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1

Hormones, Brain Plasticity and Reproductive Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnocellular oxytocin system of the hypothalamus illustrates remarkably well activity-dependent structural plasticity\\u000a in the adult brain. Its neurons secrete the neurohormone oxytocin, which plays a key role in the initiation of parturition\\u000a and maintenance of lactation. The somata and dendrites of oxytocin neurons accumulate in the supraoptic and paraventricular\\u000a nuclei of the hypothalamus whereas their axons project to the

Dionysia T. Theodosis

2

Musical training as a framework for brain plasticity: behavior, function, and structure.  

PubMed

Musical training has emerged as a useful framework for the investigation of training-related plasticity in the human brain. Learning to play an instrument is a highly complex task that involves the interaction of several modalities and higher-order cognitive functions and that results in behavioral, structural, and functional changes on time scales ranging from days to years. While early work focused on comparison of musical experts and novices, more recently an increasing number of controlled training studies provide clear experimental evidence for training effects. Here, we review research investigating brain plasticity induced by musical training, highlight common patterns and possible underlying mechanisms of such plasticity, and integrate these studies with findings and models for mechanisms of plasticity in other domains. PMID:23141061

Herholz, Sibylle C; Zatorre, Robert J

2012-11-01

3

Differential pattern of functional brain plasticity after compassion and empathy training.  

PubMed

Although empathy is crucial for successful social interactions, excessive sharing of others' negative emotions may be maladaptive and constitute a source of burnout. To investigate functional neural plasticity underlying the augmentation of empathy and to test the counteracting potential of compassion, one group of participants was first trained in empathic resonance and subsequently in compassion. In response to videos depicting human suffering, empathy training, but not memory training (control group), increased negative affect and brain activations in anterior insula and anterior midcingulate cortex-brain regions previously associated with empathy for pain. In contrast, subsequent compassion training could reverse the increase in negative effect and, in contrast, augment self-reports of positive affect. In addition, compassion training increased activations in a non-overlapping brain network spanning ventral striatum, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and medial orbitofrontal cortex. We conclude that training compassion may reflect a new coping strategy to overcome empathic distress and strengthen resilience. PMID:23576808

Klimecki, Olga M; Leiberg, Susanne; Ricard, Matthieu; Singer, Tania

2014-06-01

4

Chondroitinase enhances cortical map plasticity and increases functionally active sprouting axons after brain injury.  

PubMed

The beneficial effect of interventions with chondroitinase ABC enzyme to reduce axon growth-inhibitory chondroitin sulphate side chains after central nervous system injuries has been mainly attributed to enhanced axonal sprouting. After traumatic brain injury (TBI), it is unknown whether newly sprouting axons that occur as a result of interventional strategies are able to functionally contribute to existing circuitry, and it is uncertain whether maladaptive sprouting occurs to increase the well-known risk for seizure activity after TBI. Here, we show that after a controlled cortical impact injury in rats, chondroitinase infusion into injured cortex at 30?min and 3 days reduced c-Fos? cell staining resulting from the injury alone at 1 week postinjury, indicating that at baseline, abnormal spontaneous activity is likely to be reduced, not increased, with this type of intervention. c-Fos? cell staining elicited by neural activity from stimulation of the affected forelimb 1 week after injury was significantly enhanced by chondroitinase, indicating a widespread effect on cortical map plasticity. Underlying this map plasticity was a larger contribution of neuronal, rather than glial cells and an absence of c-Fos? cells surrounded by perineuronal nets that were normally present in stimulated naïve rats. After injury, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan digestion produced the expected increase in growth-associated protein 43-positive axons and perikarya, of which a significantly greater number were double labeled for c-Fos after intervention with chondroitinase, compared to vehicle. These data indicate that chondroitinase produces significant gains in cortical map plasticity after TBI, and that either axonal sprouting and/or changes in perineuronal nets may underlie this effect. Chondroitinase dampens, rather than increases nonspecific c-Fos activity after brain injury, and induction of axonal sprouting is not maladaptive because greater numbers are functionally active and provide a significant contribution to forelimb circuitry after brain injury. PMID:23517225

Harris, Neil G; Nogueira, Marcia S M; Verley, Derek R; Sutton, Richard L

2013-07-15

5

Brain Plasticity and Behaviour in the Developing Brain  

PubMed Central

Objective: To review general principles of brain development, identify basic principles of brain plasticity, and discuss factors that influence brain development and plasticity. Method: A literature review of relevant English-language manuscripts on brain development and plasticity was conducted. Results: Brain development progresses through a series of stages beginning with neurogenesis and progressing to neural migration, maturation, synaptogenesis, pruning, and myelin formation. Eight basic principles of brain plasticity are identified. Evidence that brain development and function is influenced by different environmental events such as sensory stimuli, psychoactive drugs, gonadal hormones, parental-child relationships, peer relationships, early stress, intestinal flora, and diet. Conclusions: The development of the brain reflects more than the simple unfolding of a genetic blueprint but rather reflects a complex dance of genetic and experiential factors that shape the emerging brain. Understanding the dance provides insight into both normal and abnormal development.

Kolb, Bryan; Gibb, Robbin

2011-01-01

6

Structural and functional plasticity of the human brain in posttraumatic stress disorder  

PubMed Central

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with long-term changes in neurobiology. Brain areas involved in the stress response include the medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala. Neurohormonal systems that act on the brain areas to modulate PTSD symptoms and memory include glucocorticoids and norepinephrine. Dysfunction of these brain areas is responsible for the symptoms of PTSD. Brain imaging studies show that PTSD patients have increased amygdala reactivity during fear acquisition. Other studies show smaller hippocampal volume. A failure of medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate activation with re-experiencing of the trauma is hypothesized to represent a neural correlate of the failure of extinction seen in PTSD. The brain has the capacity for plasticity in the aftermath of traumatic stress. Antidepressant treatments and changes in environment can reverse the effects of stress on hippocampal neurogenesis, and humans with PTSD showed increased hippocampal volume with both paroxetine and phenytoin.

Bremner, J. Douglas; Elzinga, Bernet; Schmahl, Christian; Vermetten, Eric

2011-01-01

7

Using brain-computer interfaces to induce neural plasticity and restore function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyzing neural signals and providing feedback in realtime is one of the core characteristics of a brain-computer interface (BCI). As this feature may be employed to induce neural plasticity, utilizing BCI technology for therapeutic purposes is increasingly gaining popularity in the BCI community. In this paper, we discuss the state-of-the-art of research on this topic, address the principles of and challenges in inducing neural plasticity by means of a BCI, and delineate the problems of study design and outcome evaluation arising in this context. We conclude with a list of open questions and recommendations for future research in this field.

Grosse-Wentrup, Moritz; Mattia, Donatella; Oweiss, Karim

2011-04-01

8

Motor Network Plasticity and Low-Frequency Oscillations Abnormalities in Patients with Brain Gliomas: A Functional MRI Study  

PubMed Central

Brain plasticity is often associated with the process of slow-growing tumor formation, which remodels neural organization and optimizes brain network function. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether motor function plasticity would display deficits in patients with slow-growing brain tumors located in or near motor areas, but who were without motor neurological deficits. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to probe motor networks in 15 patients with histopathologically confirmed brain gliomas and 15 age-matched healthy controls. All subjects performed a motor task to help identify individual motor activity in the bilateral primary motor cortex (PMC) and supplementary motor area (SMA). Frequency-based analysis at three different frequencies was then used to investigate possible alterations in the power spectral density (PSD) of low-frequency oscillations. For each group, the average PSD was determined for each brain region and a nonparametric test was performed to determine the difference in power between the two groups. Significantly reduced inter-hemispheric functional connectivity between the left and right PMC was observed in patients compared with controls (P<0.05). We also found significantly decreased PSD in patients compared to that in controls, in all three frequency bands (low: 0.01–0.02 Hz; middle: 0.02–0.06 Hz; and high: 0.06–0.1 Hz), at three key motor regions. These findings suggest that in asymptomatic patients with brain tumors located in eloquent regions, inter-hemispheric connection may be more vulnerable. A comparison of the two approaches indicated that power spectral analysis is more sensitive than functional connectivity analysis for identifying the neurological abnormalities underlying motor function plasticity induced by slow-growing tumors.

Niu, Chen; Zhang, Ming; Min, Zhigang; Rana, Netra; Zhang, Qiuli; Liu, Xin; Li, Min; Lin, Pan

2014-01-01

9

Can noninvasive brain stimulation measure and modulate developmental plasticity to improve function in stroke-induced cerebral palsy?  

PubMed

The permanent nature of motor deficits is a consistent cornerstone of cerebral palsy definitions. Such pessimism is disheartening to children, families, and researchers alike and may no longer be appropriate for it ignores the fantastic plastic potential of the developing brain. Perinatal stroke is presented as the ideal human model of developmental neuroplasticity following distinct, well-defined, focal perinatal brain injury. Elegant animal models are merging with human applied technology methods, including noninvasive brain stimulation for increasingly sophisticated models of plastic motor development following perinatal stroke. In this article, how potential central therapeutic targets are identified and potentially modulated to enhance motor function within these models is discussed. Also, future directions and emerging clinical trials are reviewed. PMID:23948686

Kirton, Adam

2013-06-01

10

Brain plasticity in paediatric neurology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasticity includes the brain's capacity to be shaped or moulded by experience, the capacity to learn and remember, and the ability to reorganize and recover after injury. Mechanisms for plasticity include activity-dependent refinement of neuronal connections and synaptic plasticity as a substrate for learning and memory. The molecular mechanisms for these processes utilize signalling cascades that relay messages from synaptic

Michael V Johnston

2003-01-01

11

Quality and Timing of Stressors Differentially Impact on Brain Plasticity and Neuroendocrine-Immune Function in Mice  

PubMed Central

A growing body of evidence suggests that psychological stress is a major risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The basic mechanisms are still under investigation but involve changes in neuroendocrine-immune interactions, ultimately affecting brain plasticity. In this study we characterized central and peripheral effects of different stressors, applied for different time lengths, in adult male C57BL/6J mice. We compared the effects of repeated (7 versus 21 days) restraint stress (RS) and chronic disruption of social hierarchy (SS) on neuroendocrine (corticosterone) and immune function (cytokines and splenic apoptosis) and on a marker of brain plasticity (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF ). Neuroendocrine activation did not differ between SS and control subjects; by contrast, the RS group showed a strong neuroendocrine response characterized by a specific time-dependent profile. Immune function and hippocampal BDNF levels were inversely related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. These data show a fine modulation of the crosstalk between central and peripheral pathways of adaptation and plasticity and suggest that the length of stress exposure is crucial to determine its final outcome on health or disease.

Capoccia, Sara; Berry, Alessandra; Bellisario, Veronica; Vacirca, Davide; Ortona, Elena; Alleva, Enrico; Cirulli, Francesca

2013-01-01

12

Mechanistic basis and functional roles of long-term plasticity in auditory neurons induced by a brain-generated estrogen.  

PubMed

The classic estrogen 17?-estradiol (E2) was recently identified as a novel modulator of hearing function. It is produced rapidly, in an experience-dependent fashion, by auditory cortical neurons of both males and females. This brain-generated E2 enhances the efficiency of auditory coding and improves the neural and behavioral discrimination of auditory cues. Remarkably, the effects of E2 are long-lasting and persist for hours after local rises in hormone levels have subsided. The mechanisms and functional consequences of this E2-induced plasticity of auditory responses are unknown. Here, we addressed these issues in the zebra finch model by combining intracerebral pharmacology, biochemical assays, in vivo neurophysiology in awake animals, and computational and information theoretical approaches. We show that auditory experience activates the MAPK pathway in an E2-dependent manner. This effect is mediated by estrogen receptor ? (ER?), which directly associates with MEKK1 to sequentially modulate MEK and ERK activation, where the latter is required for the engagement of downstream molecular targets. We further show that E2-mediated activation of the MAPK cascade is required for the long-lasting enhancement of auditory-evoked responses in the awake brain. Moreover, a functional consequence of this E2/MAPK activation is to sustain enhanced information handling and neural discrimination by auditory neurons for several hours following hormonal challenge. Our results demonstrate that brain-generated E2 engages, via a nongenomic interaction between an estrogen receptor and a kinase, a persistent form of experience-dependent plasticity that enhances the neural coding and discrimination of behaviorally relevant sensory signals in the adult vertebrate brain. PMID:23152630

Tremere, Liisa A; Kovaleski, Ryan F; Burrows, Kaiping; Jeong, Jin Kwon; Pinaud, Raphael

2012-11-14

13

Augmentation-related brain plasticity  

PubMed Central

Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyses the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain. Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools. Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e., primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the sense of the self.

Di Pino, Giovanni; Maravita, Angelo; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

2014-01-01

14

Evidence for potentials and limitations of brain plasticity using an atlas of functional resectability of WHO grade II gliomas: towards a "minimal common brain".  

PubMed

Despite recent advances in non-invasive brain mapping imaging, the resectability of a given area in a patient harboring a WHO grade II glioma cannot be predicted preoperatively with high reliability, due to mechanisms of functional reorganization. Therefore, intraoperative mapping by direct electrical stimulation remains the gold standard for detection and preservation of eloquent areas during glioma surgery, because it enables to perform on-line anatomo-functional correlations. To study potentials and limitations of brain plasticity, we gathered 58 postoperative MRI of patients operated on for a WHO grade II glioma under direct electrical cortico-subcortical stimulation. Postoperative images were registered on the MNI template to construct an atlas of functional resectability for which each voxel represents the probability to observe residual non-resectable tumor, that is, non-compensable area. The resulting atlas offers a rigorous framework to identify areas with high plastic potential (i.e. with probabilities of residual tumor close to 0), with low compensatory capabilities (i.e. probabilities of residual tumor close to 1) and with intermediate level of resectability (probability around 0.5). The resulting atlas highlights the utmost importance of preserving a core of connectivity through the main associative pathways, namely, it supports the existence of a "minimal common brain" among patients. PMID:21414413

Ius, Tamara; Angelini, Elsa; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Duffau, Hugues

2011-06-01

15

The planar polarity protein Scribble1 is essential for neuronal plasticity and brain function.  

PubMed

Scribble (Scrib) is a key regulator of apicobasal polarity, presynaptic architecture, and short-term synaptic plasticity in Drosophila. In mammals, its homolog Scrib1 has been implicated in cancer, neural tube closure, and planar cell polarity (PCP), but its specific role in the developing and adult nervous system is unclear. Here, we used the circletail mutant, a mouse model for PCP defects, to show that Scrib1 is located in spines where it influences actin cytoskeleton and spine morphing. In the hippocampus of these mutants, we observed an increased synapse pruning associated with an increased number of enlarged spines and postsynaptic density, and a decreased number of perforated synapses. This phenotype was associated with a mislocalization of the signaling pathway downstream of Scrib1, leading to an overall activation of Rac1 and defects in actin dynamic reorganization. Finally, Scrib1-deficient mice exhibit enhanced learning and memory abilities and impaired social behavior, two features relevant to autistic spectrum disorders. Our data identify Scrib1 as a crucial regulator of brain development and spine morphology, and suggest that Scrib1(crc/+) mice might be a model for studying synaptic dysfunction and human psychiatric disorders. PMID:20660256

Moreau, Maïté M; Piguel, Nicolas; Papouin, Thomas; Koehl, Muriel; Durand, Christelle M; Rubio, Maria E; Loll, François; Richard, Elodie M; Mazzocco, Claire; Racca, Claudia; Oliet, Stéphane H R; Abrous, D Nora; Montcouquiol, Mireille; Sans, Nathalie

2010-07-21

16

Ben's Plastic Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article shares a story of Ben who as a result of his premature birth, suffered a brain hemorrhage resulting in cerebral palsy, which affected his left side (left hemiparesis) and caused learning disabilities. Despite these challenges, he graduated from college and currently works doing information management for a local biotech start-up…

Kaplan, Susan L.

2010-01-01

17

Brain Development and CNS Plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the first developmental studies using fMRI there has been an almost logarithmic growth of investigations regarding functional\\u000a brain development. This growing knowledge, in combination with landmark animal studies of developmental neuroplasticity, has\\u000a provided us with significant insight into the nature of brain development and how brain maturation might map onto behavior.\\u000a Throughout this chapter we discuss how a number

Damien A. Fair; Bradley L. Schlaggar

18

Brain Plasticity and Disease: A Matter of Inhibition  

PubMed Central

One major goal in Neuroscience is the development of strategies promoting neural plasticity in the adult central nervous system, when functional recovery from brain disease and injury is limited. New evidence has underscored a pivotal role for cortical inhibitory circuitries in regulating plasticity both during development and in adulthood. This paper summarizes recent findings showing that the inhibition-excitation balance controls adult brain plasticity and is at the core of the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders like autism, Down syndrome, and Rett syndrome.

Baroncelli, Laura; Braschi, Chiara; Spolidoro, Maria; Begenisic, Tatjana; Maffei, Lamberto; Sale, Alessandro

2011-01-01

19

Brain plasticity-based therapeutics  

PubMed Central

The primary objective of this review article is to summarize how the neuroscience of brain plasticity, exploiting new findings in fundamental, integrative and cognitive neuroscience, is changing the therapeutic landscape for professional communities addressing brain-based disorders and disease. After considering the neurological bases of training-driven neuroplasticity, we shall describe how this neuroscience-guided perspective distinguishes this new approach from (a) the more-behavioral, traditional clinical strategies of professional therapy practitioners, and (b) an even more widely applied pharmaceutical treatment model for neurological and psychiatric treatment domains. With that background, we shall argue that neuroplasticity-based treatments will be an important part of future best-treatment practices in neurological and psychiatric medicine.

Merzenich, Michael M.; Van Vleet, Thomas M.; Nahum, Mor

2014-01-01

20

Plasticity in the injured brain: more than molecules matter.  

PubMed

Changes in brain circuits occur within specific paradigms of action in the adult brain. These paradigms include changes in behavioral activity patterns, alterations in environmental experience, and direct brain injury. Each of these paradigms can produce axonal sprouting, dendritic morphology changes, and alterations in synaptic connectivity. Activity-, experience-, and injury-dependent plasticity alter neuronal network function and behavioral output, and in the case of brain injury, may produce neurological recovery. The molecular substrate for adult neuronal plasticity overlaps in these three paradigms in key signaling pathways. These common pathways for adult plasticity suggest common mechanisms for activity-, experience-, and injury-dependent plasticity. These common pathways may also interact to enhance or impede each other during adult recovery of function after injury. This review focuses on common molecular changes evoked during the process of adult neuronal plasticity, with a focus on neural repair in stroke. PMID:23757300

Overman, Justine J; Carmichael, S Thomas

2014-02-01

21

Driving Plasticity in Human Adult Motor Cortex Is Associated with Improved Motor Function after Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in somatosensory input can remodel human cortical motor organization, yet the input characteristics that promote reorganization and their functional significance have not been explored. Here we show with transcranial magnetic stimulation that sensory-driven reorganization of human motor cortex is highly dependent upon the frequency, intensity, and duration of stimulus applied. Those patterns of input associated with enhanced excitability (5

Chris Fraser; Maxine Power; Shaheen Hamdy; John Rothwell; David Hobday; Igor Hollander; Pippa Tyrell; Anthony Hobson; Steven Williams; David Thompson

2002-01-01

22

SAHA Enhances Synaptic Function and Plasticity In Vitro but Has Limited Brain Availability In Vivo and Does Not Impact Cognition  

PubMed Central

Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) used for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) and under consideration for other indications. In vivo studies suggest reducing HDAC function can enhance synaptic function and memory, raising the possibility that SAHA treatment could have neurological benefits. We first examined the impacts of SAHA on synaptic function in vitro using rat organotypic hippocampal brain slices. Following several days of SAHA treatment, basal excitatory but not inhibitory synaptic function was enhanced. Presynaptic release probability and intrinsic neuronal excitability were unaffected suggesting SAHA treatment selectively enhanced postsynaptic excitatory function. In addition, long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synapses was augmented, while long-term depression (LTD) was impaired in SAHA treated slices. Despite the in vitro synaptic enhancements, in vivo SAHA treatment did not rescue memory deficits in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Along with the lack of behavioral impact, pharmacokinetic analysis indicated poor brain availability of SAHA. Broader assessment of in vivo SAHA treatment using high-content phenotypic characterization of C57Bl6 mice failed to demonstrate significant behavioral effects of up to 150 mg/kg SAHA following either acute or chronic injections. Potentially explaining the low brain exposure and lack of behavioral impacts, SAHA was found to be a substrate of the blood brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporters Pgp and Bcrp1. Thus while our in vitro data show that HDAC inhibition can enhance excitatory synaptic strength and potentiation, our in vivo data suggests limited brain availability may contribute to the lack of behavioral impact of SAHA following peripheral delivery. These results do not predict CNS effects of SAHA during clinical use and also emphasize the importance of analyzing brain drug levels when interpreting preclinical behavioral pharmacology.

Hanson, Jesse E.; La, Hank; Plise, Emile; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Ding, Xiao; Hanania, Taleen; Sabath, Emily V.; Alexandrov, Vadim; Brunner, Dani; Leahy, Emer; Steiner, Pascal; Liu, Lichuan; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly; Zhou, Qiang

2013-01-01

23

Epigenetic Influences on Brain Development and Plasticity  

PubMed Central

A fine interplay exists between sensory experience and innate genetic programs leading to the sculpting of neuronal circuits during early brain development. Recent evidence suggests that the dynamic regulation of gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms is at the interface between environmental stimuli and long-lasting molecular, cellular and complex behavioral phenotypes acquired during periods of developmental plasticity. Understanding these mechanisms may give insight into the formation of critical periods and provide new strategies for increasing plasticity and adaptive change in adulthood.

Fagiolini, Michela; Jensen, Catherine L.; Champagne, Frances A.

2009-01-01

24

Plasticity and Injury in the Developing Brain  

PubMed Central

The child’s brain is more malleable or plastic than that of adults and this accounts for the ability of children to learn new skills quickly or recovery from brain injuries. Several mechanisms contribute to this ability including overproduction and deletion of neurons and synapses, and activity-dependent stabilization of synapses. The molecular mechanisms for activity dependent synaptic plasticity are being discovered and this is leading to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of several disorders including neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, Fragile X syndrome and Rett syndrome. Many of the same pathways involved in synaptic plasticity, such as glutamate-mediated excitation, can also mediate brain injury when the brain is exposed to stress or energy failure such as hypoxia-ischemia. Recent evidence indicates that cell death pathways activated by injury differ between males and females. This new information about the molecular pathways involved in brain plasticity and injury are leading to insights that will provide better therapies for pediatric neurological disorders.

JOHNSTON, Michael V.; ISHIDA, Akira; ISHIDA, Wako Nakajima; MATSUSHITA, Hiroko Baber; NISHIMURA, Akira; TSUJI, Masahiro

2009-01-01

25

Processing demands upon cognitive, linguistic, and articulatory functions promote grey matter plasticity in the adult multilingual brain: Insights from simultaneous interpreters.  

PubMed

Until now, considerable effort has been made to determine structural brain characteristics related to exceptional multilingual skills. However, at least one important question has not yet been satisfactorily addressed in the previous literature, namely whether and to which extent the processing demands upon cognitive, linguistic, and articulatory functions may promote grey matter plasticity in the adult multilingual brain. Based on the premise that simultaneous interpretation is a highly demanding linguistic task that places strong demands on executive and articulatory functions, here we compared grey matter volumes between professional simultaneous interpreters (SI) and multilingual control subjects. Thereby, we focused on a specific set of a-priori defined bilateral brain regions that have previously been shown to support neurocognitional aspects of language control and linguistic functions in the multilingual brain. These regions are the cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, frontal operculum (pars triangularis and opercularis), inferior parietal lobe (IPL) (supramarginal and angular gyrus), and the insula. As a main result, we found reduced grey matter volumes in professional SI, compared to multilingual controls, in the left middle-anterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, bilateral middle part of the insula, and in the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Interestingly, grey matter volume in left pars triangularis, right pars opercularis, middle-anterior cingulate gyrus, and in the bilateral caudate nucleus was negatively correlated with the cumulative number of interpreting hours. Hence, we provide first evidence for an expertise-related grey matter architecture that may reflect a composite of brain characteristics that were still present before interpreting training and training-related changes. PMID:24699036

Elmer, Stefan; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz

2014-05-01

26

Brain plasticity and motor practice in cognitive aging.  

PubMed

For more than two decades, there have been extensive studies of experience-based neural plasticity exploring effective applications of brain plasticity for cognitive and motor development. Research suggests that human brains continuously undergo structural reorganization and functional changes in response to stimulations or training. From a developmental point of view, the assumption of lifespan brain plasticity has been extended to older adults in terms of the benefits of cognitive training and physical therapy. To summarize recent developments, first, we introduce the concept of neural plasticity from a developmental perspective. Secondly, we note that motor learning often refers to deliberate practice and the resulting performance enhancement and adaptability. We discuss the close interplay between neural plasticity, motor learning and cognitive aging. Thirdly, we review research on motor skill acquisition in older adults with, and without, impairments relative to aging-related cognitive decline. Finally, to enhance future research and application, we highlight the implications of neural plasticity in skills learning and cognitive rehabilitation for the aging population. PMID:24653695

Cai, Liuyang; Chan, John S Y; Yan, Jin H; Peng, Kaiping

2014-01-01

27

Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been suspected that the relative abundance of specific nutrients can affect cognitive processes and emotions. Newly described influences of dietary factors on neuronal function and synaptic plasticity have revealed some of the vital mechanisms that are responsible for the action of diet on brain health and mental function. Several gut hormones that can enter the brain, or

Fernando Gómez-Pinilla

2008-01-01

28

Neuronal avalanches and brain plasticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Networks of living neurons exhibit an avalanche mode of activity, experimentally found in organotypic cultures. Moreover, experimental studies of morphology indicate that neurons develop a network of small-world-like connections, with the possibility of a very high connectivity degree. Here we discuss a recent model based on self-organized criticality, which consists of an electrical network with threshold firing and activity-dependent synapse strengths. The model is implemented on regular and small world lattices and on a scale-free network, the Apollonian network. The system exhibits an avalanche activity with a power law distribution of sizes and durations. The analysis of the power spectra of the electrical signal reproduces very robustly the power law behaviour with the exponent 0.8, experimentally measured in electroencephalogram (EEG) spectra. The exponents are found to be quite stable with respect to initial configurations and strength of plastic remodelling, indicating that universality holds for a wide class of neural network models.

de Arcangelis, L.; Herrmann, H. J.; Perrone-Capano, C.

2007-12-01

29

Successful brain aging: plasticity, environmental enrichment, and lifestyle.  

PubMed

Aging is a physiological process that can develop without the appearance of concurrent diseases. However, very frequently, older people suffer from memory loss and an accelerated cognitive decline. Studies of the neurobiology of aging are beginning to decipher the mechanisms underlying not only the physiology of aging of the brain but also the mechanisms that make people more vulnerable to cognitive dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases. Today we know that the aging brain retains a considerable functional plasticity, and that this plasticity is positively promoted by genes activated by different lifestyle factors. In this article some of these lifestyle factors and their mechanisms of action are reviewed, including environmental enrichment and the importance of food intake and some nutrients. Aerobic physical exercise and reduction of chronic stress are also briefly reviewed. It is proposed that lifestyle factors are powerful instruments to promote healthy and successful aging of the brain and delay the appearance of age-related cognitive deficits in elderly people. PMID:23576888

Mora, Francisco

2013-03-01

30

Searching for Factors Underlying Cerebral Plasticity in the Normal and Injured Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brain plasticity refers to the capacity of the nervous system to change its structure and ultimately its function over a lifetime. There have been major advances in our understanding of the principles of brain plasticity and behavior in laboratory animals and humans. Over the past decade there have been advances in the application of these…

Kolb, Bryan; Muhammad, Arif; Gibb, Robbin

2011-01-01

31

Motor function-related maladaptive plasticity in stroke: a review.  

PubMed

Brain plasticity can be classified as adaptive and maladaptive. Maladaptive plasticity indicates hindered functional recovery or the development of an unwanted symptom. Although a considerable amount is known about adaptive plasticity in stroke, relatively little is known of maladaptive plasticity. In the current study, previous studies on motor function-related maladaptive plasticity in stroke are reviewed in terms of compensatory movement pattern (CMP), delayed-onset involuntary abnormal movements (IAMs), and the ipsilateral motor pathway as a motor recovery mechanism. For successful stroke rehabilitation, it is important that the characteristics of maladaptive plasticity are accurately recognized. However, there is a lack of definitive evidence regarding the recognition of motor function-related maladaptive plasticity, although it seems that each of the three above-mentioned topics are involved. As for CMP, patients with a good neurological state as much as having a normal movement pattern, should be considered to have maladaptive plasticity, and in terms of the ipsilateral motor pathway, patients with bilateral innervations can be considered to have maladaptive plasticity. On the other hand, IAMs due to delayed neuronal degeneration should be ruled out in patients with delayed-onset IAMs. Therefore, for the accurate recognition of motor function-related maladaptive plasticity in stroke, a thorough evaluation of neurological state using brain mapping techniques is necessary, and subsequently, the prevention or intensive management of maladaptive plasticity is needed. PMID:23535793

Jang, Sung Ho

2013-01-01

32

NREM Sleep Oscillations and Brain Plasticity in Aging  

PubMed Central

The human electroencephalogram (EEG) during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) is characterized mainly by high-amplitude (>75??V), slow-frequency (<4?Hz) waves (slow waves), and sleep spindles (?11–15?Hz; >0.25?s). These NREM oscillations play a crucial role in brain plasticity, and importantly, NREM sleep oscillations change considerably with aging. This review discusses the association between NREM sleep oscillations and cerebral plasticity as well as the functional impact of age-related changes on NREM sleep oscillations. We propose that age-related reduction in sleep-dependent memory consolidation may be due in part to changes in NREM sleep oscillations.

Fogel, Stuart; Martin, Nicolas; Lafortune, Marjolaine; Barakat, Marc; Debas, Karen; Laventure, Samuel; Latreille, Veronique; Gagnon, Jean-Francois; Doyon, Julien; Carrier, Julie

2012-01-01

33

The sonic hedgehog pathway mediates brain plasticity and subsequent functional recovery after bone marrow stromal cell treatment of stroke in mice  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) improve neurologic recovery after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). To examine whether in vivo blockage of the endogenous sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway affects grafted MSC-induced neurologic benefits, MCAo mice were administered: vehicle (control); cyclopamine (CP)— a specific Shh pathway inhibitor; MSC; and MSC and cyclopamine (MSC-CP). Neurologic function was evaluated after MCAo. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescence staining were employed to measure synapse density, protein expression of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and Shh in parenchymal cells in the ischemic boundary zone (IBZ), respectively. Marrow stromal cell treatment significantly enhanced functional recovery after ischemia, concurrent with increases of synaptophysin, synapse density, and myelinated axons along the IBZ, and significantly increased tPA and Shh expression in astrocytes and neurons compared with control. After treatment with MSC-CP or CP, the above effects were reversed. Co-culture of MSCs with cortical neurons confirmed the effect of Shh on MSC-mediated neurite outgrowth. Our data support the hypothesis that the Shh pathway mediates brain plasticity via tPA and thereby functional recovery after treatment of stroke with MSCs.

Ding, Xiaoshuang; Li, Yi; Liu, Zhongwu; Zhang, Jing; Cui, Yisheng; Chen, Xiaoguang; Chopp, Michael

2013-01-01

34

Relating Brain Damage to Brain Plasticity in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Failure of adaptive plasticity with increasing pathology is suggested to contribute to progression of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, functional impairments can be reduced with practice, suggesting that brain plasticity is preserved even in patients with substantial damage. Objective Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to probe systems-level mechanisms of brain plasticity associated with improvements in visuomotor performance in MS patients and related to measures of microstructural damage. Methods 23 MS patients and 12 healthy controls underwent brain fMRI during the first practice session of a visuomotor task (short-term practice) and after 2 weeks of daily practice with the same task (longer-term practice). Participants also underwent a structural brain MRI scan. Results Patients performed more poorly than controls at baseline. Nonetheless, with practice, patients showed performance improvements similar to controls and independent of the extent of MRI measures of brain pathology. Different relationships between performance improvements and activations were found between groups: greater short-term improvements were associated with lower activation in the sensorimotor, posterior cingulate, and parahippocampal cortices for patients, whereas greater long-term improvements correlated with smaller activation reductions in the visual cortex of controls. Conclusions Brain plasticity for visuomotor practice is preserved in MS patients despite a high burden of cerebral pathology. Cognitive systems different from those acting in controls contribute to this plasticity in patients. These findings challenge the notion that increasing pathology is accompanied by an outright failure of adaptive plasticity, supporting a neuroscientific rationale for recovery-oriented strategies even in chronically disabled patients.

Tomassini, Valentina; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Jbabdi, Saad; Wise, Richard G.; Pozzilli, Carlo; Palace, Jacqueline; Matthews, Paul M.

2013-01-01

35

Changes in cortical plasticity after mild traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Even after a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) symptoms may be long lasting and never resolve completely. The neurophysiologic substrate for such lasting deficits remains unclear. There is a lack of objective measures of early brain abnormalities following mild TBI, which could shed light on the genesis of these lasting impairments. Methods: Here we report findings in a previously healthy man tested 2 and 6 weeks after a well-documented concussion. Findings were compared with 12 control subjects. All subjects underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI). Testing included neuropsychological evaluation and physiological assessment with TMS and EEG, excitatory/inhibitory balance and brain plasticity. Results: While the MRI, DTI and neuropsychological evaluations showed no abnormalities, neurophysiologic tests revealed subclinical abnormalities in our patient: (1) Significantly higher intracortical facilitation than the control group at both time points; (2) Intracortical inhibition presumably mediated by GABAB receptors was absent at week 2, but returned to normal value at week 6; (3) Abnormal mechanisms of plasticity at week 2, that normalize at week 6. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate a transient alteration of brain cortical physiology following concussion independent of anatomical findings and neuropsychological function. This case study suggests that TMS measures may serve as sensitive biomarkers of physiologic brain abnormalities after concussion.

Bashir, Shahid; Vernet, Marine; Yoo, Woo-Kyoung; Mizrahi, Ilan; Theoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2013-01-01

36

Plasticity of resting state brain networks in recovery from stress  

PubMed Central

Chronic stress has been widely reported to have deleterious impact in multiple biological systems. Specifically, structural and functional remodeling of several brain regions following prolonged stress exposure have been described; importantly, some of these changes are eventually reversible. Recently, we showed the impact of stress on resting state networks (RSNs), but nothing is known about the plasticity of RSNs after recovery from stress. Herein, we examined the “plasticity” of RSNs, both at functional and structural levels, by comparing the same individuals before and after recovery from the exposure to chronic stress; results were also contrasted with a control group. Here we show that the stressed individuals after recovery displayed a decreased resting functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN), ventral attention network (VAN), and sensorimotor network (SMN) when compared to themselves immediately after stress; however, this functional plastic recovery was only partial as when compared with the control group, as there were still areas of increased connectivity in dorsal attention network (DAN), SMN and primary visual network (VN) in participants recovered from stress. Data also shows that participants after recovery from stress displayed increased deactivations in DMN, SMN, and auditory network (AN), to levels similar to those of controls, showing a normalization of the deactivation pattern in RSNs after recovery from stress. In contrast, structural changes (volumetry) of the brain areas involving these networks are absent after the recovery period. These results reveal plastic phenomena in specific RSNs and a functional remodeling of the activation-deactivation pattern following recovery from chronic-stress, which is not accompanied by significant structural plasticity.

Soares, Jose M.; Sampaio, Adriana; Marques, Paulo; Ferreira, Luis M.; Santos, Nadine C.; Marques, Fernanda; Palha, Joana A.; Cerqueira, Joao J.; Sousa, Nuno

2013-01-01

37

Assessing brain stem function.  

PubMed

Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring provides objective measures of nervous system function that are of value when operating in proximity to the brain stem. Real-time measurements of function can be correlated to operative manipulations in order to reduce the risk of damage in critically important regions. Techniques for evaluating brain stem function clinically and electrophysiologically are presented along with their applications during surgery of the brain stem. PMID:8353442

Sclabassi, R J; Kalia, K K; Sekhar, L; Jannetta, P J

1993-07-01

38

Regeneration and plasticity in the brain and spinal cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of brain plasticity covers all the mechanisms involved in the capacity of the brain to adjust and remodel itself in response to environmental requirements, experience, skill acquisition, and new challenges including brain lesions. Advances in neuroimaging and neurophysiologic techniques have increased our knowledge of task-related changes in cortical representation areas in the intact and injured human brain. The

Barbro B Johansson

2007-01-01

39

Plastic brains and the dialectics of dialectics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article advances the thinking of Lima, Ostermann and Rezende's "Marxism in Vygotskian approaches to cultural studies of science education" and Mark Zuss' response to their paper. Firstly, it introduces Catherine Malabou's concept of plasticity, from which Hegel's dialectic can be re-read as historical materialist self-determination in a way that embraces science but non-reductively, and which leads to the possibility of challenging theoretical rigidity as a form of transformative action. Secondly, this response article provides political analysis of scientific concepts as they reproduce and reinforce particular interests and are expropriated by policy makers and unaware teacher educators whose understanding lies within a technical-instrumentalism and diluted humanism framework. Both arguments feature the human brain as an object of research in science education. From Malabou, the emancipatory conceptualisation of the brain as material, historical and sociocultural; whilst `Brain Gym' exemplifies a non-science and nonsensical misappropriation of scientific concepts for commercial gain via a para-educational intervention.

Loxley, Andrew; Murphy, Colette; Seery, Aidan

2013-12-01

40

Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function  

PubMed Central

It has long been suspected that the relative abundance of specific nutrients can affect cognitive processes and emotions. Newly described influences of dietary factors on neuronal function and synaptic plasticity have revealed some of the vital mechanisms that are responsible for the action of diet on brain health and mental function. Several gut hormones that can enter the brain, or that are produced in the brain itself, influence cognitive ability. In addition, well-established regulators of synaptic plasticity, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, can function as metabolic modulators, responding to peripheral signals such as food intake. Understanding the molecular basis of the effects of food on cognition will help us to determine how best to manipulate diet in order to increase the resistance of neurons to insults and promote mental fitness.

Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

2009-01-01

41

Plasticity in the Developing Brain: Implications for Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neuronal plasticity allows the central nervous system to learn skills and remember information, to reorganize neuronal networks in response to environmental stimulation, and to recover from brain and spinal cord injuries. Neuronal plasticity is enhanced in the developing brain and it is usually adaptive and beneficial but can also be maladaptive…

Johnston, Michael V.

2009-01-01

42

Forthergillian Lecture. Imaging human brain function.  

PubMed

The non-invasive brain scanning techniques introduced a quarter of a century ago have become crucial for diagnosis in clinical neurology. They have also been used to investigate brain function and have provided information about normal activity and pathogenesis. They have been used to investigate functional specialization in the brain and how specialized areas communicate to generate complex integrated functions such as speech, memory, the emotions and so on. The phenomenon of brain plasticity is poorly understood and yet clinical neurologists are aware, from everyday observations, that spontaneous recovery from brain lesions is common. An improved understanding of the mechanisms of recovery may generate new therapeutic strategies and indicate ways of modulating mechanisms that promote plastic compensation for loss of function. The main methods used to investigate these issues are positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (M.R.I.). M.R.I. is also used to map brain structure. The techniques of functional brain mapping and computational morphometrics depend on high performance scanners and a validated set of analytic statistical procedures that generate reproducible data and meaningful inferences from brain scanning data. The motor system presents a good paradigm to illustrate advances made by scanning towards an understanding of plasticity at the level of brain areas. The normal motor system is organized in a nested hierarchy. Recovery from paralysis caused by internal capsule strokes involves functional reorganization manifesting itself as changed patterns of activity in the component brain areas of the normal motor system. The pattern of plastic modification depends in part on patterns of residual or disturbed connectivity after brain injury. Therapeutic manipulations in patients with Parkinson's disease using deep brain stimulation, dopaminergic agents or fetal mesencephalic transplantation provide a means to examine mechanisms underpinning plastic change. Other models of plastic change, such as normal visuospatial learning or re-establishing speech comprehension after cochlear implantation in the deaf illustrate how patterns of brain function adapt over time. Limitations of the scanning techniques and prospects for the future are discussed in relation to new developments in the neuroimaging field. PMID:14509213

Frackowiak, R S

43

Physical activity, brain plasticity, and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

In this review we summarize the epidemiological, cross-sectional, and interventional studies examining the association between physical activity and brain volume, function, and risk for Alzheimer's disease. The epidemiological literature provides compelling evidence that greater amounts of physical activity are associated with a reduced risk of dementia in late life. In addition, randomized interventions using neuroimaging tools have reported that participation in physical activity increases the size of prefrontal and hippocampal brain areas, which may lead to a reduction in memory impairments. Consistent with these findings, longitudinal studies using neuroimaging tools also find that the volume of prefrontal and hippocampal brain areas are larger in individuals who engaged in more physical activity earlier in life. We conclude from this review that there is convincing evidence that physical activity has a consistent and robust association with brain regions implicated in age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. In addition to summarizing this literature we provide recommendations for future research on physical activity and brain health. PMID:23085449

Erickson, Kirk I; Weinstein, Andrea M; Lopez, Oscar L

2012-11-01

44

Physical Activity, Brain Plasticity, and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

In this review we summarize the epidemiological, cross-sectional, and interventional studies examining the association between physical activity and brain volume, function, and risk for Alzheimer’s disease. The epidemiological literature provides compelling evidence that greater amounts of physical activity are associated with a reduced risk of dementia in late life. In addition, randomized interventions using neuroimaging tools have reported that participation in physical activity increases the size of prefrontal and hippocampal brain areas, which may lead to a reduction in memory impairments. Consistent with these findings, longitudinal studies using neuroimaging tools also find that the volume of prefrontal and hippocampal brain areas are larger in individuals who engaged in more physical activity earlier in life. We conclude from this review that there is convincing evidence that physical activity has a consistent and robust association with brain regions implicated in age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease. In addition to summarizing this literature we provide recommendations for future research on physical activity and brain health.

Erickson, Kirk I; Weinstein, Andrea M; Lopez, Oscar L

2013-01-01

45

Measuring and Inducing Brain Plasticity in Chronic Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brain plasticity associated with anomia recovery in aphasia is poorly understood. Here, I review four recent studies from my lab that focused on brain modulation associated with long-term anomia outcome, its behavioral treatment, and the use of transcranial brain stimulation to enhance anomia treatment success in individuals with chronic aphasia…

Fridriksson, Julius

2011-01-01

46

Neural Plasticity and Neurorehabilitation: Teaching the New Brain Old Tricks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following brain injury or disease there are widespread biochemical, anatomical and physiological changes that result in what might be considered a new, very different brain. This adapted brain is forced to reacquire behaviors lost as a result of the injury or disease and relies on neural plasticity within the residual neural circuits. The same…

Kleim, Jeffrey A.

2011-01-01

47

Split My Brain: A Case Study of Seizure Disorder and Brain Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case involves a couple deciding whether or not their son should undergo brain surgery to treat a severe seizure disorder. In examining this dilemma, students apply knowledge of brain anatomy and function. They also learn about brain scanning techniques and discuss the plasticity of the brain.

Omarzu, Julia

2004-01-01

48

Structure, function, and plasticity of GABA transporters  

PubMed Central

GABA transporters belong to a large family of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters. They are widely expressed throughout the brain, with different levels of expression in different brain regions. GABA transporters are present in neurons and in astrocytes and their activity is crucial to regulate the extracellular concentration of GABA under basal conditions and during ongoing synaptic events. Numerous efforts have been devoted to determine the structural and functional properties of GABA transporters. There is also evidence that the expression of GABA transporters on the cell membrane and their lateral mobility can be modulated by different intracellular signaling cascades. The strength of individual synaptic contacts and the activity of entire neuronal networks may be finely tuned by altering the density, distribution and diffusion rate of GABA transporters within the cell membrane. These findings are intriguing because they suggest the existence of complex regulatory systems that control the plasticity of GABAergic transmission in the brain. Here we review the current knowledge on the structural and functional properties of GABA transporters and highlight the molecular mechanisms that alter the expression and mobility of GABA transporters at central synapses.

Scimemi, Annalisa

2014-01-01

49

Computational anatomy for studying use-dependant brain plasticity  

PubMed Central

In this article we provide a comprehensive literature review on the in vivo assessment of use-dependant brain structure changes in humans using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computational anatomy. We highlight the recent findings in this field that allow the uncovering of the basic principles behind brain plasticity in light of the existing theoretical models at various scales of observation. Given the current lack of in-depth understanding of the neurobiological basis of brain structure changes we emphasize the necessity of a paradigm shift in the investigation and interpretation of use-dependent brain plasticity. Novel quantitative MRI acquisition techniques provide access to brain tissue microstructural properties (e.g., myelin, iron, and water content) in-vivo, thereby allowing unprecedented specific insights into the mechanisms underlying brain plasticity. These quantitative MRI techniques require novel methods for image processing and analysis of longitudinal data allowing for straightforward interpretation and causality inferences.

Draganski, Bogdan; Kherif, Ferath; Lutti, Antoine

2014-01-01

50

Do children really recover better? Neurobehavioural plasticity after early brain insult.  

PubMed

Plasticity is an intrinsic property of the central nervous system, reflecting its capacity to respond in a dynamic manner to the environment and experience via modification of neural circuitry. In the context of healthy development, plasticity is considered beneficial, facilitating adaptive change in response to environmental stimuli and enrichment, with research documenting establishment of new neural connections and modification to the mapping between neural activity and behaviour. Less is known about the impact of this plasticity in the context of the young, injured brain. This review seeks to explore plasticity processes in the context of early brain insult, taking into account historical perspectives and building on recent advances in knowledge regarding ongoing development and recovery following early brain insult, with a major emphasis on neurobehavioural domains. We were particularly interested to explore the way in which plasticity processes respond to early brain insult, the implications for functional recovery and how this literature contributes to the debate between localization of brain function and neural network models. To this end we have provided an overview of normal brain development, followed by a description of the biological mechanisms associated with the most common childhood brain insults, in order to explore an evidence base for considering the competing theoretical perspectives of early plasticity and early vulnerability. We then detail these theories and the way in which they contribute to our understanding of the consequences of early brain insult. Finally, we examine evidence that considers key factors (e.g. insult severity, age at insult, environment) that may act, either independently or synergistically, to influence recovery processes and ultimate outcome. We conclude that neither plasticity nor vulnerability theories are able to explain the range of functional outcomes from early brain insult. Rather, they represent extremes along a 'recovery continuum'. Where a child's outcome falls along this continuum depends on injury factors (severity, nature, age) and environmental influences (family, sociodemographic factors, interventions). PMID:21784775

Anderson, Vicki; Spencer-Smith, Megan; Wood, Amanda

2011-08-01

51

Brain Dynamics Promotes Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical structure in the brain promotes biological function. Natural scientists look for correlations between measured electrical signals and behavior or mental states. Computational scientists have new opportunities to receive ’algorithmic’ inspiration from brain processes and propose computational paradigms. Thus a tradition which dates back to the 1940s with neural nets research is renewed. Real processes in the brain are ’complex’ and withstand trivial descriptions. However, dynamical complexity need not be at odds with a computational description of the phenomena and with the inspiration for algorithms that actually compute something in an engineering sense. We engage this complexity from a computational viewpoint, not excluding dynamical regimes that a number of authors are willing to label as chaos. The key question is: what may we be missing computation-wise if we overlook brain dynamics? At this point in brain research, we are happy if we can at least provide a partial answer.

