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Scientific and popular interest in the effects of nutrients, foodconstituents, and nutritional supplements on the brain and behavior has been growing dramatically. The use of products sold as dietary supplements in the United States has become a multibil...
Functionalfoods are a challenge tofood health policies, since they questioncentral ideas in the way that food healthpolicies have been developed over the lastdecades. Driven by market actors instead ofpublic authorities and focusing on the role ofsingle foods and single constituents in foodsfor health, they contrast traditional wisdombehind nutrition policies that emphasize therole of the diet as a whole for
Activated oxygen species which may be important in initiating oxidative changes in foods include singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, ozone, superoxide anion (perhydroxyl radical at low pH), and hydrogen peroxide. Chemical and enzymic reactions known to occur in biological materials can generate singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide. Ozone is primarily a product of photoreactions in polluted air. Reactions involving singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, and ozone with foodconstituents can ultimately yield peroxides which decompose to initiate oxidative chain reactions. Superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide are relatively inert toward organic molecules but can decompose to produce the more reactive singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical. Inhibition of reactions initiated by reactive oxygen species in foods should be very important in preserving the oxidative stability of foods. The generation, detection, measurement, reaction, and inhibition of reactions of active oxygen species are surveyed in this review. PMID:215383
The aim of the Dairy and FunctionalFoods Research Unit (DFFRU), ERRC, ARS, USDA, is to improve human health and well being by developing functionalfood and consumer products that utilize milk and fruit and vegetable processing residues of specialty crops. Major research approaches involve: biotec...
An unambiguous and agreed definition of what a functionalfood is does not exist. However, broadly speaking, a food is said to be functional if it contains a food component which affects one or more targeted functions of the body in a positive way. Functionalfoods often fall into the grey area between foods and medicine, but from a regulatory
The influence of nutrients and other foodconstituents, such as dietary fibre components, catechin and phytic acid, on resistant starch (RS) formation was systematically investigated. This investigation was carried out under standardized gelatinization conditions by using a high pressure autoclave (HPA). Except for insoluble dietary fibre constituents (cellulose and lignin), all the tested food ingredients reduced the formation of RS.
A. Escarpa; M. C. González; M. D. Morales; F. Saura-Calixto
Diet is well known to have beneficial health properties that extend beyond traditionally accepted nutritional effects. The approach involved in elucidating these beneficial physiological effects is becoming more important, as reflected by increasing research being undertaken. With growing consumer awareness of foods and foodconstituents and their relationship to health, the key questions for regulators, scientists and the food industry
A. M. Gallagher; G. W. Meijer; D. P. Richardson; V. Rondeau; M. Skarp; M. Stasse-Wolthuis; G. C. Tweedie; R. F. Witkamp
Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects, and some of them are considered to be useful for promoting exercise performance or for prevention of injury. However, these foods should only be used when there is clear scientific evidence and with understanding of the physiological changes caused by exercise. This article describes various "functionalfoods" that have been reported to be effective for improving exercise performance or health promotion, along with the relevant physiological changes that occur during exercise.
Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects, and some of them are considered to be useful for promoting exercise performance or for prevention of injury. However, these foods should only be used when there is clear scientific evidence and with understanding of the physiological changes caused by exercise. This article describes various "functionalfoods" that have been reported to be effective for improving exercise performance or health promotion, along with the relevant physiological changes that occur during exercise. PMID:16749944
The present invention is directed to a technique for preserving foods. In one embodiment, the invention is directed to a product comprising a compound comprising vanillin, and an organic constituent comprising an isothiocynate compound. In another embodim...
Health consciousness and prevention are now in the limelight of the media in Hungary. More and more consumers recognized the importance of healthy eating habits in prevention. In this paper we defined health- marketing and functionalfood then took a closer look at the functionalfood market, consumption of functionalfoods, product trends and the main marketing approaches. This paper
Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and there is considerable interest in the role of dietary constituents and supplements in the prevention and treatment of these disorders. We reviewed the major publications related to potential effects on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes of some common dietary constituents: carotenoids, flavonoid-rich cocoa, tea, red wine and grapes, coffee, omega-3 fatty acids, and garlic. Increased intake of some of these has been associated with reduced all-cause mortality or reduced incidence of myocardial infraction, stroke, and hypertension. However, although the evidence from observational studies is supportive of beneficial effects for most of these foodstuffs taken as part of the diet, potential benefits from the use of supplements derived from these natural products remain largely inconclusive. PMID:22347642
Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and there is considerable interest in the role of dietary constituents and supplements in the prevention and treatment of these disorders. We reviewed the major publications related to potential effects on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes of some common dietary constituents: carotenoids, flavonoid-rich cocoa, tea, red wine and grapes, coffee, omega-3 fatty acids, and garlic. Increased intake of some of these has been associated with reduced all-cause mortality or reduced incidence of myocardial infraction, stroke, and hypertension. However, although the evidence from observational studies is supportive of beneficial effects for most of these foodstuffs taken as part of the diet, potential benefits from the use of supplements derived from these natural products remain largely inconclusive.
VEL ÍŠEK J., KUBEC R., CEJPEK K. (2006): Biosynthesis of foodconstituents: Amino acids: 4. Non-protein amino acids - a review. Czech J. Food Sci., 24: 93-109. This review article gives a brief survey of the principal pathways that lead to the biosynthesis of the most important non-protein amino acids occurring in foods and feeds. These amino acids have been
Functionalfoods have been a developing area of food science research for the past decade. Many foods are derived from plants that naturally contain compounds beneficial to human health and can often prevent certain diseases. Plants containing phytochemicals with potent anticancer and antioxidant activities have spurred development of many new functionalfoods. This has led to the creation of functionalfoods to target health problems such as obesity and inflammation. More recent research into the use of plant phytoalexins as nutritional components has opened up a new area of food science. Phytoalexins are produced by plants in response to stress, fungal attack, or elicitor treatment and are often antifungal or antibacterial compounds. Although phytoalexins have been investigated for their possible role in plant defense, until recently they have gone unexplored as nutritional components in human foods. These underutilized plant compounds may possess key beneficial properties including antioxidant activity, anti-inflammation activity, cholesterol-lowering ability, and even anticancer activity. For these reasons, phytoalexin-enriched foods would be classified as functionalfoods. These phytoalexin-enriched functionalfoods would benefit the consumer by providing "health-enhanced" food choices and would also benefit many underutilized crops that may produce phytoalexins that may not have been considered to be beneficial health-promoting foods. PMID:19334749
Boue, Stephen M; Cleveland, Thomas E; Carter-Wientjes, Carol; Shih, Betty Y; Bhatnagar, Deepak; McLachlan, John M; Burow, Matthew E
Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functionalfoods. The health benefits of fermented functionalfoods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability
By definition, functionalfoods benefit human health beyond the effect of nutrients alone. However, few are accompanied by convincing health claims, partly because human responses are variable. Nutritional biochemistry explains why polymorphisms in genes for the absorption, circulation, or metabolism of essential nutrients, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, would affect the efficacy of that nutrient. However, functionalfoods often
Definitions of functionalfood vary but are essentially based on foods' ability to enhance the quality of life, or physical and mental performance, of regular consumers. The worldwide use of coffee for social engagement, leisure, enhancement of work performance and well-being is widely recognised. Depending on the quantities consumed, it can affect the intake of some minerals (K, Mg, Mn,
Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects,
Definitions of functionalfood vary but are essentially based on foods' ability to enhance the quality of life, or physical and mental performance, of regular consumers. The worldwide use of coffee for social engagement, leisure, enhancement of work performance and well-being is widely recognised. Depending on the quantities consumed, it can affect the intake of some minerals (K, Mg, Mn, Cr), niacin and antioxidant substances. Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown positive effects of regular coffee-drinking on various aspects of health, such as psychoactive responses (alertness, mood change), neurological (infant hyperactivity, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) and metabolic disorders (diabetes, gallstones, liver cirrhosis), and gonad and liver function. Despite this, most reviews do not mention coffee as fulfilling the criteria for a functionalfood. Unlike other functionalfoods that act on a defined population with a special effect, the wide use of coffee-drinking impacts a broad demographic (from children to the elderly), with a wide spectrum of health benefits. The present paper discusses coffee-drinking and health benefits that support the concept of coffee as a functionalfood. PMID:16022745
Male mice (Mus musculus) of a mixed B6/129 background were used to establish food demand functions in a closed economy. The mice lived continuously in operant chambers and worked for 20-mg nutritionally complete food pellets. First, a series of incrementing fixed ratio (FR) costs per pellet were imposed, and the results showed that demand declined as unit price increased. The number of meals taken per day was dependent on the temporal criterion used to define a meal, but the number of meals did not change across the FR series. Next, a series of incrementing progressive ratio (PR) schedules were used, and a meal was defined by a programmed schedule reset interval. Total food intake declined slightly, and the mean meal size also decreased, across the series. Lastly, a nose poke response requirement was imposed as the procurement cost to activate a lever press device for food; under these conditions the meal number changed dramatically as the procurement cost was increased, whereas total intake declined only modestly. These data show in mice that large changes in unit price or consummatory cost have relatively small effects on demand and meal patterns, but small amounts of foraging (procurement) cost have very large effects. PMID:18590781
Functionalfoods presumably enable the consumer to lead a healthier life without changing eating habits. Whether consumers accept this proposition or not is potentially influenced by their perceptions of the healthiness of the processing methods, enrichment components, food-types, and health claims used in the production and marketing of functionalfoods. Because consumers may perceive functional enrichment as interfering with nature,
The term "functionalfood" refers to foods or ingredients of foods providing an additional physiological benefit beyond their basic nutritional needs. Health benefits are best obtained through a varied diet containing fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes and seeds. However, fortified foods and dietary supplements have been marketed and food industry have made functionalfood one of their current leading trends. Recently, the number of functionalfoods that have a potential benefit on health has hugely grown and scientific evidence is supporting the role of functionalfoods in prevention and treatment of several diseases. Cancer, diabetes, heart disease and hypertension are the most important diseases that can be treated or prevented by functionalfoods; other diseases are osteoporosis, abnormal bowel motility, and arthritis. It has been estimated that 80% of cancer in USA have a nutrition/diet component suggesting a great impact of functionalfood and foods components on incidence and treatment of cancer. Numerous factors complicate the evaluation of scientific evidence such as the complexity of food substance, effect on food, metabolic changes associated to dietary changes, the lack of biological markers of disease development. This paper reviews the scientific evidence supporting this area regarding only those foods and ingredients in which a clear experimental and clinical evidence exists for their chemopreventive and therapeutic effects. PMID:16178793
