Sample records for function recovery method

  1. A robust functional-data-analysis method for data recovery in multichannel sensor systems.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Liao, Haitao; Upadhyaya, Belle R

    2014-08-01

    Multichannel sensor systems are widely used in condition monitoring for effective failure prevention of critical equipment or processes. However, loss of sensor readings due to malfunctions of sensors and/or communication has long been a hurdle to reliable operations of such integrated systems. Moreover, asynchronous data sampling and/or limited data transmission are usually seen in multiple sensor channels. To reliably perform fault diagnosis and prognosis in such operating environments, a data recovery method based on functional principal component analysis (FPCA) can be utilized. However, traditional FPCA methods are not robust to outliers and their capabilities are limited in recovering signals with strongly skewed distributions (i.e., lack of symmetry). This paper provides a robust data-recovery method based on functional data analysis to enhance the reliability of multichannel sensor systems. The method not only considers the possibly skewed distribution of each channel of signal trajectories, but is also capable of recovering missing data for both individual and correlated sensor channels with asynchronous data that may be sparse as well. In particular, grand median functions, rather than classical grand mean functions, are utilized for robust smoothing of sensor signals. Furthermore, the relationship between the functional scores of two correlated signals is modeled using multivariate functional regression to enhance the overall data-recovery capability. An experimental flow-control loop that mimics the operation of coolant-flow loop in a multimodular integral pressurized water reactor is used to demonstrate the effectiveness and adaptability of the proposed data-recovery method. The computational results illustrate that the proposed method is robust to outliers and more capable than the existing FPCA-based method in terms of the accuracy in recovering strongly skewed signals. In addition, turbofan engine data are also analyzed to verify the capability of the proposed method in recovering non-skewed signals. PMID:25051452

  2. Secondary oil recovery method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santee

    1983-01-01

    A method is disclosed of oil recovery from subterranean formations, and especially water wet sand formation, comprising the steps of sequentially establishing a rate of oil production for the formation as a function of formation characteristics, such as perosity, permeability, depth of formation and past production from the formation. Second, injecting into the formation a bank of chilled water solution

  3. Super-resolution method using sparse regularization for point-spread function recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngolè Mboula, F. M.; Starck, J.-L.; Ronayette, S.; Okumura, K.; Amiaux, J.

    2015-03-01

    In large-scale spatial surveys, such as the forthcoming ESA Euclid mission, images may be undersampled due to the optical sensors sizes. Therefore, one may consider using a super-resolution (SR) method to recover aliased frequencies, prior to further analysis. This is particularly relevant for point-source images, which provide direct measurements of the instrument point-spread function (PSF). We introduce SParse Recovery of InsTrumental rEsponse (SPRITE), which is an SR algorithm using a sparse analysis prior. We show that such a prior provides significant improvements over existing methods, especially on low signal-to-noise ratio PSFs.

  4. Partial volume correction using structural–functional synergistic resolution recovery: comparison with geometric transfer matrix method

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Euitae; Shidahara, Miho; Tsoumpas, Charalampos; McGinnity, Colm J; Kwon, Jun Soo; Howes, Oliver D; Turkheimer, Federico E

    2013-01-01

    We validated the use of a novel image-based method for partial volume correction (PVC), structural–functional synergistic resolution recovery (SFS-RR) for the accurate quantification of dopamine synthesis capacity measured using [18F]DOPA positron emission tomography. The bias and reliability of SFS-RR were compared with the geometric transfer matrix (GTM) method. Both methodologies were applied to the parametric maps of [18F]DOPA utilization rates (kicer). Validation was first performed by measuring repeatability on test–retest scans. The precision of the methodologies instead was quantified using simulated [18F]DOPA images. The sensitivity to the misspecification of the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of the scanner point-spread-function on both approaches was also assessed. In the in-vivo data, the kicer was significantly increased by application of both PVC procedures while the reliability remained high (intraclass correlation coefficients >0.85). The variability was not significantly affected by either PVC approach (<10% variability in both cases). The corrected kicer was significantly influenced by the FWHM applied in both the acquired and simulated data. This study shows that SFS-RR can effectively correct for partial volume effects to a comparable degree to GTM but with the added advantage that it enables voxelwise analyses, and that the FWHM used can affect the PVC result indicating the importance of accurately calibrating the FWHM used in the recovery model. PMID:23486292

  5. Partial volume correction using structural-functional synergistic resolution recovery: comparison with geometric transfer matrix method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Euitae; Shidahara, Miho; Tsoumpas, Charalampos; McGinnity, Colm J; Kwon, Jun Soo; Howes, Oliver D; Turkheimer, Federico E

    2013-06-01

    We validated the use of a novel image-based method for partial volume correction (PVC), structural-functional synergistic resolution recovery (SFS-RR) for the accurate quantification of dopamine synthesis capacity measured using [(18)F]DOPA positron emission tomography. The bias and reliability of SFS-RR were compared with the geometric transfer matrix (GTM) method. Both methodologies were applied to the parametric maps of [(18)F]DOPA utilization rates (ki(cer)). Validation was first performed by measuring repeatability on test-retest scans. The precision of the methodologies instead was quantified using simulated [(18)F]DOPA images. The sensitivity to the misspecification of the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of the scanner point-spread-function on both approaches was also assessed. In the in-vivo data, the ki(cer) was significantly increased by application of both PVC procedures while the reliability remained high (intraclass correlation coefficients >0.85). The variability was not significantly affected by either PVC approach (<10% variability in both cases). The corrected ki(cer) was significantly influenced by the FWHM applied in both the acquired and simulated data. This study shows that SFS-RR can effectively correct for partial volume effects to a comparable degree to GTM but with the added advantage that it enables voxelwise analyses, and that the FWHM used can affect the PVC result indicating the importance of accurately calibrating the FWHM used in the recovery model. PMID:23486292

  6. Neuroplasticity and functional recovery in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tomassini, Valentina; Matthews, Paul M.; Thompson, Alan J.; Fuglø, Daniel; Geurts, Jeroen J.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Jones, Derek K.; Rocca, Maria A.; Wise, Richard G.; Barkhof, Frederik; Palace, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies that promote functional recovery is a major goal of multiple sclerosis (MS) research. Neuroscientific and methodological advances have improved our understanding of the brain’s recovery from damage, generating novel hypotheses for potential targets or modes of intervention and laying the foundation for the development of scientifically informed strategies promoting recovery in interventional studies. This Review aims to encourage the transition from characterization of recovery mechanisms to the development of strategies that promote recovery in MS. We discuss current evidence for functional reorganization that underlies recovery and its implications for development of new recovery-oriented strategies in MS. Promotion of functional recovery requires an improved understanding of recovery mechanisms modulated by interventions and the development of reliable measures of therapeutic effects. As imaging methods can be used to measure functional and structural alterations associated with recovery, this Review discusses their use as reliable markers to measure the effects of interventions. PMID:22986429

  7. Methods to evaluate functional nerve recovery in adult rats: walking track analysis, video analysis and the withdrawal reflex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeroen R. Dijkstra; Marcel F. Meek; Peter H. Robinson; Albert Gramsbergen

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different methods for the evaluation of functional nerve recovery. Three groups of adult male Wistar rats were studied. In group A, a 12-mm gap between nerve ends was bridged by an autologous nerve graft; in rats of group B we performed a crush lesion of the sciatic nerve and group C consisted

  8. Practical Experiences from the USE of a Method for Active Functional Tests and Optimization of Coil Energy Recovery Loop Systems in AHUs

    E-print Network

    Eriksson, J.

    2004-01-01

    A method, based on simulation models, for active functional tests and optimization of coil energy recovery loop systems in Air Handling Units (AHUs) have been developed and a first version implemented in the program Engineering Equation Solver (EES...

  9. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Gay; Donald E. McKenzie

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi\\/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and

  10. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Gay; D. E. McKenzie

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag formed in the production of metallic uranium by the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride with metallic magnesium in a retort wherein the slag contains the free metals magnesium and uranium and also oxides and fluorides of the metals. The slag having a radioactivity level of at

  11. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Gay; D. E. McKenzie

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag formed in the production of metallic uranium by the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride with metallic magnesium in a retort wherein the slag contains the free metals magnesium and uranium and also oxides and fluorides of the metals, the slag having a radioactivity

  12. Predicting Functional Recovery after Acute Ankle Sprain

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Sean R.; Bleakley, Chris M.; Tully, Mark A.; McDonough, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Ankle sprains are among the most common acute musculoskeletal conditions presenting to primary care. Their clinical course is variable but there are limited recommendations on prognostic factors. Our primary aim was to identify clinical predictors of short and medium term functional recovery after ankle sprain. Methods A secondary analysis of data from adult participants (N = 85) with an acute ankle sprain, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial was undertaken. The predictive value of variables (age, BMI, gender, injury mechanism, previous injury, weight-bearing status, medial joint line pain, pain during weight-bearing dorsiflexion and lateral hop test) recorded at baseline and at 4 weeks post injury were investigated for their prognostic ability. Recovery was determined from measures of subjective ankle function at short (4 weeks) and medium term (4 months) follow ups. Multivariate stepwise linear regression analyses were undertaken to evaluate the association between the aforementioned variables and functional recovery. Results Greater age, greater injury grade and weight-bearing status at baseline were associated with lower function at 4 weeks post injury (p<0.01; adjusted R square=0.34). Greater age, weight-bearing status at baseline and non-inversion injury mechanisms were associated with lower function at 4 months (p<0.01; adjusted R square=0.20). Pain on medial palpation and pain on dorsiflexion at 4 weeks were the most valuable prognostic indicators of function at 4 months (p< 0.01; adjusted R square=0.49). Conclusion The results of the present study provide further evidence that ankle sprains have a variable clinical course. Age, injury grade, mechanism and weight-bearing status at baseline provide some prognostic information for short and medium term recovery. Clinical assessment variables at 4 weeks were the strongest predictors of recovery, explaining 50% of the variance in ankle function at 4 months. Further prospective research is required to highlight the factors that best inform the expected convalescent period, and risk of recurrence. PMID:23940806

  13. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, R.L.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1989-10-17

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag formed in the production of metallic uranium by the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride with metallic magnesium in a retort wherein the slag contains the free metals magnesium and uranium and also oxides and fluorides of the metals. The slag having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 rhoCi/gm. The method comprises the steps of: grinding the slag to a median particle size of about 200 microns; contacting the ground slag in a reaction zone with an acid having a strength of from about 0.5 to 1.5 N for a time of from about 4 to about 20 hours in the presence of a catalytic amount of iron; removing the liquid product; treating the particulate solid product; repeating the last two steps at least one more time to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 rhoCi/gm.

  14. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, R.L.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1989-10-17

    This patent describes a method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag formed in the production of metallic uranium by the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride with metallic magnesium in a retort wherein the slag contains the free metals magnesium and uranium and also oxides and fluorides of the metals, the slag having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The method comprises: grinding the slag to a median particle size of about 200 microns; contacting the ground slag in a reaction zone with an acid having a strength of from about 0.5 to 1.5 N for a time of from about 4 to about 20 hours in the presence of a catalytic amount of iron, the reaction zone being maintained at a temperature within the range of from about 60{degrees} to 90{degrees} C. and the weight of ratio of slag to acid being within the range of from about 1:2 to 1:6 to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product; removing the liquid product; treating the particulate solid product; and repeating steps at least one more time to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm.

  15. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Silva, Laura J. (Richland, WA); Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA)

    1995-01-01

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

  16. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

    1995-05-30

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

  17. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L. (Canoga Park, CA); McKenzie, Donald E. (Woodland Hills, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

  18. Oil recovery apparatus and method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lowe

    1981-01-01

    An oil recovery apparatus and method, particularly for removing oil and grease from the discharge of dishwashing machines or the like, provides a small size assembly employing the same principle as in U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,024. This apparatus and method employs single rotating discs of plastic or plastic coated material and each disk has a pair of scraper blades arranged

  19. Oil recovery apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, J.G.

    1981-05-19

    An oil recovery apparatus and method, particularly for removing oil and grease from the discharge of dishwashing machines or the like, provides a small size assembly employing the same principle as in U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,024. This apparatus and method employs single rotating discs of plastic or plastic coated material and each disk has a pair of scraper blades arranged to scrape opposite sides of the rotating blade. Exterior of the container for the oil recovery apparatus is at least one filter basket adapted to receive the flow into the strainer container of large particles of food and other waste such as cigarette butts and the like. Each filter is disposed for the ready cleaning of accumulated matter from the basket. There is shown plural filters, valve controls, auxiliary heating and disc support means to be more fully described.

  20. Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Acceptability and Recovery of Cortisol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Susan K.; Lopata, Christopher; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Neilans, Erik G.; Werth, Jilynn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared cortisol concentrations yielded using three saliva collection methods (passive drool, salivette, and sorbette) in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, as well as method acceptability for a sample of children (n = 39) with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. No cortisol concentration differences were observed between…

  1. Method for testing vapor recovery lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuma

    1993-01-01

    A method for testing the integrity of the vapor recovery unit of a gasoline station dispensing station where the vapor recovery unit has phase 11 capability is described, comprising the steps of: sealing the vapor recovery unit from the dispensing station at the point most proximal to the dispensing station; sealing the vapor recovery unit from the gasoline reservoir; installing

  2. Method for enhanced oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Comberiati, Joseph R. (Morgantown, WV); Locke, Charles D. (Morgantown, WV); Kamath, Krishna I. (Chicago, IL)

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for enhanced recovery of oil from relatively "cold" reservoirs by carbon dioxide flooding. In oil reservoirs at a temperature less than the critical temperature of 87.7.degree. F. and at a pore pressure greater than the saturation pressure of carbon dioxide at the temperature of the reservoir, the carbon dioxide remains in the liquid state which does not satisfactorily mix with the oil. However, applicants have found that carbon dioxide can be vaporized in situ in the reservoir by selectively reducing the pore pressure in the reservoir to a value less than the particular saturated vapor pressure so as to greatly enhance the mixing of the carbon dioxide with the oil.

  3. Optimized basis function for spectral reflectance recovery from tristimulus values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Denglu; Tian, Jiandong; Tang, Yandong

    2014-03-01

    Spectral reflectance is a significant physical property of materials. It plays an important role in color constancy, illumination modeling, and color reproduction. Spectral reflectance basis functions are the most important impact factors for spectral reflectance recovery. Previous methods mainly calculated basis functions for the reflectance spectra data sets by employing the principle component analysis (PCA) and its improved methods. In this paper, we present a new method to solve this problem. Specifically, we propose a new cost function and some constraint conditions to convert the problem into an optimization problem by minimizing the cost function. Unlike the PCA method which yields the orthogonal basis functions for approximating the reflectance spectra, our method yields the nonorthogonal basis functions for better approximating the reflectance spectra. Experimental results show that our derived basis functions are better than those obtained by the PCA method for reflectance spectra recovery.

  4. Promoting neurological recovery of function via metaplasticity

    E-print Network

    Cho, Kathleen K.

    The modification of synapses by neural activity has been proposed to be the substrate for experience-dependent brain development, learning, and recovery of visual function after brain injury. The effectiveness or ‘strength’ ...

  5. Recovery of Functions From Weak Data Using Unsymmetric Meshless

    E-print Network

    Schaback, Robert

    Recovery of Functions From Weak Data Using Unsymmetric Meshless Kernel-Based Methods Robert successfully introduced unsymmetric meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) schemes. As a step towards their mathematical analysis, this paper investigates nonstationary unsymmetric Petrov-Galerkin-type meshless kernel

  6. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

    1987-08-25

    A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  7. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L. (Canoga Park, CA); Grantham, LeRoy F. (Calabasas, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  8. Method for the recovery of geothermal energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziegenhain

    1984-01-01

    A method for the recovery of geothermal energy from subterranean formations comprising injecting a thermally stable, non-corrosive, non-aqueous fluid into said formation to absorb heat; recovering the heated fluid from the formation; and, recovering heat energy from the heated fluid.

  9. Waste heat recovery method and apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farnia

    1984-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for the recovery of sensible heat from a hot tar-free gas produced in a coal gasification process and in combined-cycle power generation. The recovered heat is utilized to generate a flow of superheated steam which may be used in the gasification plant. The apparatus includes a first boiler and a superheater fabricated from materials

  10. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Peru, Deborah A. (Bartlesville, OK)

    1989-01-01

    A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

  11. SAMPLING AND RECOVERY OF BANDLIMITED FUNCTIONS AND APPLICATIONS TO SIGNAL

    E-print Network

    Schlumprecht, Thomas B.

    SAMPLING AND RECOVERY OF BANDLIMITED FUNCTIONS AND APPLICATIONS TO SIGNAL PROCESSING TH stable recovery formulae, based on evaluations of these functions at given sample points. We start measurable : f =sup{r>0 : m(|f|r)>0} , Cb(Rd ) = f : Rd C bounded and continuous , 1 #12;2 TH. SCHLUMPRECHT

  12. Enhanced physical therapy improves recovery of arm function after stroke. A randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Sunderland; D J Tinson; E L Bradley; D Fletcher; R Langton Hewer; D T Wade

    1992-01-01

    Previous research on stroke rehabilitation has not established whether increase in physical therapy lead to better intrinsic recovery from hemiplegia. A detailed study was carried out of recovery of arm function after acute stroke, and compares orthodox physiotherapy with an enhanced therapy regime which increased the amount of treatment as well as using behavioural methods to encourage motor learning. In

  13. Modeling early recovery of physical function following hip and knee arthroplasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah M Kennedy; Paul W Stratford; Steven E Hanna; Jean Wessel; Jeffrey D Gollish

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information on early recovery after arthroplasty is needed to help benchmark progress and make appropriate decisions concerning patient rehabilitation needs. The purpose of this study was to model early recovery of physical function in patients undergoing total hip (THA) and knee (TKA) arthroplasty, using physical performance and self-report measures. METHODS: A sample of convenience of 152 subjects completed testing,

  14. Consumer-Run Service Participation, Recovery of Social Functioning, and the Mediating Role of Psychological Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip T. Yanos; Louis H. Primavera; Edward L. Knight

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between participation in consumer-run services and recovery of social functioning among per- sons diagnosed as having serious mental illness. It also assessed the role of psychological factors in mediating this relationship. Methods: Re- search questions investigated were whether involvement in consumer- run services is positively associated with recovery when premorbid and demographic factors are

  15. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.

    1989-04-04

    A method is described for flooding of a subterranean petroleum bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery, comprising the steps of providing at least one production well having at least one inlet within the subterranean petroleum bearing formation, and at least one injection well having at least one outlet within the subterranean petroleum bearing formation, injecting into the petroleum bearing formation through the injection well, a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution having a pH in the range of from about 8.25 to about 9.25 comprising from about 0.25 to about 5 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate, from about 0.05 to about 1.0 weight percent of petroleum recovery surfactant, and from about 1 to about 20 weight percent of sodium chloride, based on the total weight of the aqueous flooding solution, withdrawing through at least one inlet of the production wells, an oil and water mixture comprising petroleum from the subterranean petroleum bearing formation and at least a portion of the low alkaline pH sodium bicarbonate aqueous flooding solution, and separating the oil from the aqueous oil and water mixture.

  16. RPC gas recovery by open loop method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Avinash; Kalmani, S. D.; Mondal, N. K.; Satyanarayana, B.

    2009-05-01

    RPC detectors require to be flushed with small but continuous flow of gas mixture. Dealing with large number of detectors, gas consumption to very large volumes. Gas flow is a running expense and constituent gases are too expensive to be treated as consumables. Exhaust gas mixture from detectors is a potential environmental hazard if discharged directly into the atmosphere. Storage of gases on a large scale also leads to inventory- and safety-related problems. A solution to these problems is the recovery and reuse of exhaust gas mixture from RPC detectors. Close loop method employs recirculation of exhausted gas mixture after purification, analysis and addition of top-up quantities. In open loop method, under consideration here, individual component gases are separated from gas mixture and reused as source. During open loop process, gases liquefiable at low pressures are separated from ones liquefiable at high pressure. The gas phase components within each group are successively separated by either fractional condensation or gravity separation. Gas mixture coming from RPC exhaust is first desiccated by passage through molecular sieve adsorbent type (3A+4A). Subsequent scrubbing over basic activated alumina removes toxic and acidic contaminants such as S 2F 10 produced during corona (arcing) discharge. In the first stage of separation isobutane and freon are concentrated by diffusion and liquefied by fractional condensation by cooling upto -30 °C. Liquefied gases are returned to source tanks. In the second stage of separation, argon and sulphur hexafluoride, the residual gases, are concentrated by settling due to density difference. SF 6 is stored for recovery by condensation at high pressure while argon is further purified by thermal cracking of crossover impurities at 1000 °C followed by wet scrubbing.

  17. Functional recovery of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in modeled microgravity.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Barry W; Lelkes, Peter I; Gardner, Elizabeth M

    2006-02-01

    Immune function is suppressed in space flight, demonstrated by reduced mitogen-stimulated proliferation of postflight astronaut peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). While flight studies are limited, the development of rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors, such as the high aspect ratio vessel (HARV), has facilitated ground-based studies of the effects of modeled microgravity (MMG) on cell-mediated immunity. Astronauts regain immune function 3 days postflight, but this recovery has not yet been demonstrated following MMG. MMG eliminated phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated proliferation of PBMCs. Upon removal from HARV, full recovery was gradually achieved over a 72 h period, in agreement with postflight studies of astronauts. Recovery from MMG delayed, but did not reduce, the maximal proliferative response compared with PHA-activated stationary cultures. Likewise, peak expression of T cell surface activation markers CD69 and CD25 was delayed upon stimulation following exposure to MMG. MMG and recovery from MMG differentially affected the detection of IL-2 and IFN in supernatants. Further development of this model of immune recovery is important for investigating the mechanisms of immune suppression and recovery in space flight, as well as possible countermeasures to prevent immunosuppression or enhance recovery. Given the analogous immune suppression observed in microgravity, MMG, and aging, further investigation may also lead to advances in anti-aging medicine. PMID:16371429

  18. Schwann Cells Seeded in Acellular Nerve Grafts Improve Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Jesuraj, Nithya J.; Santosa, Katherine B.; MacEwan, Matthew R.; Moore, Amy M.; Kasukurthi, Rahul; Ray, Wilson Z.; Flagg, Eric R.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Borschel, Gregory H.; Johnson, Philip J.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluated whether Schwann cells (SCs) from different nerve sources transplanted into cold-preserved acellular nerve grafts (CP-ANGs) would improve functional regeneration compared to nerve isografts. Methods SCs isolated and expanded from motor and sensory branches of rat femoral and sciatic nerves were seeded into 14mm CP-ANGs. Growth factor expression, axonal regeneration, and functional recovery were evaluated in a14 mm rat sciatic injury model and compared to isografts. Results At 14 days, motor or sensory-derived SCs increased expression of growth factors in CP-ANGs versus isografts. After 42 days, histomorphometric analysis found CP-ANGs with SCs and isografts had similar numbers of regenerating nerve fibers. At 84 days, muscle force generation was similar for CP-ANGs with SCs and isografts. SC source did not affect nerve fiber counts or muscle force generation. Discussion SCs transplanted into CP-ANGs increase functional regeneration to isograft levels; however SC nerve source did not have an effect. PMID:23625513

  19. Optogenetic neuronal stimulation promotes functional recovery after stroke.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Michelle Y; Wang, Eric H; Woodson, Wyatt J; Wang, Stephanie; Sun, Guohua; Lee, Alex G; Arac, Ahmet; Fenno, Lief E; Deisseroth, Karl; Steinberg, Gary K

    2014-09-01

    Clinical and research efforts have focused on promoting functional recovery after stroke. Brain stimulation strategies are particularly promising because they allow direct manipulation of the target area's excitability. However, elucidating the cell type and mechanisms mediating recovery has been difficult because existing stimulation techniques nonspecifically target all cell types near the stimulated site. To circumvent these barriers, we used optogenetics to selectively activate neurons that express channelrhodopsin 2 and demonstrated that selective neuronal stimulations in the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (iM1) can promote functional recovery. Stroke mice that received repeated neuronal stimulations exhibited significant improvement in cerebral blood flow and the neurovascular coupling response, as well as increased expression of activity-dependent neurotrophins in the contralesional cortex, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, and neurotrophin 3. Western analysis also indicated that stimulated mice exhibited a significant increase in the expression of a plasticity marker growth-associated protein 43. Moreover, iM1 neuronal stimulations promoted functional recovery, as stimulated stroke mice showed faster weight gain and performed significantly better in sensory-motor behavior tests. Interestingly, stimulations in normal nonstroke mice did not alter motor behavior or neurotrophin expression, suggesting that the prorecovery effect of selective neuronal stimulations is dependent on the poststroke environment. These results demonstrate that stimulation of neurons in the stroke hemisphere is sufficient to promote recovery. PMID:25136109

  20. Optogenetic neuronal stimulation promotes functional recovery after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Michelle Y.; Wang, Eric H.; Woodson, Wyatt J.; Wang, Stephanie; Sun, Guohua; Lee, Alex G.; Arac, Ahmet; Fenno, Lief E.; Deisseroth, Karl; Steinberg, Gary K.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and research efforts have focused on promoting functional recovery after stroke. Brain stimulation strategies are particularly promising because they allow direct manipulation of the target area’s excitability. However, elucidating the cell type and mechanisms mediating recovery has been difficult because existing stimulation techniques nonspecifically target all cell types near the stimulated site. To circumvent these barriers, we used optogenetics to selectively activate neurons that express channelrhodopsin 2 and demonstrated that selective neuronal stimulations in the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (iM1) can promote functional recovery. Stroke mice that received repeated neuronal stimulations exhibited significant improvement in cerebral blood flow and the neurovascular coupling response, as well as increased expression of activity-dependent neurotrophins in the contralesional cortex, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, and neurotrophin 3. Western analysis also indicated that stimulated mice exhibited a significant increase in the expression of a plasticity marker growth-associated protein 43. Moreover, iM1 neuronal stimulations promoted functional recovery, as stimulated stroke mice showed faster weight gain and performed significantly better in sensory-motor behavior tests. Interestingly, stimulations in normal nonstroke mice did not alter motor behavior or neurotrophin expression, suggesting that the prorecovery effect of selective neuronal stimulations is dependent on the poststroke environment. These results demonstrate that stimulation of neurons in the stroke hemisphere is sufficient to promote recovery. PMID:25136109

  1. Etifoxine improves peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Christelle; Liu, Song; Cadepond, Françoise; Adams, David; Lacroix, Catherine; Verleye, Marc; Gillardin, Jean-Marie; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Schumacher, Michael; Schweizer-Groyer, Ghislaine

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral nerves show spontaneous regenerative responses, but recovery after injury or peripheral neuropathies (toxic, diabetic, or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy syndromes) is slow and often incomplete, and at present no efficient treatment is available. Using well-defined peripheral nerve lesion paradigms, we assessed the therapeutic usefulness of etifoxine, recently identified as a ligand of the translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO), to promote axonal regeneration, modulate inflammatory responses, and improve functional recovery. We found by histologic analysis that etifoxine therapy promoted the regeneration of axons in and downstream of the lesion after freeze injury and increased axonal growth into a silicone guide tube by a factor of 2 after nerve transection. Etifoxine also stimulated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, and the effect was even stronger than for specific TSPO ligands. Etifoxine treatment caused a marked reduction in the number of macrophages after cryolesion within the nerve stumps, which was rapid in the proximal and delayed in the distal nerve stumps. Functional tests revealed accelerated and improved recovery of locomotion, motor coordination, and sensory functions in response to etifoxine. This work demonstrates that etifoxine, a clinically approved drug already used for the treatment of anxiety disorders, is remarkably efficient in promoting acceleration of peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Its possible mechanism of action is discussed, with reference to the neurosteroid concept. This molecule, which easily enters nerve tissues and regulates multiple functions in a concerted manner, offers promise for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries and axonal neuropathies. PMID:19075249

  2. Etifoxine improves peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Girard, Christelle; Liu, Song; Cadepond, Françoise; Adams, David; Lacroix, Catherine; Verleye, Marc; Gillardin, Jean-Marie; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Schumacher, Michael; Schweizer-Groyer, Ghislaine

    2008-12-23

    Peripheral nerves show spontaneous regenerative responses, but recovery after injury or peripheral neuropathies (toxic, diabetic, or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy syndromes) is slow and often incomplete, and at present no efficient treatment is available. Using well-defined peripheral nerve lesion paradigms, we assessed the therapeutic usefulness of etifoxine, recently identified as a ligand of the translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO), to promote axonal regeneration, modulate inflammatory responses, and improve functional recovery. We found by histologic analysis that etifoxine therapy promoted the regeneration of axons in and downstream of the lesion after freeze injury and increased axonal growth into a silicone guide tube by a factor of 2 after nerve transection. Etifoxine also stimulated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, and the effect was even stronger than for specific TSPO ligands. Etifoxine treatment caused a marked reduction in the number of macrophages after cryolesion within the nerve stumps, which was rapid in the proximal and delayed in the distal nerve stumps. Functional tests revealed accelerated and improved recovery of locomotion, motor coordination, and sensory functions in response to etifoxine. This work demonstrates that etifoxine, a clinically approved drug already used for the treatment of anxiety disorders, is remarkably efficient in promoting acceleration of peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Its possible mechanism of action is discussed, with reference to the neurosteroid concept. This molecule, which easily enters nerve tissues and regulates multiple functions in a concerted manner, offers promise for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries and axonal neuropathies. PMID:19075249

  3. Relation between depression after stroke, antidepressant therapy, and functional recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Gainotti; G Antonucci; C Marra; S Paolucci

    2001-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of poststroke depression and antidepressant therapy on the improvement of motor scores and disability, to verify if the negative effects of poststroke depression on functional recovery could be counterbalanced by taking antidepressant drugs.RESULTS OBTAINED BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER REHABILITATIONon the Barthel index, Canadian neurological scale, and Rivermead mobility index—by 49 depressed patients with

  4. Functional recovery following musculoskeletal injury in hospital workers

    PubMed Central

    Gillen, M.; Cisternas, M. G.; Yen, I. H.; Swig, L.; Rugulies, R.; Frank, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Hospital workers are at high risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs), but outcomes following such injuries have not been well studied longitudinally. Aims To ascertain functional recovery in hospital workers following incident WRMSDs and identify predictors of functional status. Methods Cases (incident WRMSD) and matched referents from two hospitals were studied at baseline and at 2 year follow-up for health status [SF-12 physical component summary (PCS)], lost workdays, self-rated work effectiveness and work status change (job change or work cessation). Predictors included WRMSD and baseline demographics, socio-economic status (SES), job-related strain and effort–reward imbalance. Logistic regression analysis tested longitudinal predictors of adverse functional status. Results The WRMSD-associated risk of poor (lowest quartile) PCS was attenuated from a baseline odds ratio (OR) of 5.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5–7.5] to a follow-up OR of 1.5 (95% CI 1.0–2.3) and was reduced further in multivariate modelling (OR = 1.4; 95% CI 0.9–2.2). At follow-up, WRMSD status did not predict significantly increased likelihood of lost workdays, decreased effectiveness or work status change. In multivariate modelling, lowest quintile SES predicted poor PCS (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.0–4.0) and work status change (OR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.1–5.8). High combined baseline job strain/effort–reward imbalance predicted poor PCS (OR = 1.7; 95% CI 1.1–2.7) and reduced work effectiveness (OR = 2.6; 95% CI 1.6–4.2) at follow-up. Conclusions Baseline functional deficits associated with incident WRMSDs were largely resolved by 2 year follow-up. Nonetheless, lower SES and higher combined job strain/effort–reward imbalance predicted adverse outcomes, controlling for WRMSDs. PMID:20682740

  5. Adiponectin promotes functional recovery after podocyte ablation.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Joseph M; Wang, Zhao V; Park, Ae Seo Deok; Zhang, Jianning; Zhang, Dihua; Hu, Ming Chang; Moe, Orson W; Susztak, Katalin; Scherer, Philipp E

    2013-02-01

    Low levels of the adipocyte-secreted protein adiponectin correlate with albuminuria in both mice and humans, but whether adiponectin has a causative role in modulating renal disease is unknown. Here, we first generated a mouse model that allows induction of caspase-8-mediated apoptosis specifically in podocytes upon injection of a construct-specific agent. These POD-ATTAC mice exhibited significant kidney damage, mimicking aspects of human renal disease, such as foot process effacement, mesangial expansion, and glomerulosclerosis. After the initial induction, both podocytes and filtration function recovered. Next, we crossed POD-ATTAC mice with mice lacking or overexpressing adiponectin. POD-ATTAC mice lacking adiponectin developed irreversible albuminuria and renal failure; conversely, POD-ATTAC mice overexpressing adiponectin recovered more rapidly and exhibited less interstitial fibrosis. In conclusion, these results suggest that adiponectin is a renoprotective protein after podocyte injury. Furthermore, the POD-ATTAC mouse provides a platform for further studies, allowing precise timing of podocyte injury and regeneration. PMID:23334396

  6. Long-Term Functional Recovery after Facial Nerve Transection and Repair in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Caroline A.; Knox, Christopher; Hunter, Daniel A.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Hohman, Marc H.; Hadlock, Tessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The rodent model is commonly used to study facial nerve injury. Because of the exceptional regenerative capacity of the rodent facial nerve, it is essential to consider the timing when studying facial nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Short-term functional recovery data following transection and repair of the facial nerve has been documented by our laboratory. However, because of the limitations of the head fixation device, there is a lack of long-term data following facial nerve injury. The objective of this study was to elucidate the long-term time course and functional deficit following facial nerve transection and repair in a rodent model. Methods Adult rats were divided into group 1 (controls) and group 2 (experimental). Group 1 animals underwent head fixation, followed by a facial nerve injury, and functional testing was performed from day 7 to day 70. Group 2 animals underwent facial nerve injury, followed by delayed head fixation, and then underwent functional testing from months 6 to 8. Results There was no statistical difference between the average whisking amplitudes in group 1 and group 2 animals. Conclusion Functional whisking recovery 6 months after facial nerve injury is comparable to recovery within 1 to 4 months of transection and repair, thus the ideal window for evaluating facial nerve recovery falls within the 4 months after injury. PMID:25629206

  7. Long-term functional recovery after facial nerve transection and repair in the rat.

    PubMed

    Banks, Caroline A; Knox, Christopher; Hunter, Daniel A; Mackinnon, Susan E; Hohman, Marc H; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2015-03-01

    Background?The rodent model is commonly used to study facial nerve injury. Because of the exceptional regenerative capacity of the rodent facial nerve, it is essential to consider the timing when studying facial nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Short-term functional recovery data following transection and repair of the facial nerve has been documented by our laboratory. However, because of the limitations of the head fixation device, there is a lack of long-term data following facial nerve injury. The objective of this study was to elucidate the long-term time course and functional deficit following facial nerve transection and repair in a rodent model. Methods?Adult rats were divided into group 1 (controls) and group 2 (experimental). Group 1 animals underwent head fixation, followed by a facial nerve injury, and functional testing was performed from day 7 to day 70. Group 2 animals underwent facial nerve injury, followed by delayed head fixation, and then underwent functional testing from months 6 to 8. Results?There was no statistical difference between the average whisking amplitudes in group 1 and group 2 animals. Conclusion?Functional whisking recovery 6 months after facial nerve injury is comparable to recovery within 1 to 4 months of transection and repair, thus the ideal window for evaluating facial nerve recovery falls within the 4 months after injury. PMID:25629206

  8. Recovery of image blocks using the method of alternating projections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiho Park; Dong-chul Park; Robert J. Marks II; Mohamed A. El-sharkawi

    2005-01-01

    A technique for block-loss restoration in block-based image and video coding, dubbed recovery of image blocks using the method of alternating projections (RIBMAP), is developed. The algorithm is based on orthogonal projections onto constraint sets in a Hilbert space. For the recovery of a linear dimension N size block, a total of 8N vectors are extracted from the surrounding area

  9. Recovery of vestibular function following hair cell destruction by streptomycin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Nelson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Can the vestibular periphery of warm-blooded vertebrates recover functionally from severe sensory hair cell loss? Recent findings in birds suggest a mechanism for recovery but in fact no direct functional evidence has been reported. We produced vestibular hair cell lesions using the ototoxic agent streptomycin sulfate (600 mg/kg/day, 8 days, chicks, Gallus domesticus). Compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve were used as a direct measure of peripheral vestibular function. Vestibular thresholds, neural activation latencies and amplitudes were documented. Eight days of drug treatment elevated thresholds significantly (P < 0.001) and eliminated all but remnants of vestibular activity. Virtually complete physiological recovery occurred in all animals studied over a period of 70 days following treatment. Thresholds recovered within two weeks of drug treatment whereas the return of response morphologies including activation latencies and amplitudes required an additional 6-8 weeks.

  10. Wastewater heat recovery method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  11. Functional Recovery of Older Hip-Fracture Patients after Interdisciplinary Intervention Follows Three Distinct Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Ming-Yueh; Shyu, Yea-Ing L.; Liang, Jersey

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effects of an interdisciplinary intervention on the trajectories of functional recovery among older patients with hip fracture during 2 years after hospitalization. Design and Methods In a randomized controlled trial with 24-month follow-up, 162 patients [greater than or equal to]60 years were enrolled after hip-fracture…

  12. Enhanced physical therapy improves recovery of arm function after stroke. A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Sunderland, A; Tinson, D J; Bradley, E L; Fletcher, D; Langton Hewer, R; Wade, D T

    1992-01-01

    Previous research on stroke rehabilitation has not established whether increase in physical therapy lead to better intrinsic recovery from hemiplegia. A detailed study was carried out of recovery of arm function after acute stroke, and compares orthodox physiotherapy with an enhanced therapy regime which increased the amount of treatment as well as using behavioural methods to encourage motor learning. In a single-blind randomised trial, 132 consecutive stroke patients were assigned to orthodox or enhanced therapy groups. At six months after stroke the enhanced therapy group showed a small but statistically significant advantage in recovery of strength, range and speed of movement. This effect seemed concentrated amongst those who had a milder initial impairment. More work is needed to discover the reasons for this improved recovery, and whether further development of this therapeutic approach might offer clinically significant gains for some patients. PMID:1640226

  13. Psychosocial Treatments to Promote Functional Recovery in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Robert S.; Glynn, Shirley M.; Horan, William P.; Marder, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    A number of psychosocial treatments are available for persons with schizophrenia that include social skills training, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive remediation, and social cognition training. These treatments are reviewed and discussed in terms of how they address key components of functional recovery such as symptom stability, independent living, work functioning, and social functioning. We also review findings on the interaction between pharmacological and psychosocial treatments and discuss future directions in pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. Overall, these treatments provide a range of promising approaches to helping patients achieve better outcomes far beyond symptom stabilization. PMID:19176470

  14. Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L K Altunina; V A Kuvshinov

    2007-01-01

    Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields that are developed using water flooding and thermal steam treatment are considered. The results of pilot testing of processes based on these methods carried out at West Siberian and Chinese oil fields are analysed. The attention is focused on the processes that make use of surfactant blends and alkaline buffer solutions

  15. Functional recovery is considered the most important target: a survey of dedicated professionals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to survey the relative importance of postoperative recovery targets and perioperative care items, as perceived by a large group of international dedicated professionals. Methods A questionnaire with eight postoperative recovery targets and 13 perioperative care items was mailed to participants of the first international Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) congress and to authors of papers with a clear relevance to ERAS in abdominal surgery. The responders were divided into categories according to profession and region. Results The recovery targets ‘To be completely free of nausea’, ‘To be independently mobile’ and ‘To be able to eat and drink as soon as possible’ received the highest score irrespective of the responder's profession or region of origin. Equally, the care items ‘Optimizing fluid balance’, ‘Preoperative counselling’ and ‘Promoting early and scheduled mobilisation’ received the highest score across all groups. Conclusions Functional recovery, as in tolerance of food without nausea and regained mobility, was considered the most important target of recovery. There was a consistent uniformity in the way international dedicated professionals scored the relative importance of recovery targets and care items. The relative rating of the perioperative care items was not dependent on the strength of evidence supporting the items. PMID:25089195

  16. Noninvasive Strategies to Promote Functional Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Alessandro; Rossi, Ferdinando; Carulli, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is a common and disabling global health-care problem, which is the third most common cause of death and one of the main causes of acquired adult disability in many countries. Rehabilitation interventions are a major component of patient care. In the last few years, brain stimulation, mirror therapy, action observation, or mental practice with motor imagery has emerged as interesting options as add-on interventions to standard physical therapies. The neural bases for poststroke recovery rely on the concept of plasticity, namely, the ability of central nervous system cells to modify their structure and function in response to external stimuli. In this review, we will discuss recent noninvasive strategies employed to enhance functional recovery in stroke patients and we will provide an overview of neural plastic events associated with rehabilitation in preclinical models of stroke. PMID:23864962

  17. Enhanced oil recovery using electrical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Muhammad Moshin

    Heavy Oil Recovery is gaining much popularity because of huge consumption of oil in the modern industry. Main concern in the extraction of heavy oil is its high viscosity. Heating heavy oil by different electrical means has come out to be a promising solution for viscosity reduction. This includes the low frequency resistive heating, induction heating and high frequency microwave heating or the dielectric heating. Application of low frequency resistive heating is limited by the requirement of brine (conducting fluid) inside the reservoir while Induction heating is only applicable in the presence of ferrous elements in the reservoir. High frequency microwave heating can be used effectively for enhancing the oil productivity. Ultrasonic stimulation is another technique capable of reducing the viscosity of heavy oil without employing the heating techniques. Although many models have been presented addressing microwave heating of heavy oil but, no model has been found in the literature addressing the design of microwave sources and the experimental verification of the results. Similarly some authors have also addressed the ultrasonic stimulation of heavy oil but no one has discussed the behavior of ultrasonic waves at different power level along with the experimental verification. This thesis presents complete mathematical modeling of microwave heating, with numerical solution by considering two-dimensional radial model. In addition, the design, positioning, and orientation of the array of microwave antennas have also been considered in numerical simulations while results of some of the cases are also verified experimentally. Similarly, the Thesis discusses the ultrasonic modeling with numerical solution and experimental verification at different power levels and positioning of the ultrasonic transducer. These models present the results in the form of temperature & pressure distribution and productivity enhancement. For numerical simulations, a Finite Element Analysis based simulator has been used. Main focus was on the design and orientation of the array of microwave and ultrasonic sources and the validation of results with experiments. Results showed a good fit between the numerical simulations and the experimental procedures proving the efficiency of microwave and ultrasonic sources. It has also been found that microwaves and ultrasonic waves are beneficial for specific reservoir characterizations.

  18. Method for recovery of natural gas liquids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. IV Montgomery; H. K. Aghili

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a method for recovering natural gas liquids from a fuel gas stream with high hydrogen and carbon dioxide content comprising the steps of: dehydrating the fuel gas stream; compressing the fuel gas stream to a pressure of generally 300 psi; chilling the fuel gas stream in an inlet gas cooler to generally - 45°F; separating the chilled,

  19. Level Set Methods for Shape Recovery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Overview of a movie on medical imaging. Imagine that you are given an image, say a medical (MRI or CT) scan. Suppose you want to extract the important feature within the image of a digital subtraction angiogram (DSA); in this case, the outline of the artery. One idea is to look for places where there is a big jump in intensity between neighboring pixels. However, it is hard to pick a good value for the jump; too small and you get extra boundaries; too large and you miss the whole show. Another problem is that you can get fooled by large spikes of noise... See also Sethian, J.A., Level Set Methods: Evolving Interfaces in Geometry, Fluid Mechanics, Computer Vision and Materials Sciences, Cambridge University Press, 1996, a book intended for mathematicians, applied scientists, practicing engineers, computer graphic artists, and anyone interested in the evolution of boundaries and interfaces.

  20. Embedded pupil function recovery for Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Xiaoze; Zheng, Guoan; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    We develop and test a pupil function determination algorithm, termed embedded pupil function recovery (EPRY), which can be incorporated into the Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) algorithm and recover both the Fourier spectrum of sample and the pupil function of imaging system simultaneously. This EPRY-FPM algorithm eliminates the requirement of the previous FPM algorithm for a priori knowledge of the aberration in the imaging system to reconstruct a high quality image. We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of this algorithm by reconstructing high resolution, large field-of-view images of biological samples. We also illustrate that the pupil function we retrieve can be used to study the spatially varying aberration of a large field-of-view imaging system. We believe that this algorithm adds more flexibility to FPM and can be a powerful tool for the characterization of an imaging system’s aberration. PMID:24663835

  1. Embedded pupil function recovery for Fourier ptychographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ou, Xiaoze; Zheng, Guoan; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-03-10

    We develop and test a pupil function determination algorithm, termed embedded pupil function recovery (EPRY), which can be incorporated into the Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) algorithm and recover both the Fourier spectrum of sample and the pupil function of imaging system simultaneously. This EPRY-FPM algorithm eliminates the requirement of the previous FPM algorithm for a priori knowledge of the aberration in the imaging system to reconstruct a high quality image. We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of this algorithm by reconstructing high resolution, large field-of-view images of biological samples. We also illustrate that the pupil function we retrieve can be used to study the spatially varying aberration of a large field-of-view imaging system. We believe that this algorithm adds more flexibility to FPM and can be a powerful tool for the characterization of an imaging system's aberration. PMID:24663835

  2. Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride

    DOEpatents

    Kreuzmann, A.B.

    1982-10-27

    The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions whereas the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

  3. Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride

    DOEpatents

    Kreuzmann, Alvin B. (Cincinnati, OH)

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions wherein the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

  4. Recovery in skeletal muscle contractile function after prolonged hindlimb immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, R. H.; Brimmer, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of three-month hindlimb immobilization (IM) in rats on contractile properties of slow-twitch soleus (SOL), fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus, and fast-twitch superficial region of the vastus lateralis were measured after 0, 14, 28, 60, and 90 days of recovery on excized, horizontally suspended muscles stimulated electrically to maximal twitch tension. IM caused decreases in muscle-to-body weight ratios for all muscles, with no complete recovery even after 90 days. The contractile properties of the fast-twitch muscles were less affected by IM than those of the slow-twitch SOL. The SOL isometric twitch duration was shortened, due to reduced contraction and half-relaxation time, both of which returned to control levels after 14 days of recovery. The peak tetanic tension, P(O), g/sq cm,, decreased with IM by 46 percent in the SOL, but recovered by the 28th day. The maximum shortening velocity was not altered by IM in any of the muscles. Thus, normal contractile function could recover after prolonged limb IM.

  5. Plasticity of Language-Related Brain Function During Recovery from Stroke

    E-print Network

    Plasticity of Language-Related Brain Function During Recovery from Stroke Keith R. Thulborn, MD, Ph to correlate functional recovery from aphasia after acute stroke with the temporal evolution of the anatomic during recovery from acute stroke presenting with aphasia. Perfusion, diffusion, sodium, and conventional

  6. Aqueous methods for recovery of plutonium from pyrochemical residues

    SciTech Connect

    Muscatello, A.C.; Killion, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Salt residues generated during such pyrochemical processing of plutonium as direct oxide reduction (DOR), electrorefining (ER), and molten salt extraction sometimes contain more plutonium than the economic discard limit, and the plutonium must be recovered. Consequently, the authors have been studying aqueous methods for recovering the plutonium and producing discardable wastes. Most of the work has been the investigation of chloride anion exchange recovery with some interest in leaching and precipitation techniques.

  7. Laboratory methods for enhanced oil recovery core floods

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, E.P.; Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1994-03-01

    Current research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is investigating microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) systems for application to oil reservoirs. Laboratory corefloods are invaluable in developing technology necessary for a field application of MEOR. Methods used to prepare sandstone cores for experimentation, coreflooding techniques, and quantification of coreflood effluent are discussed in detail. A technique to quantify the small volumes of oil associated with laboratory core floods is described.

  8. An efficient method of noroviruses recovery from oysters and clams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Deqing; Ma, Liping; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Lin; Su, Laijin; Li, Xinguang

    2013-03-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are widespread causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Outbreaks of NoVs caused diseases are commonly ascribed to the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The concentration and RNA extraction of NoVs are crucial steps of detecting NoVs in shellfish. This study aimed to select a simple, rapid and highly efficient recovery method of NoVs detection with real-time RT-PCR. Four methods of recovering GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs from spiked digestive tissues of oysters and clams, respectively, were compared, of them, the method involving proteinase K and PEG 8000 was found the most efficient. With this method, 9.3% and 13.1% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from oysters and 9.6% and 12.3% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from clams, respectively. This method was further used to detect NoVs in 84 oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) and 86 clams ( Ruditapes philippinarum) collected from 10 coastal cities in China from Jan. 2011 to Feb. 2012. The NoVs isolation rates were 10.47% of clams (9/86) and 7.14% of oysters (6/84). All the detected NoVs belonged to genotype GII. The NoVs recovery method selected is efficient for NoVs detection in oysters and clams.

  9. A Centrifuge Method To Predict Matrix-Block Recovery in Fractured Reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. KYTE

    1970-01-01

    Previous laboratory investigations to predict recovery from matrix locks in a fractured reservoir have been primarily concerned with the imbibition oil recovery process. Gravity segregation can sometimes be more important than imbibition as a mechanism for oil recovery from matrix blocks. A new method is described to predict oil recovery behavior for matrix blocks in a fractured matrix reservoir. Centrifuge

  10. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOEpatents

    Easterly, Clay E. (Knoxville, TN); Vass, Arpad A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  11. Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation

    DOEpatents

    Sisemore, Clyde J. (Livermore, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

  12. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOEpatents

    Easterly, C.E.; Vass, A.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1997-01-28

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  13. Subthreshold continuous electrical stimulation facilitates functional recovery of facial nerve after crush injury in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin; Han, Su Jin; Shin, Dong Hyun; Lee, Won-Sang; Choi, Jae Young

    2011-02-01

    We sought to determine whether electrical stimulation (ES) with subthreshold, continuous, low-frequency impulses is a viable clinical method for improving functional recovery after facial nerve crush injury. In 10 rabbits, bilateral crush injuries were made on the facial nerve by compression for 30 s with mosquito forceps, causing complete facial paralysis. Subthreshold continuous direct current ES with 20-Hz square-wave pulses was applied to the proximal stump on one side for 4 weeks. Vibrissae movement returned significantly earlier on the ES side, with a less variable recovery time. Electrophysiologically, the stimulated side had a significantly shorter latency, longer duration, and faster conduction velocity. Light and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the electrical stimulation also markedly decreased Wallerian degeneration. The average numbers of fluorescent, double-labeled nerve cells were significantly different between the ES and non-ES sides. This study shows that subthreshold, continuous, low-frequency ES immediately after a crush injury of the facial nerve results in earlier recovery of facial function and shorter overall recovery time. PMID:21254091

  14. Functional recovery after surgical resection of low grade gliomas in eloquent brain: hypothesis of brain compensation

    PubMed Central

    Duffau, H; Capelle, L; Denvil, D; Sichez, N; Gatignol, P; Lopes, M; Mitchell, M; Sichez, J; Van Effenterre, R

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To describe functional recovery after surgical resection of low grade gliomas (LGG) in eloquent brain areas, and discuss the mechanisms of compensation. Methods: Seventy-seven right-handed patients without deficit were operated on for a LGG invading primary and/or secondary sensorimotor and/or language areas, as shown anatomically by pre-operative MRI and intraoperatively by electrical brain stimulation and cortico-subcortical mapping. Results: Tumours involved 31 supplementary motor areas, 28 insulas, 8 primary somatosensory areas, 4 primary motor areas, 4 Broca's areas, and 2 left temporal language areas. All patients had immediate post-operative deficits. Recovery occurred within 3 months in all except four cases (definitive morbidity: 5%). Ninety-two percent of the lesions were either totally or extensively resected on post-operative MRI. Conclusions: These findings suggest that spatio-temporal functional re-organisation is possible in peritumoural brain, and that the process is dynamic. The recruitment of compensatory areas with long term perilesional functional reshaping would explain why: before surgery, there is no clinical deficit despite the tumour growth in eloquent regions; immediately after surgery, the occurrence of a deficit, which could be due to the resection of invaded areas participating (but not essential) to the function; and why three months after surgery, almost complete recovery had occurred. This brain plasticity, which decreases the long term risk of surgical morbidity, may be used to extend the limits of surgery in eloquent areas. PMID:12810776

  15. Neurogenic bladder following myelopathies: Has it any correlation with neurological and functional recovery?

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Nitin; Gupta, Anupam; Taly, Arun B.; Khanna, Meeka; Kumar, Sushruth Nagesh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To observe neurogenic bladder pattern in patients with myelopathy by performing urodynamic study (UDS) and to observe whether it has any correlation with functional and neurological recovery. Patients and Methods: This prospective study was conducted with 90 patients with myelopathy, both traumatic and non-traumatic (males = 65) in a university tertiary research hospital in India between January 2011 and December 2013. Mean age was 33.5 ± 13.2 years (range 15-65 years), mean duration of injury was 82.63 ± 88.3 days (range 14-365 days) and mean length of stay (LOS) in the rehabilitation unit 42.5 ± 23.3 days (range 14-130 days). The urodynamic study was performed in all the patients to assess the neurogenic bladder pattern. Management was based on the UDS findings. Functional recovery was assessed using Barthel index (BI) scores and spinal cord independence measures (SCIM) scores. Neurological recovery was assessed using ASIA impairment scale (AIS). We tried to correlate neurogenic bladder patterns with recovery. Results: Fifty patients (55.6%) had overactive detrusor with 25 each had detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) and synergic sphincter. Thirty-eight patients had hypoactive/acontractile detrusor and two had normal studies. No significant correlation observed between neurogenic bladder pattern and change in BI scores (P = 0.696), SCIM scores (P = 0.135) or change in ASIA status (P = 0.841) in the study. Conclusions: More than half of the patients with myelopathies had overactive detrusor with or without dyssynergic sphincter according to the urodynamic study. Neurogenic bladder patterns had no significant correlation with functional and neurological recovery in these patients. PMID:25540531

  16. Recovery of methanotrophs from disturbance: population dynamics, evenness and functioning

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Adrian; Lüke, Claudia; Frenzel, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity is claimed to be essential for ecosystem functioning, but is threatened by anthropogenic disturbances. Prokaryotes have been assumed to be functionally redundant and virtually inextinguishable. However, recent work indicates that microbes may well be sensitive to environmental disturbance. Focusing on methane-oxidizing bacteria as model organisms, we simulated disturbance-induced mortality by mixing native with sterilized paddy soil in two ratios, 1:4 and 1:40, representing moderate and severe die-offs. Disturbed microcosms were compared with an untreated control. Recovery of activity and populations was followed over 4 months by methane uptake measurements, pmoA-qPCR, pmoA-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and a pmoA-based diagnostic microarray. Diversity and evenness of methanotrophs decreased in disturbed microcosms, but functioning was not compromised. We consistently observed distinctive temporal shifts between type I and type II methanotrophs, and a rapid population growth leading to even higher cell numbers comparing disturbed microcosms with the control. Overcompensating mortality suggested that population size in the control was limited by competition with other bacteria. Overall, methanotrophs showed a remarkable ability to compensate for die-offs. PMID:20981115

  17. Intermittent hypoxia induces functional recovery following cervical spinal injury

    PubMed Central

    Vinit, Stéphane; Lovett-Barr, Mary Rachael; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory-related complications are the leading cause of death in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Few effective SCI treatments are available after therapeutic interventions are performed in the period shortly after injury (e.g. spine stabilization and prevention of further spinal damage). In this review we explore the capacity to harness endogenous spinal plasticity induced by intermittent hypoxia to optimize function of surviving (spared) neural pathways associated with breathing. Two primary questions are addressed: 1) does intermittent hypoxia induce plasticity in spinal synaptic pathways to respiratory motor neurons following experimental SCI? and 2) can this plasticity improve respiratory function? In normal rats, intermittent hypoxia induces serotonin-dependent plasticity in spinal pathways to respiratory motor neurons. Early experiments suggest that intermittent hypoxia also enhances respiratory motor output in experimental models of cervical SCI, (cervical hemisection) and that the capacity to induce functional recovery is greater with longer durations post-injury. Available evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia-induced spinal plasticity has considerable therapeutic potential to treat respiratory insufficiency following chronic cervical spinal injury. PMID:19651247

  18. Functional Task Test: 2. Spaceflight-Induced Cardiovascular Change and Recovery During NASA's Functional Task Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Tiffany; Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, Michael; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of the functional task test (FTT) is to correlate spaceflight-induced physiological adaptations with changes in performance of high priority exploration mission-critical tasks. This presentation will focus on the recovery from fall/stand test (RFST), which measures the cardiovascular response to the transition from the prone posture (simulated fall) to standing in normal gravity, as well as heart rate (HR) during 11 functional tasks. As such, this test describes some aspects of spaceflight-induced cardiovascular deconditioning and the course of recovery in Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. The sensorimotor and neuromuscular components of the FTT are described in two separate abstracts: Functional Task Test 1 and 3.

  19. The Effects of Rehabilitation Protocol on Functional Recovery After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dragicevic-Cvjetkovic, Dragana; Jandric, Slavica; Bijeljac, Sinisa; Palija, Stanislav; Manojlovic, Slavko; Talic, Goran

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of rehabilitation protocol which corresponds to surgical technique results in optimal postoperative outcome and functional recovery of patients to a pre-injury level of activity. The aim of this paper is to show the effects of the official rehabilitation protocol in our Institute on functional recovery of patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Patients and methods: In prospective study, we evaluated 70 males after ACL reconstruction using hamstring graft. Patients were divided into two groups according to the manner of conducting the postoperative rehabilitation. Group A consisted of 35 patients that followed postoperative rehabilitation according to the rehabilitation protocol. Group B also 35 patients, which did not undergo the rehabilitation protocol. We evaluated thigh muscle circumference and modified Tegner Lysholm Score, preoperatively and postoperatively after 1,3,6 and 12 months. In the statistical analysis, the Studentov T-test was used. Results: In the first postoperative month, the difference between groups in thigh muscle circumference is statistically significant (p<0,05). This difference between groups is statistically highly significant after 3, 6, and 12 months postoperative (p<0,01). Results of the modified Tegner Lysholm Score is statistically highly significant in 1, 3 and 6 postoperative months in patients from the experimental group (p<0,01). Conclusion: The positive effects of the rehabilitation protocol results in significant increase of the thigh muscle circumference and faster functional recovery of patients after ACL reconstruction. PMID:25568570

  20. Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, David O. (Albuquerque, NM); Montoya, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Wayland, Jr., James R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the CSAMT technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (a) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (b) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the connate water of the production field; (c) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (d) mathematically comparing the maps from step (a) and step (c) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

  1. Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1984-03-30

    A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (1) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (2) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the conate water of the production field; (3) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (4) mathematically comparing the maps from step (1) and step (3) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

  2. Prognostic Factors Predicting Early Recovery of Pre-fracture Functional Mobility in Elderly Patients With Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daegu; Jo, Jae Yong; Jung, Ji Sun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prognostic factors predicting the recovery of pre-fracture functional mobility, we evaluated this by the use of ambulatory assistive devices in short-term follow-up. Methods Five hundred and fifty-three elderly patients who had undergone hip fracture operations from January 2006 to June 2013 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Clinical characteristics and predicted factors affecting functional recovery, such as the delay of rehabilitation after the operation, were reviewed. The functional status of the gait was classified as either a bedridden state, wheelchair-bound state, walker gait, single cane gait, and self-gait without any ambulatory assistance device. When this functional grade in patients who recovered after the surgery was compared to before the surgery, this state was considered 'functional recovery'. Results One hundred and ninety-two patients (34.7%) showed recovery of preoperative mobility in the first month after their operation. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified that the following four factors were significantly associated with a deterioration of functional recovery: old age (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-0.97), delays in rehabilitation after operation (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.98), the presence of cognitive dysfunction (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.18-0.71), and trochanteric fracturing (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.36-0.94). Conclusion We found that old age, cognitive dysfunction, trochanteric fracture type, and delay of rehabilitation were associated with the deterioration of functional recovery after a hip fracture operation in the short-term. Therefore, early rehabilitation was required to acquire functional recovery after a hip fracture operation in the short-term. PMID:25566483

  3. Neuromotor recovery from stroke: computational models at central, functional, and muscle synergy level

    PubMed Central

    Casadio, Maura; Tamagnone, Irene; Summa, Susanna; Sanguineti, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Computational models of neuromotor recovery after a stroke might help to unveil the underlying physiological mechanisms and might suggest how to make recovery faster and more effective. At least in principle, these models could serve: (i) To provide testable hypotheses on the nature of recovery; (ii) To predict the recovery of individual patients; (iii) To design patient-specific “optimal” therapy, by setting the treatment variables for maximizing the amount of recovery or for achieving a better generalization of the learned abilities across different tasks. Here we review the state of the art of computational models for neuromotor recovery through exercise, and their implications for treatment. We show that to properly account for the computational mechanisms of neuromotor recovery, multiple levels of description need to be taken into account. The review specifically covers models of recovery at central, functional and muscle synergy level. PMID:23986688

  4. Recovery rates of cryptobiotic crusts: inoculant use and assessment methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne

    1993-01-01

    Recovery rates of cyanobacterial-lichen soil crusts from disturbance were examined. Plots were either undisturbed or scalped, and scalped plots were either inoculated with surrounding biological crust material or left to recover naturally. Natural recovery rates were found to be very slow. Inoculation significantly hastened recovery for the cyanobacterial/green algal component, lichen cover, lichen species richness, and moss cover. Even with inoculation, however, lichen and moss recovery was minimal. Traditional techniques of assessing recovery visually were found to underestimate time for total recovery. Other techniques, such as extraction of chlorophyll a from surface soil and measurement of sheath material accumulation, were used and are discussed.