Lourenço, Carlos

52

Functional Brain Imaging  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective of this analysis is to review a spectrum of functional brain imaging technologies to identify whether there are any imaging modalities that are more effective than others for various brain pathology conditions. This evidence-based analysis reviews magnetoencephalography (MEG), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnosis or surgical management of the following conditions: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), brain tumours, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, degenerative, neurologic condition characterized by cognitive impairment and memory loss. The Canadian Study on Health and Aging estimated that there will be 97,000 incident cases (about 60,000 women) of dementia (including AD) in Canada in 2006. In Ontario, there will be an estimated 950 new cases and 580 deaths due to brain cancer in 2006. Treatments for brain tumours include surgery and radiation therapy. However, one of the limitations of radiation therapy is that it damages tissue though necrosis and scarring. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not distinguish between radiation effects and resistant tissue, creating a potential role for functional brain imaging. Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that provokes repetitive seizures. In Ontario, the rate of epilepsy is estimated to be 5 cases per 1,000 people. Most people with epilepsy are effectively managed with drug therapy; but about 50% do not respond to drug therapy. Surgical resection of the seizure foci may be considered in these patients, and functional brain imaging may play a role in localizing the seizure foci. Multiple sclerosis is a progressive, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The cause of MS is unknown; however, it is thought to be due to a combination of etiologies, including genetic and environmental components. The prevalence of MS in Canada is 240 cases per 100,000 people. Parkinson’s disease is the most prevalent movement disorder; it affects an estimated 100,000 Canadians. Currently, the standard for measuring disease progression is through the use of scales, which are subjective measures of disease progression. Functional brain imaging may provide an objective measure of disease progression, differentiation between parkinsonian syndromes, and response to therapy. The Technology Being Reviewed Functional Brain Imaging Functional brain imaging technologies measure blood flow and metabolism. The results of these tests are often used in conjunction with structural imaging (e.g., MRI or CT). Positron emission tomography and MRS identify abnormalities in brain tissues. The former measures abnormalities through uptake of radiotracers in the brain, while the latter measures chemical shifts in metabolite ratios to identify abnormalities. The potential role of functional MRI (fMRI) is to identify the areas of the brain responsible for language, sensory and motor function (sensorimotor cortex), rather than identifying abnormalities in tissues. Magnetoencephalography measures magnetic fields of the electric currents in the brain, identifying aberrant activity. Magnetoencephalography may have the potential to localize seizure foci and to identify the sensorimotor cortex, visual cortex and auditory cortex. In terms of regulatory status, MEG and PET are licensed by Health Canada. Both MRS and fMRI use a MRI platform; thus, they do not have a separate licence from Health Canada. The radiotracers used in PET scanning are not licensed by Health Canada for general use but can be used through a Clinical Trials Application. Review Strategy The literature published up to September 2006 was searched in the following databases: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL, and International Network of Agencies for H

2006-01-01

53

The Maternal Brain: An Organ with Peripartal Plasticity  

PubMed Central

The time of pregnancy, birth, and lactation, is characterized by numerous specific alterations in several systems of the maternal body. Peripartum-associated changes in physiology and behavior, as well as their underlying molecular mechanisms, have been the focus of research since decades, but are still far from being entirely understood. Also, there is growing evidence that pregnancy and lactation are associated with a variety of alterations in neural plasticity, including adult neurogenesis, functional and structural synaptic plasticity, and dendritic remodeling in different brain regions. All of the mentioned changes are not only believed to be a prerequisite for the proper fetal and neonatal development, but moreover to be crucial for the physiological and mental health of the mother. The underlying mechanisms apparently need to be under tight control, since in cases of dysregulation, a certain percentage of women develop disorders like preeclampsia or postpartum mood and anxiety disorders during the course of pregnancy and lactation. This review describes common peripartum adaptations in physiology and behavior. Moreover, it concentrates on different forms of peripartum-associated plasticity including changes in neurogenesis and their possible underlying molecular mechanisms. Finally, consequences of malfunction in those systems are discussed.

Hillerer, Katharina Maria; Jacobs, Volker Rudolf; Fischer, Thorsten; Aigner, Ludwig

2014-01-01

54

Inhibitory synaptic plasticity: spike timing-dependence and putative network function  

PubMed Central

While the plasticity of excitatory synaptic connections in the brain has been widely studied, the plasticity of inhibitory connections is much less understood. Here, we present recent experimental and theoretical findings concerning the rules of spike timing-dependent inhibitory plasticity and their putative network function. This is a summary of a workshop at the COSYNE conference 2012.

Vogels, T. P.; Froemke, R. C.; Doyon, N.; Gilson, M.; Haas, J. S.; Liu, R.; Maffei, A.; Miller, P.; Wierenga, C. J.; Woodin, M. A.; Zenke, F.; Sprekeler, H.

2013-01-01

55

Assessing brain plasticity across the lifespan with transcranial magnetic stimulation: why, how, and what is the ultimate goal?  

PubMed

Sustaining brain and cognitive function across the lifespan must be one of the main biomedical goals of the twenty-first century. We need to aim to prevent neuropsychiatric diseases and, thus, to identify and remediate brain and cognitive dysfunction before clinical symptoms manifest and disability develops. The brain undergoes a complex array of changes from developmental years into old age, putatively the underpinnings of changes in cognition and behavior throughout life. A functionally "normal" brain is a changing brain, a brain whose capacity and mechanisms of change are shifting appropriately from one time-point to another in a given individual's life. Therefore, assessing the mechanisms of brain plasticity across the lifespan is critical to gain insight into an individual's brain health. Indexing brain plasticity in humans is possible with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which, in combination with neuroimaging, provides a powerful tool for exploring local cortical and brain network plasticity. Here, we review investigations to date, summarize findings, and discuss some of the challenges that need to be solved to enhance the use of TMS measures of brain plasticity across all ages. Ultimately, TMS measures of plasticity can become the foundation for a brain health index (BHI) to enable objective correlates of an individual's brain health over time, assessment across diseases and disorders, and reliable evaluation of indicators of efficacy of future preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:23565072

Freitas, Catarina; Farzan, Faranak; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2013-01-01

56

Assessing brain plasticity across the lifespan with transcranial magnetic stimulation: why, how, and what is the ultimate goal?  

PubMed Central

Sustaining brain and cognitive function across the lifespan must be one of the main biomedical goals of the twenty-first century. We need to aim to prevent neuropsychiatric diseases and, thus, to identify and remediate brain and cognitive dysfunction before clinical symptoms manifest and disability develops. The brain undergoes a complex array of changes from developmental years into old age, putatively the underpinnings of changes in cognition and behavior throughout life. A functionally “normal” brain is a changing brain, a brain whose capacity and mechanisms of change are shifting appropriately from one time-point to another in a given individual's life. Therefore, assessing the mechanisms of brain plasticity across the lifespan is critical to gain insight into an individual's brain health. Indexing brain plasticity in humans is possible with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which, in combination with neuroimaging, provides a powerful tool for exploring local cortical and brain network plasticity. Here, we review investigations to date, summarize findings, and discuss some of the challenges that need to be solved to enhance the use of TMS measures of brain plasticity across all ages. Ultimately, TMS measures of plasticity can become the foundation for a brain health index (BHI) to enable objective correlates of an individual's brain health over time, assessment across diseases and disorders, and reliable evaluation of indicators of efficacy of future preventive and therapeutic interventions.

Freitas, Catarina; Farzan, Faranak; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2013-01-01

57

Brain-machine interfaces can accelerate clarification of the principal mysteries and real plasticity of the brain  

PubMed Central

This perspective emphasizes that the brain-machine interface (BMI) research has the potential to clarify major mysteries of the brain and that such clarification of the mysteries by neuroscience is needed to develop BMIs. I enumerate five principal mysteries. The first is “how is information encoded in the brain?” This is the fundamental question for understanding what our minds are and is related to the verification of Hebb’s cell assembly theory. The second is “how is information distributed in the brain?” This is also a reconsideration of the functional localization of the brain. The third is “what is the function of the ongoing activity of the brain?” This is the problem of how the brain is active during no-task periods and what meaning such spontaneous activity has. The fourth is “how does the bodily behavior affect the brain function?” This is the problem of brain-body interaction, and obtaining a new “body” by a BMI leads to a possibility of changes in the owner’s brain. The last is “to what extent can the brain induce plasticity?” Most BMIs require changes in the brain’s neuronal activity to realize higher performance, and the neuronal operant conditioning inherent in the BMIs further enhances changes in the activity.

Sakurai, Yoshio

2014-01-01

58

Effects of Diet on Brain Plasticity in Animal and Human Studies: Mind the Gap  

PubMed Central

Dietary interventions have emerged as effective environmental inducers of brain plasticity. Among these dietary interventions, we here highlight the impact of caloric restriction (CR: a consistent reduction of total daily food intake), intermittent fasting (IF, every-other-day feeding), and diet supplementation with polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on markers of brain plasticity in animal studies. Moreover, we also discuss epidemiological and intervention studies reporting the effects of CR, IF and dietary polyphenols and PUFAs on learning, memory, and mood. In particular, we evaluate the gap in mechanistic understanding between recent findings from animal studies and those human studies reporting that these dietary factors can benefit cognition, mood, and anxiety, aging, and Alzheimer's disease—with focus on the enhancement of structural and functional plasticity markers in the hippocampus, such as increased expression of neurotrophic factors, synaptic function and adult neurogenesis. Lastly, we discuss some of the obstacles to harnessing the promising effects of diet on brain plasticity in animal studies into effective recommendations and interventions to promote healthy brain function in humans. Together, these data reinforce the important translational concept that diet, a modifiable lifestyle factor, holds the ability to modulate brain health and function.

Dias, Gisele Pereira

2014-01-01

59

Effects of diet on brain plasticity in animal and human studies: mind the gap.  

PubMed

Dietary interventions have emerged as effective environmental inducers of brain plasticity. Among these dietary interventions, we here highlight the impact of caloric restriction (CR: a consistent reduction of total daily food intake), intermittent fasting (IF, every-other-day feeding), and diet supplementation with polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on markers of brain plasticity in animal studies. Moreover, we also discuss epidemiological and intervention studies reporting the effects of CR, IF and dietary polyphenols and PUFAs on learning, memory, and mood. In particular, we evaluate the gap in mechanistic understanding between recent findings from animal studies and those human studies reporting that these dietary factors can benefit cognition, mood, and anxiety, aging, and Alzheimer's disease-with focus on the enhancement of structural and functional plasticity markers in the hippocampus, such as increased expression of neurotrophic factors, synaptic function and adult neurogenesis. Lastly, we discuss some of the obstacles to harnessing the promising effects of diet on brain plasticity in animal studies into effective recommendations and interventions to promote healthy brain function in humans. Together, these data reinforce the important translational concept that diet, a modifiable lifestyle factor, holds the ability to modulate brain health and function. PMID:24900924

Murphy, Tytus; Dias, Gisele Pereira; Thuret, Sandrine

2014-01-01

60

Spatiotemporal computations of an excitable and plastic brain: neuronal plasticity leads to noise-robust and noise-constructive computations.  

PubMed

It is a long-established fact that neuronal plasticity occupies the central role in generating neural function and computation. Nevertheless, no unifying account exists of how neurons in a recurrent cortical network learn to compute on temporally and spatially extended stimuli. However, these stimuli constitute the norm, rather than the exception, of the brain's input. Here, we introduce a geometric theory of learning spatiotemporal computations through neuronal plasticity. To that end, we rigorously formulate the problem of neural representations as a relation in space between stimulus-induced neural activity and the asymptotic dynamics of excitable cortical networks. Backed up by computer simulations and numerical analysis, we show that two canonical and widely spread forms of neuronal plasticity, that is, spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity and intrinsic plasticity, are both necessary for creating neural representations, such that these computations become realizable. Interestingly, the effects of these forms of plasticity on the emerging neural code relate to properties necessary for both combating and utilizing noise. The neural dynamics also exhibits features of the most likely stimulus in the network's spontaneous activity. These properties of the spatiotemporal neural code resulting from plasticity, having their grounding in nature, further consolidate the biological relevance of our findings. PMID:24651447

Toutounji, Hazem; Pipa, Gordon

2014-03-01

61

Reorganization and plastic changes of the human brain associated with skill learning and expertise  

PubMed Central

Novel experience and learning new skills are known as modulators of brain function. Advances in non-invasive brain imaging have provided new insight into structural and functional reorganization associated with skill learning and expertise. Especially, significant imaging evidences come from the domains of sports and music. Data from in vivo imaging studies in sports and music have provided vital information on plausible neural substrates contributing to brain reorganization underlying skill acquisition in humans. This mini review will attempt to take a narrow snapshot of imaging findings demonstrating functional and structural plasticity that mediate skill learning and expertise while identifying converging areas of interest and possible avenues for future research.

Chang, Yongmin

2014-01-01

62

Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Function.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research was conducted to test the hypothesis that activation of the calcium-dependent protease, calpain, is involved in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission and memory storage in the mammalian brain. Evidence indicates t...

G. Lynch

1988-01-01

63

High-fat diet transition reduces brain DHA levels associated with altered brain plasticity and behaviour  

PubMed Central

To assess how the shift from a healthy diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids to a diet rich in saturated fatty acid affects the substrates for brain plasticity and function, we used pregnant rats fed with omega-3 supplemented diet from their 2nd day of gestation period as well as their male pups for 12 weeks. Afterwards, the animals were randomly assigned to either a group fed on the same diet or a group fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fats for 3 weeks. We found that the HFD increased vulnerability for anxiety-like behavior, and that these modifications harmonized with changes in the anxiety-related NPY1 receptor and the reduced levels of BDNF, and its signalling receptor pTrkB, as well as the CREB protein. Brain DHA contents were significantly associated with the levels of anxiety-like behavior in these rats.

Sharma, Sandeep; Zhuang, Yumei; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

2012-01-01

64

Differential pharmacological effects on brain reactivity and plasticity in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) are the most commonly prescribed monotherapeutic medications for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, their underlying neurophysiological effects remain largely unknown. We investigated the effects of monotherapy (AChEI) and combination therapy (AChEI and memantine) on brain reactivity and plasticity. Patients treated with monotherapy (AChEI) (N?=?7) were compared to patients receiving combination therapy (COM) (N?=?9) and a group of age-matched, healthy controls (HCs) (N?=?13). Cortical reactivity and plasticity of the motor cortex were examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Cognitive functions were assessed with the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog), activities of daily living (ADLs) with the ADCS-ADL. In addition we assessed the degree of brain atrophy by measuring brain-scalp distances in seven different brain areas. Patient groups differed in resting motor threshold and brain atrophy, with COM showing a lower motor threshold but less atrophy than AChEI. COM showed similar plasticity effects as the HC group, while plasticity was reduced in AChEI. Long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) was impaired in both patient groups when compared to HC. ADAS-Cog scores were positively correlated with LICI measures and with brain atrophy, specifically in the left inferior parietal cortex. AD patients treated with mono- or combination-therapy show distinct neurophysiological patterns. Further studies should investigate whether these measures might serve as biomarkers of treatment response and whether they could guide other therapeutic interventions. PMID:24109459

Brem, Anna-Katharine; Atkinson, Natasha J; Seligson, Erica E; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2013-01-01

65

Differential Pharmacological Effects on Brain Reactivity and Plasticity in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) are the most commonly prescribed monotherapeutic medications for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, their underlying neurophysiological effects remain largely unknown. We investigated the effects of monotherapy (AChEI) and combination therapy (AChEI and memantine) on brain reactivity and plasticity. Patients treated with monotherapy (AChEI) (N?=?7) were compared to patients receiving combination therapy (COM) (N?=?9) and a group of age-matched, healthy controls (HCs) (N?=?13). Cortical reactivity and plasticity of the motor cortex were examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Cognitive functions were assessed with the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog), activities of daily living (ADLs) with the ADCS-ADL. In addition we assessed the degree of brain atrophy by measuring brain-scalp distances in seven different brain areas. Patient groups differed in resting motor threshold and brain atrophy, with COM showing a lower motor threshold but less atrophy than AChEI. COM showed similar plasticity effects as the HC group, while plasticity was reduced in AChEI. Long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) was impaired in both patient groups when compared to HC. ADAS-Cog scores were positively correlated with LICI measures and with brain atrophy, specifically in the left inferior parietal cortex. AD patients treated with mono- or combination-therapy show distinct neurophysiological patterns. Further studies should investigate whether these measures might serve as biomarkers of treatment response and whether they could guide other therapeutic interventions.

Brem, Anna-Katharine; Atkinson, Natasha J.; Seligson, Erica E.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2013-01-01

66

Plasticity of brain networks in a randomized intervention trial of exercise training in older adults.  

PubMed

Research has shown the human brain is organized into separable functional networks during rest and varied states of cognition, and that aging is associated with specific network dysfunctions. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine low-frequency (0.008?brain networks in older adults who participated in a 1-year intervention trial, comparing the effects of aerobic and non-aerobic fitness training on brain function and cognition. Results showed that aerobic training improved the aging brain's resting functional efficiency in higher-level cognitive networks. One year of walking increased functional connectivity between aspects of the frontal, posterior, and temporal cortices within the Default Mode Network and a Frontal Executive Network, two brain networks central to brain dysfunction in aging. Length of training was also an important factor. Effects in favor of the walking group were observed only after 12 months of training, compared to non-significant trends after 6 months. A non-aerobic stretching and toning group also showed increased functional connectivity in the DMN after 6 months and in a Frontal Parietal Network after 12 months, possibly reflecting experience-dependent plasticity. Finally, we found that changes in functional connectivity were behaviorally relevant. Increased functional connectivity was associated with greater improvement in executive function. Therefore the study provides the first evidence for exercise-induced functional plasticity in large-scale brain systems in the aging brain, using functional connectivity techniques, and offers new insight into the role of aerobic fitness in attenuating age-related brain dysfunction. PMID:20890449

Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika S; Erickson, Kirk I; Basak, Chandramallika; Chaddock, Laura; Kim, Jennifer S; Alves, Heloisa; Heo, Susie; Szabo, Amanda N; White, Siobhan M; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Mailey, Emily L; Gothe, Neha; Olson, Erin A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

2010-01-01

67

Plasticity of Brain Networks in a Randomized Intervention Trial of Exercise Training in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Research has shown the human brain is organized into separable functional networks during rest and varied states of cognition, and that aging is associated with specific network dysfunctions. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine low-frequency (0.008?brain networks in older adults who participated in a 1-year intervention trial, comparing the effects of aerobic and non-aerobic fitness training on brain function and cognition. Results showed that aerobic training improved the aging brain's resting functional efficiency in higher-level cognitive networks. One year of walking increased functional connectivity between aspects of the frontal, posterior, and temporal cortices within the Default Mode Network and a Frontal Executive Network, two brain networks central to brain dysfunction in aging. Length of training was also an important factor. Effects in favor of the walking group were observed only after 12 months of training, compared to non-significant trends after 6 months. A non-aerobic stretching and toning group also showed increased functional connectivity in the DMN after 6 months and in a Frontal Parietal Network after 12 months, possibly reflecting experience-dependent plasticity. Finally, we found that changes in functional connectivity were behaviorally relevant. Increased functional connectivity was associated with greater improvement in executive function. Therefore the study provides the first evidence for exercise-induced functional plasticity in large-scale brain systems in the aging brain, using functional connectivity techniques, and offers new insight into the role of aerobic fitness in attenuating age-related brain dysfunction.

Voss, Michelle W.; Prakash, Ruchika S.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Basak, Chandramallika; Chaddock, Laura; Kim, Jennifer S.; Alves, Heloisa; Heo, Susie; Szabo, Amanda N.; White, Siobhan M.; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; Mailey, Emily L.; Gothe, Neha; Olson, Erin A.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

2010-01-01

68

Modeling learning in brain stem and cerebellar sites responsible for VOR plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model of vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) function was used to analyze several hypotheses currently held concerning the characteristics of VOR plasticity. The network included a direct vestibular pathway and an indirect path via the cerebellum. An optimization analysis of this model suggests that regulation of brain stem sites is critical for the proper modification of VOR gain. A more

Kevin J. Quinn; Allan J. Didier; James F. Baker; Barry W. Peterson

1998-01-01

69

Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function  

PubMed Central

The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways—distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive motor control and procedural memory. Here, we review current understanding of synaptic plasticity in the striatum and its role in the physiology and pathophysiology of basal ganglia function.

Kreitzer, Anatol C.; Malenka, Robert C.

2009-01-01

70

Regulatory RNAs in Brain Function and Disorders  

PubMed Central

Regulatory RNAs are being increasingly investigated in neurons, and important roles in brain function have been revealed. Regulatory RNAs are non-protein-coding RNAs (npcRNAs) that comprise a heterogeneous group of molecules, varying in size and mechanism of action. Regulatory RNAs often exert post-transcriptional control of gene expression, resulting in gene silencing or gene expression stimulation. Here, we review evidence that regulatory RNAs are implicated in neuronal development, differentiation, and plasticity. We will also discuss npcRNA dysregulation that may be involved in pathological states of the brain such as neurodevelopmental disorders, neurodegeneration, and epilepsy.

Iacoangeli, Anna; Bianchi, Riccardo; Tiedge, Henri

2012-01-01

71

[Dehydroepiandrosterone and brain functioning].  

PubMed

The adrenal glands synthesize dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate form (DHEAS) more intensively than they do other steroid hormones. Researchers are interested in these hormones for several reasons. Firstly, for some years they have been trying to find the reason for DHEA and DHEAS to be synthesized and present in the organism in such high concentrations. Secondly, their attention have been attracted by age-dependent regression of DHEA, which is strictly determined. Thirdly, despite longstanding efforts of scientists, the physiological role and spectrum of the biological activity of DHEA is still unclear. Evidence of that DHEA and DHEAS can be synthesized in situ in the brain tissue, received in rat experiments, urged researchers to clarify the role of these neurosteroids in the CNS. The presented review covers ways of neurosteroid synthesis, possible mechanisms of the regulation of these processes, and their dynamics under the condition of stress. The authors analyze experimental and clinical observations undertaken with a goal to clarify a possible role of DHEA in the manifestation of various brain functions. Special attention is payed to ambiguous results of modern studies, dedicated to replacement therapy of various disorders of CNS functioning (Alzheimer's disease, depression, age-specific memory impairment, sleep disturbance etc.) with DHEAS. PMID:16149434

Goncharov, N P; Katsiia, G V; Nizhnik, A N

2005-01-01

72

Adult Brain Plasticity Elicited by Anomia Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a study where a specific treatment method for word-finding difficulty (so-called contextual priming technique, which combines massive repetition priming with semantic priming) was applied with three chronic left hemisphere-damaged aphasics. Both before and after treatment, which focused on naming of a series of pictures, naming-related brain activity was measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG). Due to its excellent temporal resolution

Katri Cornelissen; Matti Laine; Antti Tarkiainen; Tiina Järvensivu; Nadine Martin; Riitta Salmelin

2003-01-01

73

Experience-Dependent Neural Plasticity in the Adult Damaged Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral experience is at work modifying the structure and function of the brain throughout the lifespan, but it has a particularly dramatic influence after brain injury. This review summarizes recent findings on the role of experience in reorganizing the adult damaged brain, with a focus on findings from rodent stroke models of chronic upper…

Kerr, Abigail L.; Cheng, Shao-Ying; Jones, Theresa A.

2011-01-01

74

Understanding entangled cerebral networks: a prerequisite for restoring brain function with brain-computer interfaces  

PubMed Central

Historically, cerebral processing has been conceptualized as a framework based on statically localized functions. However, a growing amount of evidence supports a hodotopical (delocalized) and flexible organization. A number of studies have reported absence of a permanent neurological deficit after massive surgical resections of eloquent brain tissue. These results highlight the tremendous plastic potential of the brain. Understanding anatomo-functional correlates underlying this cerebral reorganization is a prerequisite to restore brain functions through brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) in patients with cerebral diseases, or even to potentiate brain functions in healthy individuals. Here, we review current knowledge of neural networks that could be utilized in the BCIs that enable movements and language. To this end, intraoperative electrical stimulation in awake patients provides valuable information on the cerebral functional maps, their connectomics and plasticity. Overall, these studies indicate that the complex cerebral circuitry that underpins interactions between action, cognition and behavior should be throughly investigated before progress in BCI approaches can be achieved.

Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Duffau, Hugues

2014-01-01

75

Synergetics of brain function.  

PubMed

Several brain functions such as movement coordination and visual perception are analysed in terms of synergetics, an interdisciplinary field of research dealing with spontaneous pattern formation. Accordingly, the brain is conceived as a self-organizing system operating close to instabilities where its activities are governed by collective variables, the order parameters, that enslave the individual parts, i.e., the neurons. In this approach, emphasis is laid on qualitative changes of behavioral and neuronal activities. These concepts are substantiated by detailed experimental and theoretical studies of the coordination of finger movements by direct observation of their changes and MEG measurements. In its main part, this paper deals with visual pattern recognition. Using general properties of order parameters, at the phenomenological level bistability, hysteresis and oscillations of visual perception can be modelled. Then, at the microscopic level, a network of pulse-coupled neurons is treated, where the dynamics of the dendritic currents as well as the axonic pulses (spikes) are taken into account. Both pulse-synchronization as well as pattern recognition are treated. In the high pulse frequency limit the attractor network of the synergetic computer is recovered. In the next step, the concept of quasi-attractors is mathematically formulated where due to saturation of attention attractors are closed. Depending on incoming signals, the visual system thus wanders from quasi-attractor to quasi-attractor. The paper includes an interpretation of consciousness in terms of order parameters as well as a discussion on linearity versus nonlinearity, the binding problem, and the psychological "present". PMID:16527368

Haken, Hermann

2006-05-01

76

Brain Deletion of Insulin Receptor Substrate 2 Disrupts Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity and Metaplasticity  

PubMed Central

Objective Diabetes mellitus is associated with cognitive deficits and an increased risk of dementia, particularly in the elderly. These deficits and the corresponding neurophysiological structural and functional alterations are linked to both metabolic and vascular changes, related to chronic hyperglycaemia, but probably also defects in insulin action in the brain. To elucidate the specific role of brain insulin signalling in neuronal functions that are relevant for cognitive processes we have investigated the behaviour of neurons and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of mice lacking the insulin receptor substrate protein 2 (IRS-2). Research Design and Methods To study neuronal function and synaptic plasticity in the absence of confounding factors such as hyperglycaemia, we used a mouse model with a central nervous system- (CNS)-restricted deletion of IRS-2 (NesCreIrs2KO). Results We report a deficit in NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of NesCreIrs2KO mice, with a concomitant loss of metaplasticity, the modulation of synaptic plasticity by the previous activity of a synapse. These plasticity changes are associated with reduced basal phosphorylation of the NMDA receptor subunit NR1 and of downstream targets of the PI3K pathway, the protein kinases Akt and GSK-3?. Conclusions These findings reveal molecular and cellular mechanisms that might underlie cognitive deficits linked to specific defects of neuronal insulin signalling.

Costello, Derek A.; Claret, Marc; Al-Qassab, Hind; Plattner, Florian; Irvine, Elaine E.; Choudhury, Agharul I.; Giese, K. Peter; Withers, Dominic J.; Pedarzani, Paola

2012-01-01

77

Functional Lateralization of the Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research concerning lateralization of human brain functions is examined in light of the recent publication of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Following a review of research methodologies and functions ascribed to the hemispheres of the brain, differences are portrayed as complementary and coexisting modes of cognitive processing.…

Dean, Raymond S.

1984-01-01

78

Using non-invasive brain stimulation to augment motor training-induced plasticity.  

PubMed

Therapies for motor recovery after stroke or traumatic brain injury are still not satisfactory. To date the best approach seems to be the intensive physical therapy. However the results are limited and functional gains are often minimal. The goal of motor training is to minimize functional disability and optimize functional motor recovery. This is thought to be achieved by modulation of plastic changes in the brain. Therefore, adjunct interventions that can augment the response of the motor system to the behavioural training might be useful to enhance the therapy-induced recovery in neurological populations. In this context, noninvasive brain stimulation appears to be an interesting option as an add-on intervention to standard physical therapies. Two non-invasive methods of inducing electrical currents into the brain have proved to be promising for inducing long-lasting plastic changes in motor systems: transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). These techniques represent powerful methods for priming cortical excitability for a subsequent motor task, demand, or stimulation. Thus, their mutual use can optimize the plastic changes induced by motor practice, leading to more remarkable and outlasting clinical gains in rehabilitation. In this review we discuss how these techniques can enhance the effects of a behavioural intervention and the clinical evidence to date. PMID:19292910

Bolognini, Nadia; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Fregni, Felipe

2009-01-01

79

Plasticity in neurological disorders and challenges for noninvasive brain stimulation (NBS)  

PubMed Central

There has been considerable interest in trialing NBS in a range of neurological conditions, and in parallel the range of NBS techniques available continues to expand. Underpinning this is the idea that NBS modulates neuroplasticity and that plasticity is an important contributor to functional recovery after brain injury and to the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. However while the evidence for neuroplasticity and its varied mechanisms is strong, the relationship to functional outcome is less clear and the clinical indications remain to be determined. To be maximally effective, the application of NBS techniques will need to be refined to take into account the diversity of neurological symptoms, the fundamental differences between acute, longstanding and chronic progressive disease processes, and the differential part played by functional and dysfunctional plasticity in diseases of the brain and spinal cord.

Thickbroom, Gary W; Mastaglia, Frank L

2009-01-01

80

Large-scale plastic changes of the brain network in an animal model of neuropathic pain.  

PubMed

Pain is a multidimensional experience emerging from the flow of information in the brain. It is reasonable therefore to understand pathological pain in terms of plasticity of the distributed brain network. Recently, we demonstrated that multivariate pattern analysis of fluorodeoxyglucose micro-positron emission tomography (FDG micro-PET) imaging can successfully identify neuropathic pain animals at the individual level by capturing the distributed patterns of the resting-state brain activity (Kim et al., 2014). Here, we aimed to reveal the underlying plastic changes of the distributed brain network that enabled successful discrimination of neuropathic pain. We analyzed FDG micro-PET images in awake rats with spinal nerve ligation (SNL) (SNL group, n=13; sham group, n=10) that were acquired in our previous study. In order to investigate the altered functional connectivity pattern of the brain network, first, we developed a node set search algorithm that defines the optimal node set representing the whole brain in given brain images and constructed resting-state brain networks with defined nodes. Graph theoretical analysis revealed that SNL resulted in decreased small-worldness and more fragmented modular structure compared to sham group. Connectivity pattern analyses showed that regions in the brainstem, sensorimotor cortex, and some part of the prefrontal cortex became highly connected following SNL, whereas the cerebellum and some prefrontal regions showed decreased connections. In addition, we found close relationships between characteristics of connectivity and metabolic changes. Our findings suggest that neuropathic pain is associated with connectional plasticity of the resting-state brain. PMID:24799136

Kim, Chang-Eop; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Chung, Geehoon; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Jun; Kim, Sang Jeong

2014-09-01

81

Human brain somatic representation: a functional magnetic resonance mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central nervous system studies of injury and plasticity for the reorganization in the phantom limb sensation area presented. In particular functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) mapping of the somatic and motor cortex of amputee patients, in the case of referred sensations. Using fMRI we can show the correlation between structure and functional field and study the reorganization due to plasticity in the brain. .

Romero-Romo, Juan; Rojas, Rafael; Salgado, Perla; Sánchez-Cortázar, Julián; Vazquez-Vela, Arturo; Barrios, Fernando A.

2001-10-01

82

Indestructible plastic: the neuroscience of the new aging brain  

PubMed Central

In recent years, research on experience-dependent plasticity has provided valuable insight on adaptation to environmental input across the lifespan, and advances in understanding the minute cellular changes underlying the brain’s capacity for self-reorganization have opened exciting new possibilities for treating illness and injury. Ongoing work in this line of inquiry has also come to deeply influence another field: cognitive neuroscience of the normal aging. This complex process, once considered inevitable or beyond the reach of treatment, has been transformed into an arena of intense investigation and strategic intervention. However, important questions remain about this characterization of the aging brain, and the assumptions it makes about the social, cultural, and biological space occupied by cognition in the older individual and body. The following paper will provide a critical examination of the move from basic experiments on the neurophysiology of experience-dependent plasticity to the growing market for (and public conception of) cognitive aging as a medicalized space for intervention by neuroscience-backed technologies. Entangled with changing concepts of normality, pathology, and self-preservation, we will argue that this new understanding, led by personalized cognitive training strategies, is approaching a point where interdisciplinary research is crucial to provide a holistic and nuanced understanding of the aging process. This new outlook will allow us to move forward in a space where our knowledge, like our new conception of the brain, is never static.

Holman, Constance; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne

2014-01-01

83

Increased morphological asymmetry, evolvability and plasticity in human brain evolution  

PubMed Central

The study of hominin brain evolution relies mostly on evaluation of the endocranial morphology of fossil skulls. However, only some general features of external brain morphology are evident from endocasts, and many anatomical details can be difficult or impossible to examine. In this study, we use geometric morphometric techniques to evaluate inter- and intraspecific differences in cerebral morphology in a sample of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging scans of chimpanzees and humans, with special emphasis on the study of asymmetric variation. Our study reveals that chimpanzee–human differences in cerebral morphology are mainly symmetric; by contrast, there is continuity in asymmetric variation between species, with humans showing an increased range of variation. Moreover, asymmetric variation does not appear to be the result of allometric scaling at intraspecific levels, whereas symmetric changes exhibit very slight allometric effects within each species. Our results emphasize two key properties of brain evolution in the hominine clade: first, evolution of chimpanzee and human brains (and probably their last common ancestor and related species) is not strongly morphologically constrained, thus making their brains highly evolvable and responsive to selective pressures; second, chimpanzee and, especially, human brains show high levels of fluctuating asymmetry indicative of pronounced developmental plasticity. We infer that these two characteristics can have a role in human cognitive evolution.

Gomez-Robles, Aida; Hopkins, William D.; Sherwood, Chet C.

2013-01-01

84

Structural brain plasticity in Parkinson's disease induced by balance training.  

PubMed

We investigated morphometric brain changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) that are associated with balance training. A total of 20 patients and 16 healthy matched controls learned a balance task over a period of 6 weeks. Balance testing and structural magnetic resonance imaging were performed before and after 2, 4, and 6 training weeks. Balance performance was re-evaluated after ?20 months. Balance training resulted in performance improvements in both groups. Voxel-based morphometry revealed learning-dependent gray matter changes in the left hippocampus in healthy controls. In PD patients, performance improvements were correlated with gray matter changes in the right anterior precuneus, left inferior parietal cortex, left ventral premotor cortex, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, and left middle temporal gyrus. Furthermore, a TIME × GROUP interaction analysis revealed time-dependent gray matter changes in the right cerebellum. Our results highlight training-induced balance improvements in PD patients that may be associated with specific patterns of structural brain plasticity. In summary, we provide novel evidence for the capacity of the human brain to undergo learning-related structural plasticity even in a pathophysiological disease state such as in PD. PMID:23916062

Sehm, Bernhard; Taubert, Marco; Conde, Virginia; Weise, David; Classen, Joseph; Dukart, Juergen; Draganski, Bogdan; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

2014-01-01

85

Plastic brain mechanisms for attaining auditory temporal order judgment proficiency.  

PubMed

Accurate perception of the order of occurrence of sensory information is critical for the building up of coherent representations of the external world from ongoing flows of sensory inputs. While some psychophysical evidence reports that performance on temporal perception can improve, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unresolved. Using electrical neuroimaging analyses of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), we identified the brain dynamics and mechanism supporting improvements in auditory temporal order judgment (TOJ) during the course of the first vs. latter half of the experiment. Training-induced changes in brain activity were first evident 43-76 ms post stimulus onset and followed from topographic, rather than pure strength, AEP modulations. Improvements in auditory TOJ accuracy thus followed from changes in the configuration of the underlying brain networks during the initial stages of sensory processing. Source estimations revealed an increase in the lateralization of initially bilateral posterior sylvian region (PSR) responses at the beginning of the experiment to left-hemisphere dominance at its end. Further supporting the critical role of left and right PSR in auditory TOJ proficiency, as the experiment progressed, responses in the left and right PSR went from being correlated to un-correlated. These collective findings provide insights on the neurophysiologic mechanism and plasticity of temporal processing of sounds and are consistent with models based on spike timing dependent plasticity. PMID:20079445

Bernasconi, Fosco; Grivel, Jeremy; Murray, Micah M; Spierer, Lucas

2010-04-15

86

Neural Plasticity and Neurorehabilitation Following Traumatic Brain Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury is not well understood and has relied primarily on findings from studies conducted in stroke. We have demonstrated that following CCI (a rodent model of contusion TBI), behavioral function was most enhanced ...

D. Kozlowski

2011-01-01

87

Neural Plasticity and Neurorehabilitation Following Traumatic Brain Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury is not well understood and has relied primarily on findings from studies conducted in stroke. We have demonstrated that following CCI (a rodent model of contusion TBI), behavioral function was most enhanced ...

D. Kozlowski T. Jones

2009-01-01

88

Reorganization of Functional Connectivity as a Correlate of Cognitive Recovery in Acquired Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive processes require a functional interaction between specialized multiple, local and remote brain regions. Although these interactions can be strongly altered by an acquired brain injury, brain plasticity allows network reorganization to be principally responsible for recovery. The present work evaluates the impact of brain injury on…

Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Paul, Nuria; Ordonez, Victoria E.; Demuynck, Olivier; Bajo, Ricardo; Campo, Pablo; Bilbao, Alvaro; Ortiz, Tomas; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestu, Fernando

2010-01-01

89

Plasticity of cortical maps: multiple triggers for adaptive reorganization following brain damage and spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Sensory and motor representations embedded in topographic cortical maps are use-dependent, dynamically maintained, and self-organizing functional mosaics that constitute idiosyncratic entities involved in perceptual and motor learning abilities. Studies of cortical map plasticity have substantiated the view that local reorganization of sensory and motor areas has great significance in recovery of function following brain damage or spinal cord injury. In addition, the transfer of function to distributed cortical areas and subcortical structures represents an adaptive strategy for functional compensation. There is a growing consensus that subject-environment interactions, by continuously refining the canvas of synaptic connectivity and reshaping the anatomical and functional architecture of neural circuits, promote adaptive behavior throughout life. Taking advantage of use-dependent neural plasticity, early initiated rehabilitative procedures improve the potential for recovery. PMID:21636850

Xerri, Christian

2012-04-01

90

Radiotracers for functional brain imaging  

SciTech Connect

The rapid growth of nuclear medicine 25 years ago was in large part related to the success of brain tumor imaging using radiopharmaceuticals designed to detect changes in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The success of computed tomography, and more recently nuclear magnetic resonance, in imaging these lesions has all but eliminated the use of radioactive agents for brain tumor detection. But, in recent years there has been a new wave of interest in isotope studies of the brain. The recent emphasis has been on agents which enter the brain across the BBB and are designed to provide functional data ranging from regional perfusion and metabolism to the distribution of binding sites for neuroactive compounds. While none of these new radiopharmaceuticals has yet come into widespread clinical application, the research results already achieved clearly indicate that brain imaging will again be an important aspect of nuclear medicine practice. 51 references.

Blau, M.

1985-10-01

91

Self-Organized Criticality Model for Brain Plasticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Networks of living neurons exhibit an avalanche mode of activity, experimentally found in organotypic cultures. Here we present a model that is based on self-organized criticality and takes into account brain plasticity, which is able to reproduce the spectrum of electroencephalograms (EEG). The model consists of an electrical network with threshold firing and activity-dependent synapse strengths. The system exhibits an avalanche activity in a power-law distribution. The analysis of the power spectra of the electrical signal reproduces very robustly the power-law behavior with the exponent 0.8, experimentally measured in EEG spectra. The same value of the exponent is found on small-world lattices and for leaky neurons, indicating that universality holds for a wide class of brain models.

de Arcangelis, Lucilla; Perrone-Capano, Carla; Herrmann, Hans J.

2006-01-01

92

Functional site plasticity in domain superfamilies?  

PubMed Central

We present, to our knowledge, the first quantitative analysis of functional site diversity in homologous domain superfamilies. Different types of functional sites are considered separately. Our results show that most diverse superfamilies are very plastic in terms of the spatial location of their functional sites. This is especially true for protein–protein interfaces. In contrast, we confirm that catalytic sites typically occupy only a very small number of topological locations. Small-ligand binding sites are more diverse than expected, although in a more limited manner than protein–protein interfaces. In spite of the observed diversity, our results also confirm the previously reported preferential location of functional sites. We identify a subset of homologous domain superfamilies where diversity is particularly extreme, and discuss possible reasons for such plasticity, i.e. structural diversity. Our results do not contradict previous reports of preferential co-location of sites among homologues, but rather point at the importance of not ignoring other sites, especially in large and diverse superfamilies. Data on sites exploited by different relatives, within each well annotated domain superfamily, has been made accessible from the CATH website in order to highlight versatile superfamilies or superfamilies with highly preferential sites. This information is valuable for system biology and knowledge of any constraints on protein interactions could help in understanding the dynamic control of networks in which these proteins participate. The novelty of our work lies in the comprehensive nature of the analysis – we have used a significantly larger dataset than previous studies – and the fact that in many superfamilies we show that different parts of the domain surface are exploited by different relatives for ligand/protein interactions, particularly in superfamilies which are diverse in sequence and structure, an observation not previously reported on such a large scale. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The emerging dynamic view of proteins: Protein plasticity in allostery, evolution and self-assembly.

Dessailly, Benoit H.; Dawson, Natalie L.; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Orengo, Christine A.

2013-01-01

93

Bridging animal and human models of exercise-induced brain plasticity.  

PubMed

Significant progress has been made in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms through which exercise protects and restores the brain. In this feature review, we integrate animal and human research, examining physical activity effects across multiple levels of description (neurons up to inter-regional pathways). We evaluate the influence of exercise on hippocampal structure and function, addressing common themes such as spatial memory and pattern separation, brain structure and plasticity, neurotrophic factors, and vasculature. Areas of research focused more within species, such as hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents, also provide crucial insight into the protective role of physical activity. Overall, converging evidence suggests exercise benefits brain function and cognition across the mammalian lifespan, which may translate into reduced risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in humans. PMID:24029446

Voss, Michelle W; Vivar, Carmen; Kramer, Arthur F; van Praag, Henriette

2013-10-01

94

Functional brain mapping of psychopathology  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we consider the impact that the novel functional neuroimaging techniques may have upon psychiatric illness. Functional neuroimaging has rapidly developed as a powerful tool in cognitive neuroscience and, in recent years, has seen widespread application in psychiatry. Although such studies have produced evidence for abnormal patterns of brain response in association with some pathological conditions, the core pathophysiologies remain unresolved. Although imaging techniques provide an unprecedented opportunity for investigation of physiological function of the living human brain, there are fundamental questions and assumptions which remain to be addressed. In this review we examine these conceptual issues under three broad sections: (1) characterising the clinical population of interest, (2) defining appropriate levels of description of normal brain function, and (3) relating these models to pathophysiological conditions. Parallel advances in each of these questions will be required before imaging techniques can impact on clinical decisions in psychiatry.

Honey, G; Fletcher, P; Bullmore, E

2002-01-01

95

Length of Acupuncture Training and Structural Plastic Brain Changes in Professional Acupuncturists  

PubMed Central

Background The research on brain plasticity has fascinated researchers for decades. Use/training serves as an instrumental factor to influence brain neuroplasticity. Parallel to acquisition of behavioral expertise, extensive use/training is concomitant with substantial changes of cortical structure. Acupuncturists, serving as a model par excellence to study tactile-motor and emotional regulation plasticity, receive intensive training in national medical schools following standardized training protocol. Moreover, their behavioral expertise is corroborated during long-term clinical practice. Although our previous study reported functional plastic brain changes in the acupuncturists, whether or not structural plastic changes occurred in acupuncturists is yet elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings Cohorts of acupuncturists (N?=?22) and non-acupuncturists (N?=?22) were recruited. Behavioral tests were delivered to assess the acupuncturists’ behavioral expertise. The results confirmed acupuncturists’ tactile-motor skills and emotion regulation proficiency compared to non-acupuncturists. Using the voxel-based morphometry technique, we revealed larger grey matter volumes in acupuncturists in the hand representation of the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (SI), the right lobule V/VI and the bilateral ventral anterior cingulate cortex/ventral medial prefrontal cortex. Grey matter volumes of the SI and Lobule V/VI positively correlated with the duration of acupuncture practice. Conclusions To our best knowledge, this study provides first evidence for the anatomical alterations in acupuncturists, which would possibly be the neural correlates underlying acupuncturists’ exceptional skills. On one hand, we suggest our findings may have ramifications for tactile-motor rehabilitation. On the other hand, our results in emotion regulation domain may serve as a target for our future studies, from which we can understand how modulations of aversive emotions elicited by empathic pain develop in the context of expertise. Future longitudinal study is necessary to establish the presence and direction of a causal link between practice/use and brain anatomy.

Dong, Minghao; Zhao, Ling; Yuan, Kai; Zeng, Fang; Sun, Jinbo; Liu, Jixin; Yu, Dahua; von Deneen, Karen M.; Liang, Fanrong; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

2013-01-01

96

Building a brain under nutritional restriction: insights on sparing and plasticity from Drosophila studies  

PubMed Central

While the growth of the developing brain is known to be well-protected compared to other organs in the face of nutrient restriction (NR), careful analysis has revealed a range of structural alterations and long-term neurological defects. Yet, despite intensive studies, little is known about the basic principles that govern brain development under nutrient deprivation. For over 20 years, Drosophila has proved to be a useful model for investigating how a functional nervous system develops from a restricted number of neural stem cells (NSCs). Recently, a few studies have started to uncover molecular mechanisms as well as region-specific adaptive strategies that preserve brain functionality and neuronal repertoire under NR, while modulating neuron numbers. Here, we review the developmental constraints that condition the response of the developing brain to NR. We then analyze the recent Drosophila work to highlight key principles that drive sparing and plasticity in different regions of the central nervous system (CNS). As simple animal models start to build a more integrated picture, understanding how the developing brain copes with NR could help in defining strategies to limit damage and improve brain recovery after birth.

Lanet, Elodie; Maurange, Cedric

2014-01-01

97

Adult neurogenesis and functional plasticity in neuronal circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adult brain is a plastic place. To ensure that the mature nervous system's control of behaviour is flexible in the face of a varying environment, morphological and physiological changes are possible at many levels, including that of the entire cell. In two areas of the adult brain — the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus — new neurons are

Mariana Alonso; Matthew S. Grubb; Pierre-Marie Lledo

2006-01-01

98

Semaphorin function in neural plasticity and disease.  

PubMed

The semaphorins, originally discovered as evolutionarily conserved steering molecules for developing axons, also influence neuronal structure and function in the early postnatal and juvenile nervous systems through several refinement processes. Semaphorins control synaptogenesis, axon pruning, and the density and maturation of dendritic spines. In addition, semaphorins and their downstream signaling components regulate synaptic physiology and neuronal excitability in the mature hippocampus, and these proteins are also implicated in a number of developmental, psychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. Significant inroads have been made in defining the mechanisms by which semaphorins regulate dynamic changes in the neuronal cytoskeleton at the molecular and cellular levels during embryonic nervous system development. However, comparatively little is known about how semaphorins influence neuronal structure and synaptic plasticity during adult nervous system homeostasis or following injury and disease. A detailed understanding of how semaphorins function beyond initial phases of neural network assembly is revealing novel insights into key aspects of nervous system physiology and pathology. PMID:19541473

Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Giger, Roman J

2009-06-01

99

Effect of disease and recovery on functional anatomy in brain tumor patients: insights from functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging  

PubMed Central

Patients with brain tumors provide a unique opportunity to understand functional brain plasticity. Using advanced imaging techniques, such as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging, we have gained tremendous knowledge of brain tumor behavior, transformation, infiltration and destruction of nearby structures. Using these advanced techniques as an adjunct with more proven techniques, such as direct cortical stimulation, intraoperative navigation and advanced microsurgical techniques, we now are able to better formulate safer resection trajectories, perform larger resections at reduced risk and better counsel patients and their families about possible complications. Brain mapping in patients with brain tumors and other lesions has shown us that the old idea of fixed function of the adult cerebral cortex is not entirely true. Improving care for patients with brain lesions in the future will depend on better understanding of the functional organization and plasticity of the adult brain. Advanced noninvasive brain imaging will undoubtedly play a role in advancing this understanding.

Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad M; Saleh, Emam; Huang, Raymond Y; Golby, Alexandra J

2014-01-01

100

Exercise: a behavioral intervention to enhance brain health and plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive research on humans suggests that exercise could have benefits for overall health and cognitive function, particularly in later life. Recent studies using animal models have been directed towards understanding the neurobiological bases of these benefits. It is now clear that voluntary exercise can increase levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and other growth factors, stimulate neurogenesis, increase resistance to

Carl W. Cotman; Nicole C. Berchtold

2002-01-01

101

The plasticity of regulatory T cell function.  

PubMed

Regulatory T cells (T(regs)) can suppress a wide variety of cell types, in diverse organ sites and inflammatory conditions. Whereas T(regs) possess multiple suppressive mechanisms, the number required for maximal function is unclear. Furthermore, whether any interrelationship or cross-regulatory mechanisms exist to orchestrate and control their utilization is unknown. In this study, we assessed the functional capacity of T(regs) lacking the ability to secrete both IL-10 and IL-35, which individually are required for maximal T(reg) activity. Surprisingly, IL-10/IL-35 double-deficient T(regs) were fully functional in vitro and in vivo. Loss of IL-10 and IL-35 was compensated for by a concurrent increase in cathepsin E (Ctse) expression, enhanced TRAIL (Tnfsf10) expression, and soluble TRAIL release, rendering IL-10/IL-35 double-deficient T(regs) functionally dependent on TRAIL in vitro and in vivo. Lastly, whereas C57BL/6 T(regs) are normally IL-10/IL-35 dependent, BALB/c T(regs), which express high levels of cathepsin E and enhanced TRAIL expression, are partially TRAIL dependent by default. These data reveal that cross-regulatory pathways exist that control the utilization of suppressive mechanisms, thereby providing T(reg) functional plasticity. PMID:22013112

Pillai, Meenu R; Collison, Lauren W; Wang, Xiaohua; Finkelstein, David; Rehg, Jerold E; Boyd, Kelli; Szymczak-Workman, Andrea L; Doggett, Teresa; Griffith, Thomas S; Ferguson, Thomas A; Vignali, Dario A A

2011-11-15

102

Development of the Brain’s Functional Network Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full understanding of the development of the brain’s functional network architecture requires not only an understanding\\u000a of developmental changes in neural processing in individual brain regions but also an understanding of changes in inter-regional\\u000a interactions. Resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) is increasingly being used to study functional interactions\\u000a between brain regions in both adults and children. We briefly

Alecia C. Vogel; Jonathan D. Power; Steven E. Petersen; Bradley L. Schlaggar

2010-01-01

103

Brain organization and sleep function  

Microsoft Academic Search

A view of brain organization and sleep function is presented. Sleep is hypothesized to begin at the neuronal group level. Sleep results in the use and thus maintenance, of synapses that are insufficiently stimulated during wakefulness thereby serving to preserve a constancy of a synaptic superstructure. It is further hypothesized that sleep at the neuronal group level is regulated by

James M. Krueger; Ferenc Obál; Levente Kapás; Jidong Fang

1995-01-01

104

Sleep, plasticity and memory from molecules to whole-brain networks.  

PubMed

Despite the ubiquity of sleep across phylogeny, its function remains elusive. In this review, we consider one compelling candidate: brain plasticity associated with memory processing. Focusing largely on hippocampus-dependent memory in rodents and humans, we describe molecular, cellular, network, whole-brain and behavioral evidence establishing a role for sleep both in preparation for initial memory encoding, and in the subsequent offline consolidation of memory. Sleep and sleep deprivation bidirectionally alter molecular signaling pathways that regulate synaptic strength and control plasticity-related gene transcription and protein translation. At the cellular level, sleep deprivation impairs cellular excitability necessary for inducing synaptic potentiation and accelerates the decay of long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity. In contrast, rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep enhance previously induced synaptic potentiation, although synaptic de-potentiation during sleep has also been observed. Beyond single cell dynamics, large-scale cell ensembles express coordinated replay of prior learning-related firing patterns during subsequent NREM sleep. At the whole-brain level, somewhat analogous learning-associated hippocampal (re)activation during NREM sleep has been reported in humans. Moreover, the same cortical NREM oscillations associated with replay in rodents also promote human hippocampal memory consolidation, and this process can be manipulated using exogenous reactivation cues during sleep. Mirroring molecular findings in rodents, specific NREM sleep oscillations before encoding refresh human hippocampal learning capacity, while deprivation of sleep conversely impairs subsequent hippocampal activity and associated encoding. Together, these cross-descriptive level findings demonstrate that the unique neurobiology of sleep exerts powerful effects on molecular, cellular and network mechanisms of plasticity that govern both initial learning and subsequent long-term memory consolidation. PMID:24028961

Abel, Ted; Havekes, Robbert; Saletin, Jared M; Walker, Matthew P

2013-09-01

105

Brain structural plasticity in survivors of a major earthquake  

PubMed Central

Background Stress responses have been studied extensively in animal models, but effects of major life stress on the human brain remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether survivors of a major earthquake, who were presumed to have experienced extreme emotional stress during the disaster, demonstrate differences in brain anatomy relative to individuals who have not experienced such stressors. Methods Healthy survivors living in an area devastated by a major earthquake and matched healthy controls underwent 3-dimentional high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Survivors were scanned 13–25 days after the earthquake; controls had undergone MRI for other studies not long before the earthquake. We used optimized voxel-based morphometry analysis to identify regional differences of grey matter volume between the survivors and controls. Results We included 44 survivors (17 female, mean age 37 [standard deviation (SD) 10.6] yr) and 38 controls (14 female, mean age 35.3 [SD 11.2] yr) in our analysis. Compared with controls, the survivors showed significantly lower grey matter volume in the bilateral insula, hippocampus, left caudate and putamen, and greater grey matter volume in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and the parietal lobe (all p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparison). Limitations Differences in the variance of survivor and control data could impact study findings. Conclusion Acute anatomic alterations could be observed in earthquake survivors in brain regions where functional alterations after stress have been described. Anatomic changes in the present study were observed earlier than previously reported and were seen in prefrontal–limbic, parietal and striatal brain systems. Together with the results of previous functional imaging studies, our observations suggest a complex pattern of human brain response to major life stress affecting brain systems that modulate and respond to heightened affective arousal.

Lui, Su; Chen, Long; Yao, Li; Xiao, Yuan; Wu, Qi-Zhu; Zhang, Jun-Ran; Huang, Xiao-Qi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yu-Qin; Chen, Hua-Fu; Chan, Raymond C.K.; Sweeney, John A.; Gong, Qi-Yong

2013-01-01

106

Current trends in stroke rehabilitation. A review with focus on brain plasticity.  

PubMed

Current understanding of brain plasticity has lead to new approaches in ischemic stroke rehabilitation. Stroke units that combine good medical and nursing care with task-oriented intense training in an environment that provides confidence, stimulation and motivation significantly improve outcome. Repetitive trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and trans-cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are applied in rehabilitation of motor function. The long-term effect, optimal way of stimulation and possibly efficacy in cognitive rehabilitation need evaluation. Methods based on multisensory integration of motor, cognitive, and perceptual processes including action observation, mental training, and virtual reality are being tested. Different approaches of intensive aphasia training are described. Recent data on intensive melodic intonation therapy indicate that even patients with very severe non-fluent aphasia can regain speech through homotopic white matter tract plasticity. Music therapy is applied in motor and cognitive rehabilitation. To avoid the confounding effect of spontaneous improvement, most trials are preformed ?3 months post stroke. Randomized controlled trials starting earlier after strokes are needed. More attention should be given to stroke heterogeneity, cognitive rehabilitation, and social adjustment and to genetic differences, including the role of BDNF polymorphism in brain plasticity. PMID:20726844

Johansson, B B

2011-03-01

107

Emerging roles of non-coding RNAs in brain evolution, development, plasticity and disease  

PubMed Central

Novel classes of small and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are being characterized at a rapid pace, driven by recent paradigm shifts in our understanding of genomic architecture, regulation and transcriptional output, as well as by innovations in sequencing technologies and computational and systems biology. These ncRNAs can interact with DNA, RNA and protein molecules; engage in diverse structural, functional and regulatory activities; and have roles in nuclear organization and transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic processes. This expanding inventory of ncRNAs is implicated in mediating a broad spectrum of processes including brain evolution, development, synaptic plasticity and disease pathogenesis.

Qureshi, Irfan A.; Mehler, Mark F.

2012-01-01

108

Estrogen-induced plasticity from cells to circuits: predictions for cognitive function  

PubMed Central

Controversy regarding estrogen action in the brain remains at the forefront of basic, translational and clinical science for women’s health. Here, I provide an integrative analysis of estrogen-inducible plasticity and posit it as a strategy for predicting cognitive domains affected by estrogen in addition to sources of variability. Estrogen enhancement of plasticity is evidenced by increases in neurogenesis, neural network connectivity and synaptic transmission. In parallel, estrogen increases glucose transport, aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial function to provide the ATP necessary to sustain increased energetic demand. The pattern of plasticity predicts that estrogen would preferentially affect cognitive tasks of greater complexity, temporal demand and associative challenge. Thus, estrogen deprivation should be associated with decrements in these functions. Estrogen regulation of plasticity and bioenergetics provides a framework for predicting estrogen-dependent cognitive functions while also identifying sources of variability and potential biomarkers for identifying women appropriate for hormone therapy.

Brinton, Roberta Diaz

2011-01-01

109

Functional modules of the brain.  

PubMed

Building on the view of massive modularity, a number of generalized assumptions lead to an entirely new concept of functional brain modules. In contrast to the nerve centers usually considered to be active in the brain, these modules, called symbions, are non-localized, non-hierarchical, and based on subcellular molecular mechanisms rather than on neurons. They act according to local rules that may be fundamentally nonlinear, potentially leading to strong interdependencies between parallel inputs, and they interact by information, not by force. The existence of inner states, feedback loops, internal models, and information encoding provide the basis for a higher complexity than is usually assumed in neuroscience. A map of the symbion world, showing functional rather than physical localization, can be used to illustrate symbion interaction patterns. Perceptual constancy, sensory illusions, visual cognition, and eye-hand coordination are used as examples of what can be explained by using the new theory. PMID:12051988

Philipson, Lars

2002-03-01

110

Task decomposition: a framework for comparing diverse training models in human brain plasticity studies  

PubMed Central

Training studies, in which the structural or functional neurophysiology is compared before and after expertise is acquired, are increasingly being used as models for understanding the human brain’s potential for reorganization. It is proving difficult to use these results to answer basic and important questions like how task training leads to both specific and general changes in behavior and how these changes correspond with modifications in the brain. The main culprit is the diversity of paradigms used as complex task models. An assortment of activities ranging from juggling to deciphering Morse code has been reported. Even when working in the same general domain, few researchers use similar training models. New ways to meaningfully compare complex tasks are needed. We propose a method for characterizing and deconstructing the task requirements of complex training paradigms, which is suitable for application to both structural and functional neuroimaging studies. We believe this approach will aid brain plasticity research by making it easier to compare training paradigms, identify “missing puzzle pieces,” and encourage researchers to design training protocols to bridge these gaps.

Coffey, Emily B. J.; Herholz, Sibylle C.

2013-01-01

111

Long-term perturbation of spine plasticity results in distinct impairments of cognitive function.  

PubMed

Dendritic spines serve as the post-synaptic structural component of synapses. The structure and function of dendritic spines are dynamically regulated by a number of signaling pathways and allow for normal neural processing, whereas aberrant spine changes are thought to contribute to cognitive impairment in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, spine changes within different brain regions and their contribution to specific cognitive functions, especially later in adulthood, is not well understood. In this study, we used late-adult KALRN-deficient mice as a tool to investigate the vulnerability of different cognitive functions to long-term perturbations in spine plasticity in different forebrain regions. We found that in these mice, loss of one or both copies of KALRN lead to genotype and brain region-dependent reductions in spine density. Surprisingly, heterozygote and knockout mice showed differential impairments in cognitive phenotypes, including working memory, social recognition, and social approach. Correlation analysis between the site and magnitude of spine loss and behavioral alterations suggests that the interplay between brain regions is critical for complex cognitive processing and underscores the importance of spine plasticity in normal cognitive function. Long-term perturbation of spine plasticity results in distinct impairments of cognitive function. Using genetically modified mice deficient in a central regulator of spine plasticity, we investigated the brain region-specific contribution of spine numbers to various cognitive functions. We found distinct cognitive functions display differential sensitivity to spine loss in the cortex and hippocampus. Our data support spines as neuronal structures important for cognition and suggest interplay between brain regions is critical for complex cognitive processing. PMID:22862288

Vanleeuwen, Jon-Eric; Penzes, Peter

2012-12-01

112

Seasonal female brain plasticity in processing social vs. sexual vocal signals.  

PubMed

While cerebral plasticity has been extensively studied and demonstrated - during ontogenetic development, few studies have considered adult plasticity in different social contexts using relevant social communication signals. Communication requires adaptability throughout the life of an individual, especially in species for which breeding periods (when intersexual signaling prevails) are interspersed with more 'social' (non-sexual) periods when intrasexual bonding prevails. In songbirds, structure or frequency of songs or song elements may convey different information depending on the season. This is the case in the European starling, where some song structures characterize social bonds between females while other song structures are more characteristic of male courtship. We hypothesized that the female perceptual system may have adapted to these changes in song structure and function according to season, and we tested for potential seasonal brain plasticity. Electrophysiological recordings from adult female starlings during playback of song elements with different functions showed clear seasonal (breeding/non-breeding) changes in neuronal responses in the primary auditory area. The proportion of responsive sites was higher in response to social (non-sexual) songs during the non-reproductive season, and higher in response to sexual songs during the reproductive season. PMID:23294108

Cousillas, Hugo; George, Isabelle; Alcaix, Sandrine; Henry, Laurence; Richard, Jean-Pierre; Hausberger, Martine

2013-03-01

113

Water diffusion reveals networks that modulate multiregional morphological plasticity after repetitive brain stimulation  

PubMed Central

Repetitive brain stimulation protocols induce plasticity in the stimulated site in brain slice models. Recent evidence from network models has indicated that additional plasticity-related changes occur in nonstimulated remote regions. Despite increasing use of brain stimulation protocols in experimental and clinical settings, the neural substrates underlying the additional effects in remote regions are unknown. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) probes water diffusion and can be used to estimate morphological changes in cortical tissue that occur with the induction of plasticity. Using DWI techniques, we estimated morphological changes induced by application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left primary motor cortex (M1). We found that rTMS altered water diffusion in multiple regions including the left M1. Notably, the change in water diffusion was retained longest in the left M1 and remote regions that had a correlation of baseline fluctuations in water diffusion before rTMS. We conclude that synchronization of water diffusion at rest between stimulated and remote regions ensures retention of rTMS-induced changes in water diffusion in remote regions. Synchronized fluctuations in the morphology of cortical microstructures between stimulated and remote regions might identify networks that allow retention of plasticity-related morphological changes in multiple regions after brain stimulation protocols. These results increase our understanding of the effects of brain stimulation-induced plasticity on multiregional brain networks. DWI techniques could provide a tool to evaluate treatment effects of brain stimulation protocols in patients with brain disorders.

Abe, Mitsunari; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

2014-01-01

114

Sex Hormones, Brain Development and Brain Function.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The view that gonadal hormones exert a double action on the central nervous system--inductive during development and excitatory in the adult--allows a direct comparison between the brain and genital tract as target organs for these hormones. In both cases...

G. W. Harris

1964-01-01

115

SIRT1 is essential for normal cognitive function and synaptic plasticity.  

PubMed

Conservation of normal cognitive functions relies on the proper performance of the nervous system at the cellular and molecular level. The mammalian nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 impacts different processes potentially involved in the maintenance of brain integrity, such as chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, cell survival, and neurogenesis. Here we show that SIRT1 is expressed in neurons of the hippocampus, a key structure in learning and memory. Using a combination of behavioral and electrophysiological paradigms, we analyzed the effects of SIRT1 deficiency and overexpression on mouse learning and memory as well as on synaptic plasticity. We demonstrated that the absence of SIRT1 impaired cognitive abilities, including immediate memory, classical conditioning, and spatial learning. In addition, we found that the cognitive deficits in SIRT1 knock-out (KO) mice were associated with defects in synaptic plasticity without alterations in basal synaptic transmission or NMDA receptor function. Brains of SIRT1-KO mice exhibited normal morphology and dendritic spine structure but displayed a decrease in dendritic branching, branch length, and complexity of neuronal dendritic arbors. Also, a decrease in extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation and altered expression of hippocampal genes involved in synaptic function, lipid metabolism, and myelination were detected in SIRT1-KO mice. In contrast, mice with high levels of SIRT1 expression in brain exhibited regular synaptic plasticity and memory. We conclude that SIRT1 is indispensable for normal learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity in mice. PMID:20660252

Michán, Shaday; Li, Ying; Chou, Maggie Meng-Hsiu; Parrella, Edoardo; Ge, Huanying; Long, Jeffrey M; Allard, Joanne S; Lewis, Kaitlyn; Miller, Marshall; Xu, Wei; Mervis, Ronald F; Chen, Jing; Guerin, Karen I; Smith, Lois E H; McBurney, Michael W; Sinclair, David A; Baudry, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael; Longo, Valter D

2010-07-21

116

SIRT1 is essential for normal cognitive function and synaptic plasticity  

PubMed Central

Conservation of normal cognitive functions relies on the proper performance of the nervous system at the cellular and molecular level. The mammalian NAD+-dependent deacetylase, SIRT1, impacts different processes potentially involved in the maintenance of brain integrity such as chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, cell survival and neurogenesis. Here we show that SIRT1 is expressed in neurons of the hippocampus, a key structure in learning and memory. Using a combination of behavioral and electrophysiological paradigms we analyzed the effects of SIRT1 deficiency and overexpression on mouse learning and memory as well as on synaptic plasticity. We demonstrated that the absence of SIRT1 impaired cognitive abilities, including immediate memory, classical conditioning and spatial learning. In addition, we found that the cognitive deficits in SIRT1 knockout mice were associated with defects in synaptic plasticity without alterations in basal synaptic transmission or NMDA receptor function. Brains of SIRT1-KO mice exhibited normal morphology and dendritic spine structure but display a decrease in dendritic branching, branch length and complexity of neuronal dendritic arbors. Also, a decrease in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and altered expression of hippocampal genes involved in synaptic function, lipid metabolism and myelination were detected in SIRT1-KO mice. In contrast, mice with high levels of SIRT1 expression in brain exhibited regular synaptic plasticity and memory. We conclude that SIRT1 is indispensable for normal learning, memory and synaptic plasticity in mice.

Michan, Shaday; Li, Ying; Chou, Maggie Meng-Hsiu; Parrella, Edoardo; Ge, Huanying; Long, Jeffrey M.; Allard, Joanne S.; Lewis, Kaitlyn; Miller, Marshall; Xu, Wei; Mervis, Ronald F.; Chen, Jing; Guerin, Karen I.; Smith, Lois E. H.; McBurney, Michael W.; Sinclair, David A.; Baudry, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael; Longo, Valter D.

2010-01-01

117

Brain development: anatomy, connectivity, adaptive plasticity, and toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developing brain is inherently more vulnerable to injury than the adult brain because brain development is extraordinarily complex, with periods of unique susceptibility. When brain developmental processes are suspended or delayed by any external influence, virtually no potential exists for subsequent regeneration and repair. This inevitably leads to long-lasting or permanent consequences. Recent genetic studies have contributed to a

Madhu Kalia

2008-01-01

118

Wnts in adult brain: from synaptic plasticity to cognitive deficiencies  

PubMed Central

During development of the central nervous system the Wnt signaling pathway has been implicated in a wide spectrum of physiological processes, including neuronal connectivity and synapse formation. Wnt proteins and components of the Wnt pathway are expressed in the brain since early development to the adult life, however, little is known about its role in mature synapses. Here, we review evidences indicating that Wnt proteins participate in the remodeling of pre- and post-synaptic regions, thus modulating synaptic function. We include the most recent data in the literature showing that Wnts are constantly released in the brain to maintain the basal neural activity. Also, we review the evidences that involve components of the Wnt pathway in the development of neurological and mental disorders, including a special emphasis on in vivo studies that relate behavioral abnormalities to deficiencies in Wnt signaling. Finally, we include the evidences that support a neuroprotective role of Wnt proteins in Alzheimer’s disease. We postulate that deregulation in Wnt signaling might have a fundamental role in the origin of neurological diseases, by altering the synaptic function at stages where the phenotype is not yet established but when the cognitive decline starts.

Oliva, Carolina A.; Vargas, Jessica Y.; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

2013-01-01

119

Brain Structure-function Couplings (FY11).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In FY11, a collaborative team of researchers began a new Director's Strategic Initiative (DSI) to examine brain structure-function couplings. The effort aims to develop a multidisciplinary, multiscale understanding of the relationship between the brain's ...

A. Dagro J. Vettel R. Kraft S. Gordon S. Kerick

2012-01-01

120

Learning, memory and brain plasticity in posttraumatic stress disorder: context matters.  

PubMed

We review evidence from our laboratory that suggests that in addition to enhanced cue conditioning and delayed cue extinction disturbed contextual learning may play an important role in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on data from a longitudinal sample of rescue workers at high risk for posttraumatic stress disorder and data on single trauma exposed persons with and without posttraumatic stress disorder we show the crucial role of the hippocampus for contextual memory and impaired contextual learning along with enhanced cue conditioning and delayed extinction in PTSD. Using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging we confirmed animal data on the role of the hippocampus in contextual and the importance of the amygdala in cue conditioning and the role of the frontal cortex in extinction. Genetic variants related to the modulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis are associated with cue and genetic variants related to calcium signaling and memory processes and the regulation of the stress response are associated with context conditioning. These genes also play a role in PTSD. Further research needs to identify the predictive nature of these learning processes and plastic brain changes and their interaction with genetic characteristics changes for the transition into PTSD and its maintenance. A further focus needs to be on the identification of learning and memory mechanisms and the associated brain plasticity across disorders. PMID:23945193

Flor, Herta; Nees, Frauke

2014-01-01

121

Performance enhancement at the cost of potential brain plasticity: neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain.  

PubMed

Cognitive enhancement is perhaps one of the most intriguing and controversial topics in neuroscience today. Currently, the main classes of drugs used as potential cognitive enhancers include psychostimulants (methylphenidate (MPH), amphetamine), but wakefulness-promoting agents (modafinil) and glutamate activators (ampakine) are also frequently used. Pharmacologically, substances that enhance the components of the memory/learning circuits-dopamine, glutamate (neuronal excitation), and/or norepinephrine-stand to improve brain function in healthy individuals beyond their baseline functioning. In particular, non-medical use of prescription stimulants such as MPH and illicit use of psychostimulants for cognitive enhancement have seen a recent rise among teens and young adults in schools and college campuses. However, this enhancement likely comes with a neuronal, as well as ethical, cost. Altering glutamate function via the use of psychostimulants may impair behavioral flexibility, leading to the development and/or potentiation of addictive behaviors. Furthermore, dopamine and norepinephrine do not display linear effects; instead, their modulation of cognitive and neuronal function maps on an inverted-U curve. Healthy individuals run the risk of pushing themselves beyond optimal levels into hyperdopaminergic and hypernoradrenergic states, thus vitiating the very behaviors they are striving to improve. Finally, recent studies have begun to highlight potential damaging effects of stimulant exposure in healthy juveniles. This review explains how the main classes of cognitive enhancing drugs affect the learning and memory circuits, and highlights the potential risks and concerns in healthy individuals, particularly juveniles and adolescents. We emphasize the performance enhancement at the potential cost of brain plasticity that is associated with the neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain. PMID:24860437

Urban, Kimberly R; Gao, Wen-Jun

2014-01-01

122

Performance enhancement at the cost of potential brain plasticity: neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain  

PubMed Central

Cognitive enhancement is perhaps one of the most intriguing and controversial topics in neuroscience today. Currently, the main classes of drugs used as potential cognitive enhancers include psychostimulants (methylphenidate (MPH), amphetamine), but wakefulness-promoting agents (modafinil) and glutamate activators (ampakine) are also frequently used. Pharmacologically, substances that enhance the components of the memory/learning circuits—dopamine, glutamate (neuronal excitation), and/or norepinephrine—stand to improve brain function in healthy individuals beyond their baseline functioning. In particular, non-medical use of prescription stimulants such as MPH and illicit use of psychostimulants for cognitive enhancement have seen a recent rise among teens and young adults in schools and college campuses. However, this enhancement likely comes with a neuronal, as well as ethical, cost. Altering glutamate function via the use of psychostimulants may impair behavioral flexibility, leading to the development and/or potentiation of addictive behaviors. Furthermore, dopamine and norepinephrine do not display linear effects; instead, their modulation of cognitive and neuronal function maps on an inverted-U curve. Healthy individuals run the risk of pushing themselves beyond optimal levels into hyperdopaminergic and hypernoradrenergic states, thus vitiating the very behaviors they are striving to improve. Finally, recent studies have begun to highlight potential damaging effects of stimulant exposure in healthy juveniles. This review explains how the main classes of cognitive enhancing drugs affect the learning and memory circuits, and highlights the potential risks and concerns in healthy individuals, particularly juveniles and adolescents. We emphasize the performance enhancement at the potential cost of brain plasticity that is associated with the neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain.

Urban, Kimberly R.; Gao, Wen-Jun

2014-01-01

123

Altered Resting Brain Function and Structure in Professional Badminton Players  

PubMed Central

Abstract Neuroimaging studies of professional athletic or musical training have demonstrated considerable practice-dependent plasticity in various brain structures, which may reflect distinct training demands. In the present study, structural and functional brain alterations were examined in professional badminton players and compared with healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI. Gray matter concentration (GMC) was assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and resting-brain functions were measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based functional connectivity. Results showed that the athlete group had greater GMC and ALFF in the right and medial cerebellar regions, respectively. The athlete group also demonstrated smaller ALFF in the left superior parietal lobule and altered functional connectivity between the left superior parietal and frontal regions. These findings indicate that badminton expertise is associated with not only plastic structural changes in terms of enlarged gray matter density in the cerebellum, but also functional alterations in fronto-parietal connectivity. Such structural and functional alterations may reflect specific experiences of badminton training and practice, including high-capacity visuo-spatial processing and hand-eye coordination in addition to refined motor skills.

Di, Xin; Zhu, Senhua; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuoer; Zhou, Ke; Zhuo, Yan

2012-01-01

124

Altered resting brain function and structure in professional badminton players.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging studies of professional athletic or musical training have demonstrated considerable practice-dependent plasticity in various brain structures, which may reflect distinct training demands. In the present study, structural and functional brain alterations were examined in professional badminton players and compared with healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI. Gray matter concentration (GMC) was assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and resting-brain functions were measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based functional connectivity. Results showed that the athlete group had greater GMC and ALFF in the right and medial cerebellar regions, respectively. The athlete group also demonstrated smaller ALFF in the left superior parietal lobule and altered functional connectivity between the left superior parietal and frontal regions. These findings indicate that badminton expertise is associated with not only plastic structural changes in terms of enlarged gray matter density in the cerebellum, but also functional alterations in fronto-parietal connectivity. Such structural and functional alterations may reflect specific experiences of badminton training and practice, including high-capacity visuo-spatial processing and hand-eye coordination in addition to refined motor skills. PMID:22840241

Di, Xin; Zhu, Senhua; Jin, Hua; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuoer; Zhou, Ke; Zhuo, Yan; Rao, Hengyi

2012-01-01

125

Aging and functional brain networks  

SciTech Connect

Aging is associated with changes in human brain anatomy and function and cognitive decline. Recent studies suggest the aging decline of major functional connectivity hubs in the 'default-mode' network (DMN). Aging effects on other networks, however, are largely unknown. We hypothesized that aging would be associated with a decline of short- and long-range functional connectivity density (FCD) hubs in the DMN. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated resting-state data sets corresponding to 913 healthy subjects from a public magnetic resonance imaging database using functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM), a voxelwise and data-driven approach, together with parallel computing. Aging was associated with pronounced long-range FCD decreases in DMN and dorsal attention network (DAN) and with increases in somatosensory and subcortical networks. Aging effects in these networks were stronger for long-range than for short-range FCD and were also detected at the level of the main functional hubs. Females had higher short- and long-range FCD in DMN and lower FCD in the somatosensory network than males, but the gender by age interaction effects were not significant for any of the networks or hubs. These findings suggest that long-range connections may be more vulnerable to aging effects than short-range connections and that, in addition to the DMN, the DAN is also sensitive to aging effects, which could underlie the deterioration of attention processes that occurs with aging.

Tomasi D.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.

2011-07-11

126

Intensive language training enhances brain plasticity in chronic aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background Focal clusters of slow wave activity in the delta frequency range (1–4 Hz), as measured by magnetencephalography (MEG), are usually located in the vicinity of structural damage in the brain. Such oscillations are usually considered pathological and indicative of areas incapable of normal functioning owing to deafferentation from relevant input sources. In the present study we investigated the change in Delta Dipole Density in 28 patients with chronic aphasia (>12 months post onset) following cerebrovascular stroke of the left hemisphere before and after intensive speech and language therapy (3 hours/day over 2 weeks). Results Neuropsychologically assessed language functions improved significantly after training. Perilesional delta activity decreased after therapy in 16 of the 28 patients, while an increase was evident in 12 patients. The magnitude of change of delta activity in these areas correlated with the amount of change in language functions as measured by standardized language tests. Conclusions These results emphasize the significance of perilesional areas in the rehabilitation of aphasia even years after the stroke, and might reflect reorganisation of the language network that provides the basis for improved language functions after intensive training.

Meinzer, Marcus; Elbert, Thomas; Wienbruch, Christian; Djundja, Daniela; Barthel, Gabriela; Rockstroh, Brigitte

2004-01-01

127

Compositions and Methods for Enhancing Cognitive Function and Synaptic Plasticity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention provides compositions and methods for enhancing cognitive function and synaptic plasticity. According to the method, Ca.sup.++ influx into excitatory neurons (nerve cells) is decreased by treatment with a number of different agents i...

G. Liu I. Slutsky

2004-01-01

128

Effects of Exercise Intensity on Spatial Memory Performance and Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity in Transient Brain Ischemic Rats  

PubMed Central

Memory impairment is commonly noted in stroke survivors, and can lead to delay of functional recovery. Exercise has been proved to improve memory in adult healthy subjects. Such beneficial effects are often suggested to relate to hippocampal synaptic plasticity, which is important for memory processing. Previous evidence showed that in normal rats, low intensity exercise can improve synaptic plasticity better than high intensity exercise. However, the effects of exercise intensities on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory after brain ischemia remain unclear. In this study, we investigated such effects in brain ischemic rats. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) procedure was used to induce brain ischemia. After the MCAO procedure, rats were randomly assigned to sedentary (Sed), low-intensity exercise (Low-Ex), or high-intensity exercise (High-Ex) group. Treadmill training began from the second day post MCAO procedure, 30 min/day for 14 consecutive days for the exercise groups. The Low-Ex group was trained at the speed of 8 m/min, while the High-Ex group at the speed of 20 m/min. The spatial memory, hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synapsin-I, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), and dendritic structures were examined to document the effects. Serum corticosterone level was also quantified as stress marker. Our results showed the Low-Ex group, but not the High-Ex group, demonstrated better spatial memory performance than the Sed group. Dendritic complexity and the levels of BDNF and PSD-95 increased significantly only in the Low-Ex group as compared with the Sed group in bilateral hippocampus. Notably, increased level of corticosterone was found in the High-Ex group, implicating higher stress response. In conclusion, after brain ischemia, low intensity exercise may result in better synaptic plasticity and spatial memory performance than high intensity exercise; therefore, the intensity is suggested to be considered during exercise training.

Shih, Pei-Cheng; Yang, Yea-Ru; Wang, Ray-Yau

2013-01-01

129

Promoting Motor Function by Exercising the Brain  

PubMed Central

Exercise represents a behavioral intervention that enhances brain health and motor function. The increase in cerebral blood volume in response to physical activity may be responsible for improving brain function. Among the various neuroimaging techniques used to monitor brain hemodynamic response during exercise, functional near-infrared spectroscopy could facilitate the measurement of task-related cortical responses noninvasively and is relatively robust with regard to the subjects’ motion. Although the components of optimal exercise interventions have not been determined, evidence from animal and human studies suggests that aerobic exercise with sufficiently high intensity has neuroprotective properties and promotes motor function. This review provides an insight into the effect of physical activity (based on endurance and resistance exercises) on brain function for producing movement. Since most progress in the study of brain function has come from patients with neurological disorders (e.g., stroke and Parkinson’s patients), this review presents some findings emphasizing training paradigms for restoring motor function.

Perrey, Stephane

2013-01-01

130

Music mnemonics aid Verbal Memory and Induce Learning - Related Brain Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Recent research on music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music and rhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory, we investigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and if music-assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measured systems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during music-assisted learning. Specifically, we measured the spectral power of 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) in alpha and beta frequency bands in 54 patients with MS. The study sample was randomly divided into two groups, either hearing a spoken or a musical (sung) presentation of Rey’s auditory verbal learning test. We defined the “learning-related synchronization” (LRS) as the percent change in EEG spectral power from the first time the word was presented to the average of the subsequent word encoding trials. LRS differed significantly between the music and the spoken conditions in low alpha and upper beta bands. Patients in the music condition showed overall better word memory and better word order memory and stronger bilateral frontal alpha LRS than patients in the spoken condition. The evidence suggests that a musical mnemonic recruits stronger oscillatory network synchronization in prefrontal areas in MS patients during word learning. It is suggested that the temporal structure implicit in musical stimuli enhances “deep encoding” during verbal learning and sharpens the timing of neural dynamics in brain networks degraded by demyelination in MS.

Thaut, Michael H.; Peterson, David A.; McIntosh, Gerald C.; Hoemberg, Volker

2014-01-01

131

Modeling learning in brain stem and cerebellar sites responsible for VOR plasticity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple model of vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) function was used to analyze several hypotheses currently held concerning the characteristics of VOR plasticity. The network included a direct vestibular pathway and an indirect path via the cerebellum. An optimization analysis of this model suggests that regulation of brain stem sites is critical for the proper modification of VOR gain. A more physiologically plausible learning rule was also applied to this network. Analysis of these simulation results suggests that the preferred error correction signal controlling gain modification of the VOR is the direct output of the accessory optic system (AOS) to the vestibular nuclei vs. a signal relayed through the cerebellum via floccular Purkinje cells. The potential anatomical and physiological basis for this conclusion is discussed, in relation to our current understanding of the latency of the adapted VOR response.

Quinn, K. J.; Didier, A. J.; Baker, J. F.; Peterson, B. W.

1998-01-01

132

Brain Fiber Tract Plasticity in Experimental Spinal Cord Injury: Diffusion Tensor Imaging  

PubMed Central

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and immunohistochemistry were performed in spinal cord injured rats to understand the basis for activation of multiple regions in the brain observed in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. The measured fractional anisotropy (FA), a scalar measure of diffusion anisotropy, along the region encompassing corticospinal tracts (CST) indicates significant differences between control and injured groups in the 3 to 4 mm area posterior to bregma that correspond to internal capsule and cerebral peduncle. Additionally, DTI-based tractography in injured animals showed increased number of fibers that extend towards the cortex terminating in the regions that were activated in fMRI. Both the internal capsule and cerebral peduncle demonstrated an increase in GFAP-immunoreactivity compared to control animals. GAP-43 expression also indicates plasticity in the internal capsule. These studies suggest that the previously observed multiple regions of activation in spinal cord injury are, at least in part, due to the formation of new fibers.

Ramu, Jaivijay; Herrera, Juan; Grill, Raymond; Bockhorst, Tobias; Narayana, Ponnada

2008-01-01

133

Norrin/Frizzled4 signaling in retinal vascular development and blood brain barrier plasticity.  

PubMed

Norrin/Frizzled4 (Fz4) signaling activates the canonical Wnt pathway to control retinal vascular development. Using genetically engineered mice, we show that precocious Norrin production leads to premature retinal vascular invasion and delayed Norrin production leads to characteristic defects in intraretinal vascular architecture. In genetic mosaics, wild-type endothelial cells (ECs) instruct neighboring Fz4(-/-) ECs to produce an architecturally normal mosaic vasculature, a cell nonautonomous effect. However, over the ensuing weeks, Fz4(-/-) ECs are selectively eliminated from the mosaic vasculature, implying the existence of a quality control program that targets defective ECs. In the adult retina and cerebellum, gain or loss of Norrin/Fz4 signaling results in a cell-autonomous gain or loss, respectively, of blood retina barrier and blood brain barrier function, indicating an ongoing requirement for Frizzled signaling in barrier maintenance and substantial plasticity in mature CNS vascular structure. PMID:23217714

Wang, Yanshu; Rattner, Amir; Zhou, Yulian; Williams, John; Smallwood, Philip M; Nathans, Jeremy

2012-12-01

134

Enhanced human brain associative plasticity in Costello syndrome  

PubMed Central

Costello syndrome (CS) is a rare multiple congenital anomaly disorder which is caused by germline mutations in the v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue (HRAS) proto-oncogene. Experimental data suggest perturbing effects of the mutated protein on the functional and structural organization of networks of cerebral cortex and on the activity-dependent strengthening of synaptic transmission known as long term potentiation (LTP). In five patients with molecularly proven diagnosis of CS and in a group of 13 age-matched control subjects we investigated activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. To this end, we used a paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol, in which left ulnar nerve stimuli were followed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses to right cortical hand area, and recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs) by single pulse TMS from left first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscle before and after PAS. In 4 out of 5 CS patients and in a subgroup of nine control subjects we also evaluated the time course and the topographical specificity of PAS after-effects. In these two subgroups, MEPs were measured before, immediately after and 30 min after PAS in the left FDI and left abductor pollicis brevis (APB). While the PAS protocol led to a 65% increase of the FDI MEP amplitude in controls, the LTP-like phenomenon was significantly more pronounced in CS patients, with motor responses increased by 230%. In addition, CS patients showed a similar MEP increase in both muscles while control subjects showed a slight increase in APB and only immediately after PAS. We hypothesize that the extremely enhanced PAS after-effects could be due to the influence of HRAS activity on the susceptibility of synapses to undergo LTP.

Dileone, M; Profice, P; Pilato, F; Alfieri, P; Cesarini, L; Mercuri, E; Leoni, C; Tartaglia, M; Di Iorio, R; Zampino, G; Di Lazzaro, V

2010-01-01

135

TRPV1 in the central nervous system: synaptic plasticity, function, and pharmacological implications.  

PubMed

The function of TRPV1 in the peripheral nervous system is increasingly being investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties in an effort to find a novel target to fight pain that is nonaddictive. However, in recent years, it was discovered that TRPV1 is also associated with a wide array of functions and behaviors in the central nervous system, such as fear, anxiety, stress, thermoregulation, pain, and, more recently, synaptic plasticity, the cellular mechanism that allows the brain to adapt to its environment. This suggests a new role for brain TRPV1 in areas such as learning and memory, reward and addiction, and development. This wide array of functional aspects of TRPV1 in the central nervous system (CNS) is in part due to its multimodal form of activation and highlights the potential pharmacological implications of TRPV1 in the brain. As humans also express a TRPV1 homologue, it is likely that animal research will be translational to humans and therefore worthy of exploration. This review outlines the basic expression patterns of TRPV1 in the CNS along with what is known regarding its signaling mechanisms and its role in the aforementioned brain functions. As TRPV1 involvement in synaptic plasticity has never been fully reviewed elsewhere, it will be a focus of this review. The chapter concludes with some of the potential pharmaceutical implications of further TRPV1 research. PMID:24941665

Edwards, Jeffrey G

2014-01-01

136

Insulin action in brain regulates systemic metabolism and brain function.  

PubMed

Insulin receptors, as well as IGF-1 receptors and their postreceptor signaling partners, are distributed throughout the brain. Insulin acts on these receptors to modulate peripheral metabolism, including regulation of appetite, reproductive function, body temperature, white fat mass, hepatic glucose output, and response to hypoglycemia. Insulin signaling also modulates neurotransmitter channel activity, brain cholesterol synthesis, and mitochondrial function. Disruption of insulin action in the brain leads to impairment of neuronal function and synaptogenesis. In addition, insulin signaling modulates phosphorylation of tau protein, an early component in the development of Alzheimer disease. Thus, alterations in insulin action in the brain can contribute to metabolic syndrome, and the development of mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24931034

Kleinridders, André; Ferris, Heather A; Cai, Weikang; Kahn, C Ronald

2014-07-01

137

Margaret Kennard (1899-1975): Not a 'Principle' of Brain Plasticity But a Founding Mother of Developmental Neuropsychology  

PubMed Central

According to the ‘Kennard Principle’, there is a negative linear relation between age at brain injury and functional outcome. Other things being equal, the younger the lesioned organism, the better the outcome. But the ‘Kennard Principle’ is neither Kennard’s nor a principle. In her work, Kennard sought to explain the factors that predicted functional outcome (age, to be sure, but also staging, laterality, location, and number of brain lesions, and outcome domain) and the neural mechanisms that altered the lesioned brain’s functionality. This paper discusses Kennard’s life and years at Yale (1931–1943); considers the genesis and scope of her work on early-onset brain lesions, which represents an empirical and theoretical foundation for current developmental neuropsychology; offers an historical explanation of why the ‘Kennard Principle’ emerged in the context of early 1970s work on brain plasticity; shows why uncritical belief in the ‘Kennard Principle’ continues to shape current research and practice; and reviews the continuing importance of her work.

Dennis, Maureen

2009-01-01

138

Early Life Stress Differentially Modulates Distinct Forms of Brain Plasticity in Young and Adult Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Early life trauma is an important risk factor for many psychiatric and somatic disorders in adulthood. As a growing body of evidence suggests that brain plasticity is disturbed in affective disorders, we examined the short-term and remote effects of early life stress on different forms of brain plasticity. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice were subjected to early deprivation by individually separating pups from their dam in the first two weeks after birth. Distinct forms of brain plasticity were assessed in the hippocampus by longitudinal MR volumetry, immunohistochemistry of neurogenesis, and whole-cell patch-clamp measurements of synaptic plasticity. Depression-related behavior was assessed by the forced swimming test in adult animals. Neuropeptides and their receptors were determined by real-time PCR and immunoassay. Early maternal deprivation caused a loss of hippocampal volume, which returned to normal in adulthood. Adult neurogenesis was unaffected by early life stress. Long-term synaptic potentiation, however, was normal immediately after the end of the stress protocol but was impaired in adult animals. In the forced swimming test, adult animals that had been subjected to early life stress showed increased immobility time. Levels of substance P were increased both in young and adult animals after early deprivation. Conclusion Hippocampal volume was affected by early life stress but recovered in adulthood which corresponded to normal adult neurogenesis. Synaptic plasticity, however, exhibited a delayed impairment. The modulation of synaptic plasticity by early life stress might contribute to affective dysfunction in adulthood.

Reichardt, Wilfried; Clark, Kristin; Geiger, Julia; Gross, Claus M.; Heyer, Andrea; Neagu, Valentin; Bhatia, Harsharan; Atas, Hasan C.; Fiebich, Bernd L.; Bischofberger, Josef; Haas, Carola A.; Normann, Claus

2012-01-01

139

Functional Data Analysis in Brain Imaging Studies  

PubMed Central

Functional data analysis (FDA) considers the continuity of the curves or functions, and is a topic of increasing interest in the statistics community. FDA is commonly applied to time-series and spatial-series studies. The development of functional brain imaging techniques in recent years made it possible to study the relationship between brain and mind over time. Consequently, an enormous amount of functional data is collected and needs to be analyzed. Functional techniques designed for these data are in strong demand. This paper discusses three statistically challenging problems utilizing FDA techniques in functional brain imaging analysis. These problems are dimension reduction (or feature extraction), spatial classification in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, and the inverse problem in magneto-encephalography studies. The application of FDA to these issues is relatively new but has been shown to be considerably effective. Future efforts can further explore the potential of FDA in functional brain imaging studies.

Tian, Tian Siva

2010-01-01

140

Conditional Transgenesis and Recombination to Study the Molecular Mechanisms of Brain Plasticity and Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the postgenomic era, a primary focus of mouse genetics is to elucidate the role of individual genesin vivo. However, in the nervous system, studying the contribution of specific genes to brain functions is difficult because the brain is a highly complex organ with multiple neuroanatomical structures, orchestrating virtually every function in the body. Further, higher-order brain functions such as

K. Baumgärtel; C. Fernández; T. Johansson; I. Mansuy

141

The development of Human Functional Brain Networks  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in MRI technology have enabled precise measurements of correlated activity throughout the brain, leading to the first comprehensive descriptions of functional brain networks in humans. This article reviews the growing literature on the development of functional networks, from infancy through adolescence, as measured by resting state functional connectivity MRI. We note several limitations of traditional approaches to describing brain networks, and describe a powerful framework for analyzing networks, called graph theory. We argue that characterization of the development of brain systems (e.g. the default mode network) should be comprehensive, considering not only relationships within a given system, but also how these relationships are situated within wider network contexts. We note that, despite substantial reorganization of functional connectivity, several large-scale network properties appear to be preserved across development, suggesting that functional brain networks, even in children, are organized in manners similar to other complex systems.

Power, Jonathan D; Fair, Damien A; Schlaggar, Bradley L

2010-01-01

142

Allostery and instability in the functional plasticity of synaptotagmin I  

PubMed Central

Synaptotagmin I (Syt I) is the calcium ion sensor for regulated release of neurotransmitter. How Syt I mediates this cellular event has been a question of extensive study for decades and yet, a clear understanding of the protein’s diverse functionality has remained elusive. Using tools of thermodynamics, we have identified two intrinsic properties that may account for Syt I’s functional plasticity: marginal stability and negative coupling. These two intrinsic properties have the potential to provide great conformational flexibility and suggest that Syt I’s functional plasticity stems in part from subtle rearrangements in the protein’s conformational ensemble. This model for Syt I function is discussed within the context of the nervous system’s overall plasticity.

Fealey, Michael E.; Hinderliter, Anne

2013-01-01

143

Reversed timing-dependent associative plasticity in the human brain through interhemispheric interactions.  

PubMed

Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) has been proposed as one of the key mechanisms underlying learning and memory. Repetitive median nerve stimulation, followed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1), defined as paired-associative stimulation (PAS), has been used as an in vivo model of STDP in humans. PAS-induced excitability changes in M1 have been repeatedly shown to be time-dependent in a STDP-like fashion, since synchronous arrival of inputs within M1 induces long-term potentiation-like effects, whereas an asynchronous arrival induces long-term depression (LTD)-like effects. Here, we show that interhemispheric inhibition of the sensorimotor network during PAS, with the peripheral stimulation over the hand ipsilateral to the motor cortex receiving TMS, results in a LTD-like effect, as opposed to the standard STDP-like effect seen for contralateral PAS. Furthermore, we could show that this reversed-associative plasticity critically depends on the timing interval between afferent and cortical stimulation. These results indicate that the outcome of associative stimulation in the human brain depends on functional network interactions (inhibition or facilitation) at a systems level and can either follow standard or reversed STDP-like mechanisms. PMID:23407353

Conde, Virginia; Vollmann, Henning; Taubert, Marco; Sehm, Bernhard; Cohen, Leonardo G; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

2013-05-01

144

Plastic neuroscience: studying what the brain cares about  

PubMed Central

Drawing on Allan Newell's “You can't play 20 questions with nature and win,” this article proposes that neuroscience needs to go beyond binary hypothesis testing and design experiments that follow what neurons care about. Examples from Lettvin et. al. are used to demonstrate that one can experimentally play with neurons and generate surprising results. In this manner, brains are not confused with persons, rather, persons are understood to do things with their brains.

Dumit, Joseph

2014-01-01

145

The gravitational field and brain function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frontal cortex is recognized as the highest adaptive control center of the human brain. The principle of the ``frontalization'' of human brain function offers new possibilities for brain research in space. There is evolutionary and experimental evidence indicating the validity of the principle, including it's role in nervous response to gravitational stimulation. The gravitational field is considered here as one of the more constant and comprehensive factors acting on brain evolution, which has undergone some successive crucial steps: ``encephalization'', ``corticalization'', ``lateralization'' and ``frontalization''. The dominating effects of electrical responses from the frontal cortex have been discovered 1) in experiments under gravitational stimulus; and 2) in processes potentially relating to gravitational adaptation, such as memory and learning, sensory information processing, motor programing, and brain state control. A brain research experiment during space flight is suggested to test the role of the frontal cortex in space adaptation and it's potentiality in brain control.

