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa)-Neogenin interaction also inhibits axonal growth, countering any prosurvival benefits. Here, we explore strategies to inhibit Neogenin, thus simultaneously enhancing survival and regeneration. We show that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and RGMa-dependent recruitment of Neogenin into lipid rafts requires an interaction between RGMa and Neogenin subdomains. RGMa or Neogenin peptides that prevent this interaction, BMP inhibition by Noggin, or reduction of membrane cholesterol all block Neogenin raft localization, promote axon outgrowth, and prevent neuronal apoptosis. Blocking Neogenin raft association influences axonal pathfinding, enhances survival in the developing CNS, and promotes survival and regeneration in the injured adult optic nerve and spinal cord. Moreover, lowering cholesterol disrupts rafts and restores locomotor function after spinal cord injury. These data reveal a unified strategy to promote both survival and regeneration in the CNS. PMID:25127134

Tassew, Nardos G; Mothe, Andrea J; Shabanzadeh, Alireza P; Banerjee, Paromita; Koeberle, Paulo D; Bremner, Rod; Tator, Charles H; Monnier, Philippe P

2014-08-21

117

The integration method for generating Lyapunov functions  

SciTech Connect

In the last 30 years many methods have been proposed for generating Lyapunov functions, generally based on the Lyapunov theory of stability. Among these methods, the integration method has been considered by several authors.

Han, K.W.; Tseng, W.T. [Yuan-Ze Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China)

1994-12-31

118

Recovery Method of Bred Tritium from Solid Breeders  

SciTech Connect

It is required to develop an efficient tritium fueling cycle keeping the overall tritium breeding ratio larger than 1.0 and a reliable tritium confinement system assuring the radiation safety of tritium in construction of the D-T fusion reactor. The blanket is the place where the tritium recovery system has contact with the cooling system for electricity generation at the elevated temperature. Therefore, design of efficient means to recover bred tritium with minimum permeation loss is to be made.It is proposed in this study to construct a recovery system using the Pd alloy with adsorption bed after a precious metal catalyst bed. Effects of existence of water on dissociation reaction of hydrogen on palladium alloy membrane and on recombination reaction are discussed in this study for the case when 800 Pa of water vapor is introduced to the permeation primary side and/or permeation secondary side for the case when water vapor co-existed, and it was observed that water vapor prevents hydrogen permeation through palladium alloy at the lower temperature than 473K.

Furukubo, Yu-ya [Kyushu University (Japan); Fukuda, Ken-ichi [Kyushu University (Japan); Nishikawa, Masabumi [Kyushu University (Japan); Beloglazov, Sergey [Forschungzentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

2005-07-15

119

Neonatal infraorbital nerve crush-induced CNS synaptic plasticity and functional recovery.  

PubMed

Infraorbital nerve (ION) transection in neonatal rats leads to disruption of whisker-specific neural patterns (barrelettes), conversion of functional synapses into silent synapses, and reactive gliosis in the brain stem trigeminal principal nucleus (PrV). Here we tested the hypothesis that neonatal peripheral nerve crush injuries permit better functional recovery of associated central nervous system (CNS) synaptic circuitry compared with nerve transection. We developed an in vitro whisker pad-trigeminal ganglion (TG)-brain stem preparation in neonatal rats and tested functional recovery in the PrV following ION crush. Intracellular recordings revealed that 68% of TG cells innervate the whisker pad. We used the proportion of whisker pad-innervating TG cells as an index of ION function. The ION function was blocked by ?64%, immediately after mechanical crush, then it recovered beginning after 3 days postinjury and was complete by 7 days. We used this reversible nerve-injury model to study peripheral nerve injury-induced CNS synaptic plasticity. In the PrV, the incidence of silent synapses increased to ?3.5 times of control value by 2-3 days postinjury and decreased to control levels by 5-7 days postinjury. Peripheral nerve injury-induced reaction of astrocytes and microglia in the PrV was also reversible. Neonatal ION crush disrupted barrelette formation, and functional recovery was not accompanied by de novo barrelette formation, most likely due to occurrence of recovery postcritical period (P3) for pattern formation. Our results suggest that nerve crush is more permissive for successful regeneration and reconnection (collectively referred to as "recovery" here) of the sensory inputs between the periphery and the brain stem. PMID:24478162

Lo, Fu-Sun; Zhao, Shuxin; Erzurumlu, Reha S

2014-04-01

120

Improved functional recovery to I/R injury in hearts from lipocalin-2 deficiency mice: restoration of mitochondrial function and phospholipids remodeling  

PubMed Central

Aims Recent clinical and experimental evidences demonstrate an association between augmented circulating lipocalin-2 [a pro-inflammatory adipokine] and cardiac dysfunction. However, little is known about the pathophysi-ological role of lipocalin-2 in heart. The present study was designed to compare the heart functions of mice with normal (WT) or deficient lipocalin-2 (Lcn2-KO) expression. Methods and results Echocardiographic analysis revealed that the myocardial contractile function was significantly improved in hearts of Lcn2-KO mice, under both standard chow and high fat diet conditions. The heart function before and after I/R injury (20-min of global ischemia followed by 60-min of reperfusion) was assessed using the Langendorff perfusion system. Compared to WT littermates, hearts from Lcn2-KO mice showed improved functional recovery and reduced infarct size following I/R. Under baseline condition, the mitochondrial function of Lcn2-KO hearts was significantly enhanced, as demonstrated by biochemical analysis of respiratory chain activity and markers of biogenesis, as well as electron microscopic investigation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. Acute or chronic administration of lipocalin-2 impaired cardiac functional recovery to I/R and dampened the mitochondrial function in hearts of Lcn2-KO mice. These effects were associated with an extensive modification of the fatty acyl chain compositions of intracellular phospholipids. For example, lipocalin-2 facilitated the redistribution of linoleic acid (C18:2) among different types of phospholipids, including cardiolipin, a structurally unique phospholipid located mainly on the inner membrane of mitochondria. Conclusions Lack of lipocalin-2 improved the functional recovery of isolated mice hearts subjected to I/R, which is associated with restoration of mitochondrial function and phospholipids remodeling. PMID:22355443

Yang, Bo; Fan, Pengcheng; Xu, Aimin; Lam, Karen SL; Berger, Thorsten; Mak, Tak W; Tse, Hung-Fat; Yue, Jessie WS; Song, Erfei; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Sweeney, Gary; Wang, Yu

2012-01-01

121

EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR SAMPLING, RECOVERY, AND ENUMERATION OF BACTERIA APPLIED TO THE PHYLLOPANE  

EPA Science Inventory

Determining the fate and survival of genetically engineered microorganisms released into the environment requires the development and application of accurate and practical methods of detection and enumeration. everal experiments were performed to examine quantitative recovery met...

122

Chronic psychological stress impairs recovery of muscular function and somatic sensations over a 96-hour period.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this study was to determine whether chronic mental stress moderates recovery of muscular function and somatic sensations: perceived energy, fatigue, and soreness, in a 4-day period after a bout of strenuous resistance exercise. Undergraduate resistance training students (n = 31; age, 20.26 ± 1.34 years) completed the Perceived Stress Scale and the Undergraduate Stress Questionnaire, a measure of life event stress. At a later visit, they performed an acute heavy-resistance exercise protocol (10 repetition maximum [RM] leg press test plus 6 sets: 80-100% of 10RM). Maximal isometric force (MIF), perceived energy, fatigue, and soreness were assessed in approximately 24-hour intervals after exercise. Recovery data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling growth curve analysis. Life event stress significantly moderated linear (p = 0.027) and squared (p = 0.031) recovery of MIF. This relationship held even when the model was adjusted for fitness, workload, and training experience. Perceived energy (p = 0.038), fatigue (p = 0.040), and soreness (p = 0.027) all were moderated by life stress. Mean perceived stress modulated linear and squared recovery of MIF (p < 0.001) and energy (p = 0.004) but not fatigue or soreness. In all analyses, higher stress was associated with worse recovery. Stress, whether assessed as life event stress or perceived stress, moderated the recovery trajectories of muscular function and somatic sensations in a 96-hour period after strenuous resistance exercise. Therefore, under conditions of inordinate stress, individuals may need to be more mindful about observing an appropriate length of recovery. PMID:24343323

Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Bartholomew, John B; Sinha, Rajita

2014-07-01

123

Personality Traits and Interpersonal Functioning in Substance Abuse Therapists with and without Personal Recovery Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study ascertained whether there are differences in the personality traits or interpersonal functioning of therapists with personal recovery of substance abuse and other therapists. Moreover, an A\\/B typology reconstruction was made of the past substance abuse of the recovered therapists. The participants (N = 162) were therapists in Finnish inpatient treatment institutions. Personality traits were measured using a test

Pekka Saarnio

2010-01-01

124

Beneficial effects of different flavonoids, on functional recovery after ischemia and reperfusion in isolated rat heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three newly synthesised lipid peroxidation inhibitors (7, 11, 14) were evaluated for their effects on myocardial functional recovery during reperfusion after 30 min global ischemia in isolated rat hearts. The flavonoid compounds (7, 11, 14, rutin) reduce ischemia\\/reperfusion-induced cardiac dysfunction.

Jonathan Lebeau; Rémi Neviere; Nicole Cotelle

2001-01-01

125

Intrinsic and therapeutic factors determining the recovery of motor function after peripheral nerve transection.  

PubMed

Insufficient recovery after peripheral nerve injury has been attributed to (i) poor pathfinding of regrowing axons, (ii) excessive collateral axonal branching at the lesion site and (iii) polyneuronal innervation of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJ). The facial nerve transection model has been used initially to measure restoration of function after varying therapies and to examine the mechanisms underlying their effects. Since it is very difficult to control the navigation of several thousand axons, efforts concentrated on collateral branching and NMJ-polyinnervation. Treatment with antibodies against trophic factors to combat branching improved the precision of reinnervation, but had no positive effects on functional recovery. This suggested that polyneuronal reinnervation--rather than collateral branching--may be the critical limiting factor. The former could be reduced by pharmacological agents known to perturb microtubule assembly and was followed by recovery of function. Because muscle polyinnervation is activity-dependent and can be manipulated, attempts to design a clinically feasible therapy were performed by electrical stimulation or by soft tissue massage. Electrical stimulation applied to the transected facial nerve or to paralysed facial muscles did not improve vibrissal motor performance and failed to diminish polyinnervation. In contrast, gentle stroking of the paralysed muscles (vibrissal, orbicularis oculi, tongue musculature) resulted in full recovery of function. This manual stimulation was also effective after hypoglossal-facial nerve suture and after interpositional nerve grafting, but not after surgical reconstruction of the median nerve. All these findings raise hopes that clinically feasible and effective therapies could be soon designed and tested. PMID:21458252

Skouras, Emmanouil; Ozsoy, Umut; Sarikcioglu, Levent; Angelov, Doychin N

2011-07-01

126

Beneficial effects of different flavonoids, on functional recovery after ischemia and reperfusion in isolated rat heart.  

PubMed

Three newly synthesised lipid peroxidation inhibitors (7, 11, 14) were evaluated for their effects on myocardial functional recovery during reperfusion after 30 min global ischemia in isolated rat hearts. The flavonoid compounds (7, 11, 14, rutin) reduce ischemia/reperfusion-induced cardiac dysfunction. PMID:11140725

Lebeau, J; Neviere, R; Cotelle, N

2001-01-01

127

Stem Cell Mediation of Functional Recovery after Stroke in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Background Regenerative strategies of stem cell grafting have been demonstrated to be effective in animal models of stroke. In those studies, the effectiveness of stem cells promoting functional recovery was assessed by behavioral testing. These behavioral studies do, however, not provide access to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the observed functional outcome improvement. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to address the underlying mechanisms of stem cell mediated functional improvement, this functional improvement after stroke in the rat was investigated for six months after stroke by use of fMRI, somatosensory evoked potentials by electrophysiology, and sensorimotor behavior testing. Stem cells were grafted ipsilateral to the ischemic lesion. Rigorous exclusion of spontaneous recovery as confounding factor permitted to observe graft-related functional improvement beginning after 7 weeks and continuously increasing during the 6-month observation period. The major findings were i) functional improvement causally related to the stem cells grafting; ii) tissue replacement can be excluded as dominant factor for stem cell mediated functional improvement; iii) functional improvement occurs by exclusive restitution of the function in the original representation field, without clear contributions from reorganization processes, and iv) stem cells were not detectable any longer after six months. Conclusions/Significance A delayed functional improvement due to stem cell implantation has been documented by electrophysiology, fMRI and behavioral testing. This functional improvement occurred without cells acting as a tissue replacement for the necrotic tissue after the ischemic event. Combination of disappearance of grafted cells after six months on histological sections with persistent functional recovery was interpreted as paracrine effects by the grafted stem cells being the dominant mechanism of cell activity underlying the observed functional restitution of the original activation sites. Future studies will have to investigate whether the stem cell mediated improvement reactivates the original representation target field by using original connectivity pathways or by generating/activating new ones for the stimulus. PMID:20877642

Wiedermann, Dirk; Hoehn, Mathias

2010-01-01

128

A non-iterative method for emission tomographic image reconstruction with resolution recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a non-iterative method called Local Regression FBP (LR-FBP) for emission tomographic image reconstruction with resolution recovery. The method processes the sinogram volume data by running a two-dimensional local regression (LR) algorithm over the image projections - this has the effect of improving data signal-to-noise-ratios (SNR) as it fits the image projections thus reducing noise. Resolution recovery is then

Victor C. Soon; Michael A. Miller; Gary D. Hutchins

2007-01-01

129

Does functional capacity evaluation predict recovery in workers' compensation claimants with upper extremity disorders?  

PubMed Central

Objectives Functional capacity evaluations (FCEs) are commonly used to determine return?to?work readiness and guide decision making following work related injury, yet little is known of their validity. The authors examined performance on the Isernhagen Work Systems' FCE as a predictor of timely and sustained recovery in workers' compensation claimants with upper extremity disorders. A secondary objective was to determine whether FCE is more predictive in claimants with specific injuries (that is, fracture) as compared to less specific, pain mediated disorders (that is, myofascial pain). Methods The authors performed a longitudinal study of 336 claimants with upper extremity disorders undergoing FCE. FCE indicators were maximum performance during handgrip and lift testing, and the number of tasks where performance was rated below required job demands. Outcomes investigated were days receiving time?loss benefits (a surrogate of return to work or work readiness) in the year following FCE, days until claim closure, and future recurrence defined as whether benefits restarted, the claim reopened, or a new upper extremity claim was filed. Cox and logistic regression were used to determine the prognostic effect of FCE crudely and after controlling for potential confounders. Analysis was performed separately on claimants with specific and pain mediated disorders. Results Most subjects (95%) experienced time?loss benefit suspension within one year following FCE. The one year recurrence rate was 39%. Higher lifting performance was associated with faster benefit suspension and claim closure, but explained little variation in these outcomes (r2?=?1.2–11%). No FCE indicators were associated with future recurrence after controlling for confounders. Results were similar between specific injury and less specific groups. Conclusions Better FCE performance was a weak predictor of faster benefit suspension, and was unrelated to sustained recovery. FCE was no more predictive in claimants with specific pathology and injury than in those with more ambiguous, pain mediated conditions. PMID:16551753

Gross, D P; Battie, M C

2006-01-01

130

Meta analysis of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation promoting functional recovery of motor nerves in rats with complete spinal cord transection  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation on functional recovery of rats with complete spinal cord transection. DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online search of Medline (1989–2013), Embase (1989–2013), Cochrane library (1989–2013), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1989–2013), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1989–2013), VIP (1989–2013), Wanfang databases (1989–2013) and Chinese Clinical Trial Register was conducted to collect randomized controlled trial data regarding olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation for the treatment of complete spinal cord transection in rats. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials investigating olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation and other transplantation methods for promoting neurological functional recovery of rats with complete spinal cord transection were included in the analysis. Meta analysis was conducted using RevMan 4.2.2 software. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores of rats with complete spinal cord transection were evaluated in this study. RESULTS: Six randomized controlled trials with high quality methodology were included. Meta analysis showed that Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores were significantly higher in the olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation group compared with the control group (WMD = 3.16, 95% CI (1.68, 4.65); P < 0.00001). CONCLUSION: Experimental studies have shown that olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation can promote the functional recovery of motor nerves in rats with complete spinal cord transection.

Liu, Jun; Chen, Ping; Wang, Qi; Chen, Yu; Yu, Haiong; Ma, Junxiong; Guo, Mingming; Piao, Meihui; Ren, Weijian; Xiang, Liangbi

2014-01-01

131

Stem Cell Mediation of Functional Recovery after Stroke in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRegenerative strategies of stem cell grafting have been demonstrated to be effective in animal models of stroke. In those studies, the effectiveness of stem cells promoting functional recovery was assessed by behavioral testing. These behavioral studies do, however, not provide access to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the observed functional outcome improvement.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsIn order to address the underlying mechanisms

Pedro Ramos-Cabrer; Carles Justicia; Dirk Wiedermann; Mathias Hoehn; Christoph Kleinschnitz

2010-01-01

132

Racial/ethnic variation in recovery of motor function in stroke survivors: role of informal caregivers.  

PubMed

Research documents that African American and Latinos who have experienced an acute stroke recover more slowly than Caucasians in the United States. This descriptive study examines (1) the variation in Caucasian, Puerto Rican, and African American motor function after stroke; (2) the association between caregiver attributes and motor recovery after stroke; and (3) the degree to which caregiver attributes explain the variation in motor recovery between different racial/ethnic groups. One hundred and thirty-five veterans who had been hospitalized after an acute stroke, released home, and identified an informal caregiver were enrolled in the study. Veterans and caregivers were surveyed at five time points over the course of 24 months. Results indicate that Puerto Ricans show greater impairment and African Americans show less impairment at discharge from the hospital compared with Caucasians. Caregiver characteristics mediate the racial/ethnic differences in impairment at discharge and motor recovery across time. PMID:19533536

Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Rittman, Maude; Hinojosa, Ramon; Rodriguez, William

2009-01-01

133

DYNAMICS OF FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY WITHIN CORTICAL MOTOR NETWORK DURING MOTOR LEARNING IN STROKE - CORRELATIONS WITH "TRUE" MOTOR RECOVERY  

E-print Network

to recovery of the pre-morbid movement pattern or "true" recovery. Abnormal task-related activation in primary and non-primary motor cortices has been a consistent finding in functional MRI studies of stroke. Disturbed functional network architecture, e.g...

BANI-AHMED, ALI

2013-08-31

134

Evaluation of quantitative recovery methods for Listeria monocytogenes applied to stainless steel.  

PubMed

The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to attach to various food contact surfaces, such as stainless steel, polypropylene, and rubber compounds, is well documented. The retention of these or other pathogenic bacteria on food contact surfaces increases the risk of transmission to food products. The objective of this study was to compare several methods for quantitative recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from stainless steel surfaces. A cocktail of 4 serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes mixed in equivalent concentrations was inoculated onto type 304 stainless steel coupons in a 2 x 2 cm area. After 1 h exposure, coupons were sampled by one of the following methods: (1) swabbing with a premoistened Dacron swab; (2) rinsing with phosphate-buffered saline; (3) direct contact onto tryptic soy agar containing 0.6% yeast extract (TSA + YE) plates for 10 s; (4) sonication in an ultrasonic water bath (40 kHz); (5) contact with the bristles of a sonicating brush head for 1 min; and (6) indirect contact (2-4 mm distance) with a sonicating brush head for 1 min. The 3 sonication methods yielded higher recovery than the other 3 methods (P < 0.05). Brushing the coupons with the sonicating brush head (contact or noncontact) yielded a recovery level of about 60%. The lowest cell recovery (about 20%) was observed with the swab and direct agar contact methods. After a 12 h exposure, recoveries ranged from 17.4 (brush contact method) to 2% (swab method). PMID:17580634

Kang, David; Eifert, Joseph D; Williams, Robert C; Pao, Steven

2007-01-01

135

Recovery of signals from nonuniform samples using iterative methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

An iterative method to recover a bandlimited signal from its ideal nonuniform samples is proposed. The convergence of iterations is proved, and general regions for convergence are found. It is shown that the iterative method is also applicable to other forms of nonuniform sampling, i.e. natural sampling and interpolated sampling (such as sample-and-hold signal). Simulation results show that this method

Farokh Marvasti; Mostafa Analoui; Mohsen Gamshadzahi

1991-01-01

136

Effects of sleep deprivation on measures of the febrile reaction and the recovery of somatovisceral functions and sleep in endotoxemia.  

PubMed

Electroencephalographic methods were used to study the effects of total sleep deprivation on thermoregulatory measures of the fever response in pigeons (Columba livia): brain temperature, peripheral vasomotor reactions, thoracic muscle contractile activity, and the recovery of somatic functions and the time characteristics of waking and sleep in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia. Sleep deprivation during the period in which the quantity of slow-wave sleep increased on administration of LPS induced decreases in the latent period of fever onset and in the duration of fever, along with more significant increases in brain temperature and the level of muscle contractile activity as compared with the effects of LPS alone. The period after sleep deprivation was characterized by more prolonged recovery of muscle contractile activity and the time characteristics of sleep and waking states, along with more prolonged compensatory "rebound" of slow-wave sleep as compared with the effects of sleep deprivation alone. Thus, sleep deprivation in endotoxemia led to decreases in the latent period of fever onset, exacerbation of fever, and increases in the latent period of recovery of physiological functions. PMID:20339942

Lapshina, K V; Ekimova, I V

2010-05-01

137

Heavy-oil recovery using the SolFrac method. [Laboratory and field studies in Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bartlesville (Okla.) Energy Research Center of the Bureau of Mines is developing petroleum-recovery techniques for the many shallow, low-productive, heavy-oil sand deposits in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. In 1971, the Bureau of Mines began a field experiment in Labette County, Kans., using a recovery method that combines chemical explosive fracturing to create communication between wells with solvent injection to

F. S. Johnson; R. T. Johansen

1974-01-01

138

Comparison of Extraction Methods for Recovery of Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvent extraction, ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE), and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were examined for the extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis. In all cases, acetone was found to give the highest astaxanthin recovery compared with other selected solvents, i.e., methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. Among the various methods, MAE at 75°C for 5 min resulted in the highest astaxanthin recovery (74 ± 4%).

Duangkamol Ruen-ngam; Artiwan Shotipruk; Prasert Pavasant

2010-01-01

139

Slurry 15 NH 4 -N recovery in herbage and soil: effects of application method and timing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of slurry application method and weather conditions after application on ammonia volatilisation are well documented,\\u000a however, the effect on slurry N recovery in herbage is less evident due to large variability of results. The objective of\\u000a this field experiment was to determine the recovery of cattle slurry NH4-N in herbage and soil in the year of application as

Nyncke J. Hoekstra; Stan T. J. Lalor; Karl G. Richards; Norma O’Hea; Gary J. Lanigan; Jens Dyckmans; Rogier P. O. Schulte; Olaf Schmidt

2010-01-01

140

Cerebral reorganization as a function of linguistic recovery in children: An fMRI study.  

PubMed

Characterizing and mapping the relationship between neuronal reorganization and functional recovery are essential to the understanding of cerebral plasticity and the dynamic processes which occur following brain damage. The neuronal mechanisms underlying linguistic recovery following left hemisphere (LH) lesions are still unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated whether the extent of brain lateralization of linguistic functioning in specific regions of interest (ROIs) is correlated with the level of linguistic performance following recovery from acquired childhood aphasia. The study focused on a rare group of children in whom lesions occurred after normal language acquisition, but prior to complete maturation of the brain. During fMRI scanning, rhyming, comprehension and verb generation activation tasks were monitored. The imaging data were evaluated with reference to linguistic performance measured behaviorally during imaging, as well as outside the scanner. Compared with normal controls, we found greater right hemisphere (RH) lateralization in patients. However, correlations with linguistic performance showed that increased proficiency in linguistic tasks was associated with greater lateralization to the LH. These results were replicated in a longitudinal case study of a patient scanned twice, 3 years apart. Additional improvement in linguistic performance of the patient was accompanied by increasing lateralization to the LH in the anterior language region. This, however, was the result of a decreased involvement of the RH. These findings suggest that recovery is a dynamic, ongoing process, which may last for years after onset. The role of each hemisphere in the recovery process may continuously change within the chronic stage. PMID:20138262

Elkana, Odelia; Frost, Ram; Kramer, Uri; Ben-Bashat, Dafna; Hendler, Talma; Schmidt, David; Schweiger, Avraham

2011-02-01

141

A Paraperspective Factorization Method for Shape and Motion Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factorization method, first developed by Tomasi and Kanade, recovers both the shape of an object and its motion from a sequence of images, using many images and tracking many feature points to obtain highly redundant feature position information. The method robustly processes the feature trajec- tory information using singular value decomposition (SVD), taking advantage of the linear algebraic properties

Conrad J. Poelman; Takeo Kanade

1997-01-01

142

Application of triphasic pulses with adjustable phase amplitude ratio (PAR) for cochlear ECAP recording: II. recovery functions.  

PubMed

Triphasic electrical stimulation pulses with an adjustable phase amplitude ratio (PAR) can reduce stimulus artifacts in electrically evoked compound actions potentials (ECAPs) recording in the cochlea (see companion paper Bahmer and Baumann, submitted for publication). The present study describes the application of triphasic pulses in forward masking paradigms for recording recovery functions. Masking was found to be most effective using equal masker-probe PAR settings. Results were compared with data applying artifact cancellation strategy for biphasic pulses according to Miller et al. (2000). Measurements were accomplished in five subjects (S1-S5) with an equal masker-probe PAR setting, whereby more detailed test series were carried out in one subject (S1). All subjects were users of MED-EL SONATAti100 or PULSARci100 cochlear implants (Innsbruck, Austria). Parameters like asymptote level, absolute refractory period and time constant were determined by fitting exponential functions to the recovery functions. Detailed measurements collected on 11 electrode locations in subject S1 showed similar parameter profiles on basal electrode contacts for both triphasic and Miller artifact cancellation methods, whereas apical/middle electrode contacts differed in part largely. Compared to Miller's artifact cancellation method estimated asymptote levels were lower with triphasic stimulation; the estimated absolute refractory period and time constants were estimated higher on apical electrodes. Results obtained in subjects S2-S5 showed considerable variances and a proper parametrization of the recovery function was possible only very selectively for triphasic pulse stimulation. In these cases, congruencies in estimated asymptote levels and time constants were found when triphasic stimulation and biphasic stimulation according to Miller were compared. PMID:22202890

Bahmer, Andreas; Baumann, Uwe

2012-03-30

143

Functional Motor Recovery from Motoneuron Axotomy Is Compromised in Mice with Defective Corticospinal Projections  

PubMed Central

Brachial plexus injury (BPI) and experimental spinal root avulsion result in loss of motor function in the affected segments. After root avulsion, significant motoneuron function is restored by re-implantation of the avulsed root. How much this functional recovery depends on corticospinal inputs is not known. Here, we studied that question using Celsr3|Emx1 mice, in which the corticospinal tract (CST) is genetically absent. In adult mice, we tore off right C5–C7 motor and sensory roots and re-implanted the right C6 roots. Behavioral studies showed impaired recovery of elbow flexion in Celsr3|Emx1 mice compared to controls. Five months after surgery, a reduced number of small axons, and higher G-ratio of inner to outer diameter of myelin sheaths were observed in mutant versus control mice. At early stages post-surgery, mutant mice displayed lower expression of GAP-43 in spinal cord and of myelin basic protein (MBP) in peripheral nerves than control animals. After five months, mutant animals had atrophy of the right biceps brachii, with less newly formed neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and reduced peak-to-peak amplitudes in electromyogram (EMG), than controls. However, quite unexpectedly, a higher motoneuron survival rate was found in mutant than in control mice. Thus, following root avulsion/re-implantation, the absence of the CST is probably an important reason to hamper axonal regeneration and remyelination, as well as target re-innervation and formation of new NMJ, resulting in lower functional recovery, while fostering motoneuron survival. These results indicate that manipulation of corticospinal transmission may help improve functional recovery following BPI. PMID:25003601

Ding, Yuetong; Qu, Yibo; Feng, Jia; Wang, Meizhi; Han, Qi; So, Kwok-Fai; Wu, Wutian; Zhou, Libing

2014-01-01

144

Functional motor recovery from motoneuron axotomy is compromised in mice with defective corticospinal projections.  

PubMed

Brachial plexus injury (BPI) and experimental spinal root avulsion result in loss of motor function in the affected segments. After root avulsion, significant motoneuron function is restored by re-implantation of the avulsed root. How much this functional recovery depends on corticospinal inputs is not known. Here, we studied that question using Celsr3|Emx1 mice, in which the corticospinal tract (CST) is genetically absent. In adult mice, we tore off right C5-C7 motor and sensory roots and re-implanted the right C6 roots. Behavioral studies showed impaired recovery of elbow flexion in Celsr3|Emx1 mice compared to controls. Five months after surgery, a reduced number of small axons, and higher G-ratio of inner to outer diameter of myelin sheaths were observed in mutant versus control mice. At early stages post-surgery, mutant mice displayed lower expression of GAP-43 in spinal cord and of myelin basic protein (MBP) in peripheral nerves than control animals. After five months, mutant animals had atrophy of the right biceps brachii, with less newly formed neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and reduced peak-to-peak amplitudes in electromyogram (EMG), than controls. However, quite unexpectedly, a higher motoneuron survival rate was found in mutant than in control mice. Thus, following root avulsion/re-implantation, the absence of the CST is probably an important reason to hamper axonal regeneration and remyelination, as well as target re-innervation and formation of new NMJ, resulting in lower functional recovery, while fostering motoneuron survival. These results indicate that manipulation of corticospinal transmission may help improve functional recovery following BPI. PMID:25003601

Ding, Yuetong; Qu, Yibo; Feng, Jia; Wang, Meizhi; Han, Qi; So, Kwok-Fai; Wu, Wutian; Zhou, Libing

2014-01-01

145

IMPROVED METHOD FOR RECOVERY OF ENTERIC VIRUSES FROM WASTEWATER SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Various parameters involved in recovering indigenous enteric viruses from wastewater sludges aided by buffered beef extract elution and subsequent organic flocculation concentration were examined. Conditions were optimized to yield an overall effective method for use in environme...

146

Adjoint state method for recovery both the attenuation and the ...  

E-print Network

practical test that we apply to each configuration is to identify those “instability ..... We start with an example showing the performance of ..... [16] S. Luo, S. Leung, and J. Qian, An adjoint state method for numerical approximation of continuous.

2014-04-24

147

Modulation of early functional recovery of Achilles tendon to bone unit after transection by BPC 157 and methylprednisolone  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Objective and design:  In the presented study we compared the effect of stable peptide BPC 157 and methylprednisolone on early functional recovery\\u000a after Achilles tendon to bone transection in a rat model before collagen healing started.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material and methods:  Surgical transection of the right Achilles tendon to bone area was performed in seventy two Wistar Albino male rats. Healing\\u000a Achilles tendon

A. Krivic; M. Majerovic; I. Jelic; S. Seiwerth; P. Sikiric

2008-01-01

148

Contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation to the understanding of mechanisms of functional recovery after stroke  

PubMed Central

Motor disability continues to be a major cause of morbidity after stroke. The neural underpinnings of disability and of functional recovery are still unclear. Here, we review recent evidence obtained using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) that provides new insight into these mechanisms. We briefly discuss the use of TMS in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of post-stroke motor disability. Differently from previous reviews, particular emphasis is placed in the discussion of the use of TMS as a tool to explore in detailed mechanisms of neuroplasticity during spontaneous and treatment-induced recovery of motor function. TMS can be used to acquire the understanding of these mechanisms required for the development of more rational and clinically useful interventions in stroke neurorehabilitation. PMID:19767591

Dimyan, Michael A.; Cohen, Leonardo G.

2010-01-01

149

Spaceflight-Induced Cardiovascular Changes and Recovery During NASA's Functional Task Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microgravity-induced physiological changes could impair a crewmember s performance upon return to a gravity environment. The Functional Task Test (FTT) is designed to correlate these physiological changes to performance in mission-critical tasks. The Recovery from Fall/Stand Test (RFST) simulates one such task, measuring the ability to recover from a prone position and the cardiovascular response to orthostasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate spaceflight-induced cardiovascular changes during the FTT. METHODS: Five astronauts participated in the FTT before 10-15 day missions, on landing day (R+0), and one (R+1), six (R+6) and thirty (R+30) days after landing. The RFST consisted of a 2-minute prone rest followed by a 3-minute stand during which heart rate (HR, Holter) and continuous blood pressure (BP, Finometer) were measured. Spectral heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated during the RFST to approximate autonomic function. Statistical analysis was performed with two-factor repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: During RFST, HR was higher on R+0 than preflight (p<0.004). This increase in HR persisted on R+1 and R+6 during the stand portion of RFST (p<0.026). BP was well-regulated on all test days. Parasympathetic activity was diminished on R+0 (p=0.035). Sympathovagal balance tended to be affected by spaceflight (main effect, p=0.072), appearing to be slightly elevated during postflight RFST except on R+30. Additionally, analysis of HR during the functional tasks yielded a higher HR on R+0 than preflight during 8 of 11 tasks analyzed, where all tasks had HR return to preflight values by R+30 (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Spaceflight causes an increase in HR, decrease in parasympathetic activity, and increase in sympathovagal balance, which we confirmed during RFST. These spaceflight-induced changes seen in the RFST, along with the increased postflight HR in most functional tasks, can be used to assess functional performance after short-duration spaceflight.

Arzeno, N. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, S. H.

2010-01-01

150

Plasminogen Deficiency Causes Reduced Corticospinal Axonal Plasticity and Functional Recovery after Stroke in Mice  

PubMed Central

Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been implicated in neurite outgrowth and neurological recovery post stroke. tPA converts the zymogen plasminogen (Plg) into plasmin. In this study, using plasminogen knockout (Plg-/-) mice and their Plg-native littermates (Plg+/+), we investigated the role of Plg in axonal remodeling and neurological recovery after stroke. Plg+/+ and Plg-/- mice (n?=?10/group) were subjected to permanent intraluminal monofilament middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). A foot-fault test and a single pellet reaching test were performed prior to and on day 3 after stroke, and weekly thereafter to monitor functional deficit and recovery. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected into the left motor cortex to anterogradely label the corticospinal tract (CST). Animals were euthanized 4 weeks after stroke. Neurite outgrowth was also measured in primary cultured cortical neurons harvested from Plg+/+ and Plg-/- embryos. In Plg+/+ mice, the motor functional deficiency after stroke progressively recovered with time. In contrast, recovery in Plg-/- mice was significantly impaired compared to Plg+/+ mice (p<0.01). BDA-positive axonal density of the CST originating from the contralesional cortex in the denervated side of the cervical gray matter was significantly reduced in Plg-/- mice compared with Plg+/+ mice (p<0.05). The behavioral outcome was highly correlated with the midline-crossing CST axonal density (R2>0.82, p<0.01). Plg-/- neurons exhibited significantly reduced neurite outgrowth. Our data suggest that plasminogen-dependent proteolysis has a beneficial effect during neurological recovery after stroke, at least in part, by promoting axonal remodeling in the denervated spinal cord. PMID:24732409

Liu, Zhongwu; Li, Yi; Qian, Jianyong; Cui, Yisheng; Chopp, Michael

2014-01-01

151

Method for conducting cyclic steam injection in recovery of hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the cyclic method of steam stimulation of an oil well, steam is injected for a period of from several days to several weeks, then stopped and usually after a time-- generally a few days--during which the steam is allowed to diffuse through the formation, the well is produced. There is considerable uncertainty in the art as to how long

A. Satter; F. F. Jr. Craig

1969-01-01

152

Temperature fluctuations during deep temperature cryopreservation reduce PBMC recovery, viability and T-cell function.  

PubMed

The ability to analyze cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from biobanks for antigen-specific immunity is necessary to evaluate response to immune-based therapies. To ensure comparable assay results, collaborative research in multicenter trials needs reliable and reproducible cryopreservation that maintains cell viability and functionality. A standardized cryopreservation procedure is comprised of not only sample collection, preparation and freezing but also low temperature storage in liquid nitrogen without any temperature fluctuations, to avoid cell damage. Therefore, we have developed a storage approach to minimize suboptimal storage conditions in order to maximize cell viability, recovery and T-cell functionality. We compared the influence of repeated temperature fluctuations on cell health from sample storage, sample sorting and removal in comparison to sample storage without temperature rises. We found that cyclical temperature shifts during low temperature storage reduce cell viability, recovery and immune response against specific-antigens. We showed that samples handled under a protective hood system, to avoid or minimize such repeated temperature rises, have comparable cell viability and cell recovery rates to samples stored without any temperature fluctuations. Also T-cell functionality could be considerably increased with the use of the protective hood system compared to sample handling without such a protection system. This data suggests that the impact of temperature fluctuation on cell integrity should be carefully considered in future clinical vaccine trials and consideration should be given to optimal sample storage conditions. PMID:23850825

Germann, Anja; Oh, Young-Joo; Schmidt, Tomm; Schön, Uwe; Zimmermann, Heiko; von Briesen, Hagen

2013-10-01

153

Consumer return chronology alters recovery trajectory of stream ecosystem structure and function following drought.  