  5. Plasticity of intact rubral projections mediates spontaneous recovery of function after corticospinal tract injury.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Chad S; Fink, Kathren L; Strittmatter, Stephen M; Cafferty, William B J

    2015-01-28

    Axons in the adult CNS fail to regenerate after injury, and therefore recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI) is limited. Although full recovery is rare, a modest degree of spontaneous recovery is observed consistently in a broad range of clinical and nonclinical situations. To define the mechanisms mediating spontaneous recovery of function after incomplete SCI, we created bilaterally complete medullary corticospinal tract lesions in adult mice, eliminating a crucial pathway for voluntary skilled movement. Anatomic and pharmacogenetic tools were used to identify the pathways driving spontaneous functional recovery in wild-type and plasticity-sensitized mice lacking Nogo receptor 1. We found that plasticity-sensitized mice recovered 50% of normal skilled locomotor function within 5 weeks of lesion. This significant, yet incomplete, spontaneous recovery was accompanied by extensive sprouting of intact rubrofugal and rubrospinal projections with the emergence of a de novo circuit between the red nucleus and the nucleus raphe magnus. Transient silencing of this rubro-raphe circuit in vivo via activation of the inhibitory DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs) receptor hM4di abrogated spontaneous functional recovery. These data highlight the pivotal role of uninjured motor circuit plasticity in supporting functional recovery after trauma, and support a focus of experimental strategies on enhancing intact circuit rearrangement to promote functional recovery after SCI. PMID:25632122

  6. Reduced Functional Recovery by Delaying Motor Training After Spinal Cord Injury

    E-print Network

    Gorassini, Monica

    Reduced Functional Recovery by Delaying Motor Training After Spinal Cord Injury B. A. Norrie, J. M by delaying motor training after spinal cord injury. J Neurophysiol 94: 255­264, 2005. First published March in rehabilitative motor training after spinal cord injury affects functional motor recovery. We studied a skilled

  7. Recovery Time of Platelet Function After Aspirin Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeonghun; Kim, Jeong Kyung; Kim, Jeong Hee; Dunuu, Tsagaan; Park, Sang-Ho; Park, Sang Joon; Kang, Ji Yeon; Choi, Rak Kyeong; Hyon, Min Su

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Inappropriate antiplatelet therapy discontinuation increases the risk of thrombotic complications and bleeding after dental procedures. To determine the platelet reactivity recovery time after aspirin withdrawal in vivo, our study was conducted in patients with low-risk cardiovascular disease who can stop aspirin administration following the guidelines stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians. The time it takes for platelet activity to normalize and the diagnostic accuracy of testing methods were assessed for a residual antiplatelet activity with multiple electrode aggregometry. Our study included patients with clinically indicated hypertension preparing for a dental extraction procedure. Materials and methods A total of 212 patients not taking aspirin (control group) and 248 patients with hypertension receiving long-time aspirin treatment at a 100-mg daily dose were prospectively included in the study, which involved stopping aspirin intake before dental extraction. The residual platelet activity and dental bleeding in patients who stopped aspirin intake were analyzed and compared with those of the control group. In addition, platelet reactivity recovery time and bleeding risk in patients who stopped taking aspirin every 24 hours for 0 to 5 days (0–143 hours) before dental extraction was also assessed. Results Platelet reactivity normalized 96 hours after aspirin withdrawal. The cut-off value of 49 arbitrary units in the arachidonic acid platelet aggregation test excluded the effect of aspirin with 91% sensitivity and 66% specificity. AUC showed 0.86 (P < 0.001) diagnostic accuracy. The immediate bleeding complications in all treatment groups were similar to those seen in the control group and were successfully managed with local hemostatic measures. Conclusions The antiplatelet effects of aspirin disappeared 96 hours after aspirin withdrawal in our study, and dental extractions may be safely performed in this period when appropriate local hemostatic measures are taken. Based on these results, a shorter aspirin intake cessation period may be allowable in complex dental procedures and surgery for which a longer aspirin intake cessation period (7–10 days) is recommended based on the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines. PMID:25031665

  8. Postoperative Recovery of Visual Function after Macula-Off Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment

    PubMed Central

    van de Put, Mathijs A. J.; Croonen, Danna; Nolte, Ilja M.; Japing, Wouter J.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine which factors affect the recovery of visual function in macula off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods In a prospective study of forty-five patients with a primary macula-off RRD of 24 hours to 6 weeks duration, the height of the macular detachment was determined by ultrasonography. At 12 months postoperatively, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast acuity, and color confusion indexes (CCI) were obtained. Results Macular detachment was present for 2–32 (median 7) days before repair. A shorter duration of macular detachment was correlated with a better CCI saturé (p?=?0.0026) and lower LogMAR BCVA (better Snellen visual acuity)(p?=?0.012). Also, a smaller height of macular detachment was correlated with a lower LogMAR BCVA (p?=?0.0034). A younger age and lower pre-operative LogMAR BCVA at presentation were both correlated with better postoperative contrast acuity in the total group (age: p?=?1.7×10?4 and pre-operative LogMAR BCVA: p?=?0.0034). Conclusion Functional recovery after macula-off RRD is affected by the duration and the height of the macular detachment. Recovery of contrast acuity is also affected by age and BCVA at presentation. Meeting presentation ARVO annual meeting 2013, May 7, Seattle, Washington, United States of America. Trial registration: trialregister.nl NTR839 PMID:24927502

  9. Simple functionalization strategies for enhancing nanoparticle separation and recovery with asymmetric flow field flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Mudalige, Thilak K; Qu, Haiou; Sánchez-Pomales, Germarie; Sisco, Patrick N; Linder, Sean W

    2015-02-01

    Due to the increasing use of engineered nanomaterials in consumer products, regulatory agencies and other research organizations have determined that the development of robust, reliable, and accurate methodologies to characterize nanoparticles in complex matrices is a top priority. Of particular interest are methods that can separate and determine the size of nanomaterials in samples that contain polydisperse and/or multimodal nanoparticle populations. Asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation (AF4) has shown promise for the separation of nanoparticles with wide size range distributions; however, low analyte recoveries and decreased membrane lifetimes, due to membrane fouling, have limited its application. Herein, we report straightforward strategies to minimize membrane fouling and improve nanoparticle recovery by functionalizing the surface of the nanoparticles, as well as that of the AF4 membranes. Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) were stabilized through functionalization with a phosphine molecule, whereas the surface of the membranes was coated with a negatively charged polystyrenesulfonate polymer. Improved nanoparticle separation, recoveries of 99.1 (±0.5) %, and a detection limit of 6 ?g/kg were demonstrated by analyzing AuNP reference materials of different sizes (e.g., 10, 30, and 60 nm), obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Furthermore, the stability of the polymer coating and its specificity toward minimizing membrane fouling were demonstrated. PMID:25556296

  10. Artemin induced functional recovery and reinnervation after partial nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruizhong; Rossomando, Anthony; Sah, Dinah W Y; Ossipov, Michael H; King, Tamara; Porreca, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Systemic artemin promotes regeneration of dorsal roots to the spinal cord after crush injury. However, it is unclear whether systemic artemin can also promote peripheral nerve regeneration, and functional recovery after partial lesions distal to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) remains unknown. In the present investigation, male Sprague Dawley rats received axotomy, ligation, or crush of the L5 spinal nerve or sham surgery. Starting the day of injury, animals received intermittent subcutaneous artemin or vehicle across 2weeks. Sensory thresholds to tactile or thermal stimuli were monitored for 6weeks after injury. Immunohistochemical analyses of the DRG and nerve regeneration were performed at the 6-week time point. Artemin transiently reversed tactile and thermal hypersensitivity after axotomy, ligation, or crush injury. Thermal and tactile hypersensitivity reemerged within 1week of treatment termination. However, artemin-treated rats with nerve crush, but not axotomy or ligation, subsequently showed gradual return of sensory thresholds to preinjury baseline levels by 6weeks after injury. Artemin normalized labeling for NF200, IB4, and CGRP in nerve fibers distal to the crush injury, suggesting persistent normalization of nerve crush-induced neurochemical changes. Sciatic and intradermal administration of dextran or cholera toxin B distal to the crush injury site resulted in labeling of neuronal profiles in the L5 DRG, suggesting regeneration functional restoration of nonmyelinated and myelinated fibers across the injury site into cutaneous tissue. Artemin also diminished ATF3 and caspase 3 expression in the L5 DRG, suggesting persistent neuroprotective actions. A limited period of artemin treatment elicits disease modification by promoting sensory reinnervation of distal territories and restoring preinjury sensory thresholds. PMID:24269493

  11. Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond J Walls; Gavin McHugh; Donal J O'Gorman; Niall M Moyna; John M O'Byrne

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint arthroplasty but are considered resource intensive. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been shown to improve quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength and clinical function in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) however it has not been previously investigated as a prehabilitation modality. METHODS: This pilot study assessed the compliance

  12. Brain plasticity as a basis for recovery of function in humans.

    PubMed

    Bach-y-Rita, P

    1990-01-01

    One of the factors leading to the virtual neglect of the long-term potential for functional recovery following brain damage was the eclipse of plasticity concepts during the 100 years following Broca's 1861 publication on location of function. However, in the last 30 years evidence has been accumulating that demonstrates the plasticity of the brain and thus recovery potential is a subject of practical as well as theoretical interest. "Unmasking" of relatively inactive pathways, the taking over of functional representation by undamaged brain tissue, and neuronal group selection are among the mechanisms that are being explored. Human models of recovery of function include hemispherectomy patients that have regained bilateral function, facial paralysis patients who recover function (with appropriate rehabilitation) after VII-XII cranial nerve anastomosis, and patients with muscle transpositions to re-establish lost motor functions. The role of early and late rehabilitation, with attention to psychosocial and environmental factors, appears to be critical for recovery. PMID:2395525

  13. Toward a terminology for functional recovery in schizophrenia: is functional remission a viable concept?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip D; Bellack, Alan S

    2009-03-01

    Recovery in schizophrenia is receiving increasing attention. Part of the increased focus is based on the recent working criteria for clinical remission in schizophrenia and the realization that many people with schizophrenia meet these criteria for remission. In this article, we consider whether functional disability can also be evaluated in a "remission" model. In so doing, we evaluate the concept of clinical remission, evaluate the possibility of remission of other generally stable features of schizophrenia such as negative symptoms, and make some heuristic terminological recommendations. We also propose a "level and breadth" model for the definition of functional remission and examine some of the alternate influences that could produce suboptimal everyday functioning, including effort, motivation, and societal barriers toward functional achievement. PMID:19126634

  14. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  15. Nimodipine Accelerates Functional Recovery of the Facial Nerve after Crush Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Robin W.; Heaton, James T.; Edwards, Colin; Smitson, Christoper; Hadlock, Tessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish whether nimodipine, a calcium channel blocker, accelerates or otherwise improves functional recovery of whisking after facial nerve crush injury in the rat. Methods Thirty rats underwent exposure of the left main trunk of the facial nerve followed by a standard crush injury, and subsequent quantitative facial movement testing. Animals were randomized into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15 each). Four days prior to facial nerve manipulation, experimental animals underwent subcutaneous implantation of a nimodipine-secreting pellet. All animals were tested pre-operatively and on post-crush days 2, 8–17, 20, 22, 24, and 31, using a validated, quantitative whisking kinematics apparatus. Whisks were analyzed for amplitude, velocity, and acceleration. Results Animals receiving nimodipine demonstrated significantly better whisking on days 9, 11–13, and 20 compared with control animals (p<.05). Overall, the nimodipine-treated animals showed earlier recovery as compared to the untreated animals. Conclusions We demonstrate that nimodipine improves recovery of whisking after facial nerve crush. This finding corroborates the semi-quantitative findings of others, and provides complete whisking kinematic data on its effects. Given the low side effect profile of nimodipine, there may be clinical implications in its administration in patients experiencing facial nerve injury. PMID:20083741

  16. The Function of Avoidance in Improving the Understanding of Disaster Recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Many; Tonya Hansel; Michelle Moore; Zack Rosenburg; Howard Osofsky

    2012-01-01

    Functional avoidance as an intermittent coping mechanism is a necessary component in disaster recovery. By temporarily avoiding losses after disaster, survivors can secure basic needs and begin rebuilding. It is not until recovery projects are completed that mental health outcomes become apparent. Many individuals begin a healthy grieving process; however, for others, where avoidance extends past the completion of normalizing

  17. Pulmonary Function Predicting Confirmed Recovery From Lower-Respiratory Symptoms in World Trade Center-Exposed Firefighters, 2001 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Jackie; Hall, Charles B.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Schwartz, Theresa M.; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We examined the relationship between pulmonary function (FEV1) and confirmed recovery from three lower-respiratory symptoms (LRSs) (cough, dyspnea, and wheeze) up to 9 years after symptom onset. Methods: The study included white and black male World Trade Center (WTC)-exposed firefighters who reported at least one LRS on a medical monitoring examination during the first year after September 11, 2001. Confirmed recovery was defined as reporting no LRSs on two consecutive and all subsequent examinations. FEV1 was assessed at the first post-September 11, 2001, examination and at each examination where symptom information was ascertained. We used stratified Cox regression models to analyze FEV1, WTC exposure, and other variables in relation to confirmed symptom recovery. Results: A total of 4,368 firefighters met inclusion criteria and were symptomatic at year 1, of whom 1,592 (36.4%) experienced confirmed recovery. In univariable models, first post-September 11, 2001, concurrent, and difference between first post-September 11, 2001, and concurrent FEV1 values were all significantly associated with confirmed recovery. In adjusted analyses, both first post-September 11, 2001, FEV1 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07 per 355-mL difference; 95% CI, 1.04-1.10) and FEV1 % predicted (HR, 1.08 per 10% predicted difference; 95% CI, 1.04-1.12) predicted confirmed recovery. WTC exposure had an inverse association with confirmed recovery in the model with FEV1, with the earliest arrival group less likely to recover than the latest arrival group (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.58-0.92). Conclusions: Higher FEV1 and improvement in FEV1 after September 11, 2001, predicted confirmed LRS recovery, supporting a physiologic basis for recovery and highlighting consideration of spirometry as part of any postexposure respiratory health assessment. PMID:22576633

  18. Some alternate methods of energy recovery from reverse osmosis plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Guy; R. Singh

    1982-01-01

    Only random information is available on the subject of energy recovery from reverse osmosis plants. This study includes an attempt to collect this information and bring it up to date. The equipment discussed includes classic turbines, reversed pump turbines, integrated hydroturbines and work exchangers, including integrated pump and power recovery units. A short description of each type of equipment is

  19. In Situ Recovery Methods for Heavy Oil and Bitumen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Sawatzky

    The in situ production of heavy oil and bitumen from the enormous resources contained in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) is expected to accelerate, as a result of the potential of new recovery technologiies developed specifically for these challenging resources (2). Key examples of these new recovery technologies include: thermal gravity processes; solvent- assisted gravity processes, cold production (primary

  20. Walking after spinal cord injury: Evaluation, treatment, and functional recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugues Barbeau; Michel Ladouceur; Kathleen E. Norman; André Pépin; Alain Leroux

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To present some recent developments and concepts emerging from both animal and human studies aimed at enhancing recovery of walking after spinal cord injury (SCI).Data Sources: Researchers in the field of restoration of walking after SCI, as well as references extracted from searches in the Medline computerized database.Study Selection: Studies that reported outcome measures of walking for spinal cord

  1. Etifoxine improves peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christelle Girard; Song Liu; Françoise Cadepond; David Adams; Catherine Lacroix; Marc Verleye; Jean-Marie Gillardin; Etienne-Emile Baulieu; Michael Schumacher; Ghislaine Schweizer-Groyer

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral nerves show spontaneous regenerative responses, but recovery after injury or peripheral neuropathies (toxic, diabetic, or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy syndromes) is slow and often incomplete, and at present no efficient treatment is available. Using well-defined peripheral nerve lesion paradigms, we assessed the therapeutic usefulness of etifoxine, recently identified as a ligand of the translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO), to

  2. Associations between gait patterns, brain lesion factors and functional recovery in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Wit, Andrzej; Krawczyk, Maciej; Zaborski, Jacek; Gajewski, Jan

    2012-02-01

    Brain CT scans and neurological condition were evaluated in 74 stroke patients. Firstly, we found that using a classification-tree technique based on CT scan parameters (an innovative method, analyzing four parameters simultaneously) coincided with our previously proposed kinematic artificial neural network (ANN) classification technique for 71.3% of patients. Lesion size and location were found to be the most significant CT scan predictors of gait classification. Secondly, we sought to gauge post-rehabilitation functional recovery in patients within the same three groups of gait pattern. We found significant differences in scores between the three gait pattern groups, before and after rehabilitation (Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.001), while significant improvement was observed in each group (Wilcoxon text; p<0.01). We conclude that patient classification into pathological gait groups on the basis of gait or CT scan parameters may serve as an early predictor of future functional outcome. PMID:21937234

  3. Factors Associated with Neurological Recovery of Brainstem Function Following Postoperative Conformal Radiation Therapy for Infratentorial Ependymoma

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Chitti, Ramana M.; Li, Chenghong; Xiong, Xiaoping; Sanford, Robert A.; Khan, Raja B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To identify risk factors associated with incomplete neurological recovery in pediatric patients with infratentorial ependymoma treated with postoperative conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods The study included 68 patients (median age ± standard deviation of 2.6 ± 3.8 years) who were followed for 5 years after receiving CRT (54–59.4 Gy) and were assessed for function of cranial nerves V to VII and IX to XII, motor weakness, and dysmetria. The mean (± standard deviation) brainstem dose was 5,487 (±464) cGy. Patients were divided into four groups representing those with normal baseline and follow-up, those with abnormal baseline and full recovery, those with abnormal baseline and partial or no recovery, and those with progressive deficits at 12 (n = 62 patients), 24 (n = 57 patients), and 60 (n = 50 patients) months. Grouping was correlated with clinical and treatment factors. Results Risk factors (overall risk [OR], p value) associated with incomplete recovery included gender (male vs. female, OR = 3.97, p = 0.036) and gross tumor volume (GTV) (OR/ml = 1.23, p = 0.005) at 12 months, the number of resections (>1 vs. 1; OR = 23.7, p = 0.003) and patient age (OR/year = 0.77, p = 0.029) at 24 months, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting (Yes vs. No; OR = 21.9, p = 0.001) and GTV volume (OR/ml = 1.18, p = 0.008) at 60 months. An increase in GTV correlated with an increase in the number of resections (p = 0.001) and CSF shunting (p = 0.035); the number of resections correlated with CSF shunting (p < 0.0001), and male patients were more likely to undergo multiple tumor resections (p = 0.003). Age correlated with brainstem volume (p < 0.0001). There were no differences in outcome based on the absolute or relative volume of the brainstem that received more than 54 Gy. Conclusions Incomplete recovery of brainstem function after CRT for infratentorial ependymoma is related to surgical morbidity and the volume and the extent of tumor. PMID:19464817

  4. PLANKTON RESPIRATION AND BIOMASS AS FUNCTIONAL INDICATORS OF RECOVERY IN RESTORED PRAIRIE WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reliable ecological indicators of wetland integrity are necessary for assessing recovery of restored wetlands, yet little consensus currently exists on which indicators are most appropriate. We employed indicators derived from simple, standard measures of ecosystem function selec...

  5. Unexpected recovery of language function after massive left-hemisphere infarct: Coordinated psycholinguistic

    E-print Network

    children's grammatical knowledge during language acquisition (Crain & Thornton, 1998). The following testsUnexpected recovery of language function after massive left-hemisphere infarct: Coordinated This case study exploits recent advances in analysis of language disorder and neuroimaging technique

  6. Thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Stahl, Charles R. (Scotia, NY); Gibson, Michael A. (Houston, TX); Knudsen, Christian W. (Houston, TX)

    1987-01-01

    A thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus for exploiting deep well reservoirs utilizes electric downhole steam generators to provide supplemental heat to generate high quality steam from hot pressurized water which is heated at the surface. A downhole electric heater placed within a well bore for local heating of the pressurized liquid water into steam is powered by electricity from the above-ground gas turbine-driven electric generators fueled by any clean fuel such as natural gas, distillate or some crude oils, or may come from the field being stimulated. Heat recovered from the turbine exhaust is used to provide the hot pressurized water. Electrical power may be cogenerated and sold to an electric utility to provide immediate cash flow and improved economics. During the cogeneration period (no electrical power to some or all of the downhole units), the oil field can continue to be stimulated by injecting hot pressurized water, which will flash into lower quality steam at reservoir conditions. The heater includes electrical heating elements supplied with three-phase alternating current or direct current. The injection fluid flows through the heater elements to generate high quality steam to exit at the bottom of the heater assembly into the reservoir. The injection tube is closed at the bottom and has radial orifices for expanding the injection fluid to reservoir pressure.

  7. Brain lesion size and location: Effects on motor recovery and functional outcome in stroke patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-Ling Chen; Fuk-Tan Tang; Hsieh-Ching Chen; Chia-Ying Chung; May-Kuen Wong

    2000-01-01

    Chen C-L, Tang F-T, Chen H-C, Chung C-Y, Wong M-K. Brain lesion size and location: effects on motor recovery and functional outcome in stroke patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:447-52. Objective: To investigate effects of brain lesion profiles that combined sizes and locations on motor recovery and functional outcome after stroke in hemiplegic patients. Design: Delimiting sizes (a threshold lesion

  8. Comparative study of two extraction methods for enteric virus recovery from sewage sludge by molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Schlindwein, A D; Simões, C M O; Barardi, C R M

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two nucleic acid extraction methods for the recovery of enteric viruses from activated sludge. Test samples were inoculated with human adenovirus (AdV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), poliovirus (PV) and rotavirus (RV) and were then processed by an adsorption-elution-precipitation method. Two extraction methods were used: an organic solvent-based method and a silica method. The organic-based method was able to recoup 20% of the AdV, 90% of the RV and 100% of both the PV and HAV from seeded samples. The silica method was able to recoup 1.8% of the AdV and 90% of the RV. These results indicate that the organic-based method is more suitable for detecting viruses in sewage sludge. PMID:19722079

  9. Advanced Echocardiography in Adult Zebrafish Reveals Delayed Recovery of Heart Function after Myocardial Cryoinjury

    PubMed Central

    Kossack, Mandy; Juergensen, Lonny; Fuchs, Dieter; Katus, Hugo A.; Hassel, David

    2015-01-01

    Translucent zebrafish larvae represent an established model to analyze genetics of cardiac development and human cardiac disease. More recently adult zebrafish are utilized to evaluate mechanisms of cardiac regeneration and by benefiting from recent genome editing technologies, including TALEN and CRISPR, adult zebrafish are emerging as a valuable in vivo model to evaluate novel disease genes and specifically validate disease causing mutations and their underlying pathomechanisms. However, methods to sensitively and non-invasively assess cardiac morphology and performance in adult zebrafish are still limited. We here present a standardized examination protocol to broadly assess cardiac performance in adult zebrafish by advancing conventional echocardiography with modern speckle-tracking analyses. This allows accurate detection of changes in cardiac performance and further enables highly sensitive assessment of regional myocardial motion and deformation in high spatio-temporal resolution. Combining conventional echocardiography measurements with radial and longitudinal velocity, displacement, strain, strain rate and myocardial wall delay rates after myocardial cryoinjury permitted to non-invasively determine injury dimensions and to longitudinally follow functional recovery during cardiac regeneration. We show that functional recovery of cryoinjured hearts occurs in three distinct phases. Importantly, the regeneration process after cryoinjury extends far beyond the proposed 45 days described for ventricular resection with reconstitution of myocardial performance up to 180 days post-injury (dpi). The imaging modalities evaluated here allow sensitive cardiac phenotyping and contribute to further establish adult zebrafish as valuable cardiac disease model beyond the larval developmental stage. PMID:25853735

  10. Advanced echocardiography in adult zebrafish reveals delayed recovery of heart function after myocardial cryoinjury.

    PubMed

    Hein, Selina J; Lehmann, Lorenz H; Kossack, Mandy; Juergensen, Lonny; Fuchs, Dieter; Katus, Hugo A; Hassel, David

    2015-01-01

    Translucent zebrafish larvae represent an established model to analyze genetics of cardiac development and human cardiac disease. More recently adult zebrafish are utilized to evaluate mechanisms of cardiac regeneration and by benefiting from recent genome editing technologies, including TALEN and CRISPR, adult zebrafish are emerging as a valuable in vivo model to evaluate novel disease genes and specifically validate disease causing mutations and their underlying pathomechanisms. However, methods to sensitively and non-invasively assess cardiac morphology and performance in adult zebrafish are still limited. We here present a standardized examination protocol to broadly assess cardiac performance in adult zebrafish by advancing conventional echocardiography with modern speckle-tracking analyses. This allows accurate detection of changes in cardiac performance and further enables highly sensitive assessment of regional myocardial motion and deformation in high spatio-temporal resolution. Combining conventional echocardiography measurements with radial and longitudinal velocity, displacement, strain, strain rate and myocardial wall delay rates after myocardial cryoinjury permitted to non-invasively determine injury dimensions and to longitudinally follow functional recovery during cardiac regeneration. We show that functional recovery of cryoinjured hearts occurs in three distinct phases. Importantly, the regeneration process after cryoinjury extends far beyond the proposed 45 days described for ventricular resection with reconstitution of myocardial performance up to 180 days post-injury (dpi). The imaging modalities evaluated here allow sensitive cardiac phenotyping and contribute to further establish adult zebrafish as valuable cardiac disease model beyond the larval developmental stage. PMID:25853735

  11. Does physical activity change predict functional recovery in low back pain? Protocol for a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, Paul; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Bell, Melanie L; Hale, Leigh; Hurley, Deirdre A; McDonough, Suzanne M; Melloh, Markus; Baxter, David G

    2009-01-01

    Background Activity advice and prescription are commonly used in the management of low back pain (LBP). Although there is evidence for advising patients with LBP to remain active, facilitating both recovery and return to work, to date no research has assessed whether objective measurements of free living physical activity (PA) can predict outcome, recovery and course of LBP. Methods An observational longitudinal study will investigate PA levels in a cohort of community-dwelling working age adults with acute and sub-acute LBP. Each participant's PA level, functional status, mood, fear avoidance behaviours, and levels of pain, psychological distress and occupational activity will be measured on three occasions during for 1 week periods at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year. Physical activity levels will be measured by self report, RT3 triaxial accelerometer, and activity recall questionnaires. The primary outcome measure of functional recovery will be the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Free living PA levels and changes in functional status will be quantified in order to look at predictive relationships between levels and changes in free living PA and functional recovery in a LBP population. Discussion This research will investigate levels and changes in activity levels of an acute LBP cohort and the predictive relationship to LBP recovery. The results will assess whether occupational, psychological and behavioural factors affect the relationship between free living PA and LBP recovery. Results from this research will help to determine the strength of evidence supporting international guidelines that recommend restoration of normal activity in managing LBP. Trial registration [Clinical Trial Registration Number, ACTRN12609000282280] PMID:19895697

  12. Localized and Sustained Delivery of Erythropoietin from PLGA Microspheres Promotes Functional Recovery and Nerve Regeneration in Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Jianheng; Zhang, Licheng; Long, Anhua; Zhang, Lihai; Tang, Peifu

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) has been demonstrated to exert neuroprotective effects on peripheral nerve injury recovery. Though daily intraperitoneal injection of EPO during a long period of time was effective, it was a tedious procedure. In addition, only limited amount of EPO could reach the injury sites by general administration, and free EPO is easily degraded in vivo. In this study, we encapsulated EPO in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres. Both in vitro and in vivo release assays showed that the EPO-PLGA microspheres allowed sustained release of EPO within a period of two weeks. After administration of such EPO-PLGA microspheres, the peripheral nerve injured rats had significantly better recovery compared with those which received daily intraperitoneal injection of EPO, empty PLGA microspheres, or saline treatments. This was supported by the functional, electrophysiological, and histological evaluations of the recovery done at week 8 postoperatively. We conclude that sustained delivery of EPO could be achieved by using EPO-PLGA microspheres, and such delivery method could further enhance the recovery function of EPO in nerve injury recovery.

  13. Kemp's Ridley, Lepidochelys kempi, Sea Turtle Head Start Tag Recoveries: Distribution, Habitat, and Method of Recovery

    E-print Network

    Kemp's Ridley, Lepidochelys kempi, Sea Turtle Head Start Tag Recoveries: Distribution, Habitat The Kemp's ridley, Lepidochelys kem pi, is the most endangered of all sea turtles. The only known primary., located about 322 km (200 miles) south of Brownsville, Tex. (Hildebrand, 1963). An estimated 40,000 Kemp

  14. Continuous flow, evaporative-type thermal energy recovery apparatus and method for thermal energy recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bissell

    1978-01-01

    A continuous flow, evaporative-type thermal energy recovery apparatus comprises an evaporator unit to which are supplied continuous pressurized flows of hot water and air, and in which a portion of the hot water is evaporated into the air, preferably to completely saturate the air with moisture. Connected to receive the resulting flow of pressurized, water saturated air from the evaporator

  15. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin, E-mail: chengleiyx@126.com

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a promising strategy for peripheral nerve repair.

  16. Associations between Positive Emotion and Recovery of Functional Status Following Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ostir, Glenn V.; Berges, Ivonne-Marie; Ottenbacher, Margaret E.; Clow, Angela; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Accumulating evidence indicates the beneficial effects of positive emotion on health and general well-being in older age. Less evidence is available on whether positive emotion supports improvement in functional status after an acute medical event such as stroke. This study examined the association between positive emotion at discharge from in-patient medical rehabilitation and functional status three months later in persons with stroke. Methods A longitudinal study using information from the Stroke Recovery in Underserved Patients database. The study included 823 persons aged 55 years or older with stroke and admitted to an in-patient medical rehabilitation facility. Information was collected during in-patient medical rehabilitation stay and approximately 3 months post discharge. Results The mean age of the sample was 72.8 years (SD = 9.5), 51.5% were women and 53.8% were married. The sample was mostly non-Hispanic white (79.2%), followed by non-Hispanic black (15.0%) and Hispanic (5.8%). The average length of stay was 20.1 days (SD = 10.1). In multivariate regression analyses discharge positive emotion score was significantly associated with higher overall functional status (b= 0.70, SE .21, p = .001) as well as with higher motor (b= 0.37, SE .17, p = .003) and cognitive (b= 0.30, SE .05, p = .0001) status at 3 month follow-up after adjustment for relevant risk factors. Conclusions Our results indicate positive emotion is associated with gains in functional status post-stroke. Findings have implications for stroke recovery programs and suggest the need to include measures of positive emotion in patient assessments. PMID:18434490

  17. A New Tar Sand Recovery Process: Recovery Methods and Characterization of Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KAZEM M. SADEGHI; MOHAMMAD-ALI SADEGHI; JIH-FEN KUO; LONG-KUAN JANG; TEH FU YEN

    1990-01-01

    A novel approach to bitumen recovery from tar sands using sodium silicate solution and low-power ultrasound was successfully demonstrated (U.S. Patent 4,765,885; 4,891,131) in this laboratory. Elemental analysis indicated that the quality of the bitumen recovered was upgraded by this treatment (the hexane soluble fraction of the recovered bitumen was higher than the raw bitumen). The active compounds responsible for

  18. Cold water immersion enhances recovery of submaximal muscle function after resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Llion A; Nosaka, Kazunori; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2014-10-15

    We investigated the effect of cold water immersion (CWI) on the recovery of muscle function and physiological responses after high-intensity resistance exercise. Using a randomized, cross-over design, 10 physically active men performed high-intensity resistance exercise followed by one of two recovery interventions: 1) 10 min of CWI at 10°C or 2) 10 min of active recovery (low-intensity cycling). After the recovery interventions, maximal muscle function was assessed after 2 and 4 h by measuring jump height and isometric squat strength. Submaximal muscle function was assessed after 6 h by measuring the average load lifted during 6 sets of 10 squats at 80% of 1 repetition maximum. Intramuscular temperature (1 cm) was also recorded, and venous blood samples were analyzed for markers of metabolism, vasoconstriction, and muscle damage. CWI did not enhance recovery of maximal muscle function. However, during the final three sets of the submaximal muscle function test, participants lifted a greater load (P < 0.05, Cohen's effect size: 1.3, 38%) after CWI compared with active recovery. During CWI, muscle temperature decreased ?7°C below postexercise values and remained below preexercise values for another 35 min. Venous blood O2 saturation decreased below preexercise values for 1.5 h after CWI. Serum endothelin-1 concentration did not change after CWI, whereas it decreased after active recovery. Plasma myoglobin concentration was lower, whereas plasma IL-6 concentration was higher after CWI compared with active recovery. These results suggest that CWI after resistance exercise allows athletes to complete more work during subsequent training sessions, which could enhance long-term training adaptations. PMID:25121612

  19. Resource-recovery facilities: Production and cost functions, and debt-financing issues

    SciTech Connect

    Simonsen, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Some of the fiscal questions relating to resource-recovery, or trash-burning, facilities are addressed. Production and cost functions for resource-recovery facilities are estimated using regression analysis. Whether or not there are returns to scale are addressed using the production and cost-function framework. Production functions are also estimated using data envelopment analysis (DEA), and results are compared to the regression results. DEA is a linear-program-based technique that can provide information about the production process. The data used to estimate the production and cost functions were collected from the Resource Recovery Yearbook. Once the decision is made to construct a resource-recovery facility, it needs to be financed. The high cost of these facilities usually prohibits financing construction out of regular operating revenues. Therefore, the issues a government faces when debt is used to finance a resource-recovery facility are analyzed. The most important public policy finding is that increasing economies of scale do not seem to be present for resource-recovery facilities.

  20. Electroacupuncture for Bladder Function Recovery in Patients Undergoing Spinal Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the efficacy of electroacupuncture on recovering postanesthetic bladder function. Materials and Methods. Sixty-one patients undergoing spinal anaesthesia were recruited and allocated into electroacupuncture or control group randomly. Patients in electroacupuncture group received electroacupuncture therapy whereas ones in control group were not given any intervention. Primary endpoint was incidence of bladder overdistension and postoperative urinary retention. Secondary endpoints included time to spontaneous micturition, voided volume, and adverse events. Results. All patients (31 in electroacupuncture group and 30 in control group) completed the evaluation. During postoperative follow-up, patients in electroacupuncture group presented a significant lower proportion of bladder overdistension than counterparts in control group (16.1% versus 53.3%, P < 0.01). However, no significant difference was found in incidence of postoperative urinary retention between the two groups (0% versus 6.7%, P > 0.05). Furthermore, a shorter time to spontaneous micturition was found in electroacupuncture group compared to control group (228?min versus 313?min, P < 0.001), whereas urine volume and adverse events had no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions. Electroacupuncture reduced the proportion of bladder overdistension and shortened the time to spontaneous micturition in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia. Electroacupuncture may be a therapeutic strategy for postanesthetic bladder dysfunction. PMID:25610486

  1. Definition of plant functional groups for informing implementation scenarios in resource-limited multi-species recovery planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Kooyman; Maurizio Rossetto

    2008-01-01

    We describe an approach to multi-species recovery planning and bio-regional biodiversity assessment that uses trait-based\\u000a plant functional groups as the basis for developing threat\\/risk assessments for rare, threatened and ‘of concern’ species.\\u000a Multi-variate methods were used to extract and test emergent groups, and additional information fields related to species\\u000a life history and distributional data were added to develop a species-level

  2. Therapeutic Validity and Effectiveness of Preoperative Exercise on Functional Recovery after Joint Replacement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Hoogeboom; Ellen Oosting; Johanna E. Vriezekolk; Cindy Veenhof; Petra C. Siemonsma; Rob A. de Bie; Cornelia H. M. van den Ende; Nico L. U. van Meeteren

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundOur aim was to develop a rating scale to assess the therapeutic validity of therapeutic exercise programmes. By use of this rating scale we investigated the therapeutic validity of therapeutic exercise in patients awaiting primary total joint replacement (TJR). Finally, we studied the association between therapeutic validity of preoperative therapeutic exercise and its effectiveness in terms of postoperative functional recovery.Methods(Quasi)

  3. Apolipoprotein E Mimetic Promotes Functional and Histological Recovery in Lysolecithin-Induced Spinal Cord Demyelination in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zhen; Li, Fengqiao; Zhang, Yi Ping; Shields, Lisa B.E.; Hu, Xiaoling; Zheng, Yiyan; Yu, Panpan; Zhang, Yongjie; Cai, Jun; Vitek, Michael P.; Shields, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Considering demyelination is the pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), reducing demyelination and/or promoting remyelination is a practical therapeutic strategy to improve functional recovery for MS. An apolipoprotein E (apoE)-mimetic peptide COG112 has previously demonstrated therapeutic efficacy on functional and histological recovery in a mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of human MS. In the current study, we further investigated whether COG112 promotes remyelination and improves functional recovery in lysolecithin induced focal demyelination in the white matter of spinal cord in mice. Methods A focal demyelination model was created by stereotaxically injecting lysolecithin into the bilateral ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) of T8 and T9 mouse spinal cords. Immediately after lysolecithin injection mice were treated with COG112, prefix peptide control or vehicle control for 21 days. The locomotor function of the mice was measured by the beam walking test and Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) assessment. The nerve transmission of the VLF of mice was assessed in vivo by transcranial magnetic motor evoked potentials (tcMMEPs). The histological changes were also examined by by eriochrome cyanine staining, immunohistochemistry staining and electron microscopy (EM) method. Results The area of demyelination in the spinal cord was significantly reduced in the COG112 group. EM examination showed that treatment with COG112 increased the thickness of myelin sheaths and the numbers of surviving axons in the lesion epicenter. Locomotor function was improved in COG112 treated animals when measured by the beam walking test and BMS assessment compared to controls. TcMMEPs also demonstrated the COG112-mediated enhancement of amplitude of evoked responses. Conclusion The apoE-mimetic COG112 demonstrates a favorable combination of activities in suppressing inflammatory response, mitigating demyelination and in promoting remyelination and associated functional recovery in animal model of CNS demyelination. These data support that apoE-mimetic strategy may represent a promising therapy for MS and other demyelination disorders. PMID:25642353

  4. Method and apparatus for starting an FCC power recovery string

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Jr. Geary; N. A. Samurin

    1984-01-01

    The load on the starting steam turbine or motor which drives the power recovery string of an FCC process is reduced on the order of 15% by increasing the specific volume of the air compressed by a fixed volume compressor in the string. The specific volume of the ambient air is increased by returning a portion of the compressed and

  5. Functional connectivity changes in the language network during stroke recovery

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Veena A; Young, Brittany M; La, Christian; Reiter, Peter; Nadkarni, Tanvi N; Song, Jie; Vergun, Svyatoslav; Addepally, Naga Saranya; Mylavarapu, Krishna; Swartz, Jennifer L; Jensen, Matthew B; Chacon, Marcus R; Sattin, Justin A; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Objective Several neuroimaging studies have examined language reorganization in stroke patients with aphasia. However, few studies have examined language reorganization in stroke patients without aphasia. Here, we investigated functional connectivity (FC) changes after stroke in the language network using resting-state fMRI and performance on a verbal fluency (VF) task in patients without clinically documented language deficits. Methods Early-stage ischemic stroke patients (N = 26) (average 5 days from onset), 14 of whom were tested at a later stage (average 4.5 months from onset), 26 age-matched healthy control subjects (HCs), and 12 patients with cerebrovascular risk factors (patients at risk, PR) participated in this study. We examined FC of the language network with 23 seed regions based on a previous study. We evaluated patients' behavioral performance on a VF task and correlation between brain resting-state FC (rsFC) and behavior. Results Compared to HCs, early stroke patients showed significantly decreased rsFC in the language network but no difference with respect to PR. Early stroke patients showed significant differences in performance on the VF task compared to HCs but not PR. Late-stage patients compared to HCs and PR showed no differences in brain rsFC in the language network and significantly stronger connections compared to early-stage patients. Behavioral differences persisted in the late stage compared to HCs. Change in specific connection strengths correlated with changes in behavior from early to late stage. Conclusions These results show decreased rsFC in the language network and verbal fluency deficits in early stroke patients without clinically documented language deficits.

  6. The use of recovery methods post-exercise.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Thomas; Ekblom, Bjorn

    2005-06-01

    Competitive soccer engages many of the body's systems to a major extent. The musculoskeletal, nervous, immune and metabolic systems are stressed to a point where recovery strategies post-exercise become influential in preparing for the next match. Intense activity at a 7-day training camp causes participants to experience lowered concentrations of non-killer cells and T-helper cells. Two consecutive games in 24 h produce disturbances in the testosterone-cortisol ratio. When competitive schedules are congested, the recovery process should be optimized for performance capabilities to be restored to normal as soon as possible. There is evidence that glycogen stores are reduced near to depletion at the end of a soccer game and that a diet high in carbohydrates can aid recovery. Water alone is not the best means of restoring body fluids, since carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks display better intestinal absorption and reduce urine output. Some relief from muscle soreness may be achieved by means of a warm-down. Deep-water running regimens can replace conventional physical training in the days after competition. Massage, cryotherapy and alternative therapies have not been shown to be consistently effective. It is concluded that optimizing recovery post-exercise depends on a combination of factors that incorporate a consideration of individual differences and lifestyle factors. The procedures to facilitate recovery processes should start immediately the game or training finishes. Match administrators and tournament planners should consider the stressful consequences for players in periods of congested fixtures and alleviate the physiological strain as far as possible by allowing 72 h between competitive games. This frequency of competition is unlikely to be sustainable in the long term. PMID:16195010

  7. Thermographic evaluation of hind paw skin temperature and functional recovery of locomotion after sciatic nerve crush in rats

    PubMed Central

    Z. Sacharuk, Viviane; A. Lovatel, Gisele; Ilha, Jocemar; Marcuzzo, Simone; Severo do Pinho, Alexandre; L. Xavier, Léder; A. Zaro, Milton; Achaval, Matilde

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Peripheral nerves are often damaged by direct mechanical injury, diseases, and tumors. The peripheral nerve injuries that result from these conditions can lead to a partial or complete loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions, which in turn are related to changes in skin temperature, in the involved segments of the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in hind paw skin temperature after sciatic nerve crush in rats in an attempt to determine whether changes in skin temperature correlate with the functional recovery of locomotion. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (n?=?7), sham (n?=?25), and crush (n?=?25). All groups were subjected to thermographic, functional, and histological assessments. RESULTS: ?T in the crush group was different from the control and sham groups at the 1st, 3rd and 7rd postoperative days (p<0.05). The functional recovery from the crush group returned to normal values between the 3rd and 4th week post-injury, and morphological analysis of the nerve revealed incomplete regeneration at the 4th week after injury. DISCUSSION: This study is the first demonstration that sciatic nerve crush in rats induces an increase in hind paw skin temperature and that skin temperature changes do not correlate closely with functional recovery PMID:21876984

  8. Functional Recovery After Facial and Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in the Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tessa A. Hadlock; James Heaton; Mack Cheney; Susan E. Mackinnon

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To systematically record rat facial nerve re- covery following crush injury to the main trunk with re- spect to ocular and vibrissial function and to compare the rates of facial and sciatic nerve recovery from crush injury in the same animals. This serves as a means of vali- dating the functional parameters of facial nerve recov- ery against the

  9. Watering, Fertilization, and Slurry Inoculation Promote Recovery of Biological Crust Function in Degraded Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando T. Maestre; Noelia Martín; Beatriz Díez; Rosario López-Poma; Fernando Santos; Ignacio Luque; Jordi Cortina

    2006-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are very sensitive to human-induced disturbances and are in a degraded state in many areas throughout their range. Given their importance in the functioning of arid and semiarid ecosystems, restoring these crusts may contribute to the recovery of ecosystem functionality in degraded areas. We conducted a factorial microcosm experiment to evaluate the effects of inoculation type (discrete

  10. SLEEP, Vol. 33, No. 8, 2010 1013 Neurobehavioral Recovery Dynamics from Sleep Restriction--Banks et al RECOVERY OF NEUROBEHAVIORAL FUNCTIONS

    E-print Network

    Pennsylvania, University of

    SLEEP, Vol. 33, No. 8, 2010 1013 Neurobehavioral Recovery Dynamics from Sleep Restriction--Banks et al RECOVERY OF NEUROBEHAVIORAL FUNCTIONS FROM CHRONIC CURTAILMENT OF SLEEP DURATION AS A RESULT the fact that a common sleep pattern for millions of people involves sleep restriction for 5 weekdays

  11. Predicting recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke: differential modeling of logarithmic and linear regression.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Makoto; Sugimura, Yuko; Yamada, Sumio; Omori, Yoshitsugu; Miyamoto, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive disorders in the acute stage of stroke are common and are important independent predictors of adverse outcome in the long term. Despite the impact of cognitive disorders on both patients and their families, it is still difficult to predict the extent or duration of cognitive impairments. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to provide data on predicting the recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke by differential modeling with logarithmic and linear regression. This study included two rounds of data collection comprising 57 stroke patients enrolled in the first round for the purpose of identifying the time course of cognitive recovery in the early-phase group data, and 43 stroke patients in the second round for the purpose of ensuring that the correlation of the early-phase group data applied to the prediction of each individual's degree of cognitive recovery. In the first round, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were assessed 3 times during hospitalization, and the scores were regressed on the logarithm and linear of time. In the second round, calculations of MMSE scores were made for the first two scoring times after admission to tailor the structures of logarithmic and linear regression formulae to fit an individual's degree of functional recovery. The time course of early-phase recovery for cognitive functions resembled both logarithmic and linear functions. However, MMSE scores sampled at two baseline points based on logarithmic regression modeling could estimate prediction of cognitive recovery more accurately than could linear regression modeling (logarithmic modeling, R(2)?=?0.676, P<0.0001; linear regression modeling, R(2)?=?0.598, P<0.0001). Logarithmic modeling based on MMSE scores could accurately predict the recovery of cognitive function soon after the occurrence of stroke. This logarithmic modeling with mathematical procedures is simple enough to be adopted in daily clinical practice. PMID:23326439

  12. False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method

    PubMed Central

    Piepel, Greg F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10 × 10?3 to 1.86 CFU/cm2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (?1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions. PMID:22138998

  13. False-negative rate and recovery efficiency performance of a validated sponge wipe sampling method.

    PubMed

    Krauter, Paula A; Piepel, Greg F; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-02-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10 × 10(-3) to 1.86 CFU/cm(2)). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD(90) (?1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm(2) on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions. PMID:22138998

  14. False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method

    SciTech Connect

    Krauter, Paula; Piepel, Gregory F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matthew S.; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-02-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10x10^-3 to 1.86 CFU/cm^2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (>1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm^2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

  15. [Spontaneous recovery of function in central nervous system lesions].

    PubMed

    Anghinah, A

    1975-12-01

    A rewiev of the mechanisms responsible for the spontaneous recuperation of function in patients with lesions of the central nervous sistem is made. The spontaneous reorganization theories of the nervous structures and the vicarious function are also referred to. In the last two decades experimental contributions have been accentuated, specially the one conducted by the group of researchers directed by Windle and Guth, who had shown the possibility of regeneration in the central nervous system, as well Lawrende and Kuypers, Brodal, Goldberger and others, which defended the vircarious function as the probable mechanisms of recuperation. PMID:1191098

  16. On the convergence of nonconvex minimization methods for image recovery.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jin; Ng, Michael Kwok-Po; Yang, Yu-Fei

    2015-05-01

    Nonconvex nonsmooth regularization method has been shown to be effective for restoring images with neat edges. Fast alternating minimization schemes have also been proposed and developed to solve the nonconvex nonsmooth minimization problem. The main contribution of this paper is to show the convergence of these alternating minimization schemes, based on the Kurdyka-?ojasiewicz property. In particular, we show that the iterates generated by the alternating minimization scheme, converges to a critical point of this nonconvex nonsmooth objective function. We also extend the analysis to nonconvex nonsmooth regularization model with box constraints, and obtain similar convergence results of the related minimization algorithm. Numerical examples are given to illustrate our convergence analysis. PMID:25675457

  17. Methods for Enabling Recovery Actions in Ws-BPEL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Modafferi; Eugenio Conforti

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a Self-Healing is an emerging exigency for Information Systems where processes are everyday more complicated and where many\\u000a autonomous actors are involved. Roughly, self-healing mechanisms can be viewed as a set of automatic recovery actions fired\\u000a at run-time according to the detected fault. These actions can be at infrastructure level, i.e. transparently to the process,\\u000a or they can be defined in

  18. The use of recovery methods post?exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Reilly; Bjorn Ekblom

    2005-01-01

    Competitive soccer engages many of the body's systems to a major extent. The musculoskeletal, nervous, immune and metabolic systems are stressed to a point where recovery strategies post?exercise become influential in preparing for the next match. Intense activity at a 7-day training camp causes participants to experience lowered concentrations of non-killer cells and T-helper cells. Two consecutive games in 24?h

  19. Functional recovery of hibernating myocardium after coronary bypass surgery: Does it coincide with improvement in perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Takeishi, Y.; Tono-oka, I.; Kubota, I.; Ikeda, K.; Masakane, I.; Chiba, J.; Abe, S.; Tsuiki, K.; Komatani, A.; Yamaguchi, I. (First Department of Internal Medicine, Yamagata University School of Medicine (Japan))

    1991-09-01

    To determine the relationship between functional recovery and improvement in perfusion after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), 49 patients were studied. Radionuclide angiography was performed before, 1 month after, and 6 to 12 months after CABG to evaluate regional wall motion. Exercise thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging was done before and 1 month after CABG to assess regional perfusion. Preoperative asynergy was observed in 108 segments, and 74 of them showed an improvement in wall motion 1 month after CABG (segment A). Sixty-six of these segments (89%) were associated with an improvement in perfusion. Eight segments that had not improved 1 month after CABG demonstrated a delayed recovery of wall motion 6 to 12 months after CABG (segment B). However, seven of eight segments (88%) already showed an improvement in perfusion 1 month after CABG. A total of 82 segments exhibited functional recovery after CABG and were considered hibernating segments. In the preoperative study segment B more frequently had areas of akinesis or dyskinesis than segment A (75% vs 34%, p less than 0.05). The mean percent thallium-201 uptake in segment B was lower than that in segment A (74% {plus minus} 9% vs 83% {plus minus} 8%, p less than 0.05). Functional recovery of hibernating myocardium usually coincided with an improvement in perfusion. However, delayed functional recovery after reperfusion was observed in some instances. Severe asynergy and severe thallium-201 defects were more frequently observed in these segments with delayed recovery. Hibernating myocardium might remain stunned during those recovery periods.

  20. Symmetry Restoration and Functional Recovery before and after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Logerstedt, David; Lynch, Andrew; Axe, Michael J.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to evaluate the functional recovery before and after ACL reconstruction and to evaluate the sensitivity to change in performance-based and self-report outcomes prior to and after ACL reconstruction and to determine if these changes represent clinically relevant improvement. Methods Eighty-three athletes participated in this study. Athletes were tested after an ACL injury, after pre-operative training, and 6 and 12 months after ACL reconstruction. Athletes completed quadriceps strength testing, hop testing, and self-reported questionnaires for knee function (International Knee Documentation Committee subjective knee form, Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale, and the Global Rating Scale of Perceived Function) at each testing period. Results A significant interaction of limb by time was seen in normalized quadriceps strength, and single, triple, and 6-meter timed hop, where the involved limb improved more than the uninvolved limb over time. A main effect of time was noted for performance-based limb symmetry indexes and self-report measures. Conclusion Limb-to-limb asymmetries are reduced and normal limb symmetry is restored after perturbation training and aggressive quadriceps strengthening and returned to similar levels 6 months after reconstruction. Performance-based values on the involved limb and self-reported outcomes are sensitive to change over time and these were clinically relevant improvements. Level of evidence Level II prognostic study PMID:22349604

  1. Recovery of functional status after right hemisphere stroke: Relationship with unilateral neglect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leora R. Cherney; Anita S. Halper; Christina M. Kwasnica; Richard L. Harvey; Ming Zhang

    2001-01-01

    Cherney LR, Halper AS, Kwasnica CM, Harvey RL, Zhang M. Recovery of functional status after right hemisphere stroke: relationship with unilateral neglect. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:322-8. Objective: To evaluate relationships between unilateral spatial neglect and both overall and cognitive-communicative functional outcomes in patients with right hemisphere stroke. Design: Assessment of overall and cognitive-communicative function was conducted on admission to

  2. Hyperinnervation during Adrenal Regeneration Influences the Rate of Functional Recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yvonne M. Ulrich-Lai; William C. Engeland

    2000-01-01

    The rat adrenal cortex has the uncommon ability to demonstrate morphological and functional regeneration after injury-induced loss of cortical tissue. Peripheral nerves are involved in tissue regeneration and healing after injury, implying that nerves may also be involved in modulating the regeneration of the adrenal cortex. Studies were initiated to assess changes in adrenal innervation during cortical tissue regeneration subsequent

  3. Psychological Stress as a Modulator of Functional Recovery Following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado Bouchard, Sioui; Hook, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the social environment triggers changes to the psychological stress response and glucocorticoid receptor function. Considerable literature links the subsequent changes in stress resiliency to physical health. Here, converging evidence for the modulatory role of chronic psychological stress in the recovery process following spinal cord injury (SCI) is presented. Despite the considerable advances in SCI research, we are still unable to identify the causes of variability in patients’ recovery following injury. We propose that individuals’ past and present life experiences (in the form of stress exposure) may significantly modulate patients’ outcome post-SCI. We propose a theoretical model to explain the negative impact of chronic psychological stress on physical and psychological recovery. The stress experienced in life prior to SCI and also as a result of the traumatic injury, could compromise glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and function, and contribute to high levels of inflammation and apoptosis post-SCI, decreasing the tissue remaining at the injury site and undermining recovery of function. Both stress-induced glucocorticoid resistance and stress-induced epigenetic changes to the glucocorticoid receptor can modulate the nuclear factor-kappa B regulated inflammatory pathways and the Bcl-2 regulated apoptosis pathways. This model not only contributes to the theoretical understanding of the recovery process following injury, but also provides concrete testable hypotheses for future studies. PMID:24782818

  4. Functional Recovery of Denervated Skeletal Muscle with Sensory or Mixed Nerve Protection: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing Tian; Zhang, Pei Xun; Yin, Xiao Feng; Han, Na; Kou, Yu Hui; Deng, Jiu Xu; Jiang, Bao Guo

    2013-01-01

    Functional recovery is usually poor following peripheral nerve injury when reinnervation is delayed. Early innervation by sensory nerve has been indicated to prevent atrophy of the denervated muscle. It is hypothesized that early protection with sensory axons is adequate to improve functional recovery of skeletal muscle following prolonged denervation of mixed nerve injury. In this study, four groups of rats received surgical denervation of the tibial nerve. The proximal and distal stumps of the tibial nerve were ligated in all animals except for those in the immediate repair group. The experimental groups underwent denervation with nerve protection of peroneal nerve (mixed protection) or sural nerve (sensory protection). The experimental and unprotected groups had a stage II surgery in which the trimmed proximal and distal tibial nerve stumps were sutured together. After 3 months of recovery, electrophysiological, histological and morphometric parameters were assessed. It was detected that the significant muscle atrophy and a good preserved structure of the muscle were observed in the unprotected and protective experimental groups, respectively. Significantly fewer numbers of regenerated myelinated axons were observed in the sensory-protected group. Enhanced recovery in the mixed protection group was indicated by the results of the muscle contraction force tests, regenerated myelinated fiber, and the results of the histological analysis. Our results suggest that early axons protection by mixed nerve may complement sensory axons which are required for promoting functional recovery of the denervated muscle natively innervated by mixed nerve. PMID:24244555

  5. The role of species traits in mediating functional recovery during matrix restoration.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Andrew D; Emberson, Rowan M; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Didham, Raphael K

    2014-01-01

    Reversing anthropogenic impacts on habitat structure is frequently successful through restoration, but the mechanisms linking habitat change, community reassembly and recovery of ecosystem functioning remain unknown. We test for the influence of edge effects and matrix habitat restoration on the reassembly of dung beetle communities and consequent recovery of dung removal rates across tropical forest edges. Using path modelling, we disentangle the relative importance of community-weighted trait means and functional trait dispersion from total biomass effects on rates of dung removal. Community trait composition and biomass of dung beetle communities responded divergently to edge effects and matrix habitat restoration, yielding opposing effects on dung removal. However, functional dispersion--used in this study as a measure of niche complementarity--did not explain a significant amount of variation in dung removal rates across habitat edges. Instead, we demonstrate that the path to functional recovery of these altered ecosystems depends on the trait-mean composition of reassembling communities, over and above purely biomass-dependent processes that would be expected under neutral theory. These results suggest that any ability to manage functional recovery of ecosystems during habitat restoration will demand knowledge of species' roles in ecosystem processes. PMID:25502448

  6. The Role of Species Traits in Mediating Functional Recovery during Matrix Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Andrew D.; Emberson, Rowan M.; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Didham, Raphael K.

    2014-01-01

    Reversing anthropogenic impacts on habitat structure is frequently successful through restoration, but the mechanisms linking habitat change, community reassembly and recovery of ecosystem functioning remain unknown. We test for the influence of edge effects and matrix habitat restoration on the reassembly of dung beetle communities and consequent recovery of dung removal rates across tropical forest edges. Using path modelling, we disentangle the relative importance of community-weighted trait means and functional trait dispersion from total biomass effects on rates of dung removal. Community trait composition and biomass of dung beetle communities responded divergently to edge effects and matrix habitat restoration, yielding opposing effects on dung removal. However, functional dispersion—used in this study as a measure of niche complementarity—did not explain a significant amount of variation in dung removal rates across habitat edges. Instead, we demonstrate that the path to functional recovery of these altered ecosystems depends on the trait-mean composition of reassembling communities, over and above purely biomass-dependent processes that would be expected under neutral theory. These results suggest that any ability to manage functional recovery of ecosystems during habitat restoration will demand knowledge of species' roles in ecosystem processes. PMID:25502448

  7. Functional recovery in parkinsonian monkeys treated with GDNF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don M. Gash; Zhiming Zhang; Aliza Ovadia; Wayne A. Cass; Ai Yi; Linda Simmerman; Deborah Russell; David Martin; Paul A. Lapchak; Frank Collins; Barry J. Hoffer; Greg A. Gerhard

    1996-01-01

    PARKINSON 's disease results from the progressive degeneration of dopamine neurons that innervate the striatum1,2. In rodents, glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) stimulates an increase in midbrain dopamine levels, protects dopamine neurons from some neurotoxins, and maintains injured dopamine neurons3-9. Here we extend the rodent studies to an animal closer to the human in brain organization and function, by evaluating the

  8. Motor function recovery during peripheral nerve multiple regeneration.

    PubMed

    An, Shuai; Zhang, Peixun; Peng, Jianping; Deng, Lei; Wang, Zhenwei; Wang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yanhua; Yin, Xiaofeng; Kou, Yuhui; Ha, Na; Jiang, Baoguo

    2015-04-01

    Neuronal functional compensation and multiple regenerating axon sprouting occur during peripheral nerve regeneration. Sprouting nerve buds were quantitatively maintained and had matured when multiple injured distal nerves were anastomosed to smaller number of proximal nerve stumps; this has positive clinical significance for proximal stump damage. This study investigated whether sprouting axon buds would reinnervate the distal neuromuscular junction and maintain the function of the target organ under compensation conditions. The results showed that the sprouting axon buds maintained the numbers and morphology of motor end plates repaired by a smaller number of proximal nerve stumps, and recovered 80.0% tetanic muscle force compared with the normal side. Meanwhile, nerve conduction velocity, compound muscle action potential and diameter of muscular fibres declined 72.7%, 73.2% and 61.8%, respectively, compared with normal. This observation indicates the potential functional reserve of neurons and that it is feasible to repair nerve fibre injury through anastomosis of multiple distal nerve stumps with a smaller number of proximal nerve stumps, within the limits of compensation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24323657

  9. Meta analysis of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation promoting functional recovery of motor nerves in rats with complete spinal cord transection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Chen, Ping; Wang, Qi; Chen, Yu; Yu, Haiong; Ma, Junxiong; Guo, Mingming; Piao, Meihui; Ren, Weijian; Xiang, Liangbi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation on functional recovery of rats with complete spinal cord transection. DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online search of Medline (1989–2013), Embase (1989–2013), Cochrane library (1989–2013), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1989–2013), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1989–2013), VIP (1989–2013), Wanfang databases (1989–2013) and Chinese Clinical Trial Register was conducted to collect randomized controlled trial data regarding olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation for the treatment of complete spinal cord transection in rats. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials investigating olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation and other transplantation methods for promoting neurological functional recovery of rats with complete spinal cord transection were included in the analysis. Meta analysis was conducted using RevMan 4.2.2 software. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores of rats with complete spinal cord transection were evaluated in this study. RESULTS: Six randomized controlled trials with high quality methodology were included. Meta analysis showed that Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores were significantly higher in the olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation group compared with the control group (WMD = 3.16, 95% CI (1.68, 4.65); P < 0.00001). CONCLUSION: Experimental studies have shown that olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation can promote the functional recovery of motor nerves in rats with complete spinal cord transection. PMID:25422649

  10. Methods of making functionalized nanorods

    DOEpatents

    Gur, Ilan (San Francisco, CA); Milliron, Delia (Berkeley, CA); Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Liu, Haitao (Berkeley, CA)

    2012-01-10

    A process for forming functionalized nanorods. The process includes providing a substrate, modifying the substrate by depositing a self-assembled monolayer of a bi-functional molecule on the substrate, wherein the monolayer is chosen such that one side of the bi-functional molecule binds to the substrate surface and the other side shows an independent affinity for binding to a nanocrystal surface, so as to form a modified substrate. The process further includes contacting the modified substrate with a solution containing nanocrystal colloids, forming a bound monolayer of nanocrystals on the substrate surface, depositing a polymer layer over the monolayer of nanocrystals to partially cover the monolayer of nanocrystals, so as to leave a layer of exposed nanocrystals, functionalizing the exposed nanocrystals, to form functionalized nanocrystals, and then releasing the functionalized nanocrystals from the substrate.