Mei, Lei; Zhou, Chuan-Dai; Lan, Jing-Quan; Wang, Zhi-Ging; Wu, Wen-Can; Xue, Xin-Min

146

Scaling of Brain Metabolism with a Fixed Energy Budget per Neuron: Implications for Neuronal Activity, Plasticity and Evolution  

PubMed Central

It is usually considered that larger brains have larger neurons, which consume more energy individually, and are therefore accompanied by a larger number of glial cells per neuron. These notions, however, have never been tested. Based on glucose and oxygen metabolic rates in awake animals and their recently determined numbers of neurons, here I show that, contrary to the expected, the estimated glucose use per neuron is remarkably constant, varying only by 40% across the six species of rodents and primates (including humans). The estimated average glucose use per neuron does not correlate with neuronal density in any structure. This suggests that the energy budget of the whole brain per neuron is fixed across species and brain sizes, such that total glucose use by the brain as a whole, by the cerebral cortex and also by the cerebellum alone are linear functions of the number of neurons in the structures across the species (although the average glucose consumption per neuron is at least 10× higher in the cerebral cortex than in the cerebellum). These results indicate that the apparently remarkable use in humans of 20% of the whole body energy budget by a brain that represents only 2% of body mass is explained simply by its large number of neurons. Because synaptic activity is considered the major determinant of metabolic cost, a conserved energy budget per neuron has several profound implications for synaptic homeostasis and the regulation of firing rates, synaptic plasticity, brain imaging, pathologies, and for brain scaling in evolution.

Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

2011-01-01

147

Brain lateralization and neural plasticity for musical and cognitive abilities in an epileptic musician.  

PubMed

The use of intracarotid propofol procedure (IPP) when assessing musical lateralization has not been reported in literature up to now. This procedure (similar to Wada Test) has provided the opportunity to investigate not only lateralization of language and memory functions on epileptic patients but also offers a functional mapping approach with superior spatial and temporal resolution to analyze the lateralization of musical abilities. Findings in literature suggest that musical training modifies functional and structural brain organization. We studied hemispheric lateralization in a professional musician, a 33 years old woman with refractory left medial temporal lobe (MTL) epilepsy (TLE). A longitudinal neuropsychological study was performed over a period of 21 months. Before epilepsy surgery, musical abilities, language and memory were tested during IPP by means of a novel and exhaustive neuropsychological battery focusing on the processing of music. We used a selection of stimuli to analyze listening, score reading, and tempo discrimination. Our results suggested that IPP is an excellent method to determine not only language, semantic, and episodic memory, but also musical dominance in a professional musician who may be candidate for epilepsy surgery. Neuropsychological testing revealed that right hemisphere's patient is involved in semantic and episodic musical memory processes, whereas her score reading and tempo processing require contribution from both hemispheres. At one-year follow-up, outcome was excellent with respect to seizures and professional skills, meanwhile cognitive abilities improved. These findings indicate that IPP helps to predict who might be at risk for postoperative musical, language, and memory deficits after epilepsy surgery. Our research suggests that musical expertise and epilepsy critically modifies long-term memory processes and induces brain structural and functional plasticity. PMID:24367312

Trujillo-Pozo, Isabel; Martín-Monzón, Isabel; Rodríguez-Romero, Rafael

2013-01-01

148

Right ventricular plasticity and functional imaging  

PubMed Central

Right ventricular (RV) function is a strong independent predictor of outcome in a number of distinct cardiopulmonary diseases. The RV has a remarkable ability to sustain damage and recover function which may be related to unique anatomic, physiologic, and genetic factors that differentiate it from the left ventricle. This capacity has been described in patients with RV myocardial infarction, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and chronic thromboembolic disease as well as post-lung transplant and post-left ventricular assist device implantation. Various echocardiographic and magnetic resonance imaging parameters of RV function contribute to the clinical assessment and predict outcomes in these patients; however, limitations remain with these techniques. Early diagnosis of RV function and better insight into the mechanisms of RV recovery could improve patient outcomes. Further refinement of established and emerging imaging techniques is necessary to aid subclinical diagnosis and inform treatment decisions.

Brittain, Evan L.; Hemnes, Anna R.; Keebler, Mary; Lawson, Mark; Byrd, Benjamin F.; DiSalvo, Tom

2012-01-01

149

Evidence for Training-Induced Plasticity in Multisensory Brain Structures: An MEG Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multisensory learning and resulting neural brain plasticity have recently become a topic of renewed interest in human cognitive neuroscience. Music notation reading is an ideal stimulus to study multisensory learning, as it allows studying the integration of visual, auditory and sensorimotor information processing. The present study aimed at answering whether multisensory learning alters uni-sensory structures, interconnections of uni-sensory structures or

Evangelos Paraskevopoulos; Anja Kuchenbuch; Sibylle C. Herholz; Christo Pantev

2012-01-01

150

Localizing Visual Function in the Brain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A three day meeting, held in Rochester, discussed 'Localizing Visual Function in the Brain'. The meeting consisted of presentations by 15 prominent scientists of topics including; the anatomy of modular connections in the primate visual system, computatio...

W. H. Merigan

1992-01-01

151

Early Brain Stimulation May Help Stroke Survivors Recover Language Function  

MedlinePLUS

Early brain stimulation may help stroke survivors recover language function June 27, 2013 Study Highlights: Non-invasive brain stimulation ... Brain Stimulation copyright American Heart Association Infographic - Thiel-Brain Stimulation copyright American Heart Association Download (311.8 ...

152

The functional plasticity of T cell subsets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986, Robert Coffman and Timothy Mossman first described the division of CD4+ T cells into functional subsets, termed T helper 1 (TH1) and TH2, based on cytokine production, and in doing so unwittingly opened a Pandora's box of complexity and controversy. Although the mechanisms that regulate TH1 and TH2 cells are now well known, recent descriptions of other CD4+

Jeffrey A. Bluestone; Charles R. Mackay; John J. O'Shea; Brigitta Stockinger

2009-01-01

153

Exercise Benefits Brain Function: The Monoamine Connection  

PubMed Central

The beneficial effects of exercise on brain function have been demonstrated in animal models and in a growing number of clinical studies on humans. There are multiple mechanisms that account for the brain-enhancing effects of exercise, including neuroinflammation, vascularization, antioxidation, energy adaptation, and regulations on neurotrophic factors and neurotransmitters. Dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NE), and serotonin (5-HT) are the three major monoamine neurotransmitters that are known to be modulated by exercise. This review focuses on how these three neurotransmitters contribute to exercise affecting brain function and how it can work against neurological disorders.

Lin, Tzu-Wei; Kuo, Yu-Min

2013-01-01

154

Effects of plasticizers and plastic bags on granulocyte function during storage.  

PubMed

The influence of the plasticizers, di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tri-(2-ethylhexyl)trimellitate (TOTM), on granulocyte function was examined. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags with DEHP (DEHP-PVC) leaked DEHP into plasma, but TOTM did not dissolve in plasma under the same conditions. Glow discharge treatment inhibited the leakage of DEHP from DEHP-PVC bags. Depending on the amount of DEHP added into granulocyte suspension, chemotaxis and bactericidal activity decreased, but cell counts and phagocytosis were not affected. During storage for 24 h at 22 degrees C, granulocyte function decreased greatly in DEHP-PVC, but was well maintained in the bags which did not leak plasticizers, TOTM-PVC and glow-discharged DEHP-PVC. PMID:3660766

Miyamoto, M; Sasakawa, S

1987-01-01

155

Scale-free brain functional networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging is used to extract functional networks connecting correlated human brain sites. Analysis of the resulting networks in different tasks shows that (a) the distribution of functional connections, and the probability of finding a link versus distance are both scale-free, (b) the characteristic path length is small and comparable with those of equivalent random networks, and (c)

Neural Darwinism. Basic Books; G. A. Cecchi; M. Baliki; A. V. Apkarian

1987-01-01

156

Prentice Award Lecture 2011: Removing the Brakes on Plasticity in the Amblyopic Brain  

PubMed Central

Experience-dependent plasticity is closely linked with the development of sensory function. Beyond this sensitive period, developmental plasticity is actively limited; however, new studies provide growing evidence for plasticity in the adult visual system. The amblyopic visual system is an excellent model for examining the “brakes” that limit recovery of function beyond the critical period. While amblyopia can often be reversed when treated early, conventional treatment is generally not undertaken in older children and adults. However new clinical and experimental studies in both animals and humans provide evidence for neural plasticity beyond the critical period. The results suggest that perceptual learning and video game play may be effective in improving a range of visual performance measures and importantly the improvements may transfer to better visual acuity and stereopsis. These findings, along with the results of new clinical trials, suggest that it might be time to re-consider our notions about neural plasticity in amblyopia.

Levi, Dennis M.

2012-01-01

157

Cortical plasticity and preserved function in early blindness.  

PubMed

The "neural Darwinism" theory predicts that when one sensory modality is lacking, as in congenital blindness, the target structures are taken over by the afferent inputs from other senses that will promote and control their functional maturation (Edelman, 1993). This view receives support from both cross-modal plasticity experiments in animal models and functional imaging studies in man, which are presented here. PMID:23453908

Renier, Laurent; De Volder, Anne G; Rauschecker, Josef P

2014-04-01

158

Vitamins Deficiencies and Brain Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The consequences of malnutrition on the central nervous system are diverse and depend to a significant extent on the stage\\u000a of development or maturity of the brain as well as on the severity of the nutritional deficiency. For example, vitamin deficiencies\\u000a result in a wide range of neuropathology and neuropsychiatric symptomatology depending upon the nature and extent of the vitamin

Chantal Bémeur; Jane A. Montgomery; Roger F. Butterworth

159

Cognitive aging as an extension of brain development: A model linking learning, brain plasticity, and neurodegeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in cognitive aging rates among mammals suggest that the pace of brain aging is genetically determined. In this work, we investigate the possibility that brain aging is an extension of brain development. It is possible that a subset of developmental mechanisms are extreme cases of antagonistic pleiotropy in that they are necessary for reaching adulthood and yet later cause

João Pedro de Magalhães; Anders Sandberg

2005-01-01

160

Metabolism and functions of copper in brain.  

PubMed

Copper is an important trace element that is required for essential enzymes. However, due to its redox activity, copper can also lead to the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species. Therefore, cellular uptake, storage as well as export of copper have to be tightly regulated in order to guarantee sufficient copper supply for the synthesis of copper-containing enzymes but also to prevent copper-induced oxidative stress. In brain, copper is of importance for normal development. In addition, both copper deficiency as well as excess of copper can seriously affect brain functions. Therefore, this organ possesses ample mechanisms to regulate its copper metabolism. In brain, astrocytes are considered as important regulators of copper homeostasis. Impairments of homeostatic mechanisms in brain copper metabolism have been associated with neurodegeneration in human disorders such as Menkes disease, Wilson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. This review article will summarize the biological functions of copper in the brain and will describe the current knowledge on the mechanisms involved in copper transport, storage and export of brain cells. The role of copper in diseases that have been connected with disturbances in brain copper homeostasis will also be discussed. PMID:24440710

Scheiber, Ivo F; Mercer, Julian F B; Dringen, Ralf

2014-05-01

161

Lead poisoning and brain cell function  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to excessive amounts of inorganic lead during the toddler years may produce lasting adverse effects upon brain function. Maximal ingestion of lead occurs at an age when major changes are occurring in the density of brain synaptic connections. The developmental reorganization of synapses is, in part, mediated by protein kinases, and these enzymes are particularly sensitive to stimulation by lead. By inappropriately activating specific protein kinases, lead poisoning may disrupt the development of neural networks without producing overt pathological alterations. The blood-brain barrier is another potential vulnerable site for the neurotoxic action of lead. protein kinases appear to regulate the development of brain capillaries and the expression of the blood-brain barrier properties. Stimulation of protein kinase by lead may disrupt barrier development and alter the precise regulation of the neuronal environment that is required for normal brain function. Together, these findings suggest that the sensitivity of protein kinases to lead may in part underlie the brain dysfunction observed in children poisoned by this toxicant.

Goldstein, G.W. (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA) Kennedy Institute, Baltimore, MD (USA))

1990-11-01

162

Toward discovery science of human brain function.  

PubMed

Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a priori hypotheses. Resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) constitutes a candidate approach capable of addressing this challenge. Imaging the brain during rest reveals large-amplitude spontaneous low-frequency (<0.1 Hz) fluctuations in the fMRI signal that are temporally correlated across functionally related areas. Referred to as functional connectivity, these correlations yield detailed maps of complex neural systems, collectively constituting an individual's "functional connectome." Reproducibility across datasets and individuals suggests the functional connectome has a common architecture, yet each individual's functional connectome exhibits unique features, with stable, meaningful interindividual differences in connectivity patterns and strengths. Comprehensive mapping of the functional connectome, and its subsequent exploitation to discern genetic influences and brain-behavior relationships, will require multicenter collaborative datasets. Here we initiate this endeavor by gathering R-fMRI data from 1,414 volunteers collected independently at 35 international centers. We demonstrate a universal architecture of positive and negative functional connections, as well as consistent loci of inter-individual variability. Age and sex emerged as significant determinants. These results demonstrate that independent R-fMRI datasets can be aggregated and shared. High-throughput R-fMRI can provide quantitative phenotypes for molecular genetic studies and biomarkers of developmental and pathological processes in the brain. To initiate discovery science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000/. PMID:20176931

Biswal, Bharat B; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Gohel, Suril; Kelly, Clare; Smith, Steve M; Beckmann, Christian F; Adelstein, Jonathan S; Buckner, Randy L; Colcombe, Stan; Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Ernst, Monique; Fair, Damien; Hampson, Michelle; Hoptman, Matthew J; Hyde, James S; Kiviniemi, Vesa J; Kötter, Rolf; Li, Shi-Jiang; Lin, Ching-Po; Lowe, Mark J; Mackay, Clare; Madden, David J; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Margulies, Daniel S; Mayberg, Helen S; McMahon, Katie; Monk, Christopher S; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Nagel, Bonnie J; Pekar, James J; Peltier, Scott J; Petersen, Steven E; Riedl, Valentin; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Rypma, Bart; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Schmidt, Sein; Seidler, Rachael D; Siegle, Greg J; Sorg, Christian; Teng, Gao-Jun; Veijola, Juha; Villringer, Arno; Walter, Martin; Wang, Lihong; Weng, Xu-Chu; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Williamson, Peter; Windischberger, Christian; Zang, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P

2010-03-01

163

IMPLICATION OF ATP RECEPTORS IN BRAIN FUNCTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible implication of P2-purinoceptors in brain functions is reviewed. Involvement of P2-purinoceptors in memory and learning (Section 2) is suggested by ATP release from hippocampal slices [Wieraszko et al. (1989)Brain Res. 485, 244–250], induction of fast synaptic currents in cultured hippocampal neurons [Inoue et al. (1992a)Neurosci. Lett. 134, 294–299] and long-lasting enhancement of the population spikes [Wieraszko and Seyfried

KAZUHIDE INOUE; SCHUICHI KOIZUMI; SHINYA UENO

1996-01-01

164

Imaging visual function of the human brain  

SciTech Connect

Imaging of human brain structure and activity with particular reference to visual function is reviewed along with methods of obtaining the data including computed tomographic (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and positron emission tomography (PET). The literature is reviewed and the potential for a new understanding of brain visual function is discussed. PET is reviewed from basic physical principles to the most recent visual brain findings with oxygen-15. It is shown that there is a potential for submillimeter localization of visual functions with sequentially different visual stimuli designed for the temporal separation of the responses. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), a less expensive substitute for PET, is also discussed. MRS is covered from basic physical principles to the current state of the art of in vivo biochemical analysis. Future possible clinical applications are discussed. Improved understanding of the functional neural organization of vision and brain will open a window to maps and circuits of human brain function.119 references.

Marg, E.

1988-10-01

165

Entropy changes in brain function.  

PubMed

The traditional way of analyzing brain electrical activity, on the basis of electroencephalography (EEG) records, relies mainly on visual inspection and years of training. Although it is quite useful, of course, one has to acknowledge its subjective nature that hardly allows for a systematic protocol. In the present work quantifiers based on information theory and wavelet transform are reviewed. The "relative wavelet energy" provides information about the relative energy associated with different frequency bands present in the EEG and their corresponding degree of importance. The "normalized total wavelet entropy" carries information about the degree of order-disorder associated with a multi-frequency signal response. Their application in the analysis and quantification of short duration EEG signals (event-related potentials) and epileptic EEG records are summarized. PMID:17234291

Rosso, Osvaldo A

2007-04-01

166

The Radical Plasticity Thesis: How the Brain Learns to be Conscious  

PubMed Central

In this paper, I explore the idea that consciousness is something that the brain learns to do rather than an intrinsic property of certain neural states and not others. Starting from the idea that neural activity is inherently unconscious, the question thus becomes: How does the brain learn to be conscious? I suggest that consciousness arises as a result of the brain's continuous attempts at predicting not only the consequences of its actions on the world and on other agents, but also the consequences of activity in one cerebral region on activity in other regions. By this account, the brain continuously and unconsciously learns to redescribe its own activity to itself, so developing systems of meta-representations that characterize and qualify the target first-order representations. Such learned redescriptions, enriched by the emotional value associated with them, form the basis of conscious experience. Learning and plasticity are thus central to consciousness, to the extent that experiences only occur in experiencers that have learned to know they possess certain first-order states and that have learned to care more about certain states than about others. This is what I call the “Radical Plasticity Thesis.” In a sense thus, this is the enactive perspective, but turned both inwards and (further) outwards. Consciousness involves “signal detection on the mind”; the conscious mind is the brain's (non-conceptual, implicit) theory about itself. I illustrate these ideas through neural network models that simulate the relationships between performance and awareness in different tasks.

Cleeremans, Axel

2011-01-01

167

Brain plasticity through the life span: learning to learn and action video games.  

PubMed

The ability of the human brain to learn is exceptional. Yet, learning is typically quite specific to the exact task used during training, a limiting factor for practical applications such as rehabilitation, workforce training, or education. The possibility of identifying training regimens that have a broad enough impact to transfer to a variety of tasks is thus highly appealing. This work reviews how complex training environments such as action video game play may actually foster brain plasticity and learning. This enhanced learning capacity, termed learning to learn, is considered in light of its computational requirements and putative neural mechanisms. PMID:22715883

Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C Shawn; Pouget, Alexandre; Schrater, Paul

2012-01-01

168

Evidence for Training-Induced Plasticity in Multisensory Brain Structures: An MEG Study  

PubMed Central

Multisensory learning and resulting neural brain plasticity have recently become a topic of renewed interest in human cognitive neuroscience. Music notation reading is an ideal stimulus to study multisensory learning, as it allows studying the integration of visual, auditory and sensorimotor information processing. The present study aimed at answering whether multisensory learning alters uni-sensory structures, interconnections of uni-sensory structures or specific multisensory areas. In a short-term piano training procedure musically naive subjects were trained to play tone sequences from visually presented patterns in a music notation-like system [Auditory-Visual-Somatosensory group (AVS)], while another group received audio-visual training only that involved viewing the patterns and attentively listening to the recordings of the AVS training sessions [Auditory-Visual group (AV)]. Training-related changes in cortical networks were assessed by pre- and post-training magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings of an auditory, a visual and an integrated audio-visual mismatch negativity (MMN). The two groups (AVS and AV) were differently affected by the training. The results suggest that multisensory training alters the function of multisensory structures, and not the uni-sensory ones along with their interconnections, and thus provide an answer to an important question presented by cognitive models of multisensory training.

Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Pantev, Christo

2012-01-01

169

Prolonged GIP receptor activation improves cognitive function, hippocampal synaptic plasticity and glucose homeostasis in high-fat fed mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzyme-resistant glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) agonists offer therapeutic potential for type 2 diabetes treatment. In addition, there is emerging evidence suggesting that GIP plays a direct role in modulating aspects of brain function. This study compared effects of dietary modification and\\/or twice-daily injection of the stable GIP agonist, (d-Ala2)GIP, on metabolic control, cognitive function and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in high-fat

David W. Porter; Nigel Irwin; Peter R. Flatt; Christian Hölscher; Victor A. Gault

2011-01-01

170

Mushroom bodies of the honeybee brain show cell population-specific plasticity in expression of amine-receptor genes.  

PubMed

Dopamine and octopamine released in the mushroom bodies of the insect brain play a critical role in the formation of aversive and appetitive memories, respectively. As recent evidence suggests a complex relationship between the effects of these two amines on the output of mushroom body circuits, we compared the expression of dopamine- and octopamine-receptor genes in three major subpopulations of mushroom body intrinsic neurons (Kenyon cells). Using the brain of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, we found that expression of amine-receptor genes differs markedly across Kenyon cell subpopulations. We found, in addition, that levels of expression of these genes change dramatically during the lifetime of the bee and that shifts in expression are cell population-specific. Differential expression of amine-receptor genes in mushroom body neurons and the plasticity that exists at this level are features largely ignored in current models of mushroom body function. However, our results are consistent with the growing body of evidence that short- and long-term olfactory memories form in different regions of the mushroom bodies of the brain and that there is functional compartmentalization of the modulatory inputs to this multifunctional brain center. PMID:22411422

McQuillan, H James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R

2012-04-01

171

Brain Connectivity Plasticity in the Motor Network after Ischemic Stroke  

PubMed Central

The motor function is controlled by the motor system that comprises a series of cortical and subcortical areas interacting via anatomical connections. The motor function will be disturbed when the stroke lesion impairs either any of these areas or their connections. More and more evidence indicates that the reorganization of the motor network including both areas and their anatomical and functional connectivity might contribute to the motor recovery after stroke. Here, we review recent studies employing models of anatomical, functional, and effective connectivity on neuroimaging data to investigate how ischemic stroke influences the connectivity of motor areas and how changes in connectivity relate to impaired function and functional recovery. We suggest that connectivity changes constitute an important pathophysiological aspect of motor impairment after stroke and important mechanisms of motor recovery. We also demonstrate that therapeutic interventions may facilitate motor recovery after stroke by modulating the connectivity among the motor areas. In conclusion, connectivity analyses improved our understanding of the mechanisms of motor recovery after stroke and may help to design hypothesis-driven treatment strategies and sensitive measures for outcome prediction in stroke patients.

Jiang, Lin; Xu, Huijuan

2013-01-01

172

Plasticity of inhibitory synapses in the brain: a possible memory mechanism that has been overlooked  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term modification of transmission efficacy at inhibitory synapses has recently been discovered in several regions of the vertebrate brain, i.e. Mauthner cells of the goldfish, cerebellar Purkinje cells, deep cerebellar nuclei and the visual cortex. Synaptic plasticity at inhibitory synapses has properties similar to that of excitatory synapses, such as dependency on intracellular Ca2+ levels, input specificity, saturation and associativity.

Masanobu Kano

1995-01-01

173

Why and How Physical Activity Promotes Experience-Induced Brain Plasticity  

PubMed Central

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is an unusual case of brain plasticity, since new neurons (and not just neurites and synapses) are added to the network in an activity-dependent way. At the behavioral level the plasticity-inducing stimuli include both physical and cognitive activity. In reductionistic animal studies these types of activity can be studied separately in paradigms like voluntary wheel running and environmental enrichment. In both of these, adult neurogenesis is increased but the net effect is primarily due to different mechanisms at the cellular level. Locomotion appears to stimulate the precursor cells, from which adult neurogenesis originates, to increased proliferation and maintenance over time, whereas environmental enrichment, as well as learning, predominantly promotes survival of immature neurons, that is the progeny of the proliferating precursor cells. Surprisingly, these effects are additive: boosting the potential for adult neurogenesis by physical activity increases the recruitment of cells following cognitive stimulation in an enriched environment. Why is that? We argue that locomotion actually serves as an intrinsic feedback mechanism, signaling to the brain, including its neural precursor cells, increasing the likelihood of cognitive challenges. In the wild (other than in front of a TV), no separation of physical and cognitive activity occurs. Physical activity might thus be much more than a generally healthy garnish to leading “an active life” but an evolutionarily fundamental aspect of “activity,” which is needed to provide the brain and its systems of plastic adaptation with the appropriate regulatory input and feedback.

Kempermann, Gerd; Fabel, Klaus; Ehninger, Dan; Babu, Harish; Leal-Galicia, Perla; Garthe, Alexander; Wolf, Susanne A.

2010-01-01

174

[Localization of language function in the brain].  

PubMed

Since the first report of an aphasic patient by Paul Broca, the localization of brain function has been disputed for 150 years. In lesion studies, double dissociation has been a key concept to show the localization of particular cognitive functions. The advancement of non-invasive brain imaging methods enables us to investigate the brain activities under well-controlled conditions, further promoting the studies on the localization of the cognitive functions, including language function. Brain imaging studies, together with subtraction and correlation analyses, have accumulated evidence that syntax, phonology, and sentence comprehension are separately processed by modules in different cortical regions. More specifically, it has been clarified that the module for syntax localizes in the left lateral premotor cortex and the opercular/triangular parts of the left inferior frontal gyrus. This modular structure further suggests that aphasia is interpreted as deficits in either syntactic or phonological processing. Therefore, the classical model of contrasting speech production and comprehension should be updated. According to theoretical linguistics, on the other hand, the recursive computation of syntactic structures is an essential feature of human language faculty. One direction of research would be to contrast human beings and animals for the abilities of processing symbolic sequences. Another direction is to clarify that the human brain is indeed specialized in language processing, which can be revealed by well-controlled language tasks and functional imaging techniques. Here we will review recent studies that demonstrate the existence of grammar center in the left frontal cortex. The future studies in the neuroscience of language will eventually elucidate the cortical localization of language function in a more precise way, i.e., what is really computed in the human brain. PMID:22147453

Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

2011-12-01

175

Characterizing Brain Cortical Plasticity and Network Dynamics Across the Age-Span in Health and Disease with TMS-EEG and TMS-fMRI  

PubMed Central

Brain plasticity can be conceptualized as nature’s invention to overcome limitations of the genome and adapt to a rapidly changing environment. As such, plasticity is an intrinsic property of the brain across the life-span. However, mechanisms of plasticity may vary with age. The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electroencephalography (EEG) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enables clinicians and researchers to directly study local and network cortical plasticity, in humans in vivo, and characterize their changes across the age-span. Parallel, translational studies in animals can provide mechanistic insights. Here, we argue that, for each individual, the efficiency of neuronal plasticity declines throughout the age-span and may do so more or less prominently depending on variable ‘starting-points’ and different ‘slopes of change’ defined by genetic, biological, and environmental factors. Furthermore, aberrant, excessive, insufficient, or mistimed plasticity may represent the proximal pathogenic cause of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders such as autism spectrum disorders or Alzheimer’s disease.

Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Freitas, Catarina; Oberman, Lindsay; Horvath, Jared C.; Halko, Mark; Eldaief, Mark; Bashir, Shahid; Vernet, Marine; Shafi, Mouhshin; Westover, Brandon; Vahabzadeh-Hagh, Andrew M.; Rotenberg, Alexander

2012-01-01

176

Characterizing brain cortical plasticity and network dynamics across the age-span in health and disease with TMS-EEG and TMS-fMRI.  

PubMed

Brain plasticity can be conceptualized as nature's invention to overcome limitations of the genome and adapt to a rapidly changing environment. As such, plasticity is an intrinsic property of the brain across the lifespan. However, mechanisms of plasticity may vary with age. The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electroencephalography (EEG) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enables clinicians and researchers to directly study local and network cortical plasticity, in humans in vivo, and characterize their changes across the age-span. Parallel, translational studies in animals can provide mechanistic insights. Here, we argue that, for each individual, the efficiency of neuronal plasticity declines throughout the age-span and may do so more or less prominently depending on variable 'starting-points' and different 'slopes of change' defined by genetic, biological, and environmental factors. Furthermore, aberrant, excessive, insufficient, or mistimed plasticity may represent the proximal pathogenic cause of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders such as autism spectrum disorders or Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21842407

Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Freitas, Catarina; Oberman, Lindsay; Horvath, Jared C; Halko, Mark; Eldaief, Mark; Bashir, Shahid; Vernet, Marine; Shafi, Mouhshin; Westover, Brandon; Vahabzadeh-Hagh, Andrew M; Rotenberg, Alexander

2011-10-01

177

Progesterone Receptors: Form and Function in Brain  

PubMed Central

Emerging data indicate that progesterone has multiple non-reproductive functions in the central nervous system to regulate cognition, mood, inflammation, mitochondrial function, neurogenesis and regeneration, myelination and recovery from traumatic brain injury. Progesterone-regulated neural responses are mediated by an array of progesterone receptors (PR) that include the classic nuclear PRA and PRB receptors and splice variants of each, the seven transmembrane domain 7TMPR? and the membrane-associated 25-Dx PR (PGRMC1). These PRs induce classic regulation of gene expression while also transducing signaling cascades that originate at the cell membrane and ultimately activate transcription factors. Remarkably, PRs are broadly expressed throughout the brain and can be detected in every neural cell type. The distribution of PRs beyond hypothalamic borders, suggests a much broader role of progesterone in regulating neural function. Despite the large body of evidence regarding progesterone regulation of reproductive behaviors and estrogen-inducible responses as well as effects of progesterone metabolite neurosteroids, much remains to be discovered regarding the functional outcomes resulting from activation of the complex array of PRs in brain by gonadally and / or glial derived progesterone. Moreover, the impact of clinically used progestogens and developing selective PR modulators for targeted outcomes in brain is a critical avenue of investigation as the non-reproductive functions of PRs have far-reaching implications for hormone therapy to maintain neurological health and function throughout menopausal aging.

Brinton, Roberta Diaz; Thompson, Richard F.; Foy, Michael R.; Baudry, Michel; Wang, JunMing; Finch, Caleb E; Morgan, Todd E.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Pike, Christian J.; Nilsen, Jon

2008-01-01

178

Nicotine effects on brain function and functional connectivity in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNicotine in tobacco smoke can improve functioning in multiple cognitive domains. High rates of smoking among schizophrenic patients may reflect an effort to remediate cognitive dysfunction. Our primary aim was to determine whether nicotine improves cognitive function by facilitating activation of brain regions mediating task performance or by facilitating functional connectivity.

Leslie K Jacobsen; D. Cyril D'Souza; W. Einar Mencl; Kenneth R Pugh; Pawel Skudlarski; John H Krystal

2004-01-01

179

Significance of vitamin A to brain function, behavior and learning  

PubMed Central

Retinoid acid, the bioactive metabolite of vitamin A, is a potent signaling molecule in the brains of growing and adult animals, regulates numerous gene products, and modulates neurogenesis, neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a global health problem, yet our knowledge of its effects on behavior and learning is still emerging. Here we review studies that have implicated retinoids in learning and memory deficits of post-embryonic and adult rodent and songbird models. Dietary vitamin A supplementation improves learning and memory in VAD rodents and can ameliorate cognitive declines associated with normal aging. Songbird studies examine the effects of retinoid signaling on vocal/auditory learning and are uniquely suited to study the behavioral effects of VAD because the neural circuitry of the song system is discrete and well understood. Similar to human speech acquisition, avian vocal learning proceeds in well-defined stages of template acquisition, rendition and maturation. Local blockade of retinoic acid production in the brain or excess dietary retinoic acid results in the failure of song maturation, yet does not affect prior song acquisition. Together these results yield significant insights into the role of vitamin A in maintaining neuronal plasticity and cognitive function in adulthood.

Olson, Christopher R.; Mello, Claudio V.

2011-01-01

180

Optogenetic approaches for functional mouse brain mapping  

PubMed Central

To better understand the connectivity of the brain, it is important to map both structural and functional connections between neurons and cortical regions. In recent years, a set of optogenetic tools have been developed that permit selective manipulation and investigation of neural systems. These tools have enabled the mapping of functional connections between stimulated cortical targets and other brain regions. Advantages of the approach include the ability to arbitrarily stimulate brain regions that express opsins, allowing for brain mapping independent of behavior or sensory processing. The ability of opsins to be rapidly and locally activated allows for investigation of connectivity with spatial resolution on the order of single neurons and temporal resolution on the order of milliseconds. Optogenetic methods for functional mapping have been applied in experiments ranging from in vitro investigation of microcircuits, to in vivo probing of inter-regional cortical connections, to examination of global connections within the whole brain. We review recently developed functional mapping methods that use optogenetic single-point stimulation in the rodent brain and employ cellular electrophysiology, evoked motor movements, voltage sensitive dyes (VSDs), calcium indicators, or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess activity. In particular we highlight results using red-shifted organic VSDs that permit high temporal resolution imaging in a manner spectrally separated from Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) activation. VSD maps stimulated by ChR2 were dependent on intracortical synaptic activity and were able to reflect circuits used for sensory processing. Although the methods reviewed are powerful, challenges remain with respect to finding approaches that permit selective high temporal resolution assessment of stimulated activity in animals that can be followed longitudinally.

Lim, Diana H.; LeDue, Jeffrey; Mohajerani, Majid H.; Vanni, Matthieu P.; Murphy, Timothy H.

2013-01-01

181

Whole-Brain Functional Connectivity Identification of Functional Dyspepsia  

PubMed Central

Recent neuroimaging studies have shown local brain aberrations in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients, yet little attention has been paid to the whole-brain resting-state functional network abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether FD disrupts the patterns of whole-brain networks and the abnormal functional connectivity could reflect the severity of the disease. The dysfunctional interactions between brain regions at rest were investigated in FD patients as compared with 40 age- and gender- matched healthy controls. Multivariate pattern analysis was used to evaluate the discriminative power of our results for classifying patients from controls. In our findings, the abnormal brain functional connections were mainly situated within or across the limbic/paralimbic system, the prefrontal cortex, the tempo-parietal areas and the visual cortex. About 96% of the subjects among the original dataset were correctly classified by a leave one-out cross-validation approach, and 88% accuracy was also validated in a replication dataset. The classification features were significantly associated with the patients’ dyspepsia symptoms, the self-rating depression scale and self-rating anxiety scale, but it was not correlated with duration of FD patients (p>0.05). Our results may indicate the effectiveness of the altered brain functional connections reflecting the disease pathophysiology underling FD. These dysfunctional connections may be the epiphenomena or causative agents of FD, which may be affected by clinical severity and its related emotional dimension of the disease rather than the clinical course.

Nan, Jiaofen; Liu, Jixin; Li, Guoying; Xiong, Shiwei; Yan, Xuemei; Yin, Qing; Zeng, Fang; von Deneen, Karen M.; Liang, Fanrong; Gong, Qiyong; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

2013-01-01

182

Selenium and selenoprotein function in brain disorders.  

PubMed

Selenoproteins are important for normal brain function, and decreased function of selenoproteins can lead to impaired cognitive function and neurological disorders. This review examines the possible roles of selenoproteins in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), and epilepsy. Selenium deficiency is associated with cognitive decline, and selenoproteins may be helpful in preventing neurodegeneration in AD. PD is associated with impaired function of glutathione peroxidase selenoenzymes. In HD, selenium deters lipid peroxidation by increasing specific glutathione peroxidases. Selenium deficiency increases risk of seizures in epilepsy, whereas supplementation may help to alleviate seizures. Further studies on the mechanisms of selenoprotein function will increase our understanding of how selenium and selenoproteins can be used in treatment and prevention of brain disorders. PMID:24668686

Pillai, Roshan; Uyehara-Lock, Jane H; Bellinger, Frederick P

2014-04-01

183

Metabolism and functions of glutathione in brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tripeptide glutathione is the thiol compound present in the highest concentration in cells of all organs. Glutathione has many physiological functions including its involvement in the defense against reactive oxygen species. The cells of the human brain consume about 20% of the oxygen utilized by the body but constitute only 2% of the body weight. Consequently, reactive oxygen species

Ralf Dringen

2000-01-01

184

Cross-modal plasticity preserves functional specialization in posterior parietal cortex.  

PubMed

In congenitally blind individuals, many regions of the brain that are typically heavily involved in visual processing are recruited for a variety of nonvisual sensory and cognitive tasks (Rauschecker 1995; Pascual-Leone et al. 2005). This phenomenon-cross-modal plasticity-has been widely documented, but the principles that determine where and how cross-modal changes occur remain poorly understood (Bavelier and Neville 2002). Here, we evaluate the hypothesis that cross-modal plasticity respects the type of computations performed by a region, even as it changes the modality of the inputs over which they are carried out (Pascual-Leone and Hamilton 2001). We compared the fMRI signal in sighted and congenitally blind participants during proprioceptively guided reaching. We show that parietooccipital reach-related regions retain their functional role-encoding of the spatial position of the reach target-even as the dominant modality in this region changes from visual to nonvisual inputs. This suggests that the computational role of a region, independently of the processing modality, codetermines its potential cross-modal recruitment. Our findings demonstrate that preservation of functional properties can serve as a guiding principle for cross-modal plasticity even in visuomotor cortical regions, i.e. beyond the early visual cortex and other traditional visual areas. PMID:23118194

Lingnau, Angelika; Strnad, Lukas; He, Chenxi; Fabbri, Sara; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao; Caramazza, Alfonso

2014-02-01

185

Young blood reverses age-related impairments in cognitive function and synaptic plasticity in mice.  

PubMed

As human lifespan increases, a greater fraction of the population is suffering from age-related cognitive impairments, making it important to elucidate a means to combat the effects of aging. Here we report that exposure of an aged animal to young blood can counteract and reverse pre-existing effects of brain aging at the molecular, structural, functional and cognitive level. Genome-wide microarray analysis of heterochronic parabionts-in which circulatory systems of young and aged animals are connected-identified synaptic plasticity-related transcriptional changes in the hippocampus of aged mice. Dendritic spine density of mature neurons increased and synaptic plasticity improved in the hippocampus of aged heterochronic parabionts. At the cognitive level, systemic administration of young blood plasma into aged mice improved age-related cognitive impairments in both contextual fear conditioning and spatial learning and memory. Structural and cognitive enhancements elicited by exposure to young blood are mediated, in part, by activation of the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (Creb) in the aged hippocampus. Our data indicate that exposure of aged mice to young blood late in life is capable of rejuvenating synaptic plasticity and improving cognitive function. PMID:24793238

Villeda, Saul A; Plambeck, Kristopher E; Middeldorp, Jinte; Castellano, Joseph M; Mosher, Kira I; Luo, Jian; Smith, Lucas K; Bieri, Gregor; Lin, Karin; Berdnik, Daniela; Wabl, Rafael; Udeochu, Joe; Wheatley, Elizabeth G; Zou, Bende; Simmons, Danielle A; Xie, Xinmin S; Longo, Frank M; Wyss-Coray, Tony

2014-06-01

186

Dynamic regulation of NMDAR function in the adult brain by the stress hormone corticosterone  

PubMed Central

Stress and corticosteroids dynamically modulate the expression of synaptic plasticity at glutamatergic synapses in the developed brain. Together with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPAR), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are critical mediators of synaptic function and are essential for the induction of many forms of synaptic plasticity. Regulation of NMDAR function by cortisol/corticosterone (CORT) may be fundamental to the effects of stress on synaptic plasticity. Recent reports of the efficacy of NMDAR antagonists in treating certain stress-associated psychopathologies further highlight the importance of understanding the regulation of NMDAR function by CORT. Knowledge of how corticosteroids regulate NMDAR function within the adult brain is relatively sparse, perhaps due to a common belief that NMDAR function is stable in the adult brain. We review recent results from our laboratory and others demonstrating dynamic regulation of NMDAR function by CORT in the adult brain. In addition, we consider the issue of how differences in the early life environment may program differential sensitivity to modulation of NMDAR function by CORT and how this may influence synaptic function during stress. Findings from these studies demonstrate that NMDAR function in the adult hippocampus remains sensitive to even brief exposures to CORT and that the capacity for modulation of NMDAR may be programmed, in part, by the early life environment. Modulation of NMDAR function may contribute to dynamic regulation of synaptic plasticity and adaptation in the face of stress, however, enhanced NMDAR function may be implicated in mechanisms of stress-related psychopathologies including depression.

Tse, Yiu Chung; Bagot, Rosemary C.; Wong, Tak Pan

2012-01-01

187

Role of brain allopregnanolone in the plasticity of ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptor in rat brain during pregnancy and after delivery  

PubMed Central

The relation between changes in brain and plasma concentrations of neurosteroids and the function and structure of ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors in the brain during pregnancy and after delivery was investigated in rats. In contrast with plasma, where all steroids increased in parallel, the kinetics of changes in the cerebrocortical concentrations of progesterone, allopregnanolone (AP), and allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) diverged during pregnancy. Progesterone was already maximally increased between days 10 and 15, whereas AP and allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone peaked around day 19. The stimulatory effect of muscimol on 36Cl? uptake by cerebrocortical membrane vesicles was decreased on days 15 and 19 of pregnancy and increased 2 days after delivery. Moreover, the expression in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the mRNA encoding for ?2L GABAA receptor subunit decreased during pregnancy and had returned to control values 2 days after delivery. Also ?1,?2, ?3, ?4, ?1, ?2, ?3, and ?2S mRNAs were measured and failed to change during pregnancy. Subchronic administration of finasteride, a 5?-reductase inhibitor, to pregnant rats reduced the concentrations of AP more in brain than in plasma as well as prevented the decreases in both the stimulatory effect of muscimol on 36Cl? uptake and the decrease of ?2L mRNA observed during pregnancy. These results indicate that the plasticity of GABAA receptors during pregnancy and after delivery is functionally related to fluctuations in endogenous brain concentrations of AP whose rate of synthesis/metabolism appears to differ in the brain, compared with plasma, in pregnant rats.

Concas, A.; Mostallino, M. C.; Porcu, P.; Follesa, P.; Barbaccia, M. L.; Trabucchi, M.; Purdy, R. H.; Grisenti, P.; Biggio, G.

1998-01-01

188

A closed-loop brain-computer interface triggering an active ankle-foot orthosis for inducing cortical neural plasticity.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a brain-computer interface (BCI) driven motorized ankle-foot orthosis (BCI-MAFO), intended for stroke rehabilitation, and we demonstrate its efficacy in inducing cortical neuroplasticity in healthy subjects with a short intervention procedure (?15 min). This system detects imaginary dorsiflexion movements within a short latency from scalp EEG through the analysis of movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs). A manifold-based method, called locality preserving projection, detected the motor imagery online with a true positive rate of 73.0 ± 10.3%. Each detection triggered the MAFO to elicit a passive dorsiflexion. In nine healthy subjects, the size of the motor-evoked potential (MEP) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation increased significantly immediately following and 30 min after the cessation of this BCI-MAFO intervention for ?15 min ( p = 0.009 and , respectively), indicating neural plasticity. In four subjects, the size of the short latency stretch reflex component did not change following the intervention, suggesting that the site of the induced plasticity was cortical. All but one subject also performed two control conditions where they either imagined only or where the MAFO was randomly triggered. Both of these control conditions resulted in no significant changes in MEP size ( p = 0.38 and p = 0.15 ). The proposed system provides a fast and effective approach for inducing cortical plasticity through BCI and has potential in motor function rehabilitation following stroke. PMID:24686231

Xu, Ren; Jiang, Ning; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Lin, Chuang; Asin Prieto, Guillermo; Moreno, Juan C; Pons, Jose L; Dremstrup, Kim; Farina, Dario

2014-07-01

189

The impact of receptor-receptor interactions in heteroreceptor complexes on brain plasticity.  

PubMed

Allosteric mechanisms in receptor heteromers markedly increase the repertoire of receptor recognition and signaling. Of high importance is the altered function in the receptor heteromer versus the receptor homomer. Such a change in receptor function is mainly brought about by agonist induced allosteric receptor-receptor interactions and leads to functional and structural plasticity. Receptor-receptor interactions integrating synaptic and volume transmission signals participate in a significant way in modulating bidirectional synaptic plasticity and thus Hebbian plasticity. One molecular mechanism that can contribute to a change of synaptic weight may be represented by multiple interactions between plasma membrane receptors forming higher order heteroreceptor complexes via oligomerization at the pre- and post-junctional level. Such long-lived heteroreceptor complexes may play a significant role in learning and memory. PMID:24894440

Fuxe, Kjell; Agnati, Luigi F; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O

2014-07-01

190

Dietary cholesterol alters memory and synaptic structural plasticity in young rat brain.  

PubMed

Cholesterol plays an important role in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. To better explore how dietary cholesterol contributes to learning and memory and the related changes in synaptic structural plasticity, rats were categorized into a regular diet (RD) group and a cholesterol-enriched diet (CD) group, and were fed with respective diet for 2 months. Dietary cholesterol impacts on learning and memory, hippocampal synaptic ultrastructure, expression levels of postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), synaptophysin (SYP) and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) were investigated. We found CD rats had better performances in learning and memory using Morris water maze and object recognition test than RD rats. The memory improvement was accompanied with alterations of synaptic ultrastructure in the CA1 area of the hippocampus evaluated by electron microscopy, enhanced immunoreactivity of SYP, a presynaptic marker in hippocampus detected by immunocytochemistry, as well as increased levels of PSD-95, SYP and decreased level of CB1R in brains of CD rats determined by Western blot. Taken together, the results suggest that the improvement of learning and memory abilities of the young adult rats induced by dietary cholesterol may be linked with changes in synaptic structural plasticity in the brain. PMID:23187788

Ya, Bai-liu; Liu, Wen-yan; Ge, Feng; Zhang, Yan-xia; Zhu, Bao-liang; Bai, Bo

2013-08-01

191

Functional Dissociation of Ongoing Oscillatory Brain States  

PubMed Central

The state of a neural assembly preceding an incoming stimulus is assumed to modulate the processing of subsequently presented stimuli. The nature of this state can differ with respect to the frequency of ongoing oscillatory activity. Oscillatory brain activity of specific frequency range such as alpha (8–12 Hz) and gamma (above 30 Hz) band oscillations are hypothesized to play a functional role in cognitive processing. Therefore, a selective modulation of this prestimulus activity could clarify the functional role of these prestimulus fluctuations. For this purpose, we adopted a novel non-invasive brain-computer-interface (BCI) strategy to selectively increase alpha or gamma band activity in the occipital cortex combined with an adaptive presentation of visual stimuli within specific brain states. During training, oscillatory brain activity was estimated online and fed back to the participants to enable a deliberate modulation of alpha or gamma band oscillations. Results revealed that volunteers selectively increased alpha and gamma frequency oscillations with a high level of specificity regarding frequency range and localization. At testing, alpha or gamma band activity was classified online and at defined levels of activity, visual objects embedded in noise were presented instantly and had to be detected by the volunteer. In experiment I, the effect of two levels of prestimulus gamma band activity on visual processing was examined. During phases of increased gamma band activity significantly more visual objects were detected. In experiment II, the effect was compared against increased levels of alpha band activity. An improvement of visual processing was only observed for enhanced gamma band activity. Both experiments demonstrate the specific functional role of prestimulus gamma band oscillations for perceptual processing. We propose that the BCI method permits the selective modulation of oscillatory activity and the direct assessment of behavioral consequences to test for functional dissociations of different oscillatory brain states.

Salari, Neda; Buchel, Christian; Rose, Michael

2012-01-01

192

NK cell development and function--plasticity and redundancy unleashed.  