Riezzo, Giuseppe; Chiloiro, Marisa; Russo, Francesco
The differences in the constituents of ten ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives in Japan (urushi wax, carnauba wax, candelilla wax, rice bran wax, shellac wax, jojoba wax, bees wax, Japan wax, montan wax, and lanolin) were investigated. Several kinds of gum bases showed characteristic TLC patterns of lipids. In addition, compositions of fatty acid and alcohol moieties of esters in the gum bases were analyzed by GC/MS after methanolysis and hydrolysis, respectively. The results indicated that the varieties of fatty acids and alcohols and their compositions were characteristic for each gum base. These results will be useful for identification and discrimination of the ester-type gum bases. PMID:18203503
Many foods are known to have not only nutritive and taste values but also medicinal effects. In Egypt, many medicinal foods have been used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases since ancient. However, in most cases, their effective constituents as well as the mechanism of action remained uncharacterized. In the course of our characterization studies on Egyptian medicinal foods and plants, cucurbitane-type triterpene and related compounds such as cucurbitacin E from the fruit of Citrullus colocynthis and the roots of Bryonia cretica were found to show anti-proliferation effects. We therefore synthesized a biotin-linked cucurbitacin E to isolate target proteins based on affinity for the molecule. As a result, cofilin, which regulates the depolymerization of actin, was isolated and suggested to be a target. PMID:23023425
Melatonin, originally discovered as a hormone of the pineal gland, is also produced in other organs and represents, additionally, a normal foodconstituent found in yeast and plant material, which can influence the level in the circulation. Compared to the pineal, the gastrointestinal tract contains several hundred times more melatonin, which can be released into the blood in response to
Summary.Nutrigenomics can provide a new development of research on functionalfood and we can create new e?ective functionalfoods using the nutrigenomical technique in the future.Many func tional compounds to prepare functionalfoods are construed as a conjugateof small chemicals. Thousands of natural conjugates already are knownand we can design and synthesize limitless number of arti?cial conjugates in addition to
Functionalfoods and drinks are products that have been enriched with added nutrients or other substances that are considered to have a positive influence on health. Examples include probiotic yogurts, cholesterol-lowering spreads and foods with added nutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids. This article considers a number of the more popular functionalfoods currently on the market, looking at how they may benefit our health and the evidence behind some of the claims being made about them. There is good evidence for the efficacy of some functionalfood products, for example cholesterol-lowering spreads have been proven to be effective in human trials. However, there is currently little evidence that foods with added omega-3 fatty acids can help improve brain function in 'normal' individuals. Other important factors, such as the amount of functionalfood that must be consumed to provide a health benefit, are also considered. PMID:19516225
Background Food allergy can cause life threatening reactions. Currently, patients with severe food allergy are advised to avoid foods which provoke allergic reactions. This has become increasingly difficult as food proteins are being added to a broader range of consumer products. Patients and methods Here we describe our investigations into the allergenicity of a new drink when two cow's milk allergic children suffered anaphylaxis after consuming Wh2ole®. Results Our studies have shown that in comparison with cow's milk, Wh2ole® contains at least three times the concentration of ?-lactoglobulin. ?-lactoglobulin is one of the dominant allergens in bovine milk. Conclusions These studies have shown that modern technology allows the creation of "hyperallergenic" foods. These products have the potential to cause severe reactions in milk allergic persons. Avoiding inadvertent exposure is the shared responsibility of allergic consumers, regulatory authorities and the food industry.
1. “Functionalfoods” is a relatively new term used to describe food products which have been enriched with natural substances\\/components with a specific physiological preventive and\\/or health-promoting effect. As yet, there are few actual functionalfoods in the Danish market, but in Japan and the USA, where these products are relatively common, sales are enjoying growth rates far above those
The three-dimensional structure of a protein defines how it functions in foods. Processing treatments such as heat, pH, salt or shear and subsequent storage conditions can cause denaturation and even unfolding of the food protein. Subtle changes in protein structure may affect its functionality in f...
In the 1980s, Japan proposed the terminology of 'functionalfood' and its concept , and since then the importance of conducting basic and applied studies on foodfunctionality has been emphasized globally. Functionalfoods in particular as well as common foods in general are constituted with a variety of components including functional factors, and it has been recognized as difficult to evaluate their functionalities by usual chemical, biochemical and physiological methodologies . Against this backdrop, nutrigenomics came into being as a new method of evaluating functionalfoods, as well as nutrients, in a holistic manner. Meanwhile the endowed chair, FunctionalFood Genomics, was established at the University of Tokyo with the aegis of 32 food companies in Japan. This academia-industry collaboration has been working well to disclose why and how some particular functionalfoods elicit their effects in the body. These include soy protein isolate, cocoa polyphenol, sesamin as a lignan of sesame origin, and many others. On the other hand, food safety has been gaining public attention, and we applied genomics for assessment of the wholesomeness of newly developed hypoallergenic wheat flour compared with normal flour. The application of this way of holistic evaluation suggested that the new product was basically the same as the normal product in terms of all-gene expression profiles. The same method was applied to a new sweet protein, neoculin, which resembled toxic lectins in conformation. The result indicated that neoculin had lost its lectin activity, possessing no particular toxic effect. It is thus likely that genomics can be applied to a variety of foods in general for the purpose of simultaneously assessing their functionality. PMID:19367106
Whey proteins, modified whey proteins, and whey components are useful as nutrients or supplements for health maintenance. Extrusion modified whey proteins can easily fit into new products such as beverages, confectionery items (e.g., candies), convenience foods, desserts, baked goods, sauces, and in...
Functionalfoods aim to provide a positive impact on health and well-being beyond their nutritive content. As such, they are\\u000a likely candidates to enhance the public health official’s tool kit. Or are they? Although a very small number of functional\\u000a foods (e.g., phytosterol-enriched margarine) show such promise in improving individual health that Dutch health insurance\\u000a companies reimburse their costs to
Ginseng root is used more often than other parts such as leaf stem although extracts from ginseng leaf-stem also contain similar active ingredients with pharmacological functions. Ginseng's leaf-stems are more readily available at a lower cost than its root. This article reviews the pharmacological effects of ginseng leaf-stem on some diseases and adverse effects due to excessive consumption. Ginseng leaf-stem
Many proteins, particularly those in plants, require structural modifications to improve their functional properties for expanded use. Several chemical and enzymatic methods are described for food protein deamidation to improve solubility, emulsification, foaming, and other functional properties of the proteins. The use of enzymes in protein modification is more desirable than chemical treatments because of their speed, mild reaction conditions,
The application of high hydrostatic pressure is one of the most promising novel minimal processing methods for food preservation. Under optimal process conditions the natural fresh properties of foods are retained. Pressure is an important thermodynamic factor as is temperature. Both pressure and temperature may influence the position of a chemical reaction equilibrium and the reaction rate. Examples of pressure
Chinese people have exploited traditional foods through their long history, and developed an abundant food culture. Especially, preserving health by dieting has been an important part of the traditional food culture in China, which is based on the theory of Chinese medicine. Some of the traditional foods are on the verge of being lost, but improvements in traditional foods will
This research seeks to identify consumer segments related to consumption of functionalfood and nutraceutical products in Canada. The segments are differentiated by consumer receptivity to functionalfoods and nutraceuticals. In turn, receptivity is tied to attitudes, motivations and knowledge related to food\\/diet and connections with health. At one extreme, a segment emerges that is highly receptive to functionalfoods
This study aims at investigating the consumer market for functionalfoods (FF) in Porto Alegre, South Brazil. Functionalfood is any healthy food claimed to have a health-promoting or disease-preventing property beyond the basic function of supplying nutrients. Health has been named as the most significant trend and innovation driver in the global food and drinks market. Brazil is one
Marcia Dutra de Barcellos; Rafael Laitano Lionello
The metabolic syndrome is one of the most vibrant and widely prevailing health concerns worldwide. It is characterized by several metabolic abnormalities, which involve obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, enhanced oxidative stress; hypertension and increased pro-inflammatory state that ultimate contribute towards poor health. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Pakistan according to different definitions is reported to be from 18 % to 46 %. Fifty percent of Pakistani population is at high risk of metabolic syndrome as being hypertensive. In studying dyslipidemia in Pakistan, hypertriglyceridemia is found in 27-54 % of the population, whereas 68-81 % has low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Population likes to eat healthier diet without changing their fundamental dietary pattern. Nutrition science has moved on from the classical concepts of avoiding nutrient deficiencies and basic nutritional adequacy to the concept of positive or optimal nutrition. Many traditional food products including fruits, vegetables, flaxseed, oat, barley, whole grains, soy and milk have been found to contain component with potential health benefits. Nowadays, functionalfoods are used in the prevention and amelioration of several chronic diseases, such as the metabolic syndrome. The relation of the consumption of certain functionalfoods and the improvement in health status is regulated through health claims. This review focuses on the different features of the metabolic syndrome and the influence of functionalfoods on these aspects, involving dyslipidemia, improvement of insulin sensitivity, serum lipid profile, antioxidant status, anti-inflammatory status and weight management of humans. PMID:24057596
Khan, Muhammad Issa; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Sohaib, Muhammad; Sameen, Aysha
The glycaemic index (GI) ranks foods according to their acute glycaemic impact and is used in planning meals for patients invoking glycaemic control through diet. Kurakkan (Eleusine coracana) flour roti, rice flour roti, atta flour roti, boiled breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis/Artocarpus communis) and boiled legumes (mungbean, cowpea and chickpea) were categorized as low-GI foods (relative to white bread; Prima Crust Top), and the corresponding GI (+/- standard error of the mean) values were 70+/-8, 69+/-7, 67+/-9, 64+/-7, 57+/-6, 49+/-8 and 29+/-5, respectively. Kurakkan flour pittu and wheat flour roti were classified as medium-GI foods with GI values of 85+/-6 and 72+/-6. Hoppers, rice flour pittu, wheat flour pittu and Olu-milk rice (seeds of Nymphaea lotus) were categorized as high-GI foods, and the corresponding GI (+/- standard error of the mean) values were 120+/-8, 103+/-7, 101+/-8 and 91+/-8, respectively. The GI values significantly (P<0.01) and negatively correlated with the insoluble dietary fibre (rho = - 0.780), soluble dietary fibre (rho = - 0.712) and protein (rho = - 0.738) contents in grams per 100 g digestible starch containing foods. PMID:19418327
The functionalfoods and nutraceuticals market is growing at a rapid pace. Membrane processing offers several advantages over conventional methods for separation, fractionation and recovery of those bioactive components. In this review, membrane applications of lipid-, carbohydrate-, and protein-based nutraceuticals and some minor bioactive components have been critically evaluated. Both non-porous and porous membranes were employed for lipid-based nutraceuticals separations.