  11. Chronic psychological stress impairs recovery of muscular function and somatic sensations over a 96-hour period.

    PubMed

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Bartholomew, John B; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether chronic mental stress moderates recovery of muscular function and somatic sensations: perceived energy, fatigue, and soreness, in a 4-day period after a bout of strenuous resistance exercise. Undergraduate resistance training students (n = 31; age, 20.26 ± 1.34 years) completed the Perceived Stress Scale and the Undergraduate Stress Questionnaire, a measure of life event stress. At a later visit, they performed an acute heavy-resistance exercise protocol (10 repetition maximum [RM] leg press test plus 6 sets: 80-100% of 10RM). Maximal isometric force (MIF), perceived energy, fatigue, and soreness were assessed in approximately 24-hour intervals after exercise. Recovery data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling growth curve analysis. Life event stress significantly moderated linear (p = 0.027) and squared (p = 0.031) recovery of MIF. This relationship held even when the model was adjusted for fitness, workload, and training experience. Perceived energy (p = 0.038), fatigue (p = 0.040), and soreness (p = 0.027) all were moderated by life stress. Mean perceived stress modulated linear and squared recovery of MIF (p < 0.001) and energy (p = 0.004) but not fatigue or soreness. In all analyses, higher stress was associated with worse recovery. Stress, whether assessed as life event stress or perceived stress, moderated the recovery trajectories of muscular function and somatic sensations in a 96-hour period after strenuous resistance exercise. Therefore, under conditions of inordinate stress, individuals may need to be more mindful about observing an appropriate length of recovery. PMID:24343323

  12. Omentum-Wrapped Scaffold with Longitudinally Oriented Micro-Channels Promotes Axonal Regeneration and Motor Functional Recovery in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Qing-Song; Zhao, Wei; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2011-01-01

    Background Tissue-engineered nerve scaffolds hold great potential in bridging large peripheral nerve defects. However, insufficient vascularization of nerve scaffolds limited neural tissues survival and regeneration, which hampered the successful implantation and clinical application of nerve scaffolds. The omentum possesses a high vascularization capacity and enhances regeneration and maturation of tissues and constructs to which it is applied. However, combined application of nerve scaffolds and omentum on axonal regeneration and functional recovery in the treatment of large peripheral nerve defects has rarely been investigated thus far. Methods In the present study, an omentum-wrapped collagen-chitosan scaffold was used to bridge a 15-mm-long sciatic nerve defect in rats. Rats that received nerve autografts or scaffolds alone were served as positive control or negative control, respectively. The axonal regeneration and functional recovery were examined by a combination of walking track analysis, electrophysiological assessment, Fluoro-Gold (FG) retrograde tracing, as well as morphometric analyses to both regenerated nerves and target muscles. Findings The results demonstrated that axonal regeneration and functional recovery were in the similar range between the omentum-wrapping group and the autograft group, which were significantly better than those in the scaffold alone group. Further investigation showed that the protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) were significantly higher in the omentum-wrapping group than those in the scaffold alone group in the early weeks after surgery. Conclusion These findings indicate that the omentum-wrapped scaffold is capable of enhancing axonal regeneration and functional recovery, which might be served as a potent alternative to nerve autografts. The beneficial effect of omentum-wrapping on nerve regeneration might be related with the proteins produced by omentum. PMID:22195018

  13. Carboxy alkyl esters of Uncaria tomentosa augment recovery of sensorineural functions following noise injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O'neil W. Guthrie; Caroline A. Gearhart; Sherry Fulton; Laurence D. Fechter

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that hydrophilic chemotypes of the medicinal vine Uncaria tomentosa (UT) would facilitate recovery of sensorineural functions following exposure to a damaging level of noise. The particular chemotypes investigated were carboxy alkyl esters (CAE) which are known to exhibit multifunctional cytoprotective properties that include: enhanced cellular DNA repair, antioxidation and anti-inflammation. Long–Evans rats were divided into

  14. Development/Plasticity/Repair Functional Recovery in Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury after

    E-print Network

    Harkema, Susan

    Development/Plasticity/Repair Functional Recovery in Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury after Bartlett Bunge,5,6,7 and Scott R. Whittemore1,2,3 1Kentucky Spinal Cord Injury Research Center at 9 d after injury. Expression of D15A in the injured spinal cord is five times higher in animals

  15. Intrathecal Morphine Attenuates Recovery of Function after a Spinal Cord Injury

    E-print Network

    Grau, James

    Intrathecal Morphine Attenuates Recovery of Function after a Spinal Cord Injury Michelle A. Hook consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI) (Anderson, 2004). Chronic pain affects approximately two, subsequently, pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the contused spinal cord. Key words: contusion

  16. Intrinsic and therapeutic factors determining the recovery of motor function after peripheral nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Skouras, Emmanouil; Ozsoy, Umut; Sarikcioglu, Levent; Angelov, Doychin N

    2011-07-01

    Insufficient recovery after peripheral nerve injury has been attributed to (i) poor pathfinding of regrowing axons, (ii) excessive collateral axonal branching at the lesion site and (iii) polyneuronal innervation of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJ). The facial nerve transection model has been used initially to measure restoration of function after varying therapies and to examine the mechanisms underlying their effects. Since it is very difficult to control the navigation of several thousand axons, efforts concentrated on collateral branching and NMJ-polyinnervation. Treatment with antibodies against trophic factors to combat branching improved the precision of reinnervation, but had no positive effects on functional recovery. This suggested that polyneuronal reinnervation--rather than collateral branching--may be the critical limiting factor. The former could be reduced by pharmacological agents known to perturb microtubule assembly and was followed by recovery of function. Because muscle polyinnervation is activity-dependent and can be manipulated, attempts to design a clinically feasible therapy were performed by electrical stimulation or by soft tissue massage. Electrical stimulation applied to the transected facial nerve or to paralysed facial muscles did not improve vibrissal motor performance and failed to diminish polyinnervation. In contrast, gentle stroking of the paralysed muscles (vibrissal, orbicularis oculi, tongue musculature) resulted in full recovery of function. This manual stimulation was also effective after hypoglossal-facial nerve suture and after interpositional nerve grafting, but not after surgical reconstruction of the median nerve. All these findings raise hopes that clinically feasible and effective therapies could be soon designed and tested. PMID:21458252

  17. Brain-Controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation for Lower-Limb Motor Recovery in Stroke Survivors

    E-print Network

    Nenadic, Zoran

    . Do2 Abstract-- Despite the prevalence of stroke-induced gait im- pairment due to foot drop, currentBrain-Controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation for Lower-Limb Motor Recovery in Stroke for post-stroke foot drop. Three chronic stroke survivors with foot drop received three, 1-hour sessions

  18. Functional Recovery After Stroke: A Review of Current Developments in Stroke Rehabilitation Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boudewijn Kollen; Gert Kwakkel; Eline Lindeman

    2006-01-01

    This review article discusses current research developments in functional recovery after stroke. With the institutionalization of stroke services across health care facilities, a reduction in mortality rates, length of inpatient stay and improved independence in activities of daily living has been reported. Several systematic reviews show that traditional treatment approaches induce improvements that are confined to impairment level only and

  19. Ontology-Based Knowledge Acquisition for Neuromotor Functional Recovery in Stroke

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jingshan

    Ontology-Based Knowledge Acquisition for Neuromotor Functional Recovery in Stroke Christopher stroke, the leading cause of adult disability in the United States. The initial severity of hemiparesis response of stroke survivors does not always correlate with their initial level of impairment. This implies

  20. Reorganization of Functional Connectivity as a Correlate of Cognitive Recovery in Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Paul, Nuria; Ordonez, Victoria E.; Demuynck, Olivier; Bajo, Ricardo; Campo, Pablo; Bilbao, Alvaro; Ortiz, Tomas; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestu, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive processes require a functional interaction between specialized multiple, local and remote brain regions. Although these interactions can be strongly altered by an acquired brain injury, brain plasticity allows network reorganization to be principally responsible for recovery. The present work evaluates the impact of brain injury on…

  1. GRACE: Public Health Recovery Methods following an Environmental Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, ER; Whittle, N; Wright, L; McKeown, RE; Sprayberry, K; Heim, M; Caldwell, R; Gibson, JJ; Vena, J.

    2014-01-01

    Different approaches are necessary when Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) of environmental illness is initiated after an environmental disaster within a community. Often such events are viewed as golden scientific opportunities to do epidemiological studies. However, we believe that in such circumstances, community engagement and empowerment needs to be integrated into the public health service efforts in order for both those and any science to be successful, with special care being taken to address the immediate health needs of the community first rather than the pressing needs to answer important scientific questions. We will demonstrate how we have simultaneously provided valuable public health service, embedded generalizable scientific knowledge, and built a successful foundation for supplemental CBPR through our on-going recovery work after the chlorine gas disaster in Graniteville, South Carolina. PMID:20439226

  2. Edaravone promotes functional recovery after mechanical peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Teng; Li, Zhengwei; Dong, Jianli; Nan, Feng; Li, Tao; Yu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Edaravone has been shown to reduce ischemia/reperfusion-induced peripheral nerve injury. However, the therapeutic effect of edaravone on peripheral nerve injury caused by mechanical factors is unknown. In the present study, we established a peripheral nerve injury model by crushing the sciatic nerve using hemostatic forceps, and then administered edaravone 3 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The sciatic functional index and superoxide dismutase activity of the sciatic nerve were increased, and the malondialdehyde level was decreased in animals in the edaravone group compared with those in the model group. Bcl-2 expression was increased, but Bax expression was decreased in anterior horn cells of the L4-6 spinal cord segments. These results indicated that edaravone has a neuroprotective effect following peripheral nerve injury caused by mechanical factors through alleviating free radical damage to cells and inhibiting lipid peroxidation, as well as regulating apoptosis-related protein expression. PMID:25374594

  3. EVALUATION OF A CRYPTOSPORIDIUM INTERNAL STANDARD FOR DETERMINING RECOVERY WITH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY METHOD 1623

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current benchmark method for detecting Cryptosporidium oocysts in water is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Method 1623. Studies evaluating this method report that recoveries are highly variable and dependent upon laboratory, water sample, and analyst. Ther...

  4. Estimation of Signal-Dependent Noise Level Function in Transform Domain via a Sparse Recovery Model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingyu; Gan, Ziqiao; Wu, Zhaoyang; Hou, Chunping

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel algorithm to estimate the noise level function (NLF) of signal-dependent noise (SDN) from a single image based on the sparse representation of NLFs. Noise level samples are estimated from the high-frequency discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of nonlocal-grouped low-variation image patches. Then, an NLF recovery model based on the sparse representation of NLFs under a trained basis is constructed to recover NLF from the incomplete noise level samples. Confidence levels of the NLF samples are incorporated into the proposed model to promote reliable samples and weaken unreliable ones. We investigate the behavior of the estimation performance with respect to the block size, sampling rate, and confidence weighting. Simulation results on synthetic noisy images show that our method outperforms existing state-of-the-art schemes. The proposed method is evaluated on real noisy images captured by three types of commodity imaging devices, and shows consistently excellent SDN estimation performance. The estimated NLFs are incorporated into two well-known denoising schemes, nonlocal means and BM3D, and show significant improvements in denoising SDN-polluted images. PMID:25781167

  5. Organism-Sediment Interactions Govern Post-Hypoxia Recovery of Ecosystem Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Van Colen, Carl; Rossi, Francesca; Montserrat, Francesc; Andersson, Maria G. I.; Gribsholt, Britta; Herman, Peter M. J.; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda; Ysebaert, Tom; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia represents one of the major causes of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning loss for coastal waters. Since eutrophication-induced hypoxic events are becoming increasingly frequent and intense, understanding the response of ecosystems to hypoxia is of primary importance to understand and predict the stability of ecosystem functioning. Such ecological stability may greatly depend on the recovery patterns of communities and the return time of the system properties associated to these patterns. Here, we have examined how the reassembly of a benthic community contributed to the recovery of ecosystem functioning following experimentally-induced hypoxia in a tidal flat. We demonstrate that organism-sediment interactions that depend on organism size and relate to mobility traits and sediment reworking capacities are generally more important than recovering species richness to set the return time of the measured sediment processes and properties. Specifically, increasing macrofauna bioturbation potential during community reassembly significantly contributed to the recovery of sediment processes and properties such as denitrification, bedload sediment transport, primary production and deep pore water ammonium concentration. Such bioturbation potential was due to the replacement of the small-sized organisms that recolonised at early stages by large-sized bioturbating organisms, which had a disproportionately stronger influence on sediment. This study suggests that the complete recovery of organism-sediment interactions is a necessary condition for ecosystem functioning recovery, and that such process requires long periods after disturbance due to the slow growth of juveniles into adult stages involved in these interactions. Consequently, repeated episodes of disturbance at intervals smaller than the time needed for the system to fully recover organism-sediment interactions may greatly impair the resilience of ecosystem functioning. PMID:23185440

  6. Therapeutic Validity and Effectiveness of Preoperative Exercise on Functional Recovery after Joint Replacement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hoogeboom, Thomas J.; Oosting, Ellen; Vriezekolk, Johanna E.; Veenhof, Cindy; Siemonsma, Petra C.; de Bie, Rob A.; van den Ende, Cornelia H. M.; van Meeteren, Nico L. U.

    2012-01-01

    Background Our aim was to develop a rating scale to assess the therapeutic validity of therapeutic exercise programmes. By use of this rating scale we investigated the therapeutic validity of therapeutic exercise in patients awaiting primary total joint replacement (TJR). Finally, we studied the association between therapeutic validity of preoperative therapeutic exercise and its effectiveness in terms of postoperative functional recovery. Methods (Quasi) randomised clinical trials on preoperative therapeutic exercise in adults awaiting TJR on postoperative recovery of functioning within three months after surgery were identified through database and reference screening. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk of bias and therapeutic validity. Therapeutic validity of the interventions was assessed with a nine-itemed, expert-based rating scale (scores range from 0 to 9; score ?6 reflecting therapeutic validity), developed in a four-round Delphi study. Effects were pooled using a random-effects model and meta-regression was used to study the influence of therapeutic validity. Results Of the 7,492 articles retrieved, 12 studies (737 patients) were included. None of the included studies demonstrated therapeutic validity and two demonstrated low risk of bias. Therapeutic exercise was not associated with 1) observed functional recovery during the hospital stay (Standardised Mean Difference [SMD]: ?1.19; 95%-confidence interval [CI], ?2.46 to 0.08); 2) observed recovery within three months of surgery (SMD: ?0.15; 95%-CI, ?0.42 to 0.12); and 3) self-reported recovery within three months of surgery (SMD ?0.07; 95%-CI, ?0.35 to 0.21) compared with control participants. Meta-regression showed no statistically significant relationship between therapeutic validity and pooled-effects. Conclusion Preoperative therapeutic exercise for TJR did not demonstrate beneficial effects on postoperative functional recovery. However, poor therapeutic validity of the therapeutic exercise programmes may have hampered potentially beneficial effects, since none of the studies met the predetermined quality criteria. Future review studies on therapeutic exercise should address therapeutic validity. PMID:22675429

  7. The Recovery of Walking in Stroke Patients: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Sung Ho

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on walking recovery of stroke patients as it relates to the following subjects: epidemiology of walking dysfunction, recovery course of walking, and recovery mechanism of walking (neural control of normal walking, the evaluation methods for leg motor function, and motor recovery mechanism of leg). The recovery of walking…

  8. Effect of water immersion methods on post-exercise recovery from simulated team sport exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Ingram; Brian Dawson; Carmel Goodman; Karen Wallman; John Beilby

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficacy of hot\\/cold contrast water immersion (CWI), cold-water immersion (COLD) and no recovery treatment (control) as post-exercise recovery methods following exhaustive simulated team sports exercise. Repeated sprint ability, strength, muscle soreness and inflammatory markers were measured across the 48-h post-exercise period. Eleven male team-sport athletes completed three 3-day testing trials, each separated by 2

  9. Recovery time course in contractile function of fast and slow skeletal muscle after hindlimb immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzmann, F. A.; Kim, D. H.; Fitts, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to characterize the time course and extent of recovery in the isometric and isotonic contractile properties of fast and slow skeletal muscle following 6 wk of hindlimb immobilization. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to an immobilized group or a control group. The results of the study show that fast and slow skeletal muscles possess the ability to completely recover normal contractile function following 6 wk of hindlimb immobilization. The rate of recovery is dependent on the fiber type composition of the affected muscle.

  10. Improved functional recovery with oxandrolone after spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Richard J; Bauman, William A; Wen, Xialing; Ouyang, Nengtai; Etlinger, Joseph D; Cardozo, Christopher P

    2009-06-17

    At present, only the corticosteroid, methylprednisolone, is used for acute spinal cord injury to improve function. However, improvements are modest, and are associated with myopathy and immunosuppression so that alternative treatments are needed. Oxandrolone is an androgenic steroid with potential neuroprotective properties that is used to prevent muscle loss and is not immunosuppressive. Oxandrolone increased locomotor recovery concomitant with reduced loss of cord tissue in a standard weight drop model of spinal cord contusion injury indicating oxandrolone as a possible alternative to methylprednisolone. Oxandrolone also increased axonal sprouting within the ventral horns distal to the injury consistent with formation of relay circuits mediating locomotor recovery. PMID:19424096

  11. Evaluating Recovery of Hydrologic Function Following Road Restoration Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, R.; Lohse, K. A.; Ferre, T. A.

    2010-12-01

    Logging roads fundamentally alter landscape processes. Their effects on erosion, land stability, and vegetation patterns are clear; however, their effects on subsurface hydrologic flow patterns are less researched and not as well understood. We present field measurements and numerical modeling to assess the impacts of logging roads and road removal approaches on hydrologic processes on the Clearwater National Forest in northern Idaho. The active road removal program and the high densities of legacy roads make the Clearwater an ideal location for this study. During the last 10 years, the Clearwater National Forest in partnership with the Nez Perce Tribe, removed over 950 km of roads. Specifically, we measured the saturated hydraulic conductivity over recontoured road treatments that range from 1 to 10 years in age. We also examined roads that have been abandoned roads for periods of 10 to 30 years and allowed to re-vegetate without active restoration treatment. We compare these results with the hydraulic conductivities of never-roaded areas. As expected, the hydraulic conductivity varied spatially for each road condition. But, the conductivity of recontoured roads was more than two times higher than that of abandoned roads. Conductivities also varied with vegetation, with higher rates associated with greater shrub and tree vegetation compared to grasses and forbs. The lowest values were found in areas with the highest percentages of non-native forbs. The observed variations in hydraulic conductivity were incorporated in a two-dimensional variably saturated flow model to assess the impacts of roads on subsurface flow paths. The results suggest even after 30 years of successful forest revegetation, roads left intact on the hillside may exert strong controls on the hydrologic function of hillsides and watersheds.

  12. Methods for functional brain imaging

    E-print Network

    Witzel, Thomas, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has demonstrated the potential for non-invasive mapping of structure and function (fMRI) in the human brain. In this thesis, we propose a series of methodological developments towards ...

  13. Unconventional methods in cellulose functionalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Heinze; T Liebert

    2001-01-01

    This review paper gives an overview of synthesis paths recently studied for the preparation of unconventional, i.e. not commercially produced, cellulose derivatives with alternative functional groups and patterns of functionalization. A classification of solvents that can be applied as medium for homogeneous reactions is given and the different types of solvents, namely both aqueous and non-aqueous non-derivatizing and derivatizing ones,

  14. Defining Recovery from an Eating Disorder: Conceptualization, Validation, and Examination of Psychosocial Functioning and Psychiatric Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Harney, Megan B.; Maldonado, Christine R.; Lawson, Melissa A.; Robinson, D. Paul; Smith, Roma; Tosh, Aneesh

    2009-01-01

    Conceptually, eating disorder recovery should include physical, behavioral, and psychological components, but such a comprehensive approach has not been consistently employed. Guided by theory and recent recovery research, we identified a “fully recovered” group (n=20) based on physical (body mass index), behavioral (absence of eating disorder behaviors), and psychological (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire) indices, and compared them with groups of partially recovered (n=15), active eating disorder (n=53), and healthy controls (n=67). The fully recovered group was indistinguishable from controls on all eating disorder-related measures used, while the partially recovered group was less disordered than the active eating disorder group on some measures, but not on body image. Regarding psychosocial functioning, both the fully and partially recovered groups had psychosocial functioning similar to the controls, but there was a pattern of more of the partially recovered group reporting eating disorder aspects interfering with functioning. Regarding other psychopathology, the fully recovered group was no more likely than the controls to experience current Axis I pathology, but they did have elevated rates of current anxiety disorder. Results suggest that a stringent definition of recovery from an eating disorder is meaningful. Clinical implications and future directions regarding defining eating disorder recovery are discussed. PMID:19945094

  15. ACTH4 -10, Substance P, and Dizolcipine (Mk-801) Accelerate Functional Recovery After Hemilabyrinthectomy in Goldfish

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, R.; Huston, J. P.; Spieler, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the goldfish model of hemilabyrinthectomy for investigating potential recovery-promoting drugs. In this lesion model, the unilateral removal of the labyrinth induces a postural imbalance in response to light (Dorsal Light Reflex), from which the animals can recover over time. The behavioral effects of two neuropeptides were tested–namely, of substance P and ACTH4-10, both of which are known to promote functional recovery in several other lesion models. Furthermore, the effect of MK- 801, an antagonist of the glutamatergic NMDAreceptor subtype, was tested because this substance has also been shown to exert a neuroprotective effect. After lesion of the right labyrinth, the animals (n=12) were treated intraperitoneally daily either with vehicle (n=12), substance P (n=11), ACTH4-10 (n=12), or MK- 801 (n=12). Another group (n=11), which served as a non-lesion control, did not receive hemilabyrinthectomy or systemic injections. The lesion group, treated post-operatively with vehicle, did not recover from the postural deviation over the 24-d testing period. In contrast, all three test substances accelerated the functional recovery after unilateral labyrinthectomy. The decrease of the dorsal light reflex persisted even after cessation of drug treatment after 20d. The results indicate that using the dorsal light reflex in the model of hemilabyrinthectomy in goldfish provides a useful approach to studying the ability of potential new neurotrophic or neuroprotective drugs to promote functional recovery. PMID:11486488

  16. Mesenchymal stromal cells in stroke: improvement of motor recovery or functional compensation?

    PubMed

    Boltze, Johannes; Lukomska, Barbara; Jolkkonen, Jukka

    2014-08-01

    Experimental stroke treatment by mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) populations is an attractive paradigm in stroke research. There are many studies describing improved functional outcomes after MSC delivery in stroke, but the mechanisms through which the transferred cells exert these effects are less well understood. Moreover, commonly applied functional tests may not be suitable for discriminating real functional recovery from compensation, which is a frequently encountered phenomenon in rodents. This commentary highlights some of the potential risks for the translational process associated with these tests and proposes some alternative test arrays which may achieve more specific functional phenotyping. PMID:24849662

  17. Putative neurotrophic factors and functional recovery from peripheral nerve damage in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Van der Zee, C. E.; Brakkee, J. H.; Gispen, W. H.

    1991-01-01

    1. In rats, recovery of sensory-motor function following a crush lesion of the sciatic or tibial nerve was monitored by measuring foot reflex withdrawal from a local noxious stimulation of the foot sole. 2. Putative neurotrophic compounds were tested on this functional recovery model: melanocortins (peptides derived from ACTH (corticotropin) and alpha-MSH (melanotropin], gangliosides and nimodipine were effective whereas isaxonine and TRH (thyrotropin releasing hormone) were not. 3. Structure-activity studies with melanocortins revealed a similar effectiveness of alpha-MSH, [N-Leu4, D-Phe7]-alpha-MSH, desacetyl-alpha-MSH and the ACTH analogue ORG 2766, questioning the validity of the previously suggested notion that the melanotrophic properties of these peptides are responsible for their neurotrophic effect. 4. As recovery of function after peripheral nerve damage follows a similar time course in hypophysectomized (five days post operation) and sham-operated rats, effective melanocortin therapy does not mimic an endogenous peptide signal in the repair process from pituitary origin. 5. Subcutaneous treatment with ORG 2766 (7.5 micrograms kg-1 48 h-1) facilitates recovery of function following peripheral nerve damage in young (6-7 weeks old), mature (5 month old) and old (20 month old) rats. 6. In view of the diversity in structure of the effective neurotrophic factors and the complexity of nerve repair, the present data support the notion that peripheral nerve repair may be facilitated by different humoral factors likely to be active on different aspects of the recovery process. PMID:1678980

  18. PET Demonstrates Functional Recovery after Treatment by Danhong Injection in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Yuyan; He, Yu; Yang, Jiehong; Zhao, Tao; Fu, Wei; Xing, Panke; Wan, Haitong; Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate neuroprotection of Danhong injection (DHI) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET). Method. Rats were divided into 5 groups: sham group, ischemia-reperfusion untreated (IRU) group, DHI-1 group (DHI 1?mL/kg/d), DHI-2 group (DHI 2?mL/kg/d), and DHI-4 group (DHI 4?mL/kg/d). AII the treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with DHI daily for 14 days. The therapeutic effects in terms of cerebral infarct volume, neurological function, and cerebral glucose metabolism were evaluated. Expression of TNF-? and IL-1? was detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Levels of mature neuronal marker (NeuN), glial marker (GFAP), vascular density factor (vWF), and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Compared with the IRU group, rats treated with DHI showed dose dependent reductions in cerebral infarct volume and levels of proinflammatory cytokines, improvement of neurological function, and recovery of cerebral glucose metabolism. Meanwhile, the significantly increased numbers of neurons, gliocytes, and vessels and the recovery of glucose utilization were found in the peri-infarct region after DHI treatment using immunohistochemical analysis. Conclusion. This study demonstrated the metabolic recovery after DHI treatment by micro-PET imaging with 18F-FDG and the neuroprotective effects of DHI in a rat model of cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury. PMID:24707308

  19. In Vitro Ovine Embryo Production: the Study of Seasonal and Oocyte Recovery Method Effects

    PubMed Central

    Dadashpour Davachi, Navid; Zare Shahneh, Ahmad; Kohram, Hamid; Zhandi, Mahdi; Dashti, Saeed; Shamsi, Helia; Moghadam, Razieh

    2014-01-01

    Background: To current knowledge, different oocyte's recovery method and various seasons have profound impact on in vitro embryo production (IVEP). Objectives: The aim of this study was to define an efficient recovery method for oocytes harvesting from slaughterhouse material in different seasons, and their effects on IVEP yield. Materials and Methods: Ovaries from slaughtered ewes in breeding season (BS) and non-breeding season (NBS) were collected from a local abattoir. The oocytes were recovered through aspiration, centrifugation (ORC), puncture and slicing, and categorized into three classes (I, oocytes with more than three layers of cumulus cells; II, less than three layers with damaged cumulus cells; III, denuded oocytes). After cultivation in TCM 199 for 24 hours, matured oocytes were subjected to in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC). The oocyte recovery using ORC in BS and NBS was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with other recovery methods. Results: No significant dissimilarities in the proportion of oocytes reaching M-II stage were recorded when using different oocyte recovery methods in different seasons. Aspiration resulted in lower (P < 0.05) proportion of class I (BS, 60.0 ± 2.1; NBS, 51.1 ± 2.1) compared to ORC (BS, 82.0 ± 1.2; NBS, 70.0 ± 1.2), slicing (BS, 80.0 ± 2.1; NBS, 71.0 ± 1.4) and puncture (BS, 80.0 ± 1.5; NBS, 72.0 ± 2.0). Monospermy and blastocyst development rates were significantly higher using ORC than other recovery techniques in both BS and NBS. More oocytes with high quality, greater blastocyst development and oocyte recovery rates were achieved in BS. Conclusions: The results revealed that oocytes harvesting technique and season are effective in the rate of cleavage and blastocysts’ development, and suggest that despite same meiotic resumption rate in all treatments, it would be better to use ORC. PMID:25593733

  20. Misdirection of regenerating axons and functional recovery following sciatic nerve injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Shirley K; Hinkle, Marcus L; Nicolini, Jennifer; Rambo, Lindsay N; Rexwinkle, April M; Rose, Sam J; Sabatier, Manning J; Backus, Deborah; English, Arthur W

    2011-01-01

    Poor functional recovery found after peripheral nerve injury has been attributed to the misdirection of regenerating axons to reinnervate functionally inappropriate muscles. We applied brief electrical stimulation (ES) to the common fibular (CF) but not the tibial (Tib) nerve just prior to transection and repair of the entire rat sciatic nerve, to attempt to influence the misdirection of its regenerating axons. The specificity with which regenerating axons reinnervated appropriate targets was evaluated physiologically using compound muscle action potentials (M responses) evoked from stimulation of the two nerve branches above the injury site. Functional recovery was assayed using the timing of electromyography (EMG) activity recorded from the tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (Sol) muscles during treadmill locomotion and kinematic analysis of hindlimb locomotor movements. Selective ES of the CF nerve resulted in restored M-responses at earlier times than in unstimulated controls in both TA and Sol muscles. Stimulated CF axons reinnervated inappropriate targets to a greater extent than unstimulated Tib axons. During locomotion, functional antagonist muscles, TA and Sol, were coactivated both in stimulated rats and in unstimulated but injured rats. Hindlimb kinematics in stimulated rats were comparable to untreated rats, but significantly different from intact controls. Selective ES promotes enhanced axon regeneration but does so with decreased fidelity of muscle reinnervation. Functional recovery is neither improved nor degraded, suggesting that compensatory changes in the outputs of the spinal circuits driving locomotion may occur irrespective of the extent of misdirection of regenerating axons in the periphery. PMID:21120925

  1. A Paraperspective Factorization Method for Shape and Motion Recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conrad J. Poelman; Takeo Kanade

    1997-01-01

    The factorization method, first developed by Tomasi and Kanade, recovers both the shape of an object and its motion from a sequence of images, using many images and tracking many feature points to obtain highly redundant feature position information. The method robustly processes the feature trajec- tory information using singular value decomposition (SVD), taking advantage of the linear algebraic properties

  2. Confidence intervals for ratio of two Poisson rates using the method of variance estimates recovery

    E-print Network

    Confidence intervals for ratio of two Poisson rates using the method of variance estimates recovery of unconditional MOVER methods of combining separate confidence intervals for two single Poisson rates to form a confidence interval for their ratio. We consider confidence intervals derived from (i) the Fieller's theorem

  3. Comparison of Six DNA Extraction Methods for Recovery of Fungal DNA as Assessed by Quantitative PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David N. Fredricks; Caitlin Smith; Amalia Meier

    2005-01-01

    The detection of fungal pathogens in clinical samples by PCR requires the use of extraction methods that efficiently lyse fungal cells and recover DNA suitable for amplification. We used quantitative PCR assays to measure the recovery of DNA from two important fungal pathogens subjected to six DNA extraction methods. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia or Candida albicans yeast cells were added to

  4. A posteriori error estimator based on gradient recovery by averaging for discontinuous Galerkin methods

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and piecewise constant) diffusion problems in do- mains of R2 , approximated by a discontinuous Galerkin method and a discontinuous Galerkin method with polynomials of any degree. Inspired from the paper [16], which treatsA posteriori error estimator based on gradient recovery by averaging for discontinuous Galerkin

  5. Manual stimulation of facial muscles improves functional recovery after hypoglossal–facial anastomosis and interpositional nerve grafting of the facial nerve in adult rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orlando Guntinas-Lichius; Gregor Hundeshagen; Thomas Paling; Michael Streppel; Maria Grosheva; Andrey Irintchev; Emmanouil Skouras; Athanasia Alvanou; Srebrina K. Angelova; Stefanie Kuerten; Nektarios Sinis; Sarah A. Dunlop; Doychin N. Angelov

    2007-01-01

    The facial nerve in humans is often prone to injuries requiring surgical intervention. In the best case, nerve reconstruction is achieved by a facial–facial anastomosis (FFA), i.e. suture of the proximal and distal stumps of the severed facial nerve. Although a method of choice, FFA rarely leads to a satisfactory functional recovery. We have recently devised and validated, in an

  6. The effect of memantine on functional recovery of the facial nerve after crush injury.

    PubMed

    Topdag, Murat; Topdag, Deniz Ozlem; Ila, Kadri; Muezzinoglu, Bahar; Yaprak, Busra; Ozturk, Murat; Caliskan, Sebla; Iseri, Mete

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to establish whether memantine is an alternative and effective treatment on facial nerve recovery after crush injury, and also to analyze the effective doses of this promising agent. This is a randomized controlled animal study. 40 rats underwent crush injury to left main trunk of the facial nerve, and divided into 4 groups; (1) control (saline treated), (2) 5-mg/kg memantine, (3) 10-mg/kg memantine, and (4) 20-mg/kg memantine group. Facial nerve functions were evaluated by eye reflex, and whisker movement compared to the unaffected side. They were scored on a 3-point scale. On day 28, the rats were sacrificed, and the facial nerves were dissected. The paraffin sections were studied with caspase-3 immunostaining. According to statistical data, the recovery in Group 4 began significantly earlier than the other groups on the basis of restoring eye blink reflexes and whisker movement. Groups 2 and 3 showed faster recovery than Group 1 on the basis of whisker movement. The caspase-3 positive staining was rarely detected in all groups. The Kruskal–Wallis test revealed that Group 4 showed fewer apoptotic cells than other groups; this was statistically significant. However, the Mann–Whitney U test with the Bonferroni correction did not reveal any significant difference between the groups. In conclusion, this study revealed that memantine acted to restore facial nerve functions, and accelerate recovery after facial nerve injury by inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:24659363

  7. Mechanisms of recovery of visual function in adult amblyopia through a tailored action video game.

    PubMed

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Nahum, Mor; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2015-01-01

    Amblyopia is a deficit in vision that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. It was long thought to develop into a permanent deficit, unless properly treated before the end of the sensitive period for visual recovery. However, a number of studies now suggest that adults with long-standing amblyopia may at least partially recover visual acuity and stereopsis following perceptual training. Eliminating or reducing interocular suppression has been hypothesized to be at the root of these changes. Here we show that playing a novel dichoptic video game indeed results in reduced suppression, improved visual acuity and, in some cases, improved stereopsis. Our relatively large cohort of adults with amblyopia, allowed us, for the first time, to assess the link between visual function recovery and reduction in suppression. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was found between decreased suppression and improved visual function. This finding challenges the prevailing view and suggests that while dichoptic training improves visual acuity and stereopsis in adult amblyopia, reduced suppression is unlikely to be at the root of visual recovery. These results are discussed in the context of their implication on recovery of amblyopia in adults. PMID:25719537

  8. Binge Ethanol Prior to Traumatic Brain Injury Worsens Sensorimotor Functional Recovery in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vaagenes, Ian C.; Tsai, Shih-Yen; Ton, Son T.; Husak, Vicki A.; McGuire, Susan O.; O’Brien, Timothy E.; Kartje, Gwendolyn L.

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) have a high blood alcohol level at the time of injury. Furthermore, drinking alcohol in a binge-like pattern is now recognized as a national problem, leading to a greater likelihood of being injured. Our objective was to determine the consequences of a binge paradigm of alcohol intoxication at the time of TBI on long-term functional outcome using a sensitive test of sensorimotor function. We trained adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats on the skilled forelimb reaching task and then administered a single binge dose of ethanol (2g/kg, i.p.) or saline for three consecutive days (for a total of 3 doses). One hour after the final ethanol dose, rats underwent a TBI to the sensorimotor cortex corresponding to the preferred reaching forelimb. Animals were then tested for seven weeks on the skilled forelimb reaching task to assess the profile of recovery. We found that the group given ethanol prior to TBI displayed a slower recovery curve with a lower recovery plateau as compared to the control group. Therefore, even a relatively short (3 day) episode of binge alcohol exposure can negatively impact long-term recovery from a TBI, underscoring this significant public health problem. PMID:25768795

  9. A unified method to process biosolids samples for the recovery of bacterial, viral, and helminths pathogens.

    PubMed

    Alum, Absar; Rock, Channah; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    For land application, biosolids are classified as Class A or Class B based on the levels of bacterial, viral, and helminths pathogens in residual biosolids. The current EPA methods for the detection of these groups of pathogens in biosolids include discrete steps. Therefore, a separate sample is processed independently to quantify the number of each group of the pathogens in biosolids. The aim of the study was to develop a unified method for simultaneous processing of a single biosolids sample to recover bacterial, viral, and helminths pathogens. At the first stage for developing a simultaneous method, nine eluents were compared for their efficiency to recover viruses from a 100 gm spiked biosolids sample. In the second stage, the three top performing eluents were thoroughly evaluated for the recovery of bacteria, viruses, and helminthes. For all three groups of pathogens, the glycine-based eluent provided higher recovery than the beef extract-based eluent. Additional experiments were performed to optimize performance of glycine-based eluent under various procedural factors such as, solids to eluent ratio, stir time, and centrifugation conditions. Last, the new method was directly compared with the EPA methods for the recovery of the three groups of pathogens spiked in duplicate samples of biosolids collected from different sources. For viruses, the new method yielded up to 10% higher recoveries than the EPA method. For bacteria and helminths, recoveries were 74% and 83% by the new method compared to 34% and 68% by the EPA method, respectively. The unified sample processing method significantly reduces the time required for processing biosolids samples for different groups of pathogens; it is less impacted by the intrinsic variability of samples, while providing higher yields (P = 0.05) and greater consistency than the current EPA methods. PMID:24521413

  10. Recovery of function following regeneration of the damaged retina in the adult newt, Notophthalmus viridescens.

    PubMed

    Beddaoui, Margaret; Coupland, Stuart G; Tsilfidis, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    The red-spotted newt, Notophthalmus viridescens, is one of few adult vertebrate organisms that has retained the remarkable ability to regenerate a complete retina following injury or removal. The aim of this study was to develop a non-invasive method to monitor recovery of components within the retinal circuitry, in vivo, following surgical removal (retinectomy) of the adult newt retina. A novel and reproducible protocol was established for full-field electroretinography in the intact newt retina. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were measured at the corneal surface. The effects of dilation and external body temperature on the ERG amplitudes were measured as well as the reproducibility in recording ERGs in the same animal over time. Retinectomies were conducted on 15 newts, and the a- and b-wave amplitudes were measured prior to retinectomy and at various timepoints after retinectomy. Surgical removal of the retina resulted in an initial loss of ERG a- and b-waves, representing loss of photoreceptor cells and cells of the inner nuclear layer. The ERG amplitudes recovered to baseline levels by 15 weeks post-retinectomy, indicative of subsequent restoration of retinal function after regeneration. PMID:22729667

  11. A paraperspective factorization method for shape and motion recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poelman, Conrad J.; Kanade, Takeo

    1993-12-01

    The factorization method, first developed by Tomasi and Kanade, recovers both the shape of an object and its motion from a sequence of images, using many images and tracking many feature points to obtain highly redundant feature position information. The method robustly processes the feature trajectory information using singular value decomposition (SVD), taking advantage of the linear algebraic properties of orthographic projection. However, an orthographic formulation limits the range of motions the method can accommodate. Paraperspective projection, first introduced by Ohta, is a projection model that closely approximates perspective projection by modeling several effects not modeled under orthographic projection, while retaining linear algebraic properties. Our paraperspective factorization method can be applied to a much wider range of motion scenarios, such as image sequences containing significant translational motion toward the camera or across the image. The method also can accommodate missing or uncertain tracking data, which occurs when feature points are occluded or leave the field of view. We present the results of several experiments which illustrate the method's performance in a wide range of situations, including an aerial image sequence of terrain taken from a low-altitude air plane.

  12. Functional Motor Recovery from Motoneuron Axotomy Is Compromised in Mice with Defective Corticospinal Projections

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yuetong; Qu, Yibo; Feng, Jia; Wang, Meizhi; Han, Qi; So, Kwok-Fai; Wu, Wutian; Zhou, Libing

    2014-01-01

    Brachial plexus injury (BPI) and experimental spinal root avulsion result in loss of motor function in the affected segments. After root avulsion, significant motoneuron function is restored by re-implantation of the avulsed root. How much this functional recovery depends on corticospinal inputs is not known. Here, we studied that question using Celsr3|Emx1 mice, in which the corticospinal tract (CST) is genetically absent. In adult mice, we tore off right C5–C7 motor and sensory roots and re-implanted the right C6 roots. Behavioral studies showed impaired recovery of elbow flexion in Celsr3|Emx1 mice compared to controls. Five months after surgery, a reduced number of small axons, and higher G-ratio of inner to outer diameter of myelin sheaths were observed in mutant versus control mice. At early stages post-surgery, mutant mice displayed lower expression of GAP-43 in spinal cord and of myelin basic protein (MBP) in peripheral nerves than control animals. After five months, mutant animals had atrophy of the right biceps brachii, with less newly formed neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and reduced peak-to-peak amplitudes in electromyogram (EMG), than controls. However, quite unexpectedly, a higher motoneuron survival rate was found in mutant than in control mice. Thus, following root avulsion/re-implantation, the absence of the CST is probably an important reason to hamper axonal regeneration and remyelination, as well as target re-innervation and formation of new NMJ, resulting in lower functional recovery, while fostering motoneuron survival. These results indicate that manipulation of corticospinal transmission may help improve functional recovery following BPI. PMID:25003601

  13. Intermittent fasting improves functional recovery after rat thoracic contusion spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mi-ae; Plunet, Ward; Streijger, Femke; Lee, Jae H T; Plemel, Jason R; Park, Sophia; Lam, Clarrie K; Liu, Jie; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2011-03-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in a loss of motor and sensory function. Currently there are no validated effective clinical treatments. Previously we found in rats that dietary restriction, in the form of every-other-day fasting (EODF), started prior to (pre-EODF), or after (post-EODF) an incomplete cervical SCI was neuroprotective, increased plasticity, and promoted motor recovery. Here we examined if EODF initiated prior to, or after, a T10 thoracic contusion injury would similarly lead to enhanced functional recovery compared to ad libitum feeding. Additionally, we tested if a group fed every day (pair-fed), but with the same degree of restriction as the EODF animals (?25% calorie restricted), would also promote functional recovery, to examine if EODF's effect is due to overall calorie restriction, or is specific to alternating sequences of 24-h fasts and ad libitum eating periods. Behaviorally, both pre- and post-EODF groups exhibited better functional recovery in the regularity indexed BBB ambulatory assessment, along with several parameters of their walking pattern measured with the CatWalk device, compared to both the ad-libitium-fed group as well as the pair-fed group. Several histological parameters (intensity and symmetry of serotonin immunostaining caudal to the injury and gray matter sparing) correlated with functional outcome; however, no group differences were observed. Thus besides the beneficial effects of EODF after a partial cervical SCI, we now report that alternating periods of fasting (but not pair-fed) also promotes improved hindlimb locomotion after thoracic spinal cord contusion, demonstrating its robust effect in two different injury models. PMID:21219083

  14. Dexamethasone Enhanced Functional Recovery after Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xinhong; Yuan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone is currently used for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, but its mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Inflammation/immune response at the site of nerve lesion is known to be an essential trigger of the pathological changes that have a critical impact on nerve repair and regeneration. In this study, we observed the effects of various doses of dexamethasone on the functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model. Motor functional recovery was monitored by walking track analysis and gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio. The myelinated axon number was counted by morphometric analysis. Rats administered dexamethasone by local intramuscular injection had a higher nerve function index value, increased gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio, reduced Wallerian degeneration severity, and enhanced regenerated myelinated nerve fibers. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for CD3 expression, which is a marker for T-cell activation, and infiltration in the sciatic nerve. Dexamethasone-injected rats had fewer CD3-positive cells compared to controls. Furthermore, we found increased expression of GAP-43, which is a factor associated with development and plasticity of the nervous system, in rat nerves receiving dexamethasone. These results provide strong evidence that dexamethasone enhances sciatic nerve regeneration and function recovery in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury through immunosuppressive and potential neurotrophic effects.

  15. Effect of Intermittent Hypoxia on Neuro-functional Recovery Post Brain Ischemia in Mice.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yanxiang; Liu, Zhenfang; Yan, Xianliang; Luo, Chuanming

    2015-04-01

    Intermittent hypoxia was a simulation of a high-altitude environment. Neuro-inflammation post brain ischemia was considered as a vital impact which contributed to cognitive-functional deficit. The isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was an inflammation factor secreted by microglias in neuro-inflammation. In this study, we established a high-altitude environment as the hypoxic condition. Twenty mice were selected and randomized into a hypoxia group (n?=?10) or a normoxia group (n?=?10) post three vessel occlusion-induced brain ischemia. An enhancement of cognitive-functional recovery was presented in the hypoxia group by survival neuron counting and revealed by the Morris water maze test. Meanwhile, a high level of hypoxia-inducable factor 1 (HIF-1) expression associated with a lower expression of iNOS was observed in the border between infarcts and normal tissue of the hippocampus in the hypoxia group. However, these phenomenons were blocked by HIF-1 inhibition. This suggested that the acceleration of cognitive-functional recovery induced by intermittent hypoxia may depend on HIF-1 activating. An imitation of the hypoxic condition with or without HIF-1 inhibition was operated on the BV-2 cell. A high level of HIF-1 expression associated with a lower-level expression of iNOS was performed in the hypoxic condition. These data suggested that intermittent hypoxia can accelerate cognitive function recovery through attenuating neuro-inflammation. PMID:25344154

  16. Meshless Galerkin methods using radial basis functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holger Wendland

    1999-01-01

    We combine the theory of radial basis functions with the field of Galerkin methods to solve partial differential equations. After a general description of the method we show convergence and derive error estimates for smooth problems in arbitrary dimensions.

  17. Post-stroke depression and functional outcome: a cohort study investigating the influence of depression on functional recovery from stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F B van de Weg; D J Kuik; G J Lankhorst

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of depression on functional recovery after stroke.Design: Multicentre cohort study of 85 patients admitted for clinical rehabilitation. A two-stage case-finding procedure was used to identify patients with depression. For the control group, consecutive nondepressed stroke patients were enrolled. Patients were interviewed at 3–6 weeks and six months after stroke onset.Setting: Three rehabilitation centres in the

  18. Caregiver-mediated intervention can improve physical functional recovery of patients with chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu-Chi; Tsai, Alan C; Wang, Jiun-Yi; Lin, Yu-Te; Lin, Ko-Long; Chen, Jiun Jiang; Lin, Bei Yi; Lin, Tai Ching

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Patients with chronic stroke may benefit from continuing rehabilitation training after hospital discharge. This study examined whether caregiver-mediated, home-based intervention (CHI) could improve physical functioning and social participation in these patients. Methods. A single-blind, randomized, controlled 12-week trial conducted with 51 patients from 3 hospitals in Taiwan who had chronic stroke (>6 months; Brunnstrom recovery stages III-V). Patients and their caregivers in the intervention arm (n = 25) were given weekly personalized CHI trainings designed by a physical therapist. Patients in the control arm (n = 26) received visits from the therapist without intervention. All were evaluated for physical recovery through the Stroke Impact Scale, Berg Balance Scale, 10-Meter Walk Test, 6-Minute Walk Test, and Barthel Index at baseline and endpoint. Caregivers were evaluated with the Caregiver Burden Scale. Results were analyzed through Mann-Whitney U test. Results. CHI significantly improved scores of the Stroke Impact Scale: strength (control vs intervention, respectively: 1.4 vs 15.5; P = .002), mobility (-0.5 vs 13.7; P < .001), composite physical (-0.7 vs 11.2; P < .001), and general recovery domain (0.2 vs 17.4; P < .001). CHI also significantly improved free-walking velocity (-1.4 vs 7.5 cm/s; P = .006), 6-minute walk distance (-10.5 vs 15.8 m; P = .003), Berg Balance Scale score (-0.8 vs 4.5; P = .006), and Barthel Index score (0.6 vs 7.2; P = .008). CHI did not significantly increase caregiver burden at endpoint. Conclusion. CHI can improve physical functional recovery and, possibly, social participation in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:24788580

  19. Method for energy recovery from solid hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, M.R.; Hansen, E.R.; Reese, T.J.

    1989-07-25

    This paper describes a method for achieving environmentally sound disposal of hazardous waste in an operating rotary kiln. It comprises a heated, rotating cylinder containing in-process mineral material. The method comprises: the steps of packaging the hazardous waste in containers and charging the containerized hazardous waste into the kiln to contact the mineral material at a point along the length of the kiln cylinder where the kiln gas temperature ranges from about 950{sup 0}C to about 1200{sup 0}C.

  20. Method for recovery of energy values of oily refinery sludges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Jr. Schreiber; F. A. Jr. Lafser; C. Yonely

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for disposal of oil refinery sludges containing hydrocarbons, sediment, and at least about 5 percent water by weight in an operating rotary kiln comprising a heated, rotating cylinder containing in-process mineral matter, the rotary kiln having a firing zone in which fuel is ignited. It comprises analyzing the oily refinery sludge to determine its composition,

  1. Convex Feasibility Modeling and Projection Methods for Sparse Signal Recovery

    E-print Network

    Censor, Yair

    . Moreover, it is shown that the CFP-based projection methods are superior to some of the state-of-the-art minimization algorithms. CFPs are aimed at finding a point in the intersection set of a family of closed convex in image reconstruction from projections [25], in radiation therapy treatment planning [10], and many more

  2. Effects of Ankle–Foot Orthoses on Functional Recovery after Stroke: A Propensity Score Analysis Based on Japan Rehabilitation Database

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to investigate potential effects of ankle–foot orthoses (AFOs) on the functional recovery of post-acute stroke patients following rehabilitation. Subjects and Methods This study is a retrospective cohort study. Participants were in-hospital stroke patients registered in the Japan Rehabilitation Database between 2005 and 2012. A total of 1862 patients were eligible after applying exclusion criteria. Propensity score analysis was applied to adjust for potential bias and to create two comparable groups. An additional subset analysis focused on Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores on admission. Results In this sample, 30.7% of 1863 eligible patients were prescribed AFOs. Propensity score matched analysis showed that patients with AFOs had significantly higher scores than those without them for discharge FIM (mean: 91.3 vs 85.8; p=0.02), FIM gain (mean: 28.9 vs 23.5; p<0.001), and FIM efficiency (mean: 0.27 vs 0.22; p<0.001). Inverse probability weighting analysis showed similar results. In the subset analysis, patients with AFOs had significantly higher discharge FIM compared with those without them in the low admission FIM subgroup only. In addition, patients with AFOs performed independent exercise more than those without them (p<0.001). Conclusions These data suggest that stroke survivors may have better functional recovery if they are prescribed an AFO than if they are not prescribed an AFO. The use of AFOs is considered to be a feasible option to improve functional recovery of stroke rehabilitation patients. PMID:25837720

  3. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permit modifications and the functional equivalency demonstration: a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Elsberry; P. Garcia; R. Carnes; J. Kinker; C Loehr; W. Lyon

    1996-01-01

    Hazardous waste operating permits issued under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) often impose requirements that specific components and equipment be used. Consequently, changing these items, may first require that the owner\\/operator request a potentially time-consuming and costly permit modification. However, the owner\\/operator may demonstrate that a modification is not required because the planned changes are ``functionally equivalent.`` The

  4. Recovery of Vestibular Ocular Reflex Function and Balance Control after a Unilateral Peripheral Vestibular Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Allum, J. H. J.

    2012-01-01

    This review describes the effect of unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit (UPVD) on balance control for stance and gait tests. Because a UPVD is normally defined based on vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) tests, we compared recovery observed in balance control with patterns of recovery in VOR function. Two general types of UPVD are considered; acute vestibular neuritis (AVN) and vestibular neurectomy. The latter was subdivided into vestibular loss after cerebellar pontine angle tumor surgery during which a vestibular neurectomy was performed, and vestibular loss following neurectomy to eliminate disabling Ménière’s disease. To measure balance control, body-worn gyroscopes, mounted near the body’s center of mass (CoM), were used. Measurement variables were the pitch (anterior–posterior) and roll (lateral) sway angles and angular velocities of the lower trunk/pelvis. Both patient groups showed balance deficits during stance tasks on foam, especially with eyes closed when stable balance control is normally highly dependent on vestibular inputs. Deficits during gait were also present and were more profound for complex gait tasks such as tandem gait than simple gait tasks. Major differences emerged between the groups concerning the severity of the deficit and its recovery. Generally, the effects of acute neuritis on balance control were more severe but recovered rapidly. Deficits due to vestibular neurectomy were less severe, but longer lasting. These results mostly paralleled recovery of deficits in VOR function. However, questions need to be raised about the effect on balance control of the two modes of neural plasticity occurring in the vestibular system following vestibular loss due to neuritis: one mode being the limited central compensation for the loss, and the second mode being some restoration of peripheral vestibular function. Future work will need to correlate deficits in balance control during stance and gait more exactly with VOR deficits and carefully consider the differences between insufficient central compensation compared to inadequate peripheral restoration of function. PMID:22623921

  5. Recovery of vestibular ocular reflex function and balance control after a unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit.

    PubMed

    Allum, J H J

    2012-01-01

    This review describes the effect of unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit (UPVD) on balance control for stance and gait tests. Because a UPVD is normally defined based on vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) tests, we compared recovery observed in balance control with patterns of recovery in VOR function. Two general types of UPVD are considered; acute vestibular neuritis (AVN) and vestibular neurectomy. The latter was subdivided into vestibular loss after cerebellar pontine angle tumor surgery during which a vestibular neurectomy was performed, and vestibular loss following neurectomy to eliminate disabling Ménière's disease. To measure balance control, body-worn gyroscopes, mounted near the body's center of mass (CoM), were used. Measurement variables were the pitch (anterior-posterior) and roll (lateral) sway angles and angular velocities of the lower trunk/pelvis. Both patient groups showed balance deficits during stance tasks on foam, especially with eyes closed when stable balance control is normally highly dependent on vestibular inputs. Deficits during gait were also present and were more profound for complex gait tasks such as tandem gait than simple gait tasks. Major differences emerged between the groups concerning the severity of the deficit and its recovery. Generally, the effects of acute neuritis on balance control were more severe but recovered rapidly. Deficits due to vestibular neurectomy were less severe, but longer lasting. These results mostly paralleled recovery of deficits in VOR function. However, questions need to be raised about the effect on balance control of the two modes of neural plasticity occurring in the vestibular system following vestibular loss due to neuritis: one mode being the limited central compensation for the loss, and the second mode being some restoration of peripheral vestibular function. Future work will need to correlate deficits in balance control during stance and gait more exactly with VOR deficits and carefully consider the differences between insufficient central compensation compared to inadequate peripheral restoration of function. PMID:22623921

  6. Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley, NJ)

    2011-03-08

    A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.

  7. Mass recovery methods for trichloroethylene in plant tissue.

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, M. C.; Werth, C. J.; Energy Systems; Univ. of Illionis

    2009-06-01

    Monitoring expenses form a significant fraction of the costs associated with remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater sites. A novel monitoring method that could result in significant cost savings is the use of plants as monitoring devices; previous work indicates that plant tissue samples, especially trunk (core) and branch samples, can be used to delineate soil and groundwater plumes at phytoremediation sites. An important factor in reducing the uncertainty associated with this sampling method is development of a technique to analyze, both consistently and accurately, the chemicals stored in plant tissue samples. The present research presents a simple, robust, and inexpensive technique to recover most of the contaminant in plant branch tissue, irrespective of the age or species of the plant. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was the chemical analyzed. A number of headspace and solvent extraction techniques in the literature were evaluated, including headspace extraction at different incubation times and temperatures and solvent extraction using hexane or hot methanol. Extraction using hot methanol was relatively fast, simple, and reliable; this method recovered more than 89% of the TCE present in branches of five different tree species.

  8. Moment Method Using Fuzzy Basis Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Miraftab; R. R. Mansour; Ming Yu

    2007-01-01

    The paper introduces the use of fuzzy basis function (FBF) in moment method. Fuzzy logic systems (FLS) are universal function approximators, which can approximate any function to an arbitrary degree of accuracy. In the FLS, the user's insight can be taken into consideration easily and systematically resulting in a better approximation. Moreover, there are many choices in making a FLS

  9. Temperature fluctuations during deep temperature cryopreservation reduce PBMC recovery, viability and T-cell function.

    PubMed

    Germann, Anja; Oh, Young-Joo; Schmidt, Tomm; Schön, Uwe; Zimmermann, Heiko; von Briesen, Hagen

    2013-10-01

    The ability to analyze cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from biobanks for antigen-specific immunity is necessary to evaluate response to immune-based therapies. To ensure comparable assay results, collaborative research in multicenter trials needs reliable and reproducible cryopreservation that maintains cell viability and functionality. A standardized cryopreservation procedure is comprised of not only sample collection, preparation and freezing but also low temperature storage in liquid nitrogen without any temperature fluctuations, to avoid cell damage. Therefore, we have developed a storage approach to minimize suboptimal storage conditions in order to maximize cell viability, recovery and T-cell functionality. We compared the influence of repeated temperature fluctuations on cell health from sample storage, sample sorting and removal in comparison to sample storage without temperature rises. We found that cyclical temperature shifts during low temperature storage reduce cell viability, recovery and immune response against specific-antigens. We showed that samples handled under a protective hood system, to avoid or minimize such repeated temperature rises, have comparable cell viability and cell recovery rates to samples stored without any temperature fluctuations. Also T-cell functionality could be considerably increased with the use of the protective hood system compared to sample handling without such a protection system. This data suggests that the impact of temperature fluctuation on cell integrity should be carefully considered in future clinical vaccine trials and consideration should be given to optimal sample storage conditions. PMID:23850825

  10. [Stigmatization on the way to recovery in mental illness - the factors associated with social functioning].

    PubMed

    Podogrodzka-Niell, Magdalena; Tyszkowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Persons with mental disorders often experience stigmatization. There is a number of social factors that may affect the process of recovery and at the same time, in certain circumstances, could be a source of stigma. Mentally ill may find strength in themselves to fight against the disease or the opposite - can internalize the negative attitudes of the society and become self-stigmatized. The patient's family, on the one hand, is often the only source of social support, on the other hand, can experience a destructive influence of courtesy-stigma. Mentally ill have to face social reluctance which is reinforced by stereotypical media coverage of mental disorders. The social network of patients is poor and often limited to a family system. Negative views about persons diagnosed with mental illness are most visible in the labour market. Patients experience many types of discrimination at work,have lower employment rates and lower mean wages than healthy ones. Structural discrimination is a form of stigma which is revealed in underfunded and inefficient system of mental health care. All the social factors mentioned above are necessary for recovery (positive stimulation of functioning), but can also increase stigma and become a significant barrier in the recovery of psychiatric patients. This paper highlights the complex and ambiguous nature of the relationship between social factors and the recovery of the mentally ill basing on the data from the literature. PMID:25717489

  11. Effects of fast functional electrical stimulation gait training on mechanical recovery in poststroke gait.

    PubMed

    Hakansson, Nils A; Kesar, Trisia; Reisman, Darcy; Binder-Macleod, Stuart; Higginson, Jill S

    2011-03-01

    Stroke leads to gait impairments that can negatively influence quality of life. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied during fast walking (FastFES) is an effective gait rehabilitation strategy that can lead to improvements in gait performance, walking speed and endurance, balance, activity, and participation poststroke. The effect of FastFES gait training on mechanical energy utilization is not well understood. The objective of this study was to test the effects of 12 weeks of FastFES gait training on mechanical recovery indices of poststroke gait. Kinematic data were collected from 11 stroke survivors before and after 12 weeks of FastFES training. Mechanical recovery was calculated from the positive changes in vertical, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral components of center of mass energy. The average mechanical recovery increased from 34.5% before training to 40.0% after training. The increase was statistically significant (P = 0.014). The average self-selected walking speed increased from 0.4 m/s to 0.7 m/s after the 12-week FastFES training. The results indicate that the subjects were better able to generate and utilize the external mechanical energy of walking after FastFES gait training. FastFES gait training has the capacity to increase the gait speed, improve the mechanical recovery, and reduce the mechanical energy expenditure of stroke survivors when they walk. PMID:21401663

  12. Effects of Fast Functional Electrical Stimulation Gait Training on Mechanical Recovery in Post-Stroke Gait

    PubMed Central

    Hakansson, Nils A.; Kesar, Trisia; Reisman, Darcy; Binder-Macleod, Stuart; Higginson, Jill S.

    2011-01-01

    Stroke leads to gait impairments that can negatively influence quality of life. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied during fast walking is an effective gait rehabilitation strategy that can lead to improvements in gait performance, walking speed and endurance, balance, activity, and participation post-stroke. The effect of FastFES gait training on mechanical energy utilization is not well understood. The objective of this study was to test the effects of 12-weeks of FastFES gait training on mechanical recovery indices of post-stroke gait. Kinematic data were collected from 11 stroke survivors before and after 12-weeks of FastFES training. Mechanical recovery was calculated from the positive changes in vertical, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral components of COM energy. The average mechanical recovery increased from 34.5% before training to 40.0% after training. The increase was statistically significant (p=.014). The average self-selected walking speed increased from 0.4m/s to 0.7m/s after the 12-week FastFES training. The results indicate that the subjects were better able to generate and utilize the external mechanical energy of walking after FastFES gait training. FastFES gait training has the capacity to increase the gait speed, improve the mechanical recovery, and reduce the mechanical energy expenditure of stroke survivors when they walk. PMID:21401663

  13. Method of controlling scale in oil recovery operations

    DOEpatents

    Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing highly viscous minerals from a subterranean formation by injection of an acidic, thermal vapor stream without substantial scale buildup in downstream piping, pumps and well bore. The process comprises heating the formation by injection of heat, preferably in the form of a thermal vapor stream composed of combustion gases and steam and injecting an acidic compound simultaneously with the thermal vapor stream into the formation at a temperature above the dew point of the thermal vapor stream. The acidic, thermal vapor stream increases the solubility of metal ions in connate water and thus reduces scaling in the downstream equipment during the production of viscous hydrocarbons.

  14. Method of enhanced oil recovery employing thickened amphoteric surfactant solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kalpakci, B.; Chan, K. S.

    1985-11-26

    A method is disclosed for recovering petroleum from a subterranean reservoir penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well comprising: injecting into the reservoir through the injection well a surfactant slug comprising an aqueous solution containing about 0.001 to about 5% by weight of an amphoteric surfactant and an effective amount of a high molecular weight homopolysaccharide gum thickener derived from fungus strains of the genus Schlerotium to provide the surfactant slug with a viscosity exceeding the viscosity of the petroleum in the reservoir; and recovering fluid from the production well.

  15. Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, George A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1986-01-01

    High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

  16. Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, G.A.

    1985-03-05

    High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

  17. Incomplete factorization methods for fully implicit simulation of enhanced oil recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Behie

    1984-01-01

    Several incomplete factorization methods (ILU) for strongly nonsymmetric block-banded systems are developed. These systems result from the coupled partial differential equations which occur in the simulation of enhanced oil recovery. Several approximations using natural, diagonal (D2) and alternating diagonal (D4) orderings are used with ORTHOMIN acceleration. These methods can all be used in conjunction with the COMBINATIVE method for multi-phase

  18. Loss of hsp70.1 Decreases Functional Motor Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Jung, Ji-In; Kim, Youngkyung; Lee, Jae-Seon; Yoon, Young Wook

    2010-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are specifically induced by various forms of stress. Hsp70.1, a member of the hsp70 family is known to play an important role in cytoprotection from stressful insults. However, the functional role of Hsp70 in motor function after spinal cord injury (SCI) is still unclear. To study the role of hsp70.1 in motor recovery following SCI, we assessed locomotor function in hsp70.1 knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) mice via the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale, before and after spinal hemisection at T13 level. We also examined lesion size in the spinal cord using Luxol fast blue/cresyl violet staining. One day after injury, KO and WT mice showed no significant difference in the motor function due to complete paralysis following spinal hemisection. However, when it compared to WT mice, KO mice had significantly delayed and decreased functional outcomes from 4 days up to 21 days after SCI. KO mice also showed significantly greater lesion size in the spinal cord than WT mice showed at 21 days after spinal hemisection. These results suggest that Hsp70 has a protective effect against traumatic SCI and the manipulation of the hsp70.1 gene may help improve the recovery of motor function, thereby enhancing neuroprotection after SCI. PMID:20631888

  19. Well treating method and system for stimulating recovery of fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, G.A.; Passamaneck, R.S.; Touryan, K.J.

    1988-01-12

    This patent describes a method for fracturing a subterranean earth formation to stimulate the production of fluid from the formation wherein a wellbore extends at least to the formation from a surface point. The wellbore is provided with casing means forming a substantially fluid tight interior space. The method comprises the steps of: providing perforating means for perforating the casing means at a predetermined zone of the formation to provide for flow of fluids between the formation and the wellbore and placing the perforating means at the zone, filling at least a portion of the wellbore with a compressible fracturing fluid comprised of a liquid containing dispersed quantities of gas and having a solid propant dispersed therein; raising the pressure of the fracturing fluid in the wellbore to a predetermined pressure greater than the pressure required to hydraulically extend a fracture in the formation at the zone; and actuating the perforating means to form apertures in the casing means whereby the pressurized fracturing fluid at the predetermined pressure is allowed to flow into the formation under decompression forces to fracture the formation with a quantity of the fracturing fluid and to pro fractures in the formation open with the propant.

  20. Well treating method for stimulating recovery of fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, G.A.; Passamaneck, R.S.; Touryan, K.J.

    1987-01-06

    A method is described for fracturing a substerranean earth formation to stimulate the production of fluid from the formation wherein a wellbore extends at least to the formation from a surface point. The wellbore is provided with casing means forming a substantially fluid tight interior space, the method comprising the steps of: providing perforating means for perforating the casing means at a predetermined zone of the formation to provide for low of fluids between the formation and the wellbore and placing the perforating means at the zone, filling at least a portion of the wellbore with a compressible fracturing fluid comprised of a liquid containing dispensed quantities of gas and having a solid proppant dispersed therein; raising the pressure of the fracturing fluid in the wellbore to a predetermined pressure greater than the pressure required to hydraulically extend a fracture in the formation at the zone; and actuating the perforating means to form apertures in the casing means and concomitantly generating a high gas pressure within the fluid whereby the pressurized fracturing fluid at the predetermined pressure is allowed to flow into the formation under decompression forces. This is done to fracture the formation with a quantity of the fracturing fluid and to prop fractures in the formation open with the proppant.