PubMed

Consumers are increasingly being recognized as important drivers of ecological succession, yet it is still hard to predict the nature and direction of consumer effects in nonequilibrium environments. We used stream consumer exclosures and large outdoor mesocosms to study the impact of macroconsumers (i.e., fish and crayfish) on recovery of intermittent prairie streams after drying. In the stream, macroconsumers altered system recovery trajectory by decreasing algal and macroinvertebrate biomass, primary productivity, and benthic nutrient uptake rates. However, macroconsumer influence was transient, and differences between exclosures and controls disappeared after 35 days. Introducing and removing macroconsumers after 28 days resulted mainly in changes to macroinvertebrates. In mesocosms, a dominant consumer (the grazing minnow Phoxinus erythrogaster) reduced macroinvertebrate biomass but had little effect on algal assemblage structure and ecosystem rates during recovery. The weak effect of P. erythrogaster in mesocosms, in contrast to the strong consumer effect in the natural stream, suggests that both timing and diversity of returning consumers are important to their overall influence on stream recovery patterns. Although we found that consumers significantly altered ecosystem structure and function in a system experiencing rapid changes in abiotic and biotic factors following disturbance, consumer effects diminished over time and trajectories converged to similar states with respect to primary producers, in spite of differences in consumer colonization history. Thus, consumer impacts can be substantial in recovering ecosystems and are likely to be dependent on the disturbance regime and diversity of the consumer community. PMID:20462119

Murdock, Justin N; Gido, Keith B; Dodds, Walter K; Bertrand, Katie N; Whiles, Matt R

2010-04-01

154

Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.

Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley, NJ)

2011-03-08

155

A unified method to process biosolids samples for the recovery of bacterial, viral, and helminths pathogens.  

PubMed

For land application, biosolids are classified as Class A or Class B based on the levels of bacterial, viral, and helminths pathogens in residual biosolids. The current EPA methods for the detection of these groups of pathogens in biosolids include discrete steps. Therefore, a separate sample is processed independently to quantify the number of each group of the pathogens in biosolids. The aim of the study was to develop a unified method for simultaneous processing of a single biosolids sample to recover bacterial, viral, and helminths pathogens. At the first stage for developing a simultaneous method, nine eluents were compared for their efficiency to recover viruses from a 100 gm spiked biosolids sample. In the second stage, the three top performing eluents were thoroughly evaluated for the recovery of bacteria, viruses, and helminthes. For all three groups of pathogens, the glycine-based eluent provided higher recovery than the beef extract-based eluent. Additional experiments were performed to optimize performance of glycine-based eluent under various procedural factors such as, solids to eluent ratio, stir time, and centrifugation conditions. Last, the new method was directly compared with the EPA methods for the recovery of the three groups of pathogens spiked in duplicate samples of biosolids collected from different sources. For viruses, the new method yielded up to 10% higher recoveries than the EPA method. For bacteria and helminths, recoveries were 74% and 83% by the new method compared to 34% and 68% by the EPA method, respectively. The unified sample processing method significantly reduces the time required for processing biosolids samples for different groups of pathogens; it is less impacted by the intrinsic variability of samples, while providing higher yields (P = 0.05) and greater consistency than the current EPA methods. PMID:24521413

Alum, Absar; Rock, Channah; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

2014-01-01

156

Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint arthroplasty but are considered resource intensive. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been shown to improve quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength and clinical function in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) however it has not been previously investigated as a prehabilitation modality. Methods This pilot study assessed the compliance of a home-based, NMES prehabilitation programme in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We evaluated its effect on preoperative and postoperative isometric quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength, QFM cross-sectional area (CSA) and clinical function (subjective and objective). Seventeen subjects were recruited with 14 completing the study (NMES group n = 9; Control group n = 5). Results Overall compliance with the programme was excellent (99%). Preoperative QFM strength increased by 28% (p > 0.05) with associated gains in walk, stair-climb and chair-rise times (p < 0.05). Early postoperative strength loss (approximately 50%) was similar in both groups. Only the NMES group demonstrated significant strength (53.3%, p = 0.011) and functional recovery (p < 0.05) from 6 to 12 weeks post-TKA. QFM CSA decreased by 4% in the NMES group compared to a reduction of 12% in the control group (P > 0.05) at 12 weeks postoperatively compared to baseline. There were only limited associations found between objective and subjective functional outcome instruments. Conclusions This pilot study has shown that preoperative NMES may improve recovery of quadriceps muscle strength and expedite a return to normal activities in patients undergoing TKA for OA. Recommendations for appropriate outcome instruments in future studies of prehabilitation in TKA have been provided. PMID:20540807

2010-01-01

157

Mass recovery methods for trichloroethylene in plant tissue.  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring expenses form a significant fraction of the costs associated with remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater sites. A novel monitoring method that could result in significant cost savings is the use of plants as monitoring devices; previous work indicates that plant tissue samples, especially trunk (core) and branch samples, can be used to delineate soil and groundwater plumes at phytoremediation sites. An important factor in reducing the uncertainty associated with this sampling method is development of a technique to analyze, both consistently and accurately, the chemicals stored in plant tissue samples. The present research presents a simple, robust, and inexpensive technique to recover most of the contaminant in plant branch tissue, irrespective of the age or species of the plant. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was the chemical analyzed. A number of headspace and solvent extraction techniques in the literature were evaluated, including headspace extraction at different incubation times and temperatures and solvent extraction using hexane or hot methanol. Extraction using hot methanol was relatively fast, simple, and reliable; this method recovered more than 89% of the TCE present in branches of five different tree species.

Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, M. C.; Werth, C. J.; Energy Systems; Univ. of Illionis

2009-06-01

158

N-acetylcysteine amide preserves mitochondrial bioenergetics and improves functional recovery following spinal trauma.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial dysfunction is becoming a pivotal target for neuroprotective strategies following contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and the pharmacological compounds that maintain mitochondrial function confer neuroprotection and improve long-term hindlimb function after injury. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of cell-permeating thiol, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), a precursor of endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH), on mitochondrial function acutely, and long-term tissue sparing and hindlimb locomotor recovery following upper lumbar contusion SCI. Some designated injured adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=120) received either vehicle or NACA (75, 150, 300 or 600mg/kg) at 15min and 6h post-injury. After 24h the total, synaptic, and non-synaptic mitochondrial populations were isolated from a single 1.5cm spinal cord segment (centered at injury site) and assessed for mitochondrial bioenergetics. Results showed compromised total mitochondrial bioenergetics following acute SCI that was significantly improved with NACA treatment in a dose-dependent manner, with maximum effects at 300mg/kg (n=4/group). For synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria, only 300mg/kg NACA dosage showed efficacy. Similar dosage (300mg/kg) also maintained mitochondrial GSH near normal levels. Other designated injured rats (n=21) received continuous NACA (150 or 300mg/kg/day) treatment starting at 15min post-injury for one week to assess long-term functional recovery over 6weeks post-injury. Locomotor testing and novel gait analyses showed significantly improved hindlimb function with NACA that were associated with increased tissue sparing at the injury site. Overall, NACA treatment significantly maintained acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and normalized GSH levels following SCI, and prolonged delivery resulted in significant tissue sparing and improved recovery of hindlimb function. PMID:24805071

Patel, Samir P; Sullivan, Patrick G; Pandya, Jignesh D; Goldstein, Glenn A; VanRooyen, Jenna L; Yonutas, Heather M; Eldahan, Khalid C; Morehouse, Johnny; Magnuson, David S K; Rabchevsky, Alexander G

2014-07-01

159

The role of recovery of mitochondrial structure and function in desiccation tolerance of pea seeds.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial repair is of fundamental importance for seed germination. When mature orthodox seeds are imbibed and germinated, they lose their desiccation tolerance in parallel. To gain a better understanding of this process, we studied the recovery of mitochondrial structure and function in pea (Pisum sativum cv. Jizhuang) seeds with different tolerance to desiccation. Mitochondria were isolated and purified from the embryo axes of control and imbibed-dehydrated pea seeds after (re-)imbibition for various times. Recovery of mitochondrial structure and function occurred both in control and imbibed-dehydrated seed embryo axes, but at different rates and to different maximum levels. The integrity of the outer mitochondrial membrane reached 96% in all treatments. However, only the seeds imbibed for 12 h and then dehydrated recovered the integrity of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) and State 3 (respiratory state in which substrate and ADP are present) respiration (with NADH and succinate as substrate) to the control level after re-imbibition. With increasing imbibition time, the degree to which each parameter recovered decreased in parallel with the decrease in desiccation tolerance. The tolerance of imbibed seeds to desiccation increased and decreased when imbibed in CaCl(2) and methylviologen solution, respectively, and the recovery of the IMM integrity similarly improved and weakened in these two treatments, respectively. Survival of seeds after imbibition-dehydration linearly increased with the increase in ability to recover the integrity of IMM and State 3 respiration, which indicates that recovery of mitochondrial structure and function during germination has an important role in seed desiccation tolerance. PMID:21910735

Wang, Wei-Qing; Cheng, Hong-Yan; Møller, Ian M; Song, Song-Quan

2012-01-01

160

Method of controlling scale in oil recovery operations  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of producing highly viscous minerals from a subterranean formation by injection of an acidic, thermal vapor stream without substantial scale buildup in downstream piping, pumps and well bore. The process comprises heating the formation by injection of heat, preferably in the form of a thermal vapor stream composed of combustion gases and steam and injecting an acidic compound simultaneously with the thermal vapor stream into the formation at a temperature above the dew point of the thermal vapor stream. The acidic, thermal vapor stream increases the solubility of metal ions in connate water and thus reduces scaling in the downstream equipment during the production of viscous hydrocarbons.

Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

1981-01-01

161

Method of enhanced oil recovery employing thickened amphoteric surfactant solutions  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for recovering petroleum from a subterranean reservoir penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well comprising: injecting into the reservoir through the injection well a surfactant slug comprising an aqueous solution containing about 0.001 to about 5% by weight of an amphoteric surfactant and an effective amount of a high molecular weight homopolysaccharide gum thickener derived from fungus strains of the genus Schlerotium to provide the surfactant slug with a viscosity exceeding the viscosity of the petroleum in the reservoir; and recovering fluid from the production well.

Kalpakci, B.; Chan, K. S.

1985-11-26

162

Oil recovery method utilizing highly oxyalklated phenolic resins  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for recovering petroleum from a subterranean reservoir. It consists of introducing, through an injection well, a predeterminable amount of polyalkylene oxide adduct of a fusible phenolic, hydrocarbon-soluble synthetic resin, the resin containing from about 4 to about 16 phenolic groups and being a condensate of an ortho or para alkyl or cycloaliphatic substituted phenol and an aldehyde. The adduct is formed by further condensation of the condensate resin with ethylene oxide and at least one other alkylene oxide containing 3 or 4 carbon atoms. The adduct contains more than about 1% by weight and less than about 50% by weight of phenolic resin moiety.

Blair, C.M. Jr.; Stout, C.A.; Olsen, R.P.

1989-03-21

163

Extrinsic inhibitors in axon sprouting and functional recovery after spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Summary: The limited axonal growth after central nervous system (CNS) injury such as spinal cord injury presents a major challenge in promoting repair and recovery. The literature in axonal repair has focused mostly on frank regeneration of injured axons. Here, we argue that sprouting of uninjured axons, an innate repair mechanism of the CNS, might be more amenable to modulation in order to promote functional repair. Extrinsic inhibitors of axonal growth modulate axon sprouting after injury and may serve as the first group of therapeutic targets to promote functional repair.

Meves, Jessica M.; Zheng, Binhai

2014-01-01

164

Stress relaxation functions: Methods of approximation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method of determining Prony series coefficients is presented. This method, the domain of influence method (DOI), capitalizes on characteristics of the exponential decay curve to adjust its parameters to fit a set of data. This method was applied to viscoelastic stress relaxation data. The method is general and can be used to develop exponential decay curves to represent other types of data where appropriate. The DOI method does not include any error correction within itself. To improve the results of the DOI method some form of error correction is necessary. The nonlinearity of the Prony series does not lend itself to common methods of error minimization. Optimization methods can be applied to this problem. These methods use the functional behavior of the problem under study to minimize or maximize some characteristic of the problem. Here the function minimized was an error function between the DOI estimated Prony series and the viscoelastic data. Optimization was achieved by adjusting the Prony series coefficients to minimize that error. The DOI method was encoded in FORTRAN and integrated with commercially available optimization routines to produce a tool called Viscoelastic Coefficient Determination or VCD. A description of this code including a discussion of the salient features is presented. An example is used to demonstrate the DOI method, illustrate the operation of VCD, and demonstrate the capabilities of the method and the software. A code listing appears in the appendix.

Bower, Mark V.; Gant, Frederick S.

1994-04-01

165

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

1988-05-04

166

Electrical stimulation and iterative learning control for functional recovery in the upper limb post-stroke.  

PubMed

Therapies using functional electrical stimulation (FES) in conjunction with practice of everyday tasks have proven effective in facilitating recovery of upper limb function following stroke. The aim of the current study is to develop a multi-channel electrical stimulation system that precisely controls the assistance provided in goal-orientated tasks through use of advanced model-based 'iterative learning control' (ILC) algorithms to facilitate functional motor recovery of the upper limb post-stroke. FES was applied to three muscle groups in the upper limb (the anterior deltoid, triceps and wrist extensors) to assist hemiparetic, chronic stroke participants to perform a series of functional tasks with real objects, including closing a drawer, turning on a light switch and repositioning an object. Position data from the participants' impaired upper limb was collected using a Microsoft Kinect® and was compared to an ideal reference. ILC used data from previous attempts at the task to moderate the FES signals applied to each muscle group on a trial by trial basis to reduce performance error whilst supporting voluntary effort by the participant. The clinical trial is on-going. Preliminary results show improvements in performance accuracy for each muscle group, as well as improvements in clinical outcome measures pre and post 18 training sessions. Thus, the feasibility of applying precisely controlled FES to three muscle groups in the upper limb to facilitate functional reach and grasp movements post stroke has been demonstrated. PMID:24187178

Meadmore, Katie; Exell, Timothy; Freeman, Christopher; Kutlu, Mustafa; Rogers, Eric; Hughes, Ann-Marie; Hallewell, Emma; Burridge, Jane

2013-06-01

167

Long-term functional recovery and compensation after cerebral ischemia in rats.  

PubMed

Cerebral ischemia is one of the most common causes of disabilities in adults and leads to long-term motor and cognitive impairments with limited therapeutic possibilities. Treatment options have proven efficient in preclinical models of cerebral ischemia but have failed in the clinical setting. This limited translation may be due to the suitability of models used and outcomes measured as most studies have focused on the early period after injury with gross motor scales, which have limited correlation to the clinical situation. The aim of this study was to determine long-term functional outcomes after cerebral ischemia in rats, focusing on fine motor function, social and depressive behavior as clinically relevant measures. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effects of an anti-inflammatory treatment (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)) on functional recovery and compensation. Infarct volume was correlated with long-term (25 days) impairments in fine motor skills, but not with emotional components of behavior. Motor impairments could not be detected using conventional neurological tests and only detailed analysis allowed differentiation between recovery and compensation. Acute systemic administration of IL-1Ra (at reperfusion) led to a faster and more complete recovery, but delayed (24h) IL-1Ra treatment had no effect. In summary functional assessment after brain injury requires detailed motor tests in order to address long-term impairments and compensation processes that are mediated by intact tissues. Functional deficits in skilled movement after brain injury represent ideal predictors of long-term outcomes and should become standard measures in the assessment of preclinical animal models. PMID:24821402

Girard, Sylvie; Murray, Katie N; Rothwell, Nancy J; Metz, Gerlinde A S; Allan, Stuart M

2014-08-15

168

On statistical methods of structure function extraction  

E-print Network

Several methods of statistical analysis are proposed and analyzed in application for a specific task -- extraction of the structure functions from the cross sections of deep inelastic interactions of any type. We formulate the method based on the orthogonal weight functions and on an optimization procedure of errors minimization as well as methods underlying common $\\chi^2$ minimization. Effectiveness of these methods usage is analyzed by comparison of the statistical parameters such as bias, extraction variance etc., for sample deep inelastic scattering data set.

S. N. Sevbitov; T. V. Shishkina; I. L. Solovtsov

2007-11-29

169

FRITS - A Microprocessor Functional BIST Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel functional Built-in-Self-Test (BIST) method for microprocessors. This technique is based on the fundamental principle that complex chips have embedded functionality that can be used to implement a comprehensive self-test strategy. Functional testing has generally been associated with expensive testers. In order to lower the cost of test, there is a general trend to adopt structural

Praveen Parvathala; Kailas Maneparambil; William Lindsay

2002-01-01

170

Post-noise-exposure auditory sensitivity and temporal integration recovery functions.  

PubMed

Normal-hearing young adults (N:12) were exposed to a band-limited noise (1.4-2 kc/s) at 100 db SPL for 15 min. Pre- and post-exposure threshold measurements were made at 2 and 4 kc/s at durations of 500 and of 20 msec, at time intervals of TTS2, TTS15 and every 30-min interval thereafter for 4 hrs. Greater TTS occurred at both frequencies with the 500-msec than with the 20-msec duration. Threshold recovery patterns over time were similar for both durations but thresholds for the 20-msec duration recovered sooner. There was a delayed recovery function at 4 kc/s for the relative differences (20 vs 500 msec). Implications of the findings were discussed. PMID:6545892

Stephenson, M R; Wall, L G

1984-10-01

171

Effect of lacosamide on structural damage and functional recovery after traumatic brain injury in rats.  

PubMed

In a subgroup of patients, traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in the occurrence of acute epileptic seizures or even status epilepticus, which are treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Recent experimental data, however, suggest that administration of AEDs at the early post-injury phase can compromise the recovery process. The present study was designed to assess the profile of a novel anticonvulsant, lacosamide (Vimpat) on post-TBI structural, motor and cognitive outcomes. Moderate TBI was induced by lateral fluid-percussion injury in adult rats. Treatment with 0.9% saline or lacosamide (30 mg/kg, i.p.) was started at 30 min post-injury and continued at 8h intervals for 3d (total daily dose 90 mg/kg/d). Rats were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups: sham-operated controls treated with vehicle (Sham-Veh) or lacosamide (Sham-LCM) and injured animals treated with vehicle (TBI-Veh) or lacosamide (TBI-LCM). As functional outcomes we tested motor recovery with composite neuroscore and beam-walking at 2, 7, and 15 d post-injury. Cognitive recovery was tested with the Morris water-maze at 12-14 d post-TBI. To assess the structural outcome, animals underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2 d post-TBI. At 16d post-TBI, rats were perfused for histology to analyze cortical and hippocampal neurodegeneration and axonal damage. Our data show that at 2 d post-TBI, both the TBI-Veh and TBI-LCM groups were equally impaired in neuroscore. Thereafter, motor recovery occurred similarly during the first week. At 2 wk post-TBI, recovery of the TBI-LCM group lagged behind that in the TBI-VEH group (p<0.05). Performance in beam-walking did not differ between the TBI-Veh and TBI-LCM groups. Both TBI groups were similarly impaired in the Morris water-maze at 2 wk post-TBI. MRI and histology did not reveal any differences in the cortical or hippocampal damage between the TBI-Veh and TBI-LCM groups. Taken together, acute treatment with LCM had no protective effects on post-TBI structural or functional impairment. Composite neuroscore in the TBI-LCM group lagged behind that in the TBI-Veh group at 15 d post-injury, but no compromise was found in other indices of post-TBI recovery in the LCM treated animals. PMID:24636248

Pitkänen, A; Immonen, R; Ndode-Ekane, X; Gröhn, O; Stöhr, T; Nissinen, J

2014-05-01

172

Spaceflight-induced cardiovascular changes and recovery during NASA's Functional Task Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microgravity-induced physiologic changes could impair a crewmember's performance upon return to a gravity environment. The Functional Task Test aims to correlate these physiologic alterations with changes in performance during mission-critical tasks. In this study, we evaluated spaceflight-induced cardiovascular changes during 11 functional tasks in 7 Shuttle astronauts before spaceflight, on landing day, and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. Mean heart rate was examined during each task and autonomic activity was approximated by heart rate variability during the Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, a 2-min prone rest followed by a 3-min stand. Heart rate was increased on landing day during all of the tasks, and remained elevated 6 days after landing during 6 of the 11 tasks. Parasympathetic modulation was diminished and sympathovagal balance was increased on landing day. Additionally, during the stand test 6 days after landing, parasympathetic modulation remained suppressed and heart rate remained elevated compared to preflight levels. Heart rate and autonomic activity were not different from preflight levels 30 days after landing. We detected changes in heart rate and autonomic activity during a 3-min stand and a variety of functional tasks, where cardiovascular deconditioning was still evident 6 days after returning from short-duration spaceflight. The delayed recovery times for heart rate and parasympathetic modulation indicate the necessity of assessing functional performance after long-duration spaceflight to ensure crew health and safety.

Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, Michael B.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Platts, Steven H.

2013-11-01

173

Citalopram Enhances Neurovascular Regeneration and Sensorimotor Functional Recovery after Ischemic Stroke in Mice  

PubMed Central

Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) after stroke enhances motor functional recovery; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. We hypothesized that daily administration of the clinical drug citalopram would produce these functional benefits via enhancing neurovascular repair in the ischemic peri-infarct region. To test this hypothesis, focal ischemic stroke was induced in male C57/B6 mice by permanent ligation of distal branches of the middle cerebral artery to the barrel cortex and 7-min occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries. Citalopram (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected 24 hrs after stroke and daily thereafter. To label proliferating cells, bromo-deoxyuridine was injected daily beginning 3 days after stroke. Immunohistochemical and functional assays were performed to elucidate citalopram-mediated cellular and sensorimotor changes after stroke. Citalopram treatment had no significant effect on infarct formation or edema 3 days after stroke; however, citalopram-treated mice had better functional recovery than saline-treated controls 3 and 14 days after stroke in the adhesive removal test. Increased expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor was detected in the peri-infarct region 7 days after stroke in citalopram-treated animals. The number of proliferating neural progenitor cells and the distance of neuroblast migration from the sub-ventricular zone towards the ischemic cortex were significantly greater in citalopram-treated mice at 7 days after stroke. Immunohistochemical staining and co-localization analysis showed that citalopram-treated animals generated more new neurons and microvessels in the peri-infarct region 21 and 28 days after stroke. Taken together, these results suggest that citalopram promotes post-stroke sensorimotor recovery likely via enhancing neurogenesis, neural cell migration and the microvessel support in the peri-infarct region of the ischemic brain. PMID:23590907

Espinera, Alyssa R.; Ogle, Molly E.; Gu, Xiaohuan; Wei, Ling

2013-01-01

174

Time course of diaphragm function recovery after controlled mechanical ventilation in rats  

PubMed Central

Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is known to result in rapid and severe diaphragmatic dysfunction, but the recovery response of the diaphragm to normal function after CMV is unknown. Therefore, we examined the time course of diaphragm function recovery in an animal model of CMV. Healthy rats were submitted to CMV for 24–27 h (n = 16), or to 24-h CMV followed by either 1 h (CMV + 1 h SB, n = 9), 2 h (CMV + 2 h SB, n = 9), 3 h (CMV + 3 h SB, n = 9), or 4–7 h (CMV + 4–7 h SB, n = 9) of spontaneous breathing (SB). At the end of the experiment, the diaphragm muscle was excised for functional and biochemical analysis. The in vitro diaphragm force was significantly improved in the CMV + 3 h SB and CMV + 4–7 h SB groups compared with CMV (maximal tetanic force: +27%, P < 0.05, and +59%, P < 0.001, respectively). This was associated with an increase in the type IIx/b fiber dimensions (P < 0.05). Neutrophil influx was increased in the CMV + 4–7 h SB group (P < 0.05), while macrophage numbers remained unchanged. Markers of protein synthesis (phosphorylated Akt and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1) were significantly increased (±40%, P < 0.001, and ±52%, P < 0.01, respectively) in the CMV + 3 h SB and CMV + 4–7 h SB groups and were positively correlated with diaphragm force (P < 0.05). Finally, also the maximal specific force generation of skinned single diaphragm fibers was increased in the CMV + 4–7 h SB group compared with CMV (+45%, P < 0.05). In rats, reloading the diaphragm for 3 h after CMV is sufficient to improve diaphragm function, while complete recovery occurs after longer periods of reloading. Enhanced muscle fiber dimensions, increased protein synthesis, and improved intrinsic contractile properties of diaphragm muscle fibers may have contributed to diaphragm function recovery. PMID:23845980

Thomas, Debby; Maes, Karen; Agten, Anouk; Heunks, Leo; Dekhuijzen, Richard; Decramer, Marc; Van Hees, Hieronymus

2013-01-01

175

Screening and laboratory flow studies for evaluating EOR (enhanced oil recovery) methods: Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous steps are involved in evaluating enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods for field application. Technical screening guides should be consulted for initial determination of applicability, followed by a comprehensive analysis of fluid, rock, and rock-fluid interactions. Before displacement studies, decisions concerning type of core, core size, and experimental apparatus are made considering scaling laws, dispersive effects, duplication of reservoir conditions,

G. O. Jr. Goodlett; M. M. Honarpour; P. Sarathi; T. H. Chung; D. K. Olsen

1986-01-01

176

A tutorial on the LQG/LTR method. [Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper the so-called Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian method with Loop-Transfer-Recovery is surveyed. The objective is to provide a pragmatic exposition, with special emphasis on the step-by-step characteristics for designing multivariable feedback control systems.

Athans, M.

1986-01-01

177

Thermodynamic optimization method of a triple effect absorption system with wasted heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed performance study is done for a water-lithium bromide triple regenerative effect absorption refrigerating system, with heat recovery. An analysis method is developed and implemented on a computer code to simulate the operation and control of the system under realistic conditions. The thermodynamic performances of the system are described by means of exergetic and energetic based criteria. The numerical

D. M. Manole; J. L. Lage

1995-01-01

178

Method for selective recovery of cadmium from cadmium-bearing waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the selective recovery of cadmium, nickel and cobalt from a nickel--cadmium battery waste comprises the following steps: (A) leaching the waste with an ammoniacal carbonate solution to form an aqueous ammoniacal carbonate solution containing cadmium, nickel and cobalt (II) ammine complexes and a leaching residue--any iron in the waste is in the leaching residue; (B) adding air

H. Reinhardt; H. D. Ottertun; J. H. A. Rydberg

1977-01-01

179

Method of a Fuzzy Cluster Analysis to Evaluate Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuzzy clustering analysis is a widely used fuzzy mathematics method ,which could be applied in various fields. Based on the fuzzy set theory, application of fuzzy clustering analysis in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) was studied. At first, strains which had ability to produce biosurfactant were selected as part of the statistical indicators. Then data were corrected and standardized by

Yongjun Zhou; Jing Wang; Ming Li; Jing Tian; Guang Ji; Hanping Dong; Li Yu

2012-01-01

180

EXTRACTION METHODS FOR RECOVERY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM FORTIFIED DRY SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recovery of 8 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dry soils, each fortified at 800 ng/g soil, was studied in relation to the extraction method and time of extraction. Extraction procedures studied on desiccator-dried soils were modifications of EPA low-and high-level purge-and...

181

Actinides recovery from molten salt\\/liquid metal system by electrochemical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical methods were examined for the recovery of actinides from the electrorefiner which is used in pyrometallurgical reprocessing of spent metal fuel for fast reactors. Uranium was successfully collected at the solid steel cathode from both liquid cadmium and molten salt solvents. In electrotransport from liquid cadmium, the behavior of uranium and rare earths was as expected by a computer

Masatoshi Iizuka; Tadafumi Koyama; Naruhito Kondo; Reiko Fujita; Hiroshi Tanaka

1997-01-01

182

Determination of opiates in hair. Effects of extraction methods on recovery and on stability of analytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate (i) the recovery of extraction of opiates from authentic hair samples and (ii) the extent of hydrolysis of acetylated opiates (6-acetylmorphine, acetylcodeine) occurring during sample preparation, three different methods of extraction commonly used for opiates have been compared. To this purpose a sample consisting of a pool of hair collected from several heroin overdose cases has

Aldo Polettini; Cristiana Stramesi; Claudia Vignali; Maria Montagna

1997-01-01

183

Secondary Water Recovery by Air Injection: 2. The Implicit Simultaneous Solution Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finite difference equations of air and water flow in air-driven secondary water recovery define a multidimensional strongly nonlinear system with sharp pressure and saturation fronts, large differences in the magnitude of flow coefficients, physical and mathematical discontinuities, sudden flow reversals, and high injection rates. The implicit simultaneous solution (SS) method, which solves simultaneously for the unknown pressures and saturation

George J. Moridis; Donald L. Reddell

1991-01-01

184

Secondary Water Recovery by Air Injection 2. The Implicit Simultaneous Solution Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finite difference equations of air and water flow in air-driven secondary water recovery define a multidimensional strongly nonlinear system with sharp pressure and saturation fronts, large differences in the magnitude of flow coefficients, physical and mathematical discontinuities, sudden flow reversals, and high injection rates. The implicit simultaneous solution (SS) method, which solves simultaneously for the unknown pressures and saturation

George J. Moridis; Donald L. Reddell

1991-01-01

185

Methods for recovery of deep terrestrial subsurface sediments for microbiological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Methods for the aseptic recovery of sediments from the terrestrial deep subsurface for microbiological analyses are defined. Sediments were recovered from depths > 300 m by rotary drilling techniques using bentonite drilling fluids. Four sampling tools were successfully used and compared for their ability to retrieve different types of subsurface materials. Upon retrieval, sediments were pared and processed under

T. J. Phelps; C. B. Fliermans; T. R. Garland; S. M. Pfiffner; D. C. White

1989-01-01

186

An AMS method to determine analyte recovery from pharmacokinetic studies with concomitant extravascular and intravenous administration.  

PubMed

The absolute bioavailability, clearance and volume of distribution of a drug can be investigated by administering a very low dose of the (14)C-drug intravenously along with a therapeutic nonlabeled dose by the extravascular route (typically orally). The total drug concentration is measured by an assay such as LC-MS and the (14)C-drug is measured by accelerator MS (AMS). In another article in this issue, a method validation is proposed where AMS was used as the analytical assay. Part of the validation is to assess the recovery of the analyte being measured as this has a direct impact on its quantification. In this article, a method of internal standardisation is described where the UV response of the nonlabeled analyte, spiked in excess into the matrix being analysed, is used for internal standardization. The method allows for the recovery of analyte to be measured in each individual sample being analysed. It is important to know the recovery of a (14)C-labeled analyte when determining its mass concentration from (14)C:(12)C isotopic ratio data using AMS. A method is reported in this article that utilizes the UV response of the nonlabeled drug for internal standardization, so that the recovery for each individual sample analyzed can be ascertained. PMID:21338260

Lappin, Graham; Seymour, Mark; Young, Graeme; Higton, David; Hill, Howard M

2011-02-01

187

Women's voices on recovery: A multi-method study of the complexity of recovery from child sexual abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe current study was exploratory and used multiple methods to examine patterns of stability and change in resilient functioning across 7 years of early adulthood. Second, qualitative data were used to examine in greater detail survivors’ own narratives about correlates of healing.

Victoria L. Banyard; Linda M. Williams

2007-01-01

188

Structural and functional shifts in zoobenthos induced by organic enrichment — Implications for community recovery potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitat change induced by organic enrichment is a growing concern for the sustainability of benthic communities in coastal aquatic environments. This case study describes the spatial and temporal response patterns and the recovery potential of low-diversity benthic communities to organic enrichment at two fish farm locations, during the rearing periods (15 and 20 years, respectively) and the following recovery periods (2 years). The spatial extent of disturbance differed depending on the hydromorphological characteristics of the rearing sites, but degraded macrobenthic communities close to both fish farms were recorded soon after the activity started. Continued organic enrichment resulted in high species turnover-rates and in an altered benthic community composition at both locations. After fish farm abatement, a partial recovery was detected in species richness, but abundance and biomass values were reduced and changes in structural composition remained. Alterations in benthic biological traits were observed at both fish farm locations, implying that organic enrichment might cause changes in benthic community function within low-diversity benthic communities.

Villnäs, A.; Perus, J.; Bonsdorff, E.

2011-01-01

189

Research on recovery function of two drugs combination on rat sciatic nerve injury regeneration model.  

PubMed

This paper aims to study the recovery function of two drugs combination on rat sciatic nerve injury regeneration model. Sixty rats were divided into groups randomly and averagely. All animals after dividing left sciatic nerve were given epineurium-interrupted suture for constructing peripheral nerve injury model. Muscle on operation side in medication administration team was injected 0.5 ml drug while the contrat group was given equal amount of normal saline. Sciatic nerve function evaluation and nerve electrophysiology index detection were conducted after operation at fixed period. We drew materials for morphological observation 12 weeks after operation. The results showed that group with independent administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) and nimodipine (ND) in large dose was superior than group in small dose in nerve electro physiology index (P<0.05) and group with combination administration of NGF and ND in large dose was also superior than group in small dose (P<0.05). In addition, regeneration effect of combination administration group was better than that of independent administration group when using same dose. The larger the dose was, the better the effect was. We can conclude that two-drug combination can promote recovery function on rat sciatic nerve injury regeneration model. PMID:25262521

Ju, Liang; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Tong; Zheng, Jianping

2014-09-01

190

Fgf2 improves functional recovery--decreasing gliosis and increasing radial glia and neural progenitor cells after spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Objectives A major impediment for recovery after mammalian spinal cord injury (SCI) is the glial scar formed by proliferating reactive astrocytes. Finding factors that may reduce glial scarring, increase neuronal survival, and promote neurite outgrowth are of major importance for improving the outcome after SCI. Exogenous fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) has been shown to decrease injury volume and improve functional outcome; however, the mechanisms by which this is mediated are still largely unknown. Methods In this study, Fgf2 was administered for 2 weeks in mice subcutaneously, starting 30 min after spinal cord hemisection. Results Fgf2 treatment decreased the expression of TNF-a at the lesion site, decreased monocyte/macrophage infiltration, and decreased gliosis. Fgf2 induced astrocytes to adopt a polarized morphology and increased expression of radial markers such as Pax6 and nestin. In addition, the levels of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), expressed by glia, were markedly decreased. Furthermore, Fgf2 treatment promotes the formation of parallel glial processes, “bridges,” at the lesion site that enable regenerating axons through the injury site. Additionally, Fgf2 treatment increased Sox2-expressing cells in the gray matter and neurogenesis around and at the lesion site. Importantly, these effects were correlated with enhanced functional recovery of the left paretic hind limb. Conclusions Thus, early pharmacological intervention with Fgf2 following SCI is neuroprotective and creates a proregenerative environment by the modulation of the glia response. PMID:24683512

Goldshmit, Yona; Frisca, Frisca; Pinto, Alexander R; Pebay, Alice; Tang, Jean-Kitty K Y; Siegel, Ashley L; Kaslin, Jan; Currie, Peter D

2014-01-01

191

Optimization of the purification methods for recovery of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to optimize the purification of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus. Recombinant flounder growth hormone (r-fGH) was expressed by Escherichia coli in form of inclusion body or as soluble protein under different inducing conditions. The inclusion body was renatured using two recovery methods, i.e., dilution and dialysis. Thereafter, the refolded protein was purified by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography and r-fGH was obtained by cleavage of thrombin. For soluble products, r-fGH was directly purified from the lysates by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography. ELISA-receptor assay demonstrated that despite its low receptor binding activity, the r-fGH purified from refolded inclusion body had a higher yield (2.605 mg L-1) than that from soluble protein (1.964 mg L-1). Of the tested recovery methods, addition of renaturing buffer (pH 8.5) into denatured inclusion body yielded the best recovery rate (17.9%). This work provided an optimized purification method for high recovery of r-fGH, thus contributing to the application of r-fGH to aquaculture.

Zang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xuecheng; Mu, Xiaosheng; Liu, Bin

2013-03-01

192

Joint Sparse Recovery Method for Compressed Sensing With Structured Dictionary Mismatches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In traditional compressed sensing theory, the dictionary matrix is given a priori, whereas in real applications this matrix suffers from random noise and fluctuations. In this paper we consider a signal model where each column in the dictionary matrix is affected by a structured noise. This formulation is common in direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation of off-grid targets, encountered in both radar systems and array processing. We propose to use joint sparse signal recovery to solve the compressed sensing problem with structured dictionary mismatches and also give an analytical performance bound on this joint sparse recovery. We show that, under mild conditions, the reconstruction error of the original sparse signal is bounded by both the sparsity and the noise level in the measurement model. Moreover, we implement fast first-order algorithms to speed up the computing process. Numerical examples demonstrate the good performance of the proposed algorithm, and also show that the joint-sparse recovery method yields a better reconstruction result than existing methods. By implementing the joint sparse recovery method, the accuracy and efficiency of DOA estimation are improved in both passive and active sensing cases.

Tan, Zhao; Yang, Peng; Nehorai, Arye

2014-10-01

193

Does physical activity change predict functional recovery in low back pain? Protocol for a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Activity advice and prescription are commonly used in the management of low back pain (LBP). Although there is evidence for advising patients with LBP to remain active, facilitating both recovery and return to work, to date no research has assessed whether objective measurements of free living physical activity (PA) can predict outcome, recovery and course of LBP. METHODS: An

Paul Hendrick; Stephan Milosavljevic; Melanie L Bell; Leigh Hale; Deirdre A Hurley; Suzanne M McDonough; Markus Melloh; David G Baxter

2009-01-01

194

A soil toxicity test using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and an effective method of recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for recovering nematodes from soils in an efficient, reproducible, and non-destructive manner has been developed. It was used to conduct short-term soil toxicity tests using the soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and several different soil types spiked with copper chloride. The recovery method, which involves centrifugation through a colloidal silica suspension, allows the nematodes to be extracted from

Steven G. Donkin; David B. Dusenbery

1993-01-01

195

A method for the recovery of mishap related events lost to amnesia.  