The functionalfoods and nutraceuticals market is growing at a rapid pace. Membrane processing offers several advantages over conventional methods for separation, fractionation, and recovery of those bioactive components. In this review, membrane applications of lipid-, carbohydrate-, and protein-based nutraceuticals and some minor bioactive components have been critically evaluated. Both non-porous and porous membranes were employed for lipid-based nutraceuticals separations.
Hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared from 22 commonly ingested fruits, vegetables, and seeds. When tested by agar diffusion, extracts from 13 and 10 of the foods formed precipitin bands with samples of normal rabbit serum and human saliva, respectively; extracts from four of the foods also reacted with antigen extracts of strains of Streptococcus mutans. When added to rabbit antiserum, extracts from 18 of 21 foods tested inhibited reactivity with antigen extracts derived from S. mutans MT3. Extracts from 16 foods agglutinated whole S. mutans cells, whereas those from 10 foods agglutinated human erythrocytes of blood types A and B. The lectin-like activities of extracts which reacted with human saliva were studied further. Pretreatment of saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (S-HA) beads with extracts of bananas, coconuts, carrots, alfalfa, and sunflower seeds markedly reduced the subsequent adsorption of S. mutans MT3. Pretreatment of S-HA with banana extract also strongly inhibited adsorption of S. mutans H12 and S. sanguis C1, but it had little effect on attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii L13 or A. viscosus LY7. Absorption experiments indicated that the component(s) in banana extract responsible for inhibiting streptococcal adsorption to S-HA was identical to that which bound to human erythrocytes. The banana hemagglutinin exhibited highest activity between pH 7 and 8, and it was inhibited by high concentrations of glucosamine, galactosamine, and, to a lesser extent, mannosamine. Other sugars tested had no effect. The selective bacterial adsorption-inhibiting effect noted for banana extract was also observed in studies with purified lectins. Thus, pretreating S-HA with wheat germ agglutinin and concanavalin A inhibited adsorption of S. mutans MT3 cells, whereas peanut agglutinin, Ulex agglutinin, Dolichos agglutinin, and soybean agglutinin had little effect; none of these lectins affected attachment of A. viscosus LY7. Collectively, the observations suggest that many foods contain lectins which can interact with components of human saliva and S. mutans cells. Because of their potential to influence host-parasite interactions in the mouth and elsewhere in the gastrointestinal canal, these reactions warrant further study. PMID:6786220
The Maori people were early New Zealand settlers of Polynesian descent. The incidence of non-infectious diseases appears to have been low in these people, perhaps in part due to the presence of protective chemical constituents within their food plant supply. Three of the tropical crops they introduced are still eaten here today: the sweet potato or kumara (Ipomoea batatas), the
VELÍŠEK J., CEJPEK K. (2006): Biosynthesis of foodconstituents: Amino acids: 2. The alanine-valine- leucine, serine-cysteine-glycine, and aromatic and heterocyclic amino acids groups - a review. Czech J. Food Sci., 24: 45-58. This review article gives a survey of principal pathways that lead to the biosynthesis of the proteinogenic amino acids of the alanine-valine-leucine group starting with pyruvic acid from
Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is an Andean tuberous root that is regarded as a functionalfood given that it contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS), inulin and phenolic compounds. The consumption of FOS and inulin improves the growth of bifidobacteria in the colon, enhances mineral absorption and gastrointestinal metabolism and plays a role in the regulation of serum cholesterol. Furthermore, the literature reports that the consumption of these prebiotics promotes a positive modulation of the immune system, improving resistance to infections and allergic reactions. Certain studies have demonstrated the potential of yacon as an alternative food source for those patients with conditions that require dietary changes. This review intends to describe the potential of yacon as a prebiotic and its cultivation and industrial processing for human consumption. PMID:23709016
Choque Delgado, Grethel Teresa; da Silva Cunha Tamashiro, Wirla Maria; Maróstica Junior, Mário Roberto; Pastore, Glaucia Maria
Summary To contribute to the social debate about the role of functionalfoods in the prevention of overweight and obesity using an ecological model to study the positioning of functionalfoods and their social implications. Positioning was conceptualized as the relative attention given to functionalfoods within the range of preventive strategies, and the way in which they address specific
N. F. Wieringa; H. J. Van Der Windt; R. R. M. Zuiker; L. Dijkhuizen; M. A. Verkerk; R. J. Vonk; J. A. A. Swart
The functionalfoods and nutraceuticals market is growing at a rapid pace. Membrane processing offers several advantages over conventional methods for separation, fractionation, and recovery of those bioactive components. In this review, membrane applications of lipid-, carbohydrate-, and protein-based nutraceuticals and some minor bioactive components have been critically evaluated. Both non-porous and porous membranes were employed for lipid-based nutraceuticals separations. The use of non-porous membranes together with non-aqueous solvents brought about the impact of solution-diffusion theory on transport through membranes. Both organic and inorganic membranes gave encouraging results for the recovery of lipid components with single- and/or multi-stage membrane processing. Two-stage ultrafiltration (UF)-nanofiltration (NF) systems with polymeric membranes provided an efficient approach for the removal of high- and low-molecular weight (MW) unwanted components resulting in higher purity oligosaccharides in the NF retentate. The charged nature of protein-based nutraceutical components had a major effect on their separation. Operating at optimizal pH levels was critical for fractionation, especially for low MW peptide hydrolysates. Processing of minor components such as polyphenols, utilized all types of porous membranes from prefiltration to concentration stages. Coupling of membrane separation and supercritical fluid technologies would combine unique advantages of each process resulting in a novel separation technology offering great potential for the nutraceutical and functionalfood industry. PMID:22332598
Reviews the main food choice trends driving consumer demand for functionalfoods and the constraints limiting market development. Considers previous research activity in the functionalfood arena and subsequently identifies paramount research priorities that may facilitate the development of products that will help satisfy consumer demands for convenience, health and sensory pleasure.
The term “health\\/functionalfood” (HFF) refers to food supplements containing nutrients or other substances (in a concentrated form) that have a nutritional or physiological effect whose purpose is to supplement the normal diet. The Korean Health\\/FunctionalFood Act that came into effect in 2004 requires these products to be marketed in measured doses, such as in pills, tablets, capsules, and
Food labels are an important educational tool to assist consumers in making healthy food choices. In addition to mandatory nutritional labeling information, manufacturers have a variety of options on the food\\/supplement packages to communicate the nutrition\\/health benefits of their products. This paper describes the different types of claims that can be made for foods and supplements.
As the living standard rises, people are more concerned with the health benefits of foods. Functionalfoods are, therefore, receiving increasing attention worldwide. The functionalfood market in Taiwan reached 1.78 billion US dollars in 2005. Only those which have been certified by the Department of Health can claim their health benefits. Until January 2007, only 88 functionalfoods have received the certificates. In addition to the product development in the food industry, research institutes and universities are also actively engaged in the technology development and basic research of functionalfoods. Many raw materials harvested in Taiwan, including edible plants, herbs, medicinal mushrooms, and sea foods, are investigated for their health benefits, bioactive components and suitable processing technologies. PMID:17878694
Even though their contents in the brain are high, the function of brain carnosine and its constituents has not been clarified. Both carnosine and anserine inhibited food intake in a dose dependent fashion when injected intracerebroventricularly. The constituents of carnosine, ?-alanine (?-Ala) and l-histidine (His), also inhibited food intake, but their effects were weaker than carnosine itself. Co-administration with ?-Ala
Shozo Tomonaga; Tetsuya Tachibana; Tomo Takagi; Ei-Suke Saito; Rong Zhang; D. Michael Denbow; Mitsuhiro Furuse
Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functionalfood ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functionalfoods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview
Whey proteins are well known for their high nutri- tional value and versatile functional properties in food products. Estimates of the worldwide production of whey indicate that about 700,000 tonnes of true whey proteins are available as valuable food ingre- dients. Nutritional and functional characteristics of whey proteins are related to the structure and biologi- cal functions of these proteins.