  1. Assessments of lung digestion methods for recovery of fibers.

    PubMed

    Warheit, D B; Hwang, H C; Achinko, L

    1991-04-01

    Evaluation of the pulmonary hazards associated with exposure to fibrous materials tends to be more complicated than assessments required for particulate materials. Fibers are defined by aspect ratios and it is generally considered that physical dimensions play an important role in the pathogenesis of fiber-related lung diseases. Several digestion techniques have been used to recover fibers from exposed lung tissue for clearance studies. Because many of the digestion fluids are corrosive (e.g., bleach, KOH), it is conceivable that the dimensions of recovered fibers are modified during the tissue digestion methods to assess whether the physical dimensions of bulk samples of fibers were altered following simulated digestion processing. Aliquots of crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos, Kevlar aramid, wollastonite, polyacrylonitrile (pan)-based carbon, and glass fibers were incubated with either saline, bleach, or KOH and then filtered. Scanning electron microscopy techniques were utilized to measure the physical dimensions (i.e., lengths and diameters) of at least 160 fibers per treatment group of each fiber type. Our results showed that the lengths and diameters of glass fibers and wollastonite were altered after treatment with KOH. In addition, treatment with bleach produced a small reduction in both asbestos fiber-type diameters, and greater changes in Kevlar and wollastonite diameters and carbon fiber lengths (P less than 0.05). These results indicate that lung digestion methods should be carefully assessed for each fiber type before initiating fiber clearance studies. PMID:1851478

  2. Evaluation of methods for recovery of Salmonella from dairy cattle, poultry, and swine farms.

    PubMed

    Pangloli, Philipus; Dje, Yobouet; Oliver, S P; Mathew, A; Golden, D A; Taylor, W J; Draughon, F A

    2003-11-01

    Current official methods for detection and isolation of Salmonella are mostly designed for foods. The objective of this study was to determine optimal methods for detection and isolation of Salmonella from animal and environmental samples of dairy, poultry, and swine farms. Preenrichment in lactose broth versus direct enrichment (no preenrichment) prior to selective enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis, selenite cystine, and tetrathionate incubated at 35 and 42 degrees C and in four differential/selective plating media (brilliant green, bismuth sulfite, Hektoen enteric, and xylose-lysine-tergitol 4 agar base) were evaluated for their ability to recover Salmonella from artificially contaminated samples. The effects of pH adjustments to samples on Salmonella recovery were determined. A pH adjustment of the enrichment broth to 6.8 +/- 0.2 after addition of samples significantly improved recovery of Salmonella. The most effective medium combinations for isolation of Salmonella from farm samples depended on the type of samples. Generalizations of protocols for recovery of Salmonella from farm samples might result in poor recovery, increased recovery time, and increased sample processing costs. PMID:14627273

  3. Recovery of Copper from the Slag of Khatoonabad Flash Smelting Furnace by Flotation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Nader; Vaghar, Ramez; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza Tavakoli; Hashemi, Seyed Ahmad

    2013-04-01

    Copper loss in the slag of Khatoonabad flash smelting furnace is estimated to be about 1-3 %. At present, the electric slag cleaning furnace is used for the recovery of copper from slag. However, due to low recovery efficiency of electric furnace along with high consumption of electrical energy and water, selection of a method to enable minimum energy consumption and maximum recovery of copper seems to be essential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of copper recovery from this slag using flotation method, and to determine the effective parameters involved in the process. Based on the experiments conducted, the best results were obtained for pH 11.5, 60 g/t Z11 and R407 collectors with a weighing ratio of 3-2, 40 g/t of MIBC and A65 frothers with an equal weighting ratio and grinding time of 45 min. Under these conditions, the copper concentrate grade and recovery were 19 and 91.1 % in the rougher step, 27.4 and 96.3 % in the cleaner step, and 32 and 93 % in the recleaner step, respectively.

  4. N-acetylcysteine amide preserves mitochondrial bioenergetics and improves functional recovery following spinal trauma.

    PubMed

    Patel, Samir P; Sullivan, Patrick G; Pandya, Jignesh D; Goldstein, Glenn A; VanRooyen, Jenna L; Yonutas, Heather M; Eldahan, Khalid C; Morehouse, Johnny; Magnuson, David S K; Rabchevsky, Alexander G

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is becoming a pivotal target for neuroprotective strategies following contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and the pharmacological compounds that maintain mitochondrial function confer neuroprotection and improve long-term hindlimb function after injury. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of cell-permeating thiol, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), a precursor of endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH), on mitochondrial function acutely, and long-term tissue sparing and hindlimb locomotor recovery following upper lumbar contusion SCI. Some designated injured adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=120) received either vehicle or NACA (75, 150, 300 or 600mg/kg) at 15min and 6h post-injury. After 24h the total, synaptic, and non-synaptic mitochondrial populations were isolated from a single 1.5cm spinal cord segment (centered at injury site) and assessed for mitochondrial bioenergetics. Results showed compromised total mitochondrial bioenergetics following acute SCI that was significantly improved with NACA treatment in a dose-dependent manner, with maximum effects at 300mg/kg (n=4/group). For synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria, only 300mg/kg NACA dosage showed efficacy. Similar dosage (300mg/kg) also maintained mitochondrial GSH near normal levels. Other designated injured rats (n=21) received continuous NACA (150 or 300mg/kg/day) treatment starting at 15min post-injury for one week to assess long-term functional recovery over 6weeks post-injury. Locomotor testing and novel gait analyses showed significantly improved hindlimb function with NACA that were associated with increased tissue sparing at the injury site. Overall, NACA treatment significantly maintained acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and normalized GSH levels following SCI, and prolonged delivery resulted in significant tissue sparing and improved recovery of hindlimb function. PMID:24805071

  5. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, James D. (Laramie, WY); Harak, Arnold E. (Laramie, WY)

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

  6. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1989-11-14

    A method and apparatus or utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000{degrees}F in a burner to remove residual char nd produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capital and operating costs.

  7. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1988-05-04

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Recovery of gastrointestinal function with thoracic epidural vs. systemic analgesia following gastrointestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Shi, W-Z; Miao, Y-L; Yakoob, M Y; Cao, J-B; Zhang, H; Jiang, Y-G; Xu, L-H; Mi, W-D

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this review was to systematically assess the effect of thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) vs. systemic analgesia (SA) on the recovery of gastrointestinal (GI) function in patients following GI surgery. We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify randomized controlled trials of adult patients undergoing GI surgery, comparing the effect of two postoperative analgesia regimens. Patients postoperatively receiving local anesthesia-based TEA with or without opioids were compared to patients receiving opioid-based SA. The outcomes considered were times to GI function recovery, GI complications, and specific side effects. Twelve studies with 331 patients in the TEA group and 319 in the SA group were included. Compared to SA, TEA improved the GI recovery after GI procedures by shortening the time to first passage of flatus by 31.3?h, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): -33.2 to -29.4, P?recovery of GI function after GI procedures without any increased risk of GI complications. To further confirm these effects, larger, better quality randomized controlled trials with standard outcome measurements are needed. PMID:25060245

  9. The role of recovery of mitochondrial structure and function in desiccation tolerance of pea seeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Cheng, Hong-Yan; Møller, Ian M; Song, Song-Quan

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial repair is of fundamental importance for seed germination. When mature orthodox seeds are imbibed and germinated, they lose their desiccation tolerance in parallel. To gain a better understanding of this process, we studied the recovery of mitochondrial structure and function in pea (Pisum sativum cv. Jizhuang) seeds with different tolerance to desiccation. Mitochondria were isolated and purified from the embryo axes of control and imbibed-dehydrated pea seeds after (re-)imbibition for various times. Recovery of mitochondrial structure and function occurred both in control and imbibed-dehydrated seed embryo axes, but at different rates and to different maximum levels. The integrity of the outer mitochondrial membrane reached 96% in all treatments. However, only the seeds imbibed for 12 h and then dehydrated recovered the integrity of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) and State 3 (respiratory state in which substrate and ADP are present) respiration (with NADH and succinate as substrate) to the control level after re-imbibition. With increasing imbibition time, the degree to which each parameter recovered decreased in parallel with the decrease in desiccation tolerance. The tolerance of imbibed seeds to desiccation increased and decreased when imbibed in CaCl(2) and methylviologen solution, respectively, and the recovery of the IMM integrity similarly improved and weakened in these two treatments, respectively. Survival of seeds after imbibition-dehydration linearly increased with the increase in ability to recover the integrity of IMM and State 3 respiration, which indicates that recovery of mitochondrial structure and function during germination has an important role in seed desiccation tolerance. PMID:21910735

  10. A New Metadata Update Method for Fast Recovery of SSD Cache Jing Yang and Qing Yang

    E-print Network

    Yang, Qing "Ken"

    1 A New Metadata Update Method for Fast Recovery of SSD Cache Jing Yang and Qing Yang Dept: {jyang,qyang}@ele.uri.edu Abstract--In order to maintain data in an SSD (solid-state disk) cache durable after a crash or reboot, metadata information needs to be stored persistently in SSD. There are two

  11. A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery

    E-print Network

    A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery 2013 Accepted 31 July 2013 Available online 27 August 2013 Keywords: Microbial electrolysis cell Wastewater treatment Energy consumption Coulombic efficiency a b s t r a c t Microbial electrolysis cells

  12. A FAST PATCH-DICTIONARY METHOD FOR WHOLE IMAGE RECOVERY YANGYANG XU AND WOTAO YIN

    E-print Network

    Soatto, Stefano

    , inpainting, cartoon-texture decomposition, super-resolution, and image deblurring, for which one can process recovery and dictionary-learning methods, we numerically simulate image inpainting, compres- sive sensing) to the "local" or "nearly local" kinds of image processing tasks such as denoising, inpainting, deblurring

  13. A tutorial on the LQG/LTR method. [Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the so-called Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian method with Loop-Transfer-Recovery is surveyed. The objective is to provide a pragmatic exposition, with special emphasis on the step-by-step characteristics for designing multivariable feedback control systems.

  14. EXTRACTION METHODS FOR RECOVERY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM FORTIFIED DRY SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recovery of 8 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dry soils, each fortified at 800 ng/g soil, was studied in relation to the extraction method and time of extraction. Extraction procedures studied on desiccator-dried soils were modifications of EPA low-and high-level purge-and...

  15. Transplants and neurotrophic factors increase regeneration and recovery of function after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bregman, Barbara S; Coumans, Jean-Valery; Dai, Hai Ning; Kuhn, Penelope L; Lynskey, James; McAtee, Marietta; Sandhu, Faheem

    2002-01-01

    Earlier studies suggested that while after spinal cord lesions and transplants at birth, the transplants serve both as a bridge and as a relay to restore supraspinal input caudal to the injury (Bregman, 1994), after injury in the adult the spinal cord transplants serve as a relay, but not as a bridge. We show here, that after complete spinal cord transection in adult rats, delayed spinal cord transplants and exogenous neurotrophic factors, the transplants can also serve as a bridge to restore supraspinal input (Fig. 9). We demonstrate here that when the delivery of transplants and neurotrophins are delayed until 2 weeks after spinal cord transection, the amount of axonal growth and the amount of recovery of function are dramatically increased. Under these conditions, both supraspinal and propriospinal projections to the host spinal cord caudal to the transection are reestablished. The growth of supraspinal axons across the transplant and back into the host spinal cord caudal to the lesion was dependent upon the presence of exogenous neurotrophic support. Without the neurotrophins, only propriospinal axons were able to re-establish connections across the transplant. Studies using peripheral nerve or Schwann cell grafts have shown that some anatomical connectivity can be restored across the injury site, particularly under the influence of neurotrophins (Xu et al., 1995a,b; Cheng et al., 1996; Ye and Houle, 1997). Without neurotrophin treatment, brainstem axons do not enter [figure: see text] the graft (Xu et al., 1995a,b; Cheng et al., 1996; Ye and Houle, 1997). Similarly, cells genetically modified to secrete neurotrophins and transplanted into the spinal cord influence the axonal growth of specific populations of spinally projecting neurons (Tuszynski et al., 1996, 1997; Grill et al., 1997; Blesch and Tuszynski, 1997). Taken together, these studies support a role for neurotrophic factors in the repair of the mature CNS. The regrowth of supraspinal and propriospinal input across the transection site was associated with consistent improvements in hindlimb locomotor function. Animals performed alternating and reciprocal hindlimb stepping with plantar foot contact to the treadmill or stair during ascension. Furthermore, they acquired hindlimb weight support and demonstrated appropriate postural control for balance and equilibrium of all four limbs. After spinal cord injury in the adult, the circuitry underlying rhythmic alternating stepping movements is still present within the spinal cord caudal to the lesion, but is now devoid of supraspinal control. We show here that restoring even relatively small amounts of input allows supraspinal neurons to access the spinal cord circuitry. Removing the re-established supraspinal input after recovery (by retransection rostral to the transplant) abolished the recovery and abolished the serotonergic fibers within the transplant and spinal cord caudal to the transplant. This suggests that at least some of the recovery observed is due to re-establishing supraspinal input across the transplant, rather than a diffuse influence of the transplant on motor recovery. It is unlikely, however, that the greater recovery of function in animals that received delayed transplant and neurotrophins is due solely to the restoration of supraspinal input. Recent work by Ribotta et al. (2000) suggests that segmental plasticity within the spinal cord contributes to weight support and bilateral foot placement after spinal cord transection. This recovery of function occurs after transplants of fetal raphe cells into the adult spinal cord transected at T11. Recovery of function appears to require innervation of the L1-L2 segments with serotonergic fibers, and importantly, animals require external stimulation (tail pinch) to elicit the behavior. In the current study, animals with transection only did not develop stepping overground or on the treadmill without tail pinch, although the transplant and neurotrophin-treated groups did so without external stimuli. Therefore both reorganization of the segmental circuit

  16. Influence of killing method on Lepidoptera DNA barcode recovery.

    PubMed

    Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie

    2015-05-01

    The global DNA barcoding initiative has revolutionized the field of biodiversity research. Such large-scale sequencing projects require the collection of large numbers of specimens, which need to be killed and preserved in a way that is both DNA-friendly and which will keep voucher specimens in good condition for later study. Factors such as time since collection, correct storage (exposure to free water and heat) and DNA extraction protocol are known to play a role in the success of downstream molecular applications. Limited data are available on the most efficient, DNA-friendly protocol for killing. In this study, we evaluate the quality of DNA barcode (cytochrome oxidase I) sequences amplified from DNA extracted from specimens collected using three different killing methods (ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing). Previous studies have suggested that chemicals, such as ethyl acetate and formaldehyde, degraded DNA and as such may not be appropriate for the collection of insects for DNA-based research. All Lepidoptera collected produced DNA barcodes of good quality, and our study found no clear difference in nucleotide signal strength, probability of incorrect base calling and phylogenetic utility among the three different treatment groups. Our findings suggest that ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing can all be used to collect specimens for DNA analysis. PMID:25229871

  17. Assessments of lung digestion methods for recovery of fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Warheit, D.B.; Hwang, H.C.; Achinko, L. (E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Newark DE (United States))

    1991-04-01

    Evaluation of the pulmonary hazards associated with exposure to fibrous materials tends to be more complicated than assessments required for particulate materials. Fibers are defined by aspect ratios and it is generally considered that physical dimensions play an important role in the pathogenesis of fiber-related lung diseases. Several digestion techniques have been used to recover fibers from exposed lung tissue for clearance studies. Because many of the digestion fluids are corrosive (e.g., bleach, KOH), it is conceivable that the dimensions of recovered fibers are modified during the tissue digestion process, thus creating erroneous data. Accordingly, the authors evaluated two lung digestion methods to assess whether the physical dimensions of bulk samples of fibers were altered following simulated digestion processing. Aliquots of crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos, Kevlar aramid, wollastonite, polyacrylonitrile (pan)-based carbon, and glass fibers were incubated with either saline, bleach, or KOH and then filtered. Scanning electron microscopy techniques were utilized to measure the physical dimensions (i.e., lengths and diameters) of at least 160 fibers per treatment group of each fiber type. Their results showed that the lengths and diameters of glass fibers and wollastonite were altered after treatment with KOH. In addition, treatment with bleach produced a small reduction in both asbestos fiber-type diameters, and greater changes in Kevlar and wollastonite diameters and carbon fiber lengths.

  18. Functional recovery following peripheral nerve injury in the transgenic Thy1-GFP rat.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Stephen W P; Phua, Peter D; Stanoulis, Krisanne N; Wood, Matthew D; Liu, Edward H; Gordon, Tessa; Borschel, Gregory H

    2013-09-01

    Transgenic mice have been previously used to assess nerve regeneration following peripheral nerve injury. However, mouse models are limited by their small caliber nerves, short nerve lengths, and their inability to fully participate during behavioral assessments. The transgenic Thy1 GFP rat is a novel transgenic rat model designed to assess regeneration following peripheral nerve injury. However, return of functional and behavioral recovery following nerve injury has not yet been evaluated in these rats. In this study, we ask whether differences in anatomy, recovery of locomotion, myological, and histomorphological measures exist between transgenic Thy1 GFP rats when compared to wild type (WT) Sprague Dawley rats following unilateral sciatic nerve injury. We found that both motor and sensory neuronal architecture, overground and skilled locomotion, muscle force, motor unit number estimation (MUNE) and wet muscle weights, and histomorphometric assessments are similar between both genetic phenotypes. Overall, these data support the use of the transgenic Thy1-GFP rat in experiments assessing functional and behavioral recovery following nerve injury and repair. PMID:24028190

  19. Human Hepatocyte Growth Factor Promotes Functional Recovery in Primates after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Kazuya; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Yamane, Jun-ichi; Toyota, Fumika; Hikishima, Keigo; Nomura, Tatsuji; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Aoki, Masashi; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

    2011-01-01

    Many therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) using neurotrophic factors have focused on reducing the area damaged by secondary, post-injury degeneration, to promote functional recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes and a mediator of the inflammatory responses to tissue injury, was recently highlighted as a potent neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. We previously reported that introducing exogenous HGF into the injured rodent spinal cord using a herpes simplex virus-1 vector significantly reduces the area of damaged tissue and promotes functional recovery. However, that study did not examine the therapeutic effects of administering HGF after injury, which is the most critical issue for clinical application. To translate this strategy to human treatment, we induced a contusive cervical SCI in the common marmoset, a primate, and then administered recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) intrathecally. Motor function was assessed using an original open field scoring system focusing on manual function, including reach-and-grasp performance and hand placement in walking. The intrathecal rhHGF preserved the corticospinal fibers and myelinated areas, thereby promoting functional recovery. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed significant preservation of the intact spinal cord parenchyma. rhHGF-treatment did not give rise to an abnormal outgrowth of calcitonin gene related peptide positive fibers compared to the control group, indicating that this treatment did not induce or exacerbate allodynia. This is the first study to report the efficacy of rhHGF for treating SCI in non-human primates. In addition, this is the first presentation of a novel scale for assessing neurological motor performance in non-human primates after contusive cervical SCI. PMID:22140459

  20. Association of home care needs and functional recovery among community-dwelling elderly hip fracture patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Chu; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Lin, Yu-Te; Ku, Yan-Chiou; Wang, Ruey-Hsia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the home care needs and task difficulty of community-dwelling aged hip fracture and the association of functional recovery with care received. A cohort of hip fracture patients admitted to orthopedic wards for surgery was collected from August 2009 to December 2010. Patients transferred to long-term care facilities after surgery were excluded. Functional status (feeding, clothing, grooming, bathing, getting in/out of bed, walking, toileting, standing up/sitting down, and walking up/down stairs) and task difficulty for caregivers were recorded at discharge, one week and one month after discharge. In total, 116 patients (mean age: 79.4 ± 8.5 years, 51.7% males) were enrolled. The mean age of primary caregivers was 53.4 ± 14.2 years, and most were daughters or sons (54.3%), spouses (34.5%) or foreign workers (11.0%). The most common care needs were wound care (95.7%), medical visits (94.8%), cleaning and maintaining living quarters (92.2%) and vigilance to ensure patient safety (92.2%). The care needs and task difficulty significantly correlated with physical function before, one week and one month after discharge (r=-0.530, p<0.001; r=-0.326, p=0.001; r=-0.432, p<0.001; r=-0.684, p<0.001; and r=-0.475, p<0.001, respectively). The complex and taxing home care needs of community-dwelling elderly hip fracture patients were significantly associated with functional recovery. Comprehensive geriatric assessment and related special medical services may greatly help caregivers and promote the practice of aging in place. Further study is needed to develop appropriate caregiver education to promote the functional recovery of elderly hip fracture patients at home. PMID:23746577

  1. Long-term functional recovery and compensation after cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Sylvie; Murray, Katie N.; Rothwell, Nancy J.; Metz, Gerlinde A.S.; Allan, Stuart M.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is one of the most common causes of disabilities in adults and leads to long-term motor and cognitive impairments with limited therapeutic possibilities. Treatment options have proven efficient in preclinical models of cerebral ischemia but have failed in the clinical setting. This limited translation may be due to the suitability of models used and outcomes measured as most studies have focused on the early period after injury with gross motor scales, which have limited correlation to the clinical situation. The aim of this study was to determine long-term functional outcomes after cerebral ischemia in rats, focusing on fine motor function, social and depressive behavior as clinically relevant measures. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effects of an anti-inflammatory treatment (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)) on functional recovery and compensation. Infarct volume was correlated with long-term (25 days) impairments in fine motor skills, but not with emotional components of behavior. Motor impairments could not be detected using conventional neurological tests and only detailed analysis allowed differentiation between recovery and compensation. Acute systemic administration of IL-1Ra (at reperfusion) led to a faster and more complete recovery, but delayed (24 h) IL-1Ra treatment had no effect. In summary functional assessment after brain injury requires detailed motor tests in order to address long-term impairments and compensation processes that are mediated by intact tissues. Functional deficits in skilled movement after brain injury represent ideal predictors of long-term outcomes and should become standard measures in the assessment of preclinical animal models. PMID:24821402

  2. Functional recovery of severe obturator and femoral nerve injuries after lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas surgery.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian, Amir; Abel, Naomi; Uribe, Juan S

    2013-04-01

    The minimally invasive lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas approach is a popular fusion technique. However, potential complications include injury to the lumbar plexus nerves, bowel, and vasculature, the most common of which are injuries to the lumbar plexus. The femoral nerve is particularly vulnerable because of its size and location; injury to the femoral nerve has significant clinical implications because of its extensive sensory and motor innervation of the lower extremities. The authors present an interesting case of a 49-year-old male patient in whom femoral and obturator nerve functional recovery unexpectedly occurred 364 days after the nerves had been injured during lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas surgery. Chronological video and electrodiagnostic findings demonstrate evidence of recovery. Classification and mechanisms of nerve injury and nerve regeneration are discussed. PMID:23432325

  3. Development of on-farm oil recovery and processing methods: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.; Kilgo, M.B.

    1987-09-02

    Using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), peanut oil was extracted from ground peanuts at pressures of 2000 to 10,000 psi and temperatures of 25-120/degree/ C. Above 6000 psi, increasing the temperature to the maximum possible without heavily charring the peanuts (120/degree/C) significantly increased the initial extraction rate. Increasing the pressure at constant temperature increased the rate. At higher temperatures (75/degree/ C and above) roasting began to occur, however, this was not detrimental to the extraction rate or overall oil recovery. Decreasing the particle size increases the overall yield per batch of peanuts as seen in both the half factorial and particle size experiments. Increasing the moisture increases the amount of volatiles lost. The flow rate does not affect the solubility, percent oil recovered or volatiles lost for flow rates of 40 to 60 liters CO2/minute at STP. Recovery of peanut and rapeseed oil with a combined process of partial recovery in a screw press plus extraction of the remaining oil with SC-CO2 is technically a viable alternative to other oil recovery methods. Oil recoveries of 95% (peanuts) and 75% (rapeseed) have been demonstrated. The initial extraction rate for rapeseed was consistently lower than the rate for peanuts at the same extraction temperature and pressure. No differences in SC-CO2 extraction rates or yields were found between Dwarf Essex and Cascade varieties of rapeseed. 8 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Joint Sparse Recovery Method for Compressed Sensing With Structured Dictionary Mismatches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhao; Yang, Peng; Nehorai, Arye

    2014-10-01

    In traditional compressed sensing theory, the dictionary matrix is given a priori, whereas in real applications this matrix suffers from random noise and fluctuations. In this paper we consider a signal model where each column in the dictionary matrix is affected by a structured noise. This formulation is common in direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation of off-grid targets, encountered in both radar systems and array processing. We propose to use joint sparse signal recovery to solve the compressed sensing problem with structured dictionary mismatches and also give an analytical performance bound on this joint sparse recovery. We show that, under mild conditions, the reconstruction error of the original sparse signal is bounded by both the sparsity and the noise level in the measurement model. Moreover, we implement fast first-order algorithms to speed up the computing process. Numerical examples demonstrate the good performance of the proposed algorithm, and also show that the joint-sparse recovery method yields a better reconstruction result than existing methods. By implementing the joint sparse recovery method, the accuracy and efficiency of DOA estimation are improved in both passive and active sensing cases.

  5. Optimization of the purification methods for recovery of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xuecheng; Mu, Xiaosheng; Liu, Bin

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to optimize the purification of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus. Recombinant flounder growth hormone (r-fGH) was expressed by Escherichia coli in form of inclusion body or as soluble protein under different inducing conditions. The inclusion body was renatured using two recovery methods, i.e., dilution and dialysis. Thereafter, the refolded protein was purified by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography and r-fGH was obtained by cleavage of thrombin. For soluble products, r-fGH was directly purified from the lysates by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography. ELISA-receptor assay demonstrated that despite its low receptor binding activity, the r-fGH purified from refolded inclusion body had a higher yield (2.605 mg L-1) than that from soluble protein (1.964 mg L-1). Of the tested recovery methods, addition of renaturing buffer (pH 8.5) into denatured inclusion body yielded the best recovery rate (17.9%). This work provided an optimized purification method for high recovery of r-fGH, thus contributing to the application of r-fGH to aquaculture.

  6. A biomaterials approach to peripheral nerve regeneration: bridging the peripheral nerve gap and enhancing functional recovery

    PubMed Central

    Daly, W.; Yao, L.; Zeugolis, D.; Windebank, A.; Pandit, A.

    2012-01-01

    Microsurgical techniques for the treatment of large peripheral nerve injuries (such as the gold standard autograft) and its main clinically approved alternative—hollow nerve guidance conduits (NGCs)—have a number of limitations that need to be addressed. NGCs, in particular, are limited to treating a relatively short nerve gap (4 cm in length) and are often associated with poor functional recovery. Recent advances in biomaterials and tissue engineering approaches are seeking to overcome the limitations associated with these treatment methods. This review critically discusses the advances in biomaterial-based NGCs, their limitations and where future improvements may be required. Recent developments include the incorporation of topographical guidance features and/or intraluminal structures, which attempt to guide Schwann cell (SC) migration and axonal regrowth towards their distal targets. The use of such strategies requires consideration of the size and distribution of these topographical features, as well as a suitable surface for cell–material interactions. Likewise, cellular and molecular-based therapies are being considered for the creation of a more conductive nerve microenvironment. For example, hurdles associated with the short half-lives and low stability of molecular therapies are being surmounted through the use of controlled delivery systems. Similarly, cells (SCs, stem cells and genetically modified cells) are being delivered with biomaterial matrices in attempts to control their dispersion and to facilitate their incorporation within the host regeneration process. Despite recent advances in peripheral nerve repair, there are a number of key factors that need to be considered in order for these new technologies to reach the clinic. PMID:22090283

  7. A soil toxicity test using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and an effective method of recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven G. Donkin; David B. Dusenbery

    1993-01-01

    A new method for recovering nematodes from soils in an efficient, reproducible, and non-destructive manner has been developed. It was used to conduct short-term soil toxicity tests using the soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and several different soil types spiked with copper chloride. The recovery method, which involves centrifugation through a colloidal silica suspension, allows the nematodes to be extracted from

  8. On statistical methods of structure function extraction

    E-print Network

    S. N. Sevbitov; T. V. Shishkina; I. L. Solovtsov

    2007-11-29

    Several methods of statistical analysis are proposed and analyzed in application for a specific task -- extraction of the structure functions from the cross sections of deep inelastic interactions of any type. We formulate the method based on the orthogonal weight functions and on an optimization procedure of errors minimization as well as methods underlying common $\\chi^2$ minimization. Effectiveness of these methods usage is analyzed by comparison of the statistical parameters such as bias, extraction variance etc., for sample deep inelastic scattering data set.

  9. Spaceflight-induced cardiovascular changes and recovery during NASA's Functional Task Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, Michael B.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Platts, Steven H.

    2013-11-01

    Microgravity-induced physiologic changes could impair a crewmember's performance upon return to a gravity environment. The Functional Task Test aims to correlate these physiologic alterations with changes in performance during mission-critical tasks. In this study, we evaluated spaceflight-induced cardiovascular changes during 11 functional tasks in 7 Shuttle astronauts before spaceflight, on landing day, and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. Mean heart rate was examined during each task and autonomic activity was approximated by heart rate variability during the Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, a 2-min prone rest followed by a 3-min stand. Heart rate was increased on landing day during all of the tasks, and remained elevated 6 days after landing during 6 of the 11 tasks. Parasympathetic modulation was diminished and sympathovagal balance was increased on landing day. Additionally, during the stand test 6 days after landing, parasympathetic modulation remained suppressed and heart rate remained elevated compared to preflight levels. Heart rate and autonomic activity were not different from preflight levels 30 days after landing. We detected changes in heart rate and autonomic activity during a 3-min stand and a variety of functional tasks, where cardiovascular deconditioning was still evident 6 days after returning from short-duration spaceflight. The delayed recovery times for heart rate and parasympathetic modulation indicate the necessity of assessing functional performance after long-duration spaceflight to ensure crew health and safety.

  10. Functional, cellular and molecular aspects of skeletal muscle recovery after injury induced by snake venom from Notechis scutatus scutatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Vignaud; C. Hourdé; S. Torres; J. P. Caruelle; I. Martelly; A. Keller; A. Ferry

    2005-01-01

    We have analysed the rate and ultimate extent of muscle functional recovery after snake venom-induced myotoxicity, as well as the relationships between functional, biochemical and structural indices of recovery. We also compared the effects of various injuries leading to muscle necrosis, loss of innervation\\/vasculature and\\/or precursors of muscle cells (pmc). We found that several parameters of rat soleus muscle such

  11. Convergence Properties of KKR Green Function Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Y. Moghadam; G. M. Stocks; X.-G. Zhang; D. M. C. Nicholson; W. A. Shelton; Yang Wang; J. S. Faulkner

    1998-01-01

    Most multiple scattering theory (MST) electronic structure methods (e.g. KKR, KKR-CPA, impurity Greens function, O[N] LSMS method(Yang Wang et al. Phys. Rev. Letters 75), 2867,(1995)) make use of a expression for the single particle Green function that is based on a single center expansion(J. S. Faulkner and G. M. Stocks, Phys. Rev. B 21),3222, (1980). Because the electronic structure is

  12. Time course of diaphragm function recovery after controlled mechanical ventilation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Debby; Maes, Karen; Agten, Anouk; Heunks, Leo; Dekhuijzen, Richard; Decramer, Marc; Van Hees, Hieronymus

    2013-01-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is known to result in rapid and severe diaphragmatic dysfunction, but the recovery response of the diaphragm to normal function after CMV is unknown. Therefore, we examined the time course of diaphragm function recovery in an animal model of CMV. Healthy rats were submitted to CMV for 24–27 h (n = 16), or to 24-h CMV followed by either 1 h (CMV + 1 h SB, n = 9), 2 h (CMV + 2 h SB, n = 9), 3 h (CMV + 3 h SB, n = 9), or 4–7 h (CMV + 4–7 h SB, n = 9) of spontaneous breathing (SB). At the end of the experiment, the diaphragm muscle was excised for functional and biochemical analysis. The in vitro diaphragm force was significantly improved in the CMV + 3 h SB and CMV + 4–7 h SB groups compared with CMV (maximal tetanic force: +27%, P < 0.05, and +59%, P < 0.001, respectively). This was associated with an increase in the type IIx/b fiber dimensions (P < 0.05). Neutrophil influx was increased in the CMV + 4–7 h SB group (P < 0.05), while macrophage numbers remained unchanged. Markers of protein synthesis (phosphorylated Akt and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1) were significantly increased (±40%, P < 0.001, and ±52%, P < 0.01, respectively) in the CMV + 3 h SB and CMV + 4–7 h SB groups and were positively correlated with diaphragm force (P < 0.05). Finally, also the maximal specific force generation of skinned single diaphragm fibers was increased in the CMV + 4–7 h SB group compared with CMV (+45%, P < 0.05). In rats, reloading the diaphragm for 3 h after CMV is sufficient to improve diaphragm function, while complete recovery occurs after longer periods of reloading. Enhanced muscle fiber dimensions, increased protein synthesis, and improved intrinsic contractile properties of diaphragm muscle fibers may have contributed to diaphragm function recovery. PMID:23845980

  13. Time course of diaphragm function recovery after controlled mechanical ventilation in rats.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Debby; Maes, Karen; Agten, Anouk; Heunks, Leo; Dekhuijzen, Richard; Decramer, Marc; Van Hees, Hieronymus; Gayan-Ramirez, Ghislaine

    2013-09-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is known to result in rapid and severe diaphragmatic dysfunction, but the recovery response of the diaphragm to normal function after CMV is unknown. Therefore, we examined the time course of diaphragm function recovery in an animal model of CMV. Healthy rats were submitted to CMV for 24-27 h (n = 16), or to 24-h CMV followed by either 1 h (CMV + 1 h SB, n = 9), 2 h (CMV + 2 h SB, n = 9), 3 h (CMV + 3 h SB, n = 9), or 4-7 h (CMV + 4-7 h SB, n = 9) of spontaneous breathing (SB). At the end of the experiment, the diaphragm muscle was excised for functional and biochemical analysis. The in vitro diaphragm force was significantly improved in the CMV + 3 h SB and CMV + 4-7 h SB groups compared with CMV (maximal tetanic force: +27%, P < 0.05, and +59%, P < 0.001, respectively). This was associated with an increase in the type IIx/b fiber dimensions (P < 0.05). Neutrophil influx was increased in the CMV + 4-7 h SB group (P < 0.05), while macrophage numbers remained unchanged. Markers of protein synthesis (phosphorylated Akt and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1) were significantly increased (±40%, P < 0.001, and ±52%, P < 0.01, respectively) in the CMV + 3 h SB and CMV + 4-7 h SB groups and were positively correlated with diaphragm force (P < 0.05). Finally, also the maximal specific force generation of skinned single diaphragm fibers was increased in the CMV + 4-7 h SB group compared with CMV (+45%, P < 0.05). In rats, reloading the diaphragm for 3 h after CMV is sufficient to improve diaphragm function, while complete recovery occurs after longer periods of reloading. Enhanced muscle fiber dimensions, increased protein synthesis, and improved intrinsic contractile properties of diaphragm muscle fibers may have contributed to diaphragm function recovery. PMID:23845980

  14. Recovery of functional DNA inserts by electroendosmotic elution during gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, H V; Kitzis, A; Berthollet, T; Hamard, G; Beldjord, C; Benarous, R

    1988-01-01

    In contrast to all previous preparative electrophoresis apparatus which used a pump, electroendosmotic elution uses bound electrical charges at the end of the separating gel to generate a buffer flow. The electroendosmotic flow increased with increasing currents and decreasing buffer concentrations: its exact characteristics for the built apparatus were determined. The electroendosmotic device was able to separate two DNA fragments differing in size by only 5% with a recovery over 95%. As demonstrated in practical examples of recovery and uses of DNA inserts, up to 10 micrograms of DNA per band can be loaded at a time. The recovered DNA can be used directly for nick-translation, ligation... without further treatment. The performances of the method are expected to improve still further if the charge density and pores of the electroendosmotic medium can be "made-to-order" to provide a better flow profile of the eluting buffer. Images PMID:2833722

  15. Effectiveness of Commercial Gaming-Based Virtual Reality Movement Therapy on Functional Recovery of Upper Extremity in Subacute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jun Hwan; Kim, Bo Ryun; Kim, Sun Mi; Im, Sang Hee; Lee, So Young; Hyun, Chul Woong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness of commercial gaming-based virtual reality (VR) therapy on the recovery of paretic upper extremity in subacute stroke patients. Methods Twenty patients with the first-onset subacute stroke were enrolled and randomly assigned to the case group (n=10) and the control group (n=10). Primary outcome was measured by the upper limb score through the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-UL) for the motor function of both upper extremities. Secondary outcomes were assessed for motor function of both upper extremities including manual function test (MFT), box and block test (BBT), grip strength, evaluated for activities of daily living (Korean version of Modified Barthel Index [K-MBI]), and cognitive functions (Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination [K-MMSE] and continuous performance test [CPT]). The case group received commercial gaming-based VR therapy using Wii (Nintendo, Tokyo, Japan), and the control group received conventional occupational therapy (OT) for 30 minutes a day during the period of 4 weeks. All patients were evaluated before and after the 4-week intervention. Results There were no significant differences in the baseline between the two groups. After 4 weeks, both groups showed significant improvement in the FMA-UL, MFT, BBT, K-MBI, K-MMSE, and correct detection of auditory CPT. However, grip strength was improved significantly only in the case group. There were no significant intergroup differences before and after the treatment. Conclusion These findings suggested that the commercial gaming-based VR therapy was as effective as conventional OT on the recovery of upper extremity motor and daily living function in subacute stroke patients. PMID:25229027

  16. Sampling, preservation, and analytical methods research plan - liquid redox sulfur recovery technologies: Stretford process. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Trofe, T.W.

    1986-11-01

    GRI has developed a sampling, preservation, and analytical (SPandA) methods research plan for developing and validating analytical methodologies for liquid redox sulfur recovery processes (e.g., Stretford process). The document describes the technical approach which will be used to direct research activities to develop SPandA methodologies to analyze gaseous, aqueous, and solid process streams from the Stretford sulfur recovery process. The primary emphasis is on developing and validating methodologies for analyzing vanadium (IV) and vanadium (V), anthraquinone disulphonic acids (ADA), polysulfide-sulfur, sulfide-sulfur, thiosulfate, sulfate, thiocyanate, total soluble sulfur, alkalinity, pH, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, and dissolved oxygen in aqueous process streams. The document includes descriptions of the process streams and chemical species, selection of candidate analytical methods, and technical approach for methods development and validation.

  17. Anatomical and functional recovery of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) ear following noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael E; Coffin, Allison B; Miller, Diane L; Popper, Arthur N

    2006-11-01

    Fishes can regenerate lateral line and inner ear sensory hair cells that have been lost following exposure to ototoxic antibiotics. However, regenerative capabilities following noise exposure have not been explored in fish. Moreover, nothing is known about the functional relationship between hair cell damage and hearing loss, or the time course of morphological versus functional recovery in fishes. This study examines the relationship between hair cell damage and physiological changes in auditory responses following noise exposure in the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Goldfish were exposed to white noise (170 dB re. 1 muPa RMS) for 48 h and monitored for 8 days after exposure. Auditory thresholds were determined using the auditory evoked potential technique, and morphological hair cell damage was analyzed using phalloidin and DAPI labeling to visualize hair cell bundles and nuclei. A TUNEL assay was used to identify apoptotic cells. Following noise exposure, goldfish exhibited a significant temporary threshold shift (TTS; ranging from 13 to 20 dB) at all frequencies tested (from 0.2-2 kHz). By 7 days post-exposure, goldfish hearing recovered significantly (mean TTS<4 dB). Increased apoptotic activity was observed in the saccules and lagenae between 0 and 2 days post-exposure. Immediately after noise exposure, the central and caudal regions of saccules exhibited significant loss of hair bundles. Hair bundle density in the central saccule recovered by the end of the experiment (8 days post-exposure) while bundle density in the caudal saccule did not return to control levels in this time frame. These data demonstrate that goldfish inner ear epithelia show damage following noise exposure and that they are capable of significant regenerative responses similar to those seen following ototoxic drug treatment. Interestingly, functional recovery preceded morphological recovery in the goldfish saccule, suggesting that only a subset of hair cells are necessary for normal auditory responses, at least to the extent that hearing was measured in this study. PMID:17050834

  18. Postoperative complications do not influence the pattern of early lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer in patients at risk

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pattern and factors influencing the lung function recovery in the first postoperative days are still not fully elucidated, especially in patients at increased risk. Methods Prospective study on 60 patients at increased risk, who underwent a lung resection for primary lung cancer. Inclusion criteria: complete resection and one or more known risk factors in form of COPD, cardiovascular disorders, advanced age or other comorbidities. Previous myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularization or stenting, cardiac rhythm disorders, arterial hypertension and myocardiopathy determined the increased cardiac risk. The severity of COPD was graded according to GOLD criteria. The trend of the postoperative lung function recovery was assessed by performing spirometry with a portable spirometer. Results Cardiac comorbidity existed in 55%, mild and moderate COPD in 20% and 35% of patients respectively. Measured values of FVC% and FEV1% on postoperative days one, three and seven, showed continuous improvement, with significant difference between the days of measurement, especially between days three and seven. There was no difference in the trend of the lung function recovery between patients with and without postoperative complications. Whilst pO2 was decreasing during the first three days in a roughly parallel fashion in patients with respiratory, surgical complications and in patients without complications, a slight hypercapnia registered on the first postoperative day was gradually abolished in all groups except in patients with cardiac complications. Conclusion Extent of the lung resection and postoperative complications do not significantly influence the trend of the lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer. PMID:24884793

  19. Recovery of laryngeal function after intraoperative injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Hydman, Jonas; Svensson, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Loss of function in the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) during thyroid/parathyroid surgery, despite a macroscopically intact nerve, is a challenge which highlights the sensitivity and complexity of laryngeal innervation. Furthermore, the uncertain prognosis stresses a lack of capability to diagnose the reason behind the impaired function. There is a great deal of literature considering risk factors, surgical technique and mechanisms outside the nerve affecting the incidence of RLN paresis during surgery. To be able to prognosticate recovery in cases of laryngeal dysfunction and voice changes after thyroid surgery, the surgeon would first need to define the presence, location, and type of laryngeal nerve injury. There is little data describing the events within the nerve and the neurobiological reasons for the impaired function related to potential recovery and prognosis. In addition, very little data has been presented in order to clarify any differences between the transient and permanent injury of the RLN. This review aims, from an anatomical and neurobiological perspective, to provide an update on the current understandings of surgically-induced injury to the laryngeal nerves. PMID:25713777

  20. Carboxy alkyl esters of Uncaria tomentosa augment recovery of sensorineural functions following noise injury.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, O'neil W; Gearhart, Caroline A; Fulton, Sherry; Fechter, Laurence D

    2011-08-17

    This study tested the hypothesis that hydrophilic chemotypes of the medicinal vine Uncaria tomentosa (UT) would facilitate recovery of sensorineural functions following exposure to a damaging level of noise. The particular chemotypes investigated were carboxy alkyl esters (CAE) which are known to exhibit multifunctional cytoprotective properties that include: enhanced cellular DNA repair, antioxidation and anti-inflammation. Long-Evans rats were divided into four treatment groups: vehicle-control, noise-only, CAE-only and CAE+noise. The noise exposure was an 8kHz octave band of noise at 105dB SPL for 4h. Outer hair cell (OHC) function was measured with the cubic 2f(1)-f(2) distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) at the start of the study (baseline) and at time-points that corresponded to 1day, 1week and 4weeks post-noise exposure to determine within-group effects. Compound action potentials to puretone stimuli were recorded from the VIIIth craniofacial nerve at 4weeks post-noise exposure to determine between-group effects. Additionally, cytocochleograms were constructed for each row of OHCs from each group. Noise exposure produced significant sensorineural impairments. However, CAE treatment facilitated almost complete recovery of OHC function and limited the magnitude of cell loss. The loss of neural sensitivity to puretone stimuli was inhibited with CAE treatment. Therefore, it appears that the multifunctional cytoprotective capacity of CAE from UT may generalize to otoprotection from acoustic over-exposure. PMID:21762882

  1. Recovery of laryngeal function after intraoperative injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Per; Hydman, Jonas; Svensson, Mikael

    2015-02-01

    Loss of function in the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) during thyroid/parathyroid surgery, despite a macroscopically intact nerve, is a challenge which highlights the sensitivity and complexity of laryngeal innervation. Furthermore, the uncertain prognosis stresses a lack of capability to diagnose the reason behind the impaired function. There is a great deal of literature considering risk factors, surgical technique and mechanisms outside the nerve affecting the incidence of RLN paresis during surgery. To be able to prognosticate recovery in cases of laryngeal dysfunction and voice changes after thyroid surgery, the surgeon would first need to define the presence, location, and type of laryngeal nerve injury. There is little data describing the events within the nerve and the neurobiological reasons for the impaired function related to potential recovery and prognosis. In addition, very little data has been presented in order to clarify any differences between the transient and permanent injury of the RLN. This review aims, from an anatomical and neurobiological perspective, to provide an update on the current understandings of surgically-induced injury to the laryngeal nerves. PMID:25713777

  2. Ketoprofen combined with artery graft entubulization improves functional recovery of transected peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Rahim; Mehrtash, Moein; Nikonam, Nima; Mehrtash, Moied; Amini, Keyvan

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to assess the local effect of ketoprofen on sciatic nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Eighty healthy male white Wistar rats were randomized into four experimental groups of 20 animals each: In the transected group (TC), the left sciatic nerve was transected and nerve cut ends were fixed in the adjacent muscle. In the treatment group the defect was bridged using an artery graft (AG/Keto) filled with 10 microliter ketoprofen (0.1 mg/kg). In the artery graft group (AG), the graft was filled with phosphated-buffer saline alone. In the sham-operated group (SHAM), the sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups of five animals each and regenerated nerve fibres were studied at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks post operation. Behavioural testing, sciatic nerve functional study, gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indices showed earlier regeneration of axons in AG/Keto than in AG group (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemical study clearly showed more positive location of reactions to S-100 in AG/Keto than in AG group. When loaded in an artery graft, ketoprofen improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of the sciatic nerve. Local usage of this easily accessible therapeutic medicine is cost saving and avoids the problems associated with systemic administration. PMID:23932540

  3. Norepinephrine and brain damage: alpha noradrenergic pharmacology alters functional recovery after cortical trauma.

    PubMed

    Feeney, D M; Westerberg, V S

    1990-06-01

    The goal of these experiments was to evaluate the effects of some drugs affecting noradrenergic (NE) synaptic transmission, commonly prescribed following stroke or traumatic brain injury, on functional recovery. Measurement of recovery from a transient hemiplegia produced by a traumatic unilateral focal contusion in sensorimotor cortex (SMCX) of rats was used to assess the effects of chronic haloperidol (HAL) treatment begun early (1 day) or late (18 days to recovered animals) after injury. Additionally, using the same model, the effects of a single administration of drugs with selective action at NE receptors were also evaluated early or late (30 days) after injury. These drugs were: phenoxybenzamine (PBZ), an alpha 1-NE antagonist; prazosin (PRAZ), an alpha 1-NE antagonist; yohimbine (YOH), an alpha 2-NE antagonist; propranolol (PROP), a beta 1- and 2-NE receptor antagonist; methoxymine (METHOX), an alpha 1-NE agonist; and clonidine (CLON), an alpha 2-NE agonist. The data indicate that drugs with antagonistic effects at alpha 1 NE receptors, including HAL and PRAZ but not PROP, administered early after SMCX contusion retard locomotor recovery. Beneficial effects of enhancing NE transmission by METHOX or YOH were not observed. In animals recovered from beam walk (BW) deficits, a single administration of PBZ or PRAZ (alpha 1 NE antagonists) or CLON (alpha 2 NE agonist) transiently reinstated hemiplegic symptoms. The nonspecific beta NE receptor antagonist PROP had no effect in recovered animals. A single dose of HAL had no effect in recovered animals, but a BW deficit transiently developed in some animals following chronic treatment. The data are discussed with reference to drug contraindications noted in clinical studies of recovery from poststroke aphasia and cognition in demented patients with degenerative brain disease. PMID:2166617

  4. Functional recovery of fluid drainage precedes lymphangiogenesis in acute murine foreleg lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Uziel; Brown, Emily M.; Ongstad, Emily L.; Slis, Justin R.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary lymphedema in humans is a common consequence of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) to treat breast cancer. It is commonly hypothesized that lymphatic growth is required to increase fluid drainage and ameliorate lymphedema. Although there is a pronounced alteration in the balance of interstitial forces regulating fluid transport that sustains the chronic form of lymphedema, it is presently unknown whether changes occur to the balance of interstitial forces during acute lymphedema that may play a role in the recovery of fluid drainage. Here, we compared the relative importance of lymphangiogenesis of lymphatic vessels and interstitial flows for restoring fluid drainage and resolving acute lymphedema in the mouse foreleg after ALND. We found that removal of the axillary lymph nodes reduced lymph drainage in the foreleg at days 0 and 5 postsurgery, with fluid tracer spreading interstitially through subcutaneous tissues. Interstitial fluid drainage returned to normal by day 10, whereas functional regrowth of lymphatic vessels was first detected by indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography at day 15, demonstrating that the recovery of interstitial fluid drainage preceded the regrowth of lymphatic vessels. This was confirmed by the administration of VEGF receptor-3-neutralizing antibodies, which completely blocks lymphatic regrowth. It was found that the recovery of interstitial fluid drainage and the natural resolution of acute lymphedema produced by ALND were not hindered by VEGF receptor-3 neutralization, demonstrating that interstitial fluid drainage recovery and the resolution of acute lymphedema are lymphangiogenesis independent. The data highlight the central role of the interstitial environment in adapting to lymphatic injury to increase fluid drainage. PMID:22427513

  5. Combination of diffusion tensor and functional magnetic resonance imaging during recovery from the vegetative state.

    E-print Network

    Fernandez-Espejo, Davinia; Junque, Carme; Cruse, Damian; Bernabeu, Montserrat; Roig-Rovira, Teresa; Fabregas, Neus; Rivas, Eva; Mercader, Jose M

    2010-09-03

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Combination of diffusion tensor and functional magnetic resonance imaging during recovery from the vegetative state Davinia Fernández-Espejo1,2, Carme Junque1,2*, Damian Cruse3, Montserrat Bernabeu4, Teresa Roig-Rovira5... -value p-FDR x y z 1 month of evolution (vegetative state) Precuneus 31,7 235 L -6 -51 39 Inf. < .001 TPJ 39,40 21 L -42 -63 24 4.13 < .001 TPJ 40 10 L -45 -60 45 3.25 0.001 13 months of evolution (conscious) PCC/Precuneus 31 338 L -3 -51 36 5.66 < .001 TPJ...

  6. Solution Hybrid Selection Capture for the Recovery of Functional Full-Length Eukaryotic cDNAs From Complex Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Bragalini, Claudia; Ribière, Céline; Parisot, Nicolas; Vallon, Laurent; Prudent, Elsa; Peyretaillade, Eric; Girlanda, Mariangela; Peyret, Pierre; Marmeisse, Roland; Luis, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic microbial communities play key functional roles in soil biology and potentially represent a rich source of natural products including biocatalysts. Culture-independent molecular methods are powerful tools to isolate functional genes from uncultured microorganisms. However, none of the methods used in environmental genomics allow for a rapid isolation of numerous functional genes from eukaryotic microbial communities. We developed an original adaptation of the solution hybrid selection (SHS) for an efficient recovery of functional complementary DNAs (cDNAs) synthesized from soil-extracted polyadenylated mRNAs. This protocol was tested on the Glycoside Hydrolase 11 gene family encoding endo-xylanases for which we designed 35 explorative 31-mers capture probes. SHS was implemented on four soil eukaryotic cDNA pools. After two successive rounds of capture, >90% of the resulting cDNAs were GH11 sequences, of which 70% (38 among 53 sequenced genes) were full length. Between 1.5 and 25% of the cloned captured sequences were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified GH11 gene fragments from the captured sequences highlighted hundreds of phylogenetically diverse sequences that were not yet described, in public databases. This protocol offers the possibility of performing exhaustive exploration of eukaryotic gene families within microbial communities thriving in any type of environment. PMID:25281543

  7. How does the milk removal method affect teat tissue and teat recovery in dairy ewes?

    PubMed

    Alejandro, Manuel; Roca, Amparo; Romero, Gema; Díaz, Jose Ramon

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study how machine milking (MM) carried out in suitable conditions affects teat wall thickness and teat canal length and their return after milking to pre-milking conditions, in comparison with other milk extraction methods considered biological referents: lamb suckling (LS), milk removal by catheter (RC) and hand milking (HM). Three Latin square experiments were designed, using 11 ewes in the first experiment (LS), 13 in the second (RC) and 12 in the third (HM). Each of the Latin squares was divided into two periods: in the first, the left gland of each animal was machine milked and the corresponding treatment (LS, RC and HM) was applied to the right gland. Subsequently, in the second period the extraction methods were interchanged. During the experimental period, 4 sampling days were carried out (2 in each experimental period), where ultrasound scans were taken before (B) and immediately after milking (A) and at 1 (1 h), 2 (2 h), 3 (3 h), 4 (4 h), 6 (6 h), 8 (8 h) and 10 (10 h) hours after milking finished. Teat wall thickness (TWT), teat wall area (TWA), teat end area (TEWA) and teat canal length (TCL) were measured in all the ultrasound images. MM increased TWT after milking compared with RC. TWT, TWA, TEWA and TCL were lower (P<0.05) in HM than in MM. No significant differences (P>0.05) were found between LS and MM for any variable. The extraction method affected the recovery time of the variables, with total teat recovery at 6 h after RC and 4 h after HM. In the case of LS, the TEWA and TCL values were recovered sooner, as of 3 h. Teat recovery time after MM was similar to the extraction method with which it was compared in each experiment. Thus, considering the similar increase in wall thickness and their recovery time compared with the reference methods, it was concluded that machine milking, carried out in optimum conditions and respecting the time interval between milkings usually applied on sheep farms (8-12 h), would not affect teat integrity. Moreover, given the variability observed in teat thickness recovery time between the different experiments, further research should be carried out to study which factors intrinsic and extrinsic to the animal may affect the teat wall thickness and recovery time after machine milking. PMID:24914749

  8. Effectiveness of poliovirus concentration and recovery from treated wastewater by two electropositive filter methods.

    PubMed

    Soto-Beltran, Marcela; Ikner, Luisa A; Bright, Kelly R

    2013-06-01

    Enteric viruses are often present in low numbers in various water matrices. Virus sampling therefore involves multiple concentration steps to condense large samples down to small volumes for detection by cell culture or molecular assays. The NanoCeram® Virus Sampler has been demonstrated to be effective for the recovery of viruses from tap water, surface waters, and seawater. The goal of this study was to evaluate a new method using NanoCeram® filters for the recovery of poliovirus 1 (PV-1) from treated wastewater. Activated sludge effluent samples were spiked with PV-1 and concentrated in side-by-side tests by two methods: (1) NanoCeram® filtration, elution with sodium polyphosphate buffer, secondary concentration via centrifugal ultrafiltration; and (2) 1MDS filtration, elution with beef extract, secondary concentration via organic flocculation. The virus retention and elution efficiencies did not differ significantly between the two methods. In contrast, the secondary concentrate volume was smaller for the NanoCeram® method (8.4 vs. 30 mL) and the secondary concentration efficiencies were different between the two methods with 98 % for centrifugal ultrafiltration (NanoCeram® and 45 % for organic flocculation (1MDS). The overall method efficiencies were significantly different (P ? 0.05) with the NanoCeram® method yielding a 57 % and the 1MDS a 23 % virus recovery. In addition, there appeared to be less interference with viral detection via polymerase chain reaction with the NanoCeram® concentrates. This NanoCeram® method therefore is able to efficiently recover PV-1 from large volumes of wastewater and may serve as an inexpensive alternative to the standard 1MDS filter method for such applications. PMID:23412726

  9. Carrier recovery methods for a dual-mode modem: A design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, C. W.; Wilson, S. G.

    1984-01-01

    A dual mode model with selectable QPSK or 16-QASK modulation schemes is discussed. The theoretical reasoning as well as the practical trade-offs made during the development of a modem are presented, with attention given to the carrier recovery method used for coherent demodulation. Particular attention is given to carrier recovery methods that can provide little degradation due to phase error for both QPSK and 16-QASK, while being insensitive to the amplitude characteristic of a 16-QASK modulation scheme. A computer analysis of the degradation is symbol error rate (SER) for QPSK and 16-QASK due to phase error is prresented. Results find that an energy increase of roughly 4 dB is needed to maintain a SER of 1X10(-5) for QPSK with 20 deg of phase error and 16-QASK with 7 deg phase error.

  10. Functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury and implantation of a collagen guide.

    PubMed

    Alluin, Olivier; Wittmann, Catherine; Marqueste, Tanguy; Chabas, Jean-François; Garcia, Stéphane; Lavaut, Marie-Noëlle; Guinard, Didier; Feron, François; Decherchi, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Although surgery techniques improved over the years, the clinical results of peripheral nerve repair remain unsatisfactory. In the present study, we compare the results of a collagen nerve guide conduit to the standard clinical procedure of nerve autografting to promote repair of transected peripheral nerves. We assessed behavioral and functional sensori-motor recovery in a rat model of peroneal nerve transection. A 1cm segment of the peroneal nerve innervating the Tibialis anterior muscle was removed and immediately replaced by a new biodegradable nerve guide fabricated from highly purified type I+III collagens derived from porcine skin. Four groups of animals were included: control animals (C, n=12), transected animals grafted with either an autologous nerve graft (Gold Standard; GS, n=12) or a collagen tube filled with an acellular skeletal muscle matrix (Tube-Muscle; TM, n=12) or an empty collagen tube (Collagen-Tube; CT, n=12). We observed that 1) the locomotor recovery pattern, analyzed with kinetic parameters and peroneal functional index, was superior in the GS and CT groups; 2) a muscle contraction was obtained in all groups after stimulation of the proximal nerve but the mechanical muscle properties (twitch and tetanus threshold) parameters indicated a fast to slow fiber transition in all operated groups; 3) the muscular atrophy was greater in animals from TM group; 4) the metabosensitive afferent responses to electrically induced fatigue and to two chemical agents (KCl and lactic acid) was altered in GS, CT and TM groups; 5) the empty collagen tube supported motor axonal regeneration. Altogether, these data indicate that motor axonal regeneration and locomotor recovery can be obtained with the insertion of the collagen tube RevolNerv. Future studies may include engineered conduits that mimic as closely as possible the internal organization of uninjured nerve. PMID:18929405

  11. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.

    2003-02-07

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity is needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

  12. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.; Brame, Scott; Current, Caitlin J.

    2003-02-07

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

  13. Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Willms, R. Scott (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes from water and from hydrocarbons. A palladium membrane, when utilized in cooperation with a nickel catalyst in a reactor, has been found to drive reactions such as water gas shift, steam reforming and methane cracking to substantial completion by removing the product hydrogen from the reacting mixture. In addition, ultrapure hydrogen is produced, thereby eliminating the need for an additional processing step.

  14. Functional and Transcriptomic Recovery of Infarcted Mouse Myocardium Treated with Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lachtermacher, Stephan; Esporcatte, Bruno L. B.; da Silva de Azevedo Fortes, Fábio; Rocha, Nazareth Novaes; Montalvão, Fabrício; Costa, Patricia C.; Belem, Luciano; Rabischoffisky, Arnaldo; Neto, Hugo C. C. Faria; Vasconcellos, Rita; Iacobas, Dumitru A.; Iacobas, Sanda; Spray, David C.; Thomas, Neil M.; Goldenberg, Regina C. S.; de Carvalho, Antonio C. Campos

    2011-01-01

    Although bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMNC) have been extensively used in cell therapy for cardiac diseases, little mechanistic information is available to support reports of their efficacy. To address this shortcoming, we compared structural and functional recovery and associated global gene expression profiles in post-ischaemic myocardium treated with BMNC transplantation. BMNC suspensions were injected into cardiac scar tissue 10 days after experimental myocardial infarction. Six weeks later, mice undergoing BMNC therapy were found to have normalized antibody repertoire and improved cardiac performance measured by ECG, treadmill exercise time and echocardiography. After functional testing, gene expression profiles in cardiac tissue were evaluated using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Expression of more than 18% of the 11981 quantified unigenes was significantly altered in the infarcted hearts. BMNC therapy restored expression of 2099 (96.2%) of the genes that were altered by infarction but led to altered expression of 286 other genes, considered to be a side effect of the treatment. Transcriptional therapeutic efficacy, a metric calculated using a formula that incorporates both recovery and side effect of treatment, was 73%. In conclusion, our results confirm a beneficial role for bone marrow-derived cell therapy and provide new information on molecular mechanisms operating after BMNC transplantation on post ischemic heart failure in mice. PMID:21671060

  15. Effect of exosomes derived from multipluripotent mesenchymal stromal cells on functional recovery and neurovascular plasticity in rats after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanlu; Chopp, Michael; Meng, Yuling; Katakowski, Mark; Xin, Hongqi; Mahmood, Asim; Xiong, Ye

    2015-04-01

    OBJECT Transplanted multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) improve functional recovery in rats after traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study the authors tested a novel hypothesis that systemic administration of cell-free exosomes generated from MSCs promotes functional recovery and neurovascular remodeling in rats after TBI. METHODS Two groups of 8 Wistar rats were subjected to TBI, followed 24 hours later by tail vein injection of 100 ?g protein of exosomes derived from MSCs or an equal volume of vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline). A third group of 8 rats was used as sham-injured, sham-treated controls. To evaluate cognitive and sensorimotor functional recovery, the modified Morris water maze, modified Neurological Severity Score, and foot-fault tests were performed. Animals were killed at 35 days after TBI. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed for measurements of lesion volume, neurovascular remodeling (angiogenesis and neurogenesis), and neuroinflammation. RESULTS Compared with the saline-treated group, exosome-treated rats with TBI showed significant improvement in spatial learning at 34-35 days as measured by the modified Morris water maze test (p < 0.05), and sensorimotor functional recovery (i.e., reduced neurological deficits and foot-fault frequency) was observed at 14-35 days postinjury (p < 0.05). Exosome treatment significantly increased the number of newly generated endothelial cells in the lesion boundary zone and dentate gyrus and significantly increased the number of newly formed immature and mature neurons in the dentate gyrus as well as reducing neuroinflammation. CONCLUSIONS The authors demonstrate for the first time that MSC-generated exosomes effectively improve functional recovery, at least in part, by promoting endogenous angiogenesis and neurogenesis and by reducing inflammation in rats after TBI. Thus, MSC-generated exosomes may provide a novel cell-free therapy for TBI and possibly for other neurological diseases. PMID:25594326

  16. Predictors of Recovery of Functional Swallow After Gastrostomy Tube Placement for Dysphagia in Stroke Patients After Inpatient Rehabilitation: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Crisan, Diana; Boehme, Amelia; Dubin, Perry; Juengling, Jenifer; Schluter, Laurie A.; Albright, Karen C.; Beasley, T. Mark; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine predictors of early recovery of functional swallow in patients who had gastrostomy (percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy [PEG]) placement for dysphagia and were discharged to inpatient rehabilitation (IPR) after stroke. Methods A retrospective study of prospectively identified patients with acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke from July 2008 to August 2012 was conducted. Patients who had PEG during stroke admission and were discharged to IPR, were studied. We compared demographics, stroke characteristics, severity of dysphagia, stroke admission events and medications in patients who remained PEG-dependent after IPR with those who recovered functional swallow. Results Patients who remained PEG dependent were significantly older (73 vs. 54 years, p=0.009). Recovery of swallow was more frequent for hemorrhagic stroke patients (80% vs. 47%, p=0.079). Age, adjusting for side of stroke (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-0.98; p=0.016) and left-sided strokes, adjusting for age (OR, 15.15; 95% CI, 1.32-173.34; p=0.028) were significant predictors of swallow recovery. Patients who recovered swallowing by discharge from IPR were more likely to be discharged home compared to those who remained PEG-dependent (90% vs. 42%, p=0.009). Conclusion Younger age and left-sided stroke may be predictive factors of early recovery of functional swallow in patients who received PEG. Prospective validation is important as avoidance of unnecessary procedures could reduce morbidity and healthcare costs. PMID:25229025

  17. Recovery after Prolonged Sleep Deprivation: Residual Effects of SlowRelease Caffeine on Recovery Sleep, Sleepiness and Cognitive Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice Beaumont; Denise Batéjat; Olivier Coste; Philippe Doireau; Françoise Chauffard; Marc Enslen; Didier Lagarde; Christophe Pierard

    2005-01-01

    A long work schedule often results in sleep deprivation, sleepiness, impaired performance and fatigue. We investigated the residual effects of slow-release caffeine (SRC) on sleep, sleepiness and cognitive performance during a 42-hour recovery period following a 64-hour continuous wakefulness period in 16 healthy males, according to a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Three hundred milligrams of SRC or placebo was

  18. Correlation of functional recovery with myocardial blood flow, glucose uptake, and morphologic features in patients with chronic left ventricular ischemic dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Depré; Jean-Louis J. Vanoverschelde; Bernhard Gerber; Marcel Borgers; Jacques A. Melin; Robert Dion

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to investigate the influence of preoperative myocardial ultrastructure and metabolism on recovery of contractile function after coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. Methods: Dynamic positron emission tomography with 13N-ammonia and 18F-deoxyglucose was used to assess myocardial perfusion and glucose uptake in 53 patients scheduled for coronary revascularization because

  19. The Asparaginyl Endopeptidase Legumain Is Essential for Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Liping; Shen, Yan-Qin; Khatri, Harsh P.; Schachner, Melitta

    2014-01-01

    Unlike mammals, adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating severed axons and regaining locomotor function after spinal cord injury. A key factor for this regenerative capacity is the innate ability of neurons to re-express growth-associated genes and regrow their axons after injury in a permissive environment. By microarray analysis, we have previously shown that the expression of legumain (also known as asparaginyl endopeptidase) is upregulated after complete transection of the spinal cord. In situ hybridization showed upregulation of legumain expression in neurons of regenerative nuclei during the phase of axon regrowth/sprouting after spinal cord injury. Upregulation of Legumain protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, upregulation of legumain expression was also observed in macrophages/microglia and neurons in the spinal cord caudal to the lesion site after injury. The role of legumain in locomotor function after spinal cord injury was tested by reducing Legumain expression by application of anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotides. Using two independent anti-sense morpholinos, locomotor recovery and axonal regrowth were impaired when compared with a standard control morpholino. We conclude that upregulation of legumain expression after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish is an essential component of the capacity of injured neurons to regrow their axons. Another feature contributing to functional recovery implicates upregulation of legumain expression in the spinal cord caudal to the injury site. In conclusion, we established for the first time a function for an unusual protease, the asparaginyl endopeptidase, in the nervous system. This study is also the first to demonstrate the importance of legumain for repair of an injured adult central nervous system of a spontaneously regenerating vertebrate and is expected to yield insights into its potential in nervous system regeneration in mammals. PMID:24747977

  20. The estimation of recovery time of calf muscle oxygen saturation during exercise by using functional near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, M. A.; Shojaeifar, M.; Mohajerani, E.