PubMed

The author describes a non-hypnotic, non-pharmacologic method employed in the recovery of memories blocked by amnesia following an aircraft accident. A detailed account of the method used during the investigation of two mishaps is provided. Memories were fully recovered. In addition, a description of the use of this technique in enhancing the recall of a witness to a fatal aircraft accident is provided. PMID:3555450

Levy, R A

1987-03-01

196

Method of making low work function component  

DOEpatents

A method for fabricating a component is disclosed. The method includes: providing a member having an effective work function of an initial value, disposing a sacrificial layer on a surface of the member, disposing a first agent within the member to obtain a predetermined concentration of the agent at said surface of the member, annealing the member, and removing the sacrificial layer to expose said surface of the member, wherein said surface has a post-process effective work function that is different from the initial value.

Robinson, Vance (Niskayuna, NY); Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Michael, Joseph Darryl (Delmar, NY)

2011-11-15

197

Functional recovery of odor representations in regenerated sensory inputs to the olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

The olfactory system has a unique capacity for recovery from peripheral damage. After injury to the olfactory epithelium (OE), olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) regenerate and re-converge on target glomeruli of the olfactory bulb (OB). Thus far, this process has been described anatomically for only a few defined populations of OSNs. Here we characterize this regeneration at a functional level by assessing how odor representations carried by OSN inputs to the OB recover after massive loss and regeneration of the sensory neuron population. We used chronic imaging of mice expressing synaptopHluorin in OSNs to monitor odor representations in the dorsal OB before lesion by the olfactotoxin methyl bromide and after a 12 week recovery period. Methyl bromide eliminated functional inputs to the OB, and these inputs recovered to near-normal levels of response magnitude within 12 weeks. We also found that the functional topography of odor representations recovered after lesion, with odorants evoking OSN input to glomerular foci within the same functional domains as before lesion. At a finer spatial scale, however, we found evidence for mistargeting of regenerated OSN axons onto OB targets, with odorants evoking synaptopHluorin signals in small foci that did not conform to a typical glomerular structure but whose distribution was nonetheless odorant-specific. These results indicate that OSNs have a robust ability to reestablish functional inputs to the OB and that the mechanisms underlying the topography of bulbar reinnervation during development persist in the adult and allow primary sensory representations to be largely restored after massive sensory neuron loss. PMID:24431990

Cheung, Man C; Jang, Woochan; Schwob, James E; Wachowiak, Matt

2013-01-01

198

Fabrication of pseudo-ceramide-based lipid microparticles for recovery of skin barrier function.  

PubMed

The recovery of skin barrier functions was investigated with pseudo-ceramide-based lipid microparticles. The microparticles were prepared by using a fluid bed technique where lipid components (a pseudo-ceramide, cholesterol and a fatty acid) were coated on a sugar seed, and a polymer was subsequently coated on the lipid microparticles. The microparticles contained large amount of pseudo-ceramide, and the pseudo-ceramide was in the form of lamellar structures mixed with other lipid components. In addition, the microparticles were stably dispersed in aqueous media or emulsion systems without any disruption of the microparticles' structures, thereby supplying sufficient amount of the pseudo-ceramide to skins for improving skin barrier functions such as preventing water loss. Such a role of the microparticles was proven by evaluating in vivo the efficacy of the lipid microparticles in reducing a trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) of impaired murine skins. As a result, the novel pseudo-ceramide-based lipid microparticles for barrier recovery may potentially be applied in the field of dermatology, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. PMID:22361356

Kim, Do-Hoon; Park, Woo Ram; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Cho, Eun Chul; An, Eun Jung; Kim, Jin-Woong; Oh, Seong-Geun

2012-06-01

199

Manually-stimulated recovery of motor function after facial nerve injury requires intact sensory input.  

PubMed

We have recently shown in rat that daily manual stimulation (MS) of vibrissal muscles promotes recovery of whisking and reduces polyinnervation of muscle fibers following repair of the facial nerve (facial-facial anastomosis, FFA). Here, we examined whether these positive effects were: (1) correlated with alterations of the afferent connections of regenerated facial motoneurons, and (2) whether they were achieved by enhanced sensory input through the intact trigeminal nerve. First, we quantified the extent of total synaptic input to motoneurons in the facial nucleus using synaptophysin immunocytochemistry following FFA with and without subsequent MS. We found that, without MS, this input was reduced compared to intact animals. The number of synaptophysin-positive terminals returned to normal values following MS. Thus, MS appears to counteract the deafferentation of regenerated facial motoneurons. Second, we performed FFA and, in addition, eliminated the trigeminal sensory input to facial motoneurons by extirpation of the ipsilateral infraorbital nerve (IONex). In this paradigm, without MS, vibrissal motor performance and pattern of end-plate reinnervation were as aberrant as after FFA without MS. MS did not influence the reinnervation pattern after IONex and functional recovery was even worse than after IONex without MS. Thus, when the sensory system is intact, MS restores normal vibrissal function and reduces the degree of polyinnervation. When afferent inputs are abolished, these effects are eliminated or even reversed. We conclude that rehabilitation strategies must be carefully designed to take into account the extent of motor and/or sensory damage. PMID:18381213

Pavlov, Stoyan P; Grosheva, Maria; Streppel, Michael; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Irintchev, Andrey; Skouras, Emmanouil; Angelova, Srebrina K; Kuerten, Stefanie; Sinis, Nektarios; Dunlop, Sarah A; Angelov, Doychin N

2008-05-01

200

Functional and Transcriptomic Recovery of Infarcted Mouse Myocardium Treated with Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells  

PubMed Central

Although bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMNC) have been extensively used in cell therapy for cardiac diseases, little mechanistic information is available to support reports of their efficacy. To address this shortcoming, we compared structural and functional recovery and associated global gene expression profiles in post-ischaemic myocardium treated with BMNC transplantation. BMNC suspensions were injected into cardiac scar tissue 10 days after experimental myocardial infarction. Six weeks later, mice undergoing BMNC therapy were found to have normalized antibody repertoire and improved cardiac performance measured by ECG, treadmill exercise time and echocardiography. After functional testing, gene expression profiles in cardiac tissue were evaluated using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Expression of more than 18% of the 11981 quantified unigenes was significantly altered in the infarcted hearts. BMNC therapy restored expression of 2099 (96.2%) of the genes that were altered by infarction but led to altered expression of 286 other genes, considered to be a side effect of the treatment. Transcriptional therapeutic efficacy, a metric calculated using a formula that incorporates both recovery and side effect of treatment, was 73%. In conclusion, our results confirm a beneficial role for bone marrow-derived cell therapy and provide new information on molecular mechanisms operating after BMNC transplantation on post ischemic heart failure in mice. PMID:21671060

Lachtermacher, Stephan; Esporcatte, Bruno L. B.; da Silva de Azevedo Fortes, Fabio; Rocha, Nazareth Novaes; Montalvao, Fabricio; Costa, Patricia C.; Belem, Luciano; Rabischoffisky, Arnaldo; Neto, Hugo C. C. Faria; Vasconcellos, Rita; Iacobas, Dumitru A.; Iacobas, Sanda; Spray, David C.; Thomas, Neil M.; Goldenberg, Regina C. S.; de Carvalho, Antonio C. Campos

2011-01-01

201

Agar Underlay Method for Recovery of Sublethally Heat-Injured Bacteria  

PubMed Central

A method of recovering sublethally heat-injured bacteria was developed. The procedure (termed the agar underlay method) uses a nonselective agar underlaid with a selective medium. In a two-chambered petri dish, the Lutri plate (LP), a nonselective agar is inoculated with a population of sublethally heat-injured bacteria. After a 2-h repair incubation period, selective agar is added to the bottom chamber of the LP and incubated. By diffusing through the nonselective top agar, selective agents from the underlay medium impart selectivity to the system. By the agar underlay method, recovery rates of the heat-injured food-borne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium were not different (P > 0.05) from recovery rates determined with nonselective media. Sublethally heat-injured cells (60°C for 1.5 min in buffer or 80°C for 30 s on meat surfaces) grew and produced a typical colony morphology and color reaction when the agar underlay procedure was used with the appropriate respective selective agars. Unlike agar overlay methods for injury repair, the agar underlay procedure allows the typical selective-medium colony morphology to develop and allows colonies to be more easily picked for further characterization. Higher recovery rates of heat-injured fecal enterococci from bovine fecal samples and total coliforms from animal waste lagoons were obtained by the agar underlay method with selective agars than by direct plating on the respective selective media. PMID:10583985

Kang, D. H.; Siragusa, G. R.

1999-01-01

202

Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization therapy accelerates recovery of renal function independent of stem cell contribution.  

PubMed

Acute renal failure and tubular cell loss as a result of ischemia constitute major challenges in renal pathophysiology. Increasing evidence suggests important roles for bone marrow stem cells in the regeneration of renal tissue after injury. This study investigated whether the enhanced availability of hematopoietic stem cells, induced by stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, to the injured kidney provides an adequate strategy for stem cell-based therapy to counteract renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. It is interesting that cytokine treatment before injury resulted in significant enhancement of function recovery of the kidney. This, however, was not due to increased incorporation of tubular epithelial cells from bone marrow origin. Importantly, cytokine treatment resulted in impaired influx of granulocytes into the injured kidney. Although cytokine treatment improved renal function rapidly after ischemic injury, the results show that the underlying mechanism likely is not based on stem cell transdifferentiation but rather on altered inflammatory kinetics. PMID:15829714

Stokman, Geurt; Leemans, Jaklien C; Claessen, Nike; Weening, Jan J; Florquin, Sandrine

2005-06-01

203

The asparaginyl endopeptidase legumain is essential for functional recovery after spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish.  

PubMed

Unlike mammals, adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating severed axons and regaining locomotor function after spinal cord injury. A key factor for this regenerative capacity is the innate ability of neurons to re-express growth-associated genes and regrow their axons after injury in a permissive environment. By microarray analysis, we have previously shown that the expression of legumain (also known as asparaginyl endopeptidase) is upregulated after complete transection of the spinal cord. In situ hybridization showed upregulation of legumain expression in neurons of regenerative nuclei during the phase of axon regrowth/sprouting after spinal cord injury. Upregulation of Legumain protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, upregulation of legumain expression was also observed in macrophages/microglia and neurons in the spinal cord caudal to the lesion site after injury. The role of legumain in locomotor function after spinal cord injury was tested by reducing Legumain expression by application of anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotides. Using two independent anti-sense morpholinos, locomotor recovery and axonal regrowth were impaired when compared with a standard control morpholino. We conclude that upregulation of legumain expression after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish is an essential component of the capacity of injured neurons to regrow their axons. Another feature contributing to functional recovery implicates upregulation of legumain expression in the spinal cord caudal to the injury site. In conclusion, we established for the first time a function for an unusual protease, the asparaginyl endopeptidase, in the nervous system. This study is also the first to demonstrate the importance of legumain for repair of an injured adult central nervous system of a spontaneously regenerating vertebrate and is expected to yield insights into its potential in nervous system regeneration in mammals. PMID:24747977

Ma, Liping; Shen, Yan-Qin; Khatri, Harsh P; Schachner, Melitta

2014-01-01

204

The function of 'functional': a mixed methods investigation  

PubMed Central

Objective The term ‘functional’ has a distinguished history, embodying a number of physiological concepts, but has increasingly come to mean ‘hysterical’. The DSM-V working group proposes to use ‘functional’ as the official diagnostic term for medically unexplained neurological symptoms (currently known as ‘conversion disorder’). This study aimed to explore the current neurological meanings of the term and to understand its resilience. Design Mixed methods were used, first interviewing the neurologists in a large UK region and then surveying all neurologists in the UK on their use of the term. Results The interviews revealed four dominant uses—‘not organic’, a physical disability, a brain disorder and a psychiatric problem—as well as considerable ambiguity. Although there was much dissatisfaction with the term, the ambiguity was also seen as useful when engaging with patients. The survey confirmed these findings, with a majority adhering to a strict interpretation of ‘functional’ to mean only ‘not organic’, but a minority employing it to mean different things in different contexts - and endorsing the view that ‘functional’ would one day be a neurological construct again. Conclusions ‘Functional’ embodies real divisions in neurologists' conceptualisation of unexplained symptoms and, perhaps, between those of patients and neurologists: its diversity of meanings allows it to be a common term while meaning different things to different people, or at different times, and thus conceal some of the conflict in a particularly contentious area. This flexibility may help explain the term's longevity. PMID:22250186

Armstrong, David; Wessely, Simon C

2012-01-01

205

Differential recovery of volitional motor function, lateralized cognitive function, dopamine agonist-induced rotation and dopaminergic parameters in monkeys made hemi-parkinsonian by intracarotid MPTP infusion.  

PubMed

There is still controversy regarding the frequency and extent of spontaneous functional recovery in primate models of parkinsonism, perhaps in part stemming from the variety of ways in which recovery has been assessed. The present study examined functional recovery in monkeys made unilaterally parkinsonian by intracarotid infusion of MPTP. Monkeys were evaluated prior to lesioning and for at least 1 year after lesioning on a battery of tests including a rating of spontaneous behaviors, a learned reaction time/movement time task, tests of lateralized neglect or inattention (i.e. lateralized reward retrieval task, extinction with double simultaneous stimulation, and response to a target moving from one hemispace to the other), and rotational asymmetry in response to a dopamine agonist. Some animals also received 6-[18F]Fluoro-L-Dopa (F-DOPA) position emission tomography (PET) scans before MPTP, when symptomatic, and when showing signs of functional recovery. These animals were sacrificed for post mortem neurochemical assessment following the last PET scan. Results showed that estimates of functional recovery in hemi-parkinsonian monkeys may depend upon the behavioral assay used. Even in behavioral tasks that were sensitive to recovery effects, the degree of functional recovery shown by an animal on one such task did not predict recovery on another. This may in part be due to the inherent difficulty in designing behavioral tests to assess basal ganglia functioning, when there is no consensus concerning which aspects of behavior the normal basal ganglia actually control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7749732

Schneider, J S; Lidsky, T I; Hawks, T; Mazziotta, J C; Hoffman, J M

1995-02-20

206

Effectiveness of poliovirus concentration and recovery from treated wastewater by two electropositive filter methods.  

PubMed

Enteric viruses are often present in low numbers in various water matrices. Virus sampling therefore involves multiple concentration steps to condense large samples down to small volumes for detection by cell culture or molecular assays. The NanoCeram® Virus Sampler has been demonstrated to be effective for the recovery of viruses from tap water, surface waters, and seawater. The goal of this study was to evaluate a new method using NanoCeram® filters for the recovery of poliovirus 1 (PV-1) from treated wastewater. Activated sludge effluent samples were spiked with PV-1 and concentrated in side-by-side tests by two methods: (1) NanoCeram® filtration, elution with sodium polyphosphate buffer, secondary concentration via centrifugal ultrafiltration; and (2) 1MDS filtration, elution with beef extract, secondary concentration via organic flocculation. The virus retention and elution efficiencies did not differ significantly between the two methods. In contrast, the secondary concentrate volume was smaller for the NanoCeram® method (8.4 vs. 30 mL) and the secondary concentration efficiencies were different between the two methods with 98 % for centrifugal ultrafiltration (NanoCeram® and 45 % for organic flocculation (1MDS). The overall method efficiencies were significantly different (P ? 0.05) with the NanoCeram® method yielding a 57 % and the 1MDS a 23 % virus recovery. In addition, there appeared to be less interference with viral detection via polymerase chain reaction with the NanoCeram® concentrates. This NanoCeram® method therefore is able to efficiently recover PV-1 from large volumes of wastewater and may serve as an inexpensive alternative to the standard 1MDS filter method for such applications. PMID:23412726

Soto-Beltran, Marcela; Ikner, Luisa A; Bright, Kelly R

2013-06-01

207

Carrier recovery methods for a dual-mode modem: A design approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dual mode model with selectable QPSK or 16-QASK modulation schemes is discussed. The theoretical reasoning as well as the practical trade-offs made during the development of a modem are presented, with attention given to the carrier recovery method used for coherent demodulation. Particular attention is given to carrier recovery methods that can provide little degradation due to phase error for both QPSK and 16-QASK, while being insensitive to the amplitude characteristic of a 16-QASK modulation scheme. A computer analysis of the degradation is symbol error rate (SER) for QPSK and 16-QASK due to phase error is prresented. Results find that an energy increase of roughly 4 dB is needed to maintain a SER of 1X10(-5) for QPSK with 20 deg of phase error and 16-QASK with 7 deg phase error.

Richards, C. W.; Wilson, S. G.

1984-01-01

208

Stimulation of trigeminal afferents improves motor recovery after facial nerve injury: functional, electrophysiological and morphological proofs.  

PubMed

Recovery of mimic function after facial nerve transection is poor: the successful regrowth of axotomized motoneurons to their targets is compromised by (1) poor axonal navigation and excessive collateral branching, (2) abnormal exchange of nerve impulses between adjacent regrowing axons, and (3) insufficient synaptic input to facial motoneurons. As a result, axotomized motoneurons get hyperexcitable and unable to discharge. Since improvement of growth cone navigation and reduction of the ephaptic cross talk between axons turn out be very difficult, we concentrated our efforts on the third detrimental component and proposed that an intensification of the trigeminal input to axotomized electrophysiologically silent facial motoneurons might improve specificity of reinnervation. To test our hypothesis we compared behavioral, electrophysiological, and morphological parameters after single reconstructive surgery on the facial nerve (or its buccal branch) with those obtained after identical facial nerve surgery but combined with direct or indirect stimulation of the ipsilateral infraorbital (ION) nerve. We found that in all cases, trigeminal stimulation was beneficial for the outcome by improving the quality of target reinnervation and recovery of vibrissa! motor performance. PMID:23322155

Skouras, Emmanouil; Pavlov, Stoyan; Bendella, Habib; Angelov, Doychin N

2013-01-01

209

Losartan administration reduces fibrosis but hinders functional recovery after volumetric muscle loss injury.  

PubMed

Losartan is a Food and Drug Administration approved antihypertensive medication that is recently emerging as an antifibrotic therapy. Previously, losartan has been successfully used to reduce fibrosis and improve both muscle regeneration and function in several models of recoverable skeletal muscle injuries, such as contusion and laceration. In this study, the efficacy of losartan treatment in reducing fibrosis and improving regeneration was determined in a Lewis rat model of volumetric muscle loss (VML) injury. VML has been defined as the traumatic or surgical loss of skeletal muscle with resultant functional impairment. It is among the top 10 causes for wounded service members to be medically retired from the military. This study shows that, after several weeks of recovery, VML injury results in little to no muscle regeneration, but is marked by persistent inflammation, chronic upregulation of profibrotic markers and extracellular matrix (i.e., collagen type I), and fat deposition at the defect site, which manifest irrecoverable deficits in force production. Losartan administration at 10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) was able to modulate the gene expression of fibrotic markers and was also effective at reducing fibrosis (i.e., the deposition of collagen type I) in the injured muscle. However, there were no improvements in muscle regeneration, and deleterious effects on muscle function were observed instead. We propose that, in the absence of regeneration, reduction in fibrosis worsens the ability of the VML injured muscle to transmit forces, which ultimately results in decreased muscle function. PMID:25257876

Garg, Koyal; Corona, Benjamin T; Walters, Thomas J

2014-11-15

210

A functional analysis of verbal delay in preschool children: Implications for prevention and total recovery  

PubMed Central

Delays in acquiring age-appropriate verbal repertoires in preschool children with no known organic etiology may be explained by defective or absent behavior-environmental contingencies. This paper presents six possible behavioral paradigms that describe verbal episodes between parents and their preschool children and how these interactions may inhibit or prevent the acquisition of verbal behavior. These paradigms are contrasted with parent-child interactions that typically result in age-appropriate verbal repertoires. Identifying the reinforcement contingencies that produce delays in acquisition of verbal behavior could lead to the development of more effective behavioral programs for remediating nonorganic language delay. Recommendations for prevention, treatment and total recovery from functional verbal delay and associated mental retardation are presented. The relation between contingency-shaped and rule-governed behavior in the shaping of verbal behavior is discussed. PMID:22477077

Drash, Philip W.; Tudor, Roger M.

1993-01-01

211

Lingo-1 inhibited by RNA interference promotes functional recovery of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.  

PubMed

Lingo-1 is a negative regulator of myelination. Repairment of demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS)/experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), requires activation of the myelination program. In this study, we observed the effect of RNA interference on Lingo-1 expression, and the impact of Lingo-1 suppression on functional recovery and myelination/remyelination in EAE mice. Lentiviral vectors encoding Lingo-1 short hairpin RNA (LV/Lingo-1-shRNA) were constructed to inhibit Lingo-1 expression. LV/Lingo-1-shRNA of different titers were transferred into myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced EAE mice by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection. Meanwhile, lentiviral vectors carrying nonsense gene sequence (LVCON053) were used as negative control. The Lingo-1 expression was detected and locomotor function was evaluated at different time points (on days 1,3,7,14,21, and 30 after ICV injection). Myelination was investigated by luxol fast blue (LFB) staining.LV/Lingo-1-shRNA administration via ICV injection could efficiently down-regulate the Lingo-1 mRNA and protein expression in EAE mice on days 7,14,21, and 30 (P?function score in the LV/Lingo-1-shRNA treated groups were significantly lower than the untreated or LVCON053 group from day 7 on. The 5 × 10(8) TU/mL LV/Lingo-1-shRNA group achieved the best functional improvement (0.87?±?0.11 vs. 3.05?±?0.13, P?functional recovery and enhance myelination/remyelination. Antagonism of Lingo-1 by RNA interference is, therefore, a promising approach for the treatment of demyelinating diseases, such as MS/EAE. Anat Rec, 297:2356-2363, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25045138

Wang, Chun-Juan; Qu, Chuan-Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Fu, Pei-Cai; Guo, Shou-Gang; Tang, Rong-Hua

2014-12-01

212

REM sleep loss and recovery regulates blood-brain barrier function.  

PubMed

The functions of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have remained elusive since more than 50 years. Previous reports have identified several independent processes affected by the loss and subsequent recovery of REM sleep (hippocampal neurogenesis, brain stem neuronal cell death, and neurotransmitter content in several brain regions); however, a common underlying mechanism has not been found. We propose that altered brain homeostasis secondary to blood-brain barrier breakdown may explain all those changes induced by REM sleep loss. Therefore, the present report aimed to study the consequences of REM sleep restriction upon blood-brain barrier permeability to Evans blue. REM sleep restriction was induced by the multiple platform technique; male rats were REM sleep restricted 20h daily (with 4h sleep opportunity) during 10 days; control groups included large platform and intact rats. To study blood-brain barrier permeability Evans blue was intracardially administered; stained brains were sliced and photographed for optical density quantification. An independent experiment was carried out to elucidate the mechanism of blood-brain breakdown by transmission electron microscopy. REM sleep restriction increased blood-brain barrier permeability to Evans blue in the whole brain as compared to both control groups. Brief periods of sleep recovery rapidly and effectively restored the severe alteration of blood-brain barrier function by reducing blood-to-brain transfer of Evans blue. The mechanism of blood-brain barrier breakdown involved increased caveolae formation at brain endothelial cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that REM sleep regulates the physical barrier properties of the blood-brain barrier. PMID:23713739

Gómez-González, Beatriz; Hurtado-Alvarado, Gabriela; Esqueda-León, Enrique; Santana-Miranda, Rafael; Rojas-Zamorano, José Ángel; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Javier

2013-08-01

213

Improvement of functional recovery of donor heart following cold static storage with doxycycline cardioplegia.  

PubMed

Injury to the donor heart during cold preservation has a negative impact on graft survival before transplantation. This study aims to examine whether doxycycline, known as an MMP-2 inhibitor, has a positive effect on donor heart preservation via its antioxidant action when added to standard preservation solution. Hearts were obtained from 3-month-old male Wistar rats and randomly divided into three groups: hearts stored for 1 h at 4 °C (1) with doxycycline preservation solution (DOX cardioplegia) with low Ca(2+); (2) with standard cardioplegia with low Ca(2+); and (3) unstored hearts. All hearts were perfused in working mode, arrested at 37 °C, removed from the perfusion system, reattached in Langendorff perfusion system, and converted to working mode for 1 h. At the end of the storage period, hearts preserved in DOX cardioplegia had significantly less weight gain than those preserved in the standard cardioplegia. DOX cardioplegia-induced preservation resulted in significantly higher heart rates and better recovery quality during reperfusion in aortic flow compared to the standard cardioplegia group. Recovery in the left ventricular function and Lambeth Convention Arrhythmia scores during 1 h reperfusion were also significantly better in the DOX cardioplegia group. Biochemical data showed that DOX cardioplegia prevented an increase in MMP-2 activity and blocked apoptosis through increased activity of the pro-survival kinase Akt in the donor heart homogenates. DOX cardioplegia also led to a balanced oxidant/antioxidant level in the heart homogenates. This is the first study to report that cardioplegia solution containing doxycycline provides better cardioprotection via the preservation of heart function, through its role in controlling cellular redox status during static cold storage. PMID:24104944

Ozcinar, Evren; Okatan, Esma N; Tuncay, Erkan; Eryilmaz, Sadik; Turan, Belma

2014-03-01

214

Serotonin transporter genotype modulates functional connectivity between amygdala and PCC/PCu during mood recovery  

PubMed Central

The short (S) allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with increased susceptibility to depression. Previous neuroimaging studies have consistently showed increased amygdala activity during the presentation of negative stimuli or regulation of negative emotion in the homozygous short allele carriers, suggesting the key role of amygdala response in mediating increased risk for depression. The brain default mode network (DMN) has also been shown to modulate amygdala activity. However, it remains unclear whether 5-HTTLPR genetic variation modulates functional connectivity (FC) between the amygdala and regions of DMN. In this study, we re-analyzed our previous imaging dataset and examined the effects of 5-HTTLPR genetic variation on amygdala connectivity. A total of 15 homozygous short (S/S) and 15 homozygous long individuals (L/L) were scanned in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during four blocks: baseline, sad mood, mood recovery, and return to baseline. The S/S and L/L groups showed a similar pattern of FC and no differences were found between the two groups during baseline and sad mood scans. However, during mood recovery, the S/S group showed significantly reduced anti-correlation between amygdala and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu) compared to the L/L group. Moreover, PCC/PCu-amygdala connectivity correlated with amygdala activity in the S/S group but not the L/L group. These results suggest that 5-HTTLPR genetic variation modulates amygdala connectivity which subsequently affects its activity during mood regulation, providing an additional mechanism by which the S allele confers depression risk. PMID:24198772

Fang, Zhuo; Zhu, Senhua; Gillihan, Seth J.; Korczykowski, Marc; Detre, John A.; Rao, Hengyi

2013-01-01

215

A method to simulate motor control strategies to recover from perturbations: Application to a stumble recovery during gait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perturbations during human gait such as a trip or a slip can result in a fall, especially among frail populations such as the elderly. In order to recover from a trip or a stumble during gait, humans perform different types of recovery strategies. It is very useful to uncover the mechanisms of the recovery to improve training methods for populations

Arturo Forner-Cordero; Marko Ackermann; Mateus de Lima Freitas

2011-01-01

216

Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose- response curves and recovery of function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation- induced disruption of dopaminergic function disrupts a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of the dopaminergic system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, spatial learning and memory (Morris water maze), and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current presentation will review the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are in fact common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity. Supported by N.A.S.A. Grant NAG9-1190.

Rabin, B.; Joseph, J.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

217

Human Adult Dental Pulp Stem Cells Enhance Poststroke Functional Recovery Through Non-Neural Replacement Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), derived from third molar teeth, are multipotent and have the capacity to differentiate into neurons under inductive conditions both in vitro and following transplantation into the avian embryo. In this study, we demonstrate that the intracerebral transplantation of human DPSCs 24 hours following focal cerebral ischemia in a rodent model resulted in significant improvement in forelimb sensorimotor function at 4 weeks post-treatment. At this time, 2.3 ± 0.7% of engrafted cells had survived in the poststroke brain and demonstrated targeted migration toward the stroke lesion. In the peri-infarct striatum, transplanted DPSCs differentiated into astrocytes in preference to neurons. Our data suggest that the dominant mechanism of action underlying DPSC treatment that resulted in enhanced functional recovery is unlikely to be due to neural replacement. Functional improvement is more likely to be mediated through DPSC-dependent paracrine effects. This study provides preclinical evidence for the future use of human DPSCs in cell therapy to improve outcome in stroke patients. PMID:23197777

Leong, Wai Khay; Henshall, Tanya L.; Arthur, Agnes; Kremer, Karlea L.; Lewis, Martin D.; Helps, Stephen C.; Field, John; Hamilton-Bruce, Monica A.; Warming, Scott; Manavis, Jim; Vink, Robert; Gronthos, Stan

2012-01-01

218

Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

2004-01-01

219

A method for seedling recovery in Jatropha curcas after cryogenic exposure of the seeds.  

PubMed

Actually, the germplasm of Jatropha spp. is conserved as whole plants in field collections. Under this storage method, the genetic resources are exposed to disease, pest and natural hazards such as human error, drought and weather damage. Besides, field genebanks are costly to maintain and with important requirements of trained personnel. Thus, the development of efficient techniques to ensure its safe conservation and regeneration is therefore of paramount importance. In this work we describe a method for Jatropha curcas seeds cryoexposure and seedling recovery after thawed. In a first experiment, an efficient protocol for in vitro plant recovery was carried out using zygotic embryo or seeds with or without coat. In a second experiment, desiccated seeds with or without coat were exposed to liquid nitrogen and evaluated after cryoexposure. Germination percentages were variable among treatments, and seeds demonstrated tolerance to liquid nitrogen exposure under certain conditions. Seeds of J. curcas presented up to 99.6% germination after seed coat removal. Seeds with coat cultured in vitro did not germinate, and were 60% contaminated. The germination of the zygotic embryos was significantly higher in the 1/2 MS medium (93.1%) than in WPM medium (76.2%), but from zygotic embryo, abnormal seedlings reached up to 99%. Seeds with coat exposed to liquid nitrogen showed 60% germination in culture after coat removal with good plant growth, and seeds cryopreserved without coat presented 82% germination, but seedlings showed a reduced vigor and a significant increase in abnormal plants. Seeds cultured in vitro with coat did not germinate, independently of cryoexposure or not. This study reports the first successful in vitro seedling recovery methodology for Jatropha curcas seeds, after a cryopreservation treatment, and is recommended as an efficient procedure for in vitro plant recovery, when seeds are conserved in germplasm banks by low or cryotemperatures. PMID:22458240

Silva, Rafael de C; Camillo, Julcéia; Scherwinski-Pereira, Jonny E

2012-03-01

220

Oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs by steam injection methods. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Oil recovery by steam injection is a proven, successful technology for nonfractured reservoirs, but has received only limited study for fractured reservoirs. Preliminary studies suggest recovery efficiencies in fractured reservoirs may be increased by as much as 50% with the application of steam relative to that of low temperature processes. The key mechanisms enhancing oil production at high temperature are the differential thermal expansion between oil and the pore volume, and the generation of gases within matrix blocks. Other mechanisms may also contribute to increased production. These mechanisms are relatively independent of oil gravity, making steam injection into naturally fractured reservoirs equally attractive to light and heavy oil deposits. The objectives of this research program are to quantify the amount of oil expelled by these recovery mechanisms and to develop a numerical model for predicting oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs during steam injection. The experimental study consists of constructing and operating several apparatuses to isolate each of these mechanisms. The first measures thermal expansion and capillary imbibition rates at relatively low temperature, but for various lithologies and matrix block shapes. The second apparatus measures the same parameters, but at high temperatures and for only one shape. A third experimental apparatus measures the maximum gas saturations that could build up within a matrix block. A fourth apparatus measures thermal conductivity and diffusivity of porous media. The numerical study consists of developing transfer functions for oil expulsion from matrix blocks to fractures at high temperatures and incorporating them, along with the energy equation, into a dual porosity thermal reservoir simulator. This simulator can be utilized to make predictions for steam injection processes in naturally-fractured reservoirs. Analytical models for capillary imbibition have also been developed.

Reis, J.C.; Miller, M.A.

1995-05-01

221

Comparison of sample preparation methods for the recovery of foodborne pathogens from fresh produce.  

PubMed

Sample preparation methods (pummeling, pulsifying, sonication, and shaking by hand) were compared for achieving maximum recovery of foodborne pathogens from iceberg lettuce, perilla leaves, cucumber, green pepper, and cherry tomato. Antimicrobial and dehydration effects also were examined to investigate causes of poor recovery of pathogens. Each produce type was inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus at 6.0 log CFU/cm(2), and samples were prepared using the four methods. Bacterial populations recovered from the five types of produce were significantly different (P < 0.05) according to sample preparation methods and produce type. The bacterial populations recovered from pummeled and pulsified samples were higher (P < 0.05) than those recovered from sonicated and hand-shaken samples, except for cherry tomato. The number of bacteria recovered from produce was reduced (P < 0.05) from that of the inoculum by 0.16 to 2.69 log CFU/cm(2). Although extracts of iceberg lettuce, perilla leaves, cucumber, and green pepper had no antimicrobial activity, the populations of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, B. cereus, and L. monocytogenes in cherry tomato extract were slightly reduced after these treatments (P < 0.05). The pathogen populations on perilla leaves and cherry tomatoes decreased by >2 log CFU/cm(2) after exposure to 40% relative humidity for 1 h. No reduction was observed when the five pathogens were exposed to 90% relative humidity. These data suggest that pummeling and pulsifying are optimal sample preparation methods for detection of microorganisms. Acidic produce such as cherry tomato should be treated with a method that does not cause sample breakdown so that acid stress on the bacteria can be minimized. Dehydration stress also affects recovery of pathogens from produce. PMID:22980003

Kim, Se-Ri; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Won-Il; Park, Kyeong-Hun; Yun, Hye-Jeong; Chung, Duck Hwa; Yun, Jong Chul; Ryu, Kyoung Yul

2012-07-01

222

Microscale Electrode Implantation during Nerve Repair: Effects on Nerve Morphology, Electromyography, and Recovery of Muscle Contractile Function  

PubMed Central

Background Our goal is to develop a peripheral nerve electrode with long-term stability and fidelity for use in nerve-machine interfaces. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) use silicon probes that contain multi-channel actuators, sensors, and electronics. We tested the null hypothesis that implantation of MEMS probes do not have a detrimental effect on peripheral nerve function or regeneration. Methods A rat hindlimb, peroneal nerve model was utilized in all experimental groups: a) intact nerve (Control, n= 10); b) nerve division and repair (Repair, n= 9); and c) Nerve division, insertion of MEMS probe, and repair (Repair + Probe, n=9). Nerve morphology, nerve to muscle compound action potential (CMAP) studies, walking tracks, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle function tests were evaluated following an 80 day recovery. Results Repair and Repair + Probe showed no differences in axon count, axon size, percent non-neural area, CMAP amplitude, latency, muscle mass, muscle force, or walking track scores. Though there was some local fibrosis around each MEMS probe, this did not lead to measurable detrimental effects in any anatomic or functional outcome measurements. Conclusions The lack of a significant difference between Repair and Repair + Probe groups in histology, CMAP, walking tracks, and muscle force suggests that MEMS electrodes are compatible with regenerating axons and show promise for establishing chemical and electrical interfaces with peripheral nerves. PMID:21921739

Urbanchek, Melanie G; Wei, Benjamin; Egeland, Brent M; Abidian, Mohammad R; Kipke, Daryl R; Cederna, Paul S

2011-01-01

223

Modified Interior Distance Functions (Theory and Methods)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we introduced and developed the theory of Modified Interior Distance Functions (MIDF's). The MIDF is a Classical Lagrangian (CL) for a constrained optimization problem which is equivalent to the initial one and can be obtained from the latter by monotone transformation both the objective function and constraints. In contrast to the Interior Distance Functions (IDF's), which played a fundamental role in Interior Point Methods (IPM's), the MIDF's are defined on an extended feasible set and along with center, have two extra tools, which control the computational process: the barrier parameter and the vector of Lagrange multipliers. The extra tools allow to attach to the MEDF's very important properties of Augmented Lagrangeans. One can consider the MIDFs as Interior Augmented Lagrangeans. It makes MIDF's similar in spirit to Modified Barrier Functions (MBF's), although there is a fundamental difference between them both in theory and methods. Based on MIDF's theory, Modified Center Methods (MCM's) have been developed and analyzed. The MCM's find an unconstrained minimizer in primal space and update the Lagrange multipliers, while both the center and the barrier parameter can be fixed or updated at each step. The MCM's convergence was investigated, and their rate of convergence was estimated. The extension of the feasible set and the special role of the Lagrange multipliers allow to develop MCM's, which produce, in case of nondegenerate constrained optimization, a primal and dual sequences that converge to the primal-dual solutions with linear rate, even when both the center and the barrier parameter are fixed. Moreover, every Lagrange multipliers update shrinks the distance to the primal dual solution by a factor 0 less than gamma less than 1 which can be made as small as one wants by choosing a fixed interior point as a 'center' and a fixed but large enough barrier parameter. The numericai realization of MCM leads to the Newton MCM (NMCM). The approximation for the primal minimizer one finds by Newton Method followed by the Lagrange multipliers update. Due to the MCM convergence, when both the center and the barrier parameter are fixed, the condition of the MDF Hessism and the neighborhood of the primal ninimizer where Newton method is 'well' defined remains stable. It contributes to both the complexity and the numerical stability of the NMCM.

Polyak, Roman A.

1995-01-01

224

Methods for the measurement of platelet function.  