Given the credence nature of functionalfood attributes labelling plays a key role in allowing consumers to make informed choices about foods with enhanced health attributes. The degree to which a particular jurisdiction permits health claims for food products and the type of allowable health claim influence the information set available to consumers. In Canada the regulatory environment governing health
Functionalfood products promote claims such as 'freedom from hunger' and 'feel fuller for longer'. A legislative framework has been established by the European Food Safety Authority to evaluate the validity of such claims: a claim must be substantiated by scientific evidence and should be clearly understood by consumers. Since consumed foods influence appetite by means of a system of
Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 P...
The marine ecosystem is still an untapped reservoir of biologically active compounds, which have considerable potential to supply food ingredients towards development of new functionalfoods. With the goal of increasing the availability and chemical diversity of functional marine ingredients, much research has been developed using biotechnological tools to discover and produce new compounds. This review summarizes the advances in biotechnological tools for production of functional ingredients, including enzymes, for the food industry. Tools involving biotechnological processes (bioreactors, fermentations, bioprocessing) and those involving genetic research designated as molecular biotechnology are discussed highlighting how they can be used in the controlled manipulation and utilization of marine organisms as sources of food ingredients, as well as discussing the most relevant shortcomings towards applications in new functionalfoods. PMID:22484300
Freitas, Ana C; Rodrigues, Dina; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Gomes, Ana M P; Duarte, Armando C
Background: Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 Puerto Ricans aged 45–75 y living in Massachusetts in relation to cognitive function performances. Design: Food security was assessed with the US Household Food Security Scale. Cognitive function was measured to capture general cognition with a battery of 7 tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning (verbal memory), digit span (attention), clock drawing and figure copying (visual-spatial ability), and Stroop and verbal fluency tests (fluency executive functioning). Results: The overall prevalence of food insecurity during the past 12 mo was 12.1%; 6.1% of the subjects reported very low food security. Food insecurity was inversely associated with global cognitive performance, as assessed by the MMSE score. The adjusted difference in the MMSE score was ?0.90 (95% CI: ?1.6, ?0.19; P for trend = 0.003) for a comparison of participants with very low food security with those who were food secure, after adjustment for age, smoking, education, poverty status, income, acculturation, plasma homocysteine, alcohol, diabetes, and hypertension. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower scores for word-list learning, percentage retention, letter fluency, and digit span backward tests. Conclusions: Very low food security was prevalent among the study subjects and was associated with lower cognitive performance. Further studies, both observational and experimental, are warranted to clarify the direction of causality in this association.
Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Falcon, Luis M; Wilde, Parke E; Tucker, Katherine L
In 1999, U.S. consumers spent about $31 billion for dietary supplements and certain food products (termed 'functionalfoods') that claim to have health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Consumers are expected to spend even more on these products over the n...
Since the market of food ingredients is very competitive, the functionality of soy protein must be improved or redesigned for specific food applications by either physical or chemical modification. Unlike modified starch, soy protein does not naturally impart instantaneous and significant stability ...
We analysed the role of acceptance of functionalfoods (FFs) focusing on the preferences expressed by three distinct groups of young Italian consumers. FFs represent an innovation both in terms of technology and marketing for Italian food companies, and the segment of young consumers would appear especially interested in them. Our results showed that a different cultural education, hence the
Teresa Del Giudice; Stefano Nebbia; Stefano Pascucci
In the last decade, preventive medicine has undergone a great advance, especially in developed countries. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases, as most of them can be related to diet. Functionalfood enters the concept of considering food not only necessary for living but also as a source of mental and
S López-Varela; M González-Gross; A Marcos; A Marcos Sánchez
The ultimate goal of this research was to find central biomarkers of satiety, i.e., physiological measures in the brain that relate to subjectively rated appetite, actual food intake, or both. This thesis describes the changes in brain activity in response to food stimuli as measured by functional MRI, with a focus on the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is a brain area
This paper presents a detailed literature review on the topic of the application of quality function deployment (QFD) in the food industry. This review is extended with a thorough description of the methodologies involved in the practice of QFD within food companies, exemplified with the help of a case study on ketchup quality improvement. The benefits, drawbacks and challenges of
The robustness of ecosystems to species losses is a central question in ecology, given the current pace of extinctions and the many species threatened by human impacts, including habitat destruction and climate change. Robustness from the perspective of secondary extinctions has been addressed in the context of food webs to consider the complex network of species interactions that underlie responses
Stefano Allesina; Antonio Bodini; Mercedes Pascual
|Describes behavior and background of adolescents in a therapeutic community and proposes that all experiences in the residential context need to form a single integrated psychotherapeutic process. Central consideration is of the significance of food and its treatment potential in this total process. (Author)|
Radix Astragali (RA), known as “Huangqi” in China, is one of the most popular herbal medicines known worldwide to reinforce “Qi”. RA is traditionally prepared from the dried roots of Astragalus membranaceus (MJHQ) and A. membranaceus var. mongholicus (MGHQ). Radix Hedysari is named “Hongqi” (HQ), which is similar to RA. We assessed and compared the chemical constituents and bioactivity of RA and HQ. Different constituents were extracted into five major parts and were analyzed using different methods. Comparison of the immunological effects of extracts was done by using two immunological models. Results showed that flavonoids and saponins present in RA and HQ were not only structurally significantly different but also different in their immunological effect. Amino acids extract (AE) in MGHQ shows immunological effect while AE in MJHQ and HQ did not. Polysaccharides comprised the major constituents in RA and HQ. All polysaccharides extract (PE) of the three herbs showed similar levels of immunological effect in both immunological assays.
Purpose – The goal of this paper is to explore the Croatian young consumers' perception of functionalfood, to investigate underlying attitudes and their willingness to buy functionalfood in the future. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Consumer survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire on a sample of 1,035 young consumers aged between 14 and 30 years. Research questions focused on knowledge
Increases in the solar ultraviolet flux (lambda<1250A) over the past five years of rising solar activity have been larger than anticipated. This increase in UV flux dramatically affects the production of ionization of the various constituents in the thermosphere. In this paper we use measurements of the solar UV flux by the Atmosphere Explorer satellites to determine ionization frequencies for
Marsha R. Torr; D. G. Torr; R. A. Ong; H. E. Hinteregger
The organic constituents from five SRC solids were separated into four fractions on the basis of molecular weight by gel permeation chromatography. Molecular weight determination by vapor-phase osmometry gave values for the heaviest fraction ranging from 959 for SRC from Amax (western) coal to 562 for SRC from Monterey (Ill.) coal; the lowest fraction molecular weights ranged from 313 for
The agro-food industry is developing a “second generation” of genetically modified (GM) foods that can offer functional health benefits to consumers. Many consumers, however, are turning to organic foods in order to avoid GM foods. This report attempts to differentiate consumer valuation of functional health properties in conventional, organic, and GM foods. A representative sample of 1,008 Canadian household food
Bruno Larue; Gale E. West; Carole Gendron; Rémy Lambert
Functionalfoods have become the corner stone of food innovation in the past few years. All big food companies are investing in functionalfoods because the mega trends in society seem to require healthy food with added benefits to improve the health, wellness and quality of life of people. The food companies have not only adapted their strategies and their
From many reports it is clear that diabetes will be one of the major diseases in the coming years. As a result there is a rapidly increasing interest in searching new medicines, or even better searching prophylactic methods. Based on a large number of chemical and pharmacological research work, numerous bioactive compounds have been found in functional herbal food ingredients for diabetes. The present paper reviews functional herbal food ingredients with regards to their anti-diabetic active principles and pharmacological test results, which are commonly used in Asian culinary system and medical system and have demonstrated clinical or/and experimental anti-diabetic effectiveness. Our idea of reviewing this article is to give more attention to these functionalfood ingredients as targets medicinal foods in order to prevent or slow down the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The popularity of functionalfoods continues to increase as consumers desire flavorful foods that will fulfil their health needs. Among these foods, probiotics may exert positive effects on the composition of gut microbiota and overall health. However, in order to be beneficial, the bacterial cultures have to remain live and active at the time of consumption. The aim of this study was to develop new probiotic food products, such as seasoned cheeses, salami, chocolate and ice-cream with a final probiotic concentration of approximately 10?CFU/daily dose of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® mixed 1:1 (SYNBIO®). The survival and viability of probiotics were determined during the foods shelf-life. The values of viable probiotic bacteria of all dairy and non-dairy foods were between 10? and 10?CFU/g of food at the end of the shelf-life and for some of them the values were maintained even after the expiry date. Based on the results of the current study, all the dairy ("Caciotta" cheese, "Pecorino" cheese, "Büscion" Swiss cheese and "Fiordilatte" ice-cream) and non-dairy ("Ciauscolo" salami, Larded salami, Swiss small salami, milk chocolate, dark chocolate, organic jam and chocolate mousse) food products studied would be excellent vehicles to deliver the probiotic health effects because of the high viability of probiotics during the shelf-life of foods and in some cases even after their expiry date. PMID:22727086
Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cecchini, Cinzia; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto
Many nectar-feeding bird species decrease food intake when sugar concentration in food is increased. This feeding response can be explained by two alternative hypotheses: compensatory feeding and physiological constraint. The compensatory feeding hypothesis predicts that if birds vary intake to maintain a constant energy intake to match energy expenditures, then they should increase intake when expenditures are increased. Broad-tailed hummingbirds were presented with sucrose solutions at four concentrations (292, 584, 876, and 1,168 mmol L(-1)) and exposed to two environmental temperatures (10 degrees and 22 degrees C). Birds decreased volumetric food intake in response to sugar concentration. However, when they were exposed to a relatively sudden drop in environmental temperature and, hence, to an acute increase in thermoregulatory energy expenditures, they did not increase their rate of energy consumption and lost mass. These results support the existence of a physiological constraint on feeding intake. A simple chemical reactor model based on intestinal morphology and in vitro measurements of sucrose hydrolysis predicted observed intake rates closely. This model suggests that intestinal sucrose hydrolysis rates were near maximal and, thus, may have imposed limits to sugar assimilation. Although sugar assimilation was high (95%), the proportions of excreted sucrose, glucose, and fructose found in excreta differed significantly. The monosaccharides glucose and fructose were about eight and three times more abundant than sucrose, respectively. Broad-tailed hummingbirds are small high-altitude endotherms that face unpredictable weather and the energetic expense of premigratory fattening. Digestive processes have the potential to impose severe challenges to their energy budgets. PMID:10893171
Salicylic acid and related compounds are produced by plants as part of their defence systems against pathogen attack and environmental stress. First identified in myrtle and willow, the medical use of salicylate-rich preparations as anti-inflammatory and antipyretic treatments may date back to the third millennium BC. It is now known that salicylates are widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom, and they are therefore present in plant products of dietary relevance. In the UK, major food sources are tomato-based sauces, fruit and fruit juice, tea, wine, and herbs and spices. In mammalian cells, salicylic acid demonstrates several bioactivities that are potentially disease-preventative, including the inhibition of production of potentially neoplastic prostaglandins, which arise from the COX-2 mediated catalysis of arachidonic acid. Moreover, it appears to be readily absorbed from the food matrix. This has led some to suggestions that the recognised effects of consuming fruit and vegetables on lowering the risk of several diseases may be due, in part, to salicylates in plant-based foods. However, published estimates of daily salicylic acid intake vary markedly, ranging from 0.4 to 200 mg day(-1), so it is unclear whether the Western diet can provide sufficient salicylates to exert a disease-preventative activity. Some ethnic cuisines that are associated with lowered disease risk may contain considerably more salicylic acid than is obtainable from a Western diet. However known protective effects of acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin™) may have lead to an over-emphasis on the importance of dietary salicylates compared with other bioactive plant phenolics in the diet. PMID:21879102
On analyzing the traditional societies' plant lore by treatment and plant categories, one cannot but notice the greater weight given to treatment of digestive disturbances and ailments compared to modern Western pharmacopoeias, and the blurred boundaries between medicines and foods, in contrast to the clear-cut distinction made in contemporary industrialized societies. Hence, there is an interest in exploring the issue of multifunctional food and traditional ingredients with digestive properties. In this paper, I examine the coevolutionary foundations for digestive activities, the problems and ambiguities that emerge in the analysis of traditional data, and the possible biological mechanisms underlying the actions of bitter, aromatic and pungent compounds. After these premises, this paper presents a short review of those plants with a significant body of research supporting the claims that they have a digestive action, with particular emphasis on clinical data. The plants that have a substantial body of data in support of their digestion-enhancing activities mainly belong to one of three groups: bitter, aromatic and pungent plants. Amongst the most important we can find ginger, peppermint, aniseed and fennel, citrus fruits, dandelion and artichoke, melissa and chamomile, but many more have a significant body of experimental data available. PMID:22010973
Preliminary consumer data have indicated that about 50% of American adults, especially in the older age groups, not only have read or heard about natural substances in foods that may help prevent chronic diseases, but they also believe that these substances really do work. The readiness of the marketplace for disease-preventing products, such as those that could deliver enhanced levels of antioxidants, raises many marketing and regulatory issues, but also some consumer issues as well. The following discussion frames the consumer issues that are important for the scientific, regulatory, and business community to understand and address so that substances with disease-preventing capabilities reach those who will truly benefit the most. PMID:7748476
There is growing consensus that systemic inflammation is at the heart of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Inflammation is a key feature of the immune system, functioning to defend tissue integrity and function. However, chronic stimulation of inflammatory mediators leads to lasting vascular reactivity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and, subsequently, chronic disease. Dietary practices to minimize inflammatory stimuli and CVD risk include regular
Functionalfood for prevention of chronic diseases is one of this century's key global challenges. Cancer is not only the first or second leading cause of death in China and other countries across the world, but also has diet as one of the most important modifiable risk factors. Major dietary factors now known to promote cancer development are polished grain foods and low intake of fresh vegetables, with general importance for an unhealthy lifestyle and obesity. The strategies of cancer prevention in human being are increased consumption of functionalfoods like whole grains (brown rice, barley, and buckwheat) and by-products, as well some vegetables (bitter melon, garlic, onions, broccoli, and cabbage) and mushrooms (boletes and Tricholoma matsutake). In addition some beverages (green tea and coffee) may be protective. Southwest China (especially Yunnan Province) is a geographical area where functional crop production is closely related to the origins of human evolution with implications for anticancer influence. PMID:23679240
The Japanese scientific academic community defined 'functionalfood' early in the 1980s. That is, functionalfoods are those that have three functions. The primary function is nutrition. The sec- ondary function is a sensory function or sensory satisfaction. The third is the tertiary function, which is physiological. The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (MHLW) set up 'Foods for
Recent advances in biosciences support the hypothesis that diet modulates various body functions. Diet may maintain well-being and reduce the risk of some diseases. Such discoveries have led to the concept of ''functionalfood'' and the development of the new discipline, i.e., ''functionalfood science.'' A practical and simple definition of a ''functionalfood'' is a food for which a
The scale of the obesity epidemic creates a pressing consumer need as well as an enormous business opportunity for successful development and marketing of food products with added benefits for weight control. A number of proposed functionalfood ingredients have been shown to act post-absorptively to influence substrate utilization or thermogenesis. Characteristics and supporting data on conjugated linoleic acid, diglycerides, medium-chain triglycerides, green tea, ephedrine, caffeine, capsaicin and calcium, are reviewed here, giving examples of how these could act to alter energy expenditure or appetite control. Consideration is also given to other factors, in addition to efficacy, which must be satisfied to get such ingredients into foods. We conclude that, for each of the safe, putatively metabolically active agents, there remain gaps in clinical evidence or knowledge of mechanisms, which need to be addressed in order to specify the dietary conditions and food product compositions where these ingredients could be of most benefit for weight control. PMID:16436103
FunctionalFood emerged as a constant segment in the European food market and offer potential for product innovations which make them attractive for the food industry in nearly stagnating markets. Target group research is one key factor for successful innovative food products. The aim of this project was to develop and test a FunctionalFood related consumer segmentation model. For
FunctionalFood emerged as a constant segment in the European food market and offers potential for product innovations that make it attractive for the food industry in nearly stagnating markets. Target group research is one key factor for successful innovative food products. The aim of this project was to develop and test a FunctionalFood-related consumer segmentation model. For this
The social and scientific debate overfunctional foods has two focal points: one isthe issue of the reliability andtrustworthiness of the claims connected withfunctional foods. You don't have to be asuspicious person to be skeptical vis-à-visthe rather exorbitant claims of most functionalfoods. They promise prevention against allkinds of illnesses and enhancement ofachievements like memory and vision, withouthaving been tested adequately. The
Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functionalfood ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functionalfoods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview of the studies performed on the strategies adopted to improve the functional value of rabbit meat. Dietary manipulation has been seen to be very effective in increasing the levels of essential FA, EPA, DHA, CLA, branched chain FA, vitamin E, and selenium in rabbit meat. Dietary fortification with vitamin E or natural products such as oregano essential oil, chia seed oil, and Spirulina platensis microalga seem promising in improving the oxidative stability of rabbit meat while also adding functional ingredients. PMID:21392894
It has long been known that stress affects both the stomach and colon, as shown by the very high prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms among patients with psychiatric illness. The source may be limbic or peripheral, involving encoded memories or physiological changes. It is important to realise that physical symptoms such as those of functional dyspepsia do not only mean that the patient has a stomach disorder which needs to be identified and treated with specific pharmacological remedies, they often represent, in metaphorical and symbolic form, a state of disharmony brought about a specific psychosocial situation. It is only when that situation is understood and acknowledged that the patient can begin to get better. PMID:12077065
Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus are noted for their pharmacological and culinary properties. In this study, it was performed a critical literature review, focusing primarily on aspects of the chemical composition of these mushrooms whose pharmacological properties and nutritional composition characterize them as functionalfoods. It was also discussed articles conducted in vitro and in vivo proving the high antioxidant potential of the Agaricaceae family, in addition to articles which emphasize the toxicity characteristics and safety for its use in therapy or in human nutrition. These mushrooms exhibit numerous bioactive substances as well as safety regarding toxicity, which characterize them as functionalfoods. Despite the countless beneficial effects on human health, mushrooms of the genus Agaricus are little known by the population, making it necessary partnership and combined efforts among producers, industries and researchers in order to disseminate, research and consumption of these foods. PMID:23165537
Vinhal Costa Orsine, J; Vinhal da Costa, R; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, Ma R
Purpose – Optimum balance of intestinal microbiota can be modulated by such dietary means as probiotics and prebiotics. Combination of probiotics and prebiotics could improve the survivality of probiotic candidate due to availability of substrate for its fermentation and confer greater advantages to the host. The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential of prebiotics as functionalfoods.