PubMed

Bone marrow-derived natural killer (NK) cells constitute the major subset of cytotoxic lymphocytes in peripheral blood. They provide innate defense against intracellular infection or malignancy and contribute to immune homeostasis. Large numbers of NK cells are also present in tissues, including the liver and uterus, where they can mediate immunosurveillance but also play important roles in tissue remodeling and vascularization. Here, we review the pathways involved in NK cell lineage commitment and differentiation, discussing relationships to other lymphocyte populations and highlighting genetic determinants. Characterizing NK cells from distinct tissues and during infections have revealed subset specializations, reflecting inherent cellular plasticity. In this context, we discuss how different environmental and inflammatory stimuli may shape NK cells. Particular emphasis is placed on genes identified as being critical for NK cell development, differentiation, and function from studies of model organisms or associations with disease. Such studies are also revealing important cellular redundancies. Here, we provide a view of the genetic framework constraining NK cell development and function, pinpointing molecules required for these processes but also underscoring plasticity and redundancy that may underlie robust immunological function. With this view, built in redundancy may highlight the importance of NK cells to immunity. PMID:24594002

Cichocki, Frank; Sitnicka, Ewa; Bryceson, Yenan T

2014-04-01

193

Functional relevance of cross-modal plasticity in blind humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional imaging studies of people who were blind from an early age have revealed that their primary visual cortex can be activated by Braille reading and other tactile discrimination tasks. Other studies have also shown that visual cortical areas can be activated by somatosensory input in blind subjects but not those with sight. The significance of this cross-modal plasticity is unclear, however, as it is not known whether the visual cortex can process somatosensory information in a functionally relevant way. To address this issue, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to disrupt the function of different cortical areas in people who were blind from an early age as they identified Braille or embossed Roman letters. Transient stimulation of the occipital (visual) cortex induced errors in both tasks and distorted the tactile perceptions of blind subjects. In contrast, occipital stimulation had no effect on tactile performance in normal-sighted subjects, whereas similar stimulation is known to disrupt their visual performance. We conclude that blindness from an early age can cause the visual cortex to be recruited to a role in somatosensory processing. We propose that this cross-modal plasticity may account in part for the superior tactile perceptual abilities of blind subjects.

Cohen, Leonardo G.; Celnik, Pablo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Corwell, Brian; Faiz, Lala; Dambrosia, James; Honda, Manabu; Sadato, Norihiro; Gerloff, Christian; Catalá, M. Dolores; Hallett, Mark

1997-09-01

194

Electroencephalographic imaging of higher brain function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temporal resolution is necessary to resolve the rapidly changing patterns of brain activity that underlie mental function. Electroencephalography (EEG) provides temporal resolution in the millisecond range. However, traditional EEG technology and practice provide insufficient spatial detail to identify relationships between brain electrical events and structures and functions visualized by magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. Recent advances help to overcome this problem by recording EEGs from more electrodes, by registering EEG data with anatomical images, and by correcting the distortion caused by volume conduction of EEG signals through the skull and scalp. In addition, statistical measurements of sub-second interdependences between EEG time-series recorded from different locations can help to generate hypotheses about the instantaneous functional networks that form between different cortical regions during perception, thought and action. Example applications are presented from studies of language, attention and working memory. Along with its unique ability to monitor brain function as people perform everyday activities in the real world, these advances make modern EEG an invaluable complement to other functional neuroimaging modalities.

Gevins, A.; Smith, M. E.; McEvoy, L. K.; Leong, H.; Le, J.

1999-01-01

195

Nicotine increases brain functional network efficiency.  

PubMed

Despite the use of cholinergic therapies in Alzheimer's disease and the development of cholinergic strategies for schizophrenia, relatively little is known about how the system modulates the connectivity and structure of large-scale brain networks. To better understand how nicotinic cholinergic systems alter these networks, this study examined the effects of nicotine on measures of whole-brain network communication efficiency. Resting state fMRI was acquired from fifteen healthy subjects before and after the application of nicotine or placebo transdermal patches in a single blind, crossover design. Data, which were previously examined for default network activity, were analyzed with network topology techniques to measure changes in the communication efficiency of whole-brain networks. Nicotine significantly increased local efficiency, a parameter that estimates the network's tolerance to local errors in communication. Nicotine also significantly enhanced the regional efficiency of limbic and paralimbic areas of the brain, areas which are especially altered in diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. These changes in network topology may be one mechanism by which cholinergic therapies improve brain function. PMID:22796985

Wylie, Korey P; Rojas, Donald C; Tanabe, Jody; Martin, Laura F; Tregellas, Jason R

2012-10-15

196

Nicotine Increases Brain Functional Network Efficiency  

PubMed Central

Despite the use of cholinergic therapies in Alzheimer’s disease and the development of cholinergic strategies for schizophrenia, relatively little is known about how the system modulates the connectivity and structure of large-scale brain networks. To better understand how nicotinic cholinergic systems alter these networks, this study examined the effects of nicotine on measures of whole-brain network communication efficiency. Resting-state fMRI was acquired from fifteen healthy subjects before and after the application of nicotine or placebo transdermal patches in a single blind, crossover design. Data, which were previously examined for default network activity, were analyzed with network topology techniques to measure changes in the communication efficiency of whole-brain networks. Nicotine significantly increased local efficiency, a parameter that estimates the network’s tolerance to local errors in communication. Nicotine also significantly enhanced the regional efficiency of limbic and paralimbic areas of the brain, areas which are especially altered in diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia. These changes in network topology may be one mechanism by which cholinergic therapies improve brain function.

Wylie, Korey P.; Rojas, Donald C.; Tanabe, Jody; Martin, Laura F.; Tregellas, Jason R.

2012-01-01

197

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes adaptive plasticity within the spinal cord and mediates the beneficial effects of controllable stimulation.  

PubMed

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been characterized as a potent modulator of neural plasticity in both the brain and spinal cord. The present experiments use an in vivo model system to demonstrate that training with controllable stimulation increases spinal BDNF expression and engages a BDNF-dependent process that promotes adaptive plasticity. Spinally transected rats administered legshock whenever one hind limb is extended (controllable stimulation) exhibit a progressive increase in flexion duration. This simple form of response-outcome (instrumental) learning is not observed when shock is given independent of leg position (uncontrollable stimulation). Uncontrollable electrical stimulation also induces a lasting effect that impairs learning for up to 48 h. Training with controllable shock can counter the adverse consequences of uncontrollable stimulation, to both prevent and reverse the learning deficit. Here it is shown that the protective and restorative effect of instrumental training depends on BDNF. Cellular assays showed that controllable stimulation increased BDNF mRNA expression and protein within the lumbar spinal cord. These changes were associated with an increase in the BDNF receptor TrkB protein within the dorsal horn. Evidence is then presented that these changes play a functional role in vivo. Application of a BDNF inhibitor (TrkB-IgG) blocked the protective effect of instrumental training. Direct (intrathecal) application of BDNF substituted for instrumental training to block both the induction and expression of the learning deficit. Uncontrollable stimulation also induced an increase in mechanical reactivity (allodynia), and this too was prevented by BDNF. TrkB-IgG blocked the restorative effect of instrumental training and intrathecal BDNF substituted for training to reverse the deficit. Taken together, these findings outline a critical role for BDNF in mediating the beneficial effects of controllable stimulation on spinal plasticity. PMID:22056599

Huie, J R; Garraway, S M; Baumbauer, K M; Hoy, K C; Beas, B S; Montgomery, K S; Bizon, J L; Grau, J W

2012-01-01

198

The significance of the subplate for evolution and developmental plasticity of the human brain  

PubMed Central

The human life-history is characterized by long development and introduction of new developmental stages, such as childhood and adolescence. The developing brain had important role in these life-history changes because it is expensive tissue which uses up to 80% of resting metabolic rate (RMR) in the newborn and continues to use almost 50% of it during the first 5 postnatal years. Our hominid ancestors managed to lift-up metabolic constraints to increase in brain size by several interrelated ecological, behavioral and social adaptations, such as dietary change, invention of cooking, creation of family-bonded reproductive units, and life-history changes. This opened new vistas for the developing brain, because it became possible to metabolically support transient patterns of brain organization as well as developmental brain plasticity for much longer period and with much greater number of neurons and connectivity combinations in comparison to apes. This included the shaping of cortical connections through the interaction with infant's social environment, which probably enhanced typically human evolution of language, cognition and self-awareness. In this review, we propose that the transient subplate zone and its postnatal remnant (interstitial neurons of the gyral white matter) probably served as the main playground for evolution of these developmental shifts, and describe various features that makes human subplate uniquely positioned to have such a role in comparison with other primates.

Judas, Milos; Sedmak, Goran; Kostovic, Ivica

2013-01-01

199

Structural and functional brain imaging in schizophrenia.  

PubMed Central

We present an evaluation of the contribution of structural and functional brain imaging to our understanding of schizophrenia. Methodological influences on the validity of the data generated by these new technologies include problems with measurement and clinical and anatomic heterogeneity. These considerations greatly affect the interpretation of the data generated by these technologies. Work in these fields to date, however, has produced strong evidence which suggests that schizophrenia is a disease which involves abnormalities in the structure and function of many brain areas. Structural brain imaging studies of schizophrenia using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are reviewed and their contribution to current theories of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia are discussed. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies of brain metabolic activity and dopamine receptor binding in schizophrenia are summarized and the critical questions raised by these studies are outlined. Future studies in these fields have the potential to yield critical insights into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia; new directions for studies of schizophrenia using these technologies are identified.

Cleghorn, J M; Zipursky, R B; List, S J

1991-01-01

200

Retinoic Acid Signaling in the Functioning Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Retinoic acid, an active form of vitamin A, regulates gene expression throughout the body, and many components of the signaling system through which it acts are present in the brain. Very little is known, however, about how retinoic acid functions in neurobiological systems. Several studies have provided evidence that retinoic acid plays a role in sleep, learning, and memory, but the precise mechanisms through which it influences these processes remain unclear. All of these processes involve local or long-range inhibition and synchronized neuronal activity between separate locations in the brain. A critical component in the generation of the synchronized firing of cortical neurons (cortical synchrony) is a network of inhibitory interneurons containing parvalbumin, a cell population affected by retinoid perturbations, such as exposure to a vitamin A overdose. An understanding of the role of retinoids in normal brain function would provide clues to the long-standing question of whether abnormalities in retinoic acid signaling contribute to the pathogenesis of some brain diseases with uncertain etiologies that involve both genetic and environmental factors.

Ursula C. Drager (University of Massachusetts Medical School;Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center REV)

2006-02-28

201

N-Squad Episode 3. Students learn about alcoholâÃôs effects on the brain, brain plasticity, brain parts, neurotransmission, addiction, withdrawal, factors influencing alcohol use, and drunk driving.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In N-Squad Episode 3 students work with forensic scientists to solve an alcohol related crime. Along the way, they will learn about alcoholâÃôs effects on the brain, brain plasticity, brain parts, neurotransmission, addiction, withdrawal, factors influencing alcohol use, and drunk driving.

Learning, Center F.

2011-09-28

202

Environmental enrichment decreases GABAergic inhibition and improves cognitive abilities, synaptic plasticity, and visual functions in a mouse model of Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic disorder associated with mental retardation. It has been repeatedly shown that Ts65Dn mice, the prime animal model for DS, have severe cognitive and neural plasticity defects due to excessive inhibition. We report that increasing sensory-motor stimulation in adulthood through environmental enrichment (EE) reduces brain inhibition levels and promotes recovery of spatial memory abilities, hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and visual functions in adult Ts65Dn mice. PMID:22207837

Begenisic, Tatjana; Spolidoro, Maria; Braschi, Chiara; Baroncelli, Laura; Milanese, Marco; Pietra, Gianluca; Fabbri, Maria E; Bonanno, Giambattista; Cioni, Giovanni; Maffei, Lamberto; Sale, Alessandro

2011-01-01

203

Peripheral Chemoreceptors: Function and Plasticity of the Carotid Body  

PubMed Central

The discovery of the sensory nature of the carotid body dates back to the beginning of the 20th century. Following these seminal discoveries, research into carotid body mechanisms moved forward progressively through the 20th century, with many descriptions of the ultrastructure of the organ and stimulus-response measurements at the level of the whole organ. The later part of 20th century witnessed the first descriptions of the cellular responses and electrophysiology of isolated and cultured type I and type II cells, and there now exist a number of testable hypotheses of chemotransduction. The goal of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of current concepts on sensory transduction and transmission of the hypoxic stimulus at the carotid body with an emphasis on integrating cellular mechanisms with the whole organ responses and highlighting the gaps or discrepancies in our knowledge. It is increasingly evident that in addition to hypoxia, the carotid body responds to a wide variety of blood-borne stimuli, including reduced glucose and immune-related cytokines and we therefore also consider the evidence for a polymodal function of the carotid body and its implications. It is clear that the sensory function of the carotid body exhibits considerable plasticity in response to the chronic perturbations in environmental O2 that is associated with many physiological and pathological conditions. The mechanisms and consequences of carotid body plasticity in health and disease are discussed in the final sections of this article.

Kumar, Prem; Prabhakar, Nanduri R.

2014-01-01

204

Using non-invasive brain stimulation to augment motor training-induced plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapies for motor recovery after stroke or traumatic brain injury are still not satisfactory. To date the best approach seems to be the intensive physical therapy. However the results are limited and functional gains are often minimal. The goal of motor training is to minimize functional disability and optimize functional motor recovery. This is thought to be achieved by modulation

Nadia Bolognini; Alvaro Pascual-Leone; Felipe Fregni

2009-01-01

205

Increases in Heart Disease Risk Factors May Decrease Brain Function  

MedlinePLUS

Increases in heart disease risk factors may decrease brain function May 02, 2013 Study Highlights: Increases in ... American Heart Association Infographic - H Joosten-Heart risks Brain function copyright American Heart Association Download (232.4 ...

206

Non-invasive brain-to-brain interface (BBI): establishing functional links between two brains.  

PubMed

Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) is capable of modulating the neural activity of specific brain regions, with a potential role as a non-invasive computer-to-brain interface (CBI). In conjunction with the use of brain-to-computer interface (BCI) techniques that translate brain function to generate computer commands, we investigated the feasibility of using the FUS-based CBI to non-invasively establish a functional link between the brains of different species (i.e. human and Sprague-Dawley rat), thus creating a brain-to-brain interface (BBI). The implementation was aimed to non-invasively translate the human volunteer's intention to stimulate a rat's brain motor area that is responsible for the tail movement. The volunteer initiated the intention by looking at a strobe light flicker on a computer display, and the degree of synchronization in the electroencephalographic steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials (SSVEP) with respect to the strobe frequency was analyzed using a computer. Increased signal amplitude in the SSVEP, indicating the volunteer's intention, triggered the delivery of a burst-mode FUS (350 kHz ultrasound frequency, tone burst duration of 0.5 ms, pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, given for 300 msec duration) to excite the motor area of an anesthetized rat transcranially. The successful excitation subsequently elicited the tail movement, which was detected by a motion sensor. The interface was achieved at 94.0±3.0% accuracy, with a time delay of 1.59±1.07 sec from the thought-initiation to the creation of the tail movement. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a computer-mediated BBI that links central neural functions between two biological entities, which may confer unexplored opportunities in the study of neuroscience with potential implications for therapeutic applications. PMID:23573251

Yoo, Seung-Schik; Kim, Hyungmin; Filandrianos, Emmanuel; Taghados, Seyed Javid; Park, Shinsuk

2013-01-01

207

Non-Invasive Brain-to-Brain Interface (BBI): Establishing Functional Links between Two Brains  

PubMed Central

Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) is capable of modulating the neural activity of specific brain regions, with a potential role as a non-invasive computer-to-brain interface (CBI). In conjunction with the use of brain-to-computer interface (BCI) techniques that translate brain function to generate computer commands, we investigated the feasibility of using the FUS-based CBI to non-invasively establish a functional link between the brains of different species (i.e. human and Sprague-Dawley rat), thus creating a brain-to-brain interface (BBI). The implementation was aimed to non-invasively translate the human volunteer’s intention to stimulate a rat’s brain motor area that is responsible for the tail movement. The volunteer initiated the intention by looking at a strobe light flicker on a computer display, and the degree of synchronization in the electroencephalographic steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials (SSVEP) with respect to the strobe frequency was analyzed using a computer. Increased signal amplitude in the SSVEP, indicating the volunteer’s intention, triggered the delivery of a burst-mode FUS (350 kHz ultrasound frequency, tone burst duration of 0.5 ms, pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, given for 300 msec duration) to excite the motor area of an anesthetized rat transcranially. The successful excitation subsequently elicited the tail movement, which was detected by a motion sensor. The interface was achieved at 94.0±3.0% accuracy, with a time delay of 1.59±1.07 sec from the thought-initiation to the creation of the tail movement. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a computer-mediated BBI that links central neural functions between two biological entities, which may confer unexplored opportunities in the study of neuroscience with potential implications for therapeutic applications.

Yoo, Seung-Schik; Kim, Hyungmin; Filandrianos, Emmanuel; Taghados, Seyed Javid; Park, Shinsuk

2013-01-01

208

Functional plasticity of the human infant ?-cell exocytotic phenotype.  

PubMed

Our understanding of adult human ?-cells is advancing, but we know little about the function and plasticity of ?-cells from infants. We therefore characterized islets and single islet cells from human infants after isolation and culture. Although islet morphology in pancreas biopsies was similar to that in adults, infant islets after isolation and 24-48 hours of culture had less insulin staining, content, and secretion. The cultured infant islets expressed pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 and several (Glut1, Cav1.3, Kir6.2) but not all (syntaxin 1A and synaptosomal-associated protein 25) markers of functional islets, suggesting a loss of secretory phenotype in culture. The activity of key ion channels was maintained in isolated infant ?-cells, whereas exocytosis was much lower than in adults. We examined whether a functional exocytotic phenotype could be reestablished under conditions thought to promote ?-cell differentiation. After a 24- to 28-day expansion and maturation protocol, we found preservation of endocrine markers and hormone expression, an increased proportion of insulin-positive cells, elevated expression of syntaxin 1A and synaptosomal-associated protein 25, and restoration of exocytosis to levels comparable with that in adult ?-cells. Thus, human infant islets are prone to loss of their exocytotic phenotype in culture but amenable to experimental approaches aimed at promoting expansion and functional maturation. Control of exocytotic protein expression may be an important mechanism underlying the plasticity of the secretory machinery, an increased understanding of which may lead to improved regenerative approaches to treat diabetes. PMID:23449893

Fox, Jocelyn E Manning; Seeberger, Karen; Dai, Xiao Qing; Lyon, James; Spigelman, Aliya F; Kolic, Jelena; Hajmrle, Catherine; Joseph, Jamie W; Kin, Tatsuya; Shapiro, A M James; Korbutt, Gregory; MacDonald, Patrick E

2013-04-01

209

In vivo assessment of use-dependent brain plasticity--beyond the "one trick pony" imaging strategy.  

PubMed

This article has been written as a comment to Dr Thomas and Dr Baker's article "Teaching an adult brain new tricks: A critical review of evidence for training-dependent structural plasticity in humans". We deliberately expand on the key question about the biological substrates underlying use-dependent brain plasticity rather than reiterating the authors' main points of criticism already addressed in more general way by previous publications in the field. The focus here is on the following main issues: i) controversial brain plasticity findings in voxel-based morphometry studies are partially due to the strong dependency of the widely used T1-weighted imaging protocol on varying magnetic resonance contrast contributions; ii) novel concepts in statistical analysis allow one to directly infer topological specificity of structural brain changes associated with plasticity. We conclude that iii) voxel-based quantification of relaxometry derived parameter maps could provide a new perspective on use-dependent plasticity by characterisation of brain tissue property changes beyond the estimation of volume and cortical thickness changes. In the relevant sections we respond to the concerns raised by Dr Thomas and Dr Baker from the perspective of the proposed data acquisition and analysis strategy. PMID:22960085

Draganski, Bogdan; Kherif, Ferath

2013-06-01

210

Scanning Laser Optical Tomography Resolves Structural Plasticity during Regeneration in an Insect Brain  

PubMed Central

Background Optical Projection Tomography (OPT) is a microscopic technique that generates three dimensional images from whole mount samples the size of which exceeds the maximum focal depth of confocal laser scanning microscopes. As an advancement of conventional emission-OPT, Scanning Laser Optical Tomography (SLOTy) allows simultaneous detection of fluorescence and absorbance with high sensitivity. In the present study, we employ SLOTy in a paradigm of brain plasticity in an insect model system. Methodology We visualize and quantify volumetric changes in sensory information procession centers in the adult locust, Locusta migratoria. Olfactory receptor neurons, which project from the antenna into the brain, are axotomized by crushing the antennal nerve or ablating the entire antenna. We follow the resulting degeneration and regeneration in the olfactory centers (antennal lobes and mushroom bodies) by measuring their size in reconstructed SLOTy images with respect to the untreated control side. Within three weeks post treatment antennal lobes with ablated antennae lose as much as 60% of their initial volume. In contrast, antennal lobes with crushed antennal nerves initially shrink as well, but regain size back to normal within three weeks. The combined application of transmission-and fluorescence projections of Neurobiotin labeled axotomized fibers confirms that recovery of normal size is restored by regenerated afferents. Remarkably, SLOTy images reveal that degeneration of olfactory receptor axons has a trans-synaptic effect on second order brain centers and leads to size reduction of the mushroom body calyx. Conclusions This study demonstrates that SLOTy is a suitable method for rapid screening of volumetric plasticity in insect brains and suggests its application also to vertebrate preparations.

Eickhoff, Rene; Lorbeer, Raoul-Amadeus; Scheiblich, Hannah; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Meyer, Heiko; Stern, Michael; Bicker, Gerd

2012-01-01

211

Functional Brain Networks in Schizophrenia: A Review  

PubMed Central

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become a major technique for studying cognitive function and its disruption in mental illness, including schizophrenia. The major proportion of imaging studies focused primarily upon identifying regions which hemodynamic response amplitudes covary with particular stimuli and differentiate between patient and control groups. In addition to such amplitude based comparisons, one can estimate temporal correlations and compute maps of functional connectivity between regions which include the variance associated with event-related responses as well as intrinsic fluctuations of hemodynamic activity. Functional connectivity maps can be computed by correlating all voxels with a seed region when a spatial prior is available. An alternative are multivariate decompositions such as independent component analysis (ICA) which extract multiple components, each of which is a spatially distinct map of voxels with a common time course. Recent work has shown that these networks are pervasive in relaxed resting and during task performance and hence provide robust measures of intact and disturbed brain activity. This in turn bears the prospect of yielding biomarkers for schizophrenia, which can be described both in terms of disrupted local processing as well as altered global connectivity between large-scale networks. In this review we will summarize functional connectivity measures with a focus upon work with ICA and discuss the meaning of intrinsic fluctuations. In addition, examples of how brain networks have been used for classification of disease will be shown. We present work with functional network connectivity, an approach that enables the evaluation of the interplay between multiple networks and how they are affected in disease. We conclude by discussing new variants of ICA for extracting maximally group discriminative networks from data. In summary, it is clear that identification of brain networks and their inter-relationships with fMRI has great potential to improve our understanding of schizophrenia.

Calhoun, Vince D.; Eichele, Tom; Pearlson, Godfrey

2009-01-01

212

Towards a New Mapping of Brain Cortex Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of imaging neuroscience is to describe the functional organization of human brain at the level of large neuronal groupings, networks and systems. The systems level of description addresses how integrated brain functions are embodied in the physical structure of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging is currently the technique of choice for the study of cerebral structure–function relationships and

Nick S. Ward; Richard S. J. Frackowiak

2004-01-01

213

The brain on stress: vulnerability and plasticity of the prefrontal cortex over the life course.  

PubMed

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in working memory and self-regulatory and goal-directed behaviors and displays remarkable structural and functional plasticity over the life course. Neural circuitry, molecular profiles, and neurochemistry can be changed by experiences, which influence behavior as well as neuroendocrine and autonomic function. Such effects have a particular impact during infancy and in adolescence. Behavioral stress affects both the structure and function of PFC, though such effects are not necessarily permanent, as young animals show remarkable neuronal resilience if the stress is discontinued. During aging, neurons within the PFC become less resilient to stress. There are also sex differences in the PFC response to stressors. While such stress and sex hormone-related alterations occur in regions mediating the highest levels of cognitive function and self-regulatory control, the fact that they are not necessarily permanent has implications for future behavior-based therapies that harness neural plasticity for recovery. PMID:23849196

McEwen, Bruce S; Morrison, John H

2013-07-10

214

Short- and long-term functional plasticity of white matter induced by oligodendrocyte depolarization in the hippocampus.  

PubMed

Plastic changes in white matter have received considerable attention in relation to normal cognitive function and learning. Oligodendrocytes and myelin, which constitute the white matter in the central nervous system, can respond to neuronal activity with prolonged depolarization of membrane potential and/or an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Depolarization of oligodendrocytes increases the conduction velocity of an action potential along axons myelinated by the depolarized oligodendrocytes, indicating that white matter shows functional plasticity, as well as structural plasticity. However, the properties and mechanism of oligodendrocyte depolarization-induced functional plastic changes in white matter are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the functional plasticity of white matter in the hippocampus using mice with oligodendrocytes expressing channelrhodopsin-2. Using extracellular recordings of compound action potentials at the alveus of the hippocampus, we demonstrated that light-evoked depolarization of oligodendrocytes induced early- and late-onset facilitation of axonal conduction that was dependent on the magnitude of oligodendrocyte depolarization; the former lasted for approximately 10 min, whereas the latter continued for up to 3 h. Using whole-cell recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells and recordings of antidromic action potentials, we found that the early-onset short-lasting component included the synchronization of action potentials. Moreover, pharmacological analysis demonstrated that the activation of Ba(2+) -sensitive K(+) channels was involved in early- and late-onset facilitation, whereas 4-aminopyridine-sensitive K(+) channels were only involved in the early-onset component. These results demonstrate that oligodendrocyte depolarization induces short- and long-term functional plastic changes in the white matter of the hippocampus and plays active roles in brain functions. GLIA 2014;62:1299-1312. PMID:24756966

Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Fujiwara, Hiroki; Kaneko, Kenya; Hozumi, Yasukazu; Xu, Ming; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro; Fujii, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kenji F

2014-08-01

215

On the Plasticity of Regulatory T Cell Function  

PubMed Central

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) can suppress a wide variety of cell types, in diverse organ sites and inflammatory conditions. While Tregs possess multiple suppressive mechanisms, the number required for maximal function is unclear. Furthermore, whether any inter-relationship or cross-regulatory mechanisms exist to orchestrate and control their utilization is unknown. Here we assessed the functional capacity of Tregs lacking the ability to secrete both interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-35 (IL-35), which individually are required for maximal Treg activity. Surprisingly, IL-10/IL-35-double deficient Tregs were fully functional in vitro and in vivo. Loss of IL-10 and IL-35 was compensated for by a concurrent increase in cathepsin E (Ctse) expression, enhanced TRAIL (Tnfsf10) expression and soluble TRAIL release, rendering IL-10/IL-35-double deficient Tregs functionally dependent on TRAIL in vitro and in vivo. Lastly, while C57BL/6 Tregs are normally IL-10/IL-35-dependent, BALB/c Tregs, which express high levels of CTSE and enhanced TRAIL expression, are TRAIL-dependent by default. These data reveal that cross-regulatory pathways exist that control the utilization of suppressive mechanisms, thereby providing Treg functional plasticity.

Pillai, Meenu R.; Collison, Lauren W.; Wang, Xiaohua; Finkelstein, David; Rehg, Jerold E.; Boyd, Kelli; Szymczak-Workman, Andrea L.; Doggett, Teresa; Griffith, Thomas S.; Ferguson, Thomas A.; Vignali, Dario A. A.

2011-01-01

216

The eel heart: multilevel insights into functional organ plasticity.  

PubMed

The remarkable functional homogeneity of the heart as an organ requires a well-coordinated myocardial heterogeneity. An example is represented by the selective sensitivity of the different cardiac cells to physical (i.e. shear stress and/or stretch) or chemical stimuli (e.g. catecholamines, angiotensin II, natriuretic peptides, etc.), and the cell-specific synthesis and release of these substances. The biological significance of the cardiac heterogeneity has recently received great attention in attempts to dissect the complexity of the mechanisms that control the cardiac form and function. A useful approach in this regard is to identify natural models of cardiac plasticity. Among fishes, eels (genus Anguilla), for their adaptive and acclimatory abilities, represent a group of animals so far largely used to explore the structural and ultrastructural myoarchitecture organization, as well as the complex molecular networks involved in the modulation of the heart function, such as those converting environmental signals into physiological responses. However, an overview on the existing current knowledge of eel cardiac form and function is not yet available. In this context, this review will illustrate major features of eel cardiac organization and pumping performance. Aspects of autocrine-paracrine modulation and the influence of factors such as body growth, exercise, hypoxia and temperature will highlight the power of the eel heart as an experimental model useful to decipher how the cardiac morpho-functional heterogeneities may support the uniformity of the whole-organ mechanics. PMID:24006343

Imbrogno, Sandra

2013-10-01

217

Chemogenetic tools to interrogate brain functions.  

PubMed

Elucidating the roles of neuronal cell types for physiology and behavior is essential for understanding brain functions. Perturbation of neuron electrical activity can be used to probe the causal relationship between neuronal cell types and behavior. New genetically encoded neuron perturbation tools have been developed for remotely controlling neuron function using small molecules that activate engineered receptors that can be targeted to cell types using genetic methods. Here we describe recent progress for approaches using genetically engineered receptors that selectively interact with small molecules. Called "chemogenetics," receptors with diverse cellular functions have been developed that facilitate the selective pharmacological control over a diverse range of cell-signaling processes, including electrical activity, for molecularly defined cell types. These tools have revealed remarkably specific behavioral physiological influences for molecularly defined cell types that are often intermingled with populations having different or even opposite functions. PMID:25002280

Sternson, Scott M; Roth, Bryan L

2014-07-01

218

Brain function assessment in different conscious states  

PubMed Central

Background The study of brain functioning is a major challenge in neuroscience fields as human brain has a dynamic and ever changing information processing. Case is worsened with conditions where brain undergoes major changes in so-called different conscious states. Even though the exact definition of consciousness is a hard one, there are certain conditions where the descriptions have reached a consensus. The sleep and the anesthesia are different conditions which are separable from each other and also from wakefulness. The aim of our group has been to tackle the issue of brain functioning with setting up similar research conditions for these three conscious states. Methods In order to achieve this goal we have designed an auditory stimulation battery with changing conditions to be recorded during a 40 channel EEG polygraph (Nuamps) session. The stimuli (modified mismatch, auditory evoked etc.) have been administered both in the operation room and the sleep lab via Embedded Interactive Stimulus Unit which was developed in our lab. The overall study has provided some results for three domains of consciousness. In order to be able to monitor the changes we have incorporated Bispectral Index Monitoring to both sleep and anesthesia conditions. Results The first stage results have provided a basic understanding in these altered states such that auditory stimuli have been successfully processed in both light and deep sleep stages. The anesthesia provides a sudden change in brain responsiveness; therefore a dosage dependent anesthetic administration has proved to be useful. The auditory processing was exemplified targeting N1 wave, with a thorough analysis from spectrogram to sLORETA. The frequency components were observed to be shifting throughout the stages. The propofol administration and the deeper sleep stages both resulted in the decreasing of N1 component. The sLORETA revealed similar activity at BA7 in sleep (BIS 70) and target propofol concentration of 1.2 µg/mL. Conclusions The current study utilized similar stimulation and recording system and incorporated BIS dependent values to validate a common approach to sleep and anesthesia. Accordingly the brain has a complex behavior pattern, dynamically changing its responsiveness in accordance with stimulations and states.

2010-01-01

219

Synaptic Plasticity, Neurogenesis, and Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury research has greatly expanded in recent years, but our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the functional recovery that can occur over the weeks and months following the initial injury, is far from complete. To grasp the scope of the problem, it is important to begin by defining the sensorimotor pathways that might be involved by a spinal injury. This is done in the rodent and nonhuman primate, which are two of the most commonly used animal models in basic and translational spinal injury research. Many of the better known experimentally induced models are then reviewed in terms of the pathways they involve and the reorganization and recovery that have been shown to follow. The better understood neuronal mechanisms mediating such post-injury plasticity, including dendritic spine growth and axonal sprouting, are then examined.

Darian-Smith, Corinna

2010-01-01

220

The function of the respiratory supercomplexes: the plasticity model.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are important organelles not only as efficient ATP generators but also in controlling and regulating many cellular processes. Mitochondria are dynamic compartments that rearrange under stress response and changes in food availability or oxygen concentrations. The mitochondrial electron transport chain parallels these rearrangements to achieve an optimum performance and therefore requires a plastic organization within the inner mitochondrial membrane. This consists in a balanced distribution between free respiratory complexes and supercomplexes. The mechanisms by which the distribution and organization of supercomplexes can be adjusted to the needs of the cells are still poorly understood. The aim of this review is to focus on the functional role of the respiratory supercomplexes and its relevance in physiology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Dynamic and ultrastructure of bioenergetic membranes and their components. PMID:24368156

Acin-Perez, Rebeca; Enriquez, Jose A

2014-04-01

221

Diminished experience-dependent neuroanatomical plasticity: evidence for an improved biomarker of subtle neurotoxic damage to the developing rat brain.  

PubMed Central

Millions of children are exposed to low levels of environmental neurotoxicants as their brains are developing. Conventional laboratory methods of neurotoxicology can detect maldevelopment of brain structure but are not designed to detect maldevelopment of the brain's capacity for plasticity that could impair learning throughout life. The environmental complexity (EC) paradigm has become classic for demonstrating the modifications in brain structure that occur in response to experience and thus provides a set of indices for plasticity in the healthy brain. In this study, we have tested the hypothesis that if degradation of experience-dependent cortical plasticity is used as a biomarker, then developmental neurotoxic effects will be detected at doses below those that alter cortical morphogenesis overtly. Pregnant Long-Evans hooded rats received a single injection of either saline vehicle or 1, 5, 10, or 25 mg/kg of the well-characterized developmental neurotoxicant methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) on the 16th or 17th day of gestation. On postnatal days 35-39, male offspring were assigned to either a complex environment (EC) or an individual cage (IC) for 28 days to stimulate neuroanatomical plasticity. This response was measured as the difference between the thickness of visual cortex of IC and EC littermates at a given dose. The threshold dose for significant reduction of cortical thickness was 25 mg/kg, but the threshold dose for failure of plasticity was much lower and could be detected at 1 mg/kg, the lowest dose used. No other method of assessment has detected lasting effects of prenatal exposure to MAM at such a low dose. These data suggest that this simple test of plasticity could be an efficient way to detect subtle neurotoxic damage to the developing brain.

Wallace, Christopher S; Reitzenstein, Jonathon; Withers, Ginger S

2003-01-01

222

When Music and Long-Term Memory Interact: Effects of Musical Expertise on Functional and Structural Plasticity in the Hippocampus  

PubMed Central

The development of musical skills by musicians results in specific structural and functional modifications in the brain. Surprisingly, no functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study has investigated the impact of musical training on brain function during long-term memory retrieval, a faculty particularly important in music. Thus, using fMRI, we examined for the first time this process during a musical familiarity task (i.e., semantic memory for music). Musical expertise induced supplementary activations in the hippocampus, medial frontal gyrus, and superior temporal areas on both sides, suggesting a constant interaction between episodic and semantic memory during this task in musicians. In addition, a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) investigation was performed within these areas and revealed that gray matter density of the hippocampus was higher in musicians than in nonmusicians. Our data indicate that musical expertise critically modifies long-term memory processes and induces structural and functional plasticity in the hippocampus.

Groussard, Mathilde; La Joie, Renaud; Rauchs, Geraldine; Landeau, Brigitte; Chetelat, Gael; Viader, Fausto; Desgranges, Beatrice; Eustache, Francis; Platel, Herve

2010-01-01

223

Split My Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case involves a couple deciding whether or not their son should undergo brain surgery to treat a severe seizure disorder. In examining this dilemma, students apply knowledge of brain anatomy and function. They also learn about brain scanning techniques and discuss the plasticity of the brain.

Omarzu, Julia

2004-10-01

224

Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men  

MedlinePLUS

... the RSNA Annual Meeting November 30, 2011 Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men CHICAGO—A ... fMRI) analysis of long-term effects of violent video game play on the brain has found changes in ...

225

Estradiol shapes auditory processing in the adult brain by regulating inhibitory transmission and plasticity-associated gene expression.  

PubMed

Estradiol impacts a wide variety of brain processes, including sex differentiation, mood, and learning. Here we show that estradiol regulates auditory processing of acoustic signals in the vertebrate brain, more specifically in the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), the songbird analog of the mammalian auditory association cortex. Multielectrode recordings coupled with local pharmacological manipulations in awake animals reveal that both exogenous and locally generated estradiol increase auditory-evoked activity in NCM. This enhancement in neuronal responses is mediated by suppression of local inhibitory transmission. Surprisingly, we also found that estradiol is both necessary and sufficient for the induction of multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent genes thought to be required for synaptic plasticity and memorization of birdsong. Specifically, we show that local blockade of estrogen receptors or aromatase activity in awake birds decrease song-induced MAPK-dependent gene expression. Infusions of estradiol in acoustically isolated birds induce transcriptional activation of these genes to levels comparable with song-stimulated animals. Our results reveal acute and rapid nongenomic functions for estradiol in central auditory physiology and suggest that such roles may be ubiquitously expressed across sensory systems. PMID:19420261

Tremere, Liisa A; Jeong, Jin Kwon; Pinaud, Raphael

2009-05-01

226

Trypsin and trypsin-like proteases in the brain: proteolysis and cellular functions.  

PubMed

Several serine proteases including thrombin, tissue-type plasminogen activator and urokinase-type plasminogen activator have been well characterized in the brain. In this article, we review the brain-related trypsin and trypsin-like serine proteases. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that trypsin and trypsin-like serine proteases play very important roles in neural development, plasticity, neurodegeneration and neuroregeneration in the brain. Neuropsin is able to hydrolyze the extracellular matrix components by its active site serine, and regulates learning and memory in normal brain. The mutant neurotrypsin contributes to mental retardation in children. Neurosin seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis. Although mesotrypsin/trypsin IV is also implicated in neurodegeneration, its functional significance still remains largely unknown. Particularly, mesotrypsin/trypsin IV, P22 and neurosin exert their physiological and pathological functions through activation of certain protease-activated receptors (PARs). In the brain, the presence of serpins controls the activity of serine proteases. Therefore, understanding the interaction among brain trypsin, serpins and PARs will provide invaluable tools for regulating normal brain functions and for the clinical treatment of neural disorders. PMID:17965832

Wang, Y; Luo, W; Reiser, G

2008-01-01

227

Dietary boron, brain function, and cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Although the trace element boron has yet to be recognized as an essential nutrient for humans, recent data from animal and human studies suggest that boron may be important for mineral metabolism and membrane function. To investigate further the functional role of boron, brain electrophysiology and cognitive performance were assessed in response to dietary manipulation of boron (approximately 0.25 versus approximately 3.25 mg boron/2000 kcal/day) in three studies with healthy older men and women. Within-subject designs were used to assess functional responses in all studies. Spectral analysis of electroencephalographic data showed effects of dietary boron in two of the three studies. When the low boron intake was compared to the high intake, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the proportion of low-frequency activity, and a decrease in the proportion of higher-frequency activity, an effect often observed in response to general malnutrition and heavy metal toxicity. Performance (e.g., response time) on various cognitive and psychomotor tasks also showed an effect of dietary boron. When contrasted with the high boron intake, low dietary boron resulted in significantly poorer performance (p < 0.05) on tasks emphasizing manual dexterity (studies II and III); eye-hand coordination (study II); attention (all studies); perception (study III); encoding and short-term memory (all studies); and long-term memory (study I). Collectively, the data from these three studies indicate that boron may play a role in human brain function and cognitive performance, and provide additional evidence that boron is an essential nutrient for humans. PMID:7889884

Penland, J G

1994-11-01

228

Reconciling Stable Asymmetry with Recovery of Function: An Adaptive Systems Perspective on Functional Plasticity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary, written in response to Witelson's work (1987), examines alternative ways of determining how the developmentally stable functional asymmetry (hemispheric specialization) observed in neurologically intact children can be reconciled with the dramatic recovery of function often displayed following unilateral brain damage. (PCB)

Bullock, Daniel; And Others

1987-01-01

229

Brain microvascular function during cardiopulmonary bypass  

SciTech Connect

Emboli in the brain microvasculature may inhibit brain activity during cardiopulmonary bypass. Such hypothetical blockade, if confirmed, may be responsible for the reduction of cerebral metabolic rate for glucose observed in animals subjected to cardiopulmonary bypass. In previous studies of cerebral blood flow during bypass, brain microcirculation was not evaluated. In the present study in animals (pigs), reduction of the number of perfused capillaries was estimated by measurements of the capillary diffusion capacity for hydrophilic tracers of low permeability. Capillary diffusion capacity, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral metabolic rate for glucose were measured simultaneously by the integral method, different tracers being used with different circulation times. In eight animals subjected to normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, and seven subjected to hypothermic bypass, cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolic rate for glucose, and capillary diffusion capacity decreased significantly: cerebral blood flow from 63 to 43 ml/100 gm/min in normothermia and to 34 ml/100 gm/min in hypothermia and cerebral metabolic rate for glucose from 43.0 to 23.0 mumol/100 gm/min in normothermia and to 14.1 mumol/100 gm/min in hypothermia. The capillary diffusion capacity declined markedly from 0.15 to 0.03 ml/100 gm/min in normothermia but only to 0.08 ml/100 gm/min in hypothermia. We conclude that the decrease of cerebral metabolic rate for glucose during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass is caused by interruption of blood flow through a part of the capillary bed, possibly by microemboli, and that cerebral blood flow is an inadequate indicator of capillary blood flow. Further studies must clarify why normal microvascular function appears to be preserved during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.

Sorensen, H.R.; Husum, B.; Waaben, J.; Andersen, K.; Andersen, L.I.; Gefke, K.; Kaarsen, A.L.; Gjedde, A.

1987-11-01

230

Differential effects of excitatory and inhibitory plasticity on synaptically-driven neuronal Input-Output functions  

PubMed Central

Ultimately, whether or not a neuron produces a spike determines its contribution to local computations. In response to brief stimuli the probability a neuron will fire can be described by its input-output function, which depends on the net balance and timing of excitatory and inhibitory currents. While excitatory and inhibitory synapses are plastic, most studies examine plasticity of subthreshold events. Thus, the effects of concerted regulation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic strength on neuronal input-output functions are not well understood. Here, theoretical analyses reveal that excitatory synaptic strength controls the threshold of the neuronal input-output function, while inhibitory plasticity alters the threshold and gain. Experimentally, changes in the balance of excitation and inhibition in CA1 pyramidal neurons also altered their input-output function as predicted by the model. These results support the existence of two functional modes of plasticity that can be used to optimize information processing: threshold and gain plasticity.

Carvalho, Tiago P.; Buonomano, Dean V.

2009-01-01

231

Neurobiological markers of exercise-related brain plasticity in older adults  

PubMed Central

The current study examined how a randomized one-year aerobic exercise program for healthy older adults would affect serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) - putative markers of exercise-induced benefits on brain function. The study also examined whether (a) change in the concentration of these growth factors was associated with alterations in functional connectivity following exercise, and (b) the extent to which pre-intervention growth factor levels were associated with training-related changes in functional connectivity. In 65 participants (mean age = 66.4), we found that although there were no group-level changes in growth factors as a function of the intervention, increased temporal lobe connectivity between the bilateral parahippocampus and the bilateral middle temporal gyrus was associated with increased BDNF, IGF-1, and VEGF for an aerobic walking group but not for a non-aerobic control group, and greater pre-intervention VEGF was associated with greater training-related increases in this functional connection. Results are consistent with animal models of exercise and the brain, but are the first to show in humans that exercise-induced increases in temporal lobe functional connectivity are associated with changes in growth factors and may be augmented by greater baseline VEGF.

Voss, Michelle W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Chaddock, Laura; Kim, Jennifer S.; Alves, Heloisa; Szabo, Amanda; White, Siobhan M.; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; Mailey, Emily L.; Olson, Erin A.; Gothe, Neha; Potter, Vicki V.; Martin, Stephen A.; Pence, Brandt D.; Cook, Marc D.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

2012-01-01

232

Neurobiological markers of exercise-related brain plasticity in older adults.  

PubMed

The current study examined how a randomized one-year aerobic exercise program for healthy older adults would affect serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) - putative markers of exercise-induced benefits on brain function. The study also examined whether (a) change in the concentration of these growth factors was associated with alterations in functional connectivity following exercise, and (b) the extent to which pre-intervention growth factor levels were associated with training-related changes in functional connectivity. In 65 participants (mean age=66.4), we found that although there were no group-level changes in growth factors as a function of the intervention, increased temporal lobe connectivity between the bilateral parahippocampus and the bilateral middle temporal gyrus was associated with increased BDNF, IGF-1, and VEGF for an aerobic walking group but not for a non-aerobic control group, and greater pre-intervention VEGF was associated with greater training-related increases in this functional connection. Results are consistent with animal models of exercise and the brain, but are the first to show in humans that exercise-induced increases in temporal lobe functional connectivity are associated with changes in growth factors and may be augmented by greater baseline VEGF. PMID:23123199

Voss, Michelle W; Erickson, Kirk I; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Chaddock, Laura; Kim, Jennifer S; Alves, Heloisa; Szabo, Amanda; Phillips, Siobhan M; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Mailey, Emily L; Olson, Erin A; Gothe, Neha; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Martin, Stephen A; Pence, Brandt D; Cook, Marc D; Woods, Jeffrey A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

2013-02-01

233

Maturation of Widely Distributed Brain Function Subserves Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive and brain maturational changes continue throughout late childhood and adolescence. During this time, increasing cognitive control over behavior enhances the voluntary suppression of reflexive\\/impulsive response tendencies. Recently, with the advent of functional MRI, it has become possible to characterize changes in brain activity during cognitive development. In order to investigate the cognitive and brain maturation subserving the ability to

Beatriz Luna; Keith R. Thulborn; Douglas P. Munoz; Elisha P. Merriam; Krista E. Garver; Nancy J. Minshew; Matcheri S. Keshavan; Christopher R. Genovese; William F. Eddy; John A. Sweeney

2001-01-01

234

3D Standard Brain of the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium Castaneum: A Tool to Study Metamorphic Development and Adult Plasticity  

PubMed Central

The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is emerging as a further standard insect model beside Drosophila. Its genome is fully sequenced and it is susceptible for genetic manipulations including RNA-interference. We use this beetle to study adult brain development and plasticity primarily with respect to the olfactory system. In the current study, we provide 3D standard brain atlases of freshly eclosed adult female and male beetles (A0). The atlases include eight paired and three unpaired neuropils including antennal lobes (ALs), optic lobe neuropils, mushroom body calyces and pedunculi, and central complex. For each of the two standard brains, we averaged brain areas of 20 individual brains. Additionally, we characterized eight selected olfactory glomeruli from 10 A0 female and male beetles respectively, which we could unequivocally recognize from individual to individual owing to their size and typical position in the ALs. In summary, comparison of the averaged neuropil volumes revealed no sexual dimorphism in any of the reconstructed neuropils in A0 Tribolium brains. Both, the female and male 3D standard brain are also used for interspecies comparisons, and, importantly, will serve as future volumetric references after genetical manipulation especially regarding metamorphic development and adult plasticity.

Dreyer, David; Vitt, Holger; Dippel, Stefan; Goetz, Brigitte; el Jundi, Basil; Kollmann, Martin; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim

2009-01-01

235

Behavioral plasticity in honey bees is associated with differences in brain microRNA transcriptome  

PubMed Central

Small, non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in many biological processes, including the development of the nervous system. However, the roles of miRNAs in natural behavioral and neuronal plasticity are not well understood. To help address this we characterized the microRNA transcriptome in the adult worker honey bee head and investigated whether changes in microRNA expression levels in the brain are associated with division of labor among honey bees, a well-established model for socially regulated behavior. We determined that several miRNAs were downregulated in bees that specialize on brood care (nurses) relative to foragers. Additional experiments showed that this downregulation is dependent upon social context; it only occurred when nurse bees were in colonies that also contained foragers. Analyses of conservation patterns of brain-expressed miRNAs across Hymenoptera suggest a role for certain miRNAs in the evolution of the Aculeata, which includes all the eusocial hymenopteran species. Our results support the intriguing hypothesis that miRNAs are important regulators of social behavior at both developmental and evolutionary time scales.