PubMed

This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of methods for the measurement of platelet function. The focus is on tests that can be used to monitor antiplatelet activity in the setting of cardiovascular disease and potentially predict thrombosis and bleeding. The tests described are platelet aggregometry; impedance aggregometry; VerifyNow (Accumetrics, San Diego, CA); Plateletworks (Helena Laboratories, Beaumont, TX); platelet surface P-selectin, platelet surface-activated glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, and leukocyte-platelet aggregates; TEG Platelet Mapping system (Haemoscope, Niles, IL); Impact cone and plate(let) analyzer (DiaMed, Cressier, Switzerland); Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Inc., Deerfield, IL); phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein; serum thromboxane B(2); and urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B(2). Some of the factors that differentiate these tests are sample volume requirements, the use of whole blood, the presence of shear, point-of-care status, need for a technician, and expense. PMID:19166709

Michelson, Alan D

2009-02-01

225

Application to induction motor faults diagnosis of the amplitude recovery method combined with FFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a signal processing method - amplitude recovery method (abbreviated to ARM) - that can be used as the signal pre-processing for fast Fourier transform (FFT) in order to analyze the spectrum of the other-order harmonics rather than the fundamental frequency in stator currents and diagnose subtle faults in induction motors. In this situation, the ARM functions as a filter that can filter out the component of the fundamental frequency from three phases of stator currents of the induction motor. The filtering result of the ARM can be provided to FFT to do further spectrum analysis. In this way, the amplitudes of other-order frequencies can be extracted and analyzed independently. If the FFT is used without the ARM pre-processing and the components of other-order frequencies, compared to the fundamental frequency, are fainter, the amplitudes of other-order frequencies are not able easily to extract out from stator currents. The reason is when the FFT is used direct to analyze the original signal, all the frequencies in the spectrum analysis of original stator current signal have the same weight. The ARM is capable of separating the other-order part in stator currents from the fundamental-order part. Compared to the existent digital filters, the ARM has the benefits, including its stop-band narrow enough just to stop the fundamental frequency, its simple operations of algebra and trigonometry without any integration, and its deduction direct from mathematics equations without any artificial adjustment. The ARM can be also used by itself as a coarse-grained diagnosis of faults in induction motors when they are working. These features can be applied to monitor and diagnose the subtle faults in induction motors to guard them from some damages when they are in operation. The diagnosis application of ARM combined with FFT is also displayed in this paper with the experimented induction motor. The test results verify the rationality and feasibility of the ARM. It should be clarified that the ARM must be applied in three phases of currents in electrical machines. For a single phase of alternating current or direct current, it can do nothing. However, since three-phase electrical machines have a dominant position in the application field in modern economic society and it is natural and convenient to acquire three phases of stator currents during the three-phase electrical machines are tested, it is necessary and meaningful to develop the ARM to diagnose and guard them.

Liu, Yukun; Guo, Liwei; Wang, Qixiang; An, Guoqing; Guo, Ming; Lian, Hao

2010-11-01

226

A novel sampling method for the sparse recovery of infrared sea surveillance images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The compressive sensing framework states that a signal which has sparse representation in a known basis may be reconstructed from samples obtained from a sub-Nyquist sampling rate. Due to its inherent properties, the Fourier domain is widely used in compressive sensing applications. Sparse signal recovery applications making use of a small number of Fourier Transform coe±cients have made solutions to large scale data recovery problems, i.e. images, applicable and more practical. The sparse reconstruction of two dimensional images is performed by making use of sampling patterns generated by taking into consideration the general frequency characteristics of natural images. In this work, instead of forming a general sampling pattern for infrared images of sea-surveillance scenarios, a special sampling pattern has been obtained by making use of a new iterative algorithm that uses a database containing images recorded under similar conditions to extract important frequency characteristics. It has been shown by experimental results that, the proposed sampling pattern provides better sparse recovery performance compared to the baseline sampling methods proposed in the literature.

Cakir, Serdar; Uzeler, Hande; Aytaç, Tayfun

2013-10-01

227

Erectile function recovery in patients after non-nerve sparing radical prostatectomy.  

PubMed

Few studies have looked at erectile function recovery (EFR) rates in men undergoing non-nerve sparing resection during radical prostatectomy (RP). Existing studies show great variation in EFR rates owing to multiple factors that minimize their utility in counselling RP patients. We investigated the EFR rate and its predictors in unilateral cavernous nerve resection and bilateral cavernous nerve resection patients 24 months after RP. We conducted a population-based, prospective cohort study of 966 patients who underwent RP at a tertiary cancer centre from 2008 to 2012. Cavernous nerve condition was evaluated on a 4-point nerve sparing score and assigned to one of three groups: bilateral sparing, unilateral resection (UNR) and bilateral nerve resection (BNR). EF was assessed pre-RP and 24-30 months post-op using a validated 5-point patient-reported scale (1 = fully rigid; 5 = no tumescence). EFR was defined as a post-op EF grade of 1-2. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, anova, chi-square, Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Mean baseline EF was 1.84 ± 1.3 and 2.74 ± 1.5 for UNR and BNR patients respectively. Thirty-three percent of UNR patients and 13% of BNR patients exhibited EFR. Age, baseline EF were predictors of EFR. Multivariable analysis showed baseline EF was a significant predictor of EFR at 24 months for UNR. For BNR patients, pre-RP EF was the only factor predictive of EFR. Patients undergoing nerve resection still have a significant chance of achieving true EFR, with UNR surgery patients showing more potential for improvement than patients undergoing BNR surgery. Age and baseline EFR characterize recovery prospects in these two groups. Physicians should thus measure and account for baseline EF in addition to age and the degree of nerve resection when advising patients about expectations for successful EF following RP. PMID:25270277

Krishnan, R; Katz, D; Nelson, C J; Mulhall, J P

2014-11-01

228

Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function  

PubMed Central

The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay. PMID:24994971

Carmel, Jason B.; Martin, John H.

2014-01-01

229

Acute Delivery of EphA4-Fc Improves Functional Recovery after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

Abstract Blocking the action of inhibitory molecules at sites of central nervous system injury has been proposed as a strategy to promote axonal regeneration and functional recovery. We have previously shown that genetic deletion or competitive antagonism of EphA4 receptor activity promotes axonal regeneration and functional recovery in a mouse model of lateral hemisection spinal cord injury. Here we have assessed the effect of blocking EphA4 activation using the competitive antagonist EphA4-Fc in a rat model of thoracic contusive spinal cord injury. Using a ledged tapered balance beam and open-field testing, we observed significant improvements in recovery of locomotor function after EphA4-Fc treatment. Consistent with functional improvement, using high-resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging at 16.4T, we found that rats treated with EphA4-Fc had a significantly increased cross-sectional area of the dorsal funiculus caudal to the injury epicenter compared with controls. Our findings indicate that EphA4-Fc promotes functional recovery following contusive spinal cord injury and provides further support for the therapeutic benefit of treatment with the competitive antagonist in acute cases of spinal cord injury. PMID:23557244

Spanevello, Mark Damien; Tajouri, Sophie Ines; Mirciov, Cornel; Kurniawan, Nyoman; Pearse, Martin John; Fabri, Louis Jerry; Owczarek, Catherine Mary; Hardy, Matthew Philip; Bradford, Rebecca Anne; Ramunno, Melanie Louise; Turnley, Ann Maree; Ruitenberg, Marc Jan

2013-01-01

230

Functional Recovery in Chronic Stage of Spinal Cord Injury by Neurorestorative Approach: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury (SCI) at an early age can be debilitating for the child's growth. Current treatments show a level of stagnancy, after which the recovery is minimal. Cellular therapy is an emerging area of research and has been found to possess many benefits in the previous studies. Transplantation of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) has demonstrated therapeutic potential for many neurological conditions, including spinal cord injury. Here we report a case of 6-year-old girl with traumatic SCI at the level of C7-D1 4 years back, who underwent 2 doses of cell transplantation with autologous BMMNCs with an interval of 6 months along with standard rehabilitation. The patient did not have any major or minor side effects. The patient showed clinical improvements throughout the 6 months after transplantation, which was assessed using Functional Independence Measure (before: 82, after: 101 out of 126). There were patchy areas of sensory gain in bilateral feet recorded, with improvements in the bladder sensation and control. Improved gait was seen as a result of better strength in abdominals and back extensors. The fact that there was functional improvement in the chronic plateau phase indicates the potential of cell therapy in chronic SCI. Further clinical studies are warranted. PMID:24744950

Sharma, Alok; Sane, Hemangi; Khopkar, Dipti; Gokulchandran, Nandini; Jacob, V. C.; Joseph, Joji; Badhe, Prerna

2014-01-01

231

Ethanol Extract of Chinese Propolis Facilitates Functional Recovery of Locomotor Activity after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

An ethanol extract of Chinese propolis (EECP) was given intraperitoneally to rats suffering from hemitransection of half of their spinal cord (left side) at the level of the 10th thoracic vertebra to examine the effects of the EECP on the functional recovery of locomotor activity and expression of mRNAs of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and neurotrophic factors in the injury site. Daily administration of EECP after the spinal cord injury ameliorated the locomotor function, which effect was accompanied by a reduced lesion size. Furthermore, the EECP suppressed iNOS gene expression, thus reducing NO generation, and also increased the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 mRNAs in the lesion site, suggesting that the EECP reduced the inflammatory and apoptotic circumstances through attenuation of iNOS mRNA expression and facilitation of mRNA expression of neurotrophins in the injured spinal cord. These results suggest that Chinese propolis may become a promising tool for wide use in the nervous system for reducing the secondary neuronal damage following primary physical injury. PMID:20953390

Kasai, Masaki; Fukumitsu, Hidefumi; Soumiya, Hitomi; Furukawa, Shoei

2011-01-01

232

Ethanol extract of chinese propolis facilitates functional recovery of locomotor activity after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

An ethanol extract of Chinese propolis (EECP) was given intraperitoneally to rats suffering from hemitransection of half of their spinal cord (left side) at the level of the 10th thoracic vertebra to examine the effects of the EECP on the functional recovery of locomotor activity and expression of mRNAs of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and neurotrophic factors in the injury site. Daily administration of EECP after the spinal cord injury ameliorated the locomotor function, which effect was accompanied by a reduced lesion size. Furthermore, the EECP suppressed iNOS gene expression, thus reducing NO generation, and also increased the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 mRNAs in the lesion site, suggesting that the EECP reduced the inflammatory and apoptotic circumstances through attenuation of iNOS mRNA expression and facilitation of mRNA expression of neurotrophins in the injured spinal cord. These results suggest that Chinese propolis may become a promising tool for wide use in the nervous system for reducing the secondary neuronal damage following primary physical injury. PMID:20953390

Kasai, Masaki; Fukumitsu, Hidefumi; Soumiya, Hitomi; Furukawa, Shoei

2011-01-01

233

Measurement of acceleration: a new method of monitoring neuromuscular function.  

PubMed

A new method for monitoring neuromuscular function based on measurement of acceleration is presented. The rationale behind the method is Newton's second law, stating that the acceleration is directly proportional to the force. For measurement of acceleration, a piezo-electric ceramic wafer was used. When this piezo electrode was fixed to the thumb, an electrical signal proportional to the acceleration was produced whenever the thumb moved in response to nerve stimulation. The electrical signal was registered and analysed in a Myograph 2000 neuromuscular transmission monitor. In 35 patients anaesthetized with halothane, train-of-four ratios measured with the accelerometer (ACT-TOF) were compared with simultaneous mechanical train-of-four ratios (FDT-TOF). Control ACT-TOF ratios were significantly higher than control FDT-TOF ratios: 116 +/- 12 and 98 +/- 4 (mean +/- s.d.), respectively. In five patients not given any relaxant during the anaesthetic procedure (20-60 min), both responses were remarkably constant. In 30 patients given vecuronium, a close linear relationship was found during recovery between ACT-TOF and FDT-TOF ratios. It is concluded that the method fulfils the basic requirements for a simple and reliable clinical monitoring tool. PMID:2830760

Viby-Mogensen, J; Jensen, E; Werner, M; Nielsen, H K

1988-01-01

234

Correlation functions in the holographic replica method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disorder has long been a difficult subject in condensed matter systems and the The replica method is a well-known tool in this field. Implementing the replica method the AdS/CFT correspondence has been proposed and discussed in literatures. We point out, for any CFT that has a holographic dual and to the leading order of the large- N expansion, the corrections due to the presence of random disorder to any connected correlation functions vanish identically, provided that the disorder strength is normalized as discussed in literatures and that the symmetry among replicas is unbroken. Same must hold true to any observables that are determined by the connected correlation functions through a linear relation. This behavior resembles strongly that of a free theory where disorder is coupled to the fundamental field. We demonstrate this by both the means of holographic principle and field theory analysis in a toy model. We also propose ways of evaluating the non-zero sub-leading effects perturbatively in terms of the disorder strength and discuss a novel possibility of defining a new holographic dual if we adopt a different normalization for the disorder strength.

Shang, Yanwen

2012-12-01

235

Development and Validation of an Instrument to Predict Functional Recovery in Tibial Fracture Patients: The Somatic Pre-Occupation and Coping (SPOC) Questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the role of patients’ beliefs in their likelihood of recovery from severe physical trauma. Methods We developed and validated an instrument designed to capture the impact of patients’ beliefs on functional recovery from injury; the Somatic Pre-occupation and Coping (SPOC) questionnaire. At 6-weeks post-surgical fixation, we administered the SPOC questionnaire to 359 consecutive patients with operatively managed tibial shaft fractures. We constructed multivariable regression models to explore the association between SPOC scores and functional outcome at 1-year, as measured by return to work and short form-36 (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores. Results In our adjusted multivariable regression models that included pre-injury SF-36 scores, SPOC scores at 6-weeks post-surgery accounted for 18% of the variation in SF-36 PCS scores and 18% of SF-36 MCS scores at 1-year. In both models, 6-week SPOC scores were a far more powerful predictor of functional recovery than age, gender, fracture type, smoking status, or the presence of multi-trauma. Our adjusted analysis found that for each 14 point increment in SPOC score at 6-weeks (14 chosen on the basis of half a standard deviation of the mean SPOC score) the odds of returning to work at 1-year decreased by 40% (odds ratio = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.73). Conclusion The SPOC questionnaire is a valid measurement of illness beliefs in tibial fracture patients and is highly predictive of their long-term functional recovery. Future research should explore if these results extend to other trauma populations and if modification of unhelpful illness beliefs is feasible and would result in improved functional outcomes. PMID:22011635

Busse, Jason W.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Mandel, Scott; Sanders, David; Schemitsch, Emil; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Wai, Eugene; Walter, Stephen D.

2011-01-01

236

Comparison of recoveries of inogranic and organic incorporated 75 Se by four mineralization methods of biological material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of selenium75Se added as selenite to human blood and to mixed food, and the recovery of biologically incorporated75Se from different rat tissues were determined by using four mineralization methods. The recoveries of75Se after dry ashing \\/HNO3, Mg\\/NO3\\/2\\/ and after three wet digestion methods — 1. HNO3, HClO4 2. HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4 3. HNO3, HClO4, MgCl2 were as follows:

K. Drábek; J. Kalousková

1987-01-01

237

A Method for Simulating Heat Recovery Systems Using AirModel in Implementations of the ASHRAE Simplified Energy Analysis Procedure  

E-print Network

A Method for Simulating Heat Recovery Systems Using AirModel in Implementations of the ASHRAE Simplified Energy Analysis Procedure Chenggang Liu Research Associate Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University College Station, TX Marvin..., TX W. Dan Turner, Ph.D., P.E. Professor & Director Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University College Station, TX Abstract A method for simulating heat recovery systems using AirModel in implementations of the ASHRAE simplified...

Liu, C.; Zeig, M.; Claridge, D. E.; Wei, G.; Bruner, H.; Turner, W. D.

2005-01-01

238

Why do stroke patients with negative motor evoked potential show poor limb motor function recovery?  

PubMed Central

Negative motor evoked potentials after cerebral infarction, indicative of poor recovery of limb motor function, tend to be accompanied by changes in fractional anisotropy values and the cerebral peduncle area on the affected side, but the characteristics of these changes have not been reported. This study included 57 cases of cerebral infarction whose motor evoked potentials were tested in the 24 hours after the first inspection for diffusion tensor imaging, in which 29 cases were in the negative group and 28 cases in the positive group. Twenty-nine patients with negative motor evoked potentials were divided into two groups according to fractional anisotropy on the affected side of the cerebral peduncle: a fractional anisotropy < 0.36 group and a fractional anisotropy ? 0.36 group. All patients underwent a regular magnetic resonance imaging and a diffusion tensor imaging examination at 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after cerebral infarction. The Fugl-Meyer scores of their hemiplegic limbs were tested before the magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging tions. In the negative motor evoked potential group, fractional anisotropy in the affected cerebral peduncle declined progressively, which was most obvious in the first 1–3 months after the onset of cerebral infarction. The areas and area asymmetries of the cerebral peduncle on the affected side were significantly decreased at 6 and 12 months after onset. At 12 months after onset, the area asymmetries of the cerebral peduncle on the affected side were lower than the normal lower limit value of 0.83. Fugl-Meyer scores in the fractional anisotropy ? 0.36 group were significantly higher than in the fractional anisotropy < 0.36 group at 3–12 months after onset. The fractional anisotropy of the cerebral peduncle in the positive motor evoked potential group decreased in the first 1 month after onset, and stayed unchanged from 3–12 months; there was no change in the area of the cerebral peduncle in the first 1–12 months after cerebral infarction. These findings confirmed that if the fractional anisotropy of the cerebral peduncle on the affected side is < 0.36 and the area asymmetries < 0.83 in patients with negative motor evoked potential after cerebral infarction, then poor hemiplegic limb motor function recovery may occur.

Song, Zhibin; Dang, Lijuan; Zhou, Yanling; Dong, Yanjiang; Liang, Haimao; Zhu, Zhengfeng; Pan, Suyue

2013-01-01

239

Recovery of ovary function impaired by chemotherapy using Chinese herbal medicine in a rat model.  

PubMed

Abstract The ovary is not only involved in female germ cell development and maturation, but also adjusts female endocrinology. Its function is severely impaired during chemotherapy, and premature ovarian failure may be induced. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has displayed significant potential in the treatment of female endocrine disorders; however, it is unknown whether it can recover ovarian function impaired by chemotherapy. In the present study, CHM was used to treat rat models of ovarian dysfunction impaired by chemotherapeutic drugs. Three groups were included in this study: a prevention group, a treatment group, and a prevention-treatment group. Routine gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) treatment was used as a control. The results showed that body weight, fertility, estrus days, hormone levels, and ovary weight were restored when CHM was administered in these rat models. Moreover, in the prevention-treatment group, the number of follicles at each developmental stage significantly increased compared with the prevention or treatment group. Furthermore, the number of apoptotic cells significantly decreased, and the relative mRNA expression of caspase-3 significantly decreased, in the prevention-treatment group. The results of gene expression analysis indicated that the expression of anti-Müllerianhormone (AMH) which indicates ovarian preservation was significantly up-regulated in the prevention-treatment group and was similar to normal rats. The expression of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) was significantly enhanced in both the prevention-treatment group and the GnRHa group, which suggested that the oocytes were of better quality. Finally, we found that there were no differences in body weight and fertility in the offspring conceived by the drug-treated rats, which partly indicated the safety of the medicine. In conclusion, Chinese herbal medicine showed a beneficial role in the recovery of ovary function in these rat models and has significant potential in the clinic. PMID:24831605

Xia, Tian; Fu, Yu; Gao, Hui; Zhao, Zhimei; Zhao, Liying; Han, Bing

2014-10-01

240

Anomalous Origin of Left Coronary Artery From Pulmonary Artery: Recovery of Left Ventricular Function After Dual Coronary Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We reviewed our institutional experience with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) after dual coronary repair to assess preoperative variables predictive of outcome, the time course for postoperative recovery of cardiac function, the short- and long-term complications and our experience with left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) in these patients.Background. Outcome after surgical repair

Marcy L Schwartz; Richard A Jonas; Steven D Colan

1997-01-01

241

Contralateral and ipsilateral EMG responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation during recovery of arm and hand function after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationship between the recovery of hand and arm function in a group of hemiplegic stroke patients and the presence of short-latency EMG responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in 4 different upper limb muscles (deltoid, biceps, extensor digitorum communis and the first dorsal interosseous). Twenty-one patients were examined within 5 weeks of stroke (median 2 weeks), and

A. Turton; S. Wroe; N. Trepte; C. Fraser; R. N. Lemon

1996-01-01

242

Microbiological methods for the water recovery systems test, revision 1.1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current microbiological parameters specified to verify microbiological quality of Space Station Freedom water quality include the enumeration of total bacteria, anaerobes, aerobes, yeasts and molds, enteric bacteria, gram positives, gram negatives, and E. coli. In addition, other parameters have been identified as necessary to support the Water Recovery Test activities to be conducted at the NASA/MSFC later this year. These other parameters include aerotolerant eutrophic mesophiles, legionellae, and an additional method for heterotrophic bacteria. If inter-laboratory data are to be compared to evaluate quality, analytical methods must be eliminated as a variable. Therefore, each participating laboratory must utilize the same analytical methods and procedures. Without this standardization, data can be neither compared nor validated between laboratories. Multiple laboratory participation represents a conservative approach to insure quality and completeness of data. Invariably, sample loss will occur in transport and analyses. Natural variance is a reality on any test of this magnitude and is further enhanced because biological entities, capable of growth and death, are specific parameters of interest. The large variation due to the participation of human test subjects has been noted with previous testing. The resultant data might be dismissed as 'out of control' unless intra-laboratory control is included as part of the method or if participating laboratories are not available for verification. The purpose of this document is to provide standardized laboratory procedures for the enumeration of certain microorganisms in water and wastewater specific to the water recovery systems test. The document consists of ten separate cultural methods and one direct count procedure. It is not intended nor is it implied to be a complete microbiological methods manual.

Rhoads, Tim; Kilgore, M. V., Jr.; Mikell, A. T., Jr.

1990-01-01

243

Effect of the knee position during wound closure after total knee arthroplasty on early knee function recovery  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigated the effect of the knee position during wound closure on early knee function recovery after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods This study included 80 primary total knee arthroplasties due to osteoarthritis. The patients were randomized according to the type of wound closure: extension group for full extension and flexion group for 90° flexion. The incision of articular capsule was marked for precise wound alignment. In the flexion group, the knee was kept in high flexion for 1 to 2 min after wound closure. The two groups were treated with the same postoperative rehabilitation exercises. The range of motion (ROM), visual analogue scale (VAS) score of anterior knee pain, Knee Society Score (KSS) and postoperative complications were assessed at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months, postoperatively. Results At 6 weeks and 3 months postoperatively, the ROM in flexion group was 98.95?±?10.33° and 110.05?±?4.93° respectively, with 87.62?±?8.92° and 95.62?±?6.51° in extension group, respectively; The VAS score of anterior knee pain in flexion group was 2.02?±?1.38 and 2.21?±?0.87, respectively, with 2.57?±?1.07 and 2.87?±?0.83 in extension group, respectively. The ROM and VAS pain score of the two groups were significantly different at these two time points, with no significant difference at 6 months postoperatively. The two groups were not significantly different in KSS, and no apparent complication was observed at three time points. Conclusion Marking the articular capsule incision, wound closure in flexion and high flexion after wound closure can effectively decrease anterior knee pain after TKA and promote the early recovery of ROM. PMID:25149657

2014-01-01

244

Pharmacogenetics of Modafinil After Sleep Loss: Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Genotype Modulates Waking Functions But Not Recovery Sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep loss impairs waking functions and is homeostatically compensated in recovery sleep. The mechanisms underlying the consequences of prolonged wakefulness are unknown. The stimulant modafinil may promote primarily dopaminergic neurotransmission. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the breakdown of cerebral dopamine. A functional Val158Met polymorphism reduces COMT activity, and Val\\/Val homozygous individuals presumably have lower dopaminergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex than do

S Bodenmann; S Xu; UFO Luhmann; M Arand; W Berger; HH Jung; HP Landolt

2009-01-01

245

Clinical Comparison of 30-Day Mortalities and 6-Month Functional Recoveries after Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Patients with or without End-Stage Renal Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to determine 30-day mortality and 6-month functional recovery rates in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (S-ICH) patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and to compare the outcomes of these patients and S-ICH patients without ESRD. Methods The medical records of 1943 S-ICH patients from January 2000 to December 2011 were retrospectively analyzed with focus on demographic, radiological, and laboratory characteristics. Results A total of 1558 supratentorial S-ICH patients were included in the present study and 102 (6.5%) were ESRD patients. The 30-day mortality of the S-ICH patients with ESRD was 53.9%, and 29.4% achieved good functional recovery at 6 months post-S-ICH. Multivariate analysis showed that age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, pupillary abnormality, ventricular extension of hemorrhage, hemorrhagic volume, hematoma enlargement, anemia, and treatment modality were independently associated with 30-day mortality in S-ICH patients with ESRD (p<0.05), and that GCS score, volume of hemorrhage, conservative treatment, and shorter hemodialysis duration was independently associated with good functional recovery at 6 months post-S-ICH in patients with ESRD (p<0.05). Conclusion This retrospective study showed worse outcome after S-ICH in patients with ESRD than those without ESRD; 30-day mortality was four times higher and the functional recovery rate was significantly lower in S-ICH patients with ESRD than in S-ICH patients without ESRD. PMID:24278643

Kim, Kang Rae

2013-01-01

246

Simultaneous recovery of bacteria and viruses from contaminated water and spinach by a filtration method.  

PubMed

Water and leafy vegetables eaten fresh are increasingly reported as being involved in food-borne illness cases. The pathogenic agents responsible for these infections are mainly bacteria and viruses and are present in very small quantities on the contaminated food matrices. Laboratory techniques used to isolate or detect the contaminating agent differ enormously according to the type of microorganisms, generating time and economical losses. The purpose of this study was to optimize a single method which allows at the same time the recovery and concentration of these two main types of pathogenic organisms. Water and spinach samples were artificially contaminated with the feline calicivirus (FCV), rotavirus, hepatitis A virus (HAV), Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella Typhimurium. The principle behind the recovery technique is based on the use of a positively charged membrane which adsorbs both viruses and bacteria present in the water or in the rinse from the vegetables. Using conventional microbiology, PCR and RT-PCR, this filtration technique allowed a detection level superior to 10² CFU/g for S. Typhimurium, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and C. jejuni and to 10¹ PFU/g for FCV, HAV and rotavirus. This combined method can also be applied to other bacterial and viral species for the identification of the responsible agent for food-borne illnesses. PMID:21131086

Brassard, Julie; Guévremont, Évelyne; Gagné, Marie-Josée; Lamoureux, Lisyanne

2011-01-01

247

Neuropsychologic and Functional Recovery From Severe Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Without Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To test the hypothesis that neuropsychologic test results and functional outcome will be abnormal if hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is not used in patients with severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Methods: For a 1-year interval, we retrospectively identified all CO-poisoned patients who were comatose on presentation at a large, urban tertiary hospital and did not receive HBO therapy. Prospectively,

Lindell K Weaver; Ramona O Hopkins; Valerie Larson-Lohr

1996-01-01

248

Exercise facilitates the action of dietary DHA on functional recovery after brain trauma  

PubMed Central

The abilities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and exercise to counteract cognitive decay after TBI is getting increasing recognition; however, the possibility that these actions can be complementary remains just as an intriguing possibility. Here we have examined the likelihood that the combination of diet and exercise has the added potential to facilitate functional recovery following TBI. Rats received mild fluid percussion injury (mFPI) or sham injury and then were maintained on a diet high in DHA (1.2% DHA) with or without voluntary exercise for 12 days. We found that FPI reduced DHA content in the brain, which was accompanied by increased levels of lipid peroxidation assessed using 4-HHE. FPI reduced the enzymes Acox1 and 17 -HSD4, and the calcium-independent phospholipases A2 (iPLA2), which are involved in metabolism of membrane phospholipids. FPI reduced levels of syntaxin-3 (STX-3), involved in the action of membrane DHA on synaptic membrane expansion, and also reduced BDNF signaling through its TrkB receptor. These effects of FPI were optimally counteracted by the combination of DHA and exercise. Our results support the possibility that the complementary action of exercise is exerted on restoring membrane homeostasis after TBI, which is necessary for supporting synaptic plasticity and cognition. It is our contention that strategies that take advantage of the combined applications of diet and exercise may have additional effects to the injured brain. PMID:23811071

Wu, Aiguo; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

2013-01-01

249

Mutations in lipid transporter ABCA12 in harlequin ichthyosis and functional recovery by corrective gene transfer.  

PubMed

Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is a devastating skin disorder with an unknown underlying cause. Abnormal keratinocyte lamellar granules (LGs) are a hallmark of HI skin. ABCA12 is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family, and members of the ABCA subfamily are known to have closely related functions as lipid transporters. ABCA3 is involved in lipid secretion via LGs from alveolar type II cells, and missense mutations in ABCA12 have been reported to cause lamellar ichthyosis type 2, a milder form of ichthyosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that HI might be caused by mutations that lead to serious ABCA12 defects. We identify 5 distinct ABCA12 mutations, either in a compound heterozygous or homozygous state, in patients from 4 HI families. All the mutations resulted in truncation or deletion of highly conserved regions of ABCA12. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that ABCA12 localized to LGs in normal epidermal keratinocytes. We confirmed that ABCA12 defects cause congested lipid secretion in cultured HI keratinocytes and succeeded in obtaining the recovery of LG lipid secretion after corrective gene transfer of ABCA12. We concluded that ABCA12 works as an epidermal keratinocyte lipid transporter and that defective ABCA12 results in a loss of the skin lipid barrier, leading to HI. Our findings not only allow DNA-based early prenatal diagnosis but also suggest the possibility of gene therapy for HI. PMID:16007253

Akiyama, Masashi; Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Yoriko; Sakai, Kaori; McMillan, James R; Goto, Maki; Arita, Ken; Tsuji-Abe, Yukiko; Tabata, Nobuko; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Sasaki, Rikako; Sawamura, Daisuke; Shimizu, Hiroshi

2005-07-01

250

Effects of rolipram on adult rat oligodendrocytes and functional recovery after contusive cervical spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic human spinal cord injury (SCI) causes devastating and long-term hardships. These are due to the irreparable primary mechanical injury and secondary injury cascade. In particular, oligodendrocyte cell death, white matter axon damage, spared axon demyelination, and the ensuing dysfunction in action potential conduction lead to the initial deficits and impair functional recovery. For these reasons, and that oligodendrocyte and axon survival may be related, various neuroprotective strategies after spinal cord injury are being investigated. We previously demonstrated that oligodendrocytes in the adult rat epicenter ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) express 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) subtypes and that their death was attenuated up to 3 days after contusive cervical SCI when rolipram, a specific inhibitor of PDE4, was administered. Here, we report that (1) there are more oligodendrocyte somata in the adult rat epicenter VLF, (2) descending and ascending axonal conductivity in the VLF improves, and that (3) there are fewer hindlimb footfall errors during grid-walking at 5 weeks after contusive cervical SCI when rolipram is delivered for 2 weeks. This is the first demonstration of improved descending and ascending long-tract axonal conductivity across a SCI with this pharmacological approach. Since descending long-tract axonal conductivity did not return to normal, further evaluations of the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic window of rolipram as well as optimal combinations are necessary before consideration for neuroprotection in humans with SCI. PMID:19635528

Beaumont, E; Whitaker, C M; Burke, D A; Hetman, M; Onifer, S M

2009-11-10

251

Recovery of rat submandibular salivary gland function following removal of obstruction: a sialometrical and sialochemical study.  

PubMed

Functional recovery of the rat submandibular gland following ligation of the main excretory duct was examined. Rat submandibular glands were ligated for 1, 4 and 8 weeks using a micro-clip with a plastic tube. Micro-clips were removed and glands were allowed to recover for periods of 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Submandibular glands were stimulated with autonomimetic drugs (methacholine and isoprenaline) and salivas were collected from atrophic or de-ligated and contralateral control glands. Glands recovered almost full size (92% of control gland) following 24 weeks of de-ligation. Saliva volume secreted by ligated/de-ligated (RSM) and control (LSM) glands were similar with different doses of agonists. Protein output expressed per gram of tissue wet weight was similar from both ligated/de-ligated and control glands with all doses of agonist. Sodium and chloride levels were higher from de-ligated glands than contralateral control glands. Protein electrophoresis showed similar profiles of salivary proteins in all samples with some minor differences. Acinar cells in de-ligated glands showed a normal morphology, as indicated by light microscopy, whilst granular ductal cells were fewer and contained fewer secretory granules. Sodium potassium ATPase staining of striated ducts in de-ligated glands was similar to that of control glands. It can be concluded that rat submandibular glands can regenerate following severe atrophy and secrete normal amounts of saliva containing broadly a full profile of secretory proteins. In contrast to acinar cells, ductal cells appear not to recover full function. PMID:17222209

Osailan, Samira M; Proctor, Gordon B; Carpenter, Guy H; Paterson, Katherine L; McGurk, Mark

2006-12-01

252

Flightless I over-expression impairs skin barrier development, function and recovery following skin blistering.  

PubMed

Development of an intact epidermis is critical for maintaining the integrity of the skin. Patients with epidermolysis bullosa (EB) experience multiple erosions, which breach the epidermal barrier and lead to increased microbial colocalization of wounds, infections and sepsis. The cytoskeletal protein Flightless I (Flii) is a known regulator of both development and wound healing. Using Flii(+/-), WT and Flii(Tg/Tg) mice, we investigated the effect of altering Flii levels in embryos and adult mice on the development of the epidermal barrier and, consequently, how this affects the integrity of the skin in EB. Flii over-expression resulted in delayed formation of the epidermal barrier in embryos and decreased expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins Claudin-1 and ZO-2. Increased intercellular space and transepidermal water loss was observed in Flii(Tg)(/Tg) adult mouse skin, while Flii(Tg/Tg) keratinocytes showed altered TJ protein localization and reduced transepithelial resistance. Flii is increased in the blistered skin of patients with EB, and over-expression of Flii in experimental EBA showed impaired Claudin-1 and -4 TJ protein expression and delayed recovery of functional barrier post-blistering. Immunoprecipitation confirmed Flii associated with TJ proteins and in vivo actin assays showed that the effect of Flii on actin polymerization underpinned the impaired barrier function observed in Flii(Tg/Tg) mice. These results therefore demonstrate an important role for Flii in the development and regulation of the epidermal barrier, which may contribute to the impaired healing and skin fragility of EB patients. PMID:24375017

Kopecki, Zlatko; Yang, Gink N; Arkell, Ruth M; Jackson, Jessica E; Melville, Elizabeth; Iwata, Hiroaki; Ludwig, Ralf J; Zillikens, Detlef; Murrell, Dedee F; Cowin, Allison J

2014-04-01

253

Modulating molecular chaperones improves sensory fiber recovery and mitochondrial function in diabetic peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Quantification of intra-epidermal nerve fibers (iENFs) is an important approach to stage diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and is a promising clinical endpoint for identifying beneficial therapeutics. Mechanistically, diabetes decreases neuronal mitochondrial function and enhancing mitochondrial respiratory capacity may aid neuronal recovery from glucotoxic insults. We have proposed that modulating the activity and expression of heat shock proteins (Hsp) may be of benefit in treating DPN. KU-32 is a C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitor that improved thermal hypoalgesia in diabetic C57Bl/6 mice but it was not determined if this was associated with an increase in iENF density and mitochondrial function. After 16 weeks of diabetes, Swiss Webster mice showed decreased electrophysiological and psychosensory responses and a >30% loss of iENFs. Treatment of the mice with ten weekly doses of 20 mg/kg KU-32 significantly reversed pre-existing deficits in nerve conduction velocity and responses to mechanical and thermal stimuli. KU-32 therapy significantly reversed the pre-existing loss of iENFs despite the identification of a sub-group of drug-treated diabetic mice that showed improved thermal sensitivity but no increase in iENF density. To determine if the improved clinical indices correlated with enhanced mitochondrial activity, sensory neurons were isolated and mitochondrial bioenergetics assessed ex vivo using extracellular flux technology. Diabetes decreased maximal respiratory capacity in sensory neurons and this deficit was improved following KU-32 treatment. In conclusion, KU-32 improved physiological and morphologic markers of degenerative neuropathy and drug efficacy may be related to enhanced mitochondrial bioenergetics in sensory neurons. PMID:22465570

Urban, Michael J.; Pan, Pan; Farmer, Kevin L.; Zhao, Huiping; Blagg, Brian S.J.; Dobrowsky, Rick T.