    2014-08-01

    Several methods of near infrared spectroscopy such as functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and pulse oximetry have been applied for monitoring of tissue oxygenation or arterial oxygen saturation. Some vascular diseases can be diagnosed through measurements of tissue oxygenation. In this study, the temporal variation of oxygenation of calf muscle after exercise is studied by fNIRS. First, the accuracy of a low-cost fNIRS system is studied by measuring the oxygenation of a lipid phantom. Moreover, in-vivo study is performed to evaluate the precision of this system. Then, the variation of muscle oxygenation of four persons during exercise is measured and also the recovery time after walking/running is measured by this fNIRS system.

  1. Patch-recovery filters for curvature in discontinuous Galerkin-based level-set methods

    E-print Network

    Kummer, Florian

    2015-01-01

    In two-phase flow simulations, a difficult issue is usually the treatment of surface tension effects. These cause a pressure jump that is proportional to the curvature of the interface separating the two fluids. Since the evaluation of the curvature incorporates second derivatives, it is prone to numerical instabilities. Within this work, the interface is described by a level-set method based on a discontinuous Galerkin discretization. In order to stabilize the evaluation of the curvature, a patch-recovery operation is employed. There are numerous ways in which this filtering operation can be applied in the whole process of curvature computation. Therefore, an extensive numerical study is performed to identify optimal settings for the patch-recovery operations with respect to computational cost and accuracy.

  2. Current Developments in Nuclear Density Functional Methods

    E-print Network

    J. Dobaczewski

    2010-09-05

    Density functional theory (DFT) became a universal approach to compute ground-state and excited configurations of many-electron systems held together by an external one-body potential in condensed-matter, atomic, and molecular physics. At present, the DFT strategy is also intensely studied and applied in the area of nuclear structure. The nuclear DFT, a natural extension of the self-consistent mean-field theory, is a tool of choice for computations of ground-state properties and low-lying excitations of medium-mass and heavy nuclei. Over the past thirty-odd years, a lot of experience was accumulated in implementing, adjusting, and using the density-functional methods in nuclei. This research direction is still extremely actively pursued. In particular, current developments concentrate on (i) attempts to improve the performance and precision delivered by the nuclear density-functional methods, (ii) derivations of density functionals from first principles rooted in the low-energy chromodynamics and effective theories, and (iii) including effects of low-energy correlations and symmetry restoration. In this study, we present an overview of recent results and achievements gained in nuclear density-functional methods.

  3. Functional Recovery of Paraplegic Rats and Motor Axon Regeneration in Their Spinal Cords by Olfactory Ensheathing Glia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Almudena Ramón-Cueto; M. Isabel Cordero; Fernando F. Santos-Benito; Jesús Avila

    2000-01-01

    Axonal regeneration in the lesioned mammalian central nervous system is abortive, and this causes permanent disabilities in individuals with spinal cord injuries. In adult rats, olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) transplants successfully led to functional and structural recovery after complete spinal cord transection. From 3 to 7 months post surgery, all OEG-transplanted animals recovered locomotor functions and sensorimotor reflexes. They presented

  4. Recovery of altered neuromuscular junction morphology and muscle function in mdx mice after injury.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Stephen J P; Shah, Sameer B; Ward, Christopher W; Kerr, Jaclyn P; Stains, Joseph P; Lovering, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating neuromuscular disease in which weakness, increased susceptibility to muscle injury, and inadequate repair underlie the pathology. While most attention has focused within the muscle fiber, we recently demonstrated significant alterations in the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) morphology and resulting neuromuscular transmission failure (NTF) 24 h after injury in mdx mice (murine model for DMD). Here we determine the contribution of NMJ morphology and NTF to the recovery of muscle contractile function post-injury. NMJ morphology and NTF rates were assessed day 0 (immediately after injury) and days 1, 7, 14 and 21 after quadriceps injury. Eccentric injury of the quadriceps resulted in a significant loss of maximal torque in both WT (39 ± 6 %) and mdx (76 ± 8 %) with a full recovery in WT by day 7 and in mdx by day 21. Post-injury alterations in NMJ morphology and NTF were found only in mdx, were limited to days 0 and 1, and were independent of changes in MuSK or AChR expression. Such early changes at the NMJ after injury are consistent with mechanical disruption rather than newly forming NMJs. Furthermore, we show that the dense microtubule network that underlies the NMJ is significantly reduced and disorganized in mdx compared to WT. These structural changes at the NMJ may play a role in the increased NMJ disruption and the exaggerated loss of nerve-evoked muscle force seen after injury to dystrophic muscles. PMID:24947322

  5. Local Administration of AAV-BDNF to Subventricular Zone Induces Functional Recovery in Stroke Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Seong-Jin; Tseng, Kuan-Yin; Shen, Hui; Harvey, Brandon K.; Airavaara, Mikko; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Migration of new neuroprogenitor cells (NPCs) from the subventricular zone (SVZ) plays an important role in neurorepair after injury. Previous studies have shown that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) enhances the migration of NPCs from SVZ explants in neonatal mice in vitro. The purpose of this study was to identify the role of BDNF in SVZ cells using AAV-BDNF in an animal model of stroke. BDNF protein production after AAV?BDNF infection was verified in primary neuronal culture. AAV-BDNF or AAV-RFP was injected into the left SVZ region of adult rats at 14 days prior to right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). SVZ tissues were collected from the brain and placed in Metrigel cultures 1 day after MCAo. Treatment with AAV-BDNF significantly increased the migration of SVZ cells in the stroke brain in vitro. In another set of animals, AAV-GFP was co-injected with AAV-BDNF or AAV-RFP to label cells in left SVZ prior to right MCAo. Local administration of AAV-BDNF significantly enhanced recovery of locomotor function and migration of GFP-positive cells from the SVZ toward the lesioned hemisphere in stroke rats. Our data suggest that focal administration of AAV-BDNF to the SVZ increases behavioral recovery post stroke, possibly through the enhancement of migration of cells from SVZ in stroke animals. Regional manipulation of BDNF expression through AAV may be a novel approach for neurorepair in stroke brains. PMID:24312581

  6. The function of ‘functional’: a mixed methods investigation

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, David; Wessely, Simon C

    2012-01-01

    Objective The term ‘functional’ has a distinguished history, embodying a number of physiological concepts, but has increasingly come to mean ‘hysterical’. The DSM-V working group proposes to use ‘functional’ as the official diagnostic term for medically unexplained neurological symptoms (currently known as ‘conversion disorder’). This study aimed to explore the current neurological meanings of the term and to understand its resilience. Design Mixed methods were used, first interviewing the neurologists in a large UK region and then surveying all neurologists in the UK on their use of the term. Results The interviews revealed four dominant uses—‘not organic’, a physical disability, a brain disorder and a psychiatric problem—as well as considerable ambiguity. Although there was much dissatisfaction with the term, the ambiguity was also seen as useful when engaging with patients. The survey confirmed these findings, with a majority adhering to a strict interpretation of ‘functional’ to mean only ‘not organic’, but a minority employing it to mean different things in different contexts - and endorsing the view that ‘functional’ would one day be a neurological construct again. Conclusions ‘Functional’ embodies real divisions in neurologists' conceptualisation of unexplained symptoms and, perhaps, between those of patients and neurologists: its diversity of meanings allows it to be a common term while meaning different things to different people, or at different times, and thus conceal some of the conflict in a particularly contentious area. This flexibility may help explain the term's longevity. PMID:22250186

  7. Application to induction motor faults diagnosis of the amplitude recovery method combined with FFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yukun; Guo, Liwei; Wang, Qixiang; An, Guoqing; Guo, Ming; Lian, Hao

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a signal processing method - amplitude recovery method (abbreviated to ARM) - that can be used as the signal pre-processing for fast Fourier transform (FFT) in order to analyze the spectrum of the other-order harmonics rather than the fundamental frequency in stator currents and diagnose subtle faults in induction motors. In this situation, the ARM functions as a filter that can filter out the component of the fundamental frequency from three phases of stator currents of the induction motor. The filtering result of the ARM can be provided to FFT to do further spectrum analysis. In this way, the amplitudes of other-order frequencies can be extracted and analyzed independently. If the FFT is used without the ARM pre-processing and the components of other-order frequencies, compared to the fundamental frequency, are fainter, the amplitudes of other-order frequencies are not able easily to extract out from stator currents. The reason is when the FFT is used direct to analyze the original signal, all the frequencies in the spectrum analysis of original stator current signal have the same weight. The ARM is capable of separating the other-order part in stator currents from the fundamental-order part. Compared to the existent digital filters, the ARM has the benefits, including its stop-band narrow enough just to stop the fundamental frequency, its simple operations of algebra and trigonometry without any integration, and its deduction direct from mathematics equations without any artificial adjustment. The ARM can be also used by itself as a coarse-grained diagnosis of faults in induction motors when they are working. These features can be applied to monitor and diagnose the subtle faults in induction motors to guard them from some damages when they are in operation. The diagnosis application of ARM combined with FFT is also displayed in this paper with the experimented induction motor. The test results verify the rationality and feasibility of the ARM. It should be clarified that the ARM must be applied in three phases of currents in electrical machines. For a single phase of alternating current or direct current, it can do nothing. However, since three-phase electrical machines have a dominant position in the application field in modern economic society and it is natural and convenient to acquire three phases of stator currents during the three-phase electrical machines are tested, it is necessary and meaningful to develop the ARM to diagnose and guard them.

  8. ISS Contingency Attitude Control Recovery Method for Loss of Automatic Thruster Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Bhatt, Sagar; Alaniz, Abran; McCants, Edward; Nguyen, Louis; Chamitoff, Greg

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the attitude control issues associated with International Space Station (ISS) loss of automatic thruster control capability are discussed and methods for attitude control recovery are presented. This scenario was experienced recently during Shuttle mission STS-117 and ISS Stage 13A in June 2007 when the Russian GN&C computers, which command the ISS thrusters, failed. Without automatic propulsive attitude control, the ISS would not be able to regain attitude control after the Orbiter undocked. The core issues associated with recovering long-term attitude control using CMGs are described as well as the systems engineering analysis to identify recovery options. It is shown that the recovery method can be separated into a procedure for rate damping to a safe harbor gravity gradient stable orientation and a capability to maneuver the vehicle to the necessary initial conditions for long term attitude hold. A manual control option using Soyuz and Progress vehicle thrusters is investigated for rate damping and maneuvers. The issues with implementing such an option are presented and the key issue of closed-loop stability is addressed. A new non-propulsive alternative to thruster control, Zero Propellant Maneuver (ZPM) attitude control method is introduced and its rate damping and maneuver performance evaluated. It is shown that ZPM can meet the tight attitude and rate error tolerances needed for long term attitude control. A combination of manual thruster rate damping to a safe harbor attitude followed by a ZPM to Stage long term attitude control orientation was selected by the Anomaly Resolution Team as the alternate attitude control method for such a contingency.

  9. Intra-arterial transplantation of low-dose stem cells provides functional recovery without adverse effects after stroke.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Yuhtaka; Horie, Nobutaka; Satoh, Katsuya; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Morofuji, Youichi; Hiu, Takeshi; Izumo, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Kentaro; Nishida, Noriyuki; Nagata, Izumi

    2015-04-01

    Cell transplantation therapy for cerebral infarction has emerged as a promising treatment to reduce brain damage and enhance functional recovery. We previously reported that intra-arterial delivery of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) enables superselective cell administration to the infarct area and results in significant functional recovery after ischemic stroke in a rat model. However, to reduce the risk of embolism caused by the transplanted cells, an optimal cell number should be determined. At 24 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion, we administered human MSCs (low dose: 1 × 10(4) cells; high dose: 1 × 10(6) cells) and then assessed functional recovery, inflammatory responses, cell distribution, and mortality. Rats treated with high- or low-dose MSCs showed behavioral recovery. At day 8 post-stroke, microglial activation was suppressed significantly, and interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-12p70 were reduced in both groups. Although high-dose MSCs were more widely distributed in the cortex and striatum of rats, the degree of intravascular cell aggregation and mortality was significantly higher in the high-dose group. In conclusion, selective intra-arterial transplantation of low-dose MSCs has anti-inflammatory effects and reduces the adverse effects of embolic complication, resulting in sufficient functional recovery of the affected brain. PMID:25398358

  10. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Treatment Following Spinal Cord Injury Improves Mitochondrial Function Correlated with Remarkable Tissue Sparing and Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Samir P.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Lyttle, Travis S.; Magnuson, David S. K.; Rabchevsky, Alexander G.

    2012-01-01

    We have recently documented that treatment with the alternative biofuel, acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC, 300 mg/kg), as late as 1 hr after T10 contusion spinal cord injury (SCI), significantly maintained mitochondrial function 24 hrs after injury. Here we report that following more severe contusion SCI centered on the L1/L2 segments that are postulated to contain lamina X neurons critical for locomotion (the “central pattern generator”), ALC treatment resulted in significant improvements in acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and long-term hindlimb function. While control-injured rats were only able to achieve slight movements of hindlimb joints, ALC-treated animals produced consistent weight-supported plantar steps one month after injury. Such landmark behavioral improvements were significantly correlated with increased tissue sparing of both gray and white matter proximal to the injury, as well as preservation of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in lamina X rostral to the injury site. These findings signify that functional improvements with ALC treatment are mediated, in part, by preserved locomotor circuitry rostral to upper lumbar contusion SCI. Based on beneficial effects of ALC on mitochondrial bioenergetics after injury, our collective evidence demonstrate that preventing mitochondrial dysfunction acutely “promotes” neuroprotection that may be associated with the milestone recovery of plantar, weight-supported stepping. PMID:22445934

  11. Measuring functional recovery in older patients discharged from intensive care units: is advanced technology an option?

    PubMed

    Balas, Michele C; Bonasera, Stephen J; Cohen, Marlene Z; Hertzog, Melody; Sisson, Joseph H; Potter, Jane F; Fitch, Abby; Burke, William J

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine if older patients discharged from intensive care units (ICU) would be willing to use mobile phone and sensor technology (aka "mobile monitoring") to measure their functional recovery in the posthospitalization period. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 older ICU patients and/or their surrogates 24 to 48 hr prior to hospital discharge. While 11 respondents reported they would agree to participate in a future study involving mobile monitoring, an equal number reported they would not participate. Numerous contextual factors were found to affect older adults' willingness to participate including the belief the research would ultimately benefit themselves or other older adults, concerns about loss of privacy, perception that the research is feasible and valuable, and lack of skills using the technology. Future studies using the mobile monitoring technique with older survivors of a serious illness will require substantial recruitment and educational efforts. PMID:24652873

  12. Effect of Vacuum Sealed Drainage on Recovery of Gastrointestinal Function in Gastric Cancer Patients after Radical Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui-ying; Wang, Chun-mei

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims to explore the effect of vacuum sealed drainage on the recovery of gastrointestinal function in gastric patients after radical gastrectomy. Methods One hundred and twenty patients who received radical for gastric cancer were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the control group received continuous gastrointestinal decompression to drain the gastric juices after radical gastrectomy, whereas patients in the treatment group received vacuum sealed drainage. The postoperative variables between the two groups were compared, including time of bowel sound reoccurrence, time of the first flatus, indwelling time of gastric tube, days of hospitalization, and complications, such as anastomotic leakage, intestinal obstruction, wound infection, pulmonary infection, fever, and pharyngitis. SPSS 13.0 was used to analyze the data. Results Significant differences in the following variables were observed in patients between the two groups: time of bowel sound reoccurrence, time of the first flatus, indwelling time of gastric tube, and length of hospitalization of the patients. The value of each of these variables was much smaller in the treatment group than in the control group (P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the incidence of anastomotic leakage, intestinal obstruction, and wound infection among patients between the two groups (P>0.05). However, a significant differences were observed in the incidence of pulmonary infection, fever, and pharyngitis among the patients between the two groups (P<0.05), with much lower incidence of the variables in the treatment group than in the control group. Conclusions Vacuum sealed drainage used in gastric cancer patients after radical gastrectomy can accelerate the recovery of gastrointestinal function and reduce postoperative complications. Moreover, it shortens the indwelling time of the gastric tube, thereby making the patients feel comfortable without the disturbance from the gastric tube. PMID:23691488

  13. Uncoupling PSD-95 interactions leads to rapid recovery of cortical function after focal stroke

    PubMed Central

    Srejic, Luka R; Hutchison, William D; Aarts, Michelle M

    2013-01-01

    Since the most significant ischemic sequelae occur within hours of stroke, it is necessary to understand how neuronal function changes during this time. While histologic and behavioral models show the extent of stroke-related damage, only in vivo recordings can illustrate changes in brain activity during stroke and validate effectiveness of neuroprotective compounds. Spontaneous and evoked field potentials (fEPs) were recorded in the deep layers of the cortex with a linear microelectrode array for 3?hours after focal stroke in anesthetized rats. Tat-NR2B9c peptide, which confers neuroprotection by uncoupling the PSD-95 protein from N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), was administered 5?minutes before ischemia. Evoked field potentials were completely suppressed within 3?minutes of infarct in all ischemic groups. Evoked field potential recovery after stroke in rats treated with Tat-NR2B9c (83% of baseline) was greater compared with stroke-only (61% of baseline) or control peptide (Tat-NR2B-AA; 67% of baseline) groups (P<0.001). Electroencephalography (EEG) power was higher in Tat-NR2B9c-treated animals at both 20?minutes and 1?hour (50% and 73% of baseline, respectively) compared with stroke-only and Tat-NR2B-AA-treated rats (P<0.05). Tat-NR2B9c significantly reduces stroke-related cortical dysfunction as evidenced by greater recovery of fEPs and EEG power; illustrating the immediate effects of the compound on poststroke brain function. PMID:24022623

  14. Uncoupling PSD-95 interactions leads to rapid recovery of cortical function after focal stroke.

    PubMed

    Srejic, Luka R; Hutchison, William D; Aarts, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    Since the most significant ischemic sequelae occur within hours of stroke, it is necessary to understand how neuronal function changes during this time. While histologic and behavioral models show the extent of stroke-related damage, only in vivo recordings can illustrate changes in brain activity during stroke and validate effectiveness of neuroprotective compounds. Spontaneous and evoked field potentials (fEPs) were recorded in the deep layers of the cortex with a linear microelectrode array for 3?hours after focal stroke in anesthetized rats. Tat-NR2B9c peptide, which confers neuroprotection by uncoupling the PSD-95 protein from N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), was administered 5?minutes before ischemia. Evoked field potentials were completely suppressed within 3?minutes of infarct in all ischemic groups. Evoked field potential recovery after stroke in rats treated with Tat-NR2B9c (83% of baseline) was greater compared with stroke-only (61% of baseline) or control peptide (Tat-NR2B-AA; 67% of baseline) groups (P<0.001). Electroencephalography (EEG) power was higher in Tat-NR2B9c-treated animals at both 20?minutes and 1?hour (50% and 73% of baseline, respectively) compared with stroke-only and Tat-NR2B-AA-treated rats (P<0.05). Tat-NR2B9c significantly reduces stroke-related cortical dysfunction as evidenced by greater recovery of fEPs and EEG power; illustrating the immediate effects of the compound on poststroke brain function. PMID:24022623

  15. Prohibitin 1 gene delivery promotes functional recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Guo, J-D; Wang, H-D; Shi, Y-M; Yuan, Y-L; Hou, S-X

    2015-02-12

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) represents a severe health problem worldwide usually associated with severe disability and reduced quality of life. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of prohibitin 1 (PHB1) in the progression of SCI in rats. Firstly, we observed that expression of PHB1 was downregulated following SCI in rats. Then, we hypothesized that PHB1 overexpression by delivery of Ad-PHB1 could result in neuroprotection and promote functional recovery following SCI. Briefly, Wistar rats received a 35-g clip-compression injury and were administered Ad-PHB1 or Ad immediately following SCI. It was found that Ad-PHB1 administration significantly improved locomotor function and increased pain tolerance in rats with SCI. Furthermore, Ad-PHB1 administration following SCI attenuated axonal degradation and increased neuron sparing. Ad-PHB1 administration following SCI reduced apoptosis through inhibiting the Bcl-2/Bax/caspase-3 pathway. Ad-PHB1 administration following SCI suppressed endoplasmic reticulum stress, evidenced by reduced mRNA levels of CCAAT enhancer binding protein homologous protein, chaperone-ucose-regulated protein 78, and X-box protein 1. Ad-PHB1 administration following SCI restored mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate formation, reduced reactive oxygen species formation, and improved mitochondrial respiration rates. Finally, Ad-PHB1 administration following SCI activated downstream signals including phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), and nuclear factor-kappaB. These data indicate that the PHB1 plays an important role in the development of SCI and might provide a therapeutic target to promote recovery from SCI. PMID:25463519

  16. Lingo-1 inhibited by RNA interference promotes functional recovery of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Juan; Qu, Chuan-Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Fu, Pei-Cai; Guo, Shou-Gang; Tang, Rong-Hua

    2014-12-01

    Lingo-1 is a negative regulator of myelination. Repairment of demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS)/experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), requires activation of the myelination program. In this study, we observed the effect of RNA interference on Lingo-1 expression, and the impact of Lingo-1 suppression on functional recovery and myelination/remyelination in EAE mice. Lentiviral vectors encoding Lingo-1 short hairpin RNA (LV/Lingo-1-shRNA) were constructed to inhibit Lingo-1 expression. LV/Lingo-1-shRNA of different titers were transferred into myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced EAE mice by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection. Meanwhile, lentiviral vectors carrying nonsense gene sequence (LVCON053) were used as negative control. The Lingo-1 expression was detected and locomotor function was evaluated at different time points (on days 1,3,7,14,21, and 30 after ICV injection). Myelination was investigated by luxol fast blue (LFB) staining.LV/Lingo-1-shRNA administration via ICV injection could efficiently down-regulate the Lingo-1 mRNA and protein expression in EAE mice on days 7,14,21, and 30 (P?function score in the LV/Lingo-1-shRNA treated groups were significantly lower than the untreated or LVCON053 group from day 7 on. The 5 × 10(8) TU/mL LV/Lingo-1-shRNA group achieved the best functional improvement (0.87?±?0.11 vs. 3.05?±?0.13, P?functional recovery and enhance myelination/remyelination. Antagonism of Lingo-1 by RNA interference is, therefore, a promising approach for the treatment of demyelinating diseases, such as MS/EAE. PMID:25045138

  17. Comparison of Functional Recovery of Manual Dexterity after Unilateral Spinal Cord Lesion or Motor Cortex Lesion in Adult Macaque Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Hoogewoud, Florence; Hamadjida, Adjia; Wyss, Alexander F.; Mir, Anis; Schwab, Martin E.; Belhaj-Saif, Abderraouf; Rouiller, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    In relation to mechanisms involved in functional recovery of manual dexterity from cervical cord injury or from motor cortical injury, our goal was to determine whether the movements that characterize post-lesion functional recovery are comparable to original movement patterns or do monkeys adopt distinct strategies to compensate the deficits depending on the type of lesion? To this aim, data derived from earlier studies, using a skilled finger task (the modified Brinkman board from which pellets are retrieved from vertical or horizontal slots), in spinal cord and motor cortex injured monkeys were analyzed and compared. Twelve adult macaque monkeys were subjected to a hemi-section of the cervical cord (n?=?6) or to a unilateral excitotoxic lesion of the hand representation in the primary motor cortex (n?=?6). In addition, in each subgroup, one half of monkeys (n?=?3) were treated for 30?days with a function blocking antibody against the neurite growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A, while the other half (n?=?3) represented control animals. The motor deficits, and the extent and time course of functional recovery were assessed. For some of the parameters investigated (wrist angle for horizontal slots and movement types distribution for vertical slots after cervical injury; movement types distribution for horizontal slots after motor cortex lesion), post-lesion restoration of the original movement patterns (“true” recovery) led to a quantitatively better functional recovery. In the motor cortex lesion groups, pharmacological reversible inactivation experiments showed that the peri-lesion territory of the primary motor cortex or re-arranged, spared domain of the lesion zone, played a major role in the functional recovery, together with the ipsilesional intact premotor cortex. PMID:23885254

  18. A Method for Simulating Heat Recovery Systems Using AirModel in Implementations of the ASHRAE Simplified Energy Analysis Procedure

    E-print Network

    Liu, C.; Zeig, M.; Claridge, D. E.; Wei, G.; Bruner, H.; Turner, W. D.

    2005-01-01

    A Method for Simulating Heat Recovery Systems Using AirModel in Implementations of the ASHRAE Simplified Energy Analysis Procedure Chenggang Liu Research Associate Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University College Station, TX Marvin..., TX W. Dan Turner, Ph.D., P.E. Professor & Director Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University College Station, TX Abstract A method for simulating heat recovery systems using AirModel in implementations of the ASHRAE simplified...

  19. Rapid method for recovery of strongylid third stage larvae of parasitic nematodes from small soil samples.

    PubMed

    Knapp-Lawitzke, Friederike; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina

    2014-07-01

    Livestock with access to pasture is generally exposed to infections with parasitic nematode species by uptake of infective third stage larvae (L3) with the grass. L3 can survive on pasture and particularly also in the soil up to several months and sometimes even longer, depending on temperature and humidity. As indicators for health and productivity of grazing animals it is important to determine the intensity and species spectrum of parasitic nematode larvae by analysing grass as well as soil samples. A rapid method for the recovery of L3 using a centrifugal-flotation technique from soil samples of 50-500 g was developed. The method takes advantage of the low specific weight of larvae to separate them from equal sized soil and debris particles by centrifuging them in a saturated sugar solution. A stack of differently sized sieves is used to achieve elimination of larger particles, dust and sugar from the sample to enable easy counting of larvae. Independent of the number of larvae used for inoculation of the samples a mean recovery of 75.3% was obtained. The recovery rates obtained ranged between 60.8% and 88.0% which demonstrates a considerably lower variability compared to earlier approaches and therefore a more precise estimation of the actual numbers of parasite larvae in soil is achieved. Further advantages over already developed methods are the use of easy, affordable and eco-friendly materials, the simplicity of the procedure and a faster processing time with the possibility to examine up to 20 samples per day. PMID:24768626

  20. Recovery of neuromuscular function during reperfusion of the ischemic extremity: effect of mannitol and superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Hoch, J R; Stevens, R P; Keller, M P; Silver, D

    1991-10-01

    The ability of mannitol and superoxide dismutase (SOD) to improve the recovery of peripheral nerve and skeletal muscle function and to influence metabolism during reperfusion after 4 hours of complete ischemia was investigated in an autoperfused canine hind-limb model. Study groups included control subjects (n = 7), subjects given 5000 units/kg of SOD intra-arterial bolus immediately before reperfusion and 10,000 units/kg infusion during first hour of reperfusion (n = 7), and subjects given 150 mg/kg isosmolar mannitol intra-arterial bolus before reperfusion and 1 gm/kg intravenous infusion during the first hour of reperfusion. Function was evaluated by determining isometric twitch and tetanic contractile force of paw dorsiflexion by stimulating the peroneal nerve or the anterior tibial muscle. Metabolic responses (oxygen consumption and lactate clearance) and blood flow were not influenced by either treatment protocol. However, mannitol significantly reduced muscle damage and significantly improved neuromuscular contractile function compared to control and SOD treatment regimens. PMID:1925954

  1. Restoring endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis improves functional recovery after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Ohri, Sujata Saraswat; Hetman, Michal; Whittemore, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response (ERSR) is activated to maintain protein homeostasis or induce apoptosis in the ER in response to distinct cellular insults including hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative damage. Recently, we showed ERSR activation in a mouse model of a contusive spinal cord injury (SCI) and an improved hindlimb locomoter function following SCI when the pro-apoptotic arm of ERSR was genetically inhibited. The objective of the current study was to explore if the pharmacological enhancement of the homeostatic arm of the ERSR pathway can improve the functional outcome after SCI. Salubrinal enhances the homoestatic arm of the ERSR by increasing phosphorylation of eIF2?. Salubrinal significantly enhanced the levels of phosphorylated eIF2? protein and modulated the downstream ERSR effectors assessed at the lesion epicenter 6 hours post-SCI. Hindlimb locomotion showed significant improvement in animals treated with salubrinal. Treadmill-based-gait assessement showed a significant increase in maximum speed of coordinated walking and a decrease in rear stance time and stride length in salubrinal-treated animals. This improved functional recovery corresponded with increased white matter sparing and decreased oligodendrocyte apoptosis. In addition, salubrinal protected cultured mouse oligodendrocyte progenitor cells against the ER stress-inducing toxin tunicamycin. These data suggest that boosting the homeostatic arm of the ERSR reduces oligodendrocyte loss after traumatic SCI and supports the contention that pharmacological targeting of the ERSR after CNS trauma is a therapeutically viable approach. PMID:23659896

  2. Human adult dental pulp stem cells enhance poststroke functional recovery through non-neural replacement mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Leong, Wai Khay; Henshall, Tanya L; Arthur, Agnes; Kremer, Karlea L; Lewis, Martin D; Helps, Stephen C; Field, John; Hamilton-Bruce, Monica A; Warming, Scott; Manavis, Jim; Vink, Robert; Gronthos, Stan; Koblar, Simon A

    2012-03-01

    Human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), derived from third molar teeth, are multipotent and have the capacity to differentiate into neurons under inductive conditions both in vitro and following transplantation into the avian embryo. In this study, we demonstrate that the intracerebral transplantation of human DPSCs 24 hours following focal cerebral ischemia in a rodent model resulted in significant improvement in forelimb sensorimotor function at 4 weeks post-treatment. At this time, 2.3 ± 0.7% of engrafted cells had survived in the poststroke brain and demonstrated targeted migration toward the stroke lesion. In the peri-infarct striatum, transplanted DPSCs differentiated into astrocytes in preference to neurons. Our data suggest that the dominant mechanism of action underlying DPSC treatment that resulted in enhanced functional recovery is unlikely to be due to neural replacement. Functional improvement is more likely to be mediated through DPSC-dependent paracrine effects. This study provides preclinical evidence for the future use of human DPSCs in cell therapy to improve outcome in stroke patients. PMID:23197777

  3. Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Wave function methods for fractional electrons.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Stephan N; Yang, Weitao

    2013-08-21

    Determining accurate chemical potentials is of considerable interest in various chemical and physical contexts: from small molecular charge-transfer complexes to bandgap in bulk materials such as semi-conductors. Chemical potentials are typically evaluated either by density functional theory, or, alternatively, by computationally more intensive Greens function based GW computations. To calculate chemical potentials, the ground state energy needs to be defined for fractional charges. We thus explore an extension of wave function theories to fractional charges, and investigate the ionization potential and electron affinity as the derivatives of the energy with respect to the electron number. The ultimate aim is to access the chemical potential of correlated wave function methods without the need of explicitly changing the numbers of electrons, making the approach readily applicable to bulk materials. We find that even though second order perturbation theory reduces the fractional charge error considerably compared to Hartree-Fock and standard density functionals, higher order perturbation theory is more accurate and coupled-cluster approaches are even more robust, provided the electrons are bound at the Hartree-Fock level. The success of post-HF approaches to improve over HF relies on two equally important aspects: the integer values are more accurate and the Coulomb correlation between the fractionally occupied orbital and all others improves the straight line behavior significantly as identified by a correction to Hartree-Fock. Our description of fractional electrons is also applicable to fractional spins, illustrating the ability of coupled-cluster singles and doubles to deal with two degenerate fractionally occupied orbitals, but its inadequacy for three and more fractional spins, which occur, for instance, for spherical atoms and when dissociating double bonds. Our approach explores the realm of typical wave function methods that are applied mostly in molecular chemistry, but become available to the solid state community and offer the advantage of an integrated approach: fundamental gap, relative energies, and optimal geometries can be obtained at the same level. PMID:23968072

  5. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred W.; Bridges, Robert A.; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.; Lorinovich, Caitlin J.; Lu, Silong

    2003-02-07

    This project involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field, California. Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contained approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley.

  6. Method of completing production wells for the recovery of gas from coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, R.E.

    1987-07-14

    A method is described of completing production wells for the recovery of gas from a coal seam and having a casing cemented in the well, comprising the steps of: (a) providing perforations in the casing opposite earth formations located above and/or below the coal seam; and (b) hydraulically fracturing the coal seam through the perforations in the casing, the fracturing of the coal seam propagating initially through the earth formations located above/or below the coal seam and providing a filter for the coal fines to prevent their migration toward the perforations and plugging or impairment of the perforations during withdrawal of gas from the coal seam through the perforations.

  7. Comparison of the Recovery Patterns of Language and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Post-Traumatic Language Processing Deficits and in Patients with Aphasia Following a Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the…

  8. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Predict Functional Recovery in Tibial Fracture Patients: The Somatic Pre-Occupation and Coping (SPOC) Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Busse, Jason W.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Mandel, Scott; Sanders, David; Schemitsch, Emil; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Wai, Eugene; Walter, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the role of patients’ beliefs in their likelihood of recovery from severe physical trauma. Methods We developed and validated an instrument designed to capture the impact of patients’ beliefs on functional recovery from injury; the Somatic Pre-occupation and Coping (SPOC) questionnaire. At 6-weeks post-surgical fixation, we administered the SPOC questionnaire to 359 consecutive patients with operatively managed tibial shaft fractures. We constructed multivariable regression models to explore the association between SPOC scores and functional outcome at 1-year, as measured by return to work and short form-36 (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores. Results In our adjusted multivariable regression models that included pre-injury SF-36 scores, SPOC scores at 6-weeks post-surgery accounted for 18% of the variation in SF-36 PCS scores and 18% of SF-36 MCS scores at 1-year. In both models, 6-week SPOC scores were a far more powerful predictor of functional recovery than age, gender, fracture type, smoking status, or the presence of multi-trauma. Our adjusted analysis found that for each 14 point increment in SPOC score at 6-weeks (14 chosen on the basis of half a standard deviation of the mean SPOC score) the odds of returning to work at 1-year decreased by 40% (odds ratio = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.73). Conclusion The SPOC questionnaire is a valid measurement of illness beliefs in tibial fracture patients and is highly predictive of their long-term functional recovery. Future research should explore if these results extend to other trauma populations and if modification of unhelpful illness beliefs is feasible and would result in improved functional outcomes. PMID:22011635

  9. Effects of Balance and Gait Training on the Recovery of the Motor Function in an Animal Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young-jeoi; Lee, Byung-hoon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate the effect of balance and gait training on the recovery of the motor function in a Parkinson’s disease animal models. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 40 mice were randomly classified into four groups with 10 in each group: Group I-Normal; Group II-Parkinson’s disease and no training; Group III-Parkinson’s disease and balance training was performed; and Group IV-Parkinson’s disease and gait training. Parkinson’s disease was induced by administration of MPTP to animals in Groups II–IV. Groups III and IV did training once a day, five days a week, for four weeks. Neurobehavioral evaluation was performed through the pole and open-field tests. Immunological evaluation was performed via TH (tyrosine hydroxylase) protein expression, using western blot analysis. [Results] In the result of the pole test, Groups III and IV showed significantly greater motor function recovery than to Group II. The results of the open-field test also showed that Groups III and IV had significantly greater motor function recovery than to Group II, and Group IV showed significantly greater motor function recovery than to Group III. Using western blot analysis, we determined that the expression of TH protein in the corpus striatum was greatest in group I, followed by Groups III and IV, and that Group II had the lowest TH protein expression in the corpus striatum. [Conclusion] The results of this study showed that balance and gait training were effective at recovering the motor functions of a Parkinson’s disease animal models induced by MPTP, and that gait training was more effective than balance training. PMID:25013293

  10. A novel method for the photographic recovery of fingermark impressions from ammunition cases using digital imaging.

    PubMed

    Porter, Glenn; Ebeyan, Robert; Crumlish, Charles; Renshaw, Adrian

    2015-03-01

    The photographic preservation of fingermark impression evidence found on ammunition cases remains problematic due to the cylindrical shape of the deposition substrate preventing complete capture of the impression in a single image. A novel method was developed for the photographic recovery of fingermarks from curved surfaces using digital imaging. The process involves the digital construction of a complete impression image made from several different images captured from multiple camera perspectives. Fingermark impressions deposited onto 9-mm and 0.22-caliber brass cartridge cases and a plastic 12-gauge shotgun shell were tested using various image parameters, including digital stitching method, number of images per 360° rotation of shell, image cropping, and overlap. The results suggest that this method may be successfully used to recover fingermark impression evidence from the surfaces of ammunition cases or other similar cylindrical surfaces. PMID:25537854

  11. Nondestructive methods for recovery of biological material from human teeth for DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Hervella, Montserrat; Iñiguez, Maitane G; Izagirre, Neskuts; Anta, Alberto; de-la-Rúa, Concepción

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of DNA from human skeletal remains applied to forensic, and evolutionary studies do not exclude risks, which are to be evaluated when working with unique specimens that could be damaged or even destroyed. In the present study were evaluated several nondestructive methods for recovering DNA instead of the most currently used pulverization method. Three different procedures to access inside the dental pieces (occlusal perforation, cervical perforation, and cervical cut) have been compared with the aim of recovering as many cell remains as possible to carry out a DNA extraction. Given the DNA quantitation results, a method was proposed that consists of a cervical cut to facilitate the access to the pulp cavity and a subsequent filing of the root canals down to the apex of the dental root. This methodology allows the recovery of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, with the minimum deterioration for the dental pieces. PMID:25047360

  12. Microbiological methods for the water recovery systems test, revision 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, Tim; Kilgore, M. V., Jr.; Mikell, A. T., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Current microbiological parameters specified to verify microbiological quality of Space Station Freedom water quality include the enumeration of total bacteria, anaerobes, aerobes, yeasts and molds, enteric bacteria, gram positives, gram negatives, and E. coli. In addition, other parameters have been identified as necessary to support the Water Recovery Test activities to be conducted at the NASA/MSFC later this year. These other parameters include aerotolerant eutrophic mesophiles, legionellae, and an additional method for heterotrophic bacteria. If inter-laboratory data are to be compared to evaluate quality, analytical methods must be eliminated as a variable. Therefore, each participating laboratory must utilize the same analytical methods and procedures. Without this standardization, data can be neither compared nor validated between laboratories. Multiple laboratory participation represents a conservative approach to insure quality and completeness of data. Invariably, sample loss will occur in transport and analyses. Natural variance is a reality on any test of this magnitude and is further enhanced because biological entities, capable of growth and death, are specific parameters of interest. The large variation due to the participation of human test subjects has been noted with previous testing. The resultant data might be dismissed as 'out of control' unless intra-laboratory control is included as part of the method or if participating laboratories are not available for verification. The purpose of this document is to provide standardized laboratory procedures for the enumeration of certain microorganisms in water and wastewater specific to the water recovery systems test. The document consists of ten separate cultural methods and one direct count procedure. It is not intended nor is it implied to be a complete microbiological methods manual.

  13. Method for printing functional protein microarrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delehanty, James B.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2003-01-01

    Piezoelectric dispensing of proteins from borosilicate glass capillaries is a popular method of protein biochip fabrication that offers the advantages of sample recovery and noncontact with the printing substrate. However, little regard has been given to the quantitative aspects of dispensing minute volumes (1 nL or less) at the low protein concentrations (20 micrograms/mL or less) typically used in microprinting. Specifically, loss of protein sample due to nonspecific adsorption to the glass surface of the dispensing capillaries can limit the amount of protein delivered to the substrate. We demonstrate the benefits of a low ionic strength buffer containing the carrier protein BSA that effectively minimizes the ionic strength-dependent phenomenon of nonspecific protein adsorption to borosilicate glass. Over the concentration range of 20-2.5 micrograms/mL, the dispensing of a reference IgG in 10 mM PBS including 0.1% BSA resulted in the deposition of 3.6- to 44-fold more IgG compared to the deposition of IgG in standard 150 mM PBS in the absence of BSA. Furthermore, when the IgG was dispensed with carrier protein, the resulting spots exhibited a more uniform morphology. In a direct immunoassay for cholera toxin, capture antibody spots dispensed in 10 mM PBS containing 0.1% BSA produced fluorescent signals that were 2.8- to 4.3-fold more intense than antibody spots that were dispensed in 150 mM PBS without BSA. Interestingly, no differences were observed in the specific activities of the capture antibodies as a result of printing in the different buffers. The implications of these results on the future development of protein biochips are discussed.

  14. Effects of a training program based on the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation method on post-stroke motor recovery: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Tatiana Souza; de Sousa e Silva, Emília Márcia Gomes; Sousa Silva, Wagner Henrique; de Alencar Caldas, Vescia Vieira; Silva, Diana Lídice Araújo; Costa Cavalcanti, Fabrícia Azevedo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues

    2014-10-01

    This preliminary study sought to analyze the effects of a training program based on the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) method on motor recovery of individuals with chronic post-stroke hemiparesis. Eleven individuals with chronic hemiparesis (mean lesion time of 19.64 months) after unilateral and non-recurrent stroke underwent training based on PNF method for twelve sessions, being evaluated for motor function - using the Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM) instrument; functionality, by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM); and gait kinematic (using the Qualisys Motion Capture System), at baseline and post-training. Significant changes in FIM (from median 67 to median 68; P = .043) and STREAM scores (from median 47 to median 55; P = .003) were observed. Data showed significant changes in motor function and functionality after training, suggesting that this program can be useful for rehabilitation of chronic stroke survivors. PMID:25440202

  15. Theoretical Estimation of Cannulation Methods for Left Ventricular Assist Device Support as a Bridge to Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ki Moo; Lee, Jeong Sang; Song, Jin-Ho; Youn, Chan-Hyun; Choi, Jae-Sung

    2011-01-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support under cannulation connected from the left atrium to the aorta (LA-AA) is used as a bridge to recovery in heart failure patients because it is non-invasive to ventricular muscle. However, it has serious problems, such as valve stenosis and blood thrombosis due to the low ejection fraction of the ventricle. We theoretically estimated the effect of the in-series cannulation, connected from ascending aorta to descending aorta (AA-DA), on ventricular unloading as an alternative to the LA-AA method. We developed a theoretical model of a LVAD-implanted cardiovascular system that included coronary circulation. Using this model, we compared hemodynamic responses according to various cannulation methods such as LA-AA, AA-DA, and a cannulation connected from the left ventricle to ascending aorta (LV-AA), under continuous and pulsatile LVAD supports. The AA-DA method provided 14% and 18% less left ventricular peak pressure than the LA-AA method under continuous and pulsatile LVAD conditions, respectively. The LA-AA method demonstrated higher coronary flow than AA-DA method. Therefore, the LA-AA method is more advantageous in increasing ventricular unloading whereas the AA-DA method is a better choice to increase coronary perfusion. PMID:22147996

  16. Functional recovery of anterior semicircular canal afferents following hair cell regeneration in birds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Richard; Highstein, Stephen M.; Carey, John P.; Xu, Jinping

    2002-01-01

    Streptomycin sulfate (1.2 g/kg i.m.) was administered for 5 consecutive days to 5-7-day-old white Leghorn chicks; this causes damage to semicircular canal hair cells that ultimately regenerate to reform the sensory epithelium. During the recovery period, electrophysiological recordings were taken sequentially from anterior semicircular canal primary afferents using an indentation stimulus of the canal that has been shown to mimic rotational stimulation. Chicks were assigned to an early (14-18 days; n = 8), intermediate (28-34 days; n = 5), and late (38-58 days; n = 4) period based on days after treatment. Seven untreated chicks, 15-67 days old, provided control data. An absence of background and indent-induced discharge was the prominent feature of afferents in the early period: only "silent" afferents were encountered in 5/8 experiments. In several of these chicks, fascicles of afferent fibers were seen extending up to the epithelium that was void of hair cells, and intra- and extracellular biocytin labeling revealed afferent processes penetrating into the supporting cell layer of the crista. In 3/8 chicks 74 afferents could be characterized, and they significantly differed from controls (n = 130) by having a lower discharge rate and a negligible response to canal stimulation. In the intermediate period there was considerable variability in discharge properties of 121 afferents, but as a whole the number of "silent" fibers in the canal nerve diminished, the background rate increased, and a response to canal stimulation detected. Individually biocytin-labeled afferents had normal-appearing terminal specializations in the sensory epithelium by 28 days poststreptomycin. In the late period, afferents (n = 58) remained significantly different from controls in background discharge properties and response gain. The evidence suggests that a considerable amount of variability exists between chicks in the return of vestibular afferent function following ototoxic injury and that the secretory function of regenerating hair cells might become functional before their transducer function.

  17. Testing a family-centered intervention to promote functional and cognitive recovery in hospitalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Marie; Resnick, Barbara; Chippendale, Tracy; Galvin, James

    2014-12-01

    A comparative trial using a repeated-measures design was designed to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of the Family-Centered Function-Focused-Care (Fam-FFC) intervention, which is intended to promote functional recovery in hospitalized older adults. A family-centered resource nurse and a facility champion implemented a three-component intervention (environmental assessment and modification, staff education, individual and family education and partnership in care planning with follow-up after hospitalization for an acute illness). Control units were exposed to function-focused-care education only. Ninety-seven dyads of medical patients aged 65 and older and family caregivers (FCGs) were recruited from three medical units of a community teaching hospital. Fifty-three percent of patients were female, 89% were white, 51% were married, and 40% were widowed, and they had a mean age of 80.8 ± 7.5. Seventy-eight percent of FCGs were married, 34% were daughters, 31% were female spouses or partners, and 38% were aged 46 to 65. Patient outcomes included functional outcomes (activities of daily living (ADLs), walking performance, gait, balance) and delirium severity and duration. FCG outcomes included preparedness for caregiving, anxiety, depression, role strain, and mutuality. The intervention group demonstrated less severity and shorter duration of delirium and better ADL and walking performance but not better gait and balance performance than the control group. FCGs who participated in Fam-FFC showed a significant increase in preparedness for caregiving and a decrease in anxiety and depression from admission to 2 months after discharge but no significant differences in strain or quality of the relationship with the care recipient from FCGs in the control group. Fam-FFC is feasible and has the potential to improve outcomes for hospitalized older adults and their caregivers. PMID:25481973

  18. Cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis in endotoxemia is not accompanied by mitochondrial function recovery.

    PubMed

    Vanasco, Virginia; Saez, Trinidad; Magnani, Natalia D; Pereyra, Leonardo; Marchini, Timoteo; Corach, Alejandra; Vaccaro, María Inés; Corach, Daniel; Evelson, Pablo; Alvarez, Silvia

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis emerges as a compensatory mechanism involved in the recovery process in endotoxemia and sepsis. The aim of this work was to analyze the time course of the cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis process occurring during endotoxemia, with emphasis on the quantitative analysis of mitochondrial function. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (45 days old) were ip injected with LPS (10 mg/kg). Measurements were performed at 0-24 h after LPS administration. PGC-1? and mtTFA expression for biogenesis and p62 and LC3 expression for autophagy were analyzed by Western blot; mitochondrial DNA levels by qPCR, and mitochondrial morphology by transmission electron microscopy. Mitochondrial function was evaluated as oxygen consumption and respiratory chain complex activity. PGC-1? and mtTFA expression significantly increased in every time point analyzed, and mitochondrial mass was increased by 20% (P<0.05) at 24 h. p62 expression was significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner. LC3-II expression was significantly increased at all time points analyzed. Ultrastructurally, mitochondria displayed several abnormalities (internal vesicles, cristae disruption, and swelling) at 6 and 18 h. Structures compatible with fusion/fission processes were observed at 24 h. A significant decrease in state 3 respiration was observed in every time point analyzed (LPS 6h: 20%, P<0.05). Mitochondrial complex I activity was found decreased by 30% in LPS-treated animals at 6 and 24h. Complex II and complex IV showed decreased activity only at 24 h. The present results show that partial restoration of cardiac mitochondrial architecture is not accompanied by improvement of mitochondrial function in acute endotoxemia. The key implication of our study is that cardiac failure due to bioenergetic dysfunction will be overcome by therapeutic interventions aimed to restore cardiac mitochondrial function. PMID:25224040

  19. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    PubMed Central

    Carmel, Jason B.; Martin, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay. PMID:24994971

  20. The human visual cortex responds to gene therapy–mediated recovery of retinal function

    PubMed Central

    Ashtari, Manzar; Cyckowski, Laura L.; Monroe, Justin F.; Marshall, Kathleen A.; Chung, Daniel C.; Auricchio, Alberto; Simonelli, Francesca; Leroy, Bart P.; Maguire, Albert M.; Shindler, Kenneth S.; Bennett, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a rare degenerative eye disease, linked to mutations in at least 14 genes. A recent gene therapy trial in patients with LCA2, who have mutations in RPE65, demonstrated that subretinal injection of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying the normal cDNA of that gene (AAV2-hRPE65v2) could markedly improve vision. However, it remains unclear how the visual cortex responds to recovery of retinal function after prolonged sensory deprivation. Here, 3 of the gene therapy trial subjects, treated at ages 8, 9, and 35 years, underwent functional MRI within 2 years of unilateral injection of AAV2-hRPE65v2. All subjects showed increased cortical activation in response to high- and medium-contrast stimuli after exposure to the treated compared with the untreated eye. Furthermore, we observed a correlation between the visual field maps and the distribution of cortical activations for the treated eyes. These data suggest that despite severe and long-term visual impairment, treated LCA2 patients have intact and responsive visual pathways. In addition, these data suggest that gene therapy resulted in not only sustained and improved visual ability, but also enhanced contrast sensitivity. PMID:21606598

  1. The human visual cortex responds to gene therapy-mediated recovery of retinal function.

    PubMed

    Ashtari, Manzar; Cyckowski, Laura L; Monroe, Justin F; Marshall, Kathleen A; Chung, Daniel C; Auricchio, Alberto; Simonelli, Francesca; Leroy, Bart P; Maguire, Albert M; Shindler, Kenneth S; Bennett, Jean

    2011-06-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a rare degenerative eye disease, linked to mutations in at least 14 genes. A recent gene therapy trial in patients with LCA2, who have mutations in RPE65, demonstrated that subretinal injection of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying the normal cDNA of that gene (AAV2-hRPE65v2) could markedly improve vision. However, it remains unclear how the visual cortex responds to recovery of retinal function after prolonged sensory deprivation. Here, 3 of the gene therapy trial subjects, treated at ages 8, 9, and 35 years, underwent functional MRI within 2 years of unilateral injection of AAV2-hRPE65v2. All subjects showed increased cortical activation in response to high- and medium-contrast stimuli after exposure to the treated compared with the untreated eye. Furthermore, we observed a correlation between the visual field maps and the distribution of cortical activations for the treated eyes. These data suggest that despite severe and long-term visual impairment, treated LCA2 patients have intact and responsive visual pathways. In addition, these data suggest that gene therapy resulted in not only sustained and improved visual ability, but also enhanced contrast sensitivity. PMID:21606598

  2. Functional Recovery in Chronic Stage of Spinal Cord Injury by Neurorestorative Approach: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Alok; Sane, Hemangi; Khopkar, Dipti; Gokulchandran, Nandini; Jacob, V. C.; Joseph, Joji; Badhe, Prerna

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) at an early age can be debilitating for the child's growth. Current treatments show a level of stagnancy, after which the recovery is minimal. Cellular therapy is an emerging area of research and has been found to possess many benefits in the previous studies. Transplantation of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) has demonstrated therapeutic potential for many neurological conditions, including spinal cord injury. Here we report a case of 6-year-old girl with traumatic SCI at the level of C7-D1 4 years back, who underwent 2 doses of cell transplantation with autologous BMMNCs with an interval of 6 months along with standard rehabilitation. The patient did not have any major or minor side effects. The patient showed clinical improvements throughout the 6 months after transplantation, which was assessed using Functional Independence Measure (before: 82, after: 101 out of 126). There were patchy areas of sensory gain in bilateral feet recorded, with improvements in the bladder sensation and control. Improved gait was seen as a result of better strength in abdominals and back extensors. The fact that there was functional improvement in the chronic plateau phase indicates the potential of cell therapy in chronic SCI. Further clinical studies are warranted. PMID:24744950

  3. Inhibition of LINGO-1 promotes functional recovery after experimental spinal cord demyelination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Yi Ping; Pepinsky, Blake; Huang, Guanrong; Shields, Lisa B E; Shields, Christopher B; Mi, Sha

    2015-04-01

    Blocking LINGO-1 has been shown to enhance remyelination in the rat lysolecithin-induced focal spinal cord demyelination model. We used transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potentials (tcMMEPs) to assess the effect of blocking LINGO-1 on recovery of axonal function in a mouse lysolecithin model at 1, 2 and 4weeks after injury. The role of LINGO-1 was assessed using LINGO-1 knockout (KO) mice and in wild-type mice after intraperitoneal administration of anti-LINGO-1 antagonist monoclonal antibody (mAb3B5). Response rates (at 2 and 4weeks) and amplitudes (at 4weeks) were significantly increased in LINGO-1 KO and mAb3B5-treated mice compared with matched controls. The latency of potentials at 4weeks was significantly shorter in mAb3B5-treated mice compared with controls. Lesion areas in LINGO-1 KO and mAb3B5-treated mice were reduced significantly compared with matched controls. The number of remyelinated axons within the lesions was increased and the G-ratios of the axons were decreased in both LINGO-1 KO and mAb3B5-treated mice compared with matched controls. These data provide morphometric and functional evidence of enhancement of remyelination associated with antagonism of LINGO-1. PMID:25681574

  4. FANCD2 regulates BLM complex functions independently of FANCI to promote replication fork recovery

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Indrajit; Sareen, Archana; Raghunandan, Maya; Sobeck, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) and Bloom Syndrome share overlapping phenotypes including spontaneous chromosomal abnormalities and increased cancer predisposition. The FA protein pathway comprises an upstream core complex that mediates recruitment of two central players, FANCD2 and FANCI, to sites of stalled replication forks. Successful fork recovery depends on the Bloom’s helicase BLM that participates in a larger protein complex (‘BLMcx’) containing topoisomerase III alpha, RMI1, RMI2 and replication protein A. We show that FANCD2 is an essential regulator of BLMcx functions: it maintains BLM protein stability and is crucial for complete BLMcx assembly; moreover, it recruits BLMcx to replicating chromatin during normal S-phase and mediates phosphorylation of BLMcx members in response to DNA damage. During replication stress, FANCD2 and BLM cooperate to promote restart of stalled replication forks while suppressing firing of new replication origins. In contrast, FANCI is dispensable for FANCD2-dependent BLMcx regulation, demonstrating functional separation of FANCD2 from FANCI. PMID:23658231

  5. Modified Interior Distance Functions (Theory and Methods)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polyak, Roman A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we introduced and developed the theory of Modified Interior Distance Functions (MIDF's). The MIDF is a Classical Lagrangian (CL) for a constrained optimization problem which is equivalent to the initial one and can be obtained from the latter by monotone transformation both the objective function and constraints. In contrast to the Interior Distance Functions (IDF's), which played a fundamental role in Interior Point Methods (IPM's), the MIDF's are defined on an extended feasible set and along with center, have two extra tools, which control the computational process: the barrier parameter and the vector of Lagrange multipliers. The extra tools allow to attach to the MEDF's very important properties of Augmented Lagrangeans. One can consider the MIDFs as Interior Augmented Lagrangeans. It makes MIDF's similar in spirit to Modified Barrier Functions (MBF's), although there is a fundamental difference between them both in theory and methods. Based on MIDF's theory, Modified Center Methods (MCM's) have been developed and analyzed. The MCM's find an unconstrained minimizer in primal space and update the Lagrange multipliers, while both the center and the barrier parameter can be fixed or updated at each step. The MCM's convergence was investigated, and their rate of convergence was estimated. The extension of the feasible set and the special role of the Lagrange multipliers allow to develop MCM's, which produce, in case of nondegenerate constrained optimization, a primal and dual sequences that converge to the primal-dual solutions with linear rate, even when both the center and the barrier parameter are fixed. Moreover, every Lagrange multipliers update shrinks the distance to the primal dual solution by a factor 0 less than gamma less than 1 which can be made as small as one wants by choosing a fixed interior point as a 'center' and a fixed but large enough barrier parameter. The numericai realization of MCM leads to the Newton MCM (NMCM). The approximation for the primal minimizer one finds by Newton Method followed by the Lagrange multipliers update. Due to the MCM convergence, when both the center and the barrier parameter are fixed, the condition of the MDF Hessism and the neighborhood of the primal ninimizer where Newton method is 'well' defined remains stable. It contributes to both the complexity and the numerical stability of the NMCM.

  6. Roles of ES Cell-Derived Gliogenic Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells in Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Gentaro; Okada, Yohei; Yamane, Junichi; Nagoshi, Narihito; Kitamura, Kazuya; Mukaino, Masahiko; Tsuji, Osahiko; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Okada, Seiji; Shibata, Shinsuke; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Toh, Satoshi; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Masaya; Okano, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) following the sub-acute phase of spinal cord injury (SCI) has been shown to promote functional recovery in rodent models. However, the types of cells most effective for treating SCI have not been clarified. Taking advantage of our recently established neurosphere-based culture system of ES cell-derived NS/PCs, in which primary neurospheres (PNS) and passaged secondary neurospheres (SNS) exhibit neurogenic and gliogenic potentials, respectively, here we examined the distinct effects of transplanting neurogenic and gliogenic NS/PCs on the functional recovery of a mouse model of SCI. ES cell-derived PNS and SNS transplanted 9 days after contusive injury at the Th10 level exhibited neurogenic and gliogenic differentiation tendencies, respectively, similar to those seen in vitro. Interestingly, transplantation of the gliogenic SNS, but not the neurogenic PNS, promoted axonal growth, remyelination, and angiogenesis, and resulted in significant locomotor functional recovery after SCI. These findings suggest that gliogenic NS/PCs are effective for promoting the recovery from SCI, and provide essential insight into the mechanisms through which cellular transplantation leads to functional improvement after SCI. PMID:19893739

  7. Contralateral and ipsilateral EMG responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation during recovery of arm and hand function after stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Turton; S. Wroe; N. Trepte; C. Fraser; R. N. Lemon

    1996-01-01

    We examined the relationship between the recovery of hand and arm function in a group of hemiplegic stroke patients and the presence of short-latency EMG responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in 4 different upper limb muscles (deltoid, biceps, extensor digitorum communis and the first dorsal interosseous). Twenty-one patients were examined within 5 weeks of stroke (median 2 weeks), and

  8. Ensheathing Cells and Methylprednisolone Promote Axonal Regeneration and Functional Recovery in the Lesioned Adult Rat Spinal Cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holly H. Nash; Rosemary C. Borke; Juanita J. Anders

    2002-01-01

    Axons fail to regenerate after spinal cord injury (SCI) in adult mammals, leading to permanent loss of function. After SCI, ensheathing cells (ECs) promote recovery in animal models, whereas methylprednisolone (MP) promotes neurological re- covery in humans. In this study, the effectiveness of combining ECs and MP after SCI was investigated for the first time. After lesioning the corticospinal tract

  9. Abstract--Virtual robotic rehabilitation is beginning to show its efficacy in motor function recovery for stroke survivors.

    E-print Network

    Matsuoka, Yoky

    desirable qualities which make it highly compatible for rehabilitation regimes [1]. The breadthAbstract-- Virtual robotic rehabilitation is beginning to show its efficacy in motor function recovery for stroke survivors. However, due to the lack of understanding in the potential danger imposed

  10. Applicability of solvent based Huff-and-Puff Method to enhance heavy oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qazvini Firouz, Alireza

    Over and above solvent based processes, specifically, the cyclic solvent injection well known as "Huff-and-Puff', has demonstrated a significant potential to enhance heavy oil recovery. Solvent and CO2 Huff-and-Puff are analogies to cyclic steam stimulation; however, in this method, steam is replaced with CO2, hydrocarbon solvent or mixture of the two. This study attempts to validate the feasibility of the Solvent Based Huff-and-Puff Method with respect to enhancing heavy oil recovery and to investigate the effect of fluid, operation, and reservoir parameters on its' performance. Thus, both experimental and reservoir simulation approaches were applied and, the impact of the aforementioned parameters on the performance of the process was investigated. All experiments were conducted in a Berea core with the dimensions of 30.48 cm by 5.07 cm. The core has a permeability of 1800 md and a porosity of 24% which was mounted in a high pressure, stainless steel core holder. Before conducting each Huff-and-Puff Test, the core was saturated with an oil sample representative of Saskatchewan heavy oil reservoirs and exhibited a viscosity of 952 mPa.s, at a temperature of 28°C. Prior to the tests, a complete phase behavior (PVT) analysis of the oil sample and solvents mixture was conducted using CMG- WinProp(TM) software. Over 12 sets of Huff-and-Puff Experiments, utilizing the pure solvent of carbon dioxide, methane, and mixtures of CO2 and propane, were performed at different operating pressures. A soaking time period of 24 hrs and a cut-off pressure of 276 kPa were considered for all cycles. In addition, all Huff-and-Puff Cycles were continued for each operating pressure until production dropped below one percent of the original oil in place. The production trend and recovery factor for each experiment were determined. The final oil recoveries, at the highest operating pressure of 7239 kPa for pure CO2 and, at 6895 kPa for pure methane, were 71 and 50 % OOIP, respectively. As for solvent gas mixtures with different propane fractions of %28 and %19 by mole, the final oil recoveries obtained were 56 and 54 % OOIP, respectively. The measured viscosities of the produced oil (generally for higher operating pressures) indicated the produced oil is lighter, especially during the first few cycles. During the tests, it was observed that most produced oil occurred during the first five cycles. In addition, it was found that the viscosity of produced oil during the first few cycles, at the operating pressure of 7239kPa, was reduced from an initial value of 952 to approximately 62 mPa.s when pure CO2 was injected. Also, as far as the capacity of this study was able to observe, implementing a longer soaking time improved the incremental recovery of the first cycle. However, the lengthier soaking time did not noticeably change the ultimate oil recovery. Since pilot and field studies are time consuming and relatively expensive, numerical simulation was initially utilized to history match the results obtained in the laboratory experiments and later to investigate the effect of the fluid and reservoir key parameters on the performance of this technique. Based on this fact, CMG-STARS(TM) was used and the discrepancy between recovery factors obtained from the experiments and those of the numerical simulation model were found to be in the range of 4 to 10% for CO2 and Methane Huff-and-Puff Tests at different operating pressures. Also, an attempt was made to investigate the potential of this method when applied to a field scale model. Based on the results of a parametric study, a longer soaking time improved the incremental recovery. There appeared to be no significant impact of very high injection rate on the performance of the Huff-and-Puff Method when it was studied through numerical simulation.