To date, most research in Europe and the United States has focused on eliciting consumer WTP for biotech foods without directly addressing strategies for marketing them. We use means-end theory to link consumers' knowledge about functional attributes, to their knowledge about consequences and core values, in order to gain insights into valued attributes for developing potential marketing strategies.
Kambua Chema; Leonie A. Marks; Joseph L. Parcell; Maury E. Bredahl
This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth review of biocatalysis and biotechnology with emphasis on functionalfoods and industrial products. Biocatalysis and biotechnology defined in this book include enzyme catalysis, biotransformation, bioconversi...
Functionalfood products promote claims such as 'freedom from hunger' and 'feel fuller for longer'. A legislative framework has been established by the European Food Safety Authority to evaluate the validity of such claims: a claim must be substantiated by scientific evidence and should be clearly understood by consumers. Since consumed foods influence appetite by means of a system of physiological satiety signals, functionalfoods could in principle act by increasing the potency and/or duration of these signals. Importantly, what constitutes a useful action: a reduction in hunger, an increase in fullness, a change in food intake at a meal, an adjustment in daily energy balance or a reduction in body weight? Any claim should not go beyond the scientific evidence of an effect, and methods exist to scientifically evaluate claims. The wording of a claim is, therefore, critical. The difference between a proof of concept and a guarantee of success is an important point that needs to be conveyed to the consumer. PMID:20010971
Purpose – Functionalfoods, also known controversially as “phoods,” are perceived by many as the food industry's response to consumers' increasing desire to make healthier eating choices. The objective of the present study is to determine the influence of the production technology used to make functionalfoods on the perceived health value of functionalfoods. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To meet the
The p12 protein is a cleavage product of the Gag precursor of the murine leukemia virus (MLV). Specific mutations in p12 have been described that affect early stages of infection, rendering the virus replication-defective. Such mutants showed normal generation of genomic DNA but no formation of circular forms, which are markers of nuclear entry by the viral DNA. This suggested that p12 may function in early stages of infection but the precise mechanism of p12 action is not known. To address the function and follow the intracellular localization of the wt p12 protein, we generated tagged p12 proteins in the context of a replication-competent virus, which allowed for the detection of p12 at early stages of infection by immunofluorescence. p12 was found to be distributed to discrete puncta, indicative of macromolecular complexes. These complexes were localized to the cytoplasm early after infection, and thereafter accumulated adjacent to mitotic chromosomes. This chromosomal accumulation was impaired for p12 proteins with a mutation that rendered the virus integration-defective. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that intracellular p12 complexes co-localized with capsid, a known constituent of the MLV pre-integration complex (PIC), and immunofluorescence combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed co-localization of the p12 proteins with the incoming reverse transcribed viral DNA. Interactions of p12 with the capsid and with the viral DNA were also demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation. These results imply that p12 proteins are components of the MLV PIC. Furthermore, a large excess of wt PICs did not rescue the defect in integration of PICs derived from mutant p12 particles, demonstrating that p12 exerts its function as part of this complex. Altogether, these results imply that p12 proteins are constituent of the MLV PIC and function in directing the PIC from the cytoplasm towards integration.
Laham-Karam, Nihay; Selig, Sara; Ehrlich, Marcelo; Bacharach, Eran
The p12 protein is a cleavage product of the Gag precursor of the murine leukemia virus (MLV). Specific mutations in p12 have been described that affect early stages of infection, rendering the virus replication-defective. Such mutants showed normal generation of genomic DNA but no formation of circular forms, which are markers of nuclear entry by the viral DNA. This suggested that p12 may function in early stages of infection but the precise mechanism of p12 action is not known. To address the function and follow the intracellular localization of the wt p12 protein, we generated tagged p12 proteins in the context of a replication-competent virus, which allowed for the detection of p12 at early stages of infection by immunofluorescence. p12 was found to be distributed to discrete puncta, indicative of macromolecular complexes. These complexes were localized to the cytoplasm early after infection, and thereafter accumulated adjacent to mitotic chromosomes. This chromosomal accumulation was impaired for p12 proteins with a mutation that rendered the virus integration-defective. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that intracellular p12 complexes co-localized with capsid, a known constituent of the MLV pre-integration complex (PIC), and immunofluorescence combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed co-localization of the p12 proteins with the incoming reverse transcribed viral DNA. Interactions of p12 with the capsid and with the viral DNA were also demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation. These results imply that p12 proteins are components of the MLV PIC. Furthermore, a large excess of wt PICs did not rescue the defect in integration of PICs derived from mutant p12 particles, demonstrating that p12 exerts its function as part of this complex. Altogether, these results imply that p12 proteins are constituent of the MLV PIC and function in directing the PIC from the cytoplasm towards integration. PMID:21085616
Affluent diets have negative effects on the health of the population and the environment. Moreover, the ability of industrialised agricultural ecosystems to continue to supply these diets is threatened by the anticipated consequences of climate change. By challenging the ongoing supply the diets of affluent countries, climate change provides a population and environmental health opportunity. This paper contrasts two strategies for dealing with climate change-related food insecurity. Functionalfoods are being positioned as one response because they are considered a hyper-efficient mechanism for supplying essential micronutrients. An alternative response is civic and urban agriculture. Rather than emphasising increased economic or nutritional efficiencies, civic agriculture presents a holistic approach to food security that is more directly connected to the economic, environmental and social factors that affect diet and health. PMID:19261211
Dixon, Jane M; Donati, Kelly J; Pike, Lucy L; Hattersley, Libby
It has long been suspected that the relative abundance of specific nutrients can affect cognitive processes and emotions. Newly described influences of dietary factors on neuronal function and synaptic plasticity have revealed some of the vital mechanisms that are responsible for the action of diet on brain health and mental function. Several gut hormones that can enter the brain, or that are produced in the brain itself, influence cognitive ability. In addition, well-established regulators of synaptic plasticity, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, can function as metabolic modulators, responding to peripheral signals such as food intake. Understanding the molecular basis of the effects of food on cognition will help us to determine how best to manipulate diet in order to increase the resistance of neurons to insults and promote mental fitness.
The aspects of dietary fibers' and different food ingredients' interaction are considered in this article; in particular, the questions of dietary fibers' interaction with the main foodstuff components (proteins, fats, vitamins, etc.), especially functional purpose; and the interaction of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), which is part of dietary fiber, with the main foodstuff components--protein, vitamins and antioxidants (tocopherol, and riboflavin). It was found that with increasing of MCC content in the diet, there was increase of vitamins sorption (especially tocopherol), with its maximum at 3 g of MCC. This is probably due to the relatively high porosity and properties of MCC to absorb and retain water, lipids and other food ingredients. These findings point to the need to consider the possibility of sorption of polysaccharides and, in particular in the preparation of starch-rich foods and dietary recommendations for their use. PMID:22888670
Bessonov, V V; Ba?garin, E K; Gorshunova, K D; Semenova, P A; Nechaev, A P
Some food products naturally contain phytoestrogens, but there are few in Western diets that are significant sources. The foods that are the most significant sources are soy beans, containing isoflavones, and flaxseed, which contains lignans. These foods have, however, until recently been relatively little used in Canada and the United States in the human diet. While the Japanese diet contains from 20 to 80 mg of isoflavones per day, Canadian and U.S. diets tend to be below 1 mg/day in the absence of soy protein. The number of foods sold in the West that have ingredients derived from soybeans has been increasing. Many of these have soybean oil, soy protein, or other ingredients serving functional roles in the food. However, with increasing interest among consumers in dietary choices that help to improve health and reduce risk of disease, products in which soy is featured are quite readily available, and it is common, at least in Canada, to find bread and other bakery products with flaxseed added. Soy foods sales in the United States increased at a 15% compounded annually growth rate between 1992 and 2003, with a major increase occurring between 2000 and 2001 (1). Growth rates are reported to have declined somewhat in 2004 (2). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of a health claim associating soy protein intake with reduced risk of heart disease in 1999 is attributed with fueling the very sizable growth since 2000. The claim identifies 25 g/day as the amount needed to derive the claimed health benefit. Because the isoflavone content of soy products is highly variable, depending on the method of processing (3), it is difficult to estimate quantitatively the impact of the increased rate of soy product consumption on soy isoflavone intake, although an overall increase can be expected. In contrast, PMID:16915856
The authors tested the hypothesis that obese individuals experience greater reward from food consumption (consummatory food reward) and anticipated consumption (anticipatory food reward) than lean individuals using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 33 adolescent girls (mean age = 15.7, SD = 0.9). Obese relative to lean adolescent girls showed greater activation bilaterally in the gustatory cortex (anterior and mid
Eric Stice; Sonja Spoor; Cara Bohon; Marga G. Veldhuizen; Dana M. Small
Functionalfood research encompasses several types of study designs, including observational studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Markers that can predict potential benefits or risks relating to certain health conditions are often the primary endpoints of such studies since a direct measurement of the effect of food on health and well-being and/or reduction of disease risk is often not possible. Whether RCT should be at the top of the pyramid also in nutritional research remains a controversial issue. Undoubtedly, further research is needed to redesign RCT methodology that would adequately serve the need to demonstrate the health effects of foods. We address this functionalfood research question by assuming that there is a known relationship between the surrogate and the true endpoint explored during the surrogacy assessment. Statistical inference on the true (unobserved) endpoint is derived on the basis of its predicted values. We illustrate this approach through a motivating example from the literature on coronary heart disease, integrated with simulated scenarios. PMID:21942855