2012-01-01

254

Applicability of solvent based Huff-and-Puff Method to enhance heavy oil recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over and above solvent based processes, specifically, the cyclic solvent injection well known as "Huff-and-Puff', has demonstrated a significant potential to enhance heavy oil recovery. Solvent and CO2 Huff-and-Puff are analogies to cyclic steam stimulation; however, in this method, steam is replaced with CO2, hydrocarbon solvent or mixture of the two. This study attempts to validate the feasibility of the Solvent Based Huff-and-Puff Method with respect to enhancing heavy oil recovery and to investigate the effect of fluid, operation, and reservoir parameters on its' performance. Thus, both experimental and reservoir simulation approaches were applied and, the impact of the aforementioned parameters on the performance of the process was investigated. All experiments were conducted in a Berea core with the dimensions of 30.48 cm by 5.07 cm. The core has a permeability of 1800 md and a porosity of 24% which was mounted in a high pressure, stainless steel core holder. Before conducting each Huff-and-Puff Test, the core was saturated with an oil sample representative of Saskatchewan heavy oil reservoirs and exhibited a viscosity of 952 mPa.s, at a temperature of 28°C. Prior to the tests, a complete phase behavior (PVT) analysis of the oil sample and solvents mixture was conducted using CMG- WinProp(TM) software. Over 12 sets of Huff-and-Puff Experiments, utilizing the pure solvent of carbon dioxide, methane, and mixtures of CO2 and propane, were performed at different operating pressures. A soaking time period of 24 hrs and a cut-off pressure of 276 kPa were considered for all cycles. In addition, all Huff-and-Puff Cycles were continued for each operating pressure until production dropped below one percent of the original oil in place. The production trend and recovery factor for each experiment were determined. The final oil recoveries, at the highest operating pressure of 7239 kPa for pure CO2 and, at 6895 kPa for pure methane, were 71 and 50 % OOIP, respectively. As for solvent gas mixtures with different propane fractions of %28 and %19 by mole, the final oil recoveries obtained were 56 and 54 % OOIP, respectively. The measured viscosities of the produced oil (generally for higher operating pressures) indicated the produced oil is lighter, especially during the first few cycles. During the tests, it was observed that most produced oil occurred during the first five cycles. In addition, it was found that the viscosity of produced oil during the first few cycles, at the operating pressure of 7239kPa, was reduced from an initial value of 952 to approximately 62 mPa.s when pure CO2 was injected. Also, as far as the capacity of this study was able to observe, implementing a longer soaking time improved the incremental recovery of the first cycle. However, the lengthier soaking time did not noticeably change the ultimate oil recovery. Since pilot and field studies are time consuming and relatively expensive, numerical simulation was initially utilized to history match the results obtained in the laboratory experiments and later to investigate the effect of the fluid and reservoir key parameters on the performance of this technique. Based on this fact, CMG-STARS(TM) was used and the discrepancy between recovery factors obtained from the experiments and those of the numerical simulation model were found to be in the range of 4 to 10% for CO2 and Methane Huff-and-Puff Tests at different operating pressures. Also, an attempt was made to investigate the potential of this method when applied to a field scale model. Based on the results of a parametric study, a longer soaking time improved the incremental recovery. There appeared to be no significant impact of very high injection rate on the performance of the Huff-and-Puff Method when it was studied through numerical simulation.

Qazvini Firouz, Alireza

255

Biomaterial-based interventions for neuronal regeneration and functional recovery in rodent model of spinal cord injury: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Context There is considerable interest in translating laboratory advances in neuronal regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI). A multimodality approach has been advocated for successful functional neuronal regeneration. With this goal in mind several biomaterials have been employed as neuronal bridges either to support cellular transplants, to release neurotrophic factors, or to do both. A systematic review of this literature is lacking. Such a review may provide insight to strategies with a high potential for further investigation and potential clinical application. Objective To systematically review the design strategies and outcomes after biomaterial-based multimodal interventions for neuronal regeneration in rodent SCI model. To analyse functional outcomes after implantation of biomaterial-based multimodal interventions and to identify predictors of functional outcomes. Methods A broad PubMed, CINHAL, and a manual search of relevant literature databases yielded data from 24 publications; 14 of these articles included functional outcome information. Studies reporting behavioral data in rat model of SCI and employing biodegradable polymer-based multimodal intervention were included. For behavioral recovery, studies using severe injury models (transection or severe clip compression (>16.9 g) or contusion (50 g/cm)) were categorized separately from those investigating partial injury models (hemisection or moderate-to-severe clip compression or contusion). Results The cumulative mean improvements in Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores after biomaterial-based interventions are 5.93 (95% CI = 2.41 ? 9.45) and 4.44 (95% CI = 2.65 – 6.24) for transection and hemisection models, respectively. Factors associated with improved outcomes include the type of polymer used and a follow-up period greater than 6 weeks. Conclusion The functional improvement after implantation of biopolymer-based multimodal implants is modest. The relationship with neuronal regeneration and functional outcome, the effects of inflammation at the site of injury, the prolonged survival of supporting cells, the differentiation of stem cells, the effective delivery of neurotrophic factors, and longer follow-up periods are all topics for future elucidation. Future investigations should strive to further define specific factors associated with improved functional outcomes in clinically relevant models. PMID:23809587

Krishna, Vibhor; Konakondla, Sanjay; Nicholas, Joyce; Varma, Abhay; Kindy, Mark; Wen, Xuejun

2013-01-01

256

TrkB kinase activity is critical for recovery of respiratory function after cervical spinal cord hemisection.  

PubMed

Neuroplasticity following spinal cord injury contributes to spontaneous recovery over time. Recent studies highlight the important role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling via the high-affinity tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) receptor subtype B (TrkB) in recovery of rhythmic diaphragm activity following unilateral spinal hemisection at C2 (C2SH). We hypothesized that TrkB kinase activity is necessary for spontaneous recovery of diaphragm activity post-C2SH. A chemical-genetic approach employing adult male TrkB(F616A) mice (n=49) was used to determine the impact of inhibiting TrkB kinase activity by the phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 inhibitor derivative 1NMPP1 on recovery of ipsilateral hemidiaphragm EMG activity. In mice, C2SH was localized primarily to white matter tracts comprising the lateral funiculus. The extent of damaged spinal cord (~27%) was similar regardless of the presence of functional recovery, consistent with spontaneous recovery reflecting neuroplasticity primarily of contralateral spared descending pathways to the phrenic motor pools. Ipsilateral hemidiaphragm EMG activity was verified as absent in all mice at 3days post-C2SH. By 2weeks after C2SH, ipsilateral hemidiaphragm EMG activity was present in 39% of vehicle-treated mice compared to 7% of 1NMPP1-treated mice (P=0.03). These data support the hypothesis that BDNF/TrkB signaling involving TrkB kinase activity plays a critical role in spontaneous recovery of diaphragm activity following cervical spinal cord injury. PMID:24910201

Mantilla, Carlos B; Greising, Sarah M; Stowe, Jessica M; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C

2014-11-01

257

extracted by the method of this paper to give recoveries of 49 mg (23%), 56 mg (25%), 18 mg  

E-print Network

that secondary or tertiary amines and nitrites in fish roe products (sujiko) might combine to produce Nextracted by the method of this paper to give recoveries of 49 mg (23%), 56 mg (25%), 18 mg (10 precipitated by the method in this paper but extracted by the Soxhlet method and gave 16 and 5% low values

258

Whey Proteins Are More Efficient than Casein in the Recovery of Muscle Functional Properties following a Casting Induced Muscle Atrophy  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whey supplementation, as compared to the standard casein diet, on the recovery of muscle functional properties after a casting-induced immobilization period. After an initial (I0) evaluation of the contractile properties of the plantarflexors (isometric torque-frequency relationship, concentric power-velocity relationship and a fatigability test), the ankle of 20 male adult rats was immobilized by casting for 8 days. During this period, rats were fed a standard diet with 13% of casein (CAS). After cast removal, rats received either the same diet or a diet with 13% of whey proteins (WHEY). A control group (n?=?10), non-immobilized but pair-fed to the two other experimental groups, was also studied and fed with the CAS diet. During the recovery period, contractile properties were evaluated 7 (R7), 21 (R21) and 42 days (R42) after cast removal. The immobilization procedure induced a homogeneous depression of average isometric force at R7 (CAS: ? 19.0±8.2%; WHEY: ? 21.7±8.4%; P<0.001) and concentric power (CAS: ? 26.8±16.4%, P<0.001; WHEY: ? 13.5±21.8%, P<0.05) as compared to I0. Conversely, no significant alteration of fatigability was observed. At R21, isometric force had fully recovered in WHEY, especially for frequencies above 50 Hz, whereas it was still significantly depressed in CAS, where complete recovery occurred only at R42. Similarly, recovery of concentric power was faster at R21 in the 500?700°/s range in the WHEY group. These results suggest that recovery kinetics varied between diets, the diet with the whey proteins promoting a faster recovery of isometric force and concentric power output as compared to the casein diet. These effects were more specifically observed at force level and movement velocities that are relevant for functional abilities, and thus natural locomotion. PMID:24069411

Martin, Vincent; Ratel, Sebastien; Siracusa, Julien; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Combaret, Lydie; Guillet, Christelle; Dardevet, Dominique

2013-01-01

259

Synergistic effects of galectin-1 and reactive astrocytes on functional recovery after contusive spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Galectin-1 (Gal-1), a carbohydrate-binding protein, is differentially expressed by various normal and pathological tissues\\u000a and appears to be functionally polyvalent. Recent evidence indicates that Gal-1 is involved in the proliferation of adult\\u000a neural progenitor cells in neurogenic regions during adulthood. However, localization and functional roles of Gal-1 in the\\u000a adult spinal cord have not been clarified.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Here, we investigated the

Hua Han; Yayi Xia; Shuanke Wang; Bin Zhao; Zhengyi Sun; Lingwei Yuan

2011-01-01

260

Heavy-oil recovery using the SolFrac method. [Combination of chemical explosive fracturing and solvent injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum-recovery techniques are being developed for the many shallow, low-productive, heavy-oil sand deposits in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. In 1971, the Bureau of Mines began a field experiment in Labette County, Kansas, using a recovery method that combines chemical explosive fracturing to create communication between wells with solvent injection to dilute the oil and lower its viscosity. Through laboratory tests,

F. S. Johnson; R. T. Johansen

1974-01-01

261

Function-Triggering Antibodies to the Adhesion Molecule L1 Enhance Recovery after Injury of the Adult Mouse Femoral Nerve  

PubMed Central

L1 is among the few adhesion molecules that favors repair after trauma in the adult central nervous system of vertebrates by promoting neuritogenesis and neuronal survival, among other beneficial features. In the peripheral nervous system, L1 is up-regulated in Schwann cells and regrowing axons after nerve damage, but the functional consequences of this expression remain unclear. Our previous study of L1-deficient mice in a femoral nerve injury model showed an unexpected improved functional recovery, attenuated motoneuronal cell death, and enhanced Schwann cell proliferation, being attributed to the persistent synthesis of neurotrophic factors. On the other hand, transgenic mice over-expressing L1 in neurons led to improved remyelination, but not improved functional recovery. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the monoclonal L1 antibody 557 that triggers beneficial L1 functions in vitro would trigger these also in femoral nerve repair. We analyzed femoral nerve regeneration in C57BL/6J mice that received this antibody in a hydrogel filled conduit connecting the cut and sutured nerve before its bifurcation, leading to short-term release of antibody by diffusion. Video-based quantitative analysis of motor functions showed improved recovery when compared to mice treated with conduits containing PBS in the hydrogel scaffold, as a vehicle control. This improved recovery was associated with attenuated motoneuron loss, remyelination and improved precision of preferential motor reinnervation. We suggest that function-triggering L1 antibodies applied to the lesion site at the time of injury over a limited time period will not only be beneficial in peripheral, but also central nervous system regeneration. PMID:25393007

Guseva, Daria; Loers, Gabriele; Schachner, Melitta

2014-01-01

262

Sensitivity, variability, and recovery of functional and structural endpoints of an aquatic community exposed to herbicides.  

PubMed

A mesocosm study with three photosystem-II inhibitors and an equipotent mixture was performed to address the value of functional and structural endpoints in evaluating the impact of herbicides on aquatic systems. The herbicides atrazine, diuron, and isoproturon were dosed in the ratio of their relative potencies as HC30 for the single substance treatments and as 1/3 HC30 for the mixture treatment to obtain comparable effect concentrations. To investigate the effects of the three herbicides and their mixture on photosynthesis of the whole system, the physical-chemical parameters pH, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity were monitored. To address effects on photosynthesis more specifically, the photosynthetic efficiency of phytoplankton and three submersed macrophytes (Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Potamogeton lucens) were investigated applying in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator for their activity. As a structural endpoint, the species abundance and community structure of the phytoplankton community was determined. Effects were continuously monitored over a five week period of constant exposure, and during a 3 month post-exposure period. The sensitivity, expressed as maximum effect during constant exposure, was higher for the structural parameters (total and single species abundances and PRC) than for the functional parameters. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for the physical-chemical parameters was below 10%, for the photosynthesis measurement of the phytoplankton and macrophytes below 10 and 30%, respectively. Structural parameters, however, yielded higher variability with mean CVs for phytoplankton abundance data and single sensitive species reaching up to 96%. Effects on the phytoplankton photosynthesis measured via in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence were constant during the exposure period; whereas macrophytes recovered quickly from photosynthesis inhibition despite constant exposure. Effects on total system photosynthesis, determined via physical-chemical parameters, lasted for a shorter period than for the phytoplankton photosynthesis demonstrating the importance of the macrophytes for total primary production. Thus, the evaluation of effects on communities in model ecosystems such as micro- and mesocosms should not be based on structural endpoints only due to their comparably high inherent variability. Instead, we recommend complementing the risk assessment with data obtained from sensitive functional endpoints addressing the specific mode of action of the respective compound for the most sensitive group of organisms to avoid over-estimation of the recovery potential of the aquatic system. PMID:22153306

Knauer, Katja; Hommen, Udo

2012-04-01

263

Effect of an education and activation programme on functional limitations and patient-perceived recovery in acute and sub-acute shoulder complaints - a randomised clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background The education and activation programme (EAP) aims at coping with psychosocial determinants to prevent the development of chronic shoulder complaints (SCs). The effect of the EAP on functional limitations and patient-perceived recovery after 6 and 26 weeks is evaluated in a randomised clinical trial. Methods Patients with SCs present at rest or elicited by movement and lasting no longer than 3 months were allocated at random to either EAP as an addition to usual care (UC), or to UC only. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 and 26 weeks and were analysed by means of multilevel analysis for the group effect. EAP was administered by GPs or by an ambulant therapist (CDB). Patients in the UC group were given UC by their own GP. Results Multilevel analysis failed to show a significant effect of the EAP on either functional limitations or patient-perceived recovery. Analysis showed coincidentally a relation between catastrophising at baseline and functional limitations. Conclusion The EAP has no significant effect on the outcome of SCs after 6 and 26 weeks. The relation between catastrophising at baseline and functional limitations suggests that an intervention focusing specifically on catastrophising may be more successful in reducing functional limitations in the long term. Further research is however needed to evaluate the effect of catastrophising at baseline on the course of SCs. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN71777817 PMID:18005423

De Bruijn, Camiel; de Bie, Rob; Geraets, Jacques; Goossens, Marielle; van den Heuvel, Wim; van der Heijden, Geert; Candel, Math; Dinant, Geert-Jan

2007-01-01

264

Timing of operation for ruptured cerebral aneurysm and long-term recovery of cognitive functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Advantages and disadvantages of early and late operation for ruptured cerebral aneurysm are controversially evaluated with regard to peri-operative operation outcome and long-term cognitive recovery.

W. Satzger; N. Niedermeier; J. Schönberger; R. R. Engel; O. J. Beck

1995-01-01

265

Tory II-C performance as a function of flight mach number and inlet pressure recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a parameter study involving thrust vs. flight Mach number, M.D. Mintz has found that net jet thrust becomes a maximum at about Mach 3.66 if the Tory II-C design value of inlet pressure recovery is used at all Mach numbers. This is not a realistic situation, however, because the attainable pressure recovery decreases markedly with increasing Mach number. The

1963-01-01

266

Muscle Function Recovery in Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy After AAV1-U7 Exon Skipping  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder resulting from lesions of the gene encoding dystrophin. These usually consist of large genomic deletions, the extents of which are not correlated with the severity of the phenotype. Out-of-frame deletions give rise to dystrophin deficiency and severe DMD phenotypes, while internal deletions that produce in-frame mRNAs encoding truncated proteins can lead to a milder myopathy known as Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). Widespread restoration of dystrophin expression via adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated exon skipping has been successfully demonstrated in the mdx mouse model and in cardiac muscle after percutaneous transendocardial delivery in the golden retriever muscular dystrophy dog (GRMD) model. Here, a set of optimized U7snRNAs carrying antisense sequences designed to rescue dystrophin were delivered into GRMD skeletal muscles by AAV1 gene transfer using intramuscular injection or forelimb perfusion. We show sustained correction of the dystrophic phenotype in extended muscle areas and partial recovery of muscle strength. Muscle architecture was improved and fibers displayed the hallmarks of mature and functional units. A 5-year follow-up ruled out immune rejection drawbacks but showed a progressive decline in the number of corrected muscle fibers, likely due to the persistence of a mild dystrophic process such as occurs in BMD phenotypes. Although AAV-mediated exon skipping was shown safe and efficient to rescue a truncated dystrophin, it appears that recurrent treatments would be required to maintain therapeutic benefit ahead of the progression of the disease. PMID:22968479

Vulin, Adeline; Barthelemy, Ines; Goyenvalle, Aurelie; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Beley, Cyriaque; Griffith, Graziella; Benchaouir, Rachid; le Hir, Maeva; Unterfinger, Yves; Lorain, Stephanie; Dreyfus, Patrick; Voit, Thomas; Carlier, Pierre; Blot, Stephane; Garcia, Luis

2012-01-01

267

Improved functional recovery of denervated skeletal muscle after temporary sensory nerve innervation.  

PubMed

Prolonged muscle denervation results in poor functional recovery after nerve repair. The possible protective effect of temporary sensory innervation of denervated muscle, prior to motor nerve repair, has been examined in the rat. Soleus and gastrocnemius muscles were denervated by cutting the tibial nerve, and the peroneal nerve was then sutured to the transected distal tibial nerve stump either immediately or after two, four or six months. In half of the animals with delayed repair, the saphenous (sensory) nerve was temporarily attached to the distal nerve stump. Muscles were evaluated three months after the peroneal-to-tibial union, and were compared with each other, with unoperated control muscles and with untreated denervated muscles. After four to six months of sensory "protection", gastrocnemius muscles weighed significantly more than unprotected muscles, and both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles exhibited better preservation of their structure, with less fiber atrophy and connective tissue hyperplasia. The maximum compound action potentials were significantly larger in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles following sensory protection, irrespective of the delay in motor nerve union. Isometric force, although less than in control animals and in those with immediate nerve repair, remained reasonably constant after sensory protection, while in unprotected muscles there was a progressive and significant decline as the period of denervation lengthened. We interpret these results as showing that, although incapable of forming excitable neuromuscular junctions, sensory nerves can nevertheless exert powerful trophic effects on denervated muscle fibers. We propose that these findings indicate a useful strategy for improving the outcome of peripheral nerve surgery. PMID:11246164

Bain, J R; Veltri, K L; Chamberlain, D; Fahnestock, M

2001-01-01

268

Effect of Delayed Peripheral Nerve Repair on Nerve Regeneration, Schwann Cell Function and Target Muscle Recovery  

PubMed Central

Despite advances in surgical techniques for peripheral nerve repair, functional restitution remains incomplete. The timing of surgery is one factor influencing the extent of recovery but it is not yet clearly defined how long a delay may be tolerated before repair becomes futile. In this study, rats underwent sciatic nerve transection before immediate (0) or 1, 3, or 6 months delayed repair with a nerve graft. Regeneration of spinal motoneurons, 13 weeks after nerve repair, was assessed using retrograde labeling. Nerve tissue was also collected from the proximal and distal stumps and from the nerve graft, together with the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. A dramatic decline in the number of regenerating motoneurons and myelinated axons in the distal nerve stump was observed in the 3- and 6-months delayed groups. After 3 months delay, the axonal number in the proximal stump increased 2–3 folds, accompanied by a smaller axonal area. RT-PCR of distal nerve segments revealed a decline in Schwann cells (SC) markers, most notably in the 3 and 6 month delayed repair samples. There was also a progressive increase in fibrosis and proteoglycan scar markers in the distal nerve with increased delayed repair time. The yield of SC isolated from the distal nerve segments progressively fell with increased delay in repair time but cultured SC from all groups proliferated at similar rates. MG muscle at 3- and 6-months delay repair showed a significant decline in weight (61% and 27% compared with contra-lateral side). Muscle fiber atrophy and changes to neuromuscular junctions were observed with increased delayed repair time suggestive of progressively impaired reinnervation. This study demonstrates that one of the main limiting factors for nerve regeneration after delayed repair is the distal stump. The critical time point after which the outcome of regeneration becomes too poor appears to be 3-months. PMID:23409189

Jonsson, Samuel; Wiberg, Rebecca; McGrath, Aleksandra M.; Novikov, Lev N.; Wiberg, Mikael; Novikova, Liudmila N.; Kingham, Paul J.

2013-01-01

269

Muscle function recovery in golden retriever muscular dystrophy after AAV1-U7 exon skipping.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder resulting from lesions of the gene encoding dystrophin. These usually consist of large genomic deletions, the extents of which are not correlated with the severity of the phenotype. Out-of-frame deletions give rise to dystrophin deficiency and severe DMD phenotypes, while internal deletions that produce in-frame mRNAs encoding truncated proteins can lead to a milder myopathy known as Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). Widespread restoration of dystrophin expression via adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated exon skipping has been successfully demonstrated in the mdx mouse model and in cardiac muscle after percutaneous transendocardial delivery in the golden retriever muscular dystrophy dog (GRMD) model. Here, a set of optimized U7snRNAs carrying antisense sequences designed to rescue dystrophin were delivered into GRMD skeletal muscles by AAV1 gene transfer using intramuscular injection or forelimb perfusion. We show sustained correction of the dystrophic phenotype in extended muscle areas and partial recovery of muscle strength. Muscle architecture was improved and fibers displayed the hallmarks of mature and functional units. A 5-year follow-up ruled out immune rejection drawbacks but showed a progressive decline in the number of corrected muscle fibers, likely due to the persistence of a mild dystrophic process such as occurs in BMD phenotypes. Although AAV-mediated exon skipping was shown safe and efficient to rescue a truncated dystrophin, it appears that recurrent treatments would be required to maintain therapeutic benefit ahead of the progression of the disease. PMID:22968479

Vulin, Adeline; Barthélémy, Inès; Goyenvalle, Aurélie; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Beley, Cyriaque; Griffith, Graziella; Benchaouir, Rachid; le Hir, Maëva; Unterfinger, Yves; Lorain, Stéphanie; Dreyfus, Patrick; Voit, Thomas; Carlier, Pierre; Blot, Stéphane; Garcia, Luis

2012-11-01

270

Stress relaxation functions: Methods of approximation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method of determining Prony series coefficients is presented. This method, the domain of influence method (DOI), capitalizes on characteristics of the exponential decay curve to adjust its parameters to fit a set of data. This method was applied to viscoelastic stress relaxation data. The method is general and can be used to develop exponential decay curves to represent

Mark V. Bower; Frederick S. Gant

1994-01-01

271

Actinides recovery from molten salt/liquid metal system by electrochemical methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical methods were examined for the recovery of actinides from the electrorefiner which is used in pyrometallurgical reprocessing of spent metal fuel for fast reactors. Uranium was successfully collected at the solid steel cathode from both liquid cadmium and molten salt solvents. In electrotransport from liquid cadmium, the behavior of uranium and rare earths was as expected by a computer simulation code based on the diffusion layer model at the interface between the electrolyte and the electrodes. In electroreduction from the molten salt electrolyte, a considerable amount of uranium was reduced at the Cd?Li anode by direct chemical reduction with lithium, especially at a lower anodic current density. The decrease in collection efficiency of uranium due to the direct chemical reduction would be avoided by maintaining the anode potential higher than the deposition potential of uranium.

Iizuka, Masatoshi; Koyama, Tadafumi; Kondo, Naruhito; Fujita, Reiko; Tanaka, Hiroshi

1997-08-01

272

[Influence of different recovery methods on the activity of nitrification granular sludge].  

PubMed

Aerobic nitrifying granule sludge cultivated in sequential batch reactor (SBR) was used to investigate the critical activity point of granules and the effect of different ammonia concentration and aeration time on reactivation after storage. The results showed that there was big difference in the activity (SOUR, 02/VSS) of nitrifying bacteria after different storage time. The specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR) of granules before storage was 13. 15 mg.(g h)-1. After a storage period of 20 days, the SOUR decreased by 1.26 mg.(g.h)-1 , after 5 cycles of reactivation, the ammonia removal efficiency was already increased to 95% while the SOUR was recovered to 13.87 mg.(g.h)-1. But after a storage period of 30 days, the SOUR decreased by 11.63 mg.(g.h)-1, after 51 cycles of reactivation, the ammonia removal efficiecny only eached 92. 64% while the SOUR was recovered to 14.92 mg.(g.h)-1. Meanwhile, this storage method required a longer recovery time. Therefore, we put forward that the critical activity of denitrifying granular sludge should be the activity when activity recovery starts and the nitrifying bacteria SOUR begins to decline. On the basis of the critical activity, we began to restore the activity when the activity of the denitrifying bacteria was reduced to critical activity, and then started a new storage cycle. This storage method was named dynamic storage. Different influent ammonia concentrations of 20, 30 and40 mg.L-1 were applied to reactivate the aerobic granules. Highest SOUR could be achieved when fed with an ammonia concentration of 40 mg.L-1 after reactivation. After three times of dynamic storage, the SOUR remained stable. Different aeration time of 1, 2 and 3 h was applied to reactivate the aerobic granules. Highest SOUR could be obtained when aeration time of 1 h was applied after reactivation and remained stable along with dynamic storage. PMID:24364320

Guo, Xiu-Li; Gao, Da-Wen; Lu, Jian-Cong

2013-10-01

273

Novel sample preparation method for surfactant containing suppositories: effect of micelle formation on drug recovery.  

PubMed

Rectal drug delivery is currently at the focus of attention. Surfactants promote drug release from the suppository bases and enhance the formulation properties. The aim of our work was to develop a sample preparation method for HPLC analysis for a suppository base containing 95% hard fat, 2.5% Tween 20 and 2.5% Tween 60. A conventional sample preparation method did not provide successful results as the recovery of the drug failed to fulfil the validation criterion 95-105%. This was caused by the non-ionic surfactants in the suppository base incorporating some of the drug, preventing its release. As guidance for the formulation from an analytical aspect, we suggest a well defined surfactant content based on the turbidimetric determination of the CMC (critical micelle formation concentration) in the applied methanol-water solvent. Our CMC data correlate well with the results of previous studies. As regards the sample preparation procedure, a study was performed of the effects of ionic strength and pH on the drug recovery with the avoidance of degradation of the drug during the procedure. Aminophenazone and paracetamol were used as model drugs. The optimum conditions for drug release from the molten suppository base were found to be 100 mM NaCl, 20-40 mM NaOH and a 30 min ultrasonic treatment of the final sample solution. As these conditions could cause the degradation of the drugs in the solution, this was followed by NMR spectroscopy, and the results indicated that degradation did not take place. The determined CMCs were 0.08 mM for Tween 20, 0.06 mM for Tween 60 and 0.04 mM for a combined Tween 20, Tween 60 system. PMID:23727364

Kalmár, Éva; Ueno, Konomi; Forgó, Péter; Szakonyi, Gerda; Dombi, György

2013-09-01

274

Targeting RPTP? with lentiviral shRNA promotes neurites outgrowth of cortical neurons and improves functional recovery in a rat spinal cord contusion model.  

PubMed

After spinal cord injury (SCI), the rapidly upregulated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), the prominent chemical constituents and main repulsive factors of the glial scar, play an important role in the extremely limited ability to regenerate in adult mammals. Although many methods to overcome the inhibition have been tested, no successful method with clinical feasibility has been devised to date. It was recently discovered that receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (RPTP?) is a functional receptor for CSPGs-mediated inhibition. In view of the potential clinical application of RNA interference (RNAi), here we investigated whether silencing RPTP? via lentivirus-mediated RNA interference can promote axon regeneration and functional recovery after SCI. Neurites of primary rat cerebral cortical neurons with depleted RPTP? exhibited a significant enhancement in elongation and crossing ability when they encountered CSPGs in vitro. A contusion model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats (the New York University (NYU) impactor) was used for in vivo experiments. Local injection of lentivirus encoding RPTP? shRNA at the lesion site promoted axon regeneration and synapse formation, but did not affect the scar formation. Meanwhile, in vivo functional recovery (motor and sensory) was also enhanced after RPTP? depletion. Therefore, strategies directed at silencing RPTP? by RNAi may prove to be a beneficial, efficient and valuable approach for the treatment of SCI. PMID:25152470

Zhou, Heng-Xing; Li, Xue-Ying; Li, Fu-Yuan; Liu, Chang; Liang, Zhi-Pin; Liu, Shen; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Tian-Yi; Chu, Tian-Ci; Lu, Lu; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Kong, Xiao-Hong; Feng, Shi-Qing

2014-10-24

275

Amide-Functionalized Aliphatic Amine Extractants for Co(II) and Zn(II) Recovery from Acidic Chloride Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel series of amido-functionalized amine reagents has been developed, which are designed for the extraction of anionic metal chloride complexes according to the following equationThe new reagents were investigated for Zn(II), Co(II), and Fe(III) recovery in order to establish conditions under which the selectivity for base metals over Fe(III) could be achieved. They were found to be much stronger

R. J. Ellis; J. Chartres; P. A. Tasker; K. C. Sole

2011-01-01

276

Secretion of EGF-like domain of heregulin? promotes axonal growth and functional recovery of injured sciatic nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB) signaling pathways control Schwann cells during axonal regeneration\\u000a in an injured peripheral nervous system. We investigated whether a persistent supply of recombinant NRG1 to the injury site\\u000a could improve axonal growth and recovery of sensory and motor functions in rats during nerve regeneration. We generated a\\u000a recombinant adenovirus expressing a secreted

Insil Joung; Minjoo Yoo; Ji Hyoun Woo; Chi Young Chang; Hwon Heo; Yunhee Kim Kwon

2010-01-01

277

Green's function methods in heavy ion shielding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytic solution to the heavy ion transport in terms of Green's function is used to generate a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of the computer code is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique extending Green's function over the solution domain. The computer code can also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments.

Wilson, John W.; Costen, Robert C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Badavi, Francis F.

1993-01-01

278

Factorization Method and Special Orthogonal Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a general construction for ladder operators for the special orthogonal functions based on Nikiforov-Uvarov mathematical formalism. A list of creation and annihilation operators are provided for the well known special functions. Furthermore, we establish the dynamic group associated with these operators.

Motavalli, Hossein; Rezaei Akbarieh, Amin

2010-09-01

279

Promoting recovery-oriented practice in mental health services: a quasi-experimental mixed-methods study  

PubMed Central

Background Recovery has become an increasingly prominent concept in mental health policy internationally. However, there is a lack of guidance regarding organisational transformation towards a recovery orientation. This study evaluated the implementation of recovery-orientated practice through training across a system of mental health services. Methods The intervention comprised four full-day workshops and an in-team half-day session on supporting recovery. It was offered to 383 staff in 22 multidisciplinary community and rehabilitation teams providing mental health services across two contiguous regions. A quasi-experimental design was used for evaluation, comparing behavioural intent with staff from a third contiguous region. Behavioural intent was rated by coding points of action on the care plans of a random sample of 700 patients (400 intervention, 300 control), before and three months after the intervention. Action points were coded for (a) focus of action, using predetermined categories of care; and (b) responsibility for action. Qualitative inquiry was used to explore staff understanding of recovery, implementation in services and the wider system, and the perceived impact of the intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 intervention group team leaders post-training and an inductive thematic analysis undertaken. Results A total of 342 (89%) staff received the intervention. Care plans of patients in the intervention group had significantly more changes with evidence of change in the content of patient’s care plans (OR 10.94. 95% CI 7.01-17.07) and the attributed responsibility for the actions detailed (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.68-5.18). Nine themes emerged from the qualitative analysis split into two superordinate categories. ‘Recovery, individual and practice’, describes the perception and provision of recovery orientated care by individuals and at a team level. It includes themes on care provision, the role of hope, language of recovery, ownership and multidisciplinarity. ‘Systemic implementation’, describes organizational implementation and includes themes on hierarchy and role definition, training approaches, measures of recovery and resources. Conclusions Training can provide an important mechanism for instigating change in promoting recovery-orientated practice. However, the challenge of systemically implementing recovery approaches requires further consideration of the conceptual elements of recovery, its measurement, and maximising and demonstrating organizational commitment. PMID:23764121

2013-01-01

280

Single session of brief electrical stimulation immediately following crush injury enhances functional recovery of rat facial nerve.  

PubMed

Peripheral nerve injuries lead to a variety of pathological conditions, including paresis or paralysis when the injury involves motor axons. We have been studying ways to enhance the regeneration of peripheral nerves using daily electrical stimulation (ES) following a facial nerve crush injury. In our previous studies, ES was not initiated until 24 h after injury. The current experiment tested whether ES administered immediately following the crush injury would further decrease the time for complete recovery from facial paralysis. Rats received a unilateral facial nerve crush injury and an electrode was positioned on the nerve proximal to the crush site. Animals received daily 30 min sessions of ES for 1 d (day of injury only), 2 d, 4 d, 7 d, or daily until complete functional recovery. Untreated animals received no ES. Animals were observed daily for the return of facial function. Our findings demonstrated that one session of ES was as effective as daily stimulation at enhancing the recovery of most functional parameters. Therefore, the use of a single 30 min session of ES as a possible treatment strategy should be studied in human patients with paralysis as a result of acute nerve injuries. PMID:22773203

Foecking, Eileen M; Fargo, Keith N; Coughlin, Lisa M; Kim, James T; Marzo, Sam J; Jones, Kathryn J

2012-01-01

281

Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes anatomical and functional recovery of injured peripheral nerves in the avascular cornea  

PubMed Central

Peripheral nerve injury is a major neurological disorder that can cause severe motor and sensory dysfunction. Neurogenic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been found in the central nervous system, and we examined whether VEGF could promote anatomical and functional recovery of peripheral nerves after injury using an avascular corneal nerve injury model. We found that VEGF enhanced neurite elongation in isolated trigeminal ganglion neurons in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was suppressed by neutralizing antibodies for VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 1 and 2 or neuropilin receptor 1 or by VEGFR2 inhibitors (SU 1498 and Ki 8751). In vivo, mice receiving sustained VEGF via implanted pellets showed increased corneal nerve regeneration after superficial injury compared with those receiving vehicle. VEGF injected subconjunctivally at the time of injury accelerated reinnervation, the recovery of mechanosensation, and epithelial wound healing. Endogenous VEGF expression was up-regulated in the corneal epithelium and stroma after wounding. Thus, VEGF can mediate peripheral neuron growth but requires the activation of multiple VEGF receptor types. In addition, VEGF can accelerate the return of sensory and trophic functions of damaged peripheral nerves. Wounding induces the expression of VEFG, which may modulate physiological nerve repair.—Pan, Z., Fukuoka, S., Karagianni, N., Guaiquil, V. H., Rosenblatt, M. I. Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes anatomical and functional recovery of injured peripheral nerves in the avascular cornea. PMID:23568776

Pan, Zan; Fukuoka, Shima; Karagianni, Natalia; Guaiquil, Victor H.; Rosenblatt, Mark I.

2013-01-01

282

Effect of vitamin B12 on functional recovery and histopathologic changes of tibial nerve-crushed rats.  

PubMed

Recent studies have suggested a neuroprotective effect for vitamin B12. The present study investigated the effects of vitamin B12, diclofenac and celecoxib in separate and combined treatments on functional recovery of crushed tibial nerve in rats. In ketamine plus xylazin anesthetized rats, right tibial nerve was crushed using a small hemoatatic forceps. Footprints were recorded 1 day before and on days 7, 14 and 21 after induction of nerve injury. Tibial functional index (TFI) was used to evaluate the recovery of tibial nerve function. Histological changes of tibial nerve were investigated by light microscopy. The recovery of TFI values were significantly accelerated with 10 consecutive days treatments with 0.1 and 0.5?mg/kg of vitamin B12, 5?mg/kg of diclofenac and 1 and 5?mg/kg of celecoxib. The severity of Wallerian degeneration was reduced by above-mentioned doses of vitamin B12, diclofenac and celecoxib. Documented effects were observed when 0.1?mg/kg of vitamin B12 was concurrently used with 1?mg/kg of diclofenac and or 0.2?mg/kg of celecoxib. In the present study, vitamin B12, celecoxib and diclofenac (at a high dose) showed neuroprotective effects. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 pathways may be involved in neuroprotective effect of vitamin B12. PMID:24470311

Tamaddonfard, E; Farshid, A A; Samadi, F; Eghdami, K

2014-09-01

283

LOWER COST METHODS FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY (IOR) VIA SURFACTANT FLOODING  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of the work performed in this 3-year project sponsored by DOE. The overall objective of this project is to identify new, potentially more cost-effective surfactant formulations for improved oil recovery (IOR). The general approach is to use an integrated experimental and computational chemistry effort to improve our understanding of the link between surfactant structure and performance, and from this knowledge, develop improved IOR surfactant formulations. Accomplishments for the project include: (1) completion of a literature review to assemble current and new surfactant IOR ideas, (2) Development of new atomistic-level MD (molecular dynamic) modeling methodologies to calculate IFT (interfacial tension) rigorously from first principles, (3) exploration of less computationally intensive mesoscale methods to estimate IFT, Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR), and cohesive energy density (CED) calculations, (4) experiments to screen many surfactant structures for desirable low IFT and solid adsorption behavior, and (5) further experimental characterization of the more promising new candidate formulations (based on alkyl polyglycosides (APG) and alkyl propoxy sulfate surfactants). Important findings from this project include: (1) the IFT between two pure substances may be calculated quantitatively from fundamental principles using Molecular Dynamics, the same approach can provide qualitative results for ternary systems containing a surfactant, (2) low concentrations of alkyl polyglycoside surfactants have potential for IOR (Improved Oil Recovery) applications from a technical standpoint (if formulated properly with a cosurfactant, they can create a low IFT at low concentration) and also are viable economically as they are available commercially, and (3) the alkylpropoxy sulfate surfactants have promising IFT performance also, plus these surfactants can have high optimal salinity and so may be attractive for use in higher salinity reservoirs. Alkylpropoxy sulfate surfactants are not yet available as large volume commercial products. The results presented herein can provide the needed industrial impetus for extending application (alkyl polyglycoside) or scaling up (alkylpropoxy sulfates) of these two promising surfactants for enhanced oil recovery. Furthermore, the advanced simulations tools presented here can be used to continue to uncover new types of surfactants with promising properties such as inherent low IFT and biodegradability.