  11. Why do stroke patients with negative motor evoked potential show poor limb motor function recovery?

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhibin; Dang, Lijuan; Zhou, Yanling; Dong, Yanjiang; Liang, Haimao; Zhu, Zhengfeng; Pan, Suyue

    2013-01-01

    Negative motor evoked potentials after cerebral infarction, indicative of poor recovery of limb motor function, tend to be accompanied by changes in fractional anisotropy values and the cerebral peduncle area on the affected side, but the characteristics of these changes have not been reported. This study included 57 cases of cerebral infarction whose motor evoked potentials were tested in the 24 hours after the first inspection for diffusion tensor imaging, in which 29 cases were in the negative group and 28 cases in the positive group. Twenty-nine patients with negative motor evoked potentials were divided into two groups according to fractional anisotropy on the affected side of the cerebral peduncle: a fractional anisotropy < 0.36 group and a fractional anisotropy ? 0.36 group. All patients underwent a regular magnetic resonance imaging and a diffusion tensor imaging examination at 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after cerebral infarction. The Fugl-Meyer scores of their hemiplegic limbs were tested before the magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging tions. In the negative motor evoked potential group, fractional anisotropy in the affected cerebral peduncle declined progressively, which was most obvious in the first 1–3 months after the onset of cerebral infarction. The areas and area asymmetries of the cerebral peduncle on the affected side were significantly decreased at 6 and 12 months after onset. At 12 months after onset, the area asymmetries of the cerebral peduncle on the affected side were lower than the normal lower limit value of 0.83. Fugl-Meyer scores in the fractional anisotropy ? 0.36 group were significantly higher than in the fractional anisotropy < 0.36 group at 3–12 months after onset. The fractional anisotropy of the cerebral peduncle in the positive motor evoked potential group decreased in the first 1 month after onset, and stayed unchanged from 3–12 months; there was no change in the area of the cerebral peduncle in the first 1–12 months after cerebral infarction. These findings confirmed that if the fractional anisotropy of the cerebral peduncle on the affected side is < 0.36 and the area asymmetries < 0.83 in patients with negative motor evoked potential after cerebral infarction, then poor hemiplegic limb motor function recovery may occur. PMID:25206582

  12. Species differences in impairment and recovery of alveolar macrophage functions following single and repeated ozone exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Oosting, R.S.; van Golde, L.M.; Verhoef, J.; Van Bree, L. (Laboratory for Toxicology, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, (Netherlands))

    1991-08-01

    Effects of single (0.4 ppm for 3, 6, or 12 hr) and repeated (0.4 ppm, 12 hr/day for 3 or 7 days) in vivo ozone exposures on rat and mouse alveolar macrophage functions and cell number were investigated. Single ozone exposure of rats resulted in a small (approximately 15%) decrease in Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis and phorbol ester-induced superoxide production by the alveolar macrophages and was followed by recovery above control levels within 12 hr of exposure. Repeated exposures of rats for up to 7 days did not alter alveolar macrophage functions, with the exception of the effects of 3 days of exposure on superoxide production (71 {plus minus} 9% as compared with the controls). In mice, significant changes in alveolar macrophage functions were not observed until 12 hr of exposure (at that timepoint phagocytosis was 74 {plus minus} 2%). Repeated ozone exposures of mice did not cause a further decrease in phagocytosis (at Day 7, 74 {plus minus} 14%). Both after 3 and 7 days of repeated ozone exposure of mice, superoxide production by the alveolar macrophages was inhibited approximately 50%. In rats and mice, repeated ozone exposures led to an increase in the number of alveolar macrophages. In mice, this increase appeared at a later time point (at Day 7 vs Day 3) and was less pronounced (at Day 7, 139 {plus minus} 9% vs 179 {plus minus} 17%) as compared with rats. In summary, our data show that rat and mouse alveolar macrophages have different susceptibilities to both single and repeated in vivo ozone exposures.

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permit modifications and the functional equivalency demonstration: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Elsberry, K.; Garcia, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Carnes, R.; Kinker, J.; Loehr, C; Lyon, W. [Benchmark Environmental Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Hazardous waste operating permits issued under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) often impose requirements that specific components and equipment be used. Consequently, changing these items, may first require that the owner/operator request a potentially time-consuming and costly permit modification. However, the owner/operator may demonstrate that a modification is not required because the planned changes are ``functionally equivalent.`` The Controlled-Air Incinerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is scheduled for maintenance and improvements. The incinerator`s carbon adsorption unit/high efficiency particulate air filtration system, was redesigned to improve reliability and minimize maintenance. A study was performed to determine whether the redesigned unit would qualify as functionally equivalent to the original component. In performing this study, the following steps were taken: (a) the key performance factors were identified; (b) performance data describing the existing unit were obtained; (c) performance of both the existing and redesigned units was simulated; and (d) the performance data were compared to ascertain whether the components could qualify as functionally equivalent. In this case, the key performance data included gas residence time and distribution of flow over the activated carbon. Because both units were custom designed and fabricated, a simple comparison of manufacturers` specifications was impossible. Therefore, numerical simulation of each unit design was performed using the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulic computer code to model isothermal hydrodynamic performance under steady-state conditions. The results of residence time calculations from the model were coupled with flow proportion and sampled using a Monte Carlo-style simulation to derive distributions that describe the predicted residence times.

  14. Pharmacogenetics of Modafinil After Sleep Loss: Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Genotype Modulates Waking Functions But Not Recovery Sleep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Bodenmann; S Xu; UFO Luhmann; M Arand; W Berger; HH Jung; HP Landolt

    2009-01-01

    Sleep loss impairs waking functions and is homeostatically compensated in recovery sleep. The mechanisms underlying the consequences of prolonged wakefulness are unknown. The stimulant modafinil may promote primarily dopaminergic neurotransmission. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the breakdown of cerebral dopamine. A functional Val158Met polymorphism reduces COMT activity, and Val\\/Val homozygous individuals presumably have lower dopaminergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex than do

  15. Initial Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Data Acquired from Soyuz Landings: Establishing a Functional Performance Recovery Time Constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kofman, I. S.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stenger, M. B.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; Lee, S. M. C.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Feiveson, A. H.; Fisher, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Testing of crew responses following long-duration flights has not been previously possible until a minimum of more than 24 hours after landing. As a result, it has not been possible to determine the trend of the early recovery process, nor has it been possible to accurately assess the full impact of the decrements associated with long-duration flight. To overcome these limitations, both the Russian and U.S. programs have implemented joint testing at the Soyuz landing site. This International Space Station research effort has been identified as the functional Field Test, and represents data collect on NASA, Russian, European Space Agency, and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency crews. RESEARCH The primary goal of this research is to determine functional abilities associated with long-duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible on the day of landing (typically within 1 to 1.5 hours). This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements. To date, a total of 15 subjects have participated in a 'pilot' version of the full 'field test'. The full version of the 'field test' will assess functional sensorimotor measurements included hand/eye coordination, standing from a seated position (sit-to-stand), walking normally without falling, measurement of dynamic visual acuity, discriminating different forces generated with the hands (both strength and ability to judge just noticeable differences of force), standing from a prone position, coordinated walking involving tandem heel-to-toe placement (tested with eyes both closed and open), walking normally while avoiding obstacles of differing heights, and determining postural ataxia while standing (measurement of quiet stance). Sensorimotor performance has been obtained using video records, and data from body worn inertial sensors. The cardiovascular portion of the investigation has measured blood pressure and heart rate during a timed stand test in conjunction with postural ataxia testing (quiet stance sway) as well as cardiovascular responses during sensorimotor testing on all of the above measures. We have also collected motion sickness data associated with each of the postflight tests. When possible rudimentary cerebellar assessment was undertaken. In addition to the immediate post-landing collection of data, postflight data has been acquired twice more within 24 hours after landing and measurements continue until sensorimotor and cardiovascular responses have returned to preflight normative values (approximately 60 days postflight). SUMMARY The level of functional deficit observed in the crew tested to date is more severe than expected, clearly triggered by the acquisition of gravity loads immediately after landing when the demands for crew intervention in response to emergency operations will be greatest. Measureable performance parameters such as ability to perform a seat egress, recover from a fall or the ability to see clearly when walking, and related physiologic data (orthostatic responses) are required to provide an evidence base for characterizing programmatic risks and the degree of variability among crewmembers for exploration missions where the crew will be unassisted after landing. Overall, these early functional and related physiologic measurements will allow the estimation of nonlinear sensorimotor and cardiovascular recovery trends that have not been previously captured.

  16. Development of novel EOR (enhanced oil recovery) methods: Foams for mobility control in surfactant flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Llave, F.M.; Sturm, J.M.; Olsen, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    The use of foam as a novel method for mobility control in surfactant flooding was investigated. This report presents an initial evaluation of the potential application of foam as a mobility control agent behind a low concentration surfactant flood. This enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process involves the injection of alternate slugs of gas and surfactant solution as drive fluids behind the active surfactant slug front as an alternative to the use of polymers in order to eliminate unfavorable surfactant-polymer interactions. Experiments were performed to determine in situ foam generation and propagation using varying concentrations of surfactants in a Berea sandstone core. An apparatus was designed and built to accurately measure differential pressures along sections of the core. Bottle or shake tests using the various concentrations of surfactants and experiments to determine the effect of foam flow on reducing mobility and involved steady-state measurement of differential pressures in the presence of foam were performed. Coreflood displacement experiments in the presence of oil were performed using varying concentrations of surfactants to compare various injection modes and oil recovery efficiency. 15 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Simulation Methods for Optical Disk Drive Functions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devore, Scott Lawrence

    1988-12-01

    Computer simulations of the optical servo functions of optical disk drives are developed and compared with experimental results. The focus control servo is investigated first, with emphasis on the astigmatic focus detection method. A paraxial ray trace, enhanced to allow tolerance studies of tilted and decentered surfaces, is used to calculate the size and orientation of an astigmatic blur on a quadrant photodetector as a function of focus error. The resulting irradiance distribution is integrated over the detector elements and processed to yield typical focus servo signals. A method for simulating generalized astigmatic focus systems, independent of a particular design, is also shown. The simulation results are used to derive normalized tolerance curves for detector misalignment and spot motion. Alignment diagnostics based on the servo signals are also presented. A wavefront aberration model is also developed and used to investigate the focus servo's performance in the presence of common aberrations. Simulations based on diffraction theory are used to investigate the radial tracking servo. Both scalar and vector diffraction theories are considered. The scalar theory is found to be adequate in most cases, while offering a large advantage in computational efficiency. A model for computing the signals detected by scanning the microscopic features of the disk is developed using the optical cross transfer function that describes the imaging characteristics of partially coherent systems. This model is used to investigate push-pull and three beam tracking. Aberrations, data patterns, detector misalignment, and pregroove profile are all examined for their effects on the servo signals. Crosstalk between the focus and tracking error detection is also briefly considered, and a possible extension of the radial tracking servo model to investigate this phenomenon is suggested.

  18. Determinants of short and long term functional recovery after hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly: role of inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    El Solh, Ali; Pineda, Lilibeth; Bouquin, Pam; Mankowski, Corey

    2006-01-01

    Background Hospitalization for older patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with functional decline. Little is know about the relationship between inflammatory markers and determinants of functional status in this population. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, C-reactive protein (CRP) and Activities of Daily Living, and to identify risk factors associated with one year mortality or hospital readmission. Methods 301 consecutive patients hospitalized for CAP (mean age 73.9 ± 5.3 years) in a University affiliated hospital over 18 month period were included. All patients were evaluated on admission to identify baseline demographic, microbiological, cognitive and functional characteristics. Serum levels for TNF-? and CRP were collected at the same time. Reassessment of functional status at discharge, and monthly thereafter till 3 months post discharge was obtained and compared with preadmission level to document loss or recovery of functionality. Outcome was assessed by the composite endpoint of hospital readmission or death from any cause up to one year post hospital discharge. Results 36% of patients developed functional decline at discharge and 11% had persistent functional impairment at 3 months. Serum TNF-? (odds ratio [OR] 1.12, 95% CI 1.08–1.15; p < 0.001) and the Charlson Index (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.71; p = 0.001) but not age, CRP, or cognitive status were independently associated with loss of functionality at the time of hospital discharge. Lack of recovery in functional status at 3 months was associated with impaired cognitive ability and preadmission comorbidities. In Cox regression analysis, persistent functional impairment at 3 months, impaired cognitive function, and the Charlson Index were highly predictive of one year hospital readmission or death. Conclusion Serum TNF-? levels can be useful in determining patients at risk for functional impairment following hospitalization from CAP. Old patients with impaired cognitive function and preexisting comorbidities who exhibit delay in functional recovery at 3 months post discharge may be at high risk for hospital readmission and death. With the scarcity of resources, a future risk stratification system based on these findings might be proven helpful to target older patients who are likely to benefit from interventional strategies. PMID:16899118

  19. Early constraint-induced movement therapy promotes functional recovery and neuronal plasticity in a subcortical hemorrhage model rat.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Akimasa; Misumi, Sachiyo; Ueda, Yoshitomo; Shimizu, Yuko; Cha-Gyun, Jung; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Ishida, Kazuto; Hida, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) promotes functional recovery of impaired forelimbs after hemiplegic strokes, including intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We used a rat model of subcortical hemorrhage to compare the effects of delivering early or late CIMT after ICH. The rat model was made by injecting collagenase into the globus pallidus near the internal capsule, and then forcing rats to use the affected forelimb for 7 days starting either 1 day (early CIMT) or 17 days (late CIMT) after the lesion. Recovery of forelimb function in the skilled reaching test and the ladder stepping test was found after early-CIMT, while no significant recovery was shown after late CIMT or in the non-CIMT controls. Early CIMT was associated with greater numbers of ?FosB-positive cells in the ipsi-lesional sensorimotor cortex layers II-III and V. Additionally, we found expression of the growth-related genes brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and growth-related protein 43 (GAP-43), and abundant dendritic arborization of pyramidal neurons in the sensorimotor area. Similar results were not detected in the contra-lesional cortex. In contrast to early CIMT, late CIMT failed to induce any changes in plasticity. We conclude that CIMT induces molecular and morphological plasticity in the ipsi-lesional sensorimotor cortex and facilitates better functional recovery when initiated immediately after hemorrhage. PMID:25700666

  20. Transplantation of GABAergic Neurons but not Astrocytes Induces Recovery of Sensorimotor Function in the Traumatically Injured Brain

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, G.D.; Tatko, L.M.; Pak, E.S.; Murashov, A.K.; Hoane, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have been investigated in many animal models of injury and disease. However, few studies have examined the ability of pre-differentiated ES cells to improve functional outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of murine ES cells that were pre-differentiated into GABAergic neurons or astrocytes on functional recovery following TBI. Neural and astrocyte induction was achieved by co-culturing ES cells on a bone marrow stromal fibroblast (M2-10B4) feeder layer and incubating them with various mitogenic factors. Rats were initially prepared with a unilateral controlled cortical contusion injury of the sensorimotor cortex or sham procedure. Rats were transplanted 7 days following injury with ?100K GABAergic neurons, astrocytes, fibroblasts, or media. Animals were assessed on a battery of sensorimotor tasks following transplantation. The stromal fibroblast cells (M2-10B4), as a control cell line, did not differ significantly from media infusions. Transplantation of GABAergic neurons facilitated complete and total recovery on the vibrissae-forelimb placing test as opposed to all other groups, which failed to show any recovery. It was also found that GABAergic neurons reduced the magnitude of the initial impairment on the limb use test. Histological analysis revealed infiltration of host brain with transplanted neurons and astrocytes. The results of the present study suggest that transplantation of pre-differentiated GABAergic neurons significantly induces recovery of sensorimotor function; whereas, astrocytes do not. PMID:17324477

  1. Exercise versus dobutamine-induced ST elevation in the infarct-related electrocardiographic leads: Clinical significance and correlation with functional recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrizio Lancellotti; Laurence Seidel; Etienne Hoffer; Henri E. Kulbertus; Luc A. Piérard

    2001-01-01

    Background The clinical significance of stress-induced ST elevation early after acute myocardial infarction and its relation to functional recovery remain controversial. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the incidence of ST elevation during dobutamine and exercise tests and (2) to assess the relative accuracy of exercise and dobutamine ST elevation for predicting functional recovery after acute myocardial

  2. Sensory experience during locomotion promotes recovery of function in adult visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Megumi; Stryker, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Recovery from sensory deprivation is slow and incomplete in adult visual cortex. In this study, we show that visual stimulation during locomotion, which increases the gain of visual responses in primary visual cortex, dramatically enhances recovery in the mouse. Excitatory neurons regained normal levels of response, while narrow-spiking (inhibitory) neurons remained less active. Visual stimulation or locomotion alone did not enhance recovery. Responses to the particular visual stimuli viewed by the animal during locomotion recovered, while those to another normally effective stimulus did not, suggesting that locomotion promotes the recovery only of the neural circuits that are activated concurrent with the locomotion. These findings may provide an avenue for improving recovery from amblyopia in humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02798.001 PMID:24970838

  3. Effects of Rolipram on Adult Rat Oligodendrocytes and Functional Recovery after Contusive Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, Eric; Whitaker, Christopher M.; Burke, Darlene A.; Hetman, Michal; Onifer, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic human spinal cord injury causes devastating and long-term hardships. These are due to the irreparable primary mechanical injury and secondary injury cascade. In particular, oligodendrocyte cell death, white matter axon damage, spared axon demyelination, and the ensuing dysfunction in action potential conduction lead to the initial deficits and impair functional recovery. For these reasons, and that oligodendrocyte and axon survival may be related, various neuroprotective strategies after SCI are being investigated. We previously demonstrated that oligodendrocytes in the adult rat epicenter ventrolateral funiculus express 3?-5?-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent phosphodiesterase 4 subtypes and that their death was attenuated up to 3 days after contusive cervical spinal cord injury when rolipram, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4, was administered. Here, we report that 1) there are more oligodendrocyte somata in the adult rat epicenter ventrolateral funiculus, 2) descending and ascending axonal conductivity in the ventrolateral funiculus improves, and that 3) there are fewer hindlimb footfall errors during grid-walking at 5 weeks after contusive cervical spinal cord injury when rolipram is delivered for 2 weeks. This is the first demonstration of improved descending and ascending long-tract axonal conductivity across a spinal cord injury with this pharmacological approach. Since descending long-tract axonal conductivity did not return to normal, further evaluations of the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic window of rolipram as well as optimal combinations are necessary before consideration for neuroprotection in humans with spinal cord injury. PMID:19635528

  4. Overexpression of sox11 promotes corticospinal tract regeneration after spinal injury while interfering with functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zimei; Reynolds, Ashley; Kirry, Adam; Nienhaus, Christopher; Blackmore, Murray G

    2015-02-18

    Embryonic neurons, peripheral neurons, and CNS neurons in zebrafish respond to axon injury by initiating pro-regenerative transcriptional programs that enable axons to extend, locate appropriate targets, and ultimately contribute to behavioral recovery. In contrast, many long-distance projection neurons in the adult mammalian CNS, notably corticospinal tract (CST) neurons, display a much lower regenerative capacity. To promote CNS repair, a long-standing goal has been to activate pro-regenerative mechanisms that are normally missing from injured CNS neurons. Sox11 is a transcription factor whose expression is common to a many types of regenerating neurons, but it is unknown whether suboptimal Sox11 expression contributes to low regenerative capacity in the adult mammalian CNS. Here we show in adult mice that dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGs) and CST neurons fail to upregulate Sox11 after spinal axon injury. Furthermore, forced viral expression of Sox11 reduces axonal dieback of DRG axons, and promotes CST sprouting and regenerative axon growth in both acute and chronic injury paradigms. In tests of forelimb dexterity, however, Sox11 overexpression in the cortex caused a modest but consistent behavioral impairment. These data identify Sox11 as a key transcription factor that can confer an elevated innate regenerative capacity to CNS neurons. The results also demonstrate an unexpected dissociation between axon growth and behavioral outcome, highlighting the need for additional strategies to optimize the functional output of stimulated neurons. PMID:25698749

  5. Ectopic expression of human angiopoietin-1 promotes functional recovery and neurogenesis after focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Meng, Z; Li, M; He, Q; Jiang, S; Zhang, X; Xiao, J; Bai, Y

    2014-05-16

    Neuropathologic processes such as cerebral ischemia can enhance neurogenesis. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) emerges as a critical regulator of physiological and pathological angiogenesis during embryonic and postnatal life. Although Ang1 could protect peripheral vasculature from vascular leakage following ischemic injury, the role of Ang1 in long-term neurological recovery after ischemic stroke remains elusive. This study aims to examine whether Ang1 overexpression via lentivirus-mediated gene transfer enhances neurovascular remodeling and improves functional outcome in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Our results demonstrated that lentivirus-mediated Ang1 gene transfer led to improved neurological behavior and reduced infarction volume, and protected against blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage in the ischemic rats. In addition, we revealed that these effects of Ang1 are related to the ability of Ang1 to increase vascular density and accelerate endogenous neuronal differentiation. These findings suggest that Ang1 is a promising agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia. PMID:24607344

  6. Doxycycline-regulated GDNF expression promotes axonal regeneration and functional recovery in transected peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Shakhbazau, Antos; Mohanty, Chandan; Shcharbin, Dzmitry; Bryszewska, Maria; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Alant, Jacob; Midha, Rajiv

    2013-12-28

    Increased production of neurotrophic factors (NTFs) is one of the key responses seen following peripheral nerve injury, making them an attractive choice for pro-regenerative gene therapies. However, the downside of over-expression of certain NTFs, including glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), was earlier found to be the trapping and misdirection of regenerating axons, the so-called 'candy-store' effect. We report a proof-of-principle study on the application of conditional GDNF expression system in injured peripheral nerve. We engineered Schwann cells (SCs) using dendrimers or lentiviral transduction with the vector providing doxycycline-regulated GDNF expression. Injection of GDNF-modified cells into the injured peripheral nerve followed by time-restricted administration of doxycycline demonstrated that GDNF expression in SCs can also be controlled locally in the peripheral nerves of the experimental animals. Cell-based GDNF therapy was shown to increase the extent of axonal regeneration, while controlled deactivation of GDNF effectively prevented trapping of regenerating axons in GDNF-enriched areas, and was associated with improved functional recovery. PMID:24140746

  7. Exercise facilitates the action of dietary DHA on functional recovery after brain trauma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Aiguo; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The abilities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and exercise to counteract cognitive decay after TBI is getting increasing recognition; however, the possibility that these actions can be complementary remains just as an intriguing possibility. Here we have examined the likelihood that the combination of diet and exercise has the added potential to facilitate functional recovery following TBI. Rats received mild fluid percussion injury (mFPI) or sham injury and then were maintained on a diet high in DHA (1.2% DHA) with or without voluntary exercise for 12 days. We found that FPI reduced DHA content in the brain, which was accompanied by increased levels of lipid peroxidation assessed using 4-HHE. FPI reduced the enzymes Acox1 and 17 -HSD4, and the calcium-independent phospholipases A2 (iPLA2), which are involved in metabolism of membrane phospholipids. FPI reduced levels of syntaxin-3 (STX-3), involved in the action of membrane DHA on synaptic membrane expansion, and also reduced BDNF signaling through its TrkB receptor. These effects of FPI were optimally counteracted by the combination of DHA and exercise. Our results support the possibility that the complementary action of exercise is exerted on restoring membrane homeostasis after TBI, which is necessary for supporting synaptic plasticity and cognition. It is our contention that strategies that take advantage of the combined applications of diet and exercise may have additional effects to the injured brain. PMID:23811071

  8. Biomaterial-based interventions for neuronal regeneration and functional recovery in rodent model of spinal cord injury: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Vibhor; Konakondla, Sanjay; Nicholas, Joyce; Varma, Abhay; Kindy, Mark; Wen, Xuejun

    2013-01-01

    Context There is considerable interest in translating laboratory advances in neuronal regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI). A multimodality approach has been advocated for successful functional neuronal regeneration. With this goal in mind several biomaterials have been employed as neuronal bridges either to support cellular transplants, to release neurotrophic factors, or to do both. A systematic review of this literature is lacking. Such a review may provide insight to strategies with a high potential for further investigation and potential clinical application. Objective To systematically review the design strategies and outcomes after biomaterial-based multimodal interventions for neuronal regeneration in rodent SCI model. To analyse functional outcomes after implantation of biomaterial-based multimodal interventions and to identify predictors of functional outcomes. Methods A broad PubMed, CINHAL, and a manual search of relevant literature databases yielded data from 24 publications; 14 of these articles included functional outcome information. Studies reporting behavioral data in rat model of SCI and employing biodegradable polymer-based multimodal intervention were included. For behavioral recovery, studies using severe injury models (transection or severe clip compression (>16.9 g) or contusion (50 g/cm)) were categorized separately from those investigating partial injury models (hemisection or moderate-to-severe clip compression or contusion). Results The cumulative mean improvements in Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores after biomaterial-based interventions are 5.93 (95% CI = 2.41 ? 9.45) and 4.44 (95% CI = 2.65 – 6.24) for transection and hemisection models, respectively. Factors associated with improved outcomes include the type of polymer used and a follow-up period greater than 6 weeks. Conclusion The functional improvement after implantation of biopolymer-based multimodal implants is modest. The relationship with neuronal regeneration and functional outcome, the effects of inflammation at the site of injury, the prolonged survival of supporting cells, the differentiation of stem cells, the effective delivery of neurotrophic factors, and longer follow-up periods are all topics for future elucidation. Future investigations should strive to further define specific factors associated with improved functional outcomes in clinically relevant models. PMID:23809587

  9. Whey Proteins Are More Efficient than Casein in the Recovery of Muscle Functional Properties following a Casting Induced Muscle Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Vincent; Ratel, Sébastien; Siracusa, Julien; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Combaret, Lydie; Guillet, Christelle; Dardevet, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whey supplementation, as compared to the standard casein diet, on the recovery of muscle functional properties after a casting-induced immobilization period. After an initial (I0) evaluation of the contractile properties of the plantarflexors (isometric torque-frequency relationship, concentric power-velocity relationship and a fatigability test), the ankle of 20 male adult rats was immobilized by casting for 8 days. During this period, rats were fed a standard diet with 13% of casein (CAS). After cast removal, rats received either the same diet or a diet with 13% of whey proteins (WHEY). A control group (n?=?10), non-immobilized but pair-fed to the two other experimental groups, was also studied and fed with the CAS diet. During the recovery period, contractile properties were evaluated 7 (R7), 21 (R21) and 42 days (R42) after cast removal. The immobilization procedure induced a homogeneous depression of average isometric force at R7 (CAS: ? 19.0±8.2%; WHEY: ? 21.7±8.4%; P<0.001) and concentric power (CAS: ? 26.8±16.4%, P<0.001; WHEY: ? 13.5±21.8%, P<0.05) as compared to I0. Conversely, no significant alteration of fatigability was observed. At R21, isometric force had fully recovered in WHEY, especially for frequencies above 50 Hz, whereas it was still significantly depressed in CAS, where complete recovery occurred only at R42. Similarly, recovery of concentric power was faster at R21 in the 500?700°/s range in the WHEY group. These results suggest that recovery kinetics varied between diets, the diet with the whey proteins promoting a faster recovery of isometric force and concentric power output as compared to the casein diet. These effects were more specifically observed at force level and movement velocities that are relevant for functional abilities, and thus natural locomotion. PMID:24069411

  10. Muscle Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor ? Promotes Axonal Regeneration and Functional Recovery Following Peripheral Nerve Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nancy; Spearry, Rachel P.; Leahy, Kendra M.; Robitz, Rachel; Trinh, Dennis S.; Mason, Carter O.; Zurbrugg, Rebekah J.; Batt, Myra K.; Paul, Richard J.; Maclennan, A. John

    2014-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) administration maintains, protects, and promotes the regeneration of both motor neurons (MNs) and skeletal muscle in a wide variety of models. Expression of CNTF receptor ? (CNTFR?), an essential CNTF receptor component, is greatly increased in skeletal muscle following neuromuscular insult. Together the data suggest that muscle CNTFR? may contribute to neuromuscular maintenance, protection, and/or regeneration in vivo. To directly address the role of muscle CNTFR?, we selectively-depleted it in vivo by using a “floxed” CNTFR? mouse line and a gene construct (mlc1f-Cre) that drives the expression of Cre specifically in skeletal muscle. The resulting mice were challenged with sciatic nerve crush. Counting of nerve axons and retrograde tracing of MNs indicated that muscle CNTFR? contributes to MN axonal regeneration across the lesion site. Walking track analysis indicated that muscle CNTFR? is also required for normal recovery of motor function. However, the same muscle CNTFR? depletion unexpectedly had no detected effect on the maintenance or regeneration of the muscle itself, even though exogenous CNTF has been shown to affect these functions. Similarly, MN survival and lesion-induced terminal sprouting were unaffected. Therefore, muscle CNTFR? is an interesting new example of a muscle growth factor receptor that, in vivo under physiological conditions, contributes much more to neuronal regeneration than to the maintenance or regeneration of the muscle itself. This novel form of muscle–neuron interaction also has implications in the therapeutic targeting of the neuromuscular system in MN disorders and following nerve injury. PMID:23504871

  11. Method for efficient recovery of high-purity polycarbonates from electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Weeden, George S; Soepriatna, Nicholas H; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

    2015-02-17

    More than one million tons of polycarbonates from waste electrical and electronic equipment are consigned to landfills at an increasing rate of 3-5% per year. Recycling the polymer waste should have a major environmental impact. Pure solvents cannot be used to selectively extract polycarbonates from mixtures of polymers with similar properties. In this study, selective mixed solvents are found using guidelines from Hansen solubility parameters, gradient polymer elution chromatography, and solubility tests. A room-temperature sequential extraction process using two mixed solvents is developed to recover polycarbonates with high yield (>95%) and a similar purity and molecular weight distribution as virgin polycarbonates. The estimated cost of recovery is less than 30% of the cost of producing virgin polycarbonates from petroleum. This method would potentially reduce raw materials from petroleum, use 84% less energy, reduce emission by 1-6 tons of CO2 per ton of polycarbonates, and reduce polymer accumulation in landfills and associated environmental hazards. PMID:25625790

  12. Method for enhancing selectivity and recovery in the fractional flotation of particles in a flotation column

    DOEpatents

    Klunder, Edgar B. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2011-08-09

    The method relates to particle separation from a feed stream. The feed stream is injected directly into the froth zone of a vertical flotation column in the presence of a counter-current reflux stream. A froth breaker generates a reflux stream and a concentrate stream, and the reflux stream is injected into the froth zone to mix with the interstitial liquid between bubbles in the froth zone. Counter-current flow between the plurality of bubbles and the interstitial liquid facilitates the attachment of higher hydrophobicity particles to bubble surfaces as lower hydrophobicity particles detach. The height of the feed stream injection and the reflux ratio may be varied in order to optimize the concentrate or tailing stream recoveries desired based on existing operating conditions.

  13. Function-Triggering Antibodies to the Adhesion Molecule L1 Enhance Recovery after Injury of the Adult Mouse Femoral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Guseva, Daria; Loers, Gabriele; Schachner, Melitta

    2014-01-01

    L1 is among the few adhesion molecules that favors repair after trauma in the adult central nervous system of vertebrates by promoting neuritogenesis and neuronal survival, among other beneficial features. In the peripheral nervous system, L1 is up-regulated in Schwann cells and regrowing axons after nerve damage, but the functional consequences of this expression remain unclear. Our previous study of L1-deficient mice in a femoral nerve injury model showed an unexpected improved functional recovery, attenuated motoneuronal cell death, and enhanced Schwann cell proliferation, being attributed to the persistent synthesis of neurotrophic factors. On the other hand, transgenic mice over-expressing L1 in neurons led to improved remyelination, but not improved functional recovery. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the monoclonal L1 antibody 557 that triggers beneficial L1 functions in vitro would trigger these also in femoral nerve repair. We analyzed femoral nerve regeneration in C57BL/6J mice that received this antibody in a hydrogel filled conduit connecting the cut and sutured nerve before its bifurcation, leading to short-term release of antibody by diffusion. Video-based quantitative analysis of motor functions showed improved recovery when compared to mice treated with conduits containing PBS in the hydrogel scaffold, as a vehicle control. This improved recovery was associated with attenuated motoneuron loss, remyelination and improved precision of preferential motor reinnervation. We suggest that function-triggering L1 antibodies applied to the lesion site at the time of injury over a limited time period will not only be beneficial in peripheral, but also central nervous system regeneration. PMID:25393007

  14. [Influence of different recovery methods on the activity of nitrification granular sludge].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiu-Li; Gao, Da-Wen; Lu, Jian-Cong

    2013-10-01

    Aerobic nitrifying granule sludge cultivated in sequential batch reactor (SBR) was used to investigate the critical activity point of granules and the effect of different ammonia concentration and aeration time on reactivation after storage. The results showed that there was big difference in the activity (SOUR, 02/VSS) of nitrifying bacteria after different storage time. The specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR) of granules before storage was 13. 15 mg.(g h)-1. After a storage period of 20 days, the SOUR decreased by 1.26 mg.(g.h)-1 , after 5 cycles of reactivation, the ammonia removal efficiency was already increased to 95% while the SOUR was recovered to 13.87 mg.(g.h)-1. But after a storage period of 30 days, the SOUR decreased by 11.63 mg.(g.h)-1, after 51 cycles of reactivation, the ammonia removal efficiecny only eached 92. 64% while the SOUR was recovered to 14.92 mg.(g.h)-1. Meanwhile, this storage method required a longer recovery time. Therefore, we put forward that the critical activity of denitrifying granular sludge should be the activity when activity recovery starts and the nitrifying bacteria SOUR begins to decline. On the basis of the critical activity, we began to restore the activity when the activity of the denitrifying bacteria was reduced to critical activity, and then started a new storage cycle. This storage method was named dynamic storage. Different influent ammonia concentrations of 20, 30 and40 mg.L-1 were applied to reactivate the aerobic granules. Highest SOUR could be achieved when fed with an ammonia concentration of 40 mg.L-1 after reactivation. After three times of dynamic storage, the SOUR remained stable. Different aeration time of 1, 2 and 3 h was applied to reactivate the aerobic granules. Highest SOUR could be obtained when aeration time of 1 h was applied after reactivation and remained stable along with dynamic storage. PMID:24364320

  15. Recovery of Renal Function among ESRD Patients in the US Medicare Program

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Sumit; Huff, Edwin; Wish, Jay; Lilly, Michael; Chen, Shu-Cheng; McClellan, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients started on long term hemodialysis have typically had low rates of reported renal recovery with recent estimates ranging from 0.9–2.4% while higher rates of recovery have been reported in cohorts with higher percentages of patients with acute renal failure requiring dialysis. Study Design Our analysis followed approximately 194,000 patients who were initiated on hemodialysis during a 2-year period (2008 & 2009) with CMS-2728 forms submitted to CMS by dialysis facilities, cross-referenced with patient record updates through the end of 2010, and tracked through December 2010 in the CMS SIMS registry. Results We report a sustained renal recovery (i.e no return to ESRD during the available follow up period) rate among Medicare ESRD patients of > 5% - much higher than previously reported. Recovery occurred primarily in the first 2 months post incident dialysis, and was more likely in cases with renal failure secondary to etiologies associated with acute kidney injury. Patients experiencing sustained recovery were markedly less likely than true long-term ESRD patients to have permanent vascular accesses in place at incident hemodialysis, while non-White patients, and patients with any prior nephrology care appeared to have significantly lower rates of renal recovery. We also found widespread geographic variation in the rates of renal recovery across the United States. Conclusions Renal recovery rates in the US Medicare ESRD program are higher than previously reported and appear to have significant geographic variation. Patients with diagnoses associated with acute kidney injury who are initiated on long-term hemodialysis have significantly higher rates of renal recovery than the general ESRD population and lower rates of permanent access placement. PMID:24358285

  16. Active subnetwork recovery with a mechanism-dependent scoring function; with application to angiogenesis and organogenesis studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The learning active subnetworks problem involves finding subnetworks of a bio-molecular network that are active in a particular condition. Many approaches integrate observation data (e.g., gene expression) with the network topology to find candidate subnetworks. Increasingly, pathway databases contain additional annotation information that can be mined to improve prediction accuracy, e.g., interaction mechanism (e.g., transcription, microRNA, cleavage) annotations. We introduce a mechanism-based approach to active subnetwork recovery which exploits such annotations. We suggest that neighboring interactions in a network tend to be co-activated in a way that depends on the “correlation” of their mechanism annotations. e.g., neighboring phosphorylation and de-phosphorylation interactions may be more likely to be co-activated than neighboring phosphorylation and covalent bonding interactions. Results Our method iteratively learns the mechanism correlations and finds the most likely active subnetwork. We use a probabilistic graphical model with a Markov Random Field component which creates dependencies between the states (active or non-active) of neighboring interactions, that incorporates a mechanism-based component to the function. We apply a heuristic-based EM-based algorithm suitable for the problem. We validated our method’s performance using simulated data in networks downloaded from GeneGO against the same approach without the mechanism-based component, and two other existing methods. We validated our methods performance in correctly recovering (1) the true interaction states, and (2) global network properties of the original network against these other methods. We applied our method to networks generated from time-course gene expression studies in angiogenesis and lung organogenesis and validated the findings from a biological perspective against current literature. Conclusions The advantage of our mechanism-based approach is best seen in networks composed of connected regions with a large number of interactions annotated with a subset of mechanisms, e.g., a regulatory region of transcription interactions, or a cleavage cascade region. When applied to real datasets, our method recovered novel and biologically meaningful putative interactions, e.g., interactions from an integrin signaling pathway using the angiogenesis dataset, and a group of regulatory microRNA interactions in an organogenesis network. PMID:23432934

  17. Adjusting the Influence Function Method for Subsidence Prediction

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    concordance with observed data. Introduction The extraction of ore and minerals by underground mining may-empirical and numerical methods. The empirical and semi-empirical methods include graphical methods, profile function : Turkey (2012)" #12;The profile function methods are based on mathematical functions that have been

  18. Verifying the Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function Method

    E-print Network

    George Jacoby

    1996-08-20

    The planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF) technique for determining distances to galaxies now has been applied to 34 galaxies, including 6 in the Virgo cluster and 3 in the Fornax cluster. Of these, 16 galaxies are late-type or spirals and presumably contain Cepheid variables useful for verifying the PNLF method. For 7 of these galaxies, Cepheid distances exist; the PNLF distances agree with the Cepheid distances within the dispersion of 8% and within a zero-point offset of 1%. In addition, 3 small groups were studied (NGC 1023, Leo I, and Coma I) where both spiral and elliptical distances were obtained to investigate the magnitude of any systematic dependence on spiral versus elliptical Hubble type. None was found. Since the PNLF method agrees well with the Cepheid system, and there is no measurable dependence on Hubble type, it follows that PNLF distances to the ellipticals in Virgo and Fornax also are on the Cepheid scale. This conclusion is strengthened by the Cepheid distances to several Virgo galaxies and the recent determination of a Cepheid distance to Fornax.

  19. Sensitivity, variability, and recovery of functional and structural endpoints of an aquatic community exposed to herbicides.

    PubMed

    Knauer, Katja; Hommen, Udo

    2012-04-01

    A mesocosm study with three photosystem-II inhibitors and an equipotent mixture was performed to address the value of functional and structural endpoints in evaluating the impact of herbicides on aquatic systems. The herbicides atrazine, diuron, and isoproturon were dosed in the ratio of their relative potencies as HC30 for the single substance treatments and as 1/3 HC30 for the mixture treatment to obtain comparable effect concentrations. To investigate the effects of the three herbicides and their mixture on photosynthesis of the whole system, the physical-chemical parameters pH, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity were monitored. To address effects on photosynthesis more specifically, the photosynthetic efficiency of phytoplankton and three submersed macrophytes (Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Potamogeton lucens) were investigated applying in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator for their activity. As a structural endpoint, the species abundance and community structure of the phytoplankton community was determined. Effects were continuously monitored over a five week period of constant exposure, and during a 3 month post-exposure period. The sensitivity, expressed as maximum effect during constant exposure, was higher for the structural parameters (total and single species abundances and PRC) than for the functional parameters. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for the physical-chemical parameters was below 10%, for the photosynthesis measurement of the phytoplankton and macrophytes below 10 and 30%, respectively. Structural parameters, however, yielded higher variability with mean CVs for phytoplankton abundance data and single sensitive species reaching up to 96%. Effects on the phytoplankton photosynthesis measured via in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence were constant during the exposure period; whereas macrophytes recovered quickly from photosynthesis inhibition despite constant exposure. Effects on total system photosynthesis, determined via physical-chemical parameters, lasted for a shorter period than for the phytoplankton photosynthesis demonstrating the importance of the macrophytes for total primary production. Thus, the evaluation of effects on communities in model ecosystems such as micro- and mesocosms should not be based on structural endpoints only due to their comparably high inherent variability. Instead, we recommend complementing the risk assessment with data obtained from sensitive functional endpoints addressing the specific mode of action of the respective compound for the most sensitive group of organisms to avoid over-estimation of the recovery potential of the aquatic system. PMID:22153306

  20. Transplantated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Embryonic Stem Cells Promote Muscle Regeneration and Accelerate Functional Recovery of Injured Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ninagawa, Nana Takenaka; Isobe, Eri; Hirayama, Yuri; Murakami, Rumi; Komatsu, Kazumi; Nagai, Masataka; Kobayashi, Mami; Kawabata, Yuka

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We previously established that mesenchymal stem cells originating from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells (E-MSCs) showed markedly higher potential for differentiation into skeletal muscles in vitro than common mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Further, the E-MSCs exhibited a low risk for teratoma formation. Here we evaluate the potential of E-MSCs for differentiation into skeletal muscles in vivo and reveal the regeneration and functional recovery of injured muscle by transplantation. E-MSCs were transplanted into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle 24?h following direct clamping. After transplantation, the myogenic differentiation of E-MSCs, TA muscle regeneration, and re-innervation were morphologically analyzed. In addition, footprints and gaits of each leg under spontaneous walking were measured by CatWalk XT, and motor functions of injured TA muscles were precisely analyzed. Results indicate that >60% of transplanted E-MSCs differentiated into skeletal muscles. The cross-sectional area of the injured TA muscles of E-MSC–transplanted animals increased earlier than that of control animals. E-MSCs also promotes re-innervation of the peripheral nerves of injured muscles. Concerning function of the TA muscles, we reveal that transplantation of E-MSCs promotes the recovery of muscles. This is the first report to demonstrate by analysis of spontaneous walking that transplanted cells can accelerate the functional recovery of injured muscles. Taken together, the results show that E-MSCs have a high potential for differentiation into skeletal muscles in vivo as well as in vitro. The transplantation of E-MSCs facilitated the functional recovery of injured muscles. Therefore, E-MSCs are an efficient cell source in transplantation. PMID:23914336

  1. Thoracic epidural anesthesia does not affect functional recovery from myocardial stunning in sevoflurane-anesthetized dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Meissner; Thomas P. Weber; Hugo Van Aken; Michael Weyand; Michael Booke; Norbert Rolf

    1998-01-01

    Objective: A beneficial effect of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) on recovery from myocardial stunning was previously shown in awake dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TEA on recovery from myocardial stunning in sevoflurane-anesthetized dogs.Design: Randomized animal study.Setting: Animal laboratory of a university hospital.Participants: Chronically instrumented mongrel dogs.Interventions: Six dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement

  2. Method for the recovery of silver from waste photographic fixer solutions

    DOEpatents

    Posey, Franz A. (Concord, TN); Palko, Aloysius A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    The method of the present invention is directed to the recovery of silver from spent photographic fixer solutions and for providing an effluent essentially silver-free that is suitable for discharge into commercial sewage systems. The present method involves the steps of introducing the spent photographic fixer solution into an alkaline hypochlorite solution. The oxidizing conditions of the alkaline hypochlorite solution are maintained during the addition of the fixer solution so that the silver ion complexing agents of thiosulfate and sulfite ions are effectively destroyed. Hydrazine monohydrate is then added to the oxidizing solution to form a reducing solution to effect the formation of a precipitate of silver which can be readily removed by filtration or decanting. Experimental tests indicate that greater than 99.99% of the original silver in the spent photographic fixer can be efficiently removed by practicing the present method. Also, the chemical and biological oxygen demand of the remaining effluent is significantly reduced so as to permit the discharge thereof into sewage systems at levels in compliance with federal and state environmental standards.

  3. LOWER COST METHODS FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY (IOR) VIA SURFACTANT FLOODING

    SciTech Connect

    William A. Goddard III; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Seung Soon Jang; Shiang-Tai Lin; Prabal Maiti; Yongfu Wu; Stefan Iglauer; Xiaohang Zhang

    2004-09-01

    This report provides a summary of the work performed in this 3-year project sponsored by DOE. The overall objective of this project is to identify new, potentially more cost-effective surfactant formulations for improved oil recovery (IOR). The general approach is to use an integrated experimental and computational chemistry effort to improve our understanding of the link between surfactant structure and performance, and from this knowledge, develop improved IOR surfactant formulations. Accomplishments for the project include: (1) completion of a literature review to assemble current and new surfactant IOR ideas, (2) Development of new atomistic-level MD (molecular dynamic) modeling methodologies to calculate IFT (interfacial tension) rigorously from first principles, (3) exploration of less computationally intensive mesoscale methods to estimate IFT, Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR), and cohesive energy density (CED) calculations, (4) experiments to screen many surfactant structures for desirable low IFT and solid adsorption behavior, and (5) further experimental characterization of the more promising new candidate formulations (based on alkyl polyglycosides (APG) and alkyl propoxy sulfate surfactants). Important findings from this project include: (1) the IFT between two pure substances may be calculated quantitatively from fundamental principles using Molecular Dynamics, the same approach can provide qualitative results for ternary systems containing a surfactant, (2) low concentrations of alkyl polyglycoside surfactants have potential for IOR (Improved Oil Recovery) applications from a technical standpoint (if formulated properly with a cosurfactant, they can create a low IFT at low concentration) and also are viable economically as they are available commercially, and (3) the alkylpropoxy sulfate surfactants have promising IFT performance also, plus these surfactants can have high optimal salinity and so may be attractive for use in higher salinity reservoirs. Alkylpropoxy sulfate surfactants are not yet available as large volume commercial products. The results presented herein can provide the needed industrial impetus for extending application (alkyl polyglycoside) or scaling up (alkylpropoxy sulfates) of these two promising surfactants for enhanced oil recovery. Furthermore, the advanced simulations tools presented here can be used to continue to uncover new types of surfactants with promising properties such as inherent low IFT and biodegradability.

  4. Transplantation of human neural stem/progenitor cells overexpressing galectin-1 improves functional recovery from focal brain ischemia in the mongolian gerbil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSPCs) is a promising method to regenerate tissue from damage and recover function in various neurological diseases including brain ischemia. Galectin-1(Gal1) is a lectin that is expressed in damaged brain areas after ischemia. Here, we characterized the detailed Gal1 expression pattern in an animal model of brain ischemia. After brain ischemia, Gal1 was expressed in reactive astrocytes within and around the infarcted region, and its expression diminished over time. Previously, we showed that infusion of human Gal1 protein (hGal1) resulted in functional recovery after brain ischemia but failed to reduce the volume of the ischemic region. This prompted us to examine whether the combination of hNSPCs-transplantation and stable delivery of hGal1 around the ischemic region could reduce the ischemic volume and promote better functional recovery after brain ischemia. In this study, we transplanted hNSPCs that stably overexpressed hGal1 (hGal1-hNSPCs) in a model of unilateral focal brain ischemia using Mongolian gerbils. Indeed, we found that transplantation of hGal1-hNSPCs both reduced the ischemic volume and improved deficits in motor function after brain ischemia to a greater extent than the transplantation of hNSPCs alone. This study provides evidence for a potential application of hGal1 with hNSPCs-transplantation in the treatment of brain ischemia. PMID:21951913

  5. Modeling of Salivary Production Recovery After Radiotherapy Using Mixed Models: Determination of Optimal Dose Constraint for IMRT Planning and Construction of Convenient Tools to Predict Salivary Function

    SciTech Connect

    Ortholan, Cecile [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France)], E-mail: c.ortholan@wanadoo.fr; Chamorey, Emmanuel Phar [Department of Biostatistics, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France); Benezery, Karen; Thariat, Juliette [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France); Dassonville, Olivier; Poissonnet, Gilles; Bozec, Alexandre [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France); Follana, Philippe; Peyrade, Frederique [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France); Sudaka, Anne [Department of Pathology, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France); Gerard, Jean Pierre; Bensadoun, Rene Jean [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France)

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The mathematical relationship between the dose to the parotid glands and salivary gland production needs to be elucidated. This study, which included data from patients included in a French prospective study assessing the benefit of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (RT), sought to elaborate a convenient and original model of salivary recovery. Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and December 2004, 44 patients were included (35 with oropharyngeal and 9 with nasopharyngeal cancer). Of the 44 patients, 24 were treated with intensity-modulated RT, 17 with three-dimensional conformal RT, and 2 with two-dimensional RT. Stimulated salivary production was collected for {<=}24 months after RT. The data of salivary production, time of follow-up, and dose to parotid gland were modeled using a mixed model. Several models were developed to assess the best-fitting variable for the dose level to the parotid gland. Results: Models developed with the dose to the contralateral parotid fit the data slightly better than those with the dose to both parotids, suggesting that contralateral and ipsilateral parotid glands are not functionally equivalent even with the same dose level to the glands. The best predictive dose-value variable for salivary flow recovery was the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy. Conclusion: The results of this study show that the recommendation of a dose constraint for intensity-modulated RT planning should be established at the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy rather than the mean dose. For complete salivary production recovery after 24 months, the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy should be <33%. Our results permitted us to establish two convenient tools to predict the saliva production recovery function according to the dose received by the contralateral parotid gland.

  6. Interleukin-33 treatment reduces secondary injury and improves functional recovery after contusion spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Pomeshchik, Yuriy; Kidin, Iurii; Korhonen, Paula; Savchenko, Ekaterina; Jaronen, Merja; Lehtonen, Sarka; Wojciechowski, Sara; Kanninen, Katja; Koistinaho, Jari; Malm, Tarja

    2015-02-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a member of the interleukin-1 cytokine family and highly expressed in the naïve mouse brain and spinal cord. Despite the fact that IL-33 is known to be inducible by various inflammatory stimuli, its cellular localization in the central nervous system and role in pathological conditions is controversial. Administration of recombinant IL-33 has been shown to attenuate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis progression in one study, yet contradictory reports also exist. Here we investigated for the first time the pattern of IL-33 expression in the contused mouse spinal cord and demonstrated that after spinal cord injury (SCI) IL-33 was up-regulated and exhibited a nuclear localization predominantly in astrocytes. Importantly, we found that treatment with recombinant IL-33 alleviated secondary damage by significantly decreasing tissue loss, demyelination and astrogliosis in the contused mouse spinal cord, resulting in dramatically improved functional recovery. We identified both central and peripheral mechanisms of IL-33 action. In spinal cord, IL-33 treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-alpha and promoted the activation of anti-inflammatory arginase-1 positive M2 microglia/macrophages, which chronically persisted in the injured spinal cord for up to at least 42 days after the treatment. In addition, IL-33 treatment showed a tendency towards reduced T-cell infiltration into the spinal cord. In the periphery, IL-33 treatment induced a shift towards the Th2 type cytokine profile and reduced the percentage and absolute number of cytotoxic, tumor necrosis factor-alpha expressing CD4+ cells in the spleen. Additionally, IL-33 treatment increased expression of T-regulatory cell marker FoxP3 and reduced expression of M1 marker iNOS in the spleen. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that IL-33 administration is beneficial after CNS trauma. Treatment with IL33 may offer a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with acute contusion SCI. PMID:25153903

  7. Relation of delayed recovery of myocardial function after takotsubo cardiomyopathy to subsequent quality of life.

    PubMed

    Neil, Christopher J; Nguyen, Thanh H; Singh, Kuljit; Raman, Betty; Stansborough, Jeanette; Dawson, Dana; Frenneaux, Michael P; Horowitz, John D

    2015-04-15

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) has generally been regarded as a relatively transient disorder, characterized by reversible regional left ventricular systolic dysfunction. However, most patients with TTC experience prolonged lassitude or dyspnea after acute attacks. Although this might reflect continued emotional stress, myocardial inflammation and accentuated brain-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) release persist for at least 3 months. We therefore tested the hypotheses that this continued inflammation is associated with (1) persistent contractile dysfunction and (2) consequent impairment of quality of life. Echocardiographic parameters (global longitudinal strain [GLS], longitudinal strain rate [LSR], and peak apical twist [AT]) were compared acutely and after 3 months in 36 female patients with TTC and 19 age-matched female controls. Furthermore, correlations were sought between putative functional anomalies, inflammatory markers (T2 score on cardiovascular magnetic resonance, plasma NT-proBNP, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels), and the physical composite component of SF36 score (SF36-PCS). In TTC cases, left ventricular ejection fraction returned to normal within 3 months. GLS, LSR, and AT improved significantly over 3-month recovery, but GLS remained reduced compared to controls even at follow-up (-17.9 ± 3.1% vs -20.0 ± 1.8%, p = 0.003). Impaired GLS at 3 months was associated with both persistent NT-proBNP elevation (p = 0.03) and reduced SF36-PCS at ?3 months (p = 0.04). In conclusion, despite normalization of left ventricular ejection fraction, GLS remains impaired for at least 3 months, possibly as a result of residual myocardial inflammation. Furthermore, perception of impaired physical exercise capacity ?3 months after TTC may be explained by persistent myocardial dysfunction. PMID:25724780

  8. Recovery of pituitary function following treatment of an unruptured giant cavernous carotid aneurysm using Surpass flow-diverting stents.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lee A; Sandler, Victoria; Todorova-Koteva, Kristina; Levine, Laurence; Lopes, Demetrius K; Moftakhar, Roham

    2014-05-01

    Giant aneurysms arising from the cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) can mimic pituitary adenomas and may cause pituitary dysfunction due to their mass effect on the pituitary gland. We report a case of a 56-year-old man presenting with impotence, fatigue and panhypopituitarism who was found to have a giant unruptured aneurysm arising from the right cavernous ICA with severe mass effect on the pituitary gland. The patient underwent endovascular treatment of the giant aneurysm using two telescoping Surpass flow-diverting stents. At 6-month follow-up, repeat cerebral angiography showed Raymond grade II occlusion of the aneurysm with a small neck remnant. At the 10-month follow-up the patient showed full recovery of his pituitary function and clinical resolution of impotence and fatigue. This is the first report of occlusion of a giant cavernous carotid aneurysm using next generation Surpass flow-diverting stents leading to complete recovery of pituitary function. PMID:24811739

  9. Recovery of pituitary function following treatment of an unruptured giant cavernous carotid aneurysm using Surpass flow-diverting stents.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lee A; Sandler, Victoria; Todorova-Koteva, Kristina; Levine, Laurence; Lopes, Demetrius K; Moftakhar, Roham

    2014-01-01

    Giant aneurysms arising from the cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) can mimic pituitary adenomas and may cause pituitary dysfunction due to their mass effect on the pituitary gland. We report a case of a 56-year-old man presenting with impotence, fatigue and panhypopituitarism who was found to have a giant unruptured aneurysm arising from the right cavernous ICA with severe mass effect on the pituitary gland. The patient underwent endovascular treatment of the giant aneurysm using two telescoping Surpass flow-diverting stents. At 6-month follow-up, repeat cerebral angiography showed Raymond grade II occlusion of the aneurysm with a small neck remnant. At the 10-month follow-up the patient showed full recovery of his pituitary function and clinical resolution of impotence and fatigue. This is the first report of occlusion of a giant cavernous carotid aneurysm using next generation Surpass flow-diverting stents leading to complete recovery of pituitary function. PMID:24798360

  10. Vestibular compensation: role of visual motion cues in the recovery of posturo-kinetic functions in the cat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Zennou-Azogui; C. Xerri; J. Leonard; B. Tighilet

    1996-01-01

    Vision has long been recognized as a sensorimotor system which plays a major role in substitution for functional deficits induced by unilateral or bilateral exclusion of primary vestibular afferents. Little is known, however, about the post-lesion influence of visual inputs on the recovery of posturo-kinetic balance in a situation where fine, well-coordinated locomotr adjustments are required. The present study was

  11. p53 Regulates the neuronal intrinsic and extrinsic responses affecting the recovery of motor function following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Floriddia, Elisa M; Rathore, Khizr I; Tedeschi, Andrea; Quadrato, Giorgia; Wuttke, Anja; Lueckmann, Jan-Matthis; Kigerl, Kristina A; Popovich, Phillip G; Di Giovanni, Simone

    2012-10-01

    Following spinal trauma, the limited physiological axonal sprouting that contributes to partial recovery of function is dependent upon the intrinsic properties of neurons as well as the inhibitory glial environment. The transcription factor p53 is involved in DNA repair, cell cycle, cell survival, and axonal outgrowth, suggesting p53 as key modifier of axonal and glial responses influencing functional recovery following spinal injury. Indeed, in a spinal cord dorsal hemisection injury model, we observed a significant impairment in locomotor recovery in p53(-/-) versus wild-type mice. p53(-/-) spinal cords showed an increased number of activated microglia/macrophages and a larger scar at the lesion site. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments suggested p53 as a direct regulator of microglia/macrophages proliferation. At the axonal level, p53(-/-) mice showed a more pronounced dieback of the corticospinal tract (CST) and a decreased sprouting capacity of both CST and spinal serotoninergic fibers. In vivo expression of p53 in the sensorimotor cortex rescued and enhanced the sprouting potential of the CST in p53(-/-) mice, while, similarly, p53 expression in p53(-/-) cultured cortical neurons rescued a defect in neurite outgrowth, suggesting a direct role for p53 in regulating the intrinsic sprouting ability of CNS neurons. In conclusion, we show that p53 plays an important regulatory role at both extrinsic and intrinsic levels affecting the recovery of motor function following spinal cord injury. Therefore, we propose p53 as a novel potential multilevel therapeutic target for spinal cord injury. PMID:23035104

  12. Comparison of the effects of erythropoietin and anakinra on functional recovery and gene expression in a traumatic brain injury model

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gail D.; Peterson, Todd C.; Vonder Haar, Cole; Kantor, Eric D.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Hoane, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the effects of two inflammatory modulators, erythropoietin (EPO) and anakinra, on functional recovery and brain gene expression following a cortical contusion impact (CCI) injury. Dosage regimens were designed to provide serum concentrations in the range obtained with clinically approved doses. Functional recovery was assessed using both motor and spatial learning tasks and neuropathological measurements conducted in the cortex and hippocampus. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine the effect on gene expression at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days post-CCI. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to evaluate the effect on relevant functional categories. EPO and anakinra treatment resulted in significant changes in brain gene expression in the CCI model demonstrating acceptable brain penetration. At all three time points, EPO treatment resulted in significantly more differentially expressed genes than anakinra. For anakinra at 24 h and EPO at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days, the genes in the top 3 functional categories were involved in cellular movement, inflammatory response and cell-to-cell signaling. For EPO, the majority of the genes in the top 10 canonical pathways identified were associated with inflammatory and immune signaling processes. This was true for anakinra only at 24 h post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). The immunomodulation effects of EPO and anakinra did not translate into positive effects on functional behavioral and lesion studies. Treatment with either EPO or anakinra failed to induce significant beneficial effects on recovery of function or produce any significant effects on the prevention of injury induced tissue loss at 30 days post-injury. In conclusion, treatment with EPO or anakinra resulted in significant effects on gene expression in the brain without affecting functional outcome. This suggests that targeting these inflammatory processes alone may not be sufficient for preventing secondary injuries after TBI. PMID:24151467

  13. Single session of brief electrical stimulation immediately following crush injury enhances functional recovery of rat facial nerve.

    PubMed

    Foecking, Eileen M; Fargo, Keith N; Coughlin, Lisa M; Kim, James T; Marzo, Sam J; Jones, Kathryn J

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries lead to a variety of pathological conditions, including paresis or paralysis when the injury involves motor axons. We have been studying ways to enhance the regeneration of peripheral nerves using daily electrical stimulation (ES) following a facial nerve crush injury. In our previous studies, ES was not initiated until 24 h after injury. The current experiment tested whether ES administered immediately following the crush injury would further decrease the time for complete recovery from facial paralysis. Rats received a unilateral facial nerve crush injury and an electrode was positioned on the nerve proximal to the crush site. Animals received daily 30 min sessions of ES for 1 d (day of injury only), 2 d, 4 d, 7 d, or daily until complete functional recovery. Untreated animals received no ES. Animals were observed daily for the return of facial function. Our findings demonstrated that one session of ES was as effective as daily stimulation at enhancing the recovery of most functional parameters. Therefore, the use of a single 30 min session of ES as a possible treatment strategy should be studied in human patients with paralysis as a result of acute nerve injuries. PMID:22773203

  14. Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes anatomical and functional recovery of injured peripheral nerves in the avascular cornea

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zan; Fukuoka, Shima; Karagianni, Natalia; Guaiquil, Victor H.; Rosenblatt, Mark I.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a major neurological disorder that can cause severe motor and sensory dysfunction. Neurogenic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been found in the central nervous system, and we examined whether VEGF could promote anatomical and functional recovery of peripheral nerves after injury using an avascular corneal nerve injury model. We found that VEGF enhanced neurite elongation in isolated trigeminal ganglion neurons in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was suppressed by neutralizing antibodies for VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 1 and 2 or neuropilin receptor 1 or by VEGFR2 inhibitors (SU 1498 and Ki 8751). In vivo, mice receiving sustained VEGF via implanted pellets showed increased corneal nerve regeneration after superficial injury compared with those receiving vehicle. VEGF injected subconjunctivally at the time of injury accelerated reinnervation, the recovery of mechanosensation, and epithelial wound healing. Endogenous VEGF expression was up-regulated in the corneal epithelium and stroma after wounding. Thus, VEGF can mediate peripheral neuron growth but requires the activation of multiple VEGF receptor types. In addition, VEGF can accelerate the return of sensory and trophic functions of damaged peripheral nerves. Wounding induces the expression of VEFG, which may modulate physiological nerve repair.—Pan, Z., Fukuoka, S., Karagianni, N., Guaiquil, V. H., Rosenblatt, M. I. Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes anatomical and functional recovery of injured peripheral nerves in the avascular cornea. PMID:23568776

  15. Functional Methods in the Generalized Dicke Model

    E-print Network

    M. Aparicio Alcade; A. L. L. de Lemos; N. F. Svaiter

    2007-06-12

    The Dicke model describes an ensemble of N identical two-level atoms (qubits) coupled to a single mode of a bosonic field. The fermion Dicke model should be obtained by changing the atomic pseudo-spin operators by a linear combination of Fermi operators. The generalized fermion Dicke model is defined introducing different coupling constants between the single mode of the bosonic field and the reservoir. In the thermodynamic limit, the fermion Dicke model can be analized using the path integral approach with functional method. The system exhibits a second order phase transition from normal to superrandiance at some critical temperature with the presence of a condensate. We evaluate the critical transition temperature and present the spectrum of the collective bosonic excitations. There is quantum phantum critical behavior when the coupling constants satisfy an especific condition. Two particular situations are analyzed. First, we present the spectrum of the collective bosonic excitations in the case using the rotating-wave approximation, recovering the well know results. Second, the case only considering virtual processes. In the last case, it is possible to have a superradiance phase when only virtual processes are introduced in the interaction Hamiltonian. Here also appears a quantum phase transition at some critical coupling, and for larger values for the critical coupling, the system enter in this superradiant phase with a Goldstone mode.