Greenberg, J. K.; Xia, J.; Zhou, X.; Thatcher, S. R.; Gu, X.; Ament, S. A.; Newman, T. C.; Green, P. J.; Zhang, W.; Robinson, G. E.; Ben-Shahar, Y.

2012-01-01

236

Memory Function Before and After Whole Brain Radiotherapy in Patients With and Without Brain Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To prospectively compare the effect of prophylactic and therapeutic whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) on memory function in patients with and without brain metastases. Methods and Materials: Adult patients with and without brain metastases (n = 44) were prospectively evaluated with serial cognitive testing, before RT (T0), after starting RT (T1), at the end of RT (T2), and 6-8 weeks

Grit Welzel; Katharina Fleckenstein; Joerg Schaefer; Brigitte Hermann; Uta Kraus-Tiefenbacher; Sabine K. Mai; Frederik Wenz

2008-01-01

237

Effects of the diet on brain function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rates of synthesis by brain neurons of the neurotransmitters serotonin, acetylcholine, and the catecholamines depend on the brain levels of the respective precursor molecules. Brain levels of each precursor are influenced by their blood concentration, and for the amino acid precursors, by the blood levels of other amino acids as well. Since diet readily alters blood concentrations of each of these precursors, it thereby also influences the brain formation of their neutrotransmitter products.

Fernstrom, J. D.

1981-01-01

238

Tai Chi Chuan optimizes the functional organization of the intrinsic human brain architecture in older adults  

PubMed Central

Whether Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) can influence the intrinsic functional architecture of the human brain remains unclear. To examine TCC-associated changes in functional connectomes, resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired from 40 older individuals including 22 experienced TCC practitioners (experts) and 18 demographically matched TCC-naïve healthy controls, and their local functional homogeneities across the cortical mantle were compared. Compared to the controls, the TCC experts had significantly greater and more experience-dependent functional homogeneity in the right post-central gyrus (PosCG) and less functional homogeneity in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex. Increased functional homogeneity in the PosCG was correlated with TCC experience. Intriguingly, decreases in functional homogeneity (improved functional specialization) in the left ACC and increases in functional homogeneity (improved functional integration) in the right PosCG both predicted performance gains on attention network behavior tests. These findings provide evidence for the functional plasticity of the brain’s intrinsic architecture toward optimizing locally functional organization, with great implications for understanding the effects of TCC on cognition, behavior and health in aging population.

Wei, Gao-Xia; Dong, Hao-Ming; Yang, Zhi; Luo, Jing; Zuo, Xi-Nian

2014-01-01

239

The physiological and biochemical bases of functional brain imaging  

PubMed Central

Functional brain imaging is based on the display of computer-derived images of changes in physiological and/or biochemical functions altered by activation or depression of local functional activities in the brain. This article reviews the physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved.

2007-01-01

240

Exploring large-scale brain networks in functional MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing emphasis has been recently put on large-scale network processing of brain functions. To explore these networks, many approaches have been proposed in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Their objective is to answer the following two questions: (1) what brain regions are involved in the functional process under investigation? and (2) how do these regions interact? We review some of

Guillaume Marrelec; Pierre Bellec; Habib Benali

2006-01-01

241

Mapping distributed brain function and networks with diffuse optical tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mapping of human brain function has revolutionized systems neuroscience. However, traditional functional neuroimaging by positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging cannot be used when applications require portability, or are contraindicated because of ionizing radiation (positron emission tomography) or implanted metal (functional magnetic resonance imaging). Optical neuroimaging offers a non-invasive alternative that is radiation free and compatible with implanted metal and electronic devices (for example, pacemakers). However, optical imaging technology has heretofore lacked the combination of spatial resolution and wide field of view sufficient to map distributed brain functions. Here, we present a high-density diffuse optical tomography imaging array that can map higher-order, distributed brain function. The system was tested by imaging four hierarchical language tasks and multiple resting-state networks including the dorsal attention and default mode networks. Finally, we imaged brain function in patients with Parkinson's disease and implanted deep brain stimulators that preclude functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Eggebrecht, Adam T.; Ferradal, Silvina L.; Robichaux-Viehoever, Amy; Hassanpour, Mahlega S.; Dehghani, Hamid; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Hershey, Tamara; Culver, Joseph P.

2014-06-01

242

Mapping distributed brain function and networks with diffuse optical tomography  

PubMed Central

Mapping of human brain function has revolutionized systems neuroscience. However, traditional functional neuroimaging by positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging cannot be used when applications require portability, or are contraindicated because of ionizing radiation (positron emission tomography) or implanted metal (functional magnetic resonance imaging). Optical neuroimaging offers a non-invasive alternative that is radiation free and compatible with implanted metal and electronic devices (for example, pacemakers). However, optical imaging technology has heretofore lacked the combination of spatial resolution and wide field of view sufficient to map distributed brain functions. Here, we present a high-density diffuse optical tomography imaging array that can map higher-order, distributed brain function. The system was tested by imaging four hierarchical language tasks and multiple resting-state networks including the dorsal attention and default mode networks. Finally, we imaged brain function in patients with Parkinson’s disease and implanted deep brain stimulators that preclude functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Eggebrecht, Adam T.; Ferradal, Silvina L.; Robichaux-Viehoever, Amy; Hassanpour, Mahlega S.; Dehghani, Hamid; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Hershey, Tamara; Culver, Joseph P.

2014-01-01

243

A default mode of brain function  

Microsoft Academic Search

A baseline or control state is fundamental to the understanding of most complex systems. Defining a baseline state in the human brain, arguably our most complex system, poses a particular challenge. Many suspect that left unconstrained, its activity will vary unpredictably. Despite this prediction we identify a baseline state of the normal adult human brain in terms of the brain

Marcus E. Raichle; Ann Mary MacLeod; Abraham Z. Snyder; William J. Powers; Debra A. Gusnard; Gordon L. Shulman

2001-01-01

244

The subependymal zone neurogenic niche: a beating heart in the centre of the brain: how plastic is adult neurogenesis? Opportunities for therapy and questions to be addressed.  

PubMed

The mammalian brain is a remarkably complex organ comprising millions of neurons, glia and various other cell types. Its impressive cytoarchitecture led to the long standing belief that it is a structurally static organ and thus very sensitive to injury. However, an area of striking structural flexibility has been recently described at the centre of the brain. It is the subependymal zone of the lateral wall of the lateral ventricles. The subependymal zone--like a beating heart--continuously sends new cells to different areas of the brain: neurons to the olfactory bulbs and glial cells to the cortex and the corpus callosum. Interestingly, the generation and flow of cells changes in response to signals from anatomically remote areas of the brain or even from the external environment of the organism, therefore indicating that subependymal neurogenesis--as a system--is integrated in the overall homeostatic function of the brain. In this review, it will be attempted to describe the fundamental structural and functional characteristics of the subependymal neurogenic niche and to summarize the available evidence regarding its plasticity. Special focus is given on issues such as whether adult neural stem cells are activated after neurodegeneration, whether defects in neurogenesis contribute to neuropathological conditions and whether monitoring changes in neurogenic activity can have a diagnostic value. PMID:19773354

Kazanis, Ilias

2009-11-01

245

Functional Connectivity in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Objectives Research suggests that the majority of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients exhibit both cognitive and emotional dysfunction within the first weeks of injury, followed by symptom resolution 3–6 months post-injury. The neuronal correlates of said dysfunction are difficult to detect with standard clinical neuroimaging, complicating differential diagnosis and early identification of patients who may not recover. The current study examined whether resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) provides objective markers of injury and predicts cognitive, emotional and somatic complaints in mTBI patients semi-acutely (< 3 weeks post-injury) and in late recovery (3–5 month) phases. Methods Twenty seven semi-acute mTBI patients and 26 gender, age and education matched controls were studied. Fifteen out of 27 patients returned for a follow-up visit 3–5 months post-injury. The main dependent variables were spontaneous fluctuations (temporal correlation) in the default-mode (DMN) and fronto-parietal task-related (TRN) networks as measured by FMRI. Results Significant differences in self-reported cognitive, emotional and somatic complaints were observed (all p < .05), despite normal clinical (T1 and T2) imaging and neuropsychological testing results. Mild TBI patients demonstrated decreased functional connectivity within the DMN and hyper-connectivity between the DMN and lateral prefrontal cortex. Measures of functional connectivity exhibited high levels of sensitivity and specificity for patient classification and predicted cognitive complaints in the semi-acute injury stage. However, no changes in functional connectivity were observed across a four month recovery period. Conclusions Abnormal connectivity between the DMN and frontal cortex may provide objective biomarkers of mTBI and underlie cognitive impairment.

Mayer, Andrew R.; Mannell, Maggie V.; Ling, Josef; Gasparovic, Charles; Yeo, Ronald A.

2011-01-01

246

Efficiency of weak brain connections support general cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Brain network topology provides valuable information on healthy and pathological brain functioning. Novel approaches for brain network analysis have shown an association between topological properties and cognitive functioning. Under the assumption that "stronger is better", the exploration of brain properties has generally focused on the connectivity patterns of the most strongly correlated regions, whereas the role of weaker brain connections has remained obscure for years. Here, we assessed whether the different strength of connections between brain regions may explain individual differences in intelligence. We analyzed-functional connectivity at rest in ninety-eight healthy individuals of different age, and correlated several connectivity measures with full scale, verbal, and performance Intelligent Quotients (IQs). Our results showed that the variance in IQ levels was mostly explained by the distributed communication efficiency of brain networks built using moderately weak, long-distance connections, with only a smaller contribution of stronger connections. The variability in individual IQs was associated with the global efficiency of a pool of regions in the prefrontal lobes, hippocampus, temporal pole, and postcentral gyrus. These findings challenge the traditional view of a prominent role of strong functional brain connections in brain topology, and highlight the importance of both strong and weak connections in determining the functional architecture responsible for human intelligence variability. Hum Brain Mapp 35:4566-4582, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24585433

Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Galli, Giulia; Polizzotto, Nicola Riccardo; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

2014-09-01

247

Differential Effects of Excitatory and Inhibitory Plasticity on Synaptically Driven Neuronal Input-Output Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Ultimately, whether or not a neuron produces a spike determines its contribution to local computations. In response to brief stimuli the probability a neuron will fire can be described by its input-output function, which depends on the net balance and timing of excitatory and inhibitory currents. While excitatory and inhibitory synapses are plastic, most studies examine plasticity of subthreshold

Tiago P. Carvalho; Dean V. Buonomano

2009-01-01

248

Effects of exercise and diet change on cognition function and synaptic plasticity in high fat diet induced obese rats  

PubMed Central

Background Nutritional imbalance-induced obesity causes a variety of diseases and in particular is an important cause of cognitive function decline. This study was performed on Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with 13-weeks of high fat diet-induced obesity in connection to the effects of regular exercise and dietary control for 8 weeks on the synaptic plasticity and cognitive abilities of brain. Methods Four weeks-old SD rats were adopted classified into normal-normal diet-sedentary (NNS, n?=?8), obesity-high fat diet-sedentary (OHS, n?=?8), obesity-high fat diet-training (OHT, n?=?8), obesity-normal diet-sedentary (ONS, n?=?8) and obesity- normal diet-training (ONT, n?=?8). The exercise program consisted of a treadmill exercise administered at a speed of 8 m/min for 1–4 weeks, and 14 m/min for 5–8 weeks. The Western blot method was used to measure the expression of NGF, BDNF, p38MAPK and p-p38MAPK proteins in hippocampus of the brain, and expressions of NGF, BDNF, TrkA, TrkB, CREB and synapsin1 mRNA were analyzed through qRT-PCR. Results The results suggest cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression to be significantly decreased in the hippocampus of obese rats, and synaptic plasticity as well as cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors were also significantly decreased. In addition, 8-weeks exercises and treatment by dietary change had induced significant increase of cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression as well as synaptic plasticity and cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors in obese rats. In particular, the combined treatment had presented even more positive effect. Conclusions Therefore, it was determined that the high fat diet-induced obesity decreases plasticity and cognitive function of the brain, but was identified as being improved by exercises and dietary changes. In particular, it is considered that regular exercise has positive effects on memory span and learning capacity unlike dietary control.

2013-01-01

249

Development of Large-Scale Functional Brain Networks in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ontogeny of large-scale functional organization of the human brain is not well understood. Here we use network analysis of intrinsic functional connectivity to characterize the organization of brain networks in 23 children (ages 7-9 y) and 22 young-adults (ages 19-22 y). Comparison of network properties, including path-length, clustering-coefficient, hierarchy, and regional connectivity, revealed that although children and young-adults' brains

Kaustubh Supekar; Mark Musen; Vinod Menon

2009-01-01

250

Spatial variability of functional brain networks in early-blind and sighted subjects.  

PubMed

To further the understanding how the human brain adapts to early-onset blindness, we searched in early-blind and normally-sighted subjects for functional brain networks showing the most and least spatial variabilities across subjects. We hypothesized that the functional networks compensating for early-onset blindness undergo cortical reorganization. To determine whether reorganization of functional networks affects spatial variability, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare brain networks, derived by independent component analysis, of 7 early-blind and 7 sighted subjects while they rested or listened to an audio drama. In both conditions, the blind compared with sighted subjects showed more spatial variability in a bilateral parietal network (comprising the inferior parietal and angular gyri and precuneus) and in a bilateral auditory network (comprising the superior temporal gyri). In contrast, a vision-related left-hemisphere-lateralized occipital network (comprising the superior, middle and inferior occipital gyri, fusiform and lingual gyri, and the calcarine sulcus) was less variable in blind than sighted subjects. Another visual network and a tactile network were spatially more variable in the blind than sighted subjects in one condition. We contemplate whether our results on inter-subject spatial variability of brain networks are related to experience-dependent brain plasticity, and we suggest that auditory and parietal networks undergo a stronger experience-dependent reorganization in the early-blind than sighted subjects while the opposite is true for the vision-related occipital network. PMID:24680867

Boldt, Robert; Seppä, Mika; Malinen, Sanna; Tikka, Pia; Hari, Riitta; Carlson, Synnöve

2014-07-15

251

Brain serotonin and pituitary-adrenal functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It had been concluded by Scapagnini et al. (1971) that brain serotonin (5-HT) was involved in the regulation of the diurnal rhythm of the pituitary-adrenal system but not in the stress response. A study was conducted to investigate these findings further by evaluating the effects of altering brain 5-HT levels on the daily fluctuation of plasma corticosterone and on the response of the pituitary-adrenal system to a stressful or noxious stimulus in the rat. In a number of experiments brain 5-HT synthesis was inhibited with parachlorophenylalanine. In other tests it was tried to raise the level of brain 5-HT with precursors.

Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Berger, P.; Barchas, J. D.

1973-01-01

252

Infrared Imaging System for Studying Brain Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed special-purpose infrared imaging system would be a compact, portable, less-expensive alternative to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) systems heretofore used to study brain function. Whereas a typical fMRI system fills a large room, and must be magnetically isolated, this system would fit into a bicycle helmet. The system would include an assembly that would be mounted inside the padding in a modified bicycle helmet or other suitable headgear. The assembly would include newly designed infrared photodetectors and data-acquisition circuits on integrated-circuit chips on low-thermal-conductivity supports in evacuated housings (see figure) arranged in multiple rows and columns that would define image coordinates. Each housing would be spring-loaded against the wearer s head. The chips would be cooled by a small Stirling Engine mounted contiguous to, but thermally isolated from, the portions of the assembly in thermal contact with the wearer s head. Flexible wires or cables for transmitting data from the aforementioned chips would be routed to an integrated, multichannel transmitter and thence through the top of the assembly to a patch antenna on the outside of the helmet. The multiple streams of data from the infrared-detector chips would be sent to a remote site, where they would be processed, by software, into a three-dimensional display of evoked potentials that would represent firing neuronal bundles and thereby indicate locations of neuronal activity associated with mental or physical activity. The 3D images will be analogous to current fMRI images. The data would also be made available, in real-time, for comparison with data in local or internationally accessible relational databases that already exist in universities and research centers. Hence, this system could be used in research on, and for the diagnosis of response from the wearer s brain to physiological, psychological, and environmental changes in real time. The images would also be stored in a relational database for comparison with corresponding responses previously observed in other subjects.

Mintz, Frederick; Mintz, Frederick; Gunapala, Sarath

2007-01-01

253

An Impairment Index of Brain Functions in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An impairment index of brain functions in children was developed to summarize the performance on the Halstead-Reitan Neurological Test Battery for older children aged 9 through 14 years. Findings suggested that it may be a valid and objective indicator of brain functions in older children, although cross-validation is necessary. (Author/CL)

Reitan, Ralph M.

1984-01-01

254

Evolution of Cognitive Function via Redeployment of Brain Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part of understanding the functional organization of the brain is understanding how it evolved. The current study suggests that although the brain may have originally emerged as an organ with functionally dedicated regions, the creative reuse of these regions has played a significant role in its evolutionary development. This would parallel the evolution of other capabilities wherein existing struc- tures,

MICHAEL L. ANDERSON

2007-01-01

255

Brain Research: The Necessity for Separating Sites, Actions and Functions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators, as applied scientists, must work in partnership with investigative scientists who are researching brain functions in order to reach a better understanding of gifted students and students who are intelligent but do not learn. Improper understanding of brain functions can cause gross errors in educational placement. Until recently, the…

Meeker, Mary

256

Graph Analysis of Functional Brain Networks for Cognitive Control of Action in Traumatic Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patients with traumatic brain injury show clear impairments in behavioural flexibility and inhibition that often persist beyond the time of injury, affecting independent living and psychosocial functioning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that patients with traumatic brain injury typically show increased and more broadly…

Caeyenberghs, Karen; Leemans, Alexander; Heitger, Marcus H.; Leunissen, Inge; Dhollander, Thijs; Sunaert, Stefan; Dupont, Patrick; Swinnen, Stephan P.

2012-01-01

257

Network Analysis of Intrinsic Functional Brain Connectivity in Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional brain networks detected in task-free (''resting-state'') functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have a small- world architecture that reflects a robust functional organization of the brain. Here, we examined whether this functional organization is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Task-free fMRI data from 21 AD subjects and 18 age-matched controls were obtained. Wavelet analysis was applied to the fMRI data

Kaustubh Supekar; Vinod Menon; Daniel Rubin; Mark Musen; Michael D. Greicius

2008-01-01

258

Functional genomics of physiological plasticity and local adaptation in killifish.  

PubMed

Evolutionary solutions to the physiological challenges of life in highly variable habitats can span the continuum from evolution of a cosmopolitan plastic phenotype to the evolution of locally adapted phenotypes. Killifish (Fundulus sp.) have evolved both highly plastic and locally adapted phenotypes within different selective contexts, providing a comparative system in which to explore the genomic underpinnings of physiological plasticity and adaptive variation. Importantly, extensive variation exists among populations and species for tolerance to a variety of stressors, and we exploit this variation in comparative studies to yield insights into the genomic basis of evolved phenotypic variation. Notably, species of Fundulus occupy the continuum of osmotic habitats from freshwater to marine and populations within Fundulus heteroclitus span far greater variation in pollution tolerance than across all species of fish. Here, we explore how transcriptome regulation underpins extreme physiological plasticity on osmotic shock and how genomic and transcriptomic variation is associated with locally evolved pollution tolerance. We show that F. heteroclitus quickly acclimate to extreme osmotic shock by mounting a dramatic rapid transcriptomic response including an early crisis control phase followed by a tissue remodeling phase involving many regulatory pathways. We also show that convergent evolution of locally adapted pollution tolerance involves complex patterns of gene expression and genome sequence variation, which is confounded with body-weight dependence for some genes. Similarly, exploiting the natural phenotypic variation associated with other established and emerging model organisms is likely to greatly accelerate the pace of discovery of the genomic basis of phenotypic variation. PMID:20581107

Whitehead, Andrew; Galvez, Fernando; Zhang, Shujun; Williams, Larissa M; Oleksiak, Marjorie F

2011-01-01

259

Partial correlation for functional brain interactivity investigation in functional MRI.  

PubMed

Examination of functional interactions through effective connectivity requires the determination of three distinct levels of information: (1) the regions involved in the process and forming the spatial support of the network, (2) the presence or absence of interactions between each pair of regions, and (3) the directionality of the existing interactions. While many methods exist to select regions (Step 1), very little is available to complete Step 2. The two main methods developed so far, structural equation modeling (SEM) and dynamical causal modeling (DCM), usually require precise prior information to be used, while such information is sometimes lacking. Assuming that Step 1 was successfully completed, we here propose a data-driven method to deal with Step 2 and extract functional interactions from fMRI datasets through partial correlations. Partial correlation is more closely related to effective connectivity than marginal correlation and provides a convenient graphical representation for functional interactions. As an instance of brain interactivity investigation, we consider how simple hand movements are processed by the bihemispheric cortical motor network. In the proposed framework, Bayesian analysis makes it possible to estimate and test the partial statistical dependencies between regions without any prior model on the underlying functional interactions. We demonstrate the interest of this approach on real data. PMID:16777436

Marrelec, Guillaume; Krainik, Alexandre; Duffau, Hugues; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Doyon, Julien; Benali, Habib

2006-08-01

260

Angiogenesis, neurogenesis and brain recovery of function following injury  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury and stroke are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Unfortunately, almost all phase-III neuroprotective clinical trials for stroke and traumatic brain injury have shown no benefits; this has raised concerns regarding neuroprotective strategy alone as a therapy for acute brain injuries. There is therefore a compelling need to develop treatments that promote the repair and regeneration of injured brain tissue and functional recovery. Recent findings suggest that strategies to enhance angiogenesis and neurogenesis for brain injuries may provide promising opportunities to improve clinical outcomes during brain functional recovery. This article reviews current data on angiogenesis and neurogenesis in the adult brain after stroke and traumatic brain injury. Select cell-based and pharmacological therapies that promote angiogenesis and neurogenesis designed to restore neurological function after brain injuries are described. These findings highlight the need for a better understanding of injury- and therapy-induced angiogenesis and neurogenesis in the adult and suggest that the manipulation of endogenous neural precursors and endothelial cells is a potential therapy for brain injury.

Xiong, Ye; Mahmood, Asim; Chopp, Michael

2010-01-01

261

Music Making as a Tool for Promoting Brain Plasticity across the Life Span  

PubMed Central

Playing a musical instrument is an intense, multisensory, and motor experience that usually commences at an early age and requires the acquisition and maintenance of a range of skills over the course of a musician's lifetime. Thus, musicians offer an excellent human model for studying the brain effects of acquiring specialized sensorimotor skills. For example, musicians learn and repeatedly practice the association of motor actions with specific sound and visual patterns (musical notation) while receiving continuous multisensory feedback. This association learning can strengthen connections between auditory and motor regions (e.g., arcuate fasciculus) while activating multimodal integration regions (e.g., around the intraparietal sulcus). We argue that training of this neural network may produce cross-modal effects on other behavioral or cognitive operations that draw on this network. Plasticity in this network may explain some of the sensorimotor and cognitive enhancements that have been associated with music training. These enhancements suggest the potential for music making as an interactive treatment or intervention for neurological and developmental disorders, as well as those associated with normal aging.

Wan, Catherine Y.; Schlaug, Gottfried

2010-01-01

262

Music making as a tool for promoting brain plasticity across the life span.  

PubMed

Playing a musical instrument is an intense, multisensory, and motor experience that usually commences at an early age and requires the acquisition and maintenance of a range of skills over the course of a musician's lifetime. Thus, musicians offer an excellent human model for studying the brain effects of acquiring specialized sensorimotor skills. For example, musicians learn and repeatedly practice the association of motor actions with specific sound and visual patterns (musical notation) while receiving continuous multisensory feedback. This association learning can strengthen connections between auditory and motor regions (e.g., arcuate fasciculus) while activating multimodal integration regions (e.g., around the intraparietal sulcus). We argue that training of this neural network may produce cross-modal effects on other behavioral or cognitive operations that draw on this network. Plasticity in this network may explain some of the sensorimotor and cognitive enhancements that have been associated with music training. These enhancements suggest the potential for music making as an interactive treatment or intervention for neurological and developmental disorders, as well as those associated with normal aging. PMID:20889966

Wan, Catherine Y; Schlaug, Gottfried

2010-10-01

263

Therapeutic time window of noninvasive brain stimulation for pain treatment: inhibition of maladaptive plasticity with early intervention.  

PubMed

Neuromodulatory effects of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) have been extensively studied in chronic disorders such as major depression, chronic pain and stroke. However, few studies have explored the use of these techniques in acute conditions. A possible use of NIBS in acute disorders is to prevent or reverse ongoing maladaptive plastic alterations, seemingly responsible for treatment refractoriness and detrimental behavioral changes. In this review, the authors discuss the potential role of NIBS in blocking maladaptive plasticity using the transition of acute to chronic pain in conditions such as postsurgical pain, central poststroke pain, pain after spinal cord injury and pain after traumatic brain injury as a model. The authors also present suggestions for clinical trial design using NIBS in the acute stage of illnesses. PMID:23668706

Andrade, Dafne C; Borges, Igor; Bravo, Gabriela L; Bolognini, Nadia; Fregni, Felipe

2013-05-01

264

Brain mechanisms of plasticity in response to treatments for core deficits in autism.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social communication impairments and repetitive behaviors. Although the prevalence of ASD is estimated at 1 in 88, understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder is still emerging. Regions including the amygdala, superior temporal sulcus, orbitofrontal cortex, fusiform gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex, and insula have been implicated in social processing. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated both anatomical and functional differences in these areas of the brain in individuals with ASD when compared to controls; however, research on the neural basis for response to treatment in ASD is limited. Results of the three studies that have examined the neural mechanisms underlying treatment response are promising; following treatment, the brains of individuals with ASD seem to "normalize," responding more similarly to those of typically developing individuals. The research in this area is in its early stages, and thus a focused effort examining the neural basis of treatment response in ASD is crucial. PMID:24309258

Ventola, Pamela E; Oosting, Devon; Anderson, Laura C; Pelphrey, Kevin A

2013-01-01

265

Comparison of Swallowing Functions Between Brain Tumor and Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the swallowing functions according to the lesion locations between brain tumor and stroke patients. Methods Forty brain tumor patients and the same number of age-, lesion-, and functional status-matching stroke patients were enrolled in this study. Before beginning the swallowing therapy, swallowing function was evaluated in all subjects by videofluoroscopic swallowing study. Brain lesions were classified as either supratentorial or in-fratentorial. We evaluated the following: the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) National Outcome Measurement System (NOMS) swallowing scale, clinical dysphagia scale, functional dysphagia scale (FDS), penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), oral transit time, pharyngeal transit time, the presence of vallecular pouch residue, pyriform sinus residue, laryngopharyngeal incoordination, premature spillage, a decreased swal-lowing reflex, pneumonia, and the feeding method at discharge. Results The incidence of dysphagia was similar in brain tumor and stroke patients. There were no differences in the results of the various swallowing scales and other parameters between the two groups. When compared brain tumor patients with supratentorial lesions, brain tumor patients with infratentorial lesions showed higher propor-tion of dysphagia (p=0.01), residue (p<0.01), FDS (p<0.01), PAS (p<0.01), and lower ASHA NOMS (p=0.02) at initial evaluation. However, there was no significant difference for the swallowing functions between benign and malig-nant brain tumor patients. Conclusion Swallowing function of brain tumor patients was not different from that of stroke patients according to matching age, location of lesion, and functional status. Similar to the stroke patients, brain tumor patients with infratentorial lesions present poor swallowing functions. However, the type of brain tumor as malignancy does not influence swallowing functions.

Park, Dae Hwan; Lee, Sook Joung; Song, Yoon Bum

2013-01-01

266

Non-verbal emotion communication training induces specific changes in brain function and structure  

PubMed Central

The perception of emotional cues from voice and face is essential for social interaction. However, this process is altered in various psychiatric conditions along with impaired social functioning. Emotion communication trainings have been demonstrated to improve social interaction in healthy individuals and to reduce emotional communication deficits in psychiatric patients. Here, we investigated the impact of a non-verbal emotion communication training (NECT) on cerebral activation and brain structure in a controlled and combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry study. NECT-specific reductions in brain activity occurred in a distributed set of brain regions including face and voice processing regions as well as emotion processing- and motor-related regions presumably reflecting training-induced familiarization with the evaluation of face/voice stimuli. Training-induced changes in non-verbal emotion sensitivity at the behavioral level and the respective cerebral activation patterns were correlated in the face-selective cortical areas in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus for valence ratings and in the temporal pole, lateral prefrontal cortex and midbrain/thalamus for the response times. A NECT-induced increase in gray matter (GM) volume was observed in the fusiform face area. Thus, NECT induces both functional and structural plasticity in the face processing system as well as functional plasticity in the emotion perception and evaluation system. We propose that functional alterations are presumably related to changes in sensory tuning in the decoding of emotional expressions. Taken together, these findings highlight that the present experimental design may serve as a valuable tool to investigate the altered behavioral and neuronal processing of emotional cues in psychiatric disorders as well as the impact of therapeutic interventions on brain function and structure.

Kreifelts, Benjamin; Jacob, Heike; Bruck, Carolin; Erb, Michael; Ethofer, Thomas; Wildgruber, Dirk

2013-01-01

267

Functional plasticity of macrophages: in situ reprogramming of tumor-associated macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which the functional heterogeneity of Ms is dependent on the differentiation of functional sublin- eages remains unresolved. One alternative hypothesis proposes that Ms are functionally plastic cells, which are capable of altering their functional activities pro- gressively in response to progressively changing sig- naling molecules generated in their microenvironment. This \\

Robert D. Stout; Stephanie K. Watkins; Jill Suttles

2009-01-01

268

Subchronic Alpha-Linolenic Acid Treatment Enhances Brain Plasticity and Exerts an Antidepressant Effect: A Versatile Potential Therapy for Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to have therapeutic potential in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms of action underlying these effects are not well elucidated. We previously showed that alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) reduced ischemic brain damage after a single treatment. To follow-up this finding, we investigated whether subchronic ALA treatment promoted neuronal plasticity. Three sequential injections

Nicolas Blondeau; Carine Nguemeni; David N Debruyne; Marie Piens; Xuan Wu; Hongna Pan; XianZhang Hu; Carine Gandin; Robert H Lipsky; Jean-Christophe Plumier; Ann M Marini; Catherine Heurteaux

2009-01-01

269

Norepinephrine and Neural Plasticity: The Effects of Xylamine on Experience-Induced Changes in Brain Weight, Memory, and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that norepinephrine (NE) is critically involved in neural plasticity was tested by administering xylamine, (N-2-chloroethyl-2-methylbenzylamine, 50 mg\\/kg ip) a noradrenergic neurotoxin, to young rats prior to maze training or environmentally enriched housing. In saline-treated rats, exposure to enriched conditions significantly increased the weight of occipital, dorsal, and ventral cortices and the remaining brain compared to individually housed rats.

S. Benloucif; E. L. Bennett; M. R. Rosenzweig

1995-01-01

270

Tai Chi Chuan optimizes the functional organization of the intrinsic human brain architecture in older adults.  

PubMed

Whether Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) can influence the intrinsic functional architecture of the human brain remains unclear. To examine TCC-associated changes in functional connectomes, resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired from 40 older individuals including 22 experienced TCC practitioners (experts) and 18 demographically matched TCC-naïve healthy controls, and their local functional homogeneities across the cortical mantle were compared. Compared to the controls, the TCC experts had significantly greater and more experience-dependent functional homogeneity in the right post-central gyrus (PosCG) and less functional homogeneity in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex. Increased functional homogeneity in the PosCG was correlated with TCC experience. Intriguingly, decreases in functional homogeneity (improved functional specialization) in the left ACC and increases in functional homogeneity (improved functional integration) in the right PosCG both predicted performance gains on attention network behavior tests. These findings provide evidence for the functional plasticity of the brain's intrinsic architecture toward optimizing locally functional organization, with great implications for understanding the effects of TCC on cognition, behavior and health in aging population. PMID:24860494

Wei, Gao-Xia; Dong, Hao-Ming; Yang, Zhi; Luo, Jing; Zuo, Xi-Nian

2014-01-01

271

State-related functional integration and functional segregation brain networks in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Altered topological properties of brain connectivity networks have emerged as important features of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate how the state-related modulations to graph measures of functional integration and functional segregation brain networks are disrupted in schizophrenia. Firstly, resting state and auditory oddball discrimination (AOD) fMRI data of healthy controls (HCs) and schizophrenia patients (SZs) were decomposed into spatially independent components (ICs) by group independent component analysis (ICA). Then, weighted positive and negative functional integration (inter-component networks) and functional segregation (intra-component networks) brain networks were built in each subject. Subsequently, connectivity strength, clustering coefficient, and global efficiency of all brain networks were statistically compared between groups (HCs and SZs) in each state and between states (rest and AOD) within group. We found that graph measures of negative functional integration brain network and several positive functional segregation brain networks were altered in schizophrenia during AOD task. The metrics of positive functional integration brain network and one positive functional segregation brain network were higher during the resting state than during the AOD task only in HCs. These findings imply that state-related characteristics of both functional integration and functional segregation brain networks are impaired in schizophrenia which provides new insight into the altered brain performance in this brain disorder. PMID:24094882

Yu, Qingbao; Sui, Jing; Kiehl, Kent A; Pearlson, Godfrey; Calhoun, Vince D

2013-11-01

272

NMDA receptor function, memory, and brain aging  

PubMed Central

An increasing level of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction within the brain is associated with memory and learning impairments, with psychosis, and ultimately with excitotoxic brain injury. As the brain ages, the NMDA receptor system becomes progressively hypofunctional, contributing to decreases in memory and learning performance. In those individuals destined to develop Alzheimer's disease, other abnormalities (eg, amyloidopathy and oxidative stress) interact to increase the NMDA receptor hypofunction (NRHypo) burden. In these vulnerable individuals, the brain then enters into a severe and persistent NRHypo state, which can lead to widespread neurodegeneration with accompanying mental symptoms and further cognitive deterioration. If the hypotheses described herein prove correct, treatment implications may be considerable. Pharmacological methods for preventing the overstimulation of vulnerable corticolimbic pyramidal neurons developed in an animal model may be applicable to the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Newcomer, John W.; Farber, Nuri B.; Olney, John W.

2000-01-01

273

Persistent inflammation alters the function of the endogenous brain stem cell compartment  

PubMed Central

Endogenous neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) are considered a functional reservoir for promoting tissue homeostasis and repair after injury, therefore regenerative strategies that mobilize these cells have recently been proposed. Despite evidence of increased neurogenesis upon acute inflammatory insults (e.g. ischaemic stroke), the plasticity of the endogenous brain stem cell compartment in chronic CNS inflammatory disorders remains poorly characterized. Here we show that persistent brain inflammation, induced by immune cells targeting myelin, extensively alters the proliferative and migratory properties of subventricular zone (SVZ)-resident NPCs in vivo leading to significant accumulation of non-migratory neuroblasts within the SVZ germinal niche. In parallel, we demonstrate a quantitative reduction of the putative brain stem cells proliferation in the SVZ during persistent brain inflammation, which is completely reversed after in vitro culture of the isolated NPCs. Together, these data indicate that the inflamed brain microenvironment sustains a non cell-autonomous dysfunction of the endogenous CNS stem cell compartment and challenge the potential efficacy of proposed therapies aimed at mobilizing endogenous precursors in chronic inflammatory brain disorders.

Pluchino, Stefano; Muzio, Luca; Imitola, Jaime; Deleidi, Michela; Alfaro-Cervello, Clara; Salani, Giuliana; Porcheri, Cristina; Brambilla, Elena; Cavasinni, Francesca; Bergamaschi, Andrea; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Comi, Giancarlo; Khoury, Samia J.

2008-01-01

274

Rho GTPase-dependent plasticity of dendritic spines in the adult brain  

PubMed Central

Brain activity is associated with structural changes in the neural connections. However, in vivo imaging of the outer cortical layers has shown that dendritic spines, on which most excitatory synapses insist, are predominantly stable in adulthood. Changes in dendritic spines are governed by small GTPases of the Rho family through modulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Yet, while there are abundant data about this functional effect of Rho GTPases in vitro, there is limited evidence that Rho GTPase signaling in the brain is associated with changes in neuronal morphology. In the present work, both chronic in vivo two-photon imaging and Golgi staining reveal that the activation of Rho GTPases in the adult mouse brain is associated with little change of dendritic spines in the apical dendrites of primary visual cortex pyramidal neurons. On the contrary, considerable increase in spine density is observed (i) in the basal dendrites of the same neurons (ii) in both basal and apical dendrites of the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. While confirming that Rho GTPase-dependent increase in spine density can be substantial, the study indicates region and dendrite selectivity with relative stability of superficial cortical circuits.

Martino, Assunta; Ettorre, Michele; Musilli, Marco; Lorenzetto, Erika; Buffelli, Mario; Diana, Giovanni

2013-01-01

275

An Autoradiographic Analysis Of Rat Brain Nicotinic Receptor Plasticity Following Dietary Choline Modification  

PubMed Central

Choline is known to be involved with numerous physiological functions of the nervous system and also acts as a direct acting agonist of ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The purpose of this study was to conduct a brain region-specific evaluation of changes in nAChR subtype expression following dietary choline modification. In addition, we assessed changes in body weight, food/water intake, as well as changes spatial learning (Morris Water Maze) in response to dietary choline modification. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to standard, choline supplemented or choline deficient diets for periods of 14 or 28 days. Choline supplemented animals gained significantly less weight over the course of the experiment, in spite of the fact that there were minimal differences in food consumption between the dietary regimens. Spatial memory did not differ between animals maintained on a standard rat diet, and the choline supplemented food. Brains of the animals kept on the diets for 14 and 28 days were used for quantitative autoradiographic analysis of nicotinic receptor subtypes using 125I-Bungarotoxin (?7) and 125I-Epibatidine (non-?7). There were no significant differences in nicotinic receptor binding or physiologic parameters measured between animals fed standard and choline deficient diets. However 2 weeks of dietary choline supplementation caused significant up-regulation of ?7 receptors without significant effect on the density of non-?7 nAChRs. Increases in BTX binding predominantly occurred in cortical and hippocampal brain regions and ranged between 14 and 30 percent depending on the brain region. The results of our study suggest that choline acts as a selective agonist at ?7 nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the rat central nervous system.

Guseva, M.V.; Hopkins, D.M.; Pauly, J.R.

2007-01-01

276

Plasticity of functional traits varies clinally along a rainfall gradient in Eucalyptus tricarpa.  

PubMed

Widespread species often occur across a range of climatic conditions, through a combination of local genetic adaptations and phenotypic plasticity. Species with greater phenotypic plasticity are likely to be better positioned to cope with rapid anthropogenic climate changes, while those displaying strong local adaptations might benefit from translocations to assist the movement of adaptive genes as the climate changes. Eucalyptus tricarpa occurs across a climatic gradient in south-eastern Australia, a region of increasing aridity, and we hypothesized that this species would display local adaptation to climate. We measured morphological and physiological traits reflecting climate responses in nine provenances from sites of 460 to 1040?mm annual rainfall, in their natural habitat and in common gardens near each end of the gradient. Local adaptation was evident in functional traits and differential growth rates in the common gardens. Some traits displayed complex combinations of plasticity and genetic divergence among provenances, including clinal variation in plasticity itself. Provenances from drier locations were more plastic in leaf thickness, whereas leaf size was more plastic in provenances from higher rainfall locations. Leaf density and stomatal physiology (as indicated by ?(13) C and ?(18) O) were highly and uniformly plastic. In addition to variation in mean trait values, genetic variation in trait plasticity may play a role in climate adaptation. PMID:24329726

McLean, Elizabeth H; Prober, Suzanne M; Stock, William D; Steane, Dorothy A; Potts, Brad M; Vaillancourt, René E; Byrne, Margaret

2014-06-01

277

Functional connectivity in the normal and injured brain.  

PubMed

The brain is neither uniform nor composed of similar modules but is rather a mosaic of different and highly interconnected regions. Accordingly, knowledge of functional connectivity between brain regions is crucial to understanding perception, cognition, and behavior. Functional connectivity methods estimate similarities between activity recorded in different regions of the brain. They are often applied to resting state activity, thus providing measures that are by nature task independent. The spatial patterns revealed by functional connectivity are not only shaped by the underlying anatomical structure of the brain but also partially depend on the history of task-driven coactivations. Inter-subject differences in functional connectivity may, at least to some degree, underlie variability observed in task performance across healthy subjects and in behavioral impairments in neurological patients. In this respect, recent studies have demonstrated that behavioral deficits in patients with brain injury are not only due to local tissue damage but also due to altered functional connectivity among structurally intact regions connected to the damaged site. Studies based on functional connectivity have the potential to advance basic understanding of how brain lesions induce neuropsychological syndromes. Furthermore, they may eventually suggest improved rehabilitation strategies for patients with brain injury, through the design of individualized treatment and recovery protocols. PMID:23064084

Gillebert, Céline R; Mantini, Dante

2013-10-01

278

Imaging emotional brain functions: Conceptual and methodological issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the psychophysiological and brain imaging literature on emotional brain function from a methodological point of view. The difficulties in defining, operationalising and measuring emotional activation and, in particular, aversive learning will be considered. Emotion is a response of the organism during an episode of major significance and involves physiological activation, motivational, perceptual, evaluative and learning processes, motor

Martin Peper

2006-01-01

279

From connections to function: the mouse brain connectome atlas.  

PubMed

Mapping synaptic connections and projections is crucial for understanding brain dynamics and function. In a recent issue of Nature, Oh et al. present a wiring diagram of the whole mouse brain, where standardized labeling, tracing, and imaging of axonal connections reveal new details in the network organization of neuronal connectivity. PMID:24813604

Sporns, Olaf; Bullmore, Edward T

2014-05-01

280

Specific monitoring of neonatal brain function with optimized frequency bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection of altered brain function can be helpful in preventing the development of serious brain damage. Power spectral analysis of continuous EEG is an established tool in corresponding clinical monitoring. The commonly used EEG power classifiers are based on the power within particular frequency bands. It can be supposed that individually adapted frequency bands allow a more specific monitoring

Dirk Hoyer; Reinhard Bauer; Kirsten Conrad; Mirek Galicki; Axel Döring; Heike Hoyer; Bernd Walter; H. Witie; Ulrich Zwiener

2001-01-01

281

Magnetic resonance functional imaging of the brain at 4 t  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast imaging of human brain function using echo-planar imaging at 4 T gives good freedom from motion artifact, high signal-to-noise ratio\\/unit time, and adequate spatial resolution. Studies were made of brain activation associated with perceptual and cognitive tasks of several minutes duration.

P. Jezzard

1994-01-01

282

The Efficiency of a Small-World Functional Brain Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate whether the small-world topology of a functional brain network means high information processing efficiency by calculating the correlation between the small-world measures of a functional brain network and behavioral reaction during an imagery task. Functional brain networks are constructed by multichannel event-related potential data, in which the electrodes are the nodes and the functional connectivities between them are the edges. The results show that the correlation between small-world measures and reaction time is task-specific, such that in global imagery, there is a positive correlation between the clustering coefficient and reaction time, while in local imagery the average path length is positively correlated with the reaction time. This suggests that the efficiency of a functional brain network is task-dependent.

Zhao, Qing-Bai; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Sui, Dan-Ni; Zhou, Zhi-Jin; Chen, Qi-Cai; Tang, Yi-Yuan

2012-04-01

283

Brain function in social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

What have these studies revealed about SAD? First, few studies have been performed so far, with even fewer replications. Most of the work has been exploratory in nature and follows the paradigms used in PD. This approach has been justifiably criticized. The use of psychological (naturalistic) challenges may be more appropriate in SP than chemical challenges. The paradigms of public speaking, autobiographical scripts, or similar behavioral challenges merit further use, exploration, and validation if symptoms resembling those of the condition proper are to be induced in experimental circumstances. However, some tentative conclusions can be drawn from the research performed so far. There is no enough evidence to support the presence of structural brain abnormality in SAD. Admittedly, such a finding would have been very unlikely. On the other hand, evidence of subtle functional abnormalities is accumulating. On the nosologic question, there appear to be differences from PD. While in some challenges (e.g., CO2 and pentagastrin) the two conditions differ only in degree, in others (e.g., lactate, caffeine, and flumazenil), the separation is clearer. Equally, there is a strong argument to differentiate the generalized from the specific form of social anxiety on the basis of substantial (albeit accidental) findings outlined earlier. More sophisticated neuroimaging techniques, directly comparing patients from both groups before and after pharmacologic or psychological treatment, should provide more conclusive evidence on this issue. What might also help future research is the integration of biological investigations with specific personality profiles. In one study, SAD patients scored low in novelty seeking, self-directedness and cooperativeness and high in harm avoidance. It has been hypothesized that such results indicate serotonergic and dopaminergic dysregulation, which is consistent with the findings described earlier. The best evidence for neurotransmitter abnormality so far is for altered dopamine function at the level of the basal ganglia, either pre- or postsynaptic, which may result in reduced basal ganglia function so that the normal fluidity of social motor functions (e.g., smiling, eye movements, and speech) are impaired, thus leading to the cognitive symptoms of social anxiety and the subsequent generation of avoidance behavior. Such patients should respond poorly to antipsychotics, and additional challenges with these drugs could be used to test this theory. Furthermore, more research needs to be done to elucidate the mechanism by which SSRIs work in SAD. Neuroanatomical models of social anxiety (Fig. 4) [see structure: Text], explaining the site of action of drugs and psychological treatments, have been proposed in recent years. Central to these models is the notion of an innate anxiety circuit, which could be tentatively identified with the behavioral inhibition system, the septohippocampal system. This area receives 5-HT, NE, and dopamine input and has connections with the cortex and limbic structures. The relevance of these models remains to be assessed in experiments that are specifically designed to test them. PMID:11723629

Argyropoulos, S V; Bell, C J; Nutt, D J

2001-12-01

284

Mapping Functional Brain Development: Building a Social Brain Through Interactive Specialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review a viewpoint on human functional brain development, interactive specialization (IS), and its application to the emerging network of cortical regions referred to as the social brain. They advance the IS view in 2 new ways. First, they extend IS into a domain to which it has not previously been applied—the emergence of social cognition and mentalizing computations

Mark H. Johnson; Tobias Grossmann; Kathrin Cohen Kadosh

2009-01-01

285

Correlation between cognitive brain function and electrical brain activity in dementia of Alzheimer type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Psychometric tests which assess cognitive brain function in dementia disorders are partly prone to artifacts, e.g., the experience of the investigator and the cooperation of the patient influences the results. An objective way to assess the degree of cognitive disturbance could be to measure neuronal activity represented by the electrical brain activity. The aim of the present study was

T. Dierks; L. Frölich; R. Ihl; K. Maurer

1995-01-01

286

Complex Networks - A Key to Understanding Brain Function  

ScienceCinema

The brain is a complex network of neurons, engaging in spontaneous and evoked activity that is thought to be the main substrate of mental life. How this complex system works together to process information and generate coherent cognitive states, even consciousness, is not yet well understood. In my talk I will review recent studies that have revealed characteristic structural and functional attributes of brain networks, and discuss efforts to build computational models of the brain that are informed by our growing knowledge of brain anatomy and physiology.

287

Complex Networks - A Key to Understanding Brain Function  

ScienceCinema

The brain is a complex network of neurons, engaging in spontaneous and evoked activity that is thought to be the main substrate of mental life.  How this complex system works together to process information and generate coherent cognitive states, even consciousness, is not yet well understood.  In my talk I will review recent studies that have revealed characteristic structural and functional attributes of brain networks, and discuss efforts to build computational models of the brain that are informed by our growing knowledge of brain anatomy and physiology.

Olaf Sporns

2010-01-08

288

Complex Networks - A Key to Understanding Brain Function  

SciTech Connect

The brain is a complex network of neurons, engaging in spontaneous and evoked activity that is thought to be the main substrate of mental life. How this complex system works together to process information and generate coherent cognitive states, even consciousness, is not yet well understood. In my talk I will review recent studies that have revealed characteristic structural and functional attributes of brain networks, and discuss efforts to build computational models of the brain that are informed by our growing knowledge of brain anatomy and physiology.