William A. Goddard III; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Seung Soon Jang; Shiang-Tai Lin; Prabal Maiti; Yongfu Wu; Stefan Iglauer; Xiaohang Zhang

2004-09-01

284

Comparison of Functional Recovery in the Very Early Period After Surgery Between Plate and Nail Fixation for Correction of Stable Femoral Intertrochanteric Fractures  

PubMed Central

Purpose: This study aimed to compare the differences in functional recovery between patients undergoing plate and nail fixation in the very early period after surgery. Method: This study was designed as a controlled clinical trial that included 18 patients who were surgically treated with either dynamic hip screw as plate fixation or proximal femoral nail as nail fixation for stable intertrochanteric fractures. In particular, all patients selected for the study reported walking completely independently without the use of walking aids prior to sustaining their initial fracture. In all, 8 patients (mean age, 73.8 years; range, 65-89 years) were treated with plate fixation (group plate) and 10 patients (mean age, 79.7 years; range, 70-90 years) were treated with nail fixation (group nail). Functional evaluations were assessed every week after surgery using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) hip functional scores and active range of motion (ROM) of the hip joint. Results: The recovery of activities of daily living (ADLs) according to JOA hip functional scores at week 4 after surgery was significantly better in group nail than in group plate (P = .03), whereas active ROM of hip flexion improved significantly in group plate than in group nail at weeks 3 and 4 after surgery (P = .04 and P = .02, respectively). Conclusions: The results suggested that nail fixation may provide a more rapid recovery of ADLs than that of plate fixation in the very early period after surgery. However, plate fixation may provide better ROM of hip flexion than that of nail fixation.

Fushimi, Kazunari; Shirai, Goshi; Fukuta, Masashi

2014-01-01

285

Characterization of tests of functional recovery after median and ulnar nerve injury and repair in the rat forelimb.  

PubMed

The majority of human peripheral nerve injuries occur in the upper limb but the majority of studies in the rat are performed in the hindlimb. The upper and lower limbs differ in dexterity and control by supraspinal systems, so an upper limb model is a better representation of the common form of human injury. The purpose of this study was to further develop a rat model involving lesions of the median and ulnar nerves. To produce different degrees of misdirection of axons following nerve repair, we studied nerve crush, cut and repair of the two nerves, and cut and repair with crossover. Assessment of functional recovery was performed using a battery of motor and sensory tests: the staircase test, which assesses skilled forepaw reaching; grip strength meter, which assesses grip strength; pawprint analysis, which assesses toe spread and print length; horizontal ladder, which assesses forepaw placement during skilled locomotion; modified Randall-Selitto device and electronic von Frey probes, which assess fine touch; and cold probes, which assess temperature sensation. All tests revealed deficits in forepaw function after nerve injury except the print length and modified Randall-Selitto device. The time course of functional recovery was observed over 15 weeks. The final degree of functional recovery achieved was related to the misdirection of axon regeneration. The tests that most clearly revealed the effects of axon misdirection on function were the skilled paw reaching and grip strength tests. The lesion model and functional tests that we have developed will be useful in testing therapeutic strategies for treating the consequences of inaccurate axon regeneration following peripheral nerve injury in humans. PMID:17374098

Galtrey, Clare M; Fawcett, James W

2007-03-01

286

Methods for Assessing Mitochondrial Function in Diabetes  

PubMed Central

A growing body of research is investigating the potential contribution of mitochondrial function to the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Numerous in vitro, in situ, and in vivo methodologies are available to examine various aspects of mitochondrial function, each requiring an understanding of their principles, advantages, and limitations. This review provides investigators with a critical overview of the strengths, limitations and critical experimental parameters to consider when selecting and conducting studies on mitochondrial function. In vitro (isolated mitochondria) and in situ (permeabilized cells/tissue) approaches provide direct access to the mitochondria, allowing for study of mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox function under defined substrate conditions. Several experimental parameters must be tightly controlled, including assay media, temperature, oxygen concentration, and in the case of permeabilized skeletal muscle, the contractile state of the fibers. Recently developed technology now offers the opportunity to measure oxygen consumption in intact cultured cells. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides the most direct way of assessing mitochondrial function in vivo with interpretations based on specific modeling approaches. The continuing rapid evolution of these technologies offers new and exciting opportunities for deciphering the potential role of mitochondrial function in the etiology and treatment of diabetes. PMID:23520284

Kane, Daniel A.; Lanza, Ian R.; Neufer, P. Darrell

2013-01-01

287

CONVERGENCE ANALYSIS OF SAMPLING METHODS FOR PERTURBED LIPSCHITZ FUNCTIONS  

E-print Network

CONVERGENCE ANALYSIS OF SAMPLING METHODS FOR PERTURBED LIPSCHITZ FUNCTIONS D. E. FINKEL AND C. T to a wide variety of deterministic sampling methods. For bound-constrained problems, we show that any method function. This enables us to apply the theory to the paradigm which motivates sampling methods

Kelley, C. T. "Tim"

288

A case of recovery of oral function with dental implants following facial bone trauma.  

PubMed

A 44-year-old woman had sustained facial lacerations, loss of several teeth, alveolar bone fracture, and severe vertical bone resorption in conjunction with a shattered alveolar bone and marked loss of intraoral function and facial disfigurement in a car accident. She underwent 9 surgical procedures by plastic surgeons to treat the facial lesions, including hold facial scar formation reduction surgery, reduction of fractures of the nasal and cheek bones, and bone transplants. To restore intraoral function and improve facial appearance, plastic surgeons transplanted a rib into the maxillary sinus while dental surgeons simultaneously inserted 5 dental implants. Eleven months after the dental implant surgery, a complete upper denture and a mandibular gingival ceramometal-casting crown were fitted. After insertion of the final prosthodontics, regular follow-up examinations were performed to check dental occlusion, oral hygiene, and the condition of the gingival tissue. In the years since the upper dental implants were fitted, there have been no bone resorption and no functional problems. Transplantation of rib bones is an effective method for maxillary reconstruction and remains effective even after the insertion of dental implants. The patient is extremely satisfied with the results. A means of maintaining oral health over the long term, and of motivating the patient to maintain oral health, should be established. PMID:23291849

Kamoi, Hisahiro

2012-01-01

289

Strength Recovery Following Rhythmic or Sustained Exercise as a Function of Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relative rates of strength recovery subsequent to bouts of rhythmic or sustained isometric exercise were investigated. The 72 undergraduates who served as subjects were tested seven times within the framework of a repeated measures design. Each testing session involved two bouts of either rhythmic or sustained isometric exercise separated by a…

Kearney, Jay T.

290

Chronic behavioral testing after focal ischemia in the mouse: functional recovery and the effects of gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several useful behavioral tests exist for measuring behavioral recovery after ischemia in higher-order animals and rats. With the increasing use of mice in focal stroke research, simple, reliable, and reproducible behavioral testing has become a priority. As neuroprotective agents are tested, long-term outcome must be assessed, especially in studies focused on neuronal plasticity and regeneration after ischemia. Our laboratory and

Xiaoling Li; Kathleen K. Blizzard; Zhiyuan Zeng; A. Courtney DeVries; Patricia D. Hurn; Louise D. McCullough

2004-01-01

291

Comparison of calculated ethane recovery as a function of k-value correlation in turboexpander plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for ethane as a chemical feedstock has grown rapidly in the last few years, and has now reached the point that many new and projected plants seek to recover a high percentage of the ethane in the feed gas. Ethane recovery levels as high as 80% are being considered and incorporated in the design of some plants. Presently,

W. White; G. Wilson; R. Kobayashi

1970-01-01

292

Method for recovery of enteric viruses from estuarine sediments with chaotropic agents.  

PubMed Central

An evaluation was made of the ability of chaotropes, low-molecular-weight ionic compounds which enhance the solubilization of hydrophobic compounds in water, to improve the recovery of enteric viruses from highly organic estuarine sediments. Chaotropic agents alone were poor eluents of polioviruses from sediment but were effective when combined with 3% beef extract. Chaotropes of lower potency, NaNO3, NaCl, and KCl, were more efficient eluents than the stronger chaotropes, guanidium hydrochloride or sodium trichloroacetate. The most effective eluent was 2 M NaNO3 in 3% beef extract at pH 5.5, which eluted 71% of sediment-associated polioviruses. Efficient concentration of the sodium nitrate-beef extract eluate by organic flocculation required the addition of the antichaotrope (NH4)2SO4 to a 2 M concentration and Cat-Floc T (Calgon, Pittsburgh, Pa.) a cationic polyelectrolyte, to a 0.01% concentration. Dialysis of the final concentrate was necessary to reduce salts to nontoxic levels before assay in cell cultures. Trials with highly organic estuarine sediment seeded with high or low numbers of poliovirus 1, echovirus 1, or rotavirus SA-11 demonstrated the superiority of this method over two other methods currently in use. PMID:6312884

Wait, D A; Sobsey, M D

1983-01-01

293

Method for recovery of enteric viruses from estuarine sediments with chaotropic agents.  

PubMed

An evaluation was made of the ability of chaotropes, low-molecular-weight ionic compounds which enhance the solubilization of hydrophobic compounds in water, to improve the recovery of enteric viruses from highly organic estuarine sediments. Chaotropic agents alone were poor eluents of polioviruses from sediment but were effective when combined with 3% beef extract. Chaotropes of lower potency, NaNO3, NaCl, and KCl, were more efficient eluents than the stronger chaotropes, guanidium hydrochloride or sodium trichloroacetate. The most effective eluent was 2 M NaNO3 in 3% beef extract at pH 5.5, which eluted 71% of sediment-associated polioviruses. Efficient concentration of the sodium nitrate-beef extract eluate by organic flocculation required the addition of the antichaotrope (NH4)2SO4 to a 2 M concentration and Cat-Floc T (Calgon, Pittsburgh, Pa.) a cationic polyelectrolyte, to a 0.01% concentration. Dialysis of the final concentrate was necessary to reduce salts to nontoxic levels before assay in cell cultures. Trials with highly organic estuarine sediment seeded with high or low numbers of poliovirus 1, echovirus 1, or rotavirus SA-11 demonstrated the superiority of this method over two other methods currently in use. PMID:6312884

Wait, D A; Sobsey, M D

1983-08-01

294

Germanium recovery from gasification fly ash: evaluation of end-products obtained by precipitation methods.  

PubMed

In this study the purity of the germanium end-products obtained by two different precipitation methods carried out on germanium-bearing solutions was evaluated as a last step of a hydrometallurgy process for the recovery of this valuable element from the Puertollano Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) fly ash. Since H(2)S is produced as a by-product in the gas cleaning system of the Puertollano IGCC plant, precipitation of germanium as GeS(2) was tested by sulfiding the Ge-bearing solutions. The technological and hazardous issues that surround H(2)S handling conducted to investigate a novel precipitation procedure: precipitation as an organic complex by adding 1,2-dihydroxy benzene pyrocatechol (CAT) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to the Ge-bearing solutions. Relatively high purity Ge end-products (90 and 93% hexagonal-GeO(2) purity, respectively) were obtained by precipitating Ge from enriched solutions, as GeS(2) sulfiding the solutions with H(2)S, or as organic complex with CAT/CTAB mixtures and subsequent roasting of the precipitates. Both methods showed high efficiency (>99%) to precipitate selectively Ge using a single precipitation stage from germanium-bearing solutions. PMID:19200657

Arroyo, Fátima; Font, Oriol; Fernández-Pereira, Constantino; Querol, Xavier; Juan, Roberto; Ruiz, Carmen; Coca, Pilar

2009-08-15

295

Iteration of Complex Functions and Newton's Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses some common iterations of complex functions. The presentation is such that similar processes can easily be implemented and understood by undergraduate students. The aim is to illustrate some of the beauty of complex dynamics in an informal setting, while providing a couple of results that are not otherwise readily available in…

Dwyer, Jerry; Barnard, Roger; Cook, David; Corte, Jennifer

2009-01-01

296

The Function-Failure Design Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

To succeed in the product development market today, firms must quickly and accurately satisfy customer needs while designing products that adequately accomplish their desired functions with a minimum number of failures. When failure analysis and prevention are coupled with a product's design from its conception, potentially shorter design times and fewer redesigns are necessary to arrive at a final product

Robert B. Stone; Irem Y. Tumer; Michael Van Wie

2005-01-01

297

Thermoregulation and Stress Hormone Recovery After Exercise Dehydration: Comparison of Rehydration Methods  

PubMed Central

Context: Athletic trainers recommend and use a multitude of rehydration (REHY) methods with their patients. The REHY modality that most effectively facilitates recovery is unknown. Objective: To compare 5 common REHY methods for thermoregulatory and stress hormone recovery after exercise dehydration (EXDE) in trained participants. Design: Randomized, cross-over, controlled study. Patients or Other Participants: Twelve physically active, non–heat-acclimatized men (age = 23 ± 4 years, height = 180 ± 6 cm, mass = 81.3 ± 3.7 kg, V?o2max = 56.9 ± 4.4 mL·min?1·kg?1, body fat = 7.9% ± 3%) participated. Intervention(s): Participants completed 20-hour fluid restriction and 2-hour EXDE; they then received no fluid (NF) or REHY (half-normal saline) via ad libitum (AL), oral (OR), intravenous (IV), or combination IV and OR (IV + OR) routes for 30 minutes; and then were observed for another 30 minutes. Main Outcome Measure(s): Body mass, rectal temperature, 4-site mean weighted skin temperature, plasma stress hormone concentrations, and environmental symptoms questionnaire (ESQ) score. Results: Participants were hypohydrated (body mass ?4.23% ± 0.22%) post-EXDE. Rectal temperature for the NF group was significantly greater than for the IV group (P = .023) at 30 minutes after beginning REHY (REHY30) and greater than OR, IV, and IV + OR (P ? .009) but not AL (P = .068) at REHY60. Mean weighted skin temperature during AL was less than during IV + OR at REHY5 (P = .019). The AL participants demonstrated increased plasma cortisol concentrations compared with IV + OR, independent of time (P = .015). No differences existed between catecholamine concentrations across treatments (P > .05). The ESQ score was increased at REHY60 for NF, AL, OR, and IV (P < .05) but not for IV + OR (P = .217). The NF ESQ score was greater than that of IV + OR at REHY60 (P = .012). Conclusions: Combination IV + OR REHY reduced body temperature to a greater degree than OR and AL REHY when compared with NF. Future studies addressing clinical implications are needed. PMID:24143900

McDermott, Brendon P.; Casa, Douglas J.; Lee, Elaine; Yamamoto, Linda; Beasley, Kathleen; Emmanuel, Holly; Anderson, Jeffrey; Pescatello, Linda; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Maresh, Carl

2013-01-01

298

Whey proteins are more efficient than casein in the recovery of muscle functional properties following a casting induced muscle atrophy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whey supplementation, as compared to the standard casein diet, on the recovery of muscle functional properties after a casting-induced immobilization period. After an initial (I0) evaluation of the contractile properties of the plantarflexors (isometric torque-frequency relationship, concentric power-velocity relationship and a fatigability test), the ankle of 20 male adult rats was immobilized by casting for 8 days. During this period, rats were fed a standard diet with 13% of casein (CAS). After cast removal, rats received either the same diet or a diet with 13% of whey proteins (WHEY). A control group (n = 10), non-immobilized but pair-fed to the two other experimental groups, was also studied and fed with the CAS diet. During the recovery period, contractile properties were evaluated 7 (R7), 21 (R21) and 42 days (R42) after cast removal. The immobilization procedure induced a homogeneous depression of average isometric force at R7 (CAS: - 19.0 ± 8.2%; WHEY: - 21.7 ± 8.4%; P<0.001) and concentric power (CAS: - 26.8 ± 16.4%, P<0.001; WHEY: - 13.5 ± 21.8%, P<0.05) as compared to I0. Conversely, no significant alteration of fatigability was observed. At R21, isometric force had fully recovered in WHEY, especially for frequencies above 50 Hz, whereas it was still significantly depressed in CAS, where complete recovery occurred only at R42. Similarly, recovery of concentric power was faster at R21 in the 500-700°/s range in the WHEY group. These results suggest that recovery kinetics varied between diets, the diet with the whey proteins promoting a faster recovery of isometric force and concentric power output as compared to the casein diet. These effects were more specifically observed at force level and movement velocities that are relevant for functional abilities, and thus natural locomotion. PMID:24069411

Martin, Vincent; Ratel, Sébastien; Siracusa, Julien; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Combaret, Lydie; Guillet, Christelle; Dardevet, Dominique

2013-01-01

299

Efficient pseudospectral methods for density functional calculations  

SciTech Connect

Novel improvements of the pseudospectral method for assembling the Coulomb operator are discussed. These improvements consist of a fast atom centered multipole method and a variation of the Head-Gordan J-engine analytic integral evaluation. The details of the methodology are discussed and performance evaluations presented for larger molecules within the context of DFT energy and gradient calculations. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

Murphy, R. B. [Schrodinger, Inc., 1500 S.W. First Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97201 (United States)] [Schrodinger, Inc., 1500 S.W. First Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97201 (United States); Cao, Y. [Schrodinger, Inc., 1500 S.W. First Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97201 (United States)] [Schrodinger, Inc., 1500 S.W. First Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97201 (United States); Beachy, M. D. [Schrodinger, Inc., 1500 S.W. First Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97201 (United States)] [Schrodinger, Inc., 1500 S.W. First Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97201 (United States); Ringnalda, M. N. [Schrodinger, Inc., 1500 S.W. First Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97201 (United States)] [Schrodinger, Inc., 1500 S.W. First Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97201 (United States); Friesner, R. A. [Columbia University, Department of Chemistry, New York 10027 (United States)] [Columbia University, Department of Chemistry, New York 10027 (United States)

2000-06-15

300

Boundary Element Methods for Functionally Graded Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) possess a smooth variation of material properties due to continuous change in microstructural details. For example, the material gradation may change gradually from a pure ceramic to a pure metal. This work focuses on potential (both steady state and transient) and elasticity problems for inhomogeneous materials. The Green\\'s function(GF) for these materials (e.g. exponentially graded) are expressed as the GF for the homogeneous material plus additional terms due to material gradation. The numerical implementations are performed using a Galerkin (rather than collocation) approximation. A number of examples have been carried out. The results of some specific test problems agree within plotting accuracy with available analytical solutions.

Paulino, Glaucio; Sutradhar, Alok; Gray, L. J.

2002-05-28

301

3D hand pose estimation using Kinect enhanced with recovery method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an improved approach to another previous work on 3D hand tracking that also uses the Microsoft Kinect sensor. The previous implementation tracks the position, orientation, and full articulation from marker-less visual observations provided by Kinect. As an optimization problem, the objective of hand tracking is to minimize the difference between a hand gesture depth image obtained from Kinect and a hypothesized 3-D hand model. The previous method of relied heavily on the best current frame result, skin detection data, and depth data, often resulting in a "losttrack state" with unrecoverable error, especially when the hand moved faster than the per-frame processing speed. To recover from the lost track state, we use the skeleton joint data from Kinect to determine hand position, instead of relying on skin data. This joint data is also used to limit the search range of our Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), allowing for a more efficient search. Consequently, the fewer generations required to obtain a result enables us to achieve higher frame-rate processing. The computationally intensive step in matching the observed hand depth with the hypothesized hand pose is accelerated using a GPGPU processor. The proposed method also improves reliability by adding a recovery mechanism for quick hand movements, eliminating the need for manual hand position initialization by a user. Our method does not depend on skin color detection and, therefore, avoids errors common in incorrect or extra skin detection. Thus, a user need not hide arm skin by wearing long-sleeve clothing, for example.

Thanyadit, Santawat; Madarasami, Suthep

2013-07-01

302

Recovery of function in Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants with temperature-sensitive defects in vacuolar acidification  

PubMed Central

After 4 h at 41 degrees C, B3853 and M311, temperature-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary cell End1 and End2 mutants, respectively, are pleiotropically defective in endocytosis and trans-Golgi network- associated activities (Roff, C. F., R. Fuchs, I. Mellman, and A. R. Robbins. 1986. J. Cell Biol. 103:2283-2297). We have measured recovery of function after return to the permissive temperature. Based on return of normal transferrin-mediated Fe uptake and sensitivity to diphtheria toxin both mutants had restored endosomal function at 10 h; based on delivery of endocytosed lysosomal enzymes to lysosomes and normal sensitivity to modeccin both had functional late endocytic organelles at 10-12 h; and based on retention of newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes and sialylation of secreted glycoproteins both had functional trans-Golgi network at 6 h. At 10 h, M311 had recovered almost all of its ability to endocytose lysosomal enzymes; B3853 required 30 h to recover fully its ability to endocytose lysosomal enzymes. Slow recovery of mannose 6-phosphate-dependent uptake in B3853 reflected altered trafficking of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptors. Although B3853 had normal amounts of receptor at 6-8 h, it had greatly diminished amounts of receptor at the cell surface. Altered trafficking was also suggested by the finding that B3853 rapidly degraded receptor that had been present before the shift to the nonpermissive temperature. PMID:2157714

1990-01-01

303

Neurogenesis of Retinal Ganglion Cells Is Not Essential to Visual Functional Recovery after Optic Nerve Injury in Adult Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Zebrafish central nervous system (CNS) possesses a strong neural regeneration ability to restore visual function completely after optic nerve injury (ONI). However, whether neurogenesis of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) contributes to functional recovery remains controversial. Our quantitative analysis of RGCs in different ONI models showed that almost all RGCs survived in optic nerve crush (ONC) model; while over 90% of RGCs survived in the first 2 weeks with 75% remaining after 7 weeks in optic nerve transection (ONT) model. Retrograde labeling from tectum revealed a surprising regeneration rate, with over 90% and over 50% of RGCs regrowing axons to tectum at the first week in ONC and ONT model respectively. In the latter one, the number of regenerative RGCs after 4 weeks had no significant difference from the control group. As for neurogenesis, newborn RGCs were rarely detected either by double retrograde labeling or BrdU marker. Since few RGCs died, microglia number showed a temporary increase at 3 days post injury (dpi) and a decrease at 14 dpi. Finally, myelin structure within retina kept integrity and optomotor response (OMR) test demonstrated visual functional restoration at 5 weeks post injury (wpi). In conclusion, our results have directly shown that RGC survival and axon regrowth are responsible for functional recovery after ONI in adult zebrafish. PMID:23437359

Zou, Suqi; Tian, Chen; Ge, Shuchao; Hu, Bing

2013-01-01

304

Recovery of 15 N-labelled urea: Influence of zero tillage, and time and method of application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of N fertilizer to the crops under zero tillage versus conventional tillage may be affected by position of applied N, N immobilization and N loss from soil. The objectives of this study was to determine the influence of tillage, time of application and method of placement on the recovery of15N-labelled urea in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants and

S. S. Malhi; M. Nyborg

1991-01-01

305

Method for Quantitatively Evaluating the Lateralization of Linguistic Function Using Functional MR Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Various methods for evaluating the lateralization of lin- guistic function using functional MR imaging have been proposed. However, the optimal meth- od remains controversial. The purpose of this study was not only to establish a method for quantitatively evaluating the lateralization of linguistic function but also to evaluate its optimality. METHODS: Internal speech tasks were measured by

Shun-ichi Nagata; Koichi Uchimura; Wataru Hirakawa; Jun-ichi Kuratsu

2001-01-01

306

Temporal profile of endogenous anatomical repair and functional recovery following spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish.  

PubMed

Regenerated cerebrospinal axons are considered to be involved in the spontaneous recovery of swimming ability following a spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish. We employed behavioral analysis, neuronal tracing, and immunocytochemistry to determine the exact temporal relationship between swimming ability and regenerated cerebrospinal axon number in adult zebrafish with a complete spinal cord transection. Between two and eight weeks post-lesion, swimming gradually improved to 44% of sham-injured zebrafish. Neurons within the reticular formation, magnocellular octaval nucleus, and nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle grew their axon across and at least four millimeters beyond the lesion. The largest increases in swimming ability and number of regenerated cerebrospinal axons were observed between two and four weeks post-lesion. Regression analyses revealed a significant correlation between swimming ability and the number of regenerated axons. Our results indicate the involvement of cerebrospinal axons in swimming recovery after spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish. PMID:25157957

Vajn, Katarina; Suler, Denis; Plunkett, Jeffery A; Oudega, Martin

2014-01-01

307

Temporal Profile of Endogenous Anatomical Repair and Functional Recovery following Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Regenerated cerebrospinal axons are considered to be involved in the spontaneous recovery of swimming ability following a spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish. We employed behavioral analysis, neuronal tracing, and immunocytochemistry to determine the exact temporal relationship between swimming ability and regenerated cerebrospinal axon number in adult zebrafish with a complete spinal cord transection. Between two and eight weeks post-lesion, swimming gradually improved to 44% of sham-injured zebrafish. Neurons within the reticular formation, magnocellular octaval nucleus, and nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle grew their axon across and at least four millimeters beyond the lesion. The largest increases in swimming ability and number of regenerated cerebrospinal axons were observed between two and four weeks post-lesion. Regression analyses revealed a significant correlation between swimming ability and the number of regenerated axons. Our results indicate the involvement of cerebrospinal axons in swimming recovery after spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish. PMID:25157957

Vajn, Katarina; Suler, Denis; Plunkett, Jeffery A.; Oudega, Martin

2014-01-01

308

Value of scar imaging and inotropic reserve combination for the prediction of segmental and global left ventricular functional recovery after revascularisation  

PubMed Central

Background This study sought to prospectively and directly compare three cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) viability parameters: inotropic reserve (IR) during low-dose dobutamine (LDD) administration, late gadolinium enhancement transmurality (LGE) and thickness of the non-contrast-enhanced myocardial rim surrounding the scar (RIM). These parameters were examined to evaluate their value as predictors of segmental left ventricular (LV) functional recovery in patients with LV systolic dysfunction undergoing surgical or percutaneous revascularisation. The second goal of the study was to determine the optimal LDD-CMR- and LGE-CMR-based predictor of significant (? 5%) LVEF improvement 6 months after revascularisation. Methods In 46 patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) (63 ± 10 years of age, LVEF 35 ± 8%), wall motion and the above mentioned CMR parameters were evaluated before revascularisation. Wall motion and LGE were repeatedly assessed 6 months after revascularisation. Logistic regression analysis models were created using 333 dysfunctional segments at rest. Results An LGE threshold value of 50% (LGE50) and a RIM threshold value of 4 mm (RIM4) produced the best sensitivities and specificities for predicting segmental recovery. IR was superior to LGE50 for predicting segmental recovery. When the areas under the ROC curves is compared, the combined viability prediction model (LGE50 + IR) was significantly superior to IR alone in all analysed sets of segments, except the segments with an LGE from 26% to 75% (p = 0.08). The RIM4 model was not superior to the LGE50 model. A myocardial segment was considered viable if it had no LGE or had any LGE and produced IR during LDD stimulation. ROC analysis demonstrated that ? 50% of viable segments from all dysfunctional and revascularised segments in a patient predict significant improvement in LVEF with a 69% sensitivity and 70% specificity (AUC 0.7, p = 0.05). The cut-off of ? 3 viable segments was a less useful predictor of significant global LV recovery. Conclusions LDD-CMR is superior to LGE-CMR as a predictor of segmental recovery. The advantage is greatest in the segments with an LGE from 26% to 75%. The RIM cut-off value of 4 mm had no superiority over the LGE cut-off value of 50% in predicting the segmental recovery. Patients with ? 50% of viable segments from all dysfunctional and revascularised had a tendency to improve LVEF by ? 5% after revascularisation. PMID:21787383

2011-01-01

309

Heart rate recovery: autonomic determinants, methods of assessment and association with mortality and cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary cause of mortality worldwide. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction seems to be related to the genesis of several CVDs and is also linked to the increased risk of mortality in CVD patients. The quantification of heart rate decrement after exercise - known as heart rate recovery (HRR) - is a simple tool for assessing cardiac autonomic activity in healthy and CVD patients. Furthermore, since The Cleveland Clinic studies, HRR has also been used as a powerful index for predicting mortality. For these reasons, in recent years, the scientific community has been interested in proposing methods and protocols to investigate HRR and understand its underlying mechanisms. The aim of this review is to discuss current knowledge about HRR, including its potential primary and secondary physiological determinants, as well as its role in predicting mortality. Published data show that HRR can be modelled by an exponential curve, with a fast and a slow decay component. HRR may be influenced by population and exercise characteristics. The fast component mainly seems to be dictated by the cardiac parasympathetic reactivation, probably promoted by the deactivation of central command and mechanoreflex inputs immediately after exercise cessation. On the other hand, the slow phase of HRR may be determined by cardiac sympathetic withdrawal, possibly via the deactivation of metaboreflex and thermoregulatory mechanisms. All these pathways seem to be impaired in CVD, helping to explain the slower HRR in such patients and the increased rate of mortality in individuals who present a slower HRR. PMID:24237859

Peçanha, Tiago; Silva-Júnior, Natan Daniel; Forjaz, Cláudia Lúcia de Moraes

2014-09-01

310

Targeting mitochondrial oxidants may facilitate recovery of renal function during infant sepsis.  

PubMed

Sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (SAKI) is a frequent complication of infant sepsis that approximately doubles the mortality rate. The poor prognosis of these patients is a result of care that is mainly supportive, nontargeted, and usually begun only after symptoms of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome are observed. Preclinical studies from relevant rodent models of SAKI suggest that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants may be a new mode of therapy that could promote recovery. PMID:25148376

Sims, C R; MacMillan-Crow, L A; Mayeux, P R

2014-12-01

311

Early preservation of mitochondrial bioenergetics supports both structural and functional recovery after neurotrauma.  

PubMed

N-acetylcysteine, a precursor to the potent antioxidant glutathione, has been investigated as a potential therapeutic agent for several decades; however, inconsistent efficacy has been reported for diseases of the central nervous system, postulated to result from restricted passage of this molecule across the blood-brain/spinal cord barriers and cellular membranes, resulting in low bioavailability. The amide form of N-acetylcysteine (NACA) overcomes these limitations while maintaining a high antioxidant potential, and shows promise for combating secondary pathogenesis attributed to oxidative stress. Neurotrauma precipitates a rapid and prolonged disruption of mitochondrial bioenergetics, whereby the production of reactive oxygen species overwhelms the endogenous antioxidant capacity of the cells. Two noteworthy papers from collaborative teams have recently been published in Experimental Neurology, in which NACA was applied to rodent models of traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, respectively. Using sensitive methods to measure respiratory rates in isolated mitochondrial populations, treatment with NACA was shown to maintain mitochondrial function and boost antioxidant reserves, which corresponded with improvements in structural and functional outcomes in both studies. This commentary aims to highlight key findings from this research in a broader context, with an emphasis on methodological advances, future research possibilities, and potential applicability to brain and/or spinal cord injured patients. PMID:25079371

Semple, Bridgette D

2014-11-01

312

Oncostatin m reduces lesion size and promotes functional recovery and neurite outgrowth after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The family of interleukin (IL)-6 like cytokines plays an important role in the neuroinflammatory response to injury by regulating both neural as well as immune responses. Here, we show that expression of the IL-6 family member oncostatin M (OSM) and its receptor is upregulated after spinal cord injury (SCI). To reveal the relevance of increased OSM signaling in the pathophysiology of SCI, OSM was applied locally after spinal cord hemisection in mice. OSM treatment significantly improved locomotor recovery after mild and severe SCI. Improved recovery in OSM-treated mice was associated with a reduced lesion size. OSM significantly diminished astrogliosis and immune cell infiltration. Thus, OSM limits secondary damage after CNS trauma. In vitro viability assays demonstrated that OSM protects primary neurons in culture from cell death, suggesting that the underlying mechanism involves direct neuroprotective effects of OSM. Furthermore, OSM dose-dependently promoted neurite outgrowth in cultured neurons, indicating that the cytokine plays an additional role in CNS repair. Indeed, our in vivo experiments demonstrate that OSM treatment increases plasticity of serotonergic fibers after SCI. Together, our data show that OSM is produced at the lesion site, where it protects the CNS from further damage and promotes recovery. PMID:24996996

Slaets, Helena; Nelissen, Sofie; Janssens, Kris; Vidal, Pia M; Lemmens, Evi; Stinissen, Piet; Hendrix, Sven; Hellings, Niels

2014-12-01

313

Recovery of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods.  

PubMed

This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using 3 sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10(1), 10(2), or 10(3) cfu/eggshell of Salmonella Enteritidis and allowed to dry at room temperature for 1 or 24 h. For the shell rinse groups, each inoculated egg was rinsed with buffered peptone water. These rinsed eggs were used for the shell crush with previous rinse groups, and each egg was aseptically cracked, the contents discarded, and the eggshell and membranes crushed with buffered peptone water. This same crush procedure was used for the shell crush without previous shell rinse eggs. The recovery of Salmonella 1 h after inoculation for shell rinse sampled eggs was 16% positive at 10(1), 49% at 10(2), and 93% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. For the shell crush with previous shell rinse, sampled egg recovery was 0% positive at 10(1), 3% at 10(2), and 17% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell. For the shell crush, sampled eggs had recovery of 23% positive at 10(1), 69% at 10(2), and 96% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. The recovery of Salmonella 24 h after inoculation for the shell rinse eggs was 3% positive at 10(1), 12% at 10(2), and 22% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; recovery for shell crush with previous shell rinse sampling was 2% positive at 10(1), 8% at 10(2), and 5% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; and for the shell crush sampling recovery was 2% at 10(1), 32% at 10(2), and 42% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. Eggshell crush was a more sensitive (?10 percentage points) sampling method than eggshell rinse at both 1 and 24 h, but both methods were equally optimal when the inoculum was at 10(3) and samples were collected after 1 h. Waiting 24 h after inoculation to sample significantly lowered the recovery for both the shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods by ?40 percentage points. PMID:24931964

Webb, M L; Spickler, J L; Bourassa, D V; Cox, N A; Wilson, J L; Buhr, R J

2014-08-01

314

Computer method for identification of boiler transfer functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Iterative computer aided procedure was developed which provides for identification of boiler transfer functions using frequency response data. Method uses frequency response data to obtain satisfactory transfer function for both high and low vapor exit quality data.

Miles, J. H.

1972-01-01

315

Effect of Nightly versus On-Demand Vardenafil on Recovery of Erectile Function in Men Following Bilateral Nerve-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTo date, no data have been available from large, well-designed trials comparing on demand and nightly dosing of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors on recovery of erectile function in postprostatectomy patients with erectile dysfunction (ED).

Francesco Montorsi; Gerald Brock; Jay Lee; JoAnn Shapiro; Hendrik Van Poppel; Markus Graefen; Christian Stief

2008-01-01

316

Determinants of Neurological Functional Recovery Potential after Stroke in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives Despite recent progress in stroke prevention and acute treatment, neurorehabilitation remains one of the main methods of treatment in the management of stroke patients. The aim of this study is to point out some important predicting factors of in-hospital neurorehabilitation outcomes. Methods A rehabilitation registry including all patients who had undergone a standardized program of neurorehabilitation at the neurorehabilitation unit of the Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland, was created. Patients aged <65 years and having experienced a first ever nontraumatic stroke from 2005 to 2010 were admitted. Using logistical regression models, predicting factors for each patient were compared to the exit Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score. Results Age >55 years, gender, aphasia, hemilateral spatial neglect, spasticity, complications, length of stay >70 days, entry FIM >100 and relative possible FIM gain/week of >10% were considered to be significant and independent predicting factors of the neurorehabilitation outcome. Discussion/Conclusion Some factors of the in-hospital rehabilitation period have been identified before (spasticity, complications, length of stay, relative possible FIM gain/week) and should be considered for a better management of the neurorehabilitation therapy. In addition, a personalized rehabilitation strategy based on the patient's individual needs should be aimed at. The question of resource allocation can also be addressed with regard to the present findings. PMID:24847344

Haselbach, Daniel; Renggli, Anastasia; Carda, Stefano; Croquelois, Alexandre

2014-01-01

317

A variational method for finite element stress recovery and error estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variational method for obtaining smoothed stresses from a finite element derived nonsmooth stress field is presented. The method is based on minimizing a functional involving discrete least-squares error plus a penalty constraint that ensures smoothness of the stress field. An equivalent accuracy criterion is developed for the smoothing analysis which results in a C sup 1-continuous smoothed stress field possessing the same order of accuracy as that found at the superconvergent optimal stress points of the original finite element analysis. Application of the smoothing analysis to residual error estimation is also demonstrated.

Tessler, A.; Riggs, H. R.; Macy, S. C.