  16. Method of managing interference during delay recovery on a train system

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Susanna P.; Evans, John A.

    2005-12-27

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  17. Method for Recovery and Immunoaffinity Enrichment of Membrane Proteins Illustrated with Metastatic Ovarian Cancer Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Luke V.; Likhte, Varsha; Wright, William H.; Chu, Frances; Cambron, Emma; Baldwin-Burnett, Anne; Krakow, Jessica; Smejkal, Gary B.

    2012-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins play key biological roles in cell signaling, transport, and pathogen invasion. However, quantitative clinical assays for this critical class of proteins remain elusive and are generally limited to serum-soluble extracellular fragments. Furthermore, classic proteomic approaches to membrane protein analysis typically involve proteolytic digestion of the soluble pieces, resulting in separation of intra- and extracellular segments and significant informational loss. In this paper, we describe the development of a new method for the quantitative extraction of intact integral membrane proteins (including GPCRs) from solid metastatic ovarian tumors using pressure cycling technology in combination with a new (ProteoSolve-TD) buffer system. This new extraction buffer is compatible with immunoaffinity methods (e.g., ELISA and immunoaffinity chromatography), as well as conventional proteomic techniques (e.g., 2D gels, western blots). We demonstrate near quantitative recovery of membrane proteins EDG2, EDG4, FASLG, KDR, and LAMP-3 by western blots. We have also adapted commercial ELISAs for serum-soluble membrane protein fragments (e.g., sVEGFR2) to measure the tissue titers of their transmembrane progenitors. Finally, we demonstrate the compatibility of the new buffers with immunoaffinity enrichment/mass spectrometric characterization of tissue proteins. PMID:22919487

  18. A method for quantitative recovery of DNA from plate lysates of bacteriophage lambda-derived clones.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, A

    1993-11-01

    A method is described for the purification of DNA from recombinant clones in lambda vectors. Plate lysates are used as the starting material, with the phage suspension being either loaded directly onto mini-cesium chloride two-step gradients or first subjected to precipitation with polyethylene glycol-8000 before application to the gradients. A single centrifugation step is used and the DNA is isolated from the harvested bacteriophage by incubation at room temperature with formamide followed by ethanol precipitation. The small-volume gradients were effective in isolating phage particles in the range of 1.0 to 12.5 x 10(11) pfu with quantitative recovery of approximately 7 micrograms DNA/10(11) pfu. The method was tested with a cDNA clone in lambda gt10 (as an example of a lambda-derived vector which gives a plate lysate with a high titer) and rat genomic fragments cloned into EMBL3A (for which the plate lysates are of low titer). For both vectors, the purified DNA appeared free of inhibitory contaminants as assessed by restriction endonuclease digestion and subcloning of fragments. PMID:8109743

  19. Recovery actions in PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) for the Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP): Volume 1, Development of the data-based method

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, L M; Whitehead, D W; Graves, N L

    1987-06-01

    In a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for a nuclear power plant, the analyst identifies a set of potential core damage events consisting of equipment failures and human errors and their estimated probabilities of occurrence. If operator recovery from an event within some specified time is considered, then the probability of this recovery can be included in the PRA. This report provides PRA analysts with an improved methodology for including recovery actions in a PRA. A recovery action can be divided into two distinct phases: a Diagnosis Phase (realizing that there is a problem with a critical parameter and deciding upon the correct course of action) and an Action Phase (physically accomplishing the required action). In this methodology, simulator data are used to estimate recovery probabilities for the diagnosis phase. Different time-reliability curves showing the probability of failure of diagnosis as a function of time from the compelling cue for the event are presented. These curves are based on simulator exercises, and the actions are grouped based upon their operational similarities. This is an improvement over existing diagnosis models that rely greatly upon subjective judgment to obtain such estimates. The action phase is modeled using estimates from available sources. The methodology also includes a recommendation on where and when to apply the recovery action in the PRA process.

  20. A point interpolation meshless method based on radial basis functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Wang; G. R. Liu

    2002-01-01

    SUMMARY A point interpolation meshless method is proposed based on combining radial and polynomial basis functions. Involvement of radial basis functions overcomes possible singularity associated with the meshless methods based on only the polynomial basis. This non-singularity is useful in constructing well-performed shape functions. Furthermore, the interpolation function obtained passes through all scattered points in an inuence domain and thus

  1. Characterization of tests of functional recovery after median and ulnar nerve injury and repair in the rat forelimb.

    PubMed

    Galtrey, Clare M; Fawcett, James W

    2007-03-01

    The majority of human peripheral nerve injuries occur in the upper limb but the majority of studies in the rat are performed in the hindlimb. The upper and lower limbs differ in dexterity and control by supraspinal systems, so an upper limb model is a better representation of the common form of human injury. The purpose of this study was to further develop a rat model involving lesions of the median and ulnar nerves. To produce different degrees of misdirection of axons following nerve repair, we studied nerve crush, cut and repair of the two nerves, and cut and repair with crossover. Assessment of functional recovery was performed using a battery of motor and sensory tests: the staircase test, which assesses skilled forepaw reaching; grip strength meter, which assesses grip strength; pawprint analysis, which assesses toe spread and print length; horizontal ladder, which assesses forepaw placement during skilled locomotion; modified Randall-Selitto device and electronic von Frey probes, which assess fine touch; and cold probes, which assess temperature sensation. All tests revealed deficits in forepaw function after nerve injury except the print length and modified Randall-Selitto device. The time course of functional recovery was observed over 15 weeks. The final degree of functional recovery achieved was related to the misdirection of axon regeneration. The tests that most clearly revealed the effects of axon misdirection on function were the skilled paw reaching and grip strength tests. The lesion model and functional tests that we have developed will be useful in testing therapeutic strategies for treating the consequences of inaccurate axon regeneration following peripheral nerve injury in humans. PMID:17374098

  2. Comparative study of shell swab and shell crush methods for the recovery of Salmonella from shell eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg associated Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks have been a major cause of foodborne illness in Japan as well as in the United States and several European countries. Researchers have been attempting to develop a rapid and highly sensitive method for the recovery of microorganisms from shell eggs. ...

  3. Methods And Tools For The Evaluation Of Monitored Natural Recovery Of Contaminated Sediment: Lake Hartwell Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) Office of Research and Development (ORD) has been conducting research to develop methods and tools for the evaluation of monitored natural recovery (MNR) of contami...

  4. Effectiveness of the Preservation Protocol within EPA Method 200.8 for Soluble and Particulate Lead Recovery in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the effectiveness of the sample preservation protocol outlined in Method 200.8 in recovering lead from water samples. Lead recoveries were studied in various water samples spiked with lead by evaluating lead sorption and desorption f...

  5. Renal functional recovery of the hydronephrotic kidney predicted before relief of the obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    McDougal, W.S.; Flanigan, R.C.

    1981-05-01

    Employing technetium labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid, we predicted the inulin and p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) clearances after recovery of an obstructed kidney before relief of the obstruction. Sixteen rabbits had one renal unit obstructed for varying period of time. The animals were scanned immediately before relief of the obstruction. After 4 to 6 months recovery, inulin and PAH clearances were measured in all animals. The scans were mathematically analyzed, and accurately predicted the inulin and PAH clearances obtained after complete recovery (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.001, respectively). Six rabbits were scanned at the time of the clearance measurements. By a different mathematical analysis, inulin and PAH clearance measured concurrently correlated with the scan (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.01 respectively).

  6. Plasticity of subcortical pathways promote recovery of skilled hand function in rats after corticospinal and rubrospinal tract injuries.

    PubMed

    García-Alías, Guillermo; Truong, Kevin; Shah, Prithvi K; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2015-04-01

    The corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts are the predominant tracts for controlling skilled hand function. Injuries to these tracts impair grasping but not gross motor functions such as overground locomotion. The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not, after damage to both the corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts, other spared subcortical motor pathway can mediate the recovery of skilled hand function. Adult rats received a bilateral injury to the corticospinal tract at the level of the medullar pyramids and a bilateral ablation of the rubrospinal axons at C4. One group of rats received, acutely after injury, two injections of chondroitinase-ABC at C7, and starting at 7days post-injury were enrolled in daily reaching and grasping rehabilitation (CHASE group, n=5). A second group of rats received analogous injections of ubiquitous penicillinase, and did not undergo rehabilitation (PEN group, n=5). Compared to rats in the PEN group, CHASE rats gradually recovered the ability to reach and grasp over 42days after injury. Overground locomotion was mildly affected after injury and both groups followed similar recovery. Since the reticulospinal tract plays a predominant role in motor control, we further investigated whether or not plasticity of this pathway could contribute to the animal's recovery. Reticulospinal axons were anterogradely traced in both groups of rats. The density of reticulospinal processes in both the normal and ectopic areas of the grey ventral matter of the caudal segments of the cervical spinal cord was greater in the CHASE than PEN group. The results indicate that after damage to spinal tracts that normally mediate the control of reaching and grasping in rats other complementary spinal tracts can acquire the role of those damaged tracts and promote task-specific recovery. PMID:25666586

  7. Electrical stimulation impairs early functional recovery and accentuates skeletal muscle atrophy after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Gigo-Benato, Davilene; Russo, Thiago Luiz; Geuna, Stefano; Domingues, Natalia Rezende Santa Rosa; Salvini, Tania Fátima; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Neuromuscular recovery after peripheral nerve lesion depends on the regeneration of severed axons that re-establish their functional connection with the denervated muscle. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on the neuromuscular recovery after nerve crush injury in rats. Electrical stimulation was carried out on the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle after sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model. Six ES sessions were administered every other day starting from day 3 postinjury until the end of the experiment (day 14). The sciatic functional index was calculated. Muscle excitability, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) expression, and muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) were accessed from TA muscle. Regenerated sciatic nerves were analyzed by light and confocal microscopy. Both treated (crush+ES) and untreated (crush) groups had their muscle weight and CSA decreased compared with the normal group (P < 0.05). Electrical stimulation accentuated muscle fiber atrophy more in the crush+ES than in the crush group (P < 0.05). N-CAM expression increased in both crush and crush+ES groups compared with the normal group (P < 0.05). Regenerated nerves revealed no difference between the crush and crush+ES groups. Nevertheless, functional recovery at day 14 post-injury was significantly lower in crush+ES group compared with the crush group. In addition, the crush+ES group had chronaxie values significantly higher on days 7 and 13 compared with the crush group, which indicates a decrease in muscle excitability in the crush+ES animals. The results of this study do not support a benefit of the tested protocol of ES during the period of motor nerve recovery following injury. PMID:20405500

  8. A comparison of results obtained by two different chromium-51 methods of determining platelet survival and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, G.; Tittley, P. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-06-01

    A number of different methods exist that use chromium-51 to determine platelet survival and recovery. A 1986 article in TRANSFUSION described the recommended methods for conducting such studies in the hope of standardizing methodology and permitting interlaboratory comparison of results. The results obtained with the recommended method have been compared with those of our previous method. With the new method, recovery of fresh random-donor platelets prepared in polyolefin bags was 76 +/- 6 percent with a survival of 9.3 +/- 2.8 days (n = 4). After 5 days of storage, these values were 67 +/- 8 percent and 7.8 +/- 1.9 days. Similar values were obtained for fresh and stored platelets collected on automated cell separators. However, when our previous (pre-1986) method of evaluation was used, recovery of fresh platelets in the polyolefin bags was 56 +/- 11 percent, and survival was 8.6 +/- 1.3 days. The 5-day values were 36 +/- 5 percent and 6.9 +/- 2.7 days. These values are significantly lower (p less than 0.05) than those obtained with the newer method, but they are in agreement with those previously reported for other techniques. Thus, the new method consistently gives higher values, possibly as a result of a less harmful labeling procedure.

  9. Effects of Robot-assisted Gait Training Combined with Functional Electrical Stimulation on Recovery of Locomotor Mobility in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Ko, Young Jun; Chang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Ju Hyeok; Lee, Kyeong Bong; Park, Yoo Jung; Ha, Hyun Geun; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of robot-assisted gait training combined with functional electrical stimulation on locomotor recovery in patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects] The 20 subjects were randomly assigned into either an experimental group (n = 10) that received a combination of robot-assisted gait training and functional electrical stimulation on the ankle dorsiflexor of the affected side or a control group (n = 10) that received robot-assisted gait training only. [Methods] Both groups received the respective therapies for 30?min/day, 3 days/week for 5 weeks. The outcome was measured using the Modified Motor Assessment Scale (MMAS), Timed Up-and-Go Test (TUG), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and gait parameters through gait analysis (Vicon 370 motion analysis system, Oxford Metrics Ltd., Oxford, UK). All the variables were measured before and after training. [Results] Step length and maximal knee extension were significantly greater than those before training in the experimental group only. Maximal Knee flexion showed a significant difference between the experimental and control groups. The MMAS, BBS, and TUG scores improved significantly after training compared with before training in both groups. [Conclusion] We suggest that the combination of robot-assisted gait training and functional electrical stimulation encourages patients to actively participate in training because it facilitates locomotor recovery without the risk of adverse effects. PMID:25540505

  10. Effects of Robot-assisted Gait Training Combined with Functional Electrical Stimulation on Recovery of Locomotor Mobility in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-hyeon; Ko, Young Jun; Chang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Ju Hyeok; Lee, Kyeong Bong; Park, Yoo Jung; Ha, Hyun Geun; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of robot-assisted gait training combined with functional electrical stimulation on locomotor recovery in patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects] The 20 subjects were randomly assigned into either an experimental group (n = 10) that received a combination of robot-assisted gait training and functional electrical stimulation on the ankle dorsiflexor of the affected side or a control group (n = 10) that received robot-assisted gait training only. [Methods] Both groups received the respective therapies for 30?min/day, 3 days/week for 5 weeks. The outcome was measured using the Modified Motor Assessment Scale (MMAS), Timed Up-and-Go Test (TUG), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and gait parameters through gait analysis (Vicon 370 motion analysis system, Oxford Metrics Ltd., Oxford, UK). All the variables were measured before and after training. [Results] Step length and maximal knee extension were significantly greater than those before training in the experimental group only. Maximal Knee flexion showed a significant difference between the experimental and control groups. The MMAS, BBS, and TUG scores improved significantly after training compared with before training in both groups. [Conclusion] We suggest that the combination of robot-assisted gait training and functional electrical stimulation encourages patients to actively participate in training because it facilitates locomotor recovery without the risk of adverse effects. PMID:25540505

  11. Recovery of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Webb, M L; Spickler, J L; Bourassa, D V; Cox, N A; Wilson, J L; Buhr, R J

    2014-08-01

    This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using 3 sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10(1), 10(2), or 10(3) cfu/eggshell of Salmonella Enteritidis and allowed to dry at room temperature for 1 or 24 h. For the shell rinse groups, each inoculated egg was rinsed with buffered peptone water. These rinsed eggs were used for the shell crush with previous rinse groups, and each egg was aseptically cracked, the contents discarded, and the eggshell and membranes crushed with buffered peptone water. This same crush procedure was used for the shell crush without previous shell rinse eggs. The recovery of Salmonella 1 h after inoculation for shell rinse sampled eggs was 16% positive at 10(1), 49% at 10(2), and 93% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. For the shell crush with previous shell rinse, sampled egg recovery was 0% positive at 10(1), 3% at 10(2), and 17% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell. For the shell crush, sampled eggs had recovery of 23% positive at 10(1), 69% at 10(2), and 96% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. The recovery of Salmonella 24 h after inoculation for the shell rinse eggs was 3% positive at 10(1), 12% at 10(2), and 22% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; recovery for shell crush with previous shell rinse sampling was 2% positive at 10(1), 8% at 10(2), and 5% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; and for the shell crush sampling recovery was 2% at 10(1), 32% at 10(2), and 42% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. Eggshell crush was a more sensitive (?10 percentage points) sampling method than eggshell rinse at both 1 and 24 h, but both methods were equally optimal when the inoculum was at 10(3) and samples were collected after 1 h. Waiting 24 h after inoculation to sample significantly lowered the recovery for both the shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods by ?40 percentage points. PMID:24931964

  12. Time course of recovery of cytochrome p450 3A function after single doses of grapefruit juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Greenblatt; Lisa L. von Moltke; Jerold S. Harmatz; Gengsheng Chen; James L. Weemhoff; Cheng Jen; Charles J. Kelley; Barbara W. LeDuc; Miguel A. Zinny

    2003-01-01

    Background: Components of grapefruit juice may impair the activity of intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzymes, sometimes resulting in clinically important drug interactions. The time course of recovery from CYP3A inhibition after a single exposure to grapefruit juice is not clearly established.Methods: Healthy volunteer subjects (N = 25) received a single 6-mg oral dose of the CYP3A substrate midazolam in

  13. Assessing forelimb function after unilateral cervical spinal cord injury: novel forelimb tasks predict lesion severity and recovery.

    PubMed

    Khaing, Zin Z; Geissler, Sydney A; Jiang, Shan; Milman, Brian D; Aguilar, Sandra V; Schmidt, Christine E; Schallert, Timothy

    2012-02-10

    Cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) can cause devastating neurological deficits, including impairment or loss of upper limb and hand function. Recently there has been increasing interest in cervical spinal cord injury models because the majority of spinal cord injuries are at cervical levels. Here we examined spontaneous functional recovery of adult rats with either laminectomy or lateral hemisection of the cervical spinal cord at C3-C4. Behavioral tests were carried out, including the forelimb locomotor scale (FLS), a postural instability test (PIT), a pasta-handling test that has been used to assess forepaw digit function and latency to eat, forelimb use during vertical-lateral wall exploration in a cylindrical enclosure, and vibrissae-elicited forelimb placing tests. In addition, a forelimb step-alternation test was developed to assess functional recovery at 12 weeks post-injury. All tests detected cSCI-induced deficits relative to laminectomy. Interestingly, the severity of deficits in the forelimb step-alternation test was associated with more extensive spinal damage, greater impairment, and less recovery in the FLS and other tests. For the pasta-handling test we found that rats with a milder cervical injury (alternators) were more likely to use both forepaws together compared to rats with a more severe injury (non-alternators). In addition, using the PIT, we detected enhanced function of the good limb, suggesting that neural plasticity on the unaffected side of the spinal cord may have occurred to compensate for deficits in the impaired forelimb. These outcome measures should be useful for investigating neural events associated with cSCI, and for developing novel treatment strategies. PMID:22022897

  14. A novel method for furfural recovery via gas stripping assisted vapor permeation by a polydimethylsiloxane membrane

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Song; Guan, Yu; Cai, Di; Li, Shufeng; Qin, Peiyong; Karim, M. Nazmul; Tan, Tianwei

    2015-01-01

    Furfural is an important platform chemical with a wide range of applications. However, due to the low concentration of furfural in the hydrolysate, the conventional methods for furfural recovery are energy-intensive and environmentally unfriendly. Considering the disadvantages of pervaporation (PV) and distillation in furfural separation, a novel energy-efficient ‘green technique’, gas stripping assisted vapor permeation (GSVP), was introduced in this work. In this process, the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane was prepared by employing water as solvent. Coking in pipe and membrane fouling was virtually non-existent in this new process. In addition, GSVP was found to achieve the highest pervaporation separation index of 216200 (permeate concentration of 71.1?wt% and furfural flux of 4.09?kgm?2h?1) so far, which was approximately 2.5 times higher than that found in pervaporation at 95°C for recovering 6.0?wt% furfural from water. Moreover, the evaporation energy required for GSVP decreased by 35% to 44% relative to that of PV process. Finally, GSVP also displayed more promising potential in industrial application than PV, especially when coupled with the hydrolysis process or fermentation in biorefinery industry. PMID:25819091

  15. Recovery Discontinuous Galerkin Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov Method for All-Speed Flows

    SciTech Connect

    HyeongKae Park; Robert Nourgaliev; Vincent Mousseau; Dana Knoll

    2008-07-01

    A novel numerical algorithm (rDG-JFNK) for all-speed fluid flows with heat conduction and viscosity is introduced. The rDG-JFNK combines the Discontinuous Galerkin spatial discretization with the implicit Runge-Kutta time integration under the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov framework. We solve fully-compressible Navier-Stokes equations without operator-splitting of hyperbolic, diffusion and reaction terms, which enables fully-coupled high-order temporal discretization. The stability constraint is removed due to the L-stable Explicit, Singly Diagonal Implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) scheme. The governing equations are solved in the conservative form, which allows one to accurately compute shock dynamics, as well as low-speed flows. For spatial discretization, we develop a “recovery” family of DG, exhibiting nearly-spectral accuracy. To precondition the Krylov-based linear solver (GMRES), we developed an “Operator-Split”-(OS) Physics Based Preconditioner (PBP), in which we transform/simplify the fully-coupled system to a sequence of segregated scalar problems, each can be solved efficiently with Multigrid method. Each scalar problem is designed to target/cluster eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix associated with a specific physics.

  16. A novel method for furfural recovery via gas stripping assisted vapor permeation by a polydimethylsiloxane membrane.

    PubMed

    Hu, Song; Guan, Yu; Cai, Di; Li, Shufeng; Qin, Peiyong; Karim, M Nazmul; Tan, Tianwei

    2015-01-01

    Furfural is an important platform chemical with a wide range of applications. However, due to the low concentration of furfural in the hydrolysate, the conventional methods for furfural recovery are energy-intensive and environmentally unfriendly. Considering the disadvantages of pervaporation (PV) and distillation in furfural separation, a novel energy-efficient 'green technique', gas stripping assisted vapor permeation (GSVP), was introduced in this work. In this process, the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane was prepared by employing water as solvent. Coking in pipe and membrane fouling was virtually non-existent in this new process. In addition, GSVP was found to achieve the highest pervaporation separation index of 216200 (permeate concentration of 71.1?wt% and furfural flux of 4.09?kgm(-2)h(-1)) so far, which was approximately 2.5 times higher than that found in pervaporation at 95°C for recovering 6.0?wt% furfural from water. Moreover, the evaporation energy required for GSVP decreased by 35% to 44% relative to that of PV process. Finally, GSVP also displayed more promising potential in industrial application than PV, especially when coupled with the hydrolysis process or fermentation in biorefinery industry. PMID:25819091

  17. Power Recovery

    E-print Network

    Murray, F.

    .POWER RECOVERY Fletcher Mlirray Monsanto Chemical Company AB5'-:::0 p.p., will ??vi.w 'h. '.ohnnln,y nf 'h.::v,n. T:X:~~T ~ methods for estimating the power recovery potential from fluid streams. The ideal gas law formula for expanding gases..., will be the use of the ASTM Theoretical Steam Rate Tables. In addition, the author's experience regarding the minimum size for power recovery units that are economic in a Culf Coast plant will be presented. INTROD\\Jr.'rION When surveying an operation...

  18. [Reeducation and spontaneous recovery of motor function in lesions of the nervous central system].

    PubMed

    Anghinah, A

    1976-06-01

    A review is made of the current concepts on the several techniques (kinesitherapy programs) used with the purpose of recovering motor impairments caused by damage of the central nervous system. In this way data are gathered for the discussion and explanation of the intricate mechanisms involved in reeducation and recovery of the motor ability. PMID:776151

  19. Integrated modelling of functional and structural connectivity of river corridors for1 European otter recovery2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    otter recovery2 3 K. Van Looy1 , J. Piffady1 , C. Cavillon1 , T. Tormos1,2 , P. Landry3 and Y. Souchon1 measure. With this approach, the European otter colonization of the Loire river30 basin over 25 years reveals the importance of the36 river network density to the otter colonization and locates conservation

  20. Comparison of calculated ethane recovery as a function of k-value correlation in turboexpander plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. White; G. Wilson; R. Kobayashi

    1970-01-01

    The demand for ethane as a chemical feedstock has grown rapidly in the last few years, and has now reached the point that many new and projected plants seek to recover a high percentage of the ethane in the feed gas. Ethane recovery levels as high as 80% are being considered and incorporated in the design of some plants. Presently,

  1. Effect of Intensive Functional Electrical Stimulation Therapy on Upper-Limb Motor Recovery after Stroke

    E-print Network

    Popovic, Milos R.

    Recovery after Stroke: Case Study of a Patient with Chronic Stroke Noritaka Kawashima, PhD;* Milos R level of the upper-limb muscles did not show significant improvement, the ability to initiate and stop the muscle contraction voluntarily was regained in several upper-limb muscles (approx. 5%­15% of the maximum

  2. Maitake beta-glucan promotes recovery of leukocytes and myeloid cell function in peripheral blood from paclitaxel hematotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; de Stanchina, Elisa; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Hong, Feng; Seidman, Andrew; Fornier, Monica; Xiao, Wei-Lie; Kennelly, Edward J; Wesa, Kathleen; Cassileth, Barrie R; Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna

    2010-06-01

    Bone marrow myelotoxicity is a major limitation of chemotherapy. While granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment is effective, alternative approaches to support hematopoietic recovery are sought. We previously found that a beta-glucan extract from maitake mushroom Grifola frondosa (MBG) enhanced colony forming unit-granulocyte monocyte (CFU-GM) activity of mouse bone marrow and human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), stimulated G-CSF production and spared HPC from doxorubicin toxicity in vitro. This investigation assessed the effects of MBG on leukocyte recovery and granulocyte/monocyte function in vivo after dose intensive paclitaxel (Ptx) in a normal mouse. After a cumulative dose of Ptx (90-120 mg/kg) given to B6D2F1mice, daily oral MBG (4 or 6 mg/kg), intravenous G-CSF (80 microg/kg) or Ptx alone were compared for effects on the dynamics of leukocyte recovery in blood, CFU-GM activity in bone marrow and spleen, and granulocyte/monocyte production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Leukocyte counts declined less in Ptx + MBG mice compared to Ptx-alone (p = 0.024) or Ptx + G-CSF treatment (p = 0.031). Lymphocyte levels were higher after Ptx + MBG but not Ptx + G-CSF treatment compared to Ptx alone (p < 0.01). MBG increased CFU-GM activity in bone marrow and spleen (p < 0.001, p = 0.002) 2 days after Ptx. After two additional days (Ptx post-day 4), MBG restored granulocyte/monocyte ROS response to normal levels compared to Ptx-alone and increased ROS response compared to Ptx-alone or Ptx + G-CSF (p < 0.01, both). The studies indicate that oral MBG promoted maturation of HPC to become functionally active myeloid cells and enhanced peripheral blood leukocyte recovery after chemotoxic bone marrow injury. PMID:20140432

  3. Maitake beta-glucan promotes recovery of leukocytes and myeloid cell function in peripheral blood from paclitaxel hematotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hong; de Stanchina, Elisa; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Hong, Feng; Seidman, Andrew; Fornier, Monica; Xiao, Wei-Lie; Kennelly, Edward J.; Wesa, Kathleen; Cassileth, Barrie R.

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow myelotoxicity is a major limitation of chemotherapy. While granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment is effective, alternative approaches to support hematopoietic recovery are sought. We previously found that a beta-glucan extract from maitake mushroom Grifola frondosa (MBG) enhanced colony forming unit-granulocyte monocyte (CFU-GM) activity of mouse bone marrow and human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), stimulated G-CSF production and spared HPC from doxorubicin toxicity in vitro. This investigation assessed the effects of MBG on leukocyte recovery and granulocyte/monocyte function in vivo after dose intensive paclitaxel (Ptx) in a normal mouse. After a cumulative dose of Ptx (90–120 mg/kg) given to B6D2F1 mice, daily oral MBG (4 or 6 mg/kg), intravenous G-CSF (80 ?g/kg) or Ptx alone were compared for effects on the dynamics of leukocyte recovery in blood, CFU-GM activity in bone marrow and spleen, and granulocyte/monocyte production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Leukocyte counts declined less in Ptx + MBG mice compared to Ptx-alone (p = 0.024) or Ptx + G-CSF treatment (p = 0.031). Lymphocyte levels were higher after Ptx + MBG but not Ptx + G-CSF treatment compared to Ptx alone (p < 0.01). MBG increased CFU-GM activity in bone marrow and spleen (p < 0.001, p = 0.002) 2 days after Ptx. After two additional days (Ptx post-day 4), MBG restored granulocyte/monocyte ROS response to normal levels compared to Ptx-alone and increased ROS response compared to Ptx-alone or Ptx + G-CSF (p < 0.01, both). The studies indicate that oral MBG promoted maturation of HPC to become functionally active myeloid cells and enhanced peripheral blood leukocyte recovery after chemotoxic bone marrow injury. PMID:20140432

  4. Normothermic ischaemic cardiac arrest of isolated working rat heart: effects of reserpine and propranolol on functional, metabolic and morphological recovery.

    PubMed

    Edoute, Y; Graney, D; Sanan, D; Kotze, J C; Lochner, A

    1982-08-01

    The ability to preserve myocardial structural and functional integrity during extended periods of total ischaemia has practical clinical significance. The role of endogenous catecholamines in the onset of irreversible damage in global ischaemia of the isolated rat heart was assessed by beta-blockade or catecholamine depletion. The effects of propranolol and reserpine pretreatment on myocardial ultrastructure, function and metabolism were studied during normothermic ischaemic arrest (NICA) and reperfusion of the isolated working rat heart. beta-Blockade as well as catecholamine depletion resulted in an increase in the percentage of totally ischaemic hearts which recovered mechanically upon reperfusion. In these studies mechanical recovery during reperfusion was associated with reversal of ultrastructural ischaemic alterations, but without an improvement in mitochondrial function. These findings support the concept that failure of mitochondria to recover functionally upon reperfusion is not the cause of either irreversible mechanical failure or ultrastructural damage of the ischaemic myocardium. PMID:7127358

  5. Be careful with the Exp-function method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolai A. Kudryashov; Nadejda B. Loguinova

    2009-01-01

    An application of the Exp-function method to search for exact solutions of nonlinear differential equations is analyzed. Typical mistakes of application of the Exp-function method are demonstrated. We show it is often required to simplify the exact solutions obtained. Possibilities of the Exp-function method and other approaches in mathematical physics are discussed. The application of the singular manifold method for

  6. Exp-function method for solving Maccari's system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng Zhang

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter, the Exp-function method is used to seek exact solutions of Maccari's system. As a result, single and combined generalized solitonary solutions are obtained, from which some known solutions obtained by extended sine-Gordon equation method and improved hyperbolic function method are recovered as special cases. It is shown that the Exp-function method provides a very effective and powerful

  7. Quadratic function approaching method for magnetotelluric soundingdata inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Liangjun, Yan; Wenbao, Hu; Zhang, Keni

    2004-04-05

    The quadratic function approaching method (QFAM) is introduced for magnetotelluric sounding (MT) data inversion. The method takes the advantage of that quadratic function has single extreme value, which avoids leading to an inversion solution for local minimum and ensures the solution for global minimization of an objective function. The method does not need calculation of sensitivity matrix and not require a strict initial earth model. Examples for synthetic data and field measurement data indicate that the proposed inversion method is effective.

  8. The Acetyl Bromide Method Is Faster, Simpler and Presents Best Recovery of Lignin in Different Herbaceous Tissues than Klason and Thioglycolic Acid Methods

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Vilar, Flavia Carolina; Siqueira-Soares, Rita de Cássia; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; de Oliveira, Dyoni Matias; Ferro, Ana Paula; da Rocha, George Jackson; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes L.; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    We compared the amount of lignin as determined by the three most traditional methods for lignin measurement in three tissues (sugarcane bagasse, soybean roots and soybean seed coat) contrasting for lignin amount and composition. Although all methods presented high reproducibility, major inconsistencies among them were found. The amount of lignin determined by thioglycolic acid method was severely lower than that provided by the other methods (up to 95%) in all tissues analyzed. Klason method was quite similar to acetyl bromide in tissues containing higher amounts of lignin, but presented lower recovery of lignin in the less lignified tissue. To investigate the causes of the inconsistencies observed, we determined the monomer composition of all plant materials, but found no correlation. We found that the low recovery of lignin presented by the thioglycolic acid method were due losses of lignin in the residues disposed throughout the procedures. The production of furfurals by acetyl bromide method does not explain the differences observed. The acetyl bromide method is the simplest and fastest among the methods evaluated presenting similar or best recovery of lignin in all the tissues assessed. PMID:25330077

  9. Low-Dose Candesartan Enhances Molecular Mediators of Neuroplasticity and Subsequent Functional Recovery After Ischemic Stroke in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ishrat, Tauheed; Pillai, Bindu; Soliman, Sahar; Fouda, Abdelrahman Y; Kozak, Anna; Johnson, Maribeth H; Ergul, Adviye; Fagan, Susan C

    2014-08-01

    We have previously reported that angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockade with candesartan exerts neurovascular protection after experimental cerebral ischemia. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a low, subhypotensive dose of candesartan enhances neuroplasticity and subsequent functional recovery through enhanced neurotrophic factor expression in rats subjected to ischemia reperfusion injury. Male Wistar rats (290-300 g) underwent 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and received candesartan (0.3 mg/kg) or saline at reperfusion and then once every 24 h for 7 days. Functional deficits were assessed in a blinded manner at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after MCAO. Animals were sacrificed 14-day post-stroke and the brains perfused for infarct size by cresyl violet. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the expression of growth factors and synaptic proteins. Candesartan-treated animals showed a significant reduction in the infarct size [t (13)?=?-5.5, P?=?0.0001] accompanied by functional recovery in Bederson [F (1, 13)?=?7.9, P?=?0.015], beam walk [F (1, 13)?=?6.7, P?=?0.023], grip strength [F (1, 13)?=?15.2, P?=?0.0031], and rotarod performance [F (1, 14)?=?29.8, P?functional recovery after ischemic stroke. PMID:25084762

  10. Assessing the recovery of functional diversity after sustained sediment screening at an aggregate dredging site in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio Froján, Christopher R. S.; Cooper, Keith M.; Bremner, Julie; Defew, Emma C.; Wan Hussin, Wan M. R.; Paterson, David M.

    2011-05-01

    The effects of dredging the seabed for aggregate on benthic functional diversity were assessed using a suite of suitable indices on a recovering macrofaunal assemblage. Recovery was assessed as the return of a dredged assemblage to a state found in neighbouring undisturbed (reference) sites. In situ sediment screening was permitted during dredging operations; a difference in the sedimentary profile of the seabed between dredged and undisturbed reference sites was also observed. At sites of relatively high and low dredging intensity the sediment appeared more homogenous than reference sites after the selective removal of the coarser component. Initial assessment of the macrofaunal assemblage using univariate analytical techniques suggested a recovery of functional diversity at the low dredging intensity site after two years (according to the Infaunal Trophic Index, Taxonomic Distinctness index and Rao's Quadratic Entropy coefficient). However, multivariate analyses of the same data and of all indices except Taxonomic Distinctness indicated that assemblages at both high and low dredging intensity sites remained statistically indistinguishable from each other yet markedly different to the assemblage present in the reference area during the four-year study. The study concluded that recovery of functional diversity to a level found in a neighbouring undredged habitat had not occurred at either dredged site five years after the cessation of dredging. It is thought that the damage by dredging to functional diversity and to the capacity of the macrofaunal assemblage to recover is immediate and not so dependent on dredging intensity. The cumulative and wider ranging effects of sediment screening cannot be ignored or dismissed as a contributing factor to the similarities observed. The wider significance of these findings on the regulation of dredging activities is discussed.

  11. Sildenafil Improves Epicenter Vascular Perfusion but not Hindlimb Functional Recovery after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Scott A.; DeVries, William H.; Gruenthal, Mark J.; Andres, Kariena R.; Hagg, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of vasodilation and angiogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). Signaling initiated by the membrane receptor CD47 antagonizes vasodilation and angiogenesis by inhibiting synthesis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). We recently found that deletion of CD47 led to significant functional locomotor improvements, enhanced angiogenesis, and increased epicenter microvascular perfusion in mice after moderate contusive spinal cord injury (SCI). We tested the hypothesis that improving NO/cGMP signaling within the spinal cord immediately after injury would increase microvascular perfusion, angiogenesis, and functional recovery, with an acute, 7-day administration of the cGMP phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor sildenafil. PDE5 expression is localized within spinal cord microvascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. While PDE5 antagonism has been shown to increase angiogenesis in a rat embolic stroke model, sildenafil had no significant effect on angiogenesis at 7 days post-injury after murine contusive SCI. Sildenafil treatment increased cGMP concentrations within the spinal cord and improved epicenter microvascular perfusion. Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) and Treadscan analyses revealed that sildenafil treatment had no functional consequence on hindlimb locomotor recovery. These data support the hypothesis that acutely improving microvascular perfusion within the injury epicenter by itself is an insufficient strategy for improving functional deficits following contusive SCI. PMID:21970599

  12. Singular function mortar finite element methods

    E-print Network

    Sarkis, Marcus; Tu, Xuemin

    2003-01-05

    We consider the Poisson equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions on a polygonal domain with one reentrant corner. We introduce new nonconforming finite element discretizations based on mortar techniques and singular functions. The main idea...

  13. Methods for Assessing Mitochondrial Function in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Daniel A.; Lanza, Ian R.; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research is investigating the potential contribution of mitochondrial function to the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Numerous in vitro, in situ, and in vivo methodologies are available to examine various aspects of mitochondrial function, each requiring an understanding of their principles, advantages, and limitations. This review provides investigators with a critical overview of the strengths, limitations and critical experimental parameters to consider when selecting and conducting studies on mitochondrial function. In vitro (isolated mitochondria) and in situ (permeabilized cells/tissue) approaches provide direct access to the mitochondria, allowing for study of mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox function under defined substrate conditions. Several experimental parameters must be tightly controlled, including assay media, temperature, oxygen concentration, and in the case of permeabilized skeletal muscle, the contractile state of the fibers. Recently developed technology now offers the opportunity to measure oxygen consumption in intact cultured cells. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides the most direct way of assessing mitochondrial function in vivo with interpretations based on specific modeling approaches. The continuing rapid evolution of these technologies offers new and exciting opportunities for deciphering the potential role of mitochondrial function in the etiology and treatment of diabetes. PMID:23520284

  14. The effect of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) on functional recovery, local cerebral glucose utilization and blood flow after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yitao Liu; Ludmila Belayev; Weizhao Zhao; Raul Busto; Isabel Saul; Ofelia Alonso; Myron D. Ginsberg

    2001-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) has been shown to enhance dendritic growth and improve functional recovery after experimental stroke. In this study, we examined the effect of BMP-7 on functional recovery, local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and local cerebral glucose utilization (LCMRglu) following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Sprague–Dawley rats (n=29) were anesthetized with halothane\\/nitrous oxide and received 2-h middle cerebral

  15. Tadalafil, a long-acting type 5 phosphodiesterase isoenzyme inhibitor, improves neurological functional recovery in a rat model of embolic stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Zhang; Zhenggang Zhang; Rui Lan Zhang; Yisheng Cui; Margot C. LaPointe; Brian Silver; Michael Chopp

    2006-01-01

    Sildenafil, a type 5 phosphodiesterase isoenzyme (PDE5) inhibitor with a short half-life, increases brain cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels and improves neurological functional recovery when administered after stroke. In the present study, we investigated the effects of tadalafil (Cialis), a long acting PDE5 inhibitor, on brain cGMP levels, neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and neurological function during stroke recovery in a rat model

  16. Temporal Profile of Endogenous Anatomical Repair and Functional Recovery following Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Vajn, Katarina; Suler, Denis; Plunkett, Jeffery A.; Oudega, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Regenerated cerebrospinal axons are considered to be involved in the spontaneous recovery of swimming ability following a spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish. We employed behavioral analysis, neuronal tracing, and immunocytochemistry to determine the exact temporal relationship between swimming ability and regenerated cerebrospinal axon number in adult zebrafish with a complete spinal cord transection. Between two and eight weeks post-lesion, swimming gradually improved to 44% of sham-injured zebrafish. Neurons within the reticular formation, magnocellular octaval nucleus, and nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle grew their axon across and at least four millimeters beyond the lesion. The largest increases in swimming ability and number of regenerated cerebrospinal axons were observed between two and four weeks post-lesion. Regression analyses revealed a significant correlation between swimming ability and the number of regenerated axons. Our results indicate the involvement of cerebrospinal axons in swimming recovery after spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish. PMID:25157957

  17. [Function returning without and with recovery nystagmus after sudden unilateral isolated vestibular loss (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Minnigerode, B; Meissner, R

    1979-01-01

    The restoration of peripher labyrinthine excitability after sudden unilateral isolated vestibular loss shows a different behaviour: It can happen with or without recovery nystagmus with a numerical nearly equal frequency. In a follow-up of 44 patients with unilateral vestibular loss of vascular genetics the objective and subjective characteristics of both states are described. In explanation of it a lesion of variable etiology in the region of the vestibular artery and a supposition of a not yet or already occured compensation of the disturbed tonus balance in the nuclear area are not sufficient. Rather the origin of the different clinical states of recovery phenomenon must be presumed in all probability as the result of a primary and secondary retrograde degeneration of the vestibular neurons. Thereby the distance of the lesion from the Scarpa ganglion is presumably of decisive importance. PMID:317643

  18. Low work function materials for microminiature energy conversion and recovery applications

    DOEpatents

    Zavadil, Kevin R.; Ruffner, Judith A.; King, Donald B.

    2003-05-13

    Low work function materials are disclosed together with methods for their manufacture and integration with electrodes used in thermionic conversion applications (specifically microminiature thermionic conversion applications). The materials include a mixed oxide system and metal in a compositionally modulated structure comprised of localized discontinuous structures of material that are deposited using techniques suited to IC manufacture, such as rf sputtering or CVD. The structures, which can include layers are then heated to coalescence yielding a thin film that is both durable and capable of electron emission under thermionic conversion conditions used for microminiature thermionic converters. Using the principles of the invention, thin film electrodes (emitters and collectors) required for microconverter technology are manufactured using a single process deposition so as to allow for full fabrication integration consistent with batch processing, and tailoring of emission/collection properties. In the preferred embodiment, the individual layers include mixed BaSrCaO, scandium oxide and tungsten.

  19. Recovery of Cognitive Function After Remifentanil-Propofol Anesthesia: A Comparison with Desflurane and Sevoflurane Anesthesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brita Larsen; Anette Seitz; Reinhard Larsen

    2000-01-01

    We compared the recovery characteristics of remifen- tanil, desflurane, and sevoflurane when used for anes- thesia in elective operative procedures. Sixty ASA physical status I and II patients, aged 18 - 65 yr, were randomly assigned to receive remifentanil-propofol, desflurane-N2O, or sevoflurane-N2O anesthesia. Be- fore the induction of anesthesia, the patients of the des- flurane and sevoflurane groups received fentanyl

  20. Recovery coefficient in PET as a function of object size and respiratory motion trajectory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuping Zhu; J. A. Parker; M. R. Palmer

    2005-01-01

    We have measured recovery coefficients (RCs) for spherical objects imaged under prescribed breathing motion conditions using a GE Discovery LS PET\\/CT scanner equipped with a Varian RPM gating system. Eight spheres, with inside diameters 4.0, 6.2, 7.9, 9.9, 12.4, 15.4, 19.8 and 31.3 mm, were placed on a moving platform driven by a computer-controlled stepper motor. The spheres were filled

  1. Recovery of Phenolic Antioxidants and Functional Compounds from Coffee Industry By-Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pushpa S. Murthy; M. Madhava Naidu

    The recovery process of the phenolic compounds from the coffee industry by-products and their antioxidant activity were investigated\\u000a in this work. The coffee by-products (coffee pulp, husk, silver skin, and spent coffee) were obtained from coffee processing\\u000a industry. The phenolic conserves were extracted using solvent mixture of isoproponal and water. The yield of the conserve\\u000a was highest in case of

  2. Early preservation of mitochondrial bioenergetics supports both structural and functional recovery after neurotrauma.

    PubMed

    Semple, Bridgette D

    2014-11-01

    N-acetylcysteine, a precursor to the potent antioxidant glutathione, has been investigated as a potential therapeutic agent for several decades; however, inconsistent efficacy has been reported for diseases of the central nervous system, postulated to result from restricted passage of this molecule across the blood-brain/spinal cord barriers and cellular membranes, resulting in low bioavailability. The amide form of N-acetylcysteine (NACA) overcomes these limitations while maintaining a high antioxidant potential, and shows promise for combating secondary pathogenesis attributed to oxidative stress. Neurotrauma precipitates a rapid and prolonged disruption of mitochondrial bioenergetics, whereby the production of reactive oxygen species overwhelms the endogenous antioxidant capacity of the cells. Two noteworthy papers from collaborative teams have recently been published in Experimental Neurology, in which NACA was applied to rodent models of traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, respectively. Using sensitive methods to measure respiratory rates in isolated mitochondrial populations, treatment with NACA was shown to maintain mitochondrial function and boost antioxidant reserves, which corresponded with improvements in structural and functional outcomes in both studies. This commentary aims to highlight key findings from this research in a broader context, with an emphasis on methodological advances, future research possibilities, and potential applicability to brain and/or spinal cord injured patients. PMID:25079371

  3. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells form functional neurons and improve recovery after grafting in stroke-damaged brain.

    PubMed

    Oki, Koichi; Tatarishvili, Jemal; Wood, James; Koch, Philipp; Wattananit, Somsak; Mine, Yutaka; Monni, Emanuela; Tornero, Daniel; Ahlenius, Henrik; Ladewig, Julia; Brüstle, Oliver; Lindvall, Olle; Kokaia, Zaal

    2012-06-01

    Reprogramming of adult human somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is a novel approach to produce patient-specific cells for autologous transplantation. Whether such cells survive long-term, differentiate to functional neurons, and induce recovery in the stroke-injured brain are unclear. We have transplanted long-term self-renewing neuroepithelial-like stem cells, generated from adult human fibroblast-derived iPSCs, into the stroke-damaged mouse and rat striatum or cortex. Recovery of forepaw movements was observed already at 1 week after transplantation. Improvement was most likely not due to neuronal replacement but was associated with increased vascular endothelial growth factor levels, probably enhancing endogenous plasticity. Transplanted cells stopped proliferating, could survive without forming tumors for at least 4 months, and differentiated to morphologically mature neurons of different subtypes. Neurons in intrastriatal grafts sent axonal projections to the globus pallidus. Grafted cells exhibited electrophysiological properties of mature neurons and received synaptic input from host neurons. Our study provides the first evidence that transplantation of human iPSC-derived cells is a safe and efficient approach to promote recovery after stroke and can be used to supply the injured brain with new neurons for replacement. PMID:22495829

  4. Apparatus and method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Willms, R. Scott (Los Alamos, NM); Birdsell, Stephen A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01

    Apparatus and method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbon feed material. The feed material is caused to flow over a heated catalyst which fosters the water-gas shift reaction (H.sub.2 O+COH.sub.2 +CO.sub.2) and the methane steam reforming reaction (CH.sub.4 +H.sub.2 O3 H.sub.2 +CO). Both of these reactions proceed only to partial completion. However, by use of a Pd/Ag membrane which is exclusively permeable to hydrogen isotopes in the vicinity of the above reactions and by maintaining a vacuum on the permeate side of the membrane, product hydrogen isotopes are removed and the reactions are caused to proceed further toward completion. A two-stage palladium membrane reactor was tested with a feed composition of 28% CQ.sub.4, 35% Q.sub.2 O (where Q=H, D, or T), and 31% Ar in 31 hours of continuous operation during which 4.5 g of tritium were processed. Decontamination factors were found to increase with decreasing inlet rate. The first stage was observed to have a decontamination factor of approximately 200, while the second stage had a decontamination factor of 2.9.times.10.sup.6. The overall decontamination factor was 5.8.times.10.sup.8. When a Pt/.alpha.-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 catalyst is employed, decoking could be performed without catalyst degradation. However, by adjusting the carbon to oxygen ratio of the feed material with the addition of oxygen, coking could be altogether avoided.

  5. GGF2 (Nrg1-?3) treatment enhances NG2+ cell response and improves functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Matthew T; Zai, Laila J; Lee, Hyun Joon; Pajoohesh-Ganji, Ahdeah; Wu, Junfang; Sharp, April; Wyse, Ransom; Wrathall, Jean R

    2012-02-01

    The adult spinal cord contains a pool of endogenous glial precursor cells, which spontaneously respond to spinal cord injury (SCI) with increased proliferation. These include oligodendrocyte precursor cells that express the NG2 proteoglycan and can differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes. Thus, a potential approach for SCI treatment is to enhance the proliferation and differentiation of these cells to yield more functional mature glia and improve remyelination of surviving axons. We previously reported that soluble glial growth factor 2 (GGF2)- and basic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)-stimulated growth of NG2(+) cells purified from injured spinal cord in primary culture. This study examines the effects of systemic administration of GGF2 and/or FGF2 after standardized contusive SCI in vivo in both rat and mouse models. In Sprague-Dawley rats, 1 week of GGF2 administration, beginning 24 h after injury, enhanced NG2(+) cell proliferation, oligodendrogenesis, chronic white matter at the injury epicenter, and recovery of hind limb function. In 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase-enhanced green fluorescent protein mice, GGF2 treatment resulted in increased oligodendrogenesis and improved functional recovery, as well as elevated expression of the stem cell transcription factor Sox2 by oligodendrocyte lineage cells. Although oligodendrocyte number was increased chronically after SCI in GGF2-treated mice, no evidence of increased white matter was detected. However, GGF2 treatment significantly increased levels of P0 protein-containing peripheral myelin, produced by Schwann cells that infiltrate the injured spinal cord. Our results suggest that GGF2 may have therapeutic potential for SCI by enhancing endogenous recovery processes in a clinically relevant time frame. PMID:22042562

  6. Transplantation of CNTF-expressing adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells promotes remyelination and functional recovery after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Qilin; He, Qian; Wang, Yaping; Cheng, Xiaoxin; Howard, Russell M.; Zhang, Yiping; DeVries, William H.; Shields, Christopher B.; Magnuson, David S.K.; Xu, Xiaoming; Kim, Dong H.; Whittemore, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Demyelination contributes to the dysfunction after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). We explored whether the combination of neurotrophic factors and transplantation of adult rat spinal cord oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) could enhance remyelination and functional recovery after SCI. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was the most effective neurotrophic factor to promote oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and survival of OPCs in vitro. OPCs were infected with retroviruses expressing EGFP or CNTF and transplanted into the contused adult thoracic spinal cord 9 days post-injury. Seven weeks after transplantation, the grafted OPCs survived and integrated into the injured spinal cord. The survival of grafted CNTF-OPCs increased 4-fold compared to EGFP-OPCs. The grafted OPCs differentiated into adenomatus polyposis coli (APC+) OLs and CNTF significantly increased the percentage of APC+ OLs from grafted OPCs. Immunofluoresent and immuno-electron microscopic analyses showed that the grafted OPCs formed central myelin sheaths around the axons in the injured spinal cord. The number of OL-remyelinated axons in ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) or lateral funiculus (LF) at the injured epiecenter was significantly increased in animals that received CNTF-OPC grafts compared to all other groups. Importantly, 75% of rats receiving CNTF-OPC grafts recovered transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potential (tcMMEP) and magnetic inter-englargement reflex (MIER) responses, indicating that conduction through the demyelinated axons in VLF or LF, respectively, was partially restored. More importantly, recovery of hindlimb locomotor function was significantly enhanced in animals receiving grafts of CNTF-OPCs. Thus, combined treatment with OPC grafts expressing CNTF can enhance remyelination and facilitate functional recovery after traumatic SCI. PMID:20181596

  7. Recovery of Adrenal Function after Long-Term Glucocorticoid Therapy for Giant Cell Arteritis: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jamilloux, Yvan; Liozon, Eric; Pugnet, Gregory; Nadalon, Sylvie; Heang Ly, Kim; Dumonteil, Stephanie; Gondran, Guillaume; Fauchais, Anne-Laure; Vidal, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a chronic systemic vasculitis of large and medium-sized arteries, for which long-term glucocorticoid (GC) treatment is needed. During GC withdrawal patients can suffer adrenal insufficiency. We sought to determine the time until recovery of adrenal function after long-term GC therapy, and to assess the prevalence and predictors for secondary adrenal insufficiency. Subjects and Design 150 patients meeting the ACR criteria for GCA between 1984 and 2012 were analyzed. All received the same GC treatment protocol. The low-dose ACTH stimulation test was repeated annually until adrenal recovery. Biographical, clinical and laboratory data were collected prospectively and compared. Results At the first ACTH test, 74 (49%) patients were non-responders: of these, the mean time until recovery of adrenal function was 14 months (max: 51 months). A normal test response occurred within 36 months in 85% of patients. However, adrenal function never recovered in 5% of patients. GC of >15 mg/day at 6 months, GC of >9.5 mg/day at 12 months, treatment duration of >19 months, a cumulative GC dose of >8.5 g, and a basal cortisol concentration of <386 nmol/L were all statistically associated with a negative response in the first ACTH test (p <0.05). Conclusion Adrenal insufficiency in patients with GCA, treated long-term with GC, was frequent but transitory. Thus, physicians’ vigilance should be increased and an ACTH test should be performed when GC causes the above associated statistical factors. PMID:23894335

  8. Cardiac hypertrophy in the newborn delays the maturation of fatty acid ?-oxidation and compromises postischemic functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Oka, Tatsujiro; Lam, Victoria H; Zhang, Liyan; Keung, Wendy; Cadete, Virgilio J J; Samokhvalov, Victor; Tanner, Brandon A; Beker, Donna L; Ussher, John R; Huqi, Alda; Jaswal, Jagdip S; Rebeyka, Ivan M; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2012-05-01

    During the neonatal period, cardiac energy metabolism progresses from a fetal glycolytic profile towards one more dependent on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. In this study, we identified the effects of cardiac hypertrophy on neonatal cardiac metabolic maturation and its impact on neonatal postischemic functional recovery. Seven-day-old rabbits were subjected to either a sham or a surgical procedure to induce a left-to-right shunt via an aortocaval fistula to cause RV volume-overload. At 3 wk of age, hearts were isolated from both groups and perfused as isolated, biventricular preparations to assess cardiac energy metabolism. Volume-overload resulted in cardiac hypertrophy (16% increase in cardiac mass, P < 0.05) without evidence of cardiac dysfunction in vivo or in vitro. Fatty acid oxidation rates were 60% lower (P < 0.05) in hypertrophied hearts than controls, whereas glycolysis increased 246% (P < 0.05). In contrast, glucose and lactate oxidation rates were unchanged. Overall ATP production rates were significantly lower in hypertrophied hearts, resulting in increased AMP-to-ATP ratios in both aerobic hearts and ischemia-reperfused hearts. The lowered energy generation of hypertrophied hearts depressed functional recovery from ischemia. Decreased fatty acid oxidation rates were accompanied by increased malonyl-CoA levels due to decreased malonyl-CoA decarboxylase activity/expression. Increased glycolysis in hypertrophied hearts was accompanied by a significant increase in hypoxia-inducible factor-1? expression, a key transcriptional regulator of glycolysis. Cardiac hypertrophy in the neonatal heart results in a reemergence of the fetal metabolic profile, which compromises ATP production in the rapidly maturing heart and impairs recovery of function following ischemia. PMID:22408020

  9. DISCRETE FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHODS WITH APPLICATION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DISCRETE FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHODS WITH APPLICATION functional analysis tools are used to prove the conver- gence of Discontinuous Galerkin approximations and a conservative one based on a nonstandard modification of the pressure. 1. Introduction Discontinuous Galerkin

  10. Thromboembolism as a cause of renal artery occlusion and acute kidney injury: the recovery of kidney function after two weeks.

    PubMed

    Koivuviita, Niina; Tertti, Risto; Heiro, Maija; Manner, Ilkka; Metsärinne, Kaj

    2014-01-01

    Thromboembolic occlusion is a rare cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). It may lead to permanent loss of renal function. Our patient, who had dilated cardiomyopathy and prosthetic aortic valve, presented with AKI due to thromboembolic arterial occlusion of a solitary functioning kidney. After 2 weeks delay, local intra-arterial thrombolytic treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator was performed without sufficient effect. However, a subsequent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting was successful. Diuresis began immediately, and renal function was fully recovered after 2 weeks. Although there had been no evident arterial circulation in the kidney, we think that minor flow through subtotal occlusion of the main renal artery made the hibernation of kidney tissue possible and contributed to the recovery. Thus, even after prolonged ischemia, revascularization can be useful. PMID:24847350

  11. Normothermic ischaemic cardiac arrest and reperfusion of the isolated working heart: effect of chlorpromazine on functional, metabolic and morphological recovery.

    PubMed

    Edoute, Y; van der Merwe, E L; Sanan, D; Kotzé, J C; van Niekerk, I; Lochner, A

    1983-09-01

    The effects of chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of both Ca2+ flux and phospholipase activity, on myocardial ultrastructure, function and metabolism were assessed during normothermic ischaemic cardiac arrest and reperfusion of the isolated working rat heart. Normothermic ischaemic cardiac arrest produced significant changes in myocardial ultrastructure, high energy phosphate contents and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation within 20 min. Reperfusion of untreated hearts subjected to 20 and 25 min ischaemia failed to restore mitochondrial function, mechanical activity and ATP content to control, pre-ischaemic levels. Morphological signs of ischaemic injury regressed, especially in the subendocardial layer. Pretreatment of hearts with chlorpromazine did not prevent the ischaemia-induced changes in myocardial ultrastructure and mitochondrial function. However, during reperfusion the chlorpromazine-treated, totally ischaemic heats (20 to 25 min) exhibited improved coronary flow rates, and ultrastructural and mechanical recovery. The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation process and tissue high energy phosphate contents were not affected by the drug. PMID:6631972

  12. Optical Spectroscopy Approach for the Predictive Assessment of Kidney Functional Recovery Following Ischemic Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R N; Pivetti, C D; Rubenchik, A M; Matthews, D L; Troppmann, C; Demos, S G

    2010-02-11

    Tissue that has undergone significant yet unknown amount of ischemic injury is frequently encountered in organ transplantation and trauma clinics. With no reliable real-time method of assessing the degree of injury incurred in tissue, surgeons generally rely on visual observation which is subjective. In this work, we investigate the use of optical spectroscopy methods as a potentially more reliable approach. Previous work by various groups was strongly suggestive that tissue autofluorescence from NADH obtained under UV excitation is sensitive to metabolic response changes. To test and expand upon this concept, we monitored autofluorescence and light scattering intensities of injured vs. uninjured rat kidneys via multimodal imaging under 355 nm, 325 nm, and 266 nm excitation as well as scattering under 500 nm illumination. 355 nm excitation was used to probe mainly NADH, a metabolite, while 266 nm excitation was used to probe mainly tryptophan to correct for non-metabolic signal artifacts. The ratio of autofluorescence intensities derived under these two excitation wavelengths was calculated and its temporal profile was fit to a relaxation model. Time constants were extracted, and longer time constants were associated with kidney dysfunction. Analysis of both the autofluorescence and light scattering images suggests that changes in microstructure tissue morphology, blood absorption spectral characteristics, and pH contribute to the behavior of the observed signal which may be used to obtain tissue functional information and offer predictive capability.

  13. Optical spectroscopy approach for the predictive assessment of kidney functional recovery following ischemic injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Rajesh N.; Pivetti, Christopher D.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Troppmann, Christoph; Demos, Stavros G.

    2010-02-01

    Tissue that has undergone significant yet unknown amount of ischemic injury is frequently encountered in organ transplantation and trauma clinics. With no reliable real-time method of assessing the degree of injury incurred in tissue, surgeons generally rely on visual observation which is subjective. In this work, we investigate the use of optical spectroscopy methods as a potentially more reliable approach. Previous work by various groups was strongly suggestive that tissue autofluorescence from NADH obtained under UV excitation is sensitive to metabolic response changes. To test and expand upon this concept, we monitored autofluorescence and light scattering intensities of injured vs. uninjured rat kidneys via multimodal imaging under 355 nm, 325 nm, and 266 nm excitation as well as scattering under 500 nm illumination. 355 nm excitation was used to probe mainly NADH, a metabolite, while 266 nm excitation was used to probe mainly tryptophan to correct for non-metabolic signal artifacts. The ratio of autofluorescence intensities derived under these two excitation wavelengths was calculated and its temporal profile was fit to a relaxation model. Time constants were extracted, and longer time constants were associated with kidney dysfunction. Analysis of both the autofluorescence and light scattering images suggests that changes in microstructure tissue morphology, blood absorption spectral characteristics, and pH contribute to the behavior of the observed signal which may be used to obtain tissue functional information and offer predictive capability.

  14. Recovery of motor function after focal cortical injury in primates: compensatory movement patterns used during rehabilitative training.

    PubMed

    Friel, K M; Nudo, R J

    1998-01-01

    The recovery of skilled hand use after cortical injury was assessed in adult squirrel monkeys. Specific movement patterns used to perform a motor task requiring fine manual skill were analyzed before and after a small ischemic infarct (2.6-3.8 mm2) to the electrophysiologically identified hand area of the primary motor cortex (M1). After 1-3 weeks of pre-infarct training, each monkey stereotypically used one specific movement pattern to retrieve food pellets. After injury to the hand area of M1, the monkeys were required to retrieve the pellets using their impaired forelimb. Immediately after the injury, the number of finger flexions used by the monkeys to retrieve the pellets increased, indicating a deficit in skilled finger use. After approximately 1 month of rehabilitative training, skilled use of the fingers appeared to recover, indicated by a reduction in the number of finger flexions per retrieval. The monkeys again retrieved the pellets using one specific movement pattern in most trials. Despite the apparent recovery of skilled finger use after rehabilitative training, three of five monkeys retrieved the pellets using stereotypic movement patterns different from those used before the injury. Thus, this study provides evidence that compensatory movement patterns are used in the recovery of motor function following cortical injury, even after relatively small lesions that produce mild, transient deficits in motor performance. Examination of electrophysiological maps of evoked movements suggests that the mode of recovery (re-acquisition of pre-infarct movement strategies vs development of compensatory movement strategies) may be related to the relative size of the lesion and its specific location within the M1 hand representation. PMID:9874517

  15. The effects of a personal oxygen supplement on performance, recovery, and cognitive function during and after exhaustive exercise.