Sporns, Olaf (Indiana University) [Indiana University

2008-01-23

289

Differential Modulation of Drug-Induced Structural and Functional Plasticity of Dendritic Spines  

PubMed Central

Drug-induced plasticity of excitatory synapses has been proposed to be the cellular mechanism underlying the aberrant learning associated with addiction. Exposure to various drugs of abuse causes both morphological plasticity of dendritic spines and functional plasticity of excitatory synaptic transmission. Chronic activation of ?-opioid receptors (MOR) in cultured hippocampal neurons causes two forms of synaptic plasticity: loss of dendritic spines and loss of synaptic ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. With use of live imaging, patch-clamp electrophysiology, and immunocytochemistry, the present study reveals that these two forms of synaptic plasticity are mediated by separate, but interactive, intracellular signaling cascades. The inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with 1-[N,O-bis(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-N-methyl-l-tyrosyl]-4-phenylpiperazine (KN-62) blocks MOR-mediated structural plasticity of dendritic spines, but not MOR-mediated cellular redistribution of GluR1 and GluR2 AMPA receptor subunits. In contrast, the inhibition of calcineurin with tacrolimus (FK506) blocks both cellular processes. These findings support the idea that drug-induced structural and functional plasticity of dendritic spines is mediated by divergent, but interactive, signaling pathways.

Miller, Eric C.; Zhang, Lei; Dummer, Benjamin W.; Cariveau, Desmond R.; Loh, Horace; Law, Ping-Yee

2012-01-01

290

Plasticity of the mate choice mind: courtship evokes choice-like brain responses in females from a coercive mating system.  

PubMed

Female mate choice is fundamental to sexual selection, and determining molecular underpinnings of female preference variation is important for understanding mating character evolution. Previously it was shown that whole-brain expression of a synaptic plasticity marker, neuroserpin, positively correlates with mating bias in the female choice poeciliid, Xiphophorus nigrensis, when exposed to conspecific courting males, whereas this relationship is reversed in Gambusia affinis, a mate coercive poeciliid with no courting males. Here we explore whether species-level differences in female behavioral and brain molecular responses represent 'canalized' or 'plastic' traits. We expose female G. affinis to conspecific males and females, as well as coercive and courting male Poecilia latipinna, for preference assays followed by whole-brain gene expression analyses of neuroserpin, egr-1 and early B. We find positive correlations between gene expression and female preference strength during exposure to courting heterospecific males, but a reversed pattern following exposure to coercive heterospecific males. This suggests that the neuromolecular processes associated with female preference behavior are plastic and responsive to different male phenotypes (courting or coercive) rather than a canalized response linked to mating system. Further, we propose that female behavioral plasticity may involve learning because female association patterns shifted with experience. Compared to younger females, we found larger, more experienced females spend less time near coercive males but associate more with males in the presence of courters. We thus suggest a conserved learning-based neuromolecular process underlying the diversity of female mate preference across the mate choice and coercion-driven mating systems. PMID:24548673

Wang, S M T; Ramsey, M E; Cummings, M E

2014-04-01

291

The load separation criterion in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics: Rate and temperature dependence of the material plastic deformation function in an ABS resin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is aimed at analyzing the effects of temperature and loading rate on the plastic deformation behavior of an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin during a fracture process. According to the load separation criterion, the plastic deformation behavior during the fracture process of an elastic-plastic material is described by a plastic deformation function. For the ABS here examined, the material plastic deformation function was constructed at different temperatures and loading rates, by single edge notched in bending (SEB) tests on blunt notched specimens. Both low and moderately high (impact) loading rates were explored. For the various conditions of temperature and loading rate the material yield stress was also measured by uniaxial tensile tests. The relationships between material deformation function and yield stress were researched and discussed.

Agnelli, Silvia; Baldi, Francesco; Riccò, Theonis

2012-07-01

292

Determination of Vascular Dementia Brain in Distinct Frequency Bands with Whole Brain Functional Connectivity Patterns  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) can be useful for distinguishing brain disorders into categories. Such analyses can substantially enrich and facilitate clinical diagnoses. Using MPVA methods, whole brain functional networks, especially those derived using different frequency windows, can be applied to detect brain states. We constructed whole brain functional networks for groups of vascular dementia (VaD) patients and controls using resting state BOLD-fMRI (rsfMRI) data from three frequency bands - slow-5 (0.01?0.027 Hz), slow-4 (0.027?0.073 Hz), and whole-band (0.01?0.073 Hz). Then we used the support vector machine (SVM), a type of MVPA classifier, to determine the patterns of functional connectivity. Our results showed that the brain functional networks derived from rsfMRI data (19 VaD patients and 20 controls) in these three frequency bands appear to reflect neurobiological changes in VaD patients. Such differences could be used to differentiate the brain states of VaD patients from those of healthy individuals. We also found that the functional connectivity patterns of the human brain in the three frequency bands differed, as did their ability to differentiate brain states. Specifically, the ability of the functional connectivity pattern to differentiate VaD brains from healthy ones was more efficient in the slow-5 (0.01?0.027 Hz) band than in the other two frequency bands. Our findings suggest that the MVPA approach could be used to detect abnormalities in the functional connectivity of VaD patients in distinct frequency bands. Identifying such abnormalities may contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis of VaD.

Zhang, Delong; Liu, Bo; Chen, Jun; Peng, Xiaoling; Liu, Xian; Fan, Yuanyuan; Liu, Ming; Huang, Ruiwang

2013-01-01

293

Network Analysis of Intrinsic Functional Brain Connectivity in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Functional brain networks detected in task-free (“resting-state”) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have a small-world architecture that reflects a robust functional organization of the brain. Here, we examined whether this functional organization is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Task-free fMRI data from 21 AD subjects and 18 age-matched controls were obtained. Wavelet analysis was applied to the fMRI data to compute frequency-dependent correlation matrices. Correlation matrices were thresholded to create 90-node undirected-graphs of functional brain networks. Small-world metrics (characteristic path length and clustering coefficient) were computed using graph analytical methods. In the low frequency interval 0.01 to 0.05 Hz, functional brain networks in controls showed small-world organization of brain activity, characterized by a high clustering coefficient and a low characteristic path length. In contrast, functional brain networks in AD showed loss of small-world properties, characterized by a significantly lower clustering coefficient (p<0.01), indicative of disrupted local connectivity. Clustering coefficients for the left and right hippocampus were significantly lower (p<0.01) in the AD group compared to the control group. Furthermore, the clustering coefficient distinguished AD participants from the controls with a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 78%. Our study provides new evidence that there is disrupted organization of functional brain networks in AD. Small-world metrics can characterize the functional organization of the brain in AD, and our findings further suggest that these network measures may be useful as an imaging-based biomarker to distinguish AD from healthy aging.

Supekar, Kaustubh; Menon, Vinod; Rubin, Daniel; Musen, Mark; Greicius, Michael D.

2008-01-01

294

Stress and the Adolescent Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

During adolescence the brain shows remarkable changes in both structure and function. The plasticity exhibited by the brain during this pubertal period may make individuals more vulnerable to pertur- bations, such as stress. Although much is known about how exposure to stress and stress hormones during perinatal development and adulthood affect the structure and function of the brain, relatively little

RUSSELL D. ROMEO; BRUCE S. MCEWEN

2006-01-01

295

Generating Text from Functional Brain Images  

PubMed Central

Recent work has shown that it is possible to take brain images acquired during viewing of a scene and reconstruct an approximation of the scene from those images. Here we show that it is also possible to generate text about the mental content reflected in brain images. We began with images collected as participants read names of concrete items (e.g., “Apartment’’) while also seeing line drawings of the item named. We built a model of the mental semantic representation of concrete concepts from text data and learned to map aspects of such representation to patterns of activation in the corresponding brain image. In order to validate this mapping, without accessing information about the items viewed for left-out individual brain images, we were able to generate from each one a collection of semantically pertinent words (e.g., “door,” “window” for “Apartment’’). Furthermore, we show that the ability to generate such words allows us to perform a classification task and thus validate our method quantitatively.

Pereira, Francisco; Detre, Greg; Botvinick, Matthew

2011-01-01

296

Cognitive fitness of cost-efficient brain functional networks  

PubMed Central

The human brain's capacity for cognitive function is thought to depend on coordinated activity in sparsely connected, complex networks organized over many scales of space and time. Recent work has demonstrated that human brain networks constructed from neuroimaging data have economical small-world properties that confer high efficiency of information processing at relatively low connection cost. However, it has been unclear how the architecture of complex brain networks functioning at different frequencies can be related to behavioral performance on cognitive tasks. Here, we show that impaired accuracy of working memory could be related to suboptimal cost efficiency of brain functional networks operating in the classical ? frequency band, 15–30 Hz. We analyzed brain functional networks derived from magnetoencephalography data recorded during working-memory task performance in 29 healthy volunteers and 28 people with schizophrenia. Networks functioning at higher frequencies had greater global cost efficiency than low-frequency networks in both groups. Superior task performance was positively correlated with global cost efficiency of the ?-band network and specifically with cost efficiency of nodes in left lateral parietal and frontal areas. These results are consistent with biophysical models highlighting the importance of ?-band oscillations for long-distance functional connections in brain networks and with pathophysiological models of schizophrenia as a dysconnection syndrome. More generally, they echo the saying that “less is more”: The information processing performance of a network can be enhanced by a sparse or low-cost configuration with disproportionately high efficiency.

Bassett, Danielle S.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Apud, Jose A.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Coppola, Richard

2009-01-01

297

Free D-aspartate regulates neuronal dendritic morphology, synaptic plasticity, gray matter volume and brain activity in mammals.  

PubMed

D-aspartate (D-Asp) is an atypical amino acid, which is especially abundant in the developing mammalian brain, and can bind to and activate N-methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In line with its pharmacological features, we find that mice chronically treated with D-Asp show enhanced NMDAR-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents and basal cerebral blood volume in fronto-hippocampal areas. In addition, we show that both chronic administration of D-Asp and deletion of the gene coding for the catabolic enzyme D-aspartate oxidase (DDO) trigger plastic modifications of neuronal cytoarchitecture in the prefrontal cortex and CA1 subfield of the hippocampus and promote a cytochalasin D-sensitive form of synaptic plasticity in adult mouse brains. To translate these findings in humans and consistent with the experiments using Ddo gene targeting in animals, we performed a hierarchical stepwise translational genetic approach. Specifically, we investigated the association of variation in the gene coding for DDO with complex human prefrontal phenotypes. We demonstrate that genetic variation predicting reduced expression of DDO in postmortem human prefrontal cortex is mapped on greater prefrontal gray matter and activity during working memory as measured with MRI. In conclusion our results identify novel NMDAR-dependent effects of D-Asp on plasticity and physiology in rodents, which also map to prefrontal phenotypes in humans. PMID:25072322

Errico, F; Nisticò, R; Di Giorgio, A; Squillace, M; Vitucci, D; Galbusera, A; Piccinin, S; Mango, D; Fazio, L; Middei, S; Trizio, S; Mercuri, N B; Teule, M A; Centonze, D; Gozzi, A; Blasi, G; Bertolino, A; Usiello, A

2014-01-01

298

Human Brain Language Areas Identified by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) was used to identify candidate language processing areas in the intact hu- man brain. Language was defined broadly to include both phonological and lexical-semantic functions and to exclude sensory, motor, and general executive functions. The language activation task required phonetic and semantic analysis of aurally presented words and was compared with a control task involving

Jeffrey R. Binder; Julie A. Frost; Thomas A. Hammeke; Robert W. Cox; Stephen M. Rao; Thomas Prieto

1997-01-01

299

Functional Connectivity MR Imaging Reveals Cortical Functional Connectivity in the Developing Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Unlike conventional functional MR imaging where external sensory\\/ cognitive paradigms are needed to specifically activate different regions of the brain, resting functional connectivity MR imaging acquires images in the absence of cognitive demands (a resting condition) and detects brain regions, which are highly temporally correlated. Therefore, resting functional MR imaging is highly suited for the study of

W. Lin; Q. Zhu; W. Gao; Y. Chen; C.-H. Toh; M. Styner; G. Gerig; J. K. Smith; B. Biswal; J. H. Gilmore

2008-01-01

300

Functional Geometry Alignment and Localization of Brain Areas  

PubMed Central

Matching functional brain regions across individuals is a challenging task, largely due to the variability in their location and extent. It is particularly difficult, but highly relevant, for patients with pathologies such as brain tumors, which can cause substantial reorganization of functional systems. In such cases spatial registration based on anatomical data is only of limited value if the goal is to establish correspondences of functional areas among different individuals, or to localize potentially displaced active regions. Rather than rely on spatial alignment, we propose to perform registration in an alternative space whose geometry is governed by the functional interaction patterns in the brain. We first embed each brain into a functional map that reflects connectivity patterns during a fMRI experiment. The resulting functional maps are then registered, and the obtained correspondences are propagated back to the two brains. In application to a language fMRI experiment, our preliminary results suggest that the proposed method yields improved functional correspondences across subjects. This advantage is pronounced for subjects with tumors that affect the language areas and thus cause spatial reorganization of the functional regions.

Langs, Georg; Golland, Polina; Tie, Yanmei; Rigolo, Laura; Golby, Alexandra J.

2011-01-01

301

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Mapping of Brain Function Human Visual Cortex  

PubMed Central

Belliveau JW, Kwong KK, Kennedy DN, Baker JR, Stern CE, Benson R, Chesler DA, Weisskoff RM, Cohen MS, Tootell RBH, Fox PT, Brady TJ, Rosen BR. Magnetic resonance imaging mapping of brain function: human visual cortex. Invest Radiol 1992;27:SS9–S65. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human brain activity are described. Task-induced changes in brain cognitive state were measured using high-speed MRI techniques sensitive to changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV), blood flow (CBF), and blood oxygenation. These techniques were used to generate the first functional MRI maps of human task activation, by using a visual stimulus paradigm. The methodology of MRI brain mapping and results from the investigation of the functional organization and frequency response of human primary visual cortex (Vl) are presented.

BELLIVEAU, J.W.; KWONG, K.K.; KENNEDY, D.N.; BAKER, J.R.; STERN, C.E.; BENSON, R.; CHESLER, D.A.; WEISSKOFF, R.M.; COHEN, M.S.; TOOTELL, R.B.H.; FOX, P.T.; BRADY, T.J.; ROSEN, B.R.

2014-01-01

302

Brain function decoding process and system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method of interpreting cognitive response to a stimulus is disclosed. The method includes collecting baseline neural activity data from a subject absent a stimulus. Neural activity data is collected while the subject is being stimulated through exposure to a stimulus. A unique three-dimensional cognitive engram is then plotted representative of cerebral regions of stimulated neural activity caused by the stimulus. A novel graphical representation is plotted in three dimensions to indicate the brain region response unique to that stimulus.

2009-12-01

303

Links between metabolic plasticity and functional redundancy in freshwater bacterioplankton communities  

PubMed Central

Metabolic plasticity and functional redundancy are fundamental properties of microbial communities, which shape their response to environmental forcing, and also mediate the relationship between community composition and function. Yet, the actual quantification of these emergent community properties has been elusive, and we thus do not know how they vary across bacterial communities, and their relationship to environmental gradients and to each other. Here we present an experimental framework that allows us to simultaneously quantify metabolic plasticity and functional redundancy in freshwater bacterioplankton communities, and to explore connections that may exists between them. We define metabolic plasticity as the rate of change in single-cell properties (cell wall integrity, cell size, single-cell activity) relative to changes in community composition. Likewise, we define functional redundancy as the rate of change in carbon substrate uptake capacities relative to changes in community composition. We assessed these two key community attributes in transplant experiments where bacterioplankton from various aquatic habitats within the same watershed were transplanted from their original water to waters from other systems that differ in their main resources. Our results show that metabolic plasticity is an intrinsic property of bacterial communities, whereas the expression of functional redundancy appears to be more dependent on environmental factors. Furthermore, there was an overall strong positive relationship between the level of functional redundancy and of metabolic plasticity, suggesting no trade-offs between these community attributes but rather a possible co-selection. The apparent continuum in the expression of both functional redundancy and plasticity among bacterial communities and the link between them, in turn suggest that the link between community diversity and function may also vary along a continuum, from being very tight, to being weak, or absent.

Comte, Jerome; Fauteux, Lisa; del Giorgio, Paul A.

2013-01-01

304

Set and setting: how behavioral state regulates sensory function and plasticity.  

PubMed

Recently developed neuroimaging and electrophysiological techniques are allowing us to answer fundamental questions about how behavioral states regulate our perception of the external environment. Studies using these techniques have yielded surprising insights into how sensory processing is affected at the earliest stages by attention and motivation, and how new sensory information received during wakefulness (e.g., during learning) continues to affect sensory brain circuits (leading to plastic changes) during subsequent sleep. This review aims to describe how brain states affect sensory response properties among neurons in primary and secondary sensory cortices, and how this relates to psychophysical detection thresholds and performance on sensory discrimination tasks. This is not intended to serve as a comprehensive overview of all brain states, or all sensory systems, but instead as an illustrative description of how three specific state variables (attention, motivation, and vigilance [i.e., sleep vs. wakefulness]) affect sensory systems in which they have been best studied. PMID:23792020

Aton, Sara J

2013-11-01

305

Standardized environmental enrichment supports enhanced brain plasticity in healthy rats and prevents cognitive impairment in epileptic rats.  

PubMed

Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals influences brain plasticity, stimulates neurogenesis, increases neurotrophic factor expression, and protects against the effects of brain insult. However, these positive effects are not constantly observed, probably because standardized procedures of environmental enrichment are lacking. Therefore, we engineered an enriched cage (the Marlau™ cage), which offers: (1) minimally stressful social interactions; (2) increased voluntary exercise; (3) multiple entertaining activities; (4) cognitive stimulation (maze exploration), and (5) novelty (maze configuration changed three times a week). The maze, which separates food pellet and water bottle compartments, guarantees cognitive stimulation for all animals. Compared to rats raised in groups in conventional cages, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited increased cortical thickness, hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal levels of transcripts encoding various genes involved in tissue plasticity and remodeling. In addition, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited better performances in learning and memory, decreased anxiety-associated behaviors, and better recovery of basal plasma corticosterone level after acute restraint stress. Marlau™ cages also insure inter-experiment reproducibility in spatial learning and brain gene expression assays. Finally, housing rats in Marlau™ cages after severe status epilepticus at weaning prevents the cognitive impairment observed in rats subjected to the same insult and then housed in conventional cages. By providing a standardized enriched environment for rodents during housing, the Marlau™ cage should facilitate the uniformity of environmental enrichment across laboratories. PMID:23342033

Fares, Raafat P; Belmeguenai, Amor; Sanchez, Pascal E; Kouchi, Hayet Y; Bodennec, Jacques; Morales, Anne; Georges, Béatrice; Bonnet, Chantal; Bouvard, Sandrine; Sloviter, Robert S; Bezin, Laurent

2013-01-01

306

Functional plasticity in the interposito-thalamo-cortical pathway during conditioning. Role of the interstimulus interval.  

PubMed

In classic conditioning, the interstimulus interval (ISI) between the conditioned (CS) and unconditioned (US) stimulus is a critical parameter. The aim of the present experiment was to assess whether, during conditioning, modification of the CS-US interval could reliably produce changes in the functional properties of the interposito-thalamo-cortical pathways (INTCps). Five cats were prepared for chronic stimulation and recording from several brain regions along this pathway in awake animals. The CS was a weak electric shock applied on the interposed nucleus of the cerebellum in sites that initially elicited forelimb flexion (i.e., alpha motor responses) in three cats, and equal proportions of flexor and extensor responses in two cats. The US was an electric shock applied on the skin that elicited forelimb flexions. The motor and neurobiological effects of synchronous CS-US were compared with pairings in which the CS was applied 100 ms before US. Simultaneous and sequential application of CS and US produced different behavioral outcomes and resulted in different neural processes in the interposito-thalamo-cortical pathways (INTCps). The simultaneous presentation of stimuli only produced a small increase in excitability spreading to all the body representational zones of the primary motor cortex and a weak increase in the amplitude of the alpha motor response. In contrast, the sequential application led to a profound modification of the interposed output to neurons in the forelimb representation of the motor cortex. These robust neuronal correlates of conditioning were accompanied by a large facilitation of the alpha motor response (alpha-MR). There were also changes in the direction of misdirected alpha responses and an emergence of functionally appropriate, long-latency withdrawal forelimb flexion. These data revealed that, during conditioning, plastic changes within the thalamocortical connections are selectively induced by sequential information from central and peripheral afferents. This sequence significantly contributed to neural processes that are responsible for the acquisition, expression, and extinction of anticipatory flexion responses. PMID:10883380

Pananceau, M; Rispal-Padel, L

2000-06-01

307

Phenotypic and functional plasticity of cells of innate immunity: macrophages, mast cells and neutrophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematopoietic cells, including lymphoid and myeloid cells, can develop into phenotypically distinct 'subpopulations' with different functions. However, evidence indicates that some of these subpopulations can manifest substantial plasticity (that is, undergo changes in their phenotype and function). Here we focus on the occurrence of phenotypically distinct subpopulations in three lineages of myeloid cells with important roles in innate and acquired

Stephen J Galli; Niels Borregaard; Thomas A Wynn

2011-01-01

308

ABCD: a functional database for the avian brain.  

PubMed

Here we present the first database developed for storing, retrieving and cross-referencing neuroscience information about the connectivity of the avian brain. The Avian Brain Circuitry Database (ABCD) contains entries about the new and old terminology of the areas and their hierarchy, data on connections between brain regions, as well as a functional keyword system linked to brain regions and connections. Data were collected from the primary literature and textbooks, and an online submission system was developed to facilitate further data collection directly from researchers. The database aims to help spread the results of avian connectivity studies, the recently revised nomenclature and also to provide data for brain network research. ABCD is freely available at http://www.behav.org/abcd. PMID:17889371

Schrott, Aniko; Kabai, Peter

2008-01-30

309

Human brain functional MRI and DTI visualization with virtual reality.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI (fMRI) are two active research areas in neuroimaging. DTI is sensitive to the anisotropic diffusion of water exerted by its macromolecular environment and has been shown useful in characterizing structures of ordered tissues such as the brain white matter, myocardium, and cartilage. The diffusion tensor provides two new types of information of water diffusion: the magnitude and the spatial orientation of water diffusivity inside the tissue. This information has been used for white matter fiber tracking to review physical neuronal pathways inside the brain. Functional MRI measures brain activations using the hemodynamic response. The statistically derived activation map corresponds to human brain functional activities caused by neuronal activities. The combination of these two methods provides a new way to understand human brain from the anatomical neuronal fiber connectivity to functional activities between different brain regions. In this study, virtual reality (VR) based MR DTI and fMRI visualization with high resolution anatomical image segmentation and registration, ROI definition and neuronal white matter fiber tractography visualization and fMRI activation map integration is proposed. Rationale and methods for producing and distributing stereoscopic videos are also discussed. PMID:23256049

Chen, Bin; Moreland, John; Zhang, Jingyu

2011-12-01

310

Functional plasticity of macrophages: reversible adaptation to changing microenvironments  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been substantial research ac- tivity in the past decade directed at phenotyping macrophage lineages and defining macrophage functional subsets or patterns of activity. The em- phasis over the past 2-3 years has been to divide macrophage functional patterns into type 1 (Th1- driven) or type 2 (Th2-driven) functions. However, a huge array of environmental factors (including cytokines, chemokines,

Robert D. Stout; Jill Suttles

2004-01-01

311

Reestablishing speech understanding through musical ear training after cochlear implantation: a study of the potential cortical plasticity in the brain.  

PubMed

Cochlear implants (CIs) provide impressive speech perception for persons with severe hearing loss, but many CI recipients fail in perceiving speech prosody and music. Successful rehabilitation depends on cortical plasticity in the brain and postoperative measures. The present study evaluates the behavioral and neurologic effects of musical ear training on CI users' speech and music perception. The goal is to find and work out musical methods to improve CI users' auditory capabilities and, in a longer perspective, provide an efficient strategy for improving speech understanding for both adults and children with CIs. PMID:19673820

Petersen, Bjørn; Mortensen, Malene V; Gjedde, Albert; Vuust, Peter

2009-07-01

312

Functional community analysis of brain: A new approach for EEG-based investigation of the brain pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of structure of the brain functional connectivity (SBFC) is a fundamental issue for understanding of the brain cognition as well as the pathology of brain disorders. Analysis of communities among sub-parts of a system is increasingly used for social, ecological, and other networks. This paper presents a new methodology for investigation of the SBFC and understanding of the brain

Mehran Ahmadlou; Hojjat Adeli

2011-01-01

313

Magnetic resonance and the human brain: anatomy, function and metabolism.  

PubMed

The introduction and development, over the last three decades, of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopy technology for in vivo studies of the human brain represents a truly remarkable achievement, with enormous scientific and clinical ramifications. These effectively non-invasive techniques allow for studies of the anatomy, the function and the metabolism of the living human brain. They have allowed for new understandings of how the healthy brain works and have provided insights into the mechanisms underlying multiple disease processes which affect the brain. Different MR techniques have been developed for studying anatomy, function and metabolism. The primary focus of this review is to describe these different methodologies and to briefly review how they are being employed to more fully appreciate the intricacies associated with the organ, which most distinctly differentiates the human species from the other animal forms on earth. PMID:16568243

Talos, I-F; Mian, A Z; Zou, K H; Hsu, L; Goldberg-Zimring, D; Haker, S; Bhagwat, J G; Mulkern, R V

2006-05-01

314

Insulin in the brain: sources, localization and functions.  

PubMed

Historically, insulin is best known for its role in peripheral glucose homeostasis, and insulin signaling in the brain has received less attention. Insulin-independent brain glucose uptake has been the main reason for considering the brain as an insulin-insensitive organ. However, recent findings showing a high concentration of insulin in brain extracts, and expression of insulin receptors (IRs) in central nervous system tissues have gathered considerable attention over the sources, localization, and functions of insulin in the brain. This review summarizes the current status of knowledge of the peripheral and central sources of insulin in the brain, site-specific expression of IRs, and also neurophysiological functions of insulin including the regulation of food intake, weight control, reproduction, and cognition and memory formation. This review also considers the neuromodulatory and neurotrophic effects of insulin, resulting in proliferation, differentiation, and neurite outgrowth, introducing insulin as an attractive tool for neuroprotection against apoptosis, oxidative stress, beta amyloid toxicity, and brain ischemia. PMID:22956272

Ghasemi, Rasoul; Haeri, Ali; Dargahi, Leila; Mohamed, Zahurin; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

2013-02-01

315

Structural and functional organization of a developing brain and formation of cognitive functions in child ontogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of multidisciplinary studies, including neuromorphological, neurophysiological, neuropsychological, and psychphysiological\\u000a studies, are reviewed. They allow the brain mechanisms of cognition formation and development during maturation to be identified.\\u000a The role of regulatory (modulatory) brain systems in forming the cognitive function in the child is demonstrated. Data on\\u000a considerable changes in the brain systems responsible for the development of cognitive functions

M. M. Bezrukikh; R. I. Machinskaya; D. A. Farber

2009-01-01

316

Transforming Growth Factor-? in Brain Functions and Dysfunctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor-?s (TGF-?s) belong to a superfamily of related peptides that play pivotal roles in intercellular\\u000a communication. Among these biological agents, TGF-?1 has been involved in a number of brain functions and dysfunctions throughout\\u000a life, ranging from neurogenesis to neurodegeneration. Animal models mimicking some aspects of human brain pathologies have\\u000a led to the idea that TGF-? may be a

Denis Vivien; Karim Benchenane; Carine Ali

317

Investigating brain dynamics and connectivity with functional MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans provide a record of ongoing neural processing through the measurement of changes in regional levels of blood oxygenation. While subjects are resting, fMRI has revealed networks of brain regions exhibiting synchronised 0.02-0.12 Hz fluctuations in spontaneous, low frequency brain activity. The physiology underlying these 'resting state' fluctuations is poorly understood. Our current research investigates

Eugene Duff; Gary Egan; Ross Cunnington; Iven Mareels; Binquan Wang; Peter Fox; Jinhu Xiong

2004-01-01

318

The adolescent brain: Insights from functional neuroimaging research  

PubMed Central

With the development of functional neuroimaging tools, the past two decades have witnessed an explosion of work examining functional brain maps, mostly in the adult brain. Against this backdrop of work in adults, developmental research begins to gather a substantial body of knowledge about brain maturation. The purpose of this review is to present some of these findings from the perspective of functional neuroimaging. First, a brief survey of available neuroimaging techniques (i.e., fMRI, MRS, MEG, PET, SPECT, and infrared techniques) is provided. Next, the key cognitive, emotional, and social changes taking place during adolescence are outlined. The third section gives examples of how these behavioral changes can be understood from a neuroscience perspective. The conclusion places this functional neuroimaging research in relation to clinical and molecular work, and shows how answers will ultimately come from the combined efforts of these disciplines.

Ernst, M.; Mueller, S.C.

2009-01-01

319

Potential of optical microangiography to monitor cerebral blood perfusion and vascular plasticity following traumatic brain injury in mice in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical microanglography (OMAG) is a recently developed imaging modality capable of volumetric imaging of dynamic blood perfusion, down to capillary level resolution, with an imaging depth up to 2.00 mm beneath the tissue surface. We report the use of OMAG to monitor the cerebral blood flow (CBF) over the cortex of mouse brain upon traumatic brain injury (TBI), with the cranium left intact, for a period of two weeks on the same animal. We show the ability of OMAG to repeatedly image 3-D cerebral vasculatures during pre- and post-traumatic phases, and to visualize the changes of regulated CBF and the vascular plasticity after TBI. The results indicate the potential of OMAG to explore the mechanism involved in the rehabilitation of TBI.

Jia, Yali; Alkayed, Nabil; Wang, Ruikang K.

2009-07-01

320

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) of the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) can provide detailed images of human brain that reflect localized changes in cerebral blood flow and oxygenation induced by sensory, motor, or cognitive tasks. This review presents methods for gradient-recalled echo-planar functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). Also included is a discussion of the hypothesized basis of FMRI, imaging hardware, a unique visual stimulation apparatus, image

Edgar A. DeYoe; Peter Bandettini; Jay Neitz; David Miller; Paula Winans

1994-01-01

321

Resting-State Brain Organization Revealed by Functional Covariance Networks  

PubMed Central

Background Brain network studies using techniques of intrinsic connectivity network based on fMRI time series (TS-ICN) and structural covariance network (SCN) have mapped out functional and structural organization of human brain at respective time scales. However, there lacks a meso-time-scale network to bridge the ICN and SCN and get insights of brain functional organization. Methodology and Principal Findings We proposed a functional covariance network (FCN) method by measuring the covariance of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in BOLD signals across subjects, and compared the patterns of ALFF-FCNs with the TS-ICNs and SCNs by mapping the brain networks of default network, task-positive network and sensory networks. We demonstrated large overlap among FCNs, ICNs and SCNs and modular nature in FCNs and ICNs by using conjunctional analysis. Most interestingly, FCN analysis showed a network dichotomy consisting of anti-correlated high-level cognitive system and low-level perceptive system, which is a novel finding different from the ICN dichotomy consisting of the default-mode network and the task-positive network. Conclusion The current study proposed an ALFF-FCN approach to measure the interregional correlation of brain activity responding to short periods of state, and revealed novel organization patterns of resting-state brain activity from an intermediate time scale.

Wang, Zhengge; Yuan, Cuiping; Jiao, Qing; Chen, Huafu; Biswal, Bharat B.; Lu, Guangming; Liu, Yijun

2011-01-01

322

Functional imaging of dolphin brain metabolism and blood flow.  

PubMed

This report documents the first use of magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of living dolphins to register functional brain scans, allowing for the exploration of potential mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep. Diazepam has been shown to induce unihemispheric slow waves (USW), therefore we used functional imaging of dolphins with and without diazepam to observe hemispheric differences in brain metabolism and blood flow. MRIs were used to register functional brain scans with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) in trained dolphins. Scans using SPECT revealed unihemispheric blood flow reduction following diazepam doses greater than 0.55 mg kg(-1) for these 180-200 kg animals. Scans using PET revealed hemispheric differences in brain glucose consumption when scans with and without diazepam were compared. The findings suggest that unihemispheric reduction in blood flow and glucose metabolism in the hemisphere showing USW are important features of unihemispheric sleep. Functional scans may also help to elucidate the degree of hemispheric laterality of sensory and motor systems as well as in neurotransmitter or molecular mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep in delphinoid cetaceans. The findings also demonstrate the potential value of functional scans to explore other aspects of dolphin brain physiology as well as pathology. PMID:16857874

Ridgway, Sam; Houser, Dorian; Finneran, James; Carder, Don; Keogh, Mandy; Van Bonn, William; Smith, Cynthia; Scadeng, Miriam; Dubowitz, David; Mattrey, Robert; Hoh, Carl

2006-08-01

323

Functional MRI study of brain function under resting and activated states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have been developed with various imaging contrasts, which can be tightly linked to brain functions, electrophysiology and diseases. Recent MRI technology developments have resulted in several important functional MRI (fMRI) methods based on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast. These fMRI methods have been applied to mapping brain activation in laminar level as

Wei Chen; Xiao Liu; Xiao-Hong Zhu; Nanyin Zhang

2009-01-01

324

Postinjury Administration of l -Deprenyl Improves Cognitive Function and Enhances Neuroplasticity after Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rat model of combined central fluid percussion traumatic brain injury (TBI) and bilateral entorhinal cortical lesion (BEC) produces profound, persistent cognitive deficits, sequelae associated with human TBI. In contrast to percussive TBI alone, this combined injury induces maladaptive hippocampal plasticity. Recent reports suggest a potential role for dopamine in CNS plasticity after trauma. We have examined the effect of

J. Zhu; R. J. Hamm; T. M. Reeves; J. T. Povlishock; L. L. Phillips

2000-01-01

325

Stereotactic PET atlas of the human brain: Aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images  

SciTech Connect

In the routine analysis of functional brain images obtained by PET, subjective visual interpretation is often used for anatomic localization. To enhance the accuracy and consistency of the anatomic interpretation, a PET stereotactic atlas and localization approach was designed for functional brain images. The PET atlas was constructed from a high-resolution [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) image set of a normal volunteer (a 41-yr-ld woman). The image set was reoriented stereotactically, according to the intercommissural (anterior and posterior commissures) line and transformed to the standard stereotactic atlas coordinates. Cerebral structures were annotated on the transaxial planes using a proportional grid system and surface-rendered images. The stereotactic localization technique was applied to image sets from patients with Alzheimer`s disease, and areas of functional alteration were localized visually by referring to the PET atlas. Major brain structures were identified on both transaxial planes and surface-rendered images. In the stereotactic system, anatomic correspondence between the PET atlas and stereotactically reoriented individual image sets of patients with Alzheimer`s disease facilitated both indirect and direct localization of the cerebral structures. Because rapid stereotactic alignment methods for PET images are now available for routine use, the PET atlas will serve as an aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images in the stereotactic system. Widespread application of stereotactic localization may be used in functional brain images, not only in the research setting, but also in routine clinical situations. 41 refs., 3 figs.

Minoshima, S.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, A.; Ishihara, M.; Kuhl, D.E. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1994-06-01

326

Democratic reinforcement: A principle for brain function  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a simple ``toy`` brain model. The model consists of a set of randomly connected, or layered integrate-and-fire neurons. Inputs to and outputs from the environment are connected randomly to subsets of neurons. The connections between firing neurons are strengthened or weakened according to whether the action was successful or not. Unlike previous reinforcement learning algorithms, the feedback from the environment is democratic: it affects all neurons in the same way, irrespective of their position in the network and independent of the output signal. Thus no unrealistic back propagation or other external computation is needed. This is accomplished by a global threshold regulation which allows the system to self-organize into a highly susceptible, possibly ``critical`` state with low activity and sparse connections between firing neurons. The low activity permits memory in quiescent areas to be conserved since only firing neurons are modified when new information is being taught.

Stassinopoulos, D.; Bak, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)] [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

1995-05-01

327

Investigation of acupoint specificity by whole brain functional connectivity analysis from fMRI data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous neuroimaging studies on acupuncture have primarily adopted functional connectivity analysis associated with one or a few preselected brain regions. Few have investigated how these brain regions interacted at the whole brain level. In this study, we sought to investigate the acupoint specificity by exploring the whole brain functional connectivity analysis on the post-stimulus resting brain modulated by acupuncture at

Yuanyuan Feng; Lijun Bai; Wensheng Zhang; Yanshuang Ren; Ting Xue; Hu Wang; Chongguang Zhong; Jie Tian

2011-01-01

328

Functional diversity on synaptic plasticity mediated by endocannabinoids  

PubMed Central

Endocannabinoids (eCBs) act as modulators of synaptic transmission through activation of a number of receptors, including, but not limited to, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). eCBs share CB1 receptors as a common target with ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in marijuana. Although THC has been used for recreational and medicinal purposes for thousands of years, little was known about its effects at the cellular level or on neuronal circuits. Identification of CB1 receptors and the subsequent development of its specific ligands has therefore enhanced our ability to study and bring together a substantial amount of knowledge regarding how marijuana and eCBs modify interneuronal communication. To date, the eCB system, composed of cannabinoid receptors, ligands and the relevant enzymes, is recognized as the best-described retrograde signalling system in the brain. Its impact on synaptic transmission is widespread and more diverse than initially thought. The aim of this review is to succinctly present the most common forms of eCB-mediated modulation of synaptic transmission, while also illustrating the multiplicity of effects resulting from specializations of this signalling system at the circuital level.

Cachope, Roger

2012-01-01

329

Long term functional plasticity of sensory inputs mediated by olfactory learning  

PubMed Central

Sensory inputs are remarkably organized along all sensory pathways. While sensory representations are known to undergo plasticity at the higher levels of sensory pathways following peripheral lesions or sensory experience, less is known about the functional plasticity of peripheral inputs induced by learning. We addressed this question in the adult mouse olfactory system by combining odor discrimination studies with functional imaging of sensory input activity in awake mice. Here we show that associative learning, but not passive odor exposure, potentiates the strength of sensory inputs up to several weeks after the end of training. We conclude that experience-dependent plasticity can occur in the periphery of adult mouse olfactory system, which should improve odor detection and contribute towards accurate and fast odor discriminations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02109.001

Abraham, Nixon M; Vincis, Roberto; Lagier, Samuel; Rodriguez, Ivan; Carleton, Alan

2014-01-01

330

Distinct Functions of Glial and Neuronal Dystroglycan in the Developing and Adult Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Cobblestone (type II) lissencephaly and mental retardation are characteristic features of a subset of congenital muscular dystrophies that include Walker-Warburg Syndrome, Muscle-Eye-Brain disease, and Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy. Although the majority of clinical cases are genetically undefined, several causative genes have been identified that encode known or putative glycosyltransferases in the biosynthetic pathway of dystroglycan. Here we test the effects of brain-specific deletion of dystroglycan, and show distinct functions for neuronal and glial dystroglycan. Deletion of dystroglycan in the whole brain produced glial/neuronal heterotopia resembling the cerebral cortex malformation in cobblestone lissencephaly. In wild-type mice, dystroglycan stabilizes the basement membrane of the glia limitans, thereby supporting the cortical infrastructure necessary for neuronal migration. This function depends on extracellular dystroglycan interactions, since the cerebral cortex developed normally in transgenic mice that lack the dystroglycan intracellular domain. Also, forebrain histogenesis was preserved in mice with neuron-specific deletion of dystroglycan, but hippocampal long-term potentiation was blunted, as is also the case in the Largemyd mouse, in which dystroglycan glycosylation is disrupted. Our findings provide genetic evidence that neuronal dystroglycan plays a role in synaptic plasticity and that glial dystroglycan is involved in forebrain development. Differences in dystroglycan glycosylation in distinct cell types of the CNS may therefore contribute to the diversity of dystroglycan function in the CNS, as well as to the broad clinical spectrum of type II lissencephalies.

Satz, Jakob S.; Ostendorf, Adam P.; Hou, Shangwei; Turner, Amy; Kusano, Hajime; Lee, Jane C.; Turk, Rolf; Nguyen, Huy; Ross-Barta, Susan E.; Westra, Steve; Hoshi, Toshinori; Moore, Steven A.; Campbell, Kevin P.

2010-01-01

331

Decreased Functional Brain Connectivity in Adolescents with Internet Addiction  

PubMed Central

Background Internet addiction has become increasingly recognized as a mental disorder, though its neurobiological basis is unknown. This study used functional neuroimaging to investigate whole-brain functional connectivity in adolescents diagnosed with internet addiction. Based on neurobiological changes seen in other addiction related disorders, it was predicted that connectivity disruptions in adolescents with internet addiction would be most prominent in cortico-striatal circuitry. Methods Participants were 12 adolescents diagnosed with internet addiction and 11 healthy comparison subjects. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired, and group differences in brain functional connectivity were analyzed using the network-based statistic. We also analyzed network topology, testing for between-group differences in key graph-based network measures. Results Adolescents with internet addiction showed reduced functional connectivity spanning a distributed network. The majority of impaired connections involved cortico-subcortical circuits (?24% with prefrontal and ?27% with parietal cortex). Bilateral putamen was the most extensively involved subcortical brain region. No between-group difference was observed in network topological measures, including the clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, or the small-worldness ratio. Conclusions Internet addiction is associated with a widespread and significant decrease of functional connectivity in cortico-striatal circuits, in the absence of global changes in brain functional network topology.

Hong, Soon-Beom; Zalesky, Andrew; Cocchi, Luca; Fornito, Alex; Choi, Eun-Jung; Kim, Ho-Hyun; Suh, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Chang-Dai; Kim, Jae-Won; Yi, Soon-Hyung

2013-01-01

332

MicroRNAs as effectors of brain function with roles in ischemia and injury, neuroprotection, and neurodegeneration.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs are small RNAs that function as regulators of posttranscriptional gene expression. MicroRNAs are encoded by genes, and processed to form ribonucleoprotein complexes that bind to messenger RNA (mRNA) targets to repress translation or degrade mRNA transcripts. The microRNAs are particularly abundant in the brain where they serve as effectors of neuronal development and maintenance of the neuronal phenotype. They are also expressed in dendrites where they regulate spine structure and function as effectors in synaptic plasticity. MicroRNAs have been evaluated for their roles in brain ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury, and in functional recovery after ischemia. They also serve as mediators in the brain's response to ischemic preconditioning that leads to endogenous neuroprotection. In addition, microRNAs are implicated in neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Huntington, Parkinson, and Prion disease. The discovery of microRNAs has expanded the potential for human diseases to arise from genetic mutations in microRNA genes or sequences within their target mRNAs. This review discusses microRNA discovery, biogenesis, mechanisms of gene regulation, their expression and function in the brain, and their roles in brain ischemia and injury, neuroprotection, and neurodegeneration. PMID:20606686

Saugstad, Julie A

2010-09-01

333

Reorganization of functional brain networks during the recovery of stroke: a functional MRI study.  

PubMed

Studies have demonstrated that reorganization of the cortex after stroke contributed to the recovery of motor function. However, these studies paid much more attention to the reorganization of motor-related brain regions and motor executive network which only contained tens of brain regions, ignoring the change in brain-wide network during the restoration of motor function. Based on this consideration, this paper investigated the functional reorganization of brain-wide network during the recovery after stroke from the perspective of graph theory. At four time points (less than 10 days, around 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 months) after stroke onset, we obtained the functional MRI (fMRI) data of stroke patients when they were doing finger tapping task. Based on the fMRI data, we constructed the brain-wide functional network which consisted of 264 putative functional areas for each subject at each time point. Then the topological parameters (e.g., characteristic path length and cluster coefficient) of these brain networks were examined. Results showed that the brain networks shifted towards a non-optimal topological configuration with low small-worldness during the process of recovery. And this finding may broaden our knowledge about the reorganization of brain function during recovery after stroke. PMID:23366837

Cheng, Lin; Wu, Zhiyuan; Fu, Yi; Miao, Fei; Sun, Junfeng; Tong, Shanbao

2012-01-01

334

Stable learning of functional maps in self-organizing spiking neural networks with continuous synaptic plasticity.  

PubMed

This study describes a spiking model that self-organizes for stable formation and maintenance of orientation and ocular dominance maps in the visual cortex (V1). This self-organization process simulates three development phases: an early experience-independent phase, a late experience-independent phase and a subsequent refinement phase during which experience acts to shape the map properties. The ocular dominance maps that emerge accommodate the two sets of monocular inputs that arise from the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) to layer 4 of V1. The orientation selectivity maps that emerge feature well-developed iso-orientation domains and fractures. During the last two phases of development the orientation preferences at some locations appear to rotate continuously through ±180° along circular paths and referred to as pinwheel-like patterns but without any corresponding point discontinuities in the orientation gradient maps. The formation of these functional maps is driven by balanced excitatory and inhibitory currents that are established via synaptic plasticity based on spike timing for both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. The stability and maintenance of the formed maps with continuous synaptic plasticity is enabled by homeostasis caused by inhibitory plasticity. However, a prolonged exposure to repeated stimuli does alter the formed maps over time due to plasticity. The results from this study suggest that continuous synaptic plasticity in both excitatory neurons and interneurons could play a critical role in the formation, stability, and maintenance of functional maps in the cortex. PMID:23450808

Srinivasa, Narayan; Jiang, Qin

2013-01-01

335

Stable learning of functional maps in self-organizing spiking neural networks with continuous synaptic plasticity  

PubMed Central

This study describes a spiking model that self-organizes for stable formation and maintenance of orientation and ocular dominance maps in the visual cortex (V1). This self-organization process simulates three development phases: an early experience-independent phase, a late experience-independent phase and a subsequent refinement phase during which experience acts to shape the map properties. The ocular dominance maps that emerge accommodate the two sets of monocular inputs that arise from the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) to layer 4 of V1. The orientation selectivity maps that emerge feature well-developed iso-orientation domains and fractures. During the last two phases of development the orientation preferences at some locations appear to rotate continuously through ±180° along circular paths and referred to as pinwheel-like patterns but without any corresponding point discontinuities in the orientation gradient maps. The formation of these functional maps is driven by balanced excitatory and inhibitory currents that are established via synaptic plasticity based on spike timing for both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. The stability and maintenance of the formed maps with continuous synaptic plasticity is enabled by homeostasis caused by inhibitory plasticity. However, a prolonged exposure to repeated stimuli does alter the formed maps over time due to plasticity. The results from this study suggest that continuous synaptic plasticity in both excitatory neurons and interneurons could play a critical role in the formation, stability, and maintenance of functional maps in the cortex.