1993-01-01

318

A fully Galerkin method for the recovery of stiffness and damping parameters in Euler-Bernoulli beam models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fully Sinc-Galerkin method for recovering the spatially varying stiffness and damping parameters in Euler-Bernoulli beam models is presented. The forward problems are discretized with a sinc basis in both the spatial and temporal domains thus yielding an approximate solution which converges exponentially and is valid on the infinite time interval. Hence the method avoids the time-stepping which is characteristic of many of the forward schemes which are used in parameter recovery algorithms. Tikhonov regularization is used to stabilize the resulting inverse problem, and the L-curve method for determining an appropriate value of the regularization parameter is briefly discussed. Numerical examples are given which demonstrate the applicability of the method for both individual and simultaneous recovery of the material parameters.

Smith, R. C.; Bowers, K. L.

1991-01-01

319

Effects of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation Combined with Polymer on Functional Recovery Following Spinal Cord Hemisection in Rats  

PubMed Central

The spontaneous axon regeneration of damaged neurons is limited after spinal cord injury (SCI). Recently, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation was proposed as a potential approach for enhancing nerve regeneration that avoids the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem cell transplantation. As SCI is a complex pathological entity, the treatment of SCI requires a multipronged approach. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the functional recovery and therapeutic potential of human MSCs (hMSCs) and polymer in a spinal cord hemisection injury model. Rats were subjected to hemisection injuries and then divided into three groups. Two groups of rats underwent partial thoracic hemisection injury followed by implantation of either polymer only or polymer with hMSCs. Another hemisection-only group was used as a control. Behavioral, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical studies were performed on all rats. The functional recovery was significantly improved in the polymer with hMSC-transplanted group as compared with control at five weeks after transplantation. The results of electrophysiologic study demonstrated that the latency of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEPs) in the polymer with hMSC-transplanted group was significantly shorter than in the hemisection-only control group. In the results of immunohistochemical study, ?-gal-positive cells were observed in the injured and adjacent sites after hMSC transplantation. Surviving hMSCs differentiated into various cell types such as neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. These data suggest that hMSC transplantation with polymer may play an important role in functional recovery and axonal regeneration after SCI, and may be a potential therapeutic strategy for SCI. PMID:23269903

Choi, Ji Soo; Leem, Joong Woo; Lee, Kyung Hee; Kim, Sung-Soo; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung; Jung, Se Jung; Kim, Un Jeng

2012-01-01

320

Transplantation of ciliary neurotrophic factor-expressing adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells promotes remyelination and functional recovery after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Demyelination contributes to the dysfunction after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). We explored whether the combination of neurotrophic factors and transplantation of adult rat spinal cord oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) could enhance remyelination and functional recovery after SCI. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was the most effective neurotrophic factor to promote oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and survival of OPCs in vitro. OPCs were infected with retroviruses expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or CNTF and transplanted into the contused adult thoracic spinal cord 9 d after injury. Seven weeks after transplantation, the grafted OPCs survived and integrated into the injured spinal cord. The survival of grafted CNTF-OPCs increased fourfold compared with EGFP-OPCs. The grafted OPCs differentiated into adenomatus polyposis coli (APC(+)) OLs, and CNTF significantly increased the percentage of APC(+) OLs from grafted OPCs. Immunofluorescent and immunoelectron microscopic analyses showed that the grafted OPCs formed central myelin sheaths around the axons in the injured spinal cord. The number of OL-remyelinated axons in ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) or lateral funiculus (LF) at the injured epicenter was significantly increased in animals that received CNTF-OPC grafts compared with all other groups. Importantly, 75% of rats receiving CNTF-OPC grafts recovered transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potential and magnetic interenlargement reflex responses, indicating that conduction through the demyelinated axons in VLF or LF, respectively, was partially restored. More importantly, recovery of hindlimb locomotor function was significantly enhanced in animals receiving grafts of CNTF-OPCs. Thus, combined treatment with OPC grafts expressing CNTF can enhance remyelination and facilitate functional recovery after traumatic SCI. PMID:20181596

Cao, Qilin; He, Qian; Wang, Yaping; Cheng, Xiaoxin; Howard, Russell M; Zhang, Yiping; DeVries, William H; Shields, Christopher B; Magnuson, David S K; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Kim, Dong H; Whittemore, Scott R

2010-02-24

321

Functional Recovery Following an End to Side Neurorrhaphy of the Accessory Nerve to the Suprascapular Nerve: Case Report  

PubMed Central

The use of end-to-side neurrorhaphy remains a controversial topic in peripheral nerve surgery. The authors report the long-term functional outcome following a modified end-to-side motor reinnervation using the spinal accessory to innervate the suprascapular nerve following a C5 to C6 avulsion injury. Additionally, functional outcomes of an end-to-end neurotization of the triceps branch to the axillary nerve and double fascicular transfer of the ulnar and medial nerve to the biceps and brachialis are presented. Excellent functional recoveries are found in respect to shoulder abduction and flexion and elbow flexion. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11552-009-9242-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19902308

Ray, Wilson Z.; Kasukurthi, Rahul; Yee, Andrew

2009-01-01

322

Power Recovery  

E-print Network

.POWER RECOVERY Fletcher Mlirray Monsanto Chemical Company AB5'-:::0 p.p., will ??vi.w 'h. '.ohnnln,y nf 'h.::v,n. T:X:~~T ~ methods for estimating the power recovery potential from fluid streams. The ideal gas law formula for expanding gases..., will be the use of the ASTM Theoretical Steam Rate Tables. In addition, the author's experience regarding the minimum size for power recovery units that are economic in a Culf Coast plant will be presented. INTROD\\Jr.'rION When surveying an operation...

Murray, F.

323

The Effects of Schwann and Bone Marrow Stromal Stem Cells on Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rat: A Comparison of Functional Recovery  

PubMed Central

Objective: Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) or Schwann cells (SCs) can facilitate axonal regeneration in peripheral nerve injuries. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of transplantation of BMSCs and SCs on functional recovery after injury to the sciatic nerve in the rat. Materials and Methods: In this experimental research, adult male Wistar rats (n=24, 250-300 g) were used, BMSCs and SCs were cultured, and SCs were confirmed with anti S100 antibody. Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=8 in each group): 1; control group: silicon tube filled with fibrin gel without the cells, 2; BMSCs group: silicon tube filled with fibrin gel seeded with BMSCs and 3; SCs group: silicon tube filled with fibrin gel seeded with SCs. The left sciatic nerve was exposed, a 10 mm segment removed, and a silicone tube interposed into this nerve gap. BMSCs and SCs were separately transplanted into the gap in the two experimental groups and were labeled with anti BrdU and DiI respectively. After 12 weeks electrophysiological and functional assessments were performed and analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Electrophysiological and functional assessments showed a significant difference between the experimental groups compared with the control group. Electrophysiological measures were significantly better in the SCs transplantation group compared with the BMSCs treatment group (p <0.05). Functional assessments showed no statistically significant difference between the BMSCs and SCs groups (p <0.05). Conclusion: Although both BMSCs and SCs have the potential to produce functional recovery after injury to the sciatic nerve in rats, electrophysiological evaluation confirms that the improvement after SCs transplantation is greater than that after BMSCs transplantation. PMID:23626936

Zarbakhsh, Sam; Bakhtiyari, Mehrdad; Faghihi, Abolfazl; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Khoei, Samideh; Mansouri, Korosh; Yousefi, Behpour; Pirhajati, Vahid; Moradi, Fatemeh; Shirmohammadi, Maryam

2012-01-01

324

The Acetyl Bromide Method Is Faster, Simpler and Presents Best Recovery of Lignin in Different Herbaceous Tissues than Klason and Thioglycolic Acid Methods  

PubMed Central

We compared the amount of lignin as determined by the three most traditional methods for lignin measurement in three tissues (sugarcane bagasse, soybean roots and soybean seed coat) contrasting for lignin amount and composition. Although all methods presented high reproducibility, major inconsistencies among them were found. The amount of lignin determined by thioglycolic acid method was severely lower than that provided by the other methods (up to 95%) in all tissues analyzed. Klason method was quite similar to acetyl bromide in tissues containing higher amounts of lignin, but presented lower recovery of lignin in the less lignified tissue. To investigate the causes of the inconsistencies observed, we determined the monomer composition of all plant materials, but found no correlation. We found that the low recovery of lignin presented by the thioglycolic acid method were due losses of lignin in the residues disposed throughout the procedures. The production of furfurals by acetyl bromide method does not explain the differences observed. The acetyl bromide method is the simplest and fastest among the methods evaluated presenting similar or best recovery of lignin in all the tissues assessed. PMID:25330077

Moreira-Vilar, Flavia Carolina; Siqueira-Soares, Rita de Cassia; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; de Oliveira, Dyoni Matias; Ferro, Ana Paula; da Rocha, George Jackson; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes L.; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

2014-01-01

325

Apparatus and method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbons  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbon feed material. The feed material is caused to flow over a heated catalyst which fosters the water-gas shift reaction (H.sub.2 O+COH.sub.2 +CO.sub.2) and the methane steam reforming reaction (CH.sub.4 +H.sub.2 O3 H.sub.2 +CO). Both of these reactions proceed only to partial completion. However, by use of a Pd/Ag membrane which is exclusively permeable to hydrogen isotopes in the vicinity of the above reactions and by maintaining a vacuum on the permeate side of the membrane, product hydrogen isotopes are removed and the reactions are caused to proceed further toward completion. A two-stage palladium membrane reactor was tested with a feed composition of 28% CQ.sub.4, 35% Q.sub.2 O (where Q=H, D, or T), and 31% Ar in 31 hours of continuous operation during which 4.5 g of tritium were processed. Decontamination factors were found to increase with decreasing inlet rate. The first stage was observed to have a decontamination factor of approximately 200, while the second stage had a decontamination factor of 2.9.times.10.sup.6. The overall decontamination factor was 5.8.times.10.sup.8. When a Pt/.alpha.-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 catalyst is employed, decoking could be performed without catalyst degradation. However, by adjusting the carbon to oxygen ratio of the feed material with the addition of oxygen, coking could be altogether avoided.

Willms, R. Scott (Los Alamos, NM); Birdsell, Stephen A. (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01

326

Identification of potential sites for aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) in coastal areas using ASR performance estimation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance of freshwater aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) systems in brackish or saline aquifers is negatively affected by lateral flow, density effects, and/or dispersive mixing, causing ambient groundwater to enter ASR wells during recovery. Two recently published ASR performance estimation methods are applied in a Dutch coastal area, characterized by brackish-to-saline groundwater and locally high lateral-flow velocities. ASR performance of existing systems in the study area show good agreement with the predicted performance using the two methods, provided that local vertical anisotropy ratios are limited (<3). Deviations between actual and predicted ASR performance may originate from simplifications in the conceptual model and uncertainties in the hydrogeological and hydrochemical input. As the estimation methods prove suitable to predict ASR performance, feasibility maps are generated for different scales of ASR to identify favorable ASR sites. Successful small-to-medium-scale ASR varies spatially in the study area, emphasizing the relevance of reliable a priori spatial mapping.

Zuurbier, Koen G.; Bakker, Mark; Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan; Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

2013-09-01

327

Relation of nephron recruitment to detectable filtration and recovery of function after release of ureteral obstruction.  

PubMed

In this study, the role of nephron recruitment to measurable filtration in the recovery of whole kidney GFR following release of ureteral obstruction of 18 hr duration was characterized in the young rat with a modification of Hanssen's technique. Following release of bilateral (BUO) or unilateral (UUO) ureteral obstruction, the expected increases in fractional sodium and water excretion were observed and remained constant throughout the interval of the study (approximately 3 hr). However, the GFR of the postrelease kidney of rats subjected to BUO and UUO increased significantly within this time frame. Surprisingly, the percent increase in GFR was greater in the the UUO group. In both groups, there was a positive correlation between the number of filtering nephrons and time after release. The increase in the number of filtering juxtamedullary and superficial nephrons detectable with this technique was symmetrical after release of UUO and BUO. However, at all intervals of study, there were significantly fewer filtering nephrons in the postrelease kidney of the UUO and the BUO group. These studies indicate that the mechanism of recovery of GFR in the postrelease kidney in the two settings of ureteral obstruction is quite different. PMID:6889317

Buerkert, J; Martin, D

1983-09-01

328

A method to simulate motor control strategies to recover from perturbations: application to a stumble recovery during gait.  

PubMed

Perturbations during human gait such as a trip or a slip can result in a fall, especially among frail populations such as the elderly. In order to recover from a trip or a stumble during gait, humans perform different types of recovery strategies. It is very useful to uncover the mechanisms of the recovery to improve training methods for populations at risk of falling. Moreover, human recovery strategies could be applied to implement controllers for bipedal robot walker, as an application of biomimetic design. A biomechanical model of the response to a trip during gait might uncover the control mechanisms underlying the different recovery strategies and the adaptation of the responses found during the execution of successive perturbation trials. This paper introduces a model of stumble in the multibody system framework. This model is used to assess different feedforward strategies to recover from a trip. First of all, normal gait patterns for the musculoskeletal system model are obtained by solving an optimal control problem. Secondly, the reference gait is perturbed by the application of forces on the swinging foot in different ways: as an instantaneous inelastic collision of the foot with an obstacle, as an impulsive horizontal force or using a force curve measured experimentally during gait perturbation experiments. The influence of the type of perturbation, the timing of the collision with respect to the gait cycle, as well as of the coefficient of restitution was investigated previously. Finally, in order to test the effects of different muscle excitation levels on the initial phases of the recovery response, several muscle excitations were added to selected muscles of the legs, thus providing a simulation of the recovery reactions. These results pave the way for future analysis and modeling of the control mechanisms of gait. PMID:22256154

Forner-Cordero, Arturo; Ackermann, Marko; de Lima Freitas, Mateus

2011-01-01

329

General method for evaluating shape truncation functions of Voronoi polyhedra  

SciTech Connect

A general method is presented for evaluating shape truncation functions of arbitrary Voronoi polyhedra. Unlike some other methods developed in recent years, the method described here does not demand any particular knowledge about a Voronoi pohyhedron other than the position of the set of possible boundary planes. Besides its generality, the accuracy and efficiency of our method are also demonstrated.

Wang, Y.; Stocks, G.M. (Metals and Ceramics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6114 (United States)); Faulkner, J.S. (Alloy Research Center and Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida 33431 (United States))

1994-02-15

330

Sampling method for semidefinite programs with nonnegative Popov function constraints  

E-print Network

Sampling method for semidefinite programs with nonnegative Popov function constraints Anders processing involves the constraint that a Popov function is nonnegative on the unit circle or the imaginary axis. Such a constraint is convex in the coefficients of the Popov function. It can be converted

Vandenberghe, Lieven

331

Function-Class Decomposition: A Hybrid Software Engineering Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to offering a simple yet powerful method for decomposing a system, function-class decomposition (FCD) produces an architecture that is more supportive than traditional object-oriented decomposition for several software engineering tasks. A hybrid method that integrates structured analysis with an OO approach, FCD identifies classes in parallel with decomposing the system into a hierarchy of functional modules. Recently, developers

Carl K. Chang; Jane Cleland-huang; Shiyan Hua; Annie Kuntzmann-combelles

2001-01-01

332

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Volumetric and Functional Recovery of the Remnant Liver After Major Liver Resection with Prior Portal Vein Embolization Recovery After PVE and Liver Resection  

E-print Network

# 2009 The Author(s). This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Introduction Portal vein embolization is an accepted method to increase the future remnant liver preoperatively. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preoperative portal vein embolization on liver volume and function 3 months after major liver resection. Materials and methods This is a retrospective case-control study. Data were collected of patients who underwent portal vein embolization prior to (extended) right hemihepatectomy and of control patients who underwent the same type of resection

Jacomina W. Van Den Esschert; Wilmar De Graaf; Krijn P. Van Lienden; Roelof J. Bennink

2009-01-01

333

Effect of an Inductive Hydrogel Composed of Urinary Bladder Matrix Upon Functional Recovery Following Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem with no effective clinical treatment. Use of bioactive scaffold materials has been shown to be a promising strategy for tissue regeneration and repair in a number of injury models. Of these scaffold materials, urinary bladder matrix (UBM) derived from porcine bladder tissue, has demonstrated desirable properties for supporting and promoting the growth of neural cells in vitro, suggesting its potential as a scaffold for brain tissue repair in the treatment of TBI. Herein we evaluate the biocompatibility of UBM within brain tissue and the effects of UBM delivery upon functional outcome following TBI. A hydrogel form of UBM was injected into healthy rat brains for 1, 3, and 21 days to examine the tissue response to UBM. Multiple measures of tissue injury, including reactive astrocytosis, microglial activation, and neuron degeneration showed that UBM had no deleterious effects on normal brain. Following TBI, the brains were evaluated histologically and behaviorally between sham-operated controls and UBM- and vehicle-treated groups. Application of UBM reduced lesion volume and attenuated trauma-induced myelin disruption. Importantly, UBM treatment resulted in significant neurobehavioral recovery following TBI as demonstrated by improvements in vestibulomotor function; however, no differences in cognitive recovery were observed between the UBM- and vehicle-treated groups. The present study demonstrated that UBM is not only biocompatible within the brain tissue, but also can exert protective effects upon injured brain. PMID:23596981

Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Feng; Weng, Zhongfang; Brown, Bryan N.; Yan, Hongqu; Ma, Xiecheng Michelle; Vosler, Peter S.; Badylak, Stephen F.; Dixon, C. Edward

2013-01-01

334

Effects of the combination of methylprednisolone with aminoguanidine on functional recovery in rats following spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Methylprednisolone (MP), a synthetic glucocorticoid, has been widely used as a standard therapeutic agent for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). The combination of MP and other pharmacological agents aimed at enhancing functional recovery is desirable as the beneficial effects of MP are controversial, due to a variety of side-effects. Aminoguanidine (AG), a small water-soluble compound, is potentially useful in the treatment of acute SCI. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of MP and AG, administered in combination, following SCI in adult rats. In rats with SCI, the combination therapy group treated with AG (75 mg/kg) and MP (0.75 mg/kg) exhibited significantly reduced levels of cytokine expression and cell apoptosis compared with those in the control group. In addition, the data demonstrated that the combination therapy significantly enhanced the recovery of limb function. These data clearly suggest that treatment with a combination of MP and AG represents a promising strategy of clinically applicable pharmacological therapy for the rapid initiation of neuroprotection following SCI. PMID:24926352

LI, ZONGSHU; DU, JUAN; SUN, HONGXIA; MANG, JING; HE, JINTING; WANG, JIAOQI; LIU, HONGYU; XU, ZHONGXIN

2014-01-01

335

Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Mediated Downregulation of Fas Improves Functional Recovery of Rats after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Human umbilical cord blood stem cells (hUCB), due to their primitive nature and ability to develop into nonhematopoietic cells of various tissue lineages, represent a potentially useful source for cell-based therapies after spinal cord injury (SCI). To evaluate their therapeutic potential, hUCB were stereotactically transplanted into the injury epicenter, one week after SCI in rats. Our results show the presence of a substantial number of surviving hUCB in the injured spinal cord up to five weeks after transplantation. Three weeks after SCI, apoptotic cells were found especially in the dorsal white matter and gray matter, which are positive for both neuron and oligodendrocyte markers. Expression of Fas on both neurons and oligodendrocytes was efficiently downregulated by hUCB. This ultimately resulted in downregulation of caspase-3 extrinsic pathway proteins involving increased expression of FLIP, XIAP and inhibition of PARP cleavage. In hUCB-treated rats, the PI3K/Akt pathway was also involved in antiapoptotic actions. Further, structural integrity of the cytoskeletal proteins ?-tubulin, MAP2A&2B and NF-200 has been preserved in hUCB treatments. The behavioral scores of hind limbs of hUCB-treated rats improved significantly than those of the injured group, showing functional recovery. Taken together, our results indicate that hUCB-mediated downregulation of Fas and caspases leads to functional recovery of hind limbs of rats after SCI. PMID:17703359

Dasari, Venkata Ramesh; Spomar, Daniel G.; Li, Liang; Gujrati, Meena; Rao, Jasti S.; Dinh, Dzung H.

2007-01-01

336

Intravenous administration of Honokiol provides neuroprotection and improves functional recovery after traumatic brain injury through cell cycle inhibition.  

PubMed

Recently, increasing evidence has shown that cell cycle activation is a key factor of neuronal death and neurological dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aims to investigate the effects of Honokiol, a cell cycle inhibitor, on attenuating the neuronal damage and facilitating functional recovery after TBI in rats, in an attempt to unveil its underlying molecular mechanisms in TBI. This study suggested that delayed intravenous administration of Honokiol could effectively ameliorate TBI-induced sensorimotor and cognitive dysfunctions. Meanwhile, Honokiol treatment could also reduce the lesion volume and increase the neuronal survival in the cortex and hippocampus. The neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in the cortex and hippocampus were further significantly attenuated by Honokiol treatment. In addition, the expression of cell cycle-related proteins, including cyclin D1, CDK4, pRb and E2F1, was significantly increased and endogenous cell cycle inhibitor p27 was markedly decreased at different time points after TBI. And these changes were significantly reversed by post-injury Honokiol treatment. Furthermore, the expression of some of the key cell cycle proteins such as cyclin D1 and E2F1 and the associated apoptosis in neurons were both remarkably attenuated by Honokiol treatment. These results show that delayed intravenous administration of Honokiol could effectively improve the functional recovery and attenuate the neuronal cell death, which is probably, at least in part, attributed to its role as a cell cycle inhibitior. This might give clues to developing attractive therapies for future clinical trials. PMID:24973706

Wang, Haiquan; Liao, Zhengbu; Sun, Xiaochuan; Shi, Quanhong; Huo, Gang; Xie, Yanfeng; Tang, Xiaolan; Zhi, Xinggang; Tang, Zhaohua

2014-11-01

337

Effect of an inductive hydrogel composed of urinary bladder matrix upon functional recovery following traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem with no effective clinical treatment. Use of bioactive scaffold materials has been shown to be a promising strategy for tissue regeneration and repair in a number of injury models. Of these scaffold materials, urinary bladder matrix (UBM) derived from porcine bladder tissue, has demonstrated desirable properties for supporting and promoting the growth of neural cells in vitro, suggesting its potential as a scaffold for brain tissue repair in the treatment of TBI. Herein we evaluate the biocompatibility of UBM within brain tissue and the effects of UBM delivery upon functional outcome following TBI. A hydrogel form of UBM was injected into healthy rat brains for 1, 3, and 21 days to examine the tissue response to UBM. Multiple measures of tissue injury, including reactive astrocytosis, microglial activation, and neuron degeneration showed that UBM had no deleterious effects on normal brain. Following TBI, the brains were evaluated histologically and behaviorally between sham-operated controls and UBM- and vehicle-treated groups. Application of UBM reduced lesion volume and attenuated trauma-induced myelin disruption. Importantly, UBM treatment resulted in significant neurobehavioral recovery following TBI as demonstrated by improvements in vestibulomotor function; however, no differences in cognitive recovery were observed between the UBM- and vehicle-treated groups. The present study demonstrated that UBM is not only biocompatible within the brain tissue, but also can exert protective effects upon injured brain. PMID:23596981

Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Feng; Weng, Zhongfang; Brown, Bryan N; Yan, Hongqu; Ma, Xiecheng Michelle; Vosler, Peter S; Badylak, Stephen F; Dixon, C Edward; Cui, Xinyan Tracy; Chen, Jun

2013-09-01

338

Plasma and urine renalase levels and activity during the recovery of renal function in kidney transplant recipients.  

PubMed

Renalase is a recently described enzyme secreted by the kidney into both plasma and urine, where it was suggested to degrade catecholamines contributing to blood pressure control. While there is a controversy regarding the relationship between renal function and plasma renalase levels, there is virtually no data in humans on plasma renalase activity as well as on both urine renalase levels and activity. We prospectively examined the time course of plasma and urine renalase levels and activity in 26 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving a cadaver kidney transplant (cadaver kidney recipients [CKR]) before surgery and during the recovery of renal function up to day 90 post transplant. The relationship with sympathetic and renal dopaminergic activities was also evaluated. The recovery of renal function in CKR closely predicted decreases in plasma renalase levels (r = 0.88; P < 0.0001), urine renalase levels (r = 0.75; P < 0.0001) and urine renalase activity (r = 0.56; P < 0.03), but did not predict changes in plasma renalase activity (r = -0.02; NS). Plasma norepinephrine levels positively correlated with plasma renalase levels (r = 0.64, P < 0.002) as well as with urine renalase levels and activity (r = 0.47 P < 0.02; r = 0.71, P < 0.0005, respectively) and negatively correlated with plasma renalase activity (r = -0.57, P < 0.002). By contrast, plasma epinephrine levels positively correlated with plasma renalase activity (r = 0.67, P < 0.0001) and negatively correlated with plasma renalase levels (r = -0.62, P < 0.003). A significant negative relationship was observed between urine dopamine output and urine renalase levels (r = -0.48; P < 0.03) but not with urine renalase activity (r = -0.33, NS). We conclude that plasma and urine renalase levels closely depend on renal function and sympathetic nervous system activity. It is suggested that epinephrine-mediated activation of circulating renalase may occur in renal transplant recipients with good recovery of renal function. The increase in plasma renalase activity observed in ESRD patients and renal transplant recipients can be explained on the basis of reduced inhibition of the circulating enzyme. PMID:24599883

Quelhas-Santos, Janete; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Fernandes-Cerqueira, Cátia; Simões-Silva, Liliana; Ferreira, Inês; Carvalho, Catarina; Coentrão, Luís; Vaz, Raquel; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Pestana, Manuel

2014-04-01

339

Polyvinyl alcohol as a useful indicator on iodometry. (II): Temperature dependence of iodine recovery and the correction method of iodine concentration in the lower detection limit region.  

PubMed

In an iodometric titration method for iodine (or chlorine) analysis, the percent recovery of iodine (or chlorine) decreases in the low concentration region and at the relatively higher temperature range. We have shown that the percent recovery vs. concentration curve can be expressed by a simple empirical formula. The empirical formula contains parameters that depend on temperature and those parameters were obtained as a function of temperature. The empirical formula can be used as a correction function for experimental iodine (or chlorine) concentrations. By applying the correction function with the parameters to the experimentally obtained concentrations, we can estimate the reliable concentration in the low concentration region. Estimated concentrations were within 10% (as RSD) of the exact values after the correction in the range of 0.4 mg I2 L(-1) ([triple bond] ca. 0.1 mg as Cl2 L9-1)) - 4.4 mg I2 L(-1) ([triple bond] ca. 1.2 mg as Cl2 L(-1)) in the temperature range of 0 to 30 degrees C. PMID:15068303

Yoshinaga, Tetsutaro; Tsuchida, Makoto; Toyose, Yasushi; Hiratsuka, Hiroshi; Yamaye, Makoto

2004-03-01

340

Basic Concepts in Understanding Recovery of Function in Vestibular Reflex Networks during Vestibular Compensation  

PubMed Central

Unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions produce a syndrome of oculomotor and postural deficits with the symptoms at rest, the static symptoms, partially or completely normalizing shortly after the lesion due to a process known as vestibular compensation. The symptoms are thought to result from changes in the activity of vestibular sensorimotor reflexes. Since the vestibular nuclei must be intact for recovery to occur, many investigations have focused on studying these neurons after lesions. At present, the neuronal plasticity underlying early recovery from the static symptoms is not fully understood. Here we propose that knowledge of the reflex identity and input–output connections of the recorded neurons is essential to link the responses to animal behavior. We further propose that the cellular mechanisms underlying vestibular compensation can be sorted out by characterizing the synaptic responses and time course for change in morphologically defined subsets of vestibular reflex projection neurons. Accordingly, this review focuses on the perspective gained by performing electrophysiological and immunolabeling studies on a specific subset of morphologically defined, glutamatergic vestibular reflex projection neurons, the principal cells of the chick tangential nucleus. Reference is made to pertinent findings from other studies on vestibular nuclei neurons, but no comprehensive review of the literature is intended since broad reviews already exist. From recording excitatory and inhibitory spontaneous synaptic activity in principal cells, we find that the rebalancing of excitatory synaptic drive bilaterally is essential for vestibular compensation to proceed. This work is important for it defines for the first time the excitatory and inhibitory nature of the changing synaptic inputs and the time course for changes in a morphologically defined subset of vestibular reflex projection neurons during early stages of vestibular compensation. PMID:22363316

Peusner, Kenna D.; Shao, Mei; Reddaway, Rebecca; Hirsch, June C.

2012-01-01

341

Conserved Dopamine Neurotrophic Factor-Transduced Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Axon Regeneration and Functional Recovery of Injured Sciatic Nerve  

PubMed Central

Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a common disease that often results in axonal degeneration and the loss of neurons, ultimately leading to limited nerve regeneration and severe functional impairment. Currently, there are no effective treatments for PNI. In the present study, we transduced conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in collagen tubes to investigate their regenerative effects on rat peripheral nerves in an in vivo transection model. Scanning electron microscopy of the collagen tubes demonstrated their ability to be resorbed in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of the CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after application of CDNF-MSCs. Quantitative analysis of neurofilament 200 (NF200) and S100 immunohistochemistry showed significant enhancement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration in the group receiving CDNF-MSCs (CDNF-MSCs group) compared with the control groups. Myelination thickness, axon diameter and the axon-to fiber diameter ratio (G-ratio) were significantly higher in the CDNF-MSCs group at 8 and 12 weeks after nerve transection surgery. After surgery, the sciatic functional index, target muscle weight, wet weight ratio of gastrocnemius muscle and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracing demonstrated functional recovery. Light and electron microscopy confirmed successful regeneration of the sciatic nerve. The greater numbers of HRP-labeled neuron cell bodies and increased sciatic nerve index values (SFI) in the CDNF-MSCs group suggest that CDNF exerts neuroprotective effects in vivo. We also observed higher target muscle weights and a significant improvement in muscle atrophism in the CDNF-MSCs group. Collectively, these findings indicate that CDNF gene therapy delivered by MSCs is capable of promoting nerve regeneration and functional recovery, likely because of the significant neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of CDNF and the superior environment offered by MSCs and collagen tubes. PMID:25343619

Liu, Yi; Nie, Lin; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Yuan-Qiang; Wang, Shuai-Shuai; Cheng, Lei

2014-01-01

342

Conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor-transduced mesenchymal stem cells promote axon regeneration and functional recovery of injured sciatic nerve.  

PubMed

Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a common disease that often results in axonal degeneration and the loss of neurons, ultimately leading to limited nerve regeneration and severe functional impairment. Currently, there are no effective treatments for PNI. In the present study, we transduced conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in collagen tubes to investigate their regenerative effects on rat peripheral nerves in an in vivo transection model. Scanning electron microscopy of the collagen tubes demonstrated their ability to be resorbed in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of the CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after application of CDNF-MSCs. Quantitative analysis of neurofilament 200 (NF200) and S100 immunohistochemistry showed significant enhancement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration in the group receiving CDNF-MSCs (CDNF-MSCs group) compared with the control groups. Myelination thickness, axon diameter and the axon-to fiber diameter ratio (G-ratio) were significantly higher in the CDNF-MSCs group at 8 and 12 weeks after nerve transection surgery. After surgery, the sciatic functional index, target muscle weight, wet weight ratio of gastrocnemius muscle and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracing demonstrated functional recovery. Light and electron microscopy confirmed successful regeneration of the sciatic nerve. The greater numbers of HRP-labeled neuron cell bodies and increased sciatic nerve index values (SFI) in the CDNF-MSCs group suggest that CDNF exerts neuroprotective effects in vivo. We also observed higher target muscle weights and a significant improvement in muscle atrophism in the CDNF-MSCs group. Collectively, these findings indicate that CDNF gene therapy delivered by MSCs is capable of promoting nerve regeneration and functional recovery, likely because of the significant neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of CDNF and the superior environment offered by MSCs and collagen tubes. PMID:25343619

Liu, Yi; Nie, Lin; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Yuan-Qiang; Wang, Shuai-Shuai; Cheng, Lei

2014-01-01

343

Evaluation of cardiac autonomic functions in patients with ankylosing spondylitis via heart rate recovery and heart rate variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The aim of this study was to evaluate heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) in otherwise healthy ankylosing\\u000a spondlitis (AS) patients and control subjects.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 28 patients with AS and 30 volunteers matched for age and sex were enrolled. All subjects underwent HRV analysis,\\u000a exercise testing (ET), and transthoracic echocardiography. HRR indices were calculated by

Ergun Baris Kaya; Sercan Okutucu; Hakan Aksoy; Ugur Nadir Karakulak; Erol Tulumen; Oya Ozdemir; Fatma Inanici; Kudret Aytemir; Giray Kabakci; Lale Tokgozoglu; Hilmi Ozkutlu; Ali Oto

2010-01-01

344

Radial Basis Function Neural Network method of determining functional relationships for Quality Function Deployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality function deployment (QFD) is a systematic approach that captures customer requirements and translates them, through house of quality (HOQ), into engineering characteristics of product. As the functional relationships between customer requirements and engineering characteristics in QFD are uncertain, unclear and fuzzy, radial basis function (RBF) to determine the functional relationships for QFD is presented, and a QFD functional relationships

Li Xin; Huang Lu-cheng

2009-01-01

345

Recovery of absorptive function of the reticulo-rumen and total tract barrier function in beef cattle after short-term feed restriction.  

PubMed

Our objective was to determine if the severity of short-term feed restriction (FR) affects the timeline for recovery of the absorptive function of the reticulo-rumen and barrier function of the total gastrointestinal tract in beef cattle. Eighteen ruminally cannulated and ovariectomized Angus × Hereford heifers were housed in individual pens. Heifers were blocked by initial BW into 3 blocks and, within block, randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments that differed in the severity of FR: heifers were restricted to 75, 50, or 25% of ad libitum intake. Treatments were imposed during a 5-d period of FR followed by 3 consecutive wk of recovery (REC1, REC2, and REC3). Throughout the experiment heifers were fed the same diet (60% forage:40% concentrate) for ad libitum intake (except during FR) and water was available at all times. Dry matter intake was measured daily and ruminal pH was recorded every 2 min during FR and recovery periods. Ruminal fluid and blood samples were collected on d 3 of the FR and d 5 of REC1 and REC3. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption rates were evaluated on the last day of FR, REC1, and REC3 using the temporarily isolated and washed reticulo-rumen technique. On d 2 of FR and d 4 of REC1 and REC3, a 1 L solution of Cr-EDTA (180 mM) was dosed into the rumen followed by 48 h of total urine collection. Dry matter intake (% BW) increased rapidly in REC1 for heifers restricted to 75 and 50%; however, heifers restricted to 25% needed at least 2 wk to recover (treatment × period; P < 0.001). Regardless of the severity of FR, the duration that pH < 5.5 was the highest during REC1 (period P < 0.001). However, an interaction was found for the acidosis index, with pH × min/kg of DMI being greatest in heifers restricted to 25% on d 1 of the recovery period. A treatment × period interaction was found for the absolute absorption rate (mmol/h) of total SCFA (P = 0.009). The total SCFA absorption rate was not different for heifers restricted to 75 and 50% across periods, whereas an increase from FR and REC1 to REC3 was detected for heifers restricted to 25% of ad libitum intake. A treatment effect was observed for urinary Cr output (P = 0.027) indicating that heifers previously restricted to 25% of ad libitum intake had greater Cr excretion in urine during FR and recovery. This study indicates that severe FR negatively affects the time required for recovery of reticulo-rumen absorptive function and total tract barrier function. Another important finding is that regardless of severity, FR increases risk for ruminal acidosis when heifers have free access to feed after FR. PMID:23408814

Zhang, S; Aschenbach, J R; Barreda, D R; Penner, G B

2013-04-01

346

Vector-Free and Transgene-Free Human iPS Cells Differentiate into Functional Neurons and Enhance Functional Recovery after Ischemic Stroke in Mice  

PubMed Central

Stroke is a leading cause of human death and disability in the adult population in the United States and around the world. While stroke treatment is limited, stem cell transplantation has emerged as a promising regenerative therapy to replace or repair damaged tissues and enhance functional recovery after stroke. Recently, the creation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells through reprogramming of somatic cells has revolutionized cell therapy by providing an unlimited source of autologous cells for transplantation. In addition, the creation of vector-free and transgene-free human iPS (hiPS) cells provides a new generation of stem cells with a reduced risk of tumor formation that was associated with the random integration of viral vectors seen with previous techniques. However, the potential use of these cells in the treatment of ischemic stroke has not been explored. In the present investigation, we examined the neuronal differentiation of vector-free and transgene-free hiPS cells and the transplantation of hiPS cell-derived neural progenitor cells (hiPS-NPCs) in an ischemic stroke model in mice. Vector-free hiPS cells were maintained in feeder-free and serum-free conditions and differentiated into functional neurons in vitro using a newly developed differentiation protocol. Twenty eight days after transplantation in stroke mice, hiPS-NPCs showed mature neuronal markers in vivo. No tumor formation was seen up to 12 months after transplantation. Transplantation of hiPS-NPCs restored neurovascular coupling, increased trophic support and promoted behavioral recovery after stroke. These data suggest that using vector-free and transgene-free hiPS cells in stem cell therapy are safe and efficacious in enhancing recovery after focal ischemic stroke in mice. PMID:23717557

Mohamad, Osama; Faulkner, Ben; Chen, Dongdong; Yu, Shan Ping; Wei, Ling

2013-01-01

347

Method of recovering neptunium from spent nuclear fuel. [an improved Purex wet recovery process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved Purex wet recovery process including the step of extracting and separating uranium and plutonium simultaneously from the fission products in the presence of nitric acid and nitrous acid by using a multistage extractor unit having an extracting section and a washing section is provided for separating and recovering neptunium simultaneously with uranium and plutonium contained in spent nuclear

T. Tsuboya; S. Nemoto; T. Hoshino; C. Tanaka

1976-01-01

348

A Method for Comparative Analysis of Recovery Potential in Impaired Waters Restoration Planning  

EPA Science Inventory

Common decision support tools and a growing body of knowledge about ecological recovery can help inform and guide large state and federal restoration programs affecting thousands of impaired waters. Under the federal Clean Water Act (CWA), waters not meeting state Water Quality ...