    PubMed

    Etheredge, Cory; Judge, Lawrence W; Bellar, David M

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a personal oxygen supplement (OS) on performance during exhaustive exercise, respiratory responses during exhaustive exercise, and cognitive function after exhaustive exercise. The participants for this blind placebo-controlled experiment were apparently healthy college-aged adults (n = 20). First, VO2max was assessed (47.6 ± 9.8 ml O2·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Participants then ran 2 trials at 80% of VO2max speed to exhaustion and received either a placebo (compressed air) or personal OS. Psychomotor vigilance testing (PVT) was performed before and after each trial. Performance between treatments was evaluated through repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and was not found to be different (p = 0.335, ?p2 = 0.052), and order (placebo first or personal OS first) was not significant within the model (p = 0.305, ?p2 = 0.058). Mean times were 1,057.6 ± 619.8 seconds for the oxygen trials and 992.5 ± 463.1 seconds for the placebo trials. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess minute ventilation (Ve, L·min(-1)) and VCO2 (L·O2·min(-1)) during exercise and recovery, mean heart rate during recovery, and PVT results. Treatment was nonsignificant (p > 0.05) nor were any interaction effects (treatment × time, p > 0.05) for any variables. The results of this study suggest that a personal OS had no effect on performance and did not affect ventilation even at the time directly surrounding the application. The results of the study also suggest that personal OS do not enhance exercise recovery or cognition during exercise recovery. PMID:24552803

  16. A novel Method for the selective recovery and purification of gamma-polyglutamic acid from Bacillus licheniformis fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Manocha, Bhavik; Margaritis, Argyrios

    2010-01-01

    Microbially produced gamma-polyglutamic acid (gamma-PGA) is a commercially important biopolymer with many applications in biopharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and waste-water treatment industries. Owing to its increasing demand in various industries, production of gamma-PGA is well documented in the literature, however very few methods have been reported for its recovery. In this paper, we report a novel method for the selective recovery and purification of gamma-PGA from cell-free fermentation broth of Bacillus licheniformis. The cell-free fermentation broth was treated with divalent copper ions, resulting in the precipitation of gamma-PGA, which was collected as a pellet by centrifugation. The pellet was resolubilized and dialyzed against de-ionized water to obtain the purified gamma-PGA biopolymer. The efficiency and selectivity of gamma-PGA recovery was compared with ethanol precipitation method. We found that 85% of the original gamma-PGA content in the broth was recovered by copper sulfate-induced precipitation, compared to 82% recovery by ethanol precipitation method. Since ethanol is a commonly used solvent for protein precipitation, the purity of gamma-PGA precipitate was analyzed by measuring proteins that co-precipitated with gamma-PGA. Of the total proteins present in the broth, 48% proteins were found to be co-precipitated with gamma-PGA by ethanol precipitation, whereas in copper sulfate-induced precipitation, only 3% of proteins were detected in the final purified gamma-PGA, suggesting that copper sulfate-induced precipitation offers better selectivity than ethanol precipitation method. Total metal content analysis of the purified gamma-PGA revealed the undetectable amount of copper ions, whereas other metal ions detected were in low concentration range. The purified gamma-PGA was characterized using infrared spectroscopy. PMID:20063385

  17. Forward-Masking Recovery and the Assumptions of the Temporal Masking Curve Method of Inferring Cochlear Compression

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, Patricia; Johannesen, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    The temporal masking curve (TMC) method is a behavioral technique for inferring human cochlear compression. The method relies on the assumptions that in the absence of compression, forward-masking recovery is independent of masker level and probe frequency. The present study aimed at testing the validity of these assumptions. Masking recovery was investigated for eight listeners with sensorineural hearing loss carefully selected to have absent or nearly absent distortion product otoacoustic emissions. It is assumed that for these listeners basilar membrane responses are linear, hence that masking recovery is independent of basilar membrane compression. TMCs for probe frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6?kHz were available for these listeners from a previous study. The dataset included TMCs for masker frequencies equal to the probe frequencies plus reference TMCs measured using a high-frequency probe and a low, off-frequency masker. All of the TMCs were fitted using linear regression, and the resulting slope and intercept values were taken as indicative of masking recovery and masker level, respectively. Results for on-frequency TMCs suggest that forward-masking recovery is generally independent of probe frequency and of masker level and hence that it would be reasonable to use a reference TMC for a high-frequency probe to infer cochlear compression at lower frequencies. Results further show, however, that reference TMCs were sometimes shallower than corresponding on-frequency TMCs for identical probe frequencies, hence that compression could be overestimated in these cases. We discuss possible reasons for this result and the conditions when it might occur. PMID:25534365

  18. Forward-Masking Recovery and the Assumptions of the Temporal Masking Curve Method of Inferring Cochlear Compression

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, Patricia; Johannesen, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    The temporal masking curve (TMC) method is a behavioral technique for inferring human cochlear compression. The method relies on the assumptions that in the absence of compression, forward-masking recovery is independent of masker level and probe frequency. The present study aimed at testing the validity of these assumptions. Masking recovery was investigated for eight listeners with sensorineural hearing loss carefully selected to have absent or nearly absent distortion product otoacoustic emissions. It is assumed that for these listeners basilar membrane responses are linear, hence that masking recovery is independent of basilar membrane compression. TMCs for probe frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6?kHz were available for these listeners from a previous study. The dataset included TMCs for masker frequencies equal to the probe frequencies plus reference TMCs measured using a high-frequency probe and a low, off-frequency masker. All of the TMCs were fitted using linear regression, and the resulting slope and intercept values were taken as indicative of masking recovery and masker level, respectively. Results for on-frequency TMCs suggest that forward-masking recovery is generally independent of probe frequency and of masker level and hence that it would be reasonable to use a reference TMC for a high-frequency probe to infer cochlear compression at lower frequencies. Results further show, however, that reference TMCs were sometimes shallower than corresponding on-frequency TMCs for identical probe frequencies, hence that compression could be overestimated in these cases. We discuss possible reasons for this result and the conditions when it might occur.

  19. Function expansion methods for solving autonomous nonlinear partial differential equations

    E-print Network

    Mahouton Norbert Hounkonnou; Pascal Alain Dkengne Sielenou

    2011-10-02

    In this paper, we propose some algorithms for analytical solution construction to nonlinear polynomial partial differential equations with constant function coefficients. These schemes are based on one-(single), two- (double) or three- (triple) function expansion methods. Most of the existing expansion function methods are well recovered from the mentioned schemes. The effectiveness of these methods has been tested on some nonlinear partial differential equations (NLPDEs) describing important phenomena in physics.

  20. Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F

    2014-03-04

    A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

  1. Boundary Element Methods for Functionally Graded Materials

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paulino, Glaucio

    2002-05-28

    Functionally graded materials (FGMs) possess a smooth variation of material properties due to continuous change in microstructural details. For example, the material gradation may change gradually from a pure ceramic to a pure metal. This work focuses on potential (both steady state and transient) and elasticity problems for inhomogeneous materials. The Green\\'s function(GF) for these materials (e.g. exponentially graded) are expressed as the GF for the homogeneous material plus additional terms due to material gradation. The numerical implementations are performed using a Galerkin (rather than collocation) approximation. A number of examples have been carried out. The results of some specific test problems agree within plotting accuracy with available analytical solutions.

  2. Neural reconstruction methods of restoring bladder function

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Amaya, Sandra M.; Barbe, Mary F.; de Groat, William C.; Brown, Justin M.; Tuite, Gerald F.; Corcos, Jacques; Fecho, Susan B.; Braverman, Alan S.; Ruggieri, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    During the past century, diverse studies have focused on the development of surgical strategies to restore function of a decentralized bladder after spinal cord or spinal root injury via repair of the original roots or by transferring new axonal sources. The techniques included end-to-end sacral root repairs, transfer of roots from other spinal segments to sacral roots, transfer of intercostal nerves to sacral roots, transfer of various somatic nerves to the pelvic or pudendal nerve, direct reinnervation of the detrusor muscle, or creation of an artificial reflex pathway between the skin and the bladder via the central nervous system. All of these surgical techniques have demonstrated specific strengths and limitations. The findings made to date already indicate appropriate patient populations for each procedure, but a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of each technique to restore urinary function after bladder decentralization is required to guide future research and potential clinical application. PMID:25666987

  3. Methods for assisting recovery of damaged brain and spinal cord using arrays of X-ray microplanar beams

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham; McDonald III, John W.

    2007-01-02

    A method of assisting recovery of an injury site of brain or spinal cord injury includes providing a therapeutic dose of X-ray radiation to the injury site through an array of parallel microplanar beams. The dose at least temporarily removes regeneration inhibitors from the irradiated regions. Substantially unirradiated cells surviving between the microplanar beams migrate to the in-beam irradiated portion and assist in recovery. The dose may be administered in dose fractions over several sessions, separated in time, using angle-variable intersecting microbeam arrays (AVIMA). Additional doses may be administered by varying the orientation of the microplanar beams. The method may be enhanced by injecting stem cells into the injury site.

  4. Methods for assisting recovery of damaged brain and spinal cord using arrays of X-Ray microplanar beams

    DOEpatents

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham (Yaphank, NY); McDonald, III, John W. (Baltimore, MD)

    2007-12-04

    A method of assisting recovery of an injury site of brain or spinal cord injury includes providing a therapeutic dose of X-ray radiation to the injury site through an array of parallel microplanar beams. The dose at least temporarily removes regeneration inhibitors from the irradiated regions. Substantially unirradiated cells surviving between the microplanar beams migrate to the in-beam irradiated portion and assist in recovery. The dose may be administered in dose fractions over several sessions, separated in time, using angle-variable intersecting microbeam arrays (AVIMA). Additional doses may be administered by varying the orientation of the microplanar beams. The method may be enhanced by injecting stem cells into the injury site.

  5. Efficient resampling methods for nonsmooth estimating functions

    PubMed Central

    ZENG, DONGLIN

    2009-01-01

    Summary We propose a simple and general resampling strategy to estimate variances for parameter estimators derived from nonsmooth estimating functions. This approach applies to a wide variety of semiparametric and nonparametric problems in biostatistics. It does not require solving estimating equations and is thus much faster than the existing resampling procedures. Its usefulness is illustrated with heteroscedastic quantile regression and censored data rank regression. Numerical results based on simulated and real data are provided. PMID:17925303

  6. Quantitative Evaluation of E1 Endoglucanase Recovery from Tobacco Leaves Using the Vacuum Infiltration-Centrifugation Method

    PubMed Central

    Kingsbury, Nathaniel J.; McDonald, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    As a production platform for recombinant proteins, plant leaf tissue has many advantages, but commercialization of this technology has been hindered by high recovery and purification costs. Vacuum infiltration-centrifugation (VI-C) is a technique to obtain extracellularly-targeted products from the apoplast wash fluid (AWF). Because of its selective recovery of secreted proteins without homogenizing the whole tissue, VI-C can potentially reduce downstream production costs. Lab scale experiments were conducted to quantitatively evaluate the VI-C method and compared to homogenization techniques in terms of product purity, concentration, and other desirable characteristics. From agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, up to 81% of a truncated version of E1 endoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus was recovered with VI-C versus homogenate extraction, and average purity and concentration increases of 4.2-fold and 3.1-fold, respectively, were observed. Formulas were developed to predict recovery yields of secreted protein obtained by performing multiple rounds of VI-C on the same leaf tissue. From this, it was determined that three rounds of VI-C recovered 97% of the total active recombinant protein accessible to the VI-C procedure. The results suggest that AWF recovery is an efficient process that could reduce downstream processing steps and costs for plant-made recombinant proteins. PMID:24971334

  7. Work fluctuations, transient violations of the second law and free-energy recovery methods: Perspectives in Theory and Experiments

    E-print Network

    F. Ritort

    2004-01-19

    In this report I discuss fluctuation theorems and transient violations of the second law of thermodynamics in small systems. Special emphasis is placed on free-energy recovery methods in the framework of non-equilibrium single-molecule pulling experiments. The treatment is done from a unified theoretical-experimental perspective and emphasizes how these experiments contribute to our understanding of the thermodynamic behavior of small systems

  8. Neuroprotective effects of the Buyang Huanwu decoction on functional recovery in rats following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Xian-Hui, Dong; Xiao-Ping, He; Wei-Juan, Gao

    2014-10-20

    Background The Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD) is a traditional Chinese herbal prescription and has been used in China to treat spinal cord injury (SCI) for hundreds of years. Clinical trials have shown that BYHWD improves the outcome of SCI in clinical trials, but the mechanisms are not known. This study observed the neuroprotective effects of BYHWD on spinal nerve cells after SCI and investigated possible mechanisms. Materials and methods Forty female Wistar rats were randomized equally to four groups treated by sham injury, SCI, BYHWD, or methylprednisolone (MP). The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) score was used to evaluate hind-limb locomotor function. Neuron apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining and caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression were evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Results In the sham group, walking was mildly abnormal after anesthesia but recovered completely in 2 days. The BBB score in the SCI model group was significantly different from that in the sham group. The BBB scores of rats in both the BYHWD and MP groups were significantly higher than scores of rats in the SCI group. BYHWD had an antiapoptosis effect, as shown by significant decreases in expression of caspase-3 and Bax and increase in Bcl-2 expression. Conclusion BYHWD treatment restored hind-limb motor function of rats with SCI. The neuroprotective effect of BYHWD was associated with modulation of the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. PMID:25329497

  9. EXP-function method and its application to nonlinear equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-Huan He

    2008-01-01

    Exp-function method is used to find a unified solution of a nonlinear wave equation. Variant Boussinesq equations are selected to illustrate the effectiveness and simplicity of the method. A generalized solitary solution with free parameters is obtained.

  10. Good functional recovery following intervention for delayed suprachoroidal haemorrhage post bleb needling: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul S Cannon; A Fiona Spencer; Michael Lavin

    2008-01-01

    Introduction  Bleb needling is a recognised procedure in the management of patients with failing trabeculectomies. Suprachoroidal haemorrhage\\u000a can occur as an unusual complication. We report a pseudophakic man who had early surgical intervention for this complication.\\u000a This intervention may have contributed to the good recovery of his visual acuity and the minimum changes to his visual fields.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case presentation  A 79-year-old pseudophakic

  11. Changes in collagen metabolism account for ventricular functional recovery following beta-blocker therapy in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Miho; Goda, Akiko; Komamura, Kazuo; Nakabo, Ayumi; Masaki, Mitsuru; Yoshida, Chikako; Hirotani, Shinichi; Lee-Kawabata, Masaaki; Tsujino, Takeshi; Mano, Toshiaki; Masuyama, Tohru

    2014-10-29

    While beta blockade improves left ventricular (LV) function in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), the mechanisms are not well known. This study aimed to examine whether changes in myocardial collagen metabolism account for LV functional recovery following beta-blocker therapy in 62 CHF patients with reduced ejection fraction (EF). LV function was echocardiographically measured at baseline and 1, 6, and 12 months after bisoprolol therapy along with serum markers of collagen metabolism including C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (CITP) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. Deceleration time of mitral early velocity (DcT) increased even in the early phase, but LVEF gradually improved throughout the study period. Heart rate (HR) was reduced from the early stage, and CITP gradually decreased. LVEF and DcT increased more so in patients with the larger decreases in CITP (r = -0.33, p < 0.05; r = -0.28, p < 0.05, respectively), and HR (r = -0.31, p < 0.05; r = -0.38, p < 0.05, respectively). In addition, there were greater decreases in CITP, MMP-2 and HR from baseline to 1, 6, or 12 months in patients with above-average improvement in LVEF than in those with below-average improvement in LVEF. Similar results were obtained in terms of DcT. There was no significant correlation between the changes in HR and CITP. In conclusion, improvement in LV systolic/diastolic function was greatest in patients with the larger inhibition of collagen degradation. Changes in myocardial collagen metabolism are closely related to LV functional recovery somewhat independently from HR reduction. PMID:25351137

  12. Transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promotes functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, L.P.; Iglesias, D.; Nicola, F.C.; Steffens, D.; Valentim, L.; Witczak, A.; Zanatta, G.; Achaval, M.; Pranke, P.; Netto, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cell transplantation is a promising experimental treatment for spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood in promoting functional recovery when transplanted after a contusion spinal cord injury. Female Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were submitted to spinal injury with a MASCIS impactor and divided into 4 groups: control, surgical control, spinal cord injury, and one cell-treated lesion group. Mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood of human male neonates were transplanted in two experiments: a) 1 h after surgery, into the injury site at a concentration of 5 x 106 cells diluted in 10 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 8-10 per group); b) into the cisterna magna, 9 days after lesion at a concentration of 5 x 106 cells diluted in 150 µL 0.9% NaCl (N = 12-14 per group). The transplanted animals were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin-A (10 mg/kg per day). The BBB scale was used to evaluate motor behavior and the injury site was analyzed with immunofluorescent markers to label human transplanted cells, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and astrocytes. Spinal cord injury rats had 25% loss of cord tissue and cell treatment did not affect lesion extension. Transplanted cells survived in the injured area for 6 weeks after the procedure and both transplanted groups showed better motor recovery than the untreated ones (P < 0.05). The transplantation of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood promoted functional recovery with no evidence of cell differentiation. PMID:22183246

  13. A new practical method for the determination of static formation temperatures in geothermal and petroleum wells using a numerical method based on rational polynomial functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong-Loya, J. A.; Andaverde, J.; Santoyo, E.

    2012-12-01

    A new practical method based on rational polynomial (RP) functions to estimate the static formation temperatures (SFT) in geothermal and petroleum boreholes is described. Thermal recovery processes involved during borehole drilling and completion operations were represented by mathematical asymptotic trends. Measurements of bottom-hole temperature and shut-in times (at least three or more) have been used both to obtain a mathematical function that describes the thermal recovery process of drilled boreholes, and to estimate the SFT. Using build-up temperature logs, the SFT have been reliably estimated with precision and accuracy. With these results, it was successfully demonstrated that the new RP method provides a practical tool for the reliable prediction of SFT in geothermal and petroleum boreholes.

  14. Use of a Hyaluronic Acid-Carboxymethylcellulose Adhesion Barrier on the Neurovascular Bundle and Prostatic Bed to Facilitate Earlier Recovery of Erectile Function After Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy: An Initial Experience

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Jae Young; Ha, Yun-Sok; Singer, Eric A.; Ercolani, Matthew C.; Favaretto, Ricardo L.; Lee, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To investigate the efficacy of hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose (HACM) in facilitating early recovery of erectile function (EF) after radical prostatectomy, we report our initial experience of HACM use on the neurovascular bundle (NVB) after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Patients and Methods Between 2008 and 2010, 459 consecutive patients who underwent RARP with bilateral nerve-sparing technique were included in this study. Patients were classified into two groups: HACM (group 1; n=162) and non-HACM (group 2; n=287). HACM was delivered to the anatomic location of the NVB after prostate removal. We retrospectively analyzed the surgical outcomes including EF, continence, and perioperative complications. Results At 6 months after surgery, EF recovery rate was 28.5% in group 1 and 17.4% in group 2 (P=0.006). In a subgroup analysis consisting of 225 patients with a preoperative International Index of Erectile Function Short Survey (IIEF)-5 score ?20, the difference in EF recovery at 6 months was significant with 62.8% in group 1 and 27.0% in group 2 (P=0.002), respectively. HACM use was an independent predictor for EF recovery at 6 months after surgery (odds ratio, 2.735; 95% confidence interval, 1.613–4.638; P<0.001). Age and preoperative IIEF-5 were also independent predictors. No differences in continence at 6 months or perioperative complications were found between the two groups. EF recovery was not different between the two groups after 18 months. Conclusions HACM use around the NVBs is safe and facilitates early recovery of EF after nerve-sparing RARP. HACM use is more effective in patients with normal preoperative sexual function. PMID:23879531

  15. QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMPROVED RECOVERY: APPLICATION TO HEAVY OIL SANDS

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz; Ronald W. Falta; Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Scott E. Brame; Robert A. Bridges

    2002-10-30

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity has the potential to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involves application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation, particularly in heavy oil sands. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field. Observations of lateral variability and vertical sequences observed in Temblor Formation outcrops has led to a better understanding of reservoir geology in West Coalinga Field. Based on the characteristics of stratigraphic bounding surfaces in the outcrops, these surfaces were identified in the subsurface using cores and logs. The bounding surfaces were mapped and then used as reference horizons in the reservoir modeling. Facies groups and facies tracts were recognized from outcrops and cores of the Temblor Formation and were applied to defining the stratigraphic framework and facies architecture for building 3D geological models. The following facies tracts were recognized: incised valley, estuarine, tide- to wave-dominated shoreline, diatomite, and subtidal. A new minipermeameter probe, which has important advantages over previous methods of measuring outcrop permeability, was developed during this project. The device, which measures permeability at the distal end of a small drillhole, avoids surface weathering effects and provides a superior seal compared with previous methods for measuring outcrop permeability. The new probe was used successfully for obtaining a high-quality permeability data set from an outcrop in southern Utah. Results obtained from analyzing the fractal structure of permeability data collected from the southern Utah outcrop and from core permeability data provided by Chevron from West Coalinga Field were used in distributing permeability values in 3D reservoir models. Spectral analyses and the Double Trace Moment method (Lavallee et al., 1991) were used to analyze the scaling and multifractality of permeability data from cores from West Coalinga Field. T2VOC, which is a numerical flow simulator capable of modeling multiphase, multi-component, nonisothermal flow, was used to model steam injection and oil production for a portion of section 36D in West Coalinga Field. The layer structure and permeability distributions of different models, including facies group, facies tract, and fractal permeability models, were incorporated into the numerical flow simulator. The injection and production histories of wells in the study area were modeled, including shutdowns and the occasional conversion of production wells to steam injection wells. The framework provided by facies groups provides a more realistic representation of the reservoir conditions than facies tracts, which is revealed by a comparison of the history-matching for the oil production. Permeability distributions obtained using the fractal results predict the high degree of heterogeneity within the reservoir sands of West Coalinga Field. The modeling results indicate that predictions of oil production are strongly influenced by the geologic framework and by the boundary conditions. The permeability data collected from the southern Utah outcrop, support a new concept for representing natural heterogeneity, which is called the fractal/facies concept. This hypothesis is one of the few potentially simplifying concepts to emerge from recent studies of geological heterogeneity. Further investigation of this concept should be done to more fully apply fractal analysis to reservoir modeling and simulation. Additional outcrop permeability data sets and further analysis of the data from distinct facies will be needed in order to fully develop

  16. Grafted human-induced pluripotent stem-cell–derived neurospheres promote motor functional recovery after spinal cord injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nori, Satoshi; Okada, Yohei; Yasuda, Akimasa; Tsuji, Osahiko; Takahashi, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Yoshiomi; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Koike, Masato; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Ikeda, Eiji; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Yamanaka, Shinya; Nakamura, Masaya; Okano, Hideyuki

    2011-01-01

    Once their safety is confirmed, human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), which do not entail ethical concerns, may become a preferred cell source for regenerative medicine. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of transplanting hiPSC-derived neurospheres (hiPSC-NSs) into nonobese diabetic (NOD)-severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice to treat spinal cord injury (SCI). For this, we used a hiPSC clone (201B7), established by transducing four reprogramming factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) into adult human fibroblasts. Grafted hiPSC-NSs survived, migrated, and differentiated into the three major neural lineages (neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes) within the injured spinal cord. They showed both cell-autonomous and noncell-autonomous (trophic) effects, including synapse formation between hiPSC-NS–derived neurons and host mouse neurons, expression of neurotrophic factors, angiogenesis, axonal regrowth, and increased amounts of myelin in the injured area. These positive effects resulted in significantly better functional recovery compared with vehicle-treated control animals, and the recovery persisted through the end of the observation period, 112 d post-SCI. No tumor formation was observed in the hiPSC-NS–grafted mice. These findings suggest that hiPSCs give rise to neural stem/progenitor cells that support improved function post-SCI and are a promising cell source for its treatment. PMID:21949375

  17. Subacute Intranasal Administration of Tissue Plasminogen Activator Promotes Neuroplasticity and Improves Functional Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yuling; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Yanlu; Liu, Zhongwu; An, Aaron; Mahmood, Asim; Xiong, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and long-term disability worldwide. To date, there are no effective pharmacological treatments for TBI. Recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the effective drug for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. In addition to its thrombolytic effect, tPA is also involved in neuroplasticity in the central nervous system. However, tPA has potential adverse side effects when administered intravenously including brain edema and hemorrhage. Here we report that tPA, administered by intranasal delivery during the subacute phase after TBI, provides therapeutic benefit. Animals with TBI were treated intranasally with saline or tPA initiated 7 days after TBI. Compared with saline treatment, subacute intranasal tPA treatment significantly 1) improved cognitive (Morris water maze test) and sensorimotor (footfault and modified neurological severity score) functional recovery in rats after TBI, 2) reduced the cortical stimulation threshold evoking ipsilateral forelimb movement, 3) enhanced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and axonal sprouting of the corticospinal tract originating from the contralesional cortex into the denervated side of the cervical gray matter, and 4) increased the level of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Our data suggest that subacute intranasal tPA treatment improves functional recovery and promotes brain neurogenesis and spinal cord axonal sprouting after TBI, which may be mediated, at least in part, by tPA/plasmin-dependent maturation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. PMID:25184365

  18. Effect of an Inductive Hydrogel Composed of Urinary Bladder Matrix Upon Functional Recovery Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Feng; Weng, Zhongfang; Brown, Bryan N.; Yan, Hongqu; Ma, Xiecheng Michelle; Vosler, Peter S.; Badylak, Stephen F.; Dixon, C. Edward

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem with no effective clinical treatment. Use of bioactive scaffold materials has been shown to be a promising strategy for tissue regeneration and repair in a number of injury models. Of these scaffold materials, urinary bladder matrix (UBM) derived from porcine bladder tissue, has demonstrated desirable properties for supporting and promoting the growth of neural cells in vitro, suggesting its potential as a scaffold for brain tissue repair in the treatment of TBI. Herein we evaluate the biocompatibility of UBM within brain tissue and the effects of UBM delivery upon functional outcome following TBI. A hydrogel form of UBM was injected into healthy rat brains for 1, 3, and 21 days to examine the tissue response to UBM. Multiple measures of tissue injury, including reactive astrocytosis, microglial activation, and neuron degeneration showed that UBM had no deleterious effects on normal brain. Following TBI, the brains were evaluated histologically and behaviorally between sham-operated controls and UBM- and vehicle-treated groups. Application of UBM reduced lesion volume and attenuated trauma-induced myelin disruption. Importantly, UBM treatment resulted in significant neurobehavioral recovery following TBI as demonstrated by improvements in vestibulomotor function; however, no differences in cognitive recovery were observed between the UBM- and vehicle-treated groups. The present study demonstrated that UBM is not only biocompatible within the brain tissue, but also can exert protective effects upon injured brain. PMID:23596981

  19. Administration of antagomir-223 inhibits apoptosis, promotes angiogenesis and functional recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Da; Huang, Ying; Jia, Changqing; Li, Yan; Liang, Feng; Fu, Qin

    2015-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recently described as a class of short non-coding RNAs, which play important roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation and involved in many physiological and pathological processes. MicroRNA-223 (miR-223) has been showed highly elevated in the injured spinal cord. However, the potential role and underlying mechanisms of miR-223 in spinal cord injury (SCI) were incompletely understood. In the present study, we observed the persistent high levels of miR-223 in the injured spinal cord at different time points (1, 3, 7, and 14 days) after SCI. Besides, inhibiting miR-223 by intrathecally injection with antagomir-223 significantly improved recovery in hindlimb motor function and attenuated cell apoptosis in spinal cord-injured rats. Additionally, antagomir-223 treatment markedly decreased the pro-apoptotic protein levels, including Bax and cleaved caspase-3, up-regulated the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein level, as well as the expression of GluR2. Moreover, inhibition of miR-223 promoted angiogenesis, as evidenced by the increased CD31 expression and microvascular density. Taken together, our results indicate that inhibition of miR-223 with antagomir-223 exerts protective role in functional recovery, angiogenesis, and anti-apoptosis during SCI. Thereby, miR-223 may be a promising target of therapy for SCI. PMID:25416533

  20. A Method for Comparative Analysis of Recovery Potential in Impaired Waters Restoration Planning

    EPA Science Inventory

    Common decision support tools and a growing body of knowledge about ecological recovery can help inform and guide large state and federal restoration programs affecting thousands of impaired waters. Under the federal Clean Water Act (CWA), waters not meeting state Water Quality ...

  1. Evaluation of EOR methods for heavy-oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tayfun Babadagli

    2003-01-01

    When unfavorable conditions such as heavy-oil, large matrix size, high IFT, low matrix permeability, oil-wet matrix and poorly connected fracture network exist in an oil reservoir, additional support to enhance the matrix oil recovery is inevitable. Water and gas can be injected in order for the matrix oil to be recovered by capillary and gravity forces, respectively. These processes may

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS TO EVALUATE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR ACHIEVING THE RECOVERY OF

    E-print Network

    SALMON STOCKS by Lynsey Ruth Pestes B.S., Walla Walla College, 2002 RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL for achieving the recovery of endangered salmon stocks Supervisory Committee to evaluate management options for the depleted Cultus Lake, British Columbia, sockeye salmon stock. I sought

  3. Evaluation of cardiac autonomic functions in patients with ankylosing spondylitis via heart rate recovery and heart rate variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ergun Baris Kaya; Sercan Okutucu; Hakan Aksoy; Ugur Nadir Karakulak; Erol Tulumen; Oya Ozdemir; Fatma Inanici; Kudret Aytemir; Giray Kabakci; Lale Tokgozoglu; Hilmi Ozkutlu; Ali Oto

    2010-01-01

    Objective  The aim of this study was to evaluate heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) in otherwise healthy ankylosing\\u000a spondlitis (AS) patients and control subjects.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 28 patients with AS and 30 volunteers matched for age and sex were enrolled. All subjects underwent HRV analysis,\\u000a exercise testing (ET), and transthoracic echocardiography. HRR indices were calculated by

  4. A new control method in startup progress for power turbine generators as waste heat recovery system using an overall shipboard system model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobumasa Matsui; Fujio Kurokawa; Keiichi Shiraishi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a new control method for a power turbine generator (PTG) as a waste heat recovery system using an overall shipboard system model that ascertains startup characteristics. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The PTG system is a waste heat recovery-type generation system making use of exhaust gas from the main shipboard diesel engines. With

  5. Relative effectiveness of the Bacteriological Analytical Manual method for the recovery of Salmonella from whole cantaloupes and cantaloupe rinses with selected preenrichment media and rapid methods.

    PubMed

    Hammack, Thomas S; Valentin-Bon, Iris E; Jacobson, Andrew P; Andrews, Wallace H

    2004-05-01

    Soak and rinse methods were compared for the recovery of Salmonella from whole cantaloupes. Cantaloupes were surface inoculated with Salmonella cell suspensions and stored for 4 days at 2 to 6 degrees C. Cantaloupes were placed in sterile plastic bags with a nonselective preenrichment broth at a 1:1.5 cantaloupe weight-to-broth volume ratio. The cantaloupe broths were shaken for 5 min at 100 rpm after which 25-ml aliquots (rinse) were removed from the bags. The 25-ml rinses were preenriched in 225-ml portions of the same uninoculated broth type at 35 degrees C for 24 h (rinse method). The remaining cantaloupe broths were incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h (soak method). The preenrichment broths used were buffered peptone water (BPW), modified BPW, lactose (LAC) broth, and Universal Preenrichment (UP) broth. The Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method was compared with the following rapid methods: the TECRA Unique Salmonella method, the VIDAS ICS/SLM method, and the VIDAS SLM method. The soak method detected significantly more Salmonella-positive cantaloupes (P < 0.05) than did the rinse method: 367 Salmonella-positive cantaloupes of 540 test cantaloupes by the soak method and 24 Salmonella-positive cantaloupes of 540 test cantaloupes by the rinse method. Overall, BPW, LAC, and UP broths were equivalent for the recovery of Salmonella from cantaloupes. Both the VIDAS ICS/SLM and TECRA Unique Salmonella methods detected significantly fewer Salmonella-positive cantaloupes than did the culture method: the VIDAS ICS/SLM method detected 23 of 50 Salmonella-positive cantaloupes (60 tested) and the TECRA Unique Salmonella method detected 16 of 29 Salmonella-positive cantaloupes (60 tested). The VIDAS SLM and culture methods were equivalent: both methods detected 37 of 37 Salmonella-positive cantaloupes (60 tested). PMID:15151220

  6. Development of a method to recovery and amplification DNA by real-time PCR from commercial vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gómez, Sonia; Busto, María D; Perez-Mateos, Manuel; Ortega, Natividad

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the design of a suitable DNA isolation method from commercial vegetable oils for the application of DNA markers for food safety and traceability. Firstly, a comparative study was made of eight methods for the recovery of high quality DNA from olive, sunflower and palm oils, and a CTAB-based method was selected. In order to optimize this method, the effect of the organic compounds and several components in the lysis buffer and the lysis and precipitation time were evaluated. For the purpose of overcoming the limitations detected in spectrophotometric and PCR DNA yield evaluations, the performance of the extraction protocols during the optimization processes was evaluated using qPCR. The suggested DNA extraction optimized is less time consuming than other conventional DNA extraction methods, uses a reduced oil volume and is cheaper than available commercial kits. Additionally, the applicability of this method has been successfully assayed in ten commercial vegetable oils and derivatives. PMID:24731357

  7. Natural frequencies of functionally graded plates by a meshless method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. M. Ferreira; R. C. Batra; C. M. C. Roque; L. F. Qian; R. M. N. Jorge

    2006-01-01

    We use the global collocation method, the first and the third-order shear deformation plate theories, the Mori–Tanaka technique to homogenize material properties, and approximate the trial solution with multiquadric radial basis functions to analyze free vibrations of functionally graded plates. Frequencies computed by the present method are found to agree well with those from the analytical solution of Vel and

  8. Conserved Dopamine Neurotrophic Factor-Transduced Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Axon Regeneration and Functional Recovery of Injured Sciatic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Nie, Lin; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Yuan-Qiang; Wang, Shuai-Shuai; Cheng, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a common disease that often results in axonal degeneration and the loss of neurons, ultimately leading to limited nerve regeneration and severe functional impairment. Currently, there are no effective treatments for PNI. In the present study, we transduced conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in collagen tubes to investigate their regenerative effects on rat peripheral nerves in an in vivo transection model. Scanning electron microscopy of the collagen tubes demonstrated their ability to be resorbed in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of the CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after application of CDNF-MSCs. Quantitative analysis of neurofilament 200 (NF200) and S100 immunohistochemistry showed significant enhancement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration in the group receiving CDNF-MSCs (CDNF-MSCs group) compared with the control groups. Myelination thickness, axon diameter and the axon-to fiber diameter ratio (G-ratio) were significantly higher in the CDNF-MSCs group at 8 and 12 weeks after nerve transection surgery. After surgery, the sciatic functional index, target muscle weight, wet weight ratio of gastrocnemius muscle and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracing demonstrated functional recovery. Light and electron microscopy confirmed successful regeneration of the sciatic nerve. The greater numbers of HRP-labeled neuron cell bodies and increased sciatic nerve index values (SFI) in the CDNF-MSCs group suggest that CDNF exerts neuroprotective effects in vivo. We also observed higher target muscle weights and a significant improvement in muscle atrophism in the CDNF-MSCs group. Collectively, these findings indicate that CDNF gene therapy delivered by MSCs is capable of promoting nerve regeneration and functional recovery, likely because of the significant neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of CDNF and the superior environment offered by MSCs and collagen tubes. PMID:25343619

  9. Using Functional Languages in Formal Methods: The Pet System

    E-print Network

    Peled, Doron A.

    Using Functional Languages in Formal Methods: The Pet System Elsa L. Gunter and Doron A. Peled Bell graphical part. In this paper we describe the Pet tool, the decisions that led us to use the functional languages. In this paper, we concentrate on a particular strength of functional program­ ming language

  10. Method of making a functionally graded material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Menchhofer, Paul A. (Clinton, TN); Walls, Claudia A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A gelcasting method of making an internally graded article alternatively includes the steps of: preparing a slurry including a least two different phases suspended in a gelcasting solution, the phases characterized by having different settling characteristics; casting the slurry into a mold having a selected shape; allowing the slurry to stand for a sufficient period of time to permit desired gravitational fractionation in order to achieve a vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; gelling the slurry to form a solid gel while preserving the vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; drying the gel to form a dried green body; and sintering the dry green body to form a solid object, at least one property thereof varying along the vertical direction because of the compositional gradient in the molded slurry.

  11. Locating Heat Recovery Opportunities

    E-print Network

    Waterland, A. F.

    1981-01-01

    Basic concepts of heat recovery are defined as they apply to the industrial community. Methods for locating, ranking, and developing heat recovery opportunities are presented and explained. The needs for useful heat 'sinks' are emphasized as equal...

  12. Relativistic Green's-function method for solids and molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Augusto Agostinho Neto; Luiz G. Ferreira

    1976-01-01

    The relativistic multiple-scattering method (Green's-function method) for crystals and molecules is developed from the definition of the four-component wave function in the two regions. The secular equation is obtained by matching the wave functions at the two sides of the sphere surface separating the two regions. The secular equation is expanded in powers of 1c2 so as to exhibit the

  13. Method of making a functionally graded material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Menchhofer, Paul A. (Clinton, TN); Walls, Claudia A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A gelcasting method of making an internally graded article includes the steps of: preparing at least two slurries, each of the slurries including a different gelcastable powder suspended in a gelcasting solution, the slurries characterized by having comparable shrinkage upon drying and sintering thereof; casting the slurries into a mold having a selected shape, wherein relative proportions of the slurries is varied in at least one direction within the selected shape; gelling the slurries to form a solid gel while preserving the variation in relative proportions of the slurries; drying the gel to form a dried green body; and sintering the dry green body to form a solid object, at least one property thereof varying because of the variation in relative proportions of the starting slurries. A gelcasting method of making an internally graded article alternatively includes the steps of: preparing a slurry including a least two different phases suspended in a gelcasting solution, the phases characterized by having different settling characteristics; casting the slurry into a mold having a selected shape; allowing the slurry to stand for a sufficient period of time to permit desired gravitational fractionation in order to achieve a vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; gelling the slurry to form a solid gel while preserving the vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; drying the gel to form a dried green body; and sintering the dry green body to form a solid object, at least one property thereof varying along the vertical direction because of the compositional gradient in the molded slurry.

  14. Recovery of absorptive function of the reticulo-rumen and total tract barrier function in beef cattle after short-term feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Aschenbach, J R; Barreda, D R; Penner, G B

    2013-04-01

    Our objective was to determine if the severity of short-term feed restriction (FR) affects the timeline for recovery of the absorptive function of the reticulo-rumen and barrier function of the total gastrointestinal tract in beef cattle. Eighteen ruminally cannulated and ovariectomized Angus × Hereford heifers were housed in individual pens. Heifers were blocked by initial BW into 3 blocks and, within block, randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments that differed in the severity of FR: heifers were restricted to 75, 50, or 25% of ad libitum intake. Treatments were imposed during a 5-d period of FR followed by 3 consecutive wk of recovery (REC1, REC2, and REC3). Throughout the experiment heifers were fed the same diet (60% forage:40% concentrate) for ad libitum intake (except during FR) and water was available at all times. Dry matter intake was measured daily and ruminal pH was recorded every 2 min during FR and recovery periods. Ruminal fluid and blood samples were collected on d 3 of the FR and d 5 of REC1 and REC3. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption rates were evaluated on the last day of FR, REC1, and REC3 using the temporarily isolated and washed reticulo-rumen technique. On d 2 of FR and d 4 of REC1 and REC3, a 1 L solution of Cr-EDTA (180 mM) was dosed into the rumen followed by 48 h of total urine collection. Dry matter intake (% BW) increased rapidly in REC1 for heifers restricted to 75 and 50%; however, heifers restricted to 25% needed at least 2 wk to recover (treatment × period; P < 0.001). Regardless of the severity of FR, the duration that pH < 5.5 was the highest during REC1 (period P < 0.001). However, an interaction was found for the acidosis index, with pH × min/kg of DMI being greatest in heifers restricted to 25% on d 1 of the recovery period. A treatment × period interaction was found for the absolute absorption rate (mmol/h) of total SCFA (P = 0.009). The total SCFA absorption rate was not different for heifers restricted to 75 and 50% across periods, whereas an increase from FR and REC1 to REC3 was detected for heifers restricted to 25% of ad libitum intake. A treatment effect was observed for urinary Cr output (P = 0.027) indicating that heifers previously restricted to 25% of ad libitum intake had greater Cr excretion in urine during FR and recovery. This study indicates that severe FR negatively affects the time required for recovery of reticulo-rumen absorptive function and total tract barrier function. Another important finding is that regardless of severity, FR increases risk for ruminal acidosis when heifers have free access to feed after FR. PMID:23408814

  15. Enduring Mental Health Morbidity and Social Function Impairment in World Trade Center Rescue, Recovery, and Cleanup Workers: The Psychological Dimension of an Environmental Health Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Stellman, Jeanne Mager; Smith, Rebecca P.; Katz, Craig L.; Sharma, Vansh; Charney, Dennis S.; Herbert, Robin; Moline, Jacqueline; Luft, Benjamin J.; Markowitz, Steven; Udasin, Iris; Harrison, Denise; Baron, Sherry; Landrigan, Philip J.; Levin, Stephen M.; Southwick, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Background The World Trade Center (WTC) attacks exposed thousands of workers to hazardous environmental conditions and psychological trauma. In 2002, to assess the health of these workers, Congress directed the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to establish the WTC Medical Monitoring and Treatment Program. This program has established a large cohort of WTC rescue, recovery, and cleanup workers. We previously documented extensive pulmonary dysfunction in this cohort related to toxic environmental exposures. Objectives Our objective in this study was to describe mental health outcomes, social function impairment, and psychiatric comorbidity in the WTC worker cohort, as well as perceived symptomatology in workers’ children. Methods Ten to 61 months after the WTC attack, 10,132 WTC workers completed a self-administered mental health questionnaire. Results Of the workers who completd the questionnaire, 11.1% met criteria for probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 8.8% met criteria for probable depression, 5.0% met criteria for probable panic disorder, and 62% met criteria for substantial stress reaction. PTSD prevalence was comparable to that seen in returning Afghanistan war veterans and was much higher than in the U.S. general population. Point prevalence declined from 13.5% to 9.7% over the 5 years of observation. Comorbidity was extensive and included extremely high risks for impairment of social function. PTSD was significantly associated with loss of family members and friends, disruption of family, work, and social life, and higher rates of behavioral symptoms in children of workers. Conclusions Working in 9/11 recovery operations is associated with chronic impairment of mental health and social functioning. Psychological distress and psychopathology in WTC workers greatly exceed population norms. Surveillance and treatment programs continue to be needed. PMID:18795171

  16. Basic Concepts in Understanding Recovery of Function in Vestibular Reflex Networks during Vestibular Compensation

    PubMed Central

    Peusner, Kenna D.; Shao, Mei; Reddaway, Rebecca; Hirsch, June C.

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions produce a syndrome of oculomotor and postural deficits with the symptoms at rest, the static symptoms, partially or completely normalizing shortly after the lesion due to a process known as vestibular compensation. The symptoms are thought to result from changes in the activity of vestibular sensorimotor reflexes. Since the vestibular nuclei must be intact for recovery to occur, many investigations have focused on studying these neurons after lesions. At present, the neuronal plasticity underlying early recovery from the static symptoms is not fully understood. Here we propose that knowledge of the reflex identity and input–output connections of the recorded neurons is essential to link the responses to animal behavior. We further propose that the cellular mechanisms underlying vestibular compensation can be sorted out by characterizing the synaptic responses and time course for change in morphologically defined subsets of vestibular reflex projection neurons. Accordingly, this review focuses on the perspective gained by performing electrophysiological and immunolabeling studies on a specific subset of morphologically defined, glutamatergic vestibular reflex projection neurons, the principal cells of the chick tangential nucleus. Reference is made to pertinent findings from other studies on vestibular nuclei neurons, but no comprehensive review of the literature is intended since broad reviews already exist. From recording excitatory and inhibitory spontaneous synaptic activity in principal cells, we find that the rebalancing of excitatory synaptic drive bilaterally is essential for vestibular compensation to proceed. This work is important for it defines for the first time the excitatory and inhibitory nature of the changing synaptic inputs and the time course for changes in a morphologically defined subset of vestibular reflex projection neurons during early stages of vestibular compensation. PMID:22363316

  17. Vector-Free and Transgene-Free Human iPS Cells Differentiate into Functional Neurons and Enhance Functional Recovery after Ischemic Stroke in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad, Osama; Faulkner, Ben; Chen, Dongdong; Yu, Shan Ping; Wei, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of human death and disability in the adult population in the United States and around the world. While stroke treatment is limited, stem cell transplantation has emerged as a promising regenerative therapy to replace or repair damaged tissues and enhance functional recovery after stroke. Recently, the creation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells through reprogramming of somatic cells has revolutionized cell therapy by providing an unlimited source of autologous cells for transplantation. In addition, the creation of vector-free and transgene-free human iPS (hiPS) cells provides a new generation of stem cells with a reduced risk of tumor formation that was associated with the random integration of viral vectors seen with previous techniques. However, the potential use of these cells in the treatment of ischemic stroke has not been explored. In the present investigation, we examined the neuronal differentiation of vector-free and transgene-free hiPS cells and the transplantation of hiPS cell-derived neural progenitor cells (hiPS-NPCs) in an ischemic stroke model in mice. Vector-free hiPS cells were maintained in feeder-free and serum-free conditions and differentiated into functional neurons in vitro using a newly developed differentiation protocol. Twenty eight days after transplantation in stroke mice, hiPS-NPCs showed mature neuronal markers in vivo. No tumor formation was seen up to 12 months after transplantation. Transplantation of hiPS-NPCs restored neurovascular coupling, increased trophic support and promoted behavioral recovery after stroke. These data suggest that using vector-free and transgene-free hiPS cells in stem cell therapy are safe and efficacious in enhancing recovery after focal ischemic stroke in mice. PMID:23717557

  18. Non-functional requirements analysis: deficiencies in structured methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Grimshaw; Godfrey W. Draper

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines some deficiencies in structured systems development methods that have the effect of overlooking non-functional requirements. Evidence from four case studies shows that non-functional requirements are often overlooked, questioning users is insufficient, methodologies do not help in the elicitation of non-functional requirements and there is a lack of consensus about the meaning and utility of non-functional requirements. Some

  19. Effects of hydroxyethyl starch conjugated deferoxamine on myocardial functional recovery following coronary occlusion and reperfusion in dogs.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, M; Pieper, G M; Kalyanaraman, B; Hallaway, P E; Hedlund, B E; Gross, G J

    1991-01-01

    The effect of hydroxyethyl starch-conjugated deferoxamine (HES-DFO) on the recovery of regional myocardial function after 15 min of coronary artery occlusion followed by 3 h of reperfusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (stunned myocardium) was investigated in anesthetized dogs. Regional myocardial blood flow was measured by radioactive microspheres and regional myocardial segment shortening (%SS) by sonomicrometry. HES-DFO (equivalent of 50 mg/kg DFO), iron saturated HES-DFO (HES-FO), deferoxamine (DFO, 50 mg/kg), or saline were administered by intravenous infusion starting 30 min before occlusion and throughout occlusion. Ischemic bed size and collateral blood flow were similar in all four groups. HES-DFO significantly improved %SS in the ischemic-reperfused region during reperfusion; however, HES-FO and DFO had no effect on %SS as compared to the saline-treated group. HES-DFO and HES-FO had no effect on hemodynamics; however, DFO produced a marked reduction in systemic blood pressure. Since HES-FO had no effect on the recovery of %SS, the beneficial effect of HES-DFO is thought to be due to its iron chelating characteristics. Plasma concentrations of HES-DFO not only reached a higher peak level but also had a longer half life (3 h) than that of regular DFO (20 min). Thus, high-molecular-weight HES-DFO is effective in enhancing the recovery of regional wall motion in stunned myocardium. The reason for the lack of efficacy of DFO compared to HES-DFO at this high dose may be related to the formation of a toxic deferoxamine free radical species. PMID:1708051

  20. Meshless methods based on collocation with radial basis functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Zhang; K. Z. Song; M. W. Lu; X. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Meshless methods based on collocation with radial basis functions (RBFs) are investigated in detail in this paper. Both globally\\u000a supported and compactly supported radial basis functions are used with collocation to solve partial differential equations\\u000a (PDEs). Using RBFs as a meshless collocation method to solve PDEs possesses some advantages. It is a truly mesh-free method,\\u000a and is space dimension independent.

  1. Developing Rapid Methods for Analyzing Upland Riparian Functions and Values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Hruby

    2009-01-01

    Regulators protecting riparian areas need to understand the integrity, health, beneficial uses, functions, and values of this\\u000a resource. Up to now most methods providing information about riparian areas are based on analyzing condition or integrity.\\u000a These methods, however, provide little information about functions and values. Different methods are needed that specifically\\u000a address this aspect of riparian areas. In addition to

  2. NESTA: A Fast and Accurate First-Order Method for Sparse Recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Becker; Jérôme Bobin; Emmanuel J. Candès

    2011-01-01

    Accurate signal recovery or image reconstruction from indirect and possibly\\u000aundersampled data is a topic of considerable interest; for example, the\\u000aliterature in the recent field of compressed sensing is already quite immense.\\u000aInspired by recent breakthroughs in the development of novel first-order\\u000amethods in convex optimization, most notably Nesterov's smoothing technique,\\u000athis paper introduces a fast and accurate algorithm

  3. Mechanisms underlying the recovery of lower urinary tract function following spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William C. de Groat; Naoki Yoshimura

    2006-01-01

    The lower urinary tract has two main functions, the storage and periodic expulsion of urine, which are regulated by a complex neural control system in the brain and lumbosacral spinal cord. This neural system coordinates the activity of two functional units in the lower urinary tract: (1) a reservoir (the urinary bladder) and (2) an outlet (consisting of bladder neck,

  4. HEAVY PARTICLE IRRADIATION, NEUROCHEMISTRY AND BEHAVIOR: THRESHOLDS, DOSE-RESPONSE CURVES AND RECOVERY OF FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor...

  5. Localized delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-expressing mesenchymal stem cells enhances functional recovery following cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gransee, Heather M; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C; Mantilla, Carlos B

    2015-02-01

    Neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are important in modulating neuroplasticity and promoting recovery after spinal cord injury. Intrathecal delivery of BDNF enhances functional recovery following unilateral spinal cord hemisection (SH) at C2, a well-established model of incomplete cervical spinal cord injury. We hypothesized that localized delivery of BDNF-expressing mesenchymal stem cells (BDNF-MSCs) would promote functional recovery of rhythmic diaphragm activity after SH. In adult rats, bilateral diaphragm electromyographic (EMG) activity was chronically monitored to determine evidence of complete SH at 3 days post-injury, and recovery of rhythmic ipsilateral diaphragm EMG activity over time post-SH. Wild-type, bone marrow-derived MSCs (WT-MSCs) or BDNF-MSCs (2×10(5) cells) were injected intraspinally at C2 at the time of injury. At 14 days post-SH, green fluorescent protein (GFP) immunoreactivity confirmed MSCs presence in the cervical spinal cord. Functional recovery in SH animals injected with WT-MSCs was not different from untreated SH controls (n=10; overall, 20% at 7 days and 30% at 14 days). In contrast, functional recovery was observed in 29% and 100% of SH animals injected with BDNF-MSCs at 7 days and 14 days post-SH, respectively (n=7). In BDNF-MSCs treated SH animals at 14 days, root-mean-squared EMG amplitude was 63±16% of the pre-SH value compared with 12±9% in the control/WT-MSCs group. We conclude that localized delivery of BDNF-expressing MSCs enhances functional recovery of diaphragm muscle activity following cervical spinal cord injury. MSCs can be used to facilitate localized delivery of trophic factors such as BDNF in order to promote neuroplasticity following spinal cord injury. PMID:25093762

  6. Recovery of Olfactory Function Induces Neuroplasticity Effects in Patients with Smell Loss

    PubMed Central

    Hoche, Elisabeth; Mueller, Christian A.; Pollak, Michael; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    The plasticity of brain function, especially reorganization after stroke or sensory loss, has been investigated extensively. Based upon its special characteristics, the olfactory system allows the investigation of functional networks in patients with smell loss, as it holds the unique ability to be activated by the sensorimotor act of sniffing, without the presentation of an odor. In the present study, subjects with chronic peripheral smell loss and healthy controls were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare functional networks in one of the major olfactory areas before and after an olfactory training program. Data analysis revealed that olfactory training induced alterations in functional connectivity networks. Thus, olfactory training is capable of inducing neural reorganization processes. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the underlying neural mechanisms of olfactory training. PMID:25544900

  7. The effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia on functional recovery from myocardial stunning in propofol-anesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Rolf, N; Meissner, A; Van Aken, H; Weber, T P; Hammel, D; Möllhoff, T

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) on myocardial stunning during propofol anesthesia. Six dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement of left atrial, aortic, and left ventricular pressure, maximal rate of increase of left ventricular pressure, and myocardial wall-thickening fraction (WTF). Myocardial blood flow was determined with colored microspheres. Experiments were performed on separate days with 1) 10 min of left anterior descending artery (LAD) ischemia during propofol anesthesia without TEA, and 2) 10 min of LAD ischemia during propofol anesthesia with TEA. WTF was measured as baseline (BL) prior to propofol anesthesia and at predetermined time points until complete recovery from stunning. Propofol anesthesia caused a significant decrease of WTF in the LAD-perfused myocardium (LAD-WTF) compared to BL in awake animals. LAD ischemia led to a further significant decrease of LAD-WTF. There were no significant differences in LAD-WTF between the two experimental conditions at any of the time points measured. TEA did not change subendocardial blood flow in nonischemic myocardium. During ischemia neither the subendocardial/subepicardial nor the occluded/normal zone blood flow ratio were affected by TEA. After myocardial ischemia during propofol anesthesia TEA does not affect functional recovery of stunned myocardium in dogs. PMID:9085946

  8. Functional recovery of the murine brain ischemia model using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived telencephalic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Gomi, Masanori; Takagi, Yasushi; Morizane, Asuka; Doi, Daisuke; Nishimura, Masaki; Miyamoto, Susumu; Takahashi, Jun

    2012-06-12

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells possess the properties of self-renewal and pluripotency, similar to embryonic stem cells. They are a good candidate as a source of suitable cells for cell replacement therapy. In this study, we transplanted human iPS cell-derived neural progenitors into an ischemic mouse brain. Human iPS cells were differentiated into neuronal progenitors by serum-free culture of embryoid body-like aggregates (SFEBs). Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by occluding the middle cerebral artery using the intraluminal filament technique. Donor cells were transplanted into the ischemic lateral striatum 1 week after ischemia induction. Cells survived at the transplantation site, with migration of a proportion of cells along the external capsule and corpus callosum. Cells that were positive for the basal telencephalon marker, Nkx2.1, migrated into the basal part of the telencephalon. The pallial telencephalon marker, Emx1, was detected in cells that had migrated into the pallial part of the telencephalon. SFEBs differentiated into various types of neurons, and a retrograde tracer labeling study showed that differentiated cells integrated into host neural circuitry. Behavioral recovery was significantly enhanced in the transplanted group. Our results suggest that human iPS cell-derived neuronal progenitors survive and migrate in the ischemic brain, and contribute toward functional recovery via neural circuit reconstitution. PMID:22572083

  9. Exp-function method for nonlinear wave equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-Huan He; Xu-Hong Wu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new method, called Exp-function method, is proposed to seek solitary solutions, periodic solutions and compacton-like solutions of nonlinear differential equations. The modified KdV equation and Dodd–Bullough–Mikhailov equation are chosen to illustrate the effectiveness and convenience of the suggested method.

  10. Bubble functions prompt unusual stabilized finite element methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leopoldo P. Franca; Charbel Farhat

    1995-01-01

    A second-order linear scalar differential equation including a zero-th order term is approximated using first the standard Galerkin method enriched with bubble functions. Static condensation of the bubbles suggest an unusual stabilized finite element method for which we establish a convergence study and obtain successful numerical simulations. The method is generalized to allow for a convection operator in the equation.

  11. Hypotensive anesthesia and recovery of cognitive function in long-term craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Caverni, Valentina; Rosa, Giovanni; Pinto, Giovanni; Tordiglione, Paolo; Favaro, Roberto

    2005-07-01

    The aim of our study was to compare three different anesthesiological techniques with regard to hemodynamics, recovery, and postoperative morbidity, for craniofacial surgery. One hundred twenty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification of I or II patients, 18 to 32 years old, and undergoing maxillary and mandibular osteotomies were randomly assigned to receive anesthesia with propofol-remifentanil (group P), desflurane-remifentanil (group D), or sevoflurane-remifentanil (group S). All patients were given premedication: midazolam 0.03 mg/kg, atropine 0.007 mg/kg, desametasone 0.1 mg/kg, NaCl 0.9% 100 mL + 2 mg/kg ketoprofene + 1.5 mg/kg ranitidine + 1 microg/kg clonidine. Anesthesia was induced by O2/air (FiO2 0.5), remifentanil 0.5 microg/kg/min, propofol 2 mg/kg, rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. Maintenance group P received O2/air (FiO2 0.5), remifentanil 0.25 to 1.5 microg/kg/min, propofol 6 to 10 mg/kg/h; groups D and S received O2/air (FiO2 0.5), remifentanil 0.25 to 1.5 microg/kg/min, and respectively, sevoflurane or desflurane 0.5 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration. The dosage of propofol, desflurane, and sevoflurane, obtained with a value of bispectral index (BIS) 40, was kept unchanged throughout the course, and remifentanil was titrated to maintain controlled hypotension: systolic arterial blood pressure 70 to 90 mmHg and mean arterial blood pressure 50 to 65 mmHg. A 24-hour elastomeric infusion system (ketoprofene 320 mg) was started 60 minutes before induction and cloridrat ondansetron 0.1 mg/kg was administered 30 minutes before the end of surgery. Hypotension was successfully obtained in all three groups with a bloodless surgical field, and there was no need for additional use of a potent hypotensive agent. Early and late recovery were faster and more complete in the D group; P < 0.05. Postoperative morbidity (nausea, vomiting, shivering, pain, and edema) was slight and did not significantly differ among the groups. PMID:16077295

  12. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor ameliorates excessive astrogliosis and improves the regeneration microenvironment and functional recovery in adult rats following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Astrogliosis is a common phenomenon after spinal cord injury (SCI). Although this process exerts positive effects on axonal regeneration, excessive astrogliosis imparts negative effects on neuronal repair and recovery. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is critical to the regulation of reactive astrogliosis, and therefore is a potential target of therapeutics to better control the response. In this report, we aim to investigate whether blocking EGFR signaling using an EGFR tyrosine kinase specific inhibitor can attenuate reactive astrogliosis and promote functional recovery after a traumatic SCI. Method The astrocyte scratch injury model in vitro and the weight-drop SCI model in vivo were used as model systems. PD168393 was used to inhibit EGFR signaling activation. Astrocytic activation and phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR) were observed after immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis. The rate of proliferation was determined by immunofluorescence detection of BrdU-incorporating cells located next to the wound. The levels of TNF-?, iNOS, COX-2 and IL-1? in the culture medium under different conditions were assayed by ELISA. Western blot was performed to semi-quantify the expression of EGFR/pEGFR, glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Myelin was stained by Luxol Fast Blue Staining. Cresyl violet eosin staining was performed to analyze the lesion cavity volume and neuronal survival following injury. Finally, functional scoring and residual urine recording were performed to show the rats’ recovery. Results EGFR phosphorylation was found to parallel astrocyte activation, and EGFR inhibitor PD168393 potently inhibited scratch-induced reactive astrogliosis and proinflammatory cytokine/mediator secretion of reactive astrocytes in vitro. Moreover, local administration of PD168393 in the injured area suppressed CSPGs production and glial scar formation, and resulted in reduced demyelination and neuronal loss, which correlated with remarkable hindlimb motor function and bladder improvement in SCI rats. Conclusions The specific EGFR inhibitor PD168393 can ameliorate excessive reactive astrogliosis and facilitate a more favorable environment for axonal regeneration after SCI. As such, EGFR inhibitor may be a promising therapeutic intervention in CNS injury. PMID:24708754

  13. Mechanism of Kinect-based virtual reality training for motor functional recovery of upper limbs after subacute stroke.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiao; Mao, Yurong; Lin, Qiang; Qiu, Yunhai; Chen, Shaozhen; Li, Le; Cates, Ryan S; Zhou, Shufeng; Huang, Dongfeng

    2013-11-01

    The Kinect-based virtual reality system for the Xbox 360 enables users to control and interact with the game console without the need to touch a game controller, and provides rehabilitation training for stroke patients with lower limb dysfunctions. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, 18 healthy subjects and five patients after subacute stroke were included. The five patients were scanned using functional MRI prior to training, 3 weeks after training and at a 12-week follow-up, and then compared with healthy subjects. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function Test scores of the hemiplegic upper limbs of stroke patients were significantly increased 3 weeks after training and at the 12-week follow-up. Functional MRI results showed that contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex was activated after Kinect-based virtual reality training in the stroke patients compared with the healthy subjects. Contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex, the bilateral supplementary motor area and the ipsilateral cerebellum were also activated during hand-clenching in all 18 healthy subjects. Our findings indicate that Kinect-based virtual reality training could promote the recovery of upper limb motor function in subacute stroke patients, and brain reorganization by Kinect-based virtual reality training may be linked to the contralateral sensorimotor cortex. PMID:25206611

  14. Mechanism of Kinect-based virtual reality training for motor functional recovery of upper limbs after subacute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Xiao; Mao, Yurong; Lin, Qiang; Qiu, Yunhai; Chen, Shaozhen; Li, Le; Cates, Ryan S.; Zhou, Shufeng; Huang, Dongfeng

    2013-01-01

    The Kinect-based virtual reality system for the Xbox 360 enables users to control and interact with the game console without the need to touch a game controller, and provides rehabilitation training for stroke patients with lower limb dysfunctions. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, 18 healthy subjects and five patients after subacute stroke were included. The five patients were scanned using functional MRI prior to training, 3 weeks after training and at a 12-week follow-up, and then compared with healthy subjects. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function Test scores of the hemiplegic upper limbs of stroke patients were significantly increased 3 weeks after training and at the 12-week follow-up. Functional MRI results showed that contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex was activated after Kinect-based virtual reality training in the stroke patients compared with the healthy subjects. Contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex, the bilateral supplementary motor area and the ipsilateral cerebellum were also activated during hand-clenching in all 18 healthy subjects. Our findings indicate that Kinect-based virtual reality training could promote the recovery of upper limb motor function in subacute stroke patients, and brain reorganization by Kinect-based virtual reality training may be linked to the contralateral sensorimotor cortex. PMID:25206611

  15. Theoretical and Experimental Methods for the Sensible Effectiveness of Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Wheels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Shang; Robert W. Besant

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares a new theoretical method with three other methods to determine the sensible effectiveness of energy wheels. The methods in this study include a new theoretical transient response prediction method, the standard steady state test method, a simulation or correlation method, and a transient response test method. The fully developed flow theoretical model includes sensible effectiveness corrections for

  16. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cortical neurons integrate in stroke-injured cortex and improve functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Tornero, Daniel; Wattananit, Somsak; Grønning Madsen, Marita; Koch, Philipp; Wood, James; Tatarishvili, Jemal; Mine, Yutaka; Ge, Ruimin; Monni, Emanuela; Devaraju, Karthikeyan; Hevner, Robert F; Brüstle, Oliver; Lindvall, Olle; Kokaia, Zaal

    2013-12-01

    Stem cell-based approaches to restore function after stroke through replacement of dead neurons require the generation of specific neuronal subtypes. Loss of neurons in the cerebral cortex is a major cause of stroke-induced neurological deficits in adult humans. Reprogramming of adult human somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells is a novel approach to produce patient-specific cells for autologous transplantation. Whether such cells can be converted to functional cortical neurons that survive and give rise to behavioural recovery after transplantation in the stroke-injured cerebral cortex is not known. We have generated progenitors in vitro, expressing specific cortical markers and giving rise to functional neurons, from long-term self-renewing neuroepithelial-like stem cells, produced from adult human fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. At 2 months after transplantation into the stroke-damaged rat cortex, the cortically fated cells showed less proliferation and more efficient conversion to mature neurons with morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of a cortical phenotype and higher axonal projection density as compared with non-fated cells. Pyramidal morphology and localization of the cells expressing the cortex-specific marker TBR1 in a certain layered pattern provided further evidence supporting the cortical phenotype of the fated, grafted cells, and electrophysiological recordings demonstrated their functionality. Both fated and non-fated cell-transplanted groups showed bilateral recovery of the impaired function in the stepping test compared with vehicle-injected animals. The behavioural improvement at this early time point was most likely not due to neuronal replacement and reconstruction of circuitry. At 5 months after stroke in immunocompromised rats, there was no tumour formation and the grafted cells exhibited electrophysiological properties of mature neurons with evidence of integration in host circuitry.