Srinivasa, Narayan; Jiang, Qin

2013-01-01

336

Neurocognitive Function of Patients with Brain Metastasis Who Received Either Whole Brain Radiotherapy Plus Stereotactic Radiosurgery or Radiosurgery Alone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine how the omission of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) affects the neurocognitive function of patients with one to four brain metastases who have been treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: In a prospective randomized trial between WBRT+SRS and SRS alone for patients with one to four brain metastases, we assessed the neurocognitive function using the Mini-Mental

Hidefumi. Aoyama; Masao Tago; Norio Kato; Tatsuya Toyoda; Masahiro Kenjyo; Saeko Hirota; Hiroki Shioura; Taisuke Inomata; Etsuo Kunieda; Kazushige Hayakawa; Keiichi Nakagawa; Gen Kobashi; Hiroki Shirato

2007-01-01

337

Nociception-induced spatial and temporal plasticity of synaptic connection and function in the hippocampal formation of rats: a multi-electrode array recording  

PubMed Central

Background Pain is known to be processed by a complex neural network (neuromatrix) in the brain. It is hypothesized that under pathological state, persistent or chronic pain can affect various higher brain functions through ascending pathways, leading to co-morbidities or mental disability of pain. However, so far the influences of pathological pain on the higher brain functions are less clear and this may hinder the advances in pain therapy. In the current study, we studied spatiotemporal plasticity of synaptic connection and function in the hippocampal formation (HF) in response to persistent nociception. Results On the hippocampal slices of rats which had suffered from persistent nociception for 2 h by receiving subcutaneous bee venom (BV) or formalin injection into one hand paw, multisite recordings were performed by an 8 × 8 multi-electrode array probe. The waveform of the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP), induced by perforant path electrical stimulation and pharmacologically identified as being activity-dependent and mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors, was consistently positive-going in the dentate gyrus (DG), while that in the CA1 was negative-going in shape in naïve and saline control groups. For the spatial characteristics of synaptic plasticity, BV- or formalin-induced persistent pain significantly increased the number of detectable fEPSP in both DG and CA1 area, implicating enlargement of the synaptic connection size by the injury or acute inflammation. Moreover, the input-output function of synaptic efficacy was shown to be distinctly enhanced by the injury with the stimulus-response curve being moved leftward compared to the control. For the temporal plasticity, long-term potentiation produced by theta burst stimulation (TBS) conditioning was also remarkably enhanced by pain. Moreover, it is strikingly noted that the shape of fEPSP waveform was drastically deformed or split by a TBS conditioning under the condition of persistent nociception, while that in naïve or saline control state was not affected. All these changes in synaptic connection and function, confirmed by the 2-dimentional current source density imaging, were found to be highly correlated with peripheral persistent nociception since pre-blockade of nociceptive impulses could eliminate all of them. Finally, the initial pharmacological investigation showed that AMPA/KA glutamate receptors might play more important roles in mediation of pain-associated spatiotemporal plasticity than NMDA receptors. Conclusion Peripheral persistent nociception produces great impact upon the higher brain structures that lead to not only temporal plasticity, but also spatial plasticity of synaptic connection and function in the HF. The spatial plasticity of synaptic activities is more complex than the temporal plasticity, comprising of enlargement of synaptic connection size at network level, deformed fEPSP at local circuit level and, increased synaptic efficacy at cellular level. In addition, the multi-synaptic model established in the present investigation may open a new avenue for future studies of pain-related brain dysfunctions at the higher level of the neuromatrix.

Zhao, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Ming-Gang; Yuan, Dong-Liang; Wang, Yan; He, Ying; Wang, Dan-Dan; Chen, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Fu-Kang; Li, Hua; He, Xiao-Sheng; Chen, Jun

2009-01-01

338

Brain Stimulation in Poststroke Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain stimulation techniques provide a powerful means to modulate the function of specific neural structures, and show potential for future applications in the rehabilitation of stroke patients. Recent studies have started to translate to the bedside the body of data gathered over the last few years on mechanisms underlying brain plasticity and stroke recovery. Both noninvasive and invasive brain stimulation

Miguel Alonso-Alonso; Felipe Fregni; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

2007-01-01

339

Function-related structural plasticity of the GnRH system  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the final common pathway for the central control of gonadotropin secretion, GnRH neurons are subjected to numerous regulatory homeostatic and external factors to achieve levels of fertility appropriate to the organism. The GnRH system thus provides an excellent model in which to investigate the complex relationships between neurosecretion, morphological plasticity and the expression of a physiological function. Throughout the

Vincent Prevot; Naresh K. Hanchate; Nicole Bellefontaine; Ariane Sharif; Jyoti Parkash; Cecilia Estrella; Cécile Allet; Sandrine de Seranno; Céline Campagne; Xavier d’Anglemont de Tassigny; Marc Baroncini

2010-01-01

340

Neurosteroid Biosynthesis and Function in the Brain of Domestic Birds  

PubMed Central

It is now established that the brain and other nervous systems have the capability of forming steroids de novo, the so-called “neurosteroids.” The pioneering discovery of Baulieu and his colleagues, using rodents, has opened the door to a new research field of “neurosteroids.” In contrast to mammalian vertebrates, little has been known regarding de novo neurosteroidogenesis in the brain of birds. We therefore investigated neurosteroid formation and metabolism in the brain of quail, a domestic bird. Our studies over the past two decades demonstrated that the quail brain possesses cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/?5-?4-isomerase (3?-HSD), 5?-reductase, cytochrome P450 17?-hydroxylase/c17,20-lyase (P45017?,lyase), 17?-HSD, etc., and produces pregnenolone, progesterone, 5?-dihydroprogesterone (5?-DHP), 3?, 5?-tetrahydroprogesterone (3?, 5?-THP), androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol from cholesterol. Independently, Schlinger’s laboratory demonstrated that the brain of zebra finch, a songbird, also produces various neurosteroids. Thus, the formation and metabolism of neurosteroids from cholesterol is now known to occur in the brain of birds. In addition, we recently found that the quail brain expresses cytochrome P4507? and produces 7?- and 7?-hydroxypregnenolone, previously undescribed avian neurosteroids, from pregnenolone. This paper summarizes the advances made in our understanding of neurosteroid formation and metabolism in the brain of domestic birds. This paper also describes what are currently known about physiological changes in neurosteroid formation and biological functions of neurosteroids in the brain of domestic and other birds.

Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

2011-01-01

341

Plasticity of functional connectivity in the adult spinal cord  

PubMed Central

This paper emphasizes several characteristics of the neural control of locomotion that provide opportunities for developing strategies to maximize the recovery of postural and locomotor functions after a spinal cord injury (SCI). The major points of this paper are: (i) the circuitry that controls standing and stepping is extremely malleable and reflects a continuously varying combination of neurons that are activated when executing stereotypical movements; (ii) the connectivity between neurons is more accurately perceived as a functional rather than as an anatomical phenomenon; (iii) the functional connectivity that controls standing and stepping reflects the physiological state of a given assembly of synapses, where the probability of these synaptic events is not deterministic; (iv) rather, this probability can be modulated by other factors such as pharmacological agents, epidural stimulation and/or motor training; (v) the variability observed in the kinematics of consecutive steps reflects a fundamental feature of the neural control system and (vi) machine-learning theories elucidate the need to accommodate variability in developing strategies designed to enhance motor performance by motor training using robotic devices after an SCI.

Cai, L.L; Courtine, G; Fong, A.J; Burdick, J.W; Roy, R.R; Edgerton, V.R

2006-01-01

342

From the connectome to brain function.  

PubMed

In this Historical Perspective, we ask what information is needed beyond connectivity diagrams to understand the function of nervous systems. Informed by invertebrate circuits whose connectivities are known, we highlight the importance of neuronal dynamics and neuromodulation, and the existence of parallel circuits. The vertebrate retina has these features in common with invertebrate circuits, suggesting that they are general across animals. Comparisons across these systems suggest approaches to study the functional organization of large circuits based on existing knowledge of small circuits. PMID:23866325

Bargmann, Cornelia I; Marder, Eve

2013-06-01

343

Relationship Between Neurocognitive Function and Quality of Life After Whole-Brain Radiotherapy in Patients With Brain Metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the relationship between neurocognitive function (NCF) and quality of life (QOL) in patients with brain metastases after whole-brain radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: A total of 208 patients from the whole-brain radiotherapy arm of a Phase III trial (PCI-P120-9801), who underwent regular NCF and QOL (ADL [activities of daily living] and FACT-Br [Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain-specific]) testing,

Jing Li; Soren M. Bentzen; Jialiang Li; Markus Renschler; Minesh P. Mehta

2008-01-01

344

Functional near-infrared spectroscopy maps cortical plasticity underlying altered motor performance induced by transcranial direct current stimulation.  

PubMed

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the human sensorimotor cortex during physical rehabilitation induces plasticity in the injured brain that improves motor performance. Bi-hemispheric tDCS is a noninvasive technique that modulates cortical activation by delivering weak current through a pair of anodal-cathodal (excitation-suppression) electrodes, placed on the scalp and centered over the primary motor cortex of each hemisphere. To quantify tDCS-induced plasticity during motor performance, sensorimotor cortical activity was mapped during an event-related, wrist flexion task by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) before, during, and after applying both possible bi-hemispheric tDCS montages in eight healthy adults. Additionally, torque applied to a lever device during isometric wrist flexion and surface electromyography measurements of major muscle group activity in both arms were acquired concurrently with fNIRS. This multiparameter approach found that hemispheric suppression contralateral to wrist flexion changed resting-state connectivity from intra-hemispheric to inter-hemispheric and increased flexion speed (p<0.05). Conversely, exciting this hemisphere increased opposing muscle output resulting in a decrease in speed but an increase in accuracy (p<0.05 for both). The findings of this work suggest that tDCS with fNIRS and concurrent multimotor measurements can provide insights into how neuroplasticity changes muscle output, which could find future use in guiding motor rehabilitation. PMID:24193947

Khan, Bilal; Hodics, Timea; Hervey, Nathan; Kondraske, George; Stowe, Ann M; Alexandrakis, George

2013-01-01

345

Metabolism of exogenous sex steroids and effect on brain functions with a focus on tibolone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around the menopause, changes in ovarian secretion of steroids result in changes in brain function: hot flushes and sweating later followed by changes in mood, libido and cognition. The relationship between sex steroids and brain functions are reviewed, with focus on hormonal treatments, in particular tibolone, on the postmenopausal brain and on associations between tissue levels and brain functions. Data

H. A. M. Verheul; H. J. Kloosterboer

2006-01-01

346

Molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation and functional plasticity of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells engage in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance and homeostasis by limiting aberrant or excessive inflammation. The transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) is critical for the development and function of Treg cells. The differentiation of the Treg cell lineage is not terminal, as developmental and functional plasticity occur through the sensing of inflammatory signals

Y Gao; F Lin; J Su; Z Gao; Y Li; J Yang; Z Deng; B Liu; A Tsun; B Li

2012-01-01

347

Extraction, identification, and functional characterization of a bioactive substance from automated compound-handling plastic tips.  

PubMed

Disposable plastic labware is ubiquitous in contemporary pharmaceutical research laboratories. Plastic labware is routinely used for chemical compound storage and during automated liquid-handling processes that support assay development, high-throughput screening, structure-activity determinations, and liability profiling. However, there is little information available in the literature on the contaminants released from plastic labware upon DMSO exposure and their resultant effects on specific biological assays. The authors report here the extraction, by simple DMSO washing, of a biologically active substance from one particular size of disposable plastic tips used in automated compound handling. The active contaminant was identified as erucamide ((Z)-docos-13-enamide), a long-chain mono-unsaturated fatty acid amide commonly used in plastics manufacturing, by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of the DMSO-extracted material. Tip extracts prepared in DMSO, as well as a commercially obtained sample of erucamide, were active in a functional bioassay of a known G-protein-coupled fatty acid receptor. A sample of a different disposable tip product from the same vendor did not release detectable erucamide following solvent extraction, and DMSO extracts prepared from this product were inactive in the receptor functional assay. These results demonstrate that solvent-extractable contaminants from some plastic labware used in the contemporary pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) environment can be introduced into physical and biological assays during routine compound management liquid-handling processes. These contaminants may further possess biological activity and are therefore a potential source of assay-specific confounding artifacts. PMID:19470712

Watson, John; Greenough, Emily B; Leet, John E; Ford, Michael J; Drexler, Dieter M; Belcastro, James V; Herbst, John J; Chatterjee, Moneesh; Banks, Martyn

2009-06-01

348

The Role of Noise in Brain Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise plays a fundamental role in all living organisms from the earliest prokaryotes to advanced mammalian forms, such as ourselves. In the context of living organisms, the term 'noise' usually refers to the variance amongst measurements obtained from repeated identical experimental conditions, or from output signals from these systems. It is noteworthy that both these conditions are universally characterized by the presence of background fluctuations. In non-biological systems, such as electronics or in communications sciences, where the aim is to send error-free messages, noise was generally regarded as a problem. The discovery of Stochastic Resonances (SR) in non-linear dynamics brought a shift of perception where noise, rather than representing a problem, became fundamental to system function, especially so in biology. The question now is: to what extent is biological function dependent on random noise. Indeed, it seems feasible that noise also plays an important role in neuronal communication and oscillatory synchronization. Given this approach, it follows that determining Fisher information content could be relevant in neuronal communication. It also seems possible that the principle of least time, and that of the sum over histories, could be important basic principles in understanding the coherence dynamics responsible for action and perception. Ultimately, external noise cancellation combined with intrinsic noise signal embedding and, the use of the principle of least time may be considered an essential step in the organization of central nervous system (CNS) function.

Roy, S.; Llinás, R.

2012-12-01

349

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of human brain function.  

PubMed Central

The techniques of in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and spectroscopy have been established over the past two decades. Recent applications of these methods to study human brain function have become a rapidly growing area of research. The development of methods using standard MR contrast agents within the cerebral vasculature has allowed measurements of regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV), which are activity dependent. Subsequent investigations linked the MR relaxation properties of brain tissue to blood oxygenation levels which are also modulated by consumption and blood flow (rCBF). These methods have allowed mapping of brain activity in human visual and motor cortex as well as in areas of the frontal lobe involved in language. The methods have high enough spatial and temporal sensitivity to be used in individual subjects. MR spectroscopy of proton and carbon-13 nuclei has been used to measure rates of glucose transport and metabolism in the human brain. The steady-state measurements of brain glucose concentrations can be used to monitor the glycolytic flux, whereas subsequent glucose metabolism--i.e., the flux into the cerebral glutamate pool--can be used to measure tricarboxylic acid cycle flux. Under visual stimulation the concentration of lactate in the visual cortex has been shown to increase by MR spectroscopy. This increase is compatible with an increase of anaerobic glycolysis under these conditions as earlier proposed from positron emission tomography studies. It is shown how MR spectroscopy can extend this understanding of brain metabolism. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Shulman, R G; Blamire, A M; Rothman, D L; McCarthy, G

1993-01-01

350

Brain-computer interface controlled functional electrical stimulation device for foot drop due to stroke.  

PubMed

Gait impairment due to foot drop is a common outcome of stroke, and current physiotherapy provides only limited restoration of gait function. Gait function can also be aided by orthoses, but these devices may be cumbersome and their benefits disappear upon removal. Hence, new neuro-rehabilitative therapies are being sought to generate permanent improvements in motor function beyond those of conventional physiotherapies through positive neural plasticity processes. Here, the authors describe an electroencephalogram (EEG) based brain-computer interface (BCI) controlled functional electrical stimulation (FES) system that enabled a stroke subject with foot drop to re-establish foot dorsiflexion. To this end, a prediction model was generated from EEG data collected as the subject alternated between periods of idling and attempted foot dorsiflexion. This prediction model was then used to classify online EEG data into either "idling" or "dorsiflexion" states, and this information was subsequently used to control an FES device to elicit effective foot dorsiflexion. The performance of the system was assessed in online sessions, where the subject was prompted by a computer to alternate between periods of idling and dorsiflexion. The subject demonstrated purposeful operation of the BCI-FES system, with an average cross-correlation between instructional cues and BCI-FES response of 0.60 over 3 sessions. In addition, analysis of the prediction model indicated that non-classical brain areas were activated in the process, suggesting post-stroke cortical re-organization. In the future, these systems may be explored as a potential therapeutic tool that can help promote positive plasticity and neural repair in chronic stroke patients. PMID:23367397

Do, An H; Wang, Po T; King, Christine E; Schombs, Andrew; Cramer, Steven C; Nenadic, Zoran

2012-01-01

351

HIV and Aging Independently Affect Brain Function as Measured by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

We investigated interactions between HIV and aging on brain function demands using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A multiple regression model studied the association and interaction between fMRI measures, HIV serostatus, and age for 26 HIV infected (HIV+) and 25 seronegative (HIV?) subjects. While HIV serostatus and age independently affected fMRI measures, no interaction occurred. Functional brain demands in HIV+ subjects were equivalent to ~15–20 year older HIV? subjects. Frailty parallels between HIV and aging could result from continued immunological challenges depleting resources and triggering increased metabolic demands. fMRI could be a non-invasive biomarker to assess HIV in the brain.

Ances, Beau M.; Vaida, Florin; Yeh, Melinda J.; Liang, Christine L.; Buxton, Richard B.; Letendre, Scott; McCutchan, J. Allen; Ellis, Ronald J.

2009-01-01

352

Surface mapping brain function on 3D models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flexible graphics system for displaying functional and anatomic data on arbitrary collections of surfaces on or within the brain is presented. The system makes it possible to show complex, convoluted surfaces with the shading cues necessary to understand their shapes; to vary viewpoint, object position, illumination, and perspective easily; to show multiple-objects in one view, with or without transparency,

Bradley A. Payne; Arthur W. Toga

1990-01-01

353

Functional craniology and brain evolution: from paleontology to biomedicine  

PubMed Central

Anatomical systems are organized through a network of structural and functional relationships among their elements. This network of relationships is the result of evolution, it represents the actual target of selection, and it generates the set of rules orienting and constraining the morphogenetic processes. Understanding the relationship among cranial and cerebral components is necessary to investigate the factors that have influenced and characterized our neuroanatomy, and possible drawbacks associated with the evolution of large brains. The study of the spatial relationships between skull and brain in the human genus has direct relevance in cranial surgery. Geometrical modeling can provide functional perspectives in evolution and brain physiology, like in simulations to investigate metabolic heat production and dissipation in the endocranial form. Analysis of the evolutionary constraints between facial and neural blocks can provide new information on visual impairment. The study of brain form variation in fossil humans can supply a different perspective for interpreting the processes behind neurodegeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. Following these examples, it is apparent that paleontology and biomedicine can exchange relevant information and contribute at the same time to the development of robust evolutionary hypotheses on brain evolution, while offering more comprehensive biological perspectives with regard to the interpretation of pathological processes.

Bruner, Emiliano; de la Cuetara, Jose Manuel; Masters, Michael; Amano, Hideki; Ogihara, Naomichi

2014-01-01

354

Left Brain vs. Right Brain: Findings on Visual Spatial Capacities and the Functional Neurology of Giftedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As neuroimaging technologies increase their sensitivity to assess the function of the human brain and results from these studies draw the attention of educators, it becomes paramount to identify misconceptions about what these data illustrate and how these findings might be applied to educational contexts. Some of these "neuromyths" have…

Kalbfleisch, M. Layne; Gillmarten, Charles

2013-01-01

355

Abnormal Brain Functional Connectivity of the Hypothalamus in Cluster Headaches  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to detect the abnormality of the brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus during acute spontaneous cluster headache (CH) attacks (‘in attack’) and headache-free intervals (‘out of attack’) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) technique. The RS-fMRI data from twelve male CH patients during ‘in attack’ and ‘out of attack’ periods and twelve age- and sex-matched normal controls were analyzed by the region-of-interest -based functional connectivity method using SPM5 software. Abnormal brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus is present in CH, which is located mainly in the pain system during the spontaneous CH attacks. It extends beyond the pain system during CH attack intervals.

Qiu, Enchao; Wang, Yan; Ma, Lin; Tian, Lixia; Liu, Ruozhuo; Dong, Zhao; Xu, Xian; Zou, Zhitong; Yu, Shengyuan

2013-01-01

356

Brain miner: a 3D visual interface for the investigation of functional relationships in the brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brain imaging methods used in experimental brain research such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI) require the analysis of large amounts of data. Statistical methods are necessary to obtain a reliable measure of a given effect. Typically, researchers report their findings by listing those regions which show significant statistical activity in a group of subjects under some experimental condition or task. A number of methods create statistical parametric maps (SPMs) of the brain on a voxel- basis. However, a major limitation of the voxel-based technique is the inaccuracy of the transformation into a stereotaxic space (e.g., Talairach-Tournoux) given the wide variability in human brain structure. In order to account for this, researchers have turned to computing the statistics not on individual voxels but on predefined anatomical regions-of- interest (ROIs). A correlation coefficient is used to quantify similarity in response for various regions during an experimental setting. Since the functional inter-relationships can become rather complex, they are best understood in the context of the underlying 3-D brain anatomy. In this paper, we present a novel 3-D interface that allows the interactive exploration of the correlation datasets within a common stereotaxic atlas.

Welsh, Tom F.; Mueller, Klaus D.; Zhu, Wei; Meade, Jeffrey R.; Volkow, Nora

2001-05-01

357

Structural and functional brain rewiring clarifies preserved interhemispheric transfer in humans born without the corpus callosum.  

PubMed

Why do humans born without the corpus callosum, the major interhemispheric commissure, lack the disconnection syndrome classically described in callosotomized patients? This paradox was discovered by Nobel laureate Roger Sperry in 1968, and has remained unsolved since then. To tackle the hypothesis that alternative neural pathways could explain this puzzle, we investigated patients with callosal dysgenesis using structural and functional neuroimaging, as well as neuropsychological assessments. We identified two anomalous white-matter tracts by deterministic and probabilistic tractography, and provide supporting resting-state functional neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence for their functional role in preserved interhemispheric transfer of complex tactile information, such as object recognition. These compensatory pathways connect the homotopic posterior parietal cortical areas (Brodmann areas 39 and surroundings) via the posterior and anterior commissures. We propose that anomalous brain circuitry of callosal dysgenesis is determined by long-distance plasticity, a set of hardware changes occurring in the developing brain after pathological interference. So far unknown, these pathological changes somehow divert growing axons away from the dorsal midline, creating alternative tracts through the ventral forebrain and the dorsal midbrain midline, with partial compensatory effects to the interhemispheric transfer of cortical function. PMID:24821757

Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Monteiro, Myriam; Andrade, Juliana; Bramati, Ivanei E; Vianna-Barbosa, Rodrigo; Marins, Theo; Rodrigues, Erika; Dantas, Natalia; Behrens, Timothy E J; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Moll, Jorge; Lent, Roberto

2014-05-27

358

Trypsin and trypsin-like proteases in the brain: Proteolysis and cellular functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Several serine proteases including thrombin, tissue-type plasminogen activator and urokinase-type plasminogen activator have\\u000a been well characterized in the brain. In this article, we review the brain-related trypsin and trypsin-like serine proteases.\\u000a Accumulating evidence demonstrates that trypsin and trypsin-like serine proteases play very important roles in neural development,\\u000a plasticity, neurodegeneration and neuroregeneration in the brain. Neuropsin is able to hydrolyze the

Y. Wang; W. Luo; G. Reiser

2008-01-01

359

Anatomical and functional assemblies of brain BOLD oscillations  

PubMed Central

Brain oscillatory activity has long been thought to have spatial properties, the details of which are unresolved. Here we examine spatial organizational rules for the human brain oscillatory activity as measured by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD). Resting state BOLD signal was transformed into frequency space (Welch’s method), averaged across subjects, and its spatial distribution studied as a function of four frequency bands, spanning the full bandwidth of BOLD. The brain showed anatomically constrained distribution of power for each frequency band. This result was replicated on a repository dataset of 195 subjects. Next, we examined larger-scale organization by parceling the neocortex into regions approximating Brodmann Areas (BAs). This indicated that BAs of simple function/connectivity (unimodal), vs. complex properties (transmodal), are dominated by low frequency BOLD oscillations, and within the visual ventral stream we observe a graded shift of power to higher frequency bands for BAs further removed from the primary visual cortex (increased complexity), linking frequency properties of BOLD to hodology. Additionally, BOLD oscillation properties for the default mode network demonstrated that it is composed of distinct frequency dependent regions. When the same analysis was performed on a visual-motor task, frequency-dependent global and voxel-wise shifts in BOLD oscillations could be detected at brain sites mostly outside those identified with general linear modeling. Thus, analysis of BOLD oscillations in full bandwidth uncovers novel brain organizational rules, linking anatomical structures and functional networks to characteristic BOLD oscillations. The approach also identifies changes in brain intrinsic properties in relation to responses to external inputs.

Baria, Alexis T.; Baliki, Marwan N.; Parrish, Todd; Apkarian, A. Vania

2011-01-01

360

Long-Term ?1A-Adrenergic Receptor Stimulation Improves Synaptic Plasticity, Cognitive Function, Mood, and Longevity  

PubMed Central

The role of ?1-adrenergic receptors (?1ARs) in cognition and mood is controversial, probably as a result of past use of nonselective agents. ?1AAR activation was recently shown to increase neurogenesis, which is linked to cognition and mood. We studied the effects of long-term ?1AAR stimulation using transgenic mice engineered to express a constitutively active mutant (CAM) form of the ?1AAR. CAM-?1AAR mice showed enhancements in several behavioral models of learning and memory. In contrast, mice that have the ?1AAR gene knocked out displayed poor cognitive function. Hippocampal brain slices from CAM-?1AAR mice demonstrated increased basal synaptic transmission, paired-pulse facilitation, and long-term potentiation compared with wild-type (WT) mice. WT mice treated with the ?1AAR-selective agonist cirazoline also showed enhanced cognitive functions. In addition, CAM-?1AAR mice exhibited antidepressant and less anxious phenotypes in several behavioral tests compared with WT mice. Furthermore, the lifespan of CAM-?1AAR mice was 10% longer than that of WT mice. Our results suggest that long-term ?1AAR stimulation improves synaptic plasticity, cognitive function, mood, and longevity. This may afford a potential therapeutic target for counteracting the decline in cognitive function and mood associated with aging and neurological disorders.

Doze, Van A.; Papay, Robert S.; Goldenstein, Brianna L.; Gupta, Manveen K.; Collette, Katie M.; Nelson, Brian W.; Lyons, Mariaha J.; Davis, Bethany A.; Luger, Elizabeth J.; Wood, Sarah G.; Haselton, James R.; Simpson, Paul C.

2011-01-01

361

Reconceptualizing functional brain connectivity in autism from a developmental perspective  

PubMed Central

While there is almost universal agreement amongst researchers that autism is associated with alterations in brain connectivity, the precise nature of these alterations continues to be debated. Theoretical and empirical work is beginning to reveal that autism is associated with a complex functional phenotype characterized by both hypo- and hyper-connectivity of large-scale brain systems. It is not yet understood why such conflicting patterns of brain connectivity are observed across different studies, and the factors contributing to these heterogeneous findings have not been identified. Developmental changes in functional connectivity have received inadequate attention to date. We propose that discrepancies between findings of autism related hypo-connectivity and hyper-connectivity might be reconciled by taking developmental changes into account. We review neuroimaging studies of autism, with an emphasis on functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of intrinsic functional connectivity in children, adolescents and adults. The consistent pattern emerging across several studies is that while intrinsic functional connectivity in adolescents and adults with autism is generally reduced compared with age-matched controls, functional connectivity in younger children with the disorder appears to be increased. We suggest that by placing recent empirical findings within a developmental framework, and explicitly characterizing age and pubertal stage in future work, it may be possible to resolve conflicting findings of hypo- and hyper-connectivity in the extant literature and arrive at a more comprehensive understanding of the neurobiology of autism.

Uddin, Lucina Q.; Supekar, Kaustubh; Menon, Vinod

2013-01-01

362

Phospholipase D in brain function and Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Although lipids are major constituents of brain, their role in Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis is poorly understood. Much attention has been given to cholesterol, but growing evidence suggests that other lipids, such as phospholipids, might play an important role in this disorder. In this review, we will summarize the evidence linking phospholipase D, a phosphatidic acid-synthesizing enzyme, to multiple aspects of normal brain function and to Alzheimer’s disease. The role of phospholipase D in signaling mechanisms downstream of beta-amyloid as well as in the trafficking and processing of amyloid precursor protein will be emphasized.

Oliveira, Tiago Gil; Di Paolo, Gilbert

2012-01-01

363

Reentry: a key mechanism for integration of brain function  

PubMed Central

Reentry in nervous systems is the ongoing bidirectional exchange of signals along reciprocal axonal fibers linking two or more brain areas. The hypothesis that reentrant signaling serves as a general mechanism to couple the functioning of multiple areas of the cerebral cortex and thalamus was first proposed in 1977 and 1978 (Edelman, 1978). A review of the amount and diversity of supporting experimental evidence accumulated since then suggests that reentry is among the most important integrative mechanisms in vertebrate brains (Edelman, 1993). Moreover, these data prompt testable hypotheses regarding mechanisms that favor the development and evolution of reentrant neural architectures.

Edelman, Gerald M.; Gally, Joseph A.

2013-01-01

364

Effects of plasticizers and their mixtures on estrogen receptor and thyroid hormone functions.  

PubMed

Plasticizers are additives used to increase the flexibility or plasticity of the material to which they are added, normally rigid plastic and as additives in paint and adhesives. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the estrogen and the thyroid hormone (TH) systems. We investigated in vitro the thyroid hormone-like and estrogenic activities of a range of widely used plasticizers and phenols including benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dioctyl phthalate (DOP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), 4-tert-octylphenol (tOP), 4-chloro-3-methylphenol (CMP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2-phenylphenol (2-PP) and resorcinol. The TH disrupting potential was determined by the effect on the TH-dependent rat pituitary GH3 cell proliferation (T-screen). The estrogenic activities of the compounds were assessed in MVLN cells, stably transfected with an estrogen receptor (ER) luciferase reporter vector. Furthermore, the combined effect of a multi-components mixture of six plasticizers was evaluated for its estrogenic and TH-like activities. All the tested compounds, but 2-PP, significantly affected the GH3 cell proliferation. tOP, BBP and DBP activated ER transactivity, whereas DEHP antagonized the 17beta-estradiol induced ER function. The mixture significantly induced ER transactivity in an additive manner, whereas in the T-screen, the observed mixture effect was lower than predicted, suggesting a potential antagonizing effect of the mixture. In conclusion, the tested plasticizers and phenols elicited endocrine-disrupting potential that can be mediated via interference with the estrogen and TH systems. Moreover, the observed mixture effect stresses the importance of considering the combined effect of the compounds for risk assessment of human health. PMID:19463926

Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva Cecilie

2009-08-25

365

Restoration of function after brain damage using a neural prosthesis.  

PubMed

Neural interface systems are becoming increasingly more feasible for brain repair strategies. This paper tests the hypothesis that recovery after brain injury can be facilitated by a neural prosthesis serving as a communication link between distant locations in the cerebral cortex. The primary motor area in the cerebral cortex was injured in a rat model of focal brain injury, disrupting communication between motor and somatosensory areas and resulting in impaired reaching and grasping abilities. After implantation of microelectrodes in cerebral cortex, a neural prosthesis discriminated action potentials (spikes) in premotor cortex that triggered electrical stimulation in somatosensory cortex continuously over subsequent weeks. Within 1 wk, while receiving spike-triggered stimulation, rats showed substantially improved reaching and grasping functions that were indistinguishable from prelesion levels by 2 wk. Post hoc analysis of the spikes evoked by the stimulation provides compelling evidence that the neural prosthesis enhanced functional connectivity between the two target areas. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that neural interface systems can be used effectively to bridge damaged neural pathways functionally and promote recovery after brain injury. PMID:24324155

Guggenmos, David J; Azin, Meysam; Barbay, Scott; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Dunham, Caleb; Mohseni, Pedram; Nudo, Randolph J

2013-12-24

366

Functional Brain Image Analysis Using Joint Function-Structure Priors  

PubMed Central

We propose a new method for context-driven analysis of functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) that incorporates spatial relationships between functional parameter clusters and anatomical structure directly for the first time. We design a parametric scheme that relates functional and structural spatially-compact regions in a single unified manner. Our method is motivated by the fact that the fMRI and anatomical MRI (aMRI) have consistent relations that provide configurations and context that aid in fMRI analysis. We develop a statistical decision-making strategy to estimate new fMRI parameter images (based on a General Linear Model-GLM) and spatially-clustered zones within these images. The analysis is based on the time-series data and contextual information related to appropriate spatial grouping of parameters in the functional data and the relationship of this grouping to relevant gray matter structure from the anatomical data. We introduce a representation for the joint prior of the functional and structural information, and define a joint probability distribution over the variations of functional clusters and the related structure contained in a set of training images. We estimate the Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) functional parameters, formulating the function-structure model in terms of level set functions. Results from 3D fMRI and aMRI show that this context-driven analysis potentially extracts more meaningful information than the standard GLM approach.

Yang, Jing; Papademetris, Xenophon; Staib, Lawrence H.; Schultz, Robert T.; Duncan, James S.

2010-01-01

367

Plasticity in the neural coding of auditory space in the mammalian brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sound localization relies on the neural processing of monaural and binaural spatial cues that arise from the way sounds interact with the head and external ears. Neurophysiological studies of animals raised with abnormal sensory inputs show that the map of auditory space in the superior colliculus is shaped during development by both auditory and visual experience. An example of this plasticity is provided by monaural occlusion during infancy, which leads to compensatory changes in auditory spatial tuning that tend to preserve the alignment between the neural representations of visual and auditory space. Adaptive changes also take place in sound localization behavior, as demonstrated by the fact that ferrets raised and tested with one ear plugged learn to localize as accurately as control animals. In both cases, these adjustments may involve greater use of monaural spectral cues provided by the other ear. Although plasticity in the auditory space map seems to be restricted to development, adult ferrets show some recovery of sound localization behavior after long-term monaural occlusion. The capacity for behavioral adaptation is, however, task dependent, because auditory spatial acuity and binaural unmasking (a measure of the spatial contribution to the "cocktail party effect") are permanently impaired by chronically plugging one ear, both in infancy but especially in adulthood. Experience-induced plasticity allows the neural circuitry underlying sound localization to be customized to individual characteristics, such as the size and shape of the head and ears, and to compensate for natural conductive hearing losses, including those associated with middle ear disease in infancy.

King, Andrew J.; Parsons, Carl H.; Moore, David R.

2000-10-01

368

Partial sleep in the context of augmentation of brain function  

PubMed Central

Inability to solve complex problems or errors in decision making is often attributed to poor brain processing, and raises the issue of brain augmentation. Investigation of neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex in the sleep-wake cycle offers insights into the mechanisms underlying the reduction in mental abilities for complex problem solving. Some cortical areas may transit into a sleep state while an organism is still awake. Such local sleep would reduce behavioral ability in the tasks for which the sleeping areas are crucial. The studies of this phenomenon have indicated that local sleep develops in high order cortical areas. This is why complex problem solving is mostly affected by local sleep, and prevention of local sleep might be a potential way of augmentation of brain function. For this approach to brain augmentation not to entail negative consequences for the organism, it is necessary to understand the functional role of sleep. Our studies have given an unexpected answer to this question. It was shown that cortical areas that process signals from extero- and proprioreceptors during wakefulness, switch to the processing of interoceptive information during sleep. It became clear that during sleep all “computational power” of the brain is directed to the restoration of the vital functions of internal organs. These results explain the logic behind the initiation of total and local sleep. Indeed, a mismatch between the current parameters of any visceral system and the genetically determined normal range would provide the feeling of tiredness, or sleep pressure. If an environmental situation allows falling asleep, the organism would transit to a normal total sleep in all cortical areas. However, if it is impossible to go to sleep immediately, partial sleep may develop in some cortical areas in the still behaviorally awake organism. This local sleep may reduce both the “intellectual power” and the restorative function of sleep for visceral organs.

Pigarev, Ivan N.; Pigareva, Marina L.

2014-01-01

369

Functional Language Shift to the Right Hemisphere in Patients with Language-Eloquent Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

Objectives Language function is mainly located within the left hemisphere of the brain, especially in right-handed subjects. However, functional MRI (fMRI) has demonstrated changes of language organization in patients with left-sided perisylvian lesions to the right hemisphere. Because intracerebral lesions can impair fMRI, this study was designed to investigate human language plasticity with a virtual lesion model using repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Experimental design Fifteen patients with lesions of left-sided language-eloquent brain areas and 50 healthy and purely right-handed participants underwent bilateral rTMS language mapping via an object-naming task. All patients were proven to have left-sided language function during awake surgery. The rTMS-induced language errors were categorized into 6 different error types. The error ratio (induced errors/number of stimulations) was determined for each brain region on both hemispheres. A hemispheric dominance ratio was then defined for each region as the quotient of the error ratio (left/right) of the corresponding area of both hemispheres (ratio >1 ?=? left dominant; ratio <1 ?=? right dominant). Results Patients with language-eloquent lesions showed a statistically significantly lower ratio than healthy participants concerning “all errors” and “all errors without hesitations”, which indicates a higher participation of the right hemisphere in language function. Yet, there was no cortical region with pronounced difference in language dominance compared to the whole hemisphere. Conclusions This is the first study that shows by means of an anatomically accurate virtual lesion model that a shift of language function to the non-dominant hemisphere can occur.

Krieg, Sandro M.; Sollmann, Nico; Hauck, Theresa; Ille, Sebastian; Foerschler, Annette; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian

2013-01-01

370

The olympic brain. Does corticospinal plasticity play a role in acquisition of skills required for high-performance sports?  

PubMed Central

Non-invasive electrophysiological and imaging techniques have recently made investigation of the intact behaving human brain possible. One of the most intriguing new research areas that have developed through these new technical advances is an improved understanding of the plastic adaptive changes in neuronal circuitries underlying improved performance in relation to skill training. Expansion of the cortical representation or modulation of corticomotor excitability of specific muscles engaged in task performance is required for the aquisition of the skill. These changes at cortical level appear to be paralleled by changes in transmission in spinal neuronal circuitries, which regulate the contribution of sensory feedback mechanisms to the execution of the task. Such adaptive changes also appear to be essential for the consolidation of a memory of performance of motor tasks and thus for the lasting ability of performing highly skilled movements such as those required for Olympic sports.

Nielsen, Jens Bo; Cohen, Leonardo G

2008-01-01

371

Individual Variability in Functional Connectivity Architecture of the Human Brain  

PubMed Central

Summary The fact that people think or behave differently from one another is rooted in individual differences in brain anatomy and connectivity. Here we used repeated-measurement resting-state functional MRI to explore inter-subject variability in connectivity. Individual differences in functional connectivity were heterogeneous across the cortex, with significantly higher variability in heteromodal association cortex and lower variability in unimodal cortices. Inter-subject variability in connectivity was significantly correlated with the degree of evolutionary cortical expansion, suggesting a potential evolutionary root of functional variability. The connectivity variability was also related to variability in sulcal depth but not cortical thickness, positively correlated with the degree of long-range connectivity but negatively correlated with local connectivity. A meta-analysis further revealed that regions predicting individual differences in cognitive domains are predominantly located in regions of high connectivity variability. Our findings have potential implications for understanding brain evolution and development, guiding intervention, and interpreting statistical maps in neuroimaging.

Mueller, Sophia; Wang, Danhong; Fox, Michael D.; Thomas Yeo, B. T.; Sepulcre, Jorge; Sabuncu, Mert R.; Shafee, Rebecca; Lu, Jie; Liu, Hesheng

2013-01-01

372

The functional neuroanatomy of working memory: Contributions of human brain lesion studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of patients with focal brain lesions remain critical components of research programs attempting to understand human brain function. Whereas functional imaging typically reveals activity in distributed brain regions that are involved in a task, lesion studies can define which of these brain regions are necessary for a cognitive process. Further, lesion studies are less critical regarding the selection of

N. G. Müller; R. T. Knight

2006-01-01

373

Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues enhance synaptic plasticity in the brain: a link between diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes has been identified as a risk factor for patients with Alzheimer's disease. Insulin signalling is often impaired in Alzheimer's disease, contributing to the neurodegenerative process. One potential strategy to help prevent this is the normalisation of insulin signalling in the brain. Therefore, the present study was designed to test the effects of novel enzyme-resistant analogues of the insulin-releasing incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). The effects of Liraglutide (Victoza) and other novel GLP-1 analogues were tested on synaptic plasticity (LTP) in area CA1 of the hippocampus. At a dose of 15nmol in 5microl i.c.v., Liraglutide (P<0.005), Asp(7)GLP-1 (P<0.001), N-glyc-GLP-1 (P<0.01), and Pro(9)GLP-1 (P<0.001). In contrast, the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39)amide impaired LTP (P<0.001). Co-injection of exendin(9-39) and Liraglutide showed no effect on LTP. These results clearly demonstrate that Liraglutide and other GLP-1 analogues elicit effects on neurotransmission in the brain. Furthermore, GLP-1 peptides are not only effective in modulating insulin-release and achieving glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes, but are also effective in modulating synaptic plasticity. These findings are consistent with our previous observations that the novel analogue (Val(8))GLP-1 enhances LTP and reverses the impairments of LTP induced by beta-amyoid fragments. Therefore, the drug effects seen here could potentially ameliorate the impairments in neuronal communication and cognitive processes observed in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:20035739

McClean, Paula L; Gault, Victor A; Harriott, Patrick; Hölscher, Christian

2010-03-25

374

MicroRNAs in brain development and function: a matter of flexibility and stability  

PubMed Central

Fine-tuning of gene expression is a fundamental requirement for development and function of cells and organs. This requirement is particularly obvious in the nervous system where originally common stem cell populations generate thousands of different neuronal and glial cell types in a temporally and quantitatively perfectly orchestrated manner. Moreover, after their generation, young neurons have to connect with pre-determined target neurons through the establishment of functional synapses, either in their immediate environment or at distance. Lastly, brain function depends not only on static circuitries, but on plastic changes at the synaptic level allowing both, learning and memory. It appears evident that these processes necessitate flexibility and stability at the same time. These two contrasting features can only be achieved by complex molecular networks, superposed levels of control and tight interactions between regulatory mechanisms. Interactions between microRNAs and their target mRNAs fulfill these requirements. Here we review recent literature dealing with the involvement of microRNAs in multiple aspects of brain development and connectivity.

Follert, Philipp; Cremer, Harold; Beclin, Christophe

2014-01-01

375

Intestinal barrier function and the brain-gut axis.  

PubMed

The luminal-mucosal interface of the intestinal tract is the first relevant location where microorganism-derived antigens and all other potentially immunogenic particles face the scrutiny of the powerful mammalian immune system. Upon regular functioning conditions, the intestinal barrier is able to effectively prevent most environmental and external antigens to interact openly with the numerous and versatile elements that compose the mucosal-associated immune system. This evolutionary super system is capable of processing an astonishing amount of antigens and non-immunogenic particles, approximately 100 tons in one individual lifetime, only considering food-derived components. Most important, to develop oral tolerance and proper active immune responses needed to prevent disease and inflammation, this giant immunogenic load has to be managed in a way that physiological inflammatory balance is constantly preserved. Adequate functioning of the intestinal barrier involves local and distant regulatory networks integrating the so-called brain-gut axis. Along this complex axis both brain and gut structures participate in the processing and execution of response signals to external and internal changes coming from the digestive tract, using multidirectional pathways to communicate. Dysfunction of brain-gut axis facilitates malfunctioning of the intestinal barrier, and vice versa, increasing the risk of uncontrolled immunological reactions that may trigger mucosal and brain low-grade inflammation, a putative first step to the initiation of more permanent gut disorders. In this chapter, we describe the structure, function and interactions of intestinal barrier, microbiota and brain-gut axis in both healthy and pathological conditions. PMID:24997030

Alonso, Carmen; Vicario, María; Pigrau, Marc; Lobo, Beatriz; Santos, Javier

2014-01-01

376

Rehabilitation and plasticity.  

PubMed

Therapies for effective neurorehabiltiation are in part based on brain mechanism commonly described as neuroplasticity. These therapeutic approaches emphasize the re-learning of functionality that was lost due to the injury through reorganization of neural circuits in the remaining intact tissue. Important elements of these therapies are intensive and repetitive training, motivation and potentially interactive devices (therapy "robots") and supportive therapies such as brain stimulation or plasticity inducing medications. Because neuroplasticity-based interventions are complex and multifactorial optimized treatment protocols have to be developed before large clinical trials can provide the evidence of efficacy. PMID:23859967

Luft, Andreas R

2013-01-01

377

Elastic–plastic analysis of two-dimensional functionally graded materials under thermal loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-dimensional functionally graded materials, (2D-FGMs) have been recently introduced in order to significantly reduce the thermal stresses in machine elements that subjected to sever thermal loading. To the author’s knowledge no work was found that investigates the elastic–plastic stress analysis for 2D-FGMs. In the current work, a 3D finite element model of 2D-FGM plates made of ZrO2, 6061-T6 and

Mahmoud Nemat-Alla; Khaled I. E. Ahmed; Ibraheem Hassab-Allah

2009-01-01

378

Cohesive fracture modeling of elastic–plastic crack growth in functionally graded materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates elastic–plastic crack growth in ceramic\\/metal functionally graded materials (FGMs). The study employs a phenomenological, cohesive zone model proposed by the authors and simulates crack growth by the gradual degradation of cohesive surfaces ahead of the crack front. The cohesive zone model uses six material-dependent parameters (the cohesive energy densities and the peak cohesive tractions of the ceramic

Zhi-He Jin; Glaucio H. Paulino; Robert H. Dodds Jr

2003-01-01

379

Brain-computer interface technology as a tool to augment plasticity and outcomes for neurological rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a rehabilitation tool for tetraplegic patients that aim to improve quality of life by augmenting communication, control of the environment, and self-care. The neurobiology of both rehabilitation and BCI control depends upon learning to modify the efficacy of spared neural ensembles that represent movement, sensation and cognition through progressive practice with feedback and reward. To serve

Bruce H. Dobkin

2007-01-01

380

Evidence from neuroimaging to explore brain plasticity in humans during an ultra-endurance burden  

PubMed Central

Physical activity, likely through induction of neuroplasticity, is a promising intervention to promote brain health. In athletes it is clear that training can and does, by physiological adaptations, extend the frontiers of performance capacity. The limits of our endurance capacity lie deeply in the human brain, determined by various personal factors yet to be explored. The human brain, with its vast neural connections and its potential for seemingly endless behaviors, constitutes one of the final frontiers of medicine. In a recent study published in BMC Medicine, the TransEurope FootRace Project followed 10 ultra-endurance runners over around 4,500 km across Europe and recorded a large data collection of brain imaging scans. This study indicates that the cerebral atrophy amounting to a reduction of approximately 6% throughout the two months of the race is reversed upon follow-up. While this study will contribute to advances in the limits of human performance on the neurophysiological processes in sports scientists, it will also bring important understanding to clinicians about cerebral atrophy in people who are vulnerable to physical and psychological stress long term. See related research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/170

2012-01-01

381

Stimulation of muscarinic receptors mimics experience-dependent plasticity in the honey bee brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honey bees begin life working in the hive. At 3 weeks of age, they shift to visiting flowers to forage for pollen and nectar. Foraging is a complex task associated with enlargement of the mushroom bodies, a brain region important in insects for certain forms of learning and memory. We report here that foraging bees had a larger volume of

Nyla Ismail; Gene E. Robinson; Susan E. Fahrbach

2006-01-01

382

Cytoplasmic RNA-Binding Proteins and the Control of Complex Brain Function  

PubMed Central

The formation and maintenance of neural circuits in the mammal central nervous system (CNS) require the coordinated expression of genes not just at the transcriptional level, but at the translational level as well. Recent evidence shows that regulated messenger RNA (mRNA) translation is necessary for certain forms of synaptic plasticity, the cellular basis of learning and memory. In addition, regulated translation helps guide axonal growth cones to their targets on other neurons or at the neuromuscular junction. Several neurologic syndromes have been correlated with and indeed may be caused by aberrant translation; one important example is the fragile X mental retardation syndrome. Although translation in the CNS is regulated by multiple mechanisms and factors, we focus this review on regulatory mRNA-binding proteins with particular emphasis on fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) and cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding (CPEB) because they have been shown to be at the nexus of translational control and brain function in health and disease.

Darnell, Jennifer C.; Richter, Joel D.

2012-01-01

383

Cam-Clay plasticity, Part IV: Implicit integration of anisotropic bounding surface model with nonlinear hyperelasticity and ellipsoidal loading function  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a fully implicit stress-point integration algorithm for a class of anisotropic bounding surface plasticity models with ellipsoidal loading function. The plasticity model is coupled with a nonlinear hyperelastic model to ensure that the elastic component of the combined model is energy-conserving. A key feature of the integration algorithm for the combined model is a return mapping in

Ronaldo I. Borja; Chao-Hua Lin; Francisco J. Montáns

2001-01-01

384

Developmental changes in brain activation and functional connectivity during response inhibition in the early childhood brain.  

PubMed

Response inhibition is an attention function which develops relatively early during childhood. Behavioral data suggest that by the age of 3, children master the basic task requirements for the assessment of response inhibition but performance improves substantially until the age of 7. The neuronal mechanisms underlying these developmental processes, however, are not well understood. In this study, we examined brain activation patterns and behavioral performance of children aged between 4 and 6 years compared to adults by applying a go/no-go paradigm during near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) brain imaging. We furthermore applied task-independent functional connectivity measures to the imaging data to identify maturation of intrinsic neural functional networks. We found a significant group×condition related interaction in terms of inhibition-related reduced right fronto-parietal activation in children compared to adults. In contrast, motor-related activation did not differ between age groups.