349

Methods for polyurethane and polyurethane composites, recycling and recovery: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in the recycling and recovery of polyurethane and polyurethane composites is reviewed. The various types of polyurethane waste products, consisting of either old recycled parts or production waste, are generally reduced to a more usable form, such as flakes, powder or pellets, depending on the particular type of polyurethane that is being recycled. The various recycling technologies for

Khalid Mahmood Zia; Haq Nawaz Bhatti; Ijaz Ahmad Bhatti

2007-01-01

350

QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMPROVED RECOVERY: APPLICATION TO HEAVY OIL SANDS  

SciTech Connect

Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity has the potential to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involves application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation, particularly in heavy oil sands. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field. Observations of lateral variability and vertical sequences observed in Temblor Formation outcrops has led to a better understanding of reservoir geology in West Coalinga Field. Based on the characteristics of stratigraphic bounding surfaces in the outcrops, these surfaces were identified in the subsurface using cores and logs. The bounding surfaces were mapped and then used as reference horizons in the reservoir modeling. Facies groups and facies tracts were recognized from outcrops and cores of the Temblor Formation and were applied to defining the stratigraphic framework and facies architecture for building 3D geological models. The following facies tracts were recognized: incised valley, estuarine, tide- to wave-dominated shoreline, diatomite, and subtidal. A new minipermeameter probe, which has important advantages over previous methods of measuring outcrop permeability, was developed during this project. The device, which measures permeability at the distal end of a small drillhole, avoids surface weathering effects and provides a superior seal compared with previous methods for measuring outcrop permeability. The new probe was used successfully for obtaining a high-quality permeability data set from an outcrop in southern Utah. Results obtained from analyzing the fractal structure of permeability data collected from the southern Utah outcrop and from core permeability data provided by Chevron from West Coalinga Field were used in distributing permeability values in 3D reservoir models. Spectral analyses and the Double Trace Moment method (Lavallee et al., 1991) were used to analyze the scaling and multifractality of permeability data from cores from West Coalinga Field. T2VOC, which is a numerical flow simulator capable of modeling multiphase, multi-component, nonisothermal flow, was used to model steam injection and oil production for a portion of section 36D in West Coalinga Field. The layer structure and permeability distributions of different models, including facies group, facies tract, and fractal permeability models, were incorporated into the numerical flow simulator. The injection and production histories of wells in the study area were modeled, including shutdowns and the occasional conversion of production wells to steam injection wells. The framework provided by facies groups provides a more realistic representation of the reservoir conditions than facies tracts, which is revealed by a comparison of the history-matching for the oil production. Permeability distributions obtained using the fractal results predict the high degree of heterogeneity within the reservoir sands of West Coalinga Field. The modeling results indicate that predictions of oil production are strongly influenced by the geologic framework and by the boundary conditions. The permeability data collected from the southern Utah outcrop, support a new concept for representing natural heterogeneity, which is called the fractal/facies concept. This hypothesis is one of the few potentially simplifying concepts to emerge from recent studies of geological heterogeneity. Further investigation of this concept should be done to more fully apply fractal analysis to reservoir modeling and simulation. Additional outcrop permeability data sets and further analysis of the data from distinct facies will be needed in order to fully develop

James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz; Ronald W. Falta; Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Scott E. Brame; Robert A. Bridges

2002-10-30

351

Postanoxic functional recovery of the developing heart is slightly altered by endogenous or exogenous nitric oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is strongly and transiently expressed in the developing heart but its function is not well documented. This work examined the role, either protective or detrimental, that endogenous and exogenous NO could play in the functioning of the embryonic heart submitted to hypoxia and reoxygenation. Spontaneously beating hearts isolated from 4-day-old chick embryos were either homogenized to

J. Terrand; E. Felley-Bosco; F. Courjault-Gautier; A.-C. Rochat; P. Kucera; E. Raddatz

2003-01-01

352

A new practical method for the determination of static formation temperatures in geothermal and petroleum wells using a numerical method based on rational polynomial functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new practical method based on rational polynomial (RP) functions to estimate the static formation temperatures (SFT) in geothermal and petroleum boreholes is described. Thermal recovery processes involved during borehole drilling and completion operations were represented by mathematical asymptotic trends. Measurements of bottom-hole temperature and shut-in times (at least three or more) have been used both to obtain a mathematical function that describes the thermal recovery process of drilled boreholes, and to estimate the SFT. Using build-up temperature logs, the SFT have been reliably estimated with precision and accuracy. With these results, it was successfully demonstrated that the new RP method provides a practical tool for the reliable prediction of SFT in geothermal and petroleum boreholes.

Wong-Loya, J. A.; Andaverde, J.; Santoyo, E.

2012-12-01

353

Bridging Grafts and Transient Nerve Growth Factor Infusions Promote Long-Term Central Nervous System Neuronal Rescue and Partial Functional Recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grafts of favorable axonal growth substrates were combined with transient nerve growth factor (NGF) infusions to promote morphological and functional recovery in the adult rat brain after lesions of the septohippocampal projection. Long-term septal cholinergic neuronal rescue and partial hippocampal reinnervation were achieved, resulting in partial functional recovery on a simple task assessing habituation but not on a more complex task assessing spatial reference memory. Control animals that received transient NGF infusions without axonal-growth-promoting grafts lacked behavioral recovery but also showed long-term septal neuronal rescue. These findings indicate that (i) partial recovery from central nervous system injury can be induced by both preventing host neuronal loss and promoting host axonal regrowth and (ii) long-term neuronal loss can be prevented with transient NGF infusions.

Tuszynski, Mark H.; Gage, Fred H.

1995-05-01

354

An improved method of constructing binned luminosity functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that binned differential luminosity functions constructed using the 1/Va method have a significant systematic error for objects close to the flux limit(s) of their parent sample. This is particularly noticeable when luminosity functions are produced for a number of different redshift ranges as is common in the study of AGN or galaxy evolution. We present a simple method of constructing a binned luminosity function which overcomes this problem and has a number of other advantages over the traditional 1/Va method. We also describe a practical method for comparing binned and model luminosity functions, by calculating the expectation values of the binned luminosity function from the model. Binned luminosity functions produced by the two methods are compared for simulated data and for the Large Bright QSO Survey (LBQS). It is shown that the 1/Va method produces a very misleading picture of evolution in the LBQS. The binned luminosity function of the LBQS is then compared with a model two-power-law luminosity function undergoing pure luminosity evolution from Boyle et al. The comparison is made using a model luminosity function averaged over each redshift shell, and using the expectation values for the binned luminosity function calculated from the model. The luminosity function averaged in each redshift shell gives a misleading impression that the model over predicts the number of QSOs at low luminosity even for 1.0< z<1.5, when model and data are consistent. The expectation values show that there are significant differences between model and data: the model overpredicts the number of low luminosity sources at both low and high redshift. The luminosity function does not appear to steepen relative to the model as redshift increases.

Page, M. J.; Carrera, F. J.

2000-01-01

355

Clinical Recovery in First-Episode Psychosis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Generally agreed outcome criteria in psychosis are required to evaluate the effectiveness of new treatment strategies. The aim of this study is to explore clinical recovery in first-episode patients, defined by meeting criteria for both symptomatic and functional remission. Method: In a sample of first-episode patients (N?=?125), symptomatic and functional remission during the last 9 months of a 2-year follow-up period were examined, as well as recovery and its predictors. Results: Half the patients (52.0%) showed symptomatic remission and a quarter (26.4%) functional remission, while one-fifth (19.2%) met both criteria sets and were considered recovered. Recovery was significantly associated with short duration of untreated psychosis and better baseline functioning. Conclusion: Most functionally remitted patients were also symptomatically remitted, while a minority of symptomatically remitted patients were also functionally remitted. Treatment delay may affect chance of recovery. PMID:18990715

Wunderink, Lex; Sytema, Sjoerd; Nienhuis, Fokko J.; Wiersma, Durk

2009-01-01

356

Computer method for identification of boiler transfer functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An iterative computer method is described for identifying boiler transfer functions using frequency response data. An objective penalized performance measure and a nonlinear minimization technique are used to cause the locus of points generated by a transfer function to resemble the locus of points obtained from frequency response measurements. Different transfer functions can be tried until a satisfactory empirical transfer function to the system is found. To illustrate the method, some examples and some results from a study of a set of data consisting of measurements of the inlet impedance of a single tube forced flow boiler with inserts are given.

Miles, J. H.

1971-01-01

357

Use of a Hyaluronic Acid-Carboxymethylcellulose Adhesion Barrier on the Neurovascular Bundle and Prostatic Bed to Facilitate Earlier Recovery of Erectile Function After Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy: An Initial Experience  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose To investigate the efficacy of hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose (HACM) in facilitating early recovery of erectile function (EF) after radical prostatectomy, we report our initial experience of HACM use on the neurovascular bundle (NVB) after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Patients and Methods Between 2008 and 2010, 459 consecutive patients who underwent RARP with bilateral nerve-sparing technique were included in this study. Patients were classified into two groups: HACM (group 1; n=162) and non-HACM (group 2; n=287). HACM was delivered to the anatomic location of the NVB after prostate removal. We retrospectively analyzed the surgical outcomes including EF, continence, and perioperative complications. Results At 6 months after surgery, EF recovery rate was 28.5% in group 1 and 17.4% in group 2 (P=0.006). In a subgroup analysis consisting of 225 patients with a preoperative International Index of Erectile Function Short Survey (IIEF)-5 score ?20, the difference in EF recovery at 6 months was significant with 62.8% in group 1 and 27.0% in group 2 (P=0.002), respectively. HACM use was an independent predictor for EF recovery at 6 months after surgery (odds ratio, 2.735; 95% confidence interval, 1.613–4.638; P<0.001). Age and preoperative IIEF-5 were also independent predictors. No differences in continence at 6 months or perioperative complications were found between the two groups. EF recovery was not different between the two groups after 18 months. Conclusions HACM use around the NVBs is safe and facilitates early recovery of EF after nerve-sparing RARP. HACM use is more effective in patients with normal preoperative sexual function. PMID:23879531

Joung, Jae Young; Ha, Yun-Sok; Singer, Eric A.; Ercolani, Matthew C.; Favaretto, Ricardo L.; Lee, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Kang Hyun

2013-01-01

358

Local search for multiobjective function optimization: pareto descent method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic Algorithm (GA) is known as a potent multiobjec- tive optimization method, and the effectiveness of hybridiz- ing it with local search (LS) has recently been reported in the literature. However, there is a relatively small number of studies on LS methods for multiobjective function opti- mization. Although each of the existing LS methods has some strong points, they have

Ken Harada; Jun Sakuma; Shigenobu Kobayashi

2006-01-01

359

Differential recovery of sensorimotor function in GM1 ganglioside-treated vs. spontaneously recovered MPTP-treated cats: partial striatal dopaminergic reinnervation vs. neurochemical compensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to cats results in a parkinsonian syndrome characterized by rigidity, akinesia, bradykinesia, decreased response to external sensory stimuli and depletion of nigrostriatal dopamine. Cats spontaneously recover gross sensorimotor functions despite little recovery of the dopaminergic innervation of the striatum. In contrast, GM1 ganglioside administration accelerates gross behavioral recovery and causes an increased dopaminergic innervation of the

J. S. Schneider; J. A. Schroeder; David S. Rothblat

1998-01-01

360

Postresuscitation recovery of functional activity of central nervous system in rats during combination treatment with mexidol and neuropeptides delta sleep-inducing peptide and oxytocin.  

PubMed

In experiments on rats we studied the effects of antioxidant and membrane-protecting agent mexidol and neuropeptides delta sleep-inducing peptide and oxytocin administered during resuscitation after 12-min clinical death. Individual and combination treatment with these substances accelerated recovery of the neurological status and partially or completely corrected behavioral disorders associated with changes in the emotional and motivational status. Combined administration of mexidol and oxytocin most significantly promoted postresuscitation recovery of functional activity in the central nervous system. PMID:14714079

Gorenkova, N A; Nazarenko, I V; Volkov, A V

2003-10-01

361

Recovery of CD8+ T-Cell Function During Systemic Chemotherapy in Advanced Ovarian Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunologic approaches are emerging as new treatment options in several types of cancer. However, whereas the ability of patients to develop potent CD8+ T-cell responses is crucial for efficient antitumor responses, immunocompetence and T-cell function are not tested routinely in patients entering immunotherapy. The objective of our study was to monitor T-cell function in advanced cancer and during chemotherapy. CD8+

Sharon Coleman; Aled Clayton; Malcolm D. Mason; Bharat Jasani; Malcolm Adams; Zsuzsanna Tabi

362

Beyond right ventricular size and function: the importance of evaluating the right ventricle's capacity for recovery.  

PubMed

Historically, the right ventricle (RV) has received less attention than the left probably because morbidity and mortality associated with left ventricular disease is clinically more apparent. Right heart disease, in contrast, tends to have a more prolonged and, in the early stages, often subclinical course. Furthermore, the left ventricle is easier to image, model and quantify, so that research has been successful at amassing a great deal of clinically useful information about the left heart while the right heart still remains, in many ways, a mystery. In this perspective, the authors sought to explore the topic of RV recovery potential that has important clinical implications in the evaluation and treatment of advanced right-sided valvular heart disease, congenital heart disease, pulmonary arterial disease and even lung disease which impacts the RV. We see a clear need for a better understanding of RV viability given our increasing appreciation that RV failure is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in many disease states and the fact that newer imaging modalities and innovative changes to older modalities make more comprehensive evaluation of the RV feasible. PMID:25264241

Addetia, Karima; Patel, Amit R

2014-11-01

363

Influence of recovery method and microbial contamination on the response to freezing-thawing in ibex (Capra pyrenaica) epididymal spermatozoa.  

PubMed

The method of sperm recovery may influence the initial quality of sperm samples and their response to freezing-thawing. The aim of the present work was to compare two methods for collecting epididymal spermatozoa in order to improve the quality of recovered sperm and reduce possible contamination. Testes were obtained from 23 legally hunted, adult ibex males. The sperm mass of the right epididymis was collected by small longitudinal and transverse cuts made in the cauda epididymidis. The sperm mass of the left epididymis was collected by retrograde flushing from the vas deferens to the cauda epididymidis (using a cannula), employing a Tris, citric acid, glucose, egg yolk-based medium. The flushing method recovered more spermatozoa (P<0.001) than the cutting method. After freezing-thawing, greater acrosomes damage (P<0.001) and more morphological abnormalities (P<0.05) were seen among the sperm cells recovered by the cutting method than among those obtained by retrograde flushing. The method of sperm recovery did not, however, influence the microbial contamination rate. In frozen-thawed samples that were microbially contaminated, motility was significantly reduced (P<0.05) and membrane integrity tended to be poorer (P=0.06). In conclusion, retrograde flushing is recommended for ibex sperm collection since it would appear that microbial contamination is no more of a problem than that encountered with the cutting method, while a larger number of sperm cells more resistant to freezing-thawing can be obtained. PMID:19786008

Santiago-Moreno, Julian; Astorga, Rafael J; Luque, Inmaculada; Coloma, Miguel A; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Pulido-Pastor, Antonio; Gómez-Guillamon, Felix; Salas-Vega, Ricardo; López-Sebastián, Antonio

2009-12-01

364

The effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia on functional recovery from myocardial stunning in propofol-anesthetized dogs.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) on myocardial stunning during propofol anesthesia. Six dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement of left atrial, aortic, and left ventricular pressure, maximal rate of increase of left ventricular pressure, and myocardial wall-thickening fraction (WTF). Myocardial blood flow was determined with colored microspheres. Experiments were performed on separate days with 1) 10 min of left anterior descending artery (LAD) ischemia during propofol anesthesia without TEA, and 2) 10 min of LAD ischemia during propofol anesthesia with TEA. WTF was measured as baseline (BL) prior to propofol anesthesia and at predetermined time points until complete recovery from stunning. Propofol anesthesia caused a significant decrease of WTF in the LAD-perfused myocardium (LAD-WTF) compared to BL in awake animals. LAD ischemia led to a further significant decrease of LAD-WTF. There were no significant differences in LAD-WTF between the two experimental conditions at any of the time points measured. TEA did not change subendocardial blood flow in nonischemic myocardium. During ischemia neither the subendocardial/subepicardial nor the occluded/normal zone blood flow ratio were affected by TEA. After myocardial ischemia during propofol anesthesia TEA does not affect functional recovery of stunned myocardium in dogs. PMID:9085946

Rolf, N; Meissner, A; Van Aken, H; Weber, T P; Hammel, D; Möllhoff, T

1997-04-01

365

Equivalence of The (G'/G)-expansion Method and The Tanh-Coth Function Method  

SciTech Connect

Wazwaz [Appl. Math. Comput 195, 24-33 (2008)] has used the tanh-coth function method to find the solutions of the Pochhammer-Chree equation. In this article, we have applied the ((G'/G))-expansion method to solve the same equation. We have noted that both of these methods give the same solutions. Furthermore, we have shown in theorem 1, that the ((G'/G))-expansion method is equivalent to the tanh-coth function method.

Zayed, Elsayed M. E. [Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt)

2010-09-30

366

Thoracic epidural anesthesia improves functional recovery from myocardial stunning in conscious dogs.  

PubMed

The effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) on the contractile performance of ischemic and postischemic myocardium have not been well investigated. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of TEA on severity and duration of myocardial stunning in an experimental model for sublethal acute myocardial ischemia. Seven dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement of heart rate (HR), left atrial (LAP), aortic and left ventricular pressure (LVP), LV dP/dtmax' and myocardial wall-thickening fraction (WTF). An occluder around the left anterior descending artery (LAD) allowed induction of reversible LAD ischemia. TEA was performed with lidocaine 4 mg/kg through a chronically implanted epidural catheter at the second thoracic level. Regional myocardial blood flow was determined with colored microspheres. Two experiments were performed in a cross-over design on separate days: Experiment 1, induction of 10 min of LAD ischemia without TEA; and Experiment 2, induction of 10 min of LAD ischemia with TEA. WTF was measured at baseline (BL) and predetermined time points until complete recovery from ischemic dysfunction occurred. LAD ischemia caused a significant decrease of LAD-WTF with (-28% +/- 5.1% versus BL) and without TEA (-15.5% +/- 5.3% versus BL). After 3 h of reperfusion, WTF as percent of BL values was significantly higher with TEA (P < 0.001). BL values of WTF were reached after 24 h with TEA and after more than 48 h without TEA (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences for mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), LVP, LAP, and LVdP/dtmax between the groups during ischemia and reperfusion. In nonischemic myocardium TEA caused an increase of subendocardial blood flow. During ischemia neither the subendocardial/subepicardial nor the occluded/ normal zone blood flow was affected by TEA. TEA attenuates myocardial stunning in conscious dogs. This finding is consistent with data regarding a reduction of infarct size due to TEA. PMID:8895266

Rolf, N; Van de Velde, M; Wouters, P F; Möllhoff, T; Weber, T P; Van Aken, H K

1996-11-01

367

Series Expansion of Functions with He's Homotopy Perturbation Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finding a series expansion, such as Taylor series, of functions is an important mathematical concept with many applications. Homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is a new, easy to use and effective tool for solving a variety of mathematical problems. In this study, we present how to apply HPM to obtain a series expansion of functions. Consequently,…

Khattri, Sanjay Kumar

2012-01-01

368

A recursive method for functionals of Poisson processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functionals of Poisson processes arise in many statistical problems. They appear in problems involving heavy-tailed distributions in the study of limiting processes, while in Bayesian nonparametric statistics they are used as constructive representations for nonparametric priors. We describe a simple recursive method that is useful for characterizing Poisson process functionals and requires only the use of conditional probability. Applications of

Dragan Banjevic; Hemant Ishwaran; Mahmoud Zarepour

2002-01-01

369

Towards improved methods for determining porous media multiphase flow functions  

E-print Network

TOWARDS IMPROVED METHODS FOR DETERMINING POROUS MEDIA MULTIPHASE FLOW FUNCTIONS A Thesis by SONG XUE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 2004 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering TOWARDS IMPROVED METHODS FOR DETERMINING POROUS MEDIA MULTIPHASE FLOW FUNCTIONS A Thesis by SONG XUE Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

Xue, Song

2004-09-30

370

Methods for selective functionalization and separation of carbon nanotubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor); Marek, legal representative, Irene Marie (Inventor)

2011-01-01

371

Video-Gait Analysis of Functional Recovery of Nerve Repaired with Chitosan Nerve Guides  

E-print Network

guides is commonly evaluated through histomorphometry and walking track analysis. We conducted a unique of nerve guide tubes is considered an alternative method to achieve nerve regeneration of transected nerves method of autografts.5­9 Currently a vast amount of research is being pursued to engineer the ideal nerve

VandeVord, Pamela

372

Using expert knowledge and modeling to define mangrove composition, functioning, and threats and estimate time frame for recovery  

PubMed Central

Mangroves are threatened worldwide, and their loss or degradation could impact functioning of the ecosystem. Our aim was to investigate three aspects of mangroves at a global scale: (1) their constituents (2) their indispensable ecological functions, and (3) the maintenance of their constituents and functions in degraded mangroves. We focused on answering two questions: “What is a mangrove ecosystem” and “How vulnerable are mangrove ecosystems to different impacts”? We invited 106 mangrove experts globally to participate in a survey based on the Delphi technique and provide inputs on the three aspects. The outputs from the Delphi technique for the third aspect, i.e. maintenance of constituents and functions were incorporated in a modeling approach to simulate the time frame for recovery. Presented here for the first time are the consensus definition of the mangrove ecosystem and the list of mangrove plant species. In this study, experts considered even monospecific (tree) stands to be a mangrove ecosystem as long as there was adequate tidal exchange, propagule dispersal, and faunal interactions. We provide a ranking of the important ecological functions, faunal groups, and impacts on mangroves. Degradation due to development was identified as having the largest impact on mangroves globally in terms of spatial scale, intensity, and time needed for restoration. The results indicate that mangroves are ecologically unique even though they may be species poor (from the vegetation perspective). The consensus list of mangrove species and the ranking of the mangrove ecological functions could be a useful tool for restoration and management of mangroves. While there is ample literature on the destruction of mangroves due to aquaculture in the past decade, this study clearly shows that more attention must go to avoiding and mitigating mangrove loss due to coastal development (such as building of roads, ports, or harbors). PMID:25360265

Mukherjee, Nibedita; Sutherland, William J; Khan, Md Nabiul I; Berger, Uta; Schmitz, Nele; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

2014-01-01

373

Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor ameliorates excessive astrogliosis and improves the regeneration microenvironment and functional recovery in adult rats following spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Background Astrogliosis is a common phenomenon after spinal cord injury (SCI). Although this process exerts positive effects on axonal regeneration, excessive astrogliosis imparts negative effects on neuronal repair and recovery. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is critical to the regulation of reactive astrogliosis, and therefore is a potential target of therapeutics to better control the response. In this report, we aim to investigate whether blocking EGFR signaling using an EGFR tyrosine kinase specific inhibitor can attenuate reactive astrogliosis and promote functional recovery after a traumatic SCI. Method The astrocyte scratch injury model in vitro and the weight-drop SCI model in vivo were used as model systems. PD168393 was used to inhibit EGFR signaling activation. Astrocytic activation and phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR) were observed after immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis. The rate of proliferation was determined by immunofluorescence detection of BrdU-incorporating cells located next to the wound. The levels of TNF-?, iNOS, COX-2 and IL-1? in the culture medium under different conditions were assayed by ELISA. Western blot was performed to semi-quantify the expression of EGFR/pEGFR, glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Myelin was stained by Luxol Fast Blue Staining. Cresyl violet eosin staining was performed to analyze the lesion cavity volume and neuronal survival following injury. Finally, functional scoring and residual urine recording were performed to show the rats’ recovery. Results EGFR phosphorylation was found to parallel astrocyte activation, and EGFR inhibitor PD168393 potently inhibited scratch-induced reactive astrogliosis and proinflammatory cytokine/mediator secretion of reactive astrocytes in vitro. Moreover, local administration of PD168393 in the injured area suppressed CSPGs production and glial scar formation, and resulted in reduced demyelination and neuronal loss, which correlated with remarkable hindlimb motor function and bladder improvement in SCI rats. Conclusions The specific EGFR inhibitor PD168393 can ameliorate excessive reactive astrogliosis and facilitate a more favorable environment for axonal regeneration after SCI. As such, EGFR inhibitor may be a promising therapeutic intervention in CNS injury. PMID:24708754

2014-01-01

374

Effect of biofeedback cycling training on functional recovery and walking ability of lower extremity in patients with stroke.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of biofeedback cycling training on lower limb functional recovery, walking endurance, and walking speed for patients with chronic stroke. Thirty-one patients with stroke (stroke onset >3 months) were randomly assigned into two groups using a crossover design. One group (N = 16; mean: 53.6 ± 10.3 years) underwent conventional rehabilitation and cycling training (30 minutes/time, 5 times per week for 4 weeks), followed by only conventional rehabilitation for another 4 weeks. The other group (N = 15; mean: 54.5 ± 8.0 years) underwent the same training in reverse order. The bike used in this biofeedback cycling training was the MOTOmed viva2 Movement Trainer. Outcome measures included the lower extremity subscale of Fugl-Meyer assessment (LE-FMA), the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), the 10-meter walk test (10MWT), and the modified Ashworth scale (MAS). All participants were assessed at the beginning of the study, at the end of the 4(th) week, and at the end of the 8(th) week. Thirty participants completed the study, including the cycling training interventions and all assessments. The results showed that improvements in the period with cycling training were significantly better than the noncycling period in the LE-FMA (p < 0.05), 6MWT (p < 0.001), 10MWT (p < 0.001), and MAS (p < 0.001) scores. No significant carryover effects were observed. The improvements on outcome measures were significantly different between the cycling period and the noncycling period after adjusting for potential confounding factors in the multivariate analysis of variance (p < 0.001). The study result indicates that the additional 4-week biofeedback cycling training could lead to improved LE functional recovery, walking endurance, and speed for patients with chronic stroke. PMID:24388057

Yang, Huei-Ching; Lee, Chia-Ling; Lin, Roxane; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Chen, Chia-Hsin; Lin, Jau-Hong; Lo, Sing Kai

2014-01-01

375

Functional Connectivity in Relation to Motor Performance and Recovery After Stroke  

PubMed Central

Plasticity after stroke has traditionally been studied by observing changes only in the spatial distribution and laterality of focal brain activation during affected limb movement. However, neural reorganization is multifaceted and our understanding may be enhanced by examining dynamics of activity within large-scale networks involved in sensorimotor control of the limbs. Here, we review functional connectivity as a promising means of assessing the consequences of a stroke lesion on the transfer of activity within large-scale neural networks. We first provide a brief overview of techniques used to assess functional connectivity in subjects with stroke. Next, we review task-related and resting-state functional connectivity studies that demonstrate a lesion-induced disruption of neural networks, the relationship of the extent of this disruption with motor performance, and the potential for network reorganization in the presence of a stroke lesion. We conclude with suggestions for future research and theories that may enhance the interpretation of changing functional connectivity. Overall findings suggest that a network level assessment provides a useful framework to examine brain reorganization and to potentially better predict behavioral outcomes following stroke. PMID:21441991

Westlake, Kelly P.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

2011-01-01

376

Experimental approaches to promote functional recovery after severe peripheral nerve injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  INTRODUCTION: Reduced regenerative capacity of chronically axotomized neurons and reduced growth support by atrophic Schwann cells are key factors that account for the poor functional outcomes after proximal nerve injuries. In this study we examine two strategies aimed to circumvent deleterious effects of chronic axotomy and chronic denervation on axonal regeneration: (1) exogenous application of neurotrophic factors to chronically axotomized

T. Gordon; J. G. Boyd; O. A. R. Sulaiman

2005-01-01

377

Integrated modelling of functional and structural connectivity of river corridors for1 European otter recovery2  

E-print Network

measure. With this approach, the European otter colonization of the Loire river30 basin over 25 years reveals the importance of the36 river network density to the otter colonization and locates conservation1 Integrated modelling of functional and structural connectivity of river corridors for1 European

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

Intraspinal microstimulation for the recovery of function following spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury is a devastating neurological trauma, often resulting in the impairment of bladder, bowel, and sexual function as well as the loss of voluntary control of muscles innervated by spinal cord segments below the lesion site. Research is ongoing into several classes of therapies to restore lost function. These include the encouragement of neural sparing and regeneration of the affected tissue, and the intervention with pharmacological and rehabilitative means to improve function. This review will focus on the application of electrical current in the spinal cord in order to reactivate extant circuitry which coordinates and controls smooth and skeletal muscle below the injury. We first present a brief historical review of intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) focusing on its use for restoring bladder function after spinal cord injury as well as its utilization as a research tool for mapping spinal cord circuits that coordinate movements. We then present a review of our own results related to the use of ISMS for restoring standing and walking movements after spinal cord injury. We discuss the mechanisms of action of ISMS and how they relate to observed functional outcomes in animal models. These include the activation of fibers-in-passage which lead to the transsynaptic spread of activation through the spinal cord and the ability of ISMS to produce fatigue-resistant, weight-bearing movements. We present our thoughts on the clinical potential for ISMS with regard to implantation techniques, stability, and damage induced by mechanical and electrical factors. We conclude by suggesting improvements in materials and techniques that are needed in preparation for a clinical proof-of-principle and review our current attempts to achieve these. PMID:21867807

Bamford, Jeremy A.; Mushahwar, Vivian K.

2011-01-01

379

Methods for deconvolving sparse positive delta function series  

SciTech Connect

Sparse delta function series occur as data in many chemical analyses and seismic methods. These original data are often sufficiently degraded by the recording instrument response that the individual delta function peaks are difficult to distinguish and measure. A method, which has been used to measure these peaks, is to fit a parameterized model by a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm. The deconvolution approaches described have the advantage of not requiring a parameterized point spread function, nor do they expect a fixed number of peaks. Two new methods are presented. The maximum power technique is reviewed. A maximum a posteriori technique is introduced. Results on both simulated and real data by the two methods are presented. The characteristics of the data can determine which method gives superior results. 5 figures.

Trussell, H.J.; Schwalbe, L.A.

1981-01-01

380

Bilateral movement training promotes axonal remodeling of the corticospinal tract and recovery of motor function following traumatic brain injury in mice.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in severe motor function impairment, and subsequent recovery is often incomplete. Rehabilitative training is considered to promote restoration of the injured neural network, thus facilitating functional recovery. However, no studies have assessed the effect of such trainings in the context of neural rewiring. Here, we investigated the effects of two types of rehabilitative training on corticospinal tract (CST) plasticity and motor recovery in mice. We injured the unilateral motor cortex with contusion, which induced hemiparesis on the contralesional side. After the injury, mice performed either a single pellet-reaching task (simple repetitive training) or a rotarod task (bilateral movement training). Multiple behavioral tests were then used to assess forelimb motor function recovery: staircase, ladder walk, capellini handling, single pellet, and rotarod tests. The TBI+rotarod group performed most forelimb motor tasks (staircase, ladder walk, and capellini handling tests) better than the TBI-only group did. In contrast, the TBI+reaching group did not perform better except in the single pellet test. After the injury, the contralateral CST, labeled by biotinylated dextran amine, formed sprouting fibers into the denervated side of the cervical spinal cord. The number of these fibers was significantly higher in the TBI+rotarod group, whereas it did not increase in the TBI+reaching group. These results indicate that bilateral movement training effectively promotes axonal rewiring and motor function recovery, whereas the effect of simple repetitive training is limited. PMID:23470541

Nakagawa, H; Ueno, M; Itokazu, T; Yamashita, T

2013-01-01

381

Physical exercise improves functional recovery through mitigation of autophagy, attenuation of apoptosis and enhancement of neurogenesis after MCAO in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Physical exercise improves functional recovery after stroke through a complex mechanism that is not fully understood. Transient focal cerebral ischemia induces autophagy, apoptosis and neurogenesis in the peri-infarct region. This study is aimed to examine the effects of physical exercise on autophagy, apoptosis and neurogenesis in the peri-infarct region in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Results We found that autophagosomes, as labeled by microtubule-associated protein 1A light chain 3-II (LC3-II), were evident in the peri-infarct region at 3 days after 90-minute MCAO. Moreover, 44.6% of LC3-positive cells were also stained with TUNEL. The number of LC3 positive cells was significantly lower in physical exercise group than in control group at 14 and 21 days after MCAO. Suppression of autophagosomes by physical exercise was positively associated with improvement of neurological function. In addition, physical exercise significantly decreased the number of TUNEL-positive cells and increased the numbers of Ki67-positive, a proliferative marker, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) positive cells at 7, 14, and 21 days after MCAO. Conclusions The present results demonstrate that physical exercise enhances neurological function possibly by reduction of autophagosome accumulation, attenuation of apoptosis and enhancement of neurogenesis in the peri-infarct region after transient MCAO in rats. PMID:23565939

2013-01-01

382

Systemic Down-Regulation of Delta-9 Desaturase Promotes Muscle Oxidative Metabolism and Accelerates Muscle Function Recovery following Nerve Injury  

PubMed Central

The progressive deterioration of the neuromuscular axis is typically observed in degenerative conditions of the lower motor neurons, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Neurodegeneration in this disease is associated with systemic metabolic perturbations, including hypermetabolism and dyslipidemia. Our previous gene profiling studies on ALS muscle revealed down-regulation of delta-9 desaturase, or SCD1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids. Interestingly, knocking out SCD1 gene is known to induce hypermetabolism and stimulate fatty acid beta-oxidation. Here we investigated whether SCD1 deficiency can affect muscle function and its restoration in response to injury. The genetic ablation of SCD1 was not detrimental per se to muscle function. On the contrary, muscles in SCD1 knockout mice shifted toward a more oxidative metabolism, and enhanced the expression of synaptic genes. Repressing SCD1 expression or reducing SCD-dependent enzymatic activity accelerated the recovery of muscle function after inducing sciatic nerve crush. Overall, these findings provide evidence for a new role of SCD1 in modulating the restorative potential of skeletal muscles. PMID:23785402

Henriques, Alexandre; Lequeu, Thiebault; Rene, Frederique; Bindler, Francoise; Dirrig-Grosch, Sylvie; Oudart, Hugues; Palamiuc, Lavinia; Metz-Boutigue, Marie-Helene; Dupuis, Luc; Marchioni, Eric; Gonzalez De Aguilar, Jose-Luis; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe

2013-01-01

383

Local isoform-specific NOS inhibition: a promising approach to promote motor function recovery after nerve injury.  

PubMed

Physical injury to a nerve is the most frequent cause of acquired peripheral neuropathy, which is responsible for loss of motor, sensory and/or autonomic functions. Injured axons in the peripheral nervous system maintain the capacity to regenerate in adult mammals. However, after nerve transection, stumps of damaged nerves must be surgically joined to guide regenerating axons into the distal nerve stump. Even so, severe functional limitations persist after restorative surgery. Therefore, the identification of molecules that regulate degenerative and regenerative processes is indispensable in developing therapeutic tools to accelerate and improve functional recovery. Here, I consider the role of nitric oxide (NO) synthesized by the three major isoforms of NO synthases (NOS) in motor neuropathy. Neuronal NOS (nNOS) seems to be the primary source of NO that is detrimental to the survival of injured motoneurons. Endothelial NOS (eNOS) appears to be the major source of NO that interferes with axonal regrowth, at least soon after injury. Finally, NO derived from inducible NOS (iNOS) or nNOS is critical to the process of lipid breakdown for Wallerian degeneration and thereby benefits axonal regrowth. Specific inhibitors of these isoforms can be used to protect injured neurons from degeneration and promote axonal regeneration. A cautious proposal for the treatment of acquired motor neuropathy using therapeutic tools that locally interfere with eNOS/nNOS activities seems to merit consideration. PMID:20143424

Moreno-López, Bernardo

2010-07-01

384

A Novel Approach to Recovery of Function of Mutant Proteins by Slowing Down Translation*  

PubMed Central

Protein homeostasis depends on a balance of translation, folding, and degradation. Here, we demonstrate that mild inhibition of translation results in a dramatic and disproportional reduction in production of misfolded polypeptides in mammalian cells, suggesting an improved folding of newly synthesized proteins. Indeed, inhibition of translation elongation, which slightly attenuated levels of a copepod GFP mutant protein, significantly enhanced its function. In contrast, inhibition of translation initiation had minimal effects on copepod GFP folding. On the other hand, mild suppression of either translation elongation or initiation corrected folding defects of the disease-associated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutant F508del. We propose that modulation of translation can be used as a novel approach to improve overall proteostasis in mammalian cells, as well as functions of disease-associated mutant proteins with folding deficiencies. PMID:22902621

Meriin, Anatoli B.; Mense, Martin; Colbert, Jeff D.; Liang, Feng; Bihler, Hermann; Zaarur, Nava; Rock, Kenneth L.; Sherman, Michael Y.

2012-01-01

385

Recovery of lower limb function following 6 weeks of non-weight bearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skeletal muscle weakness and atrophy occur following an extended period of decreased use, including space flight and limb unloading. It is also likely that affected muscles will be susceptible to a re-loading injury when they begin return to earth or weight bearing. However, there is a paucity of literature evaluating the response of human unloaded muscle to exercise and return to activity. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the soreness, function and strength respons