Grains are global dietary staples that when consumed in whole grain form, offer considerable health benefits compared with milled grain foods, including reduced body weight gain and reduced cardiovascular and diabetes risks. Dietary patterns, functionalfoods, and other lifestyle factors play a fundamental role in the development and management of epidemic lifestyle diseases that share risks of developing adverse metabolic outcomes, including hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Whole grains provide energy, nutrients, fibres, and bioactive compounds that may synergistically contribute to their protective effects. Despite their benefits, the intake of grains appears to be lower than recommended in many countries. Of emerging interest is the application of germination processes, which may significantly enhance the nutritional and bioactive content of grains, as well as improve palatability. Enhancing grain foods in a natural way using germination techniques may therefore offer a practical, natural, dietary intervention to increase the health benefits and acceptability of whole grains, with potentially widespread effects across populations in attenuating adverse lifestyle disease outcomes. Continuing to build on the growing body of in-vitro studies requires substantiation with extended in-vivo trials so that we may further develop our understanding of the potential of germinated grains as a functionalfood. PMID:23746040
Nelson, Kristina; Stojanovska, Lily; Vasiljevic, Todor; Mathai, Michael
A food can be regarded as 'functional' if it can demonstrate a beneficial efficacy on one or more target functions in the body in a convincing way. Beyond adequate nutritional qualities, functionalfoods should either improve the state of health and wellbeing and/or reduce the risk of disease. Functionalfoods that are marketed with claims of heart disease reduction focus primarily on the major risk factors, i.e. cholesterol, diabetes and hypertension. Some of the most innovative products are designed to be enriched with 'protective' ingredients, believed to reduce risk. They may contain, for example, soluble fibre (from oat and psyllium), useful both for lowering cholesterol and blood pressure, or fructans, effective in diabetes. Phytosterols and stanols lower LDL-cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. Soya protein is more hypocholesterolaemic in subjects with very high initial cholesterol and recent data indicate also favourable activities in the metabolic syndrome. n-3 Fatty acids appear to exert significant hypotriacylglycerolaemic effects, possibly partly responsible for their preventive activity. Dark chocolate is gaining much attention for its multifunctional activities, useful both for the prevention of dyslipidaemia as well as hypertension. Finally, consensus opinions about tea and coffee have not emerged yet, and the benefits of vitamin E, garlic, fenugreek and policosanols in the management of dyslipidaemia and prevention of arterial disease are still controversial. PMID:20003590
Sirtori, Cesare R; Galli, Claudio; Anderson, James W; Sirtori, Elena; Arnoldi, Anna
Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate that is contained in many vegetables, fruits and cereals. It is industrially produced from the chicory's root (Cichorium intybus) and it is widely used as ingredient in functionalfoods. Inulin and its derivate compounds (oligofructose, fructooligosaccharides) are usually called fructans, as they are basically based on linear fructose chains. This review presents a description of inulin and its most common derivate compounds: chemical structure, natural sources, physic-chemical properties, technological functionality, industrial manufacturing, analytical method for determination and health benefits: prebiotic, dietary fiber, low caloric value, hypoglycemic action, enhancement of calcium and magnesium bioavailability. Potential benefits: lipid parameters regulation, reduction of colon cancer risk and others, improvement of immune response, intestinal disorders protection. From technological point of view, these compounds exhibit a variety of properties: thickener, emulsifier, gel forming, sugar and fat substitute, humectant, freezing point depression. Inulin and derivates are been used in pharmaceutical, chemical and processing industry as technological additives and excipients. They are also been used for animal feeding. They are been considered as "bioactive" compounds to be proposed as future packaging material. Fructans are proposed to be classified as "functional fiber", according to recent concepts based on physiological effects on individuals. This review of inulin and its derivates was useful to show the broad boundaries of these compounds in the food industry and why they may be considered as key ingredients in the expanding functionalfood market. PMID:18524324
Climate change is expected to make many regions of the world much drier over coming decades. More intense drought would transform rivers with potentially severe but largely unknown consequences at higher (multispecies) levels of organization. Here we show experimentally how the intensification of drought may alter the underlying structure and functioning (biomass flux dynamics) of freshwater food webs--networks of species and their interactions. Drought triggered substantial losses of species and links, especially among predators, leading to the partial collapse of the food webs. Total resource-consumer biomass flux was also strongly suppressed by disturbance, yet several network-level properties (such as connectance and interaction diversity) were conserved, driven by consumer resource fidelity and a substantial reconfiguration of fluxes within the webs as production shifted down the size spectrum from large to small species. Our research demonstrates that drier climates could have far-reaching impacts on the functioning of freshwater ecosystems.
Ledger, Mark E.; Brown, Lee E.; Edwards, François K.; Milner, Alexander M.; Woodward, Guy
Living things on the earth including bacteria, plants and animals show circadian rhythms in their behaviors and physiological phenomena, and these circadian rhythms are usually synchronized with environmental changes having the period of 24 h on the earth. In mammals including human beings, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) functions as a master circadian oscillator, and generates a circadian rhythm of food intake. Sometimes the circadian oscillation of the SCN is disturbed with physical and psychological stressors. This review describes the functional relationship in respect to connections between the circadian oscillator in the SCN and food regulatory centers and neurons in the brain focusing on its mechanism in human beings, and a possible involvement of the circadian oscillator of the SCN in the abnormality of the appetite control. PMID:11268586
AbstractEating is increasingly characterized by concerns over health and well-being. New types of foods designed to promote health or to reduce the risk of diseases, known as functionalfoods, have been entering the market since the 1990s. This article focuses on the appropriation of functionalfoods among Finnish consumers from the perspective of acceptability. We analyse the relationship between consumers’
Recent food safety scares have increased Japanese consumers’ concerns for food safety and Genetically Modified (GM) foods as they perceive the uncertainty associated with GM foods as potential risk. However, this risk perception can be considerably reduced as the consumers observe or experience the benefits of GM foods directly. Technical advancement in GM food development and manufacturing has led to
Recent advances in endoscopic techniques such as capsule endoscopy have revealed that aspirin and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) often cause mucosal lesions not only in the upper gastrointestinal tract, but also in the small intestine in humans. Gastric and duodenal lesions caused by NSAIDs can be treated with anti-secretory agents such as proton pump inhibitors or histamine H2-receptor antagonists; however, these drugs are ineffective in treating NSAID-induced lesions in the small intestine. Furthermore, there are few effective agents for the treatment of small intestinal lesions. Therefore, identification of effective therapies for the treatment of NSAID/aspirin-induced small intestinal lesions remains an urgent priority. In the present review, we focus on novel pharmacological treatments to prevent or reduce NSAID-induced intestinal lesions, i.e., 1) GI-sparing NSAIDs (NO- or H2S-NSAIDs, NSAIDs mixed with phosphatidylcholine); 2) anti-ulcer drugs such as mucosal protective agents (misoprostol, rebamipide, teprenone, etc.) and anti-secretory agents (lansoprazole, etc.); 3) antibiotics (metronidazole) and probiotics (Lactobacillus sp.); and 4) foodconstituents (lactoferrin and soluble dietary fibers). We surveyed data from clinical trials evaluating these novel treatments. Also reviewed herein were the pros and cons of the novel protective methods from the standpoint of safety, efficacy, convenience, and cost. PMID:22300080
The present study elucidates key success factors influencing the product development of functional dairy foods and examines if the studied products can be categorized as potential breakthrough products primarily in a domestic market. General conclusions are also made with reference to functionalfoods development in the international setting. Three functional dairy foods were studied with specific emphasis on the key
Using a large-scale culture technique, the hairy roots of Astragalus membranaceus were produced with a yield reaching 10 g/L. The results from RP-HPLC detection showed that the contents of crude saponin and astragaloside i.v. in the hairy roots were 5.81% and 0.14%, respectively. Six isoflavonoid compounds were also determined. Polysaccharide analysis showed that the total polysaccharide content in the hairy roots was 22.97%; of this content, acidic 8.29% and soluble 14.88%. In comparison with the dry roots, the hairy roots contained higher crude saponin and soluble polysaccharide contents, similar astragaloside i.v. content and lower contents of 6 isoflavonoids, total and acidic polysaccharides, showing that the quality of both types of roots was similar. Regaining the immunity function of rats with low immunity after feeding the aqueous extract of the hairy roots produced by large-scale culture showed that its capacity was similar to the dry roots of A. membranaceus in increasing the immunity function. The results in this paper give evidence that the hairy roots may be a new source of A. membranaceus. PMID:10196633
Effect of Oil Combustion Particle Bioavailable Constituents on Ex Vivo Vascular Function of Aortae Recovered from Healthy and Early Type 2 Diabetic Rats KL Dreher1, SE Kelly2, SD Proctor2, and JC Russell2. 1National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, US EPA, RTP, NC;...
The consequences of biodiversity loss for ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services have aroused considerable interest during the past decade. Recent work has focused mainly on the impact of species diversity within single trophic levels, both experimentally and theoretically. Experiments have usually showed increased plant biomass and productivity with increasing plant diversity. Changes in biodiversity, however, may affect ecosystem processes through trophic interactions among species as well. An important current challenge is to understand how these trophic interactions affect the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we present a mechanistic model of an ecosystem with multiple trophic levels in which plants compete for a limiting soil nutrient. In contrast to previous studies that focused on single trophic levels, we show that plant biomass does not always increase with plant diversity and that changes in biodiversity can lead to complex if predictable changes in ecosystem processes. Our analysis demonstrates that food-web structure can profoundly influence ecosystem properties.
With the aim of using bovine blood as functional ingredient in food processing, as an emulsifier or fat replacer, a study of some functional properties of blood plasma was made. The effect of pH (3.0–8.0), tryptic hydrolysis and NaCl addition (0.034mol\\/L) on the solubility, hydrophobicity and emulsifying properties of bovine blood plasma were studied. The results showed that the hydrophobicity
Buckwheat originated in North or East Asia and is widely adapted in North America. It has been grown since at least 1000 BC in China. It has very strong adaptability to adverse environments with a very short growing span. Many varieties are growing around the world, but mainly in the north hemisphere. Currently the most common buckwheat spice is Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (common buckwheat or sweet buckwheat), while Fagopyrum tartaricum is also available in some mountainous regions. Many nutraceutical compounds exist in buckwheat seeds and other tissues. Buckwheat has been used and will be better used as an important raw material for functionalfood production. In this review we focus on works related to the development of functionalfoods from common buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. A lot of research has be conducted in the functionalities and properties of buckwheat proteins, flavonoids, flavones, phytosterols, thiamin-binding proteins, and other rare compounds in buckwheat seeds. Buckwheat proteins have unique amino acid composition with special biological activities of cholesterol-lowering effects, antihypertensition effects, and improving the constipation and obisity conditions by acting similar as to dietary fiber and interrupting the in vivo metabolisms. The trypsin inhibitors isolated from buckwheat seeds are heat stable and can cause poor digestion if they are not suitably cooked before consumption. The allergenic proteins existing in the buckwheat seeds and their derivatives were reviewed with respect to their chemical and biochemical characteristics as well as the physiological reactions after digestion. Some possible mechanisms involved in these effects are discussed in this review. Experiments, both with animal models and with human beings, revealed that buckwheat flour can improve diabetes, obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and constipation. Methods to exploit buckwheat seeds and flour to produce highly effective nutraceuticals are also reviewed. PMID:11592684
The authors investigated the effect of mood on food selection. Participants (N = 98) indicated the likelihood of general eating and the likelihood of eating specific foods after reading and projecting themselves onto the events and emotions described in a sad and a happy vignette. Both men and women believed they were more likely to consume food following a happy
Australia and New Zealand are currently reviewing the regulations governing nutrition function, health and related claims on foods. Health claims currently are not permitted on food labels, with one exception. The aim of this study was to describe the use of such claims on packaged food for sale in Australia (excluding nutrient content claims) prior to any changes to the
Peter Williams; Heather Yeatman; Leisa Ridges; Annalie Houston; Jillian Rafferty; Anna Roesler; Megan Sobierajski; Bronwyn Spratt
Consumers believe that foods are associated directly to their health. Today foods are not only used to satisfy our hunger but also to provide indispensible nutrients for humans and these nutrients having the health benefits regarding in controlling the diseases. The market for functionalfoods has seen a sharp rise in demand in the recent years. This has driven researchers
Muhammad Issa Khan; Muhammad Sajid Arshad; Faqir Muhammad Anjum; Ayesha Sameen; Aneeq-ur-Rehman; Waqas Tariq Gill
The excessive dietary fat intake can result in health problems such as obesity and heart-related diseases, resulting in increased consumer demand for reduced fat foods. A number of food ingredients with fat-like functions have been developed as fat alternatives in the food industry. Especially, so...
In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward the field of free radical chemistry. Free radicals reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are generated by our body by various endogenous systems, exposure to different physiochemical conditions or pathological states. A balance between free radicals and antioxidants is necessary for proper physiological function. If free radicals overwhelm the body's ability to regulate them, a condition known as oxidative stress ensues. Free radicals thus adversely alter lipids, proteins, and DNA and trigger a number of human diseases. Hence application of external source of antioxidants can assist in coping this oxidative stress. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole have recently been reported to be dangerous for human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with antioxidative activity has been intensified in recent years. The present review provides a brief overview on oxidative stress mediated cellular damages and role of dietary antioxidants as functionalfoods in the management of human diseases. PMID:22228951
In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward the field of free radical chemistry. Free radicals reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are generated by our body by various endogenous systems, exposure to different physiochemical conditions or pathological states. A balance between free radicals and antioxidants is necessary for proper physiological function. If free radicals overwhelm the body's ability to regulate them, a condition known as oxidative stress ensues. Free radicals thus adversely alter lipids, proteins, and DNA and trigger a number of human diseases. Hence application of external source of antioxidants can assist in coping this oxidative stress. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole have recently been reported to be dangerous for human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with antioxidative activity has been intensified in recent years. The present review provides a brief overview on oxidative stress mediated cellular damages and role of dietary antioxidants as functionalfoods in the management of human diseases.
Food fermentations with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are employed to produce safe and shelf stable food products with characteristic flavour and texture. Advances in genomics and physiology of lactic acid bacteria enabled to link individual genetic and metabolic traits of starter cultures to specific food quality attributes. The empirical selection of starter cultures is increasingly supported by the targeted selection of functional starter cultures to achieve an improved quality of fermented foods. This review highlights recent developments related to metabolic traits of LAB that are relevant for the quality of foods; emphasis is placed on starter cultures for use in bread production. Although the food use of antibacterial metabolites of LAB is well established, antifungal compounds were only recently shown to extend the shelf life of foods. Redox reactions catalysed by LAB alter the technological functionality of proteins and influence the (off)-flavour development through lipid oxidation pathways. LAB produce polysaccharides and oligosaccharides from sucrose through the glycansucrase activities. The exploitation of glycansucrase biodiversity enables the generation of a large variety of glucans or fructans in food fermentation. Poly- and oligosaccharides influence food texture, increase the dietary fibre content of foods and can be applied to protect bacterial during culture preparation and storage. The transformation of amino acids or peptides to aroma compounds contributes substantially to food flavour of food and particularly the conversion of glutamate by LAB enables the targeted optimisation of food flavour. PMID:19515445
Laccases are increasingly being used in food industry for production of cost-effective and healthy foods. To sustain this trend widespread availability of laccase and efficient production systems have to be developed. The present paper delineate the recent developments that have taken place in understanding the role of laccase action, efforts in overexpression of laccase in heterologous systems, and various cultivation techniques that have been developed to efficiently produce laccase at the industrial scale. The role of laccase in different food industries, particularly the recent developments in laccase application for food processing, is discussed.
Brijwani, Khushal; Rigdon, Anne; Vadlani, Praveen V.
As an adjunct to cancer treatment, the use of health functionalfoods (HFFs) seems to be increasing. However, little is known for the use of HFFs among cancer patients in Korea. The aims of this study were to investigate the exposure rate of HFF use among gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients and to examine the relationship of socio-demographic and disease-related characteristics with the use of HFFs. A total of 126 patients diagnosed with GI cancer participated in the study. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a questionnaire. Over a half of all the patients surveyed (n = 67; 53.2%) used HFFs. Patients who were younger, had higher income, or longer duration of disease showed a trend to use HFFs more frequently, even though the tendency was not statistically significant. The most commonly used HFF was vitamin complex (n = 20; 16%), followed by red ginseng (n = 15; 12%), and sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) (n = 11; 8.8%). About 26% of all responders expressed concerns for using HFFs. The primary concern was 'going against physician's recommendations' (36.8%). About 63% of respondents expressed a desire to consult with their physicians and follow their recommendations. More basic scientific data and educational materials regarding HFFs are required for both health-care professionals and cancer patients. A larger sample and size-controlled groups representing each cancer type will continue to be recruited for participation in this survey.
Kang, Hwa Pyoung; Lee, Hosun; Oh, Tak Geun; Lee, Kyong Joo; Park, Soo Jung; Kim, Seung Up; Lee, Hyuk; Park, Jun Chul; Hong, Sung Pil; Park, Jun Yong; Park, Jeong Youp; Bang, Seungmin; Kim, Do Young; Cheon, Jae Hee; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Tae Il; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young
Over the last decade consumers’ health consciousness is becoming an important factor driving the agrofood market. Healthier food products have entered the global markets with force in the past years and rapidly gained market share. Consequently, the food industry has reacted to this trend by developing a growing variety of new products with health-related claims and images, including organic and
Since their introduction in the early 1990s, genetically modified organisms in agriculture tended to emphasize improved yield. Europeans, perceiving unacceptable risk and too little benefit, resoundingly disapproved of GMO use in agro-food processes. More recently, research has turned to developing products that use GMO components that better match consumer interest, including nutritionally enhanced foods, environmentally friendly crops, and other areas.
There have been major advances in the design and fabrication of structured delivery systems for the encapsulation of nutraceutical and functionalfood components. A wide variety of delivery systems is now available, each with its own advantages and disadvantages for particular applications. This review begins by discussing some of the major nutraceutical and functionalfood components that need to be
David Julian McClements; Eric Andrew Decker; Jochen Weiss
The future of functionalfoods will depend on the extent to which they are accepted by consumers. Results are presented from a questionnaire that investigated consumers’ self-reported knowledge, behavioural intentions and purchasing behaviour regarding functionalfoods. Findings are that two thirds of UK respondents, just less than half of Danish respondents, almost two thirds of Spanish respondents, and 88% of
There is an increasing demand for functionalfoods in the market because such foods can either enhance physiological function or reduce disease risks. The present study draws on a research to develop a model that is believed to shed light on the extent to which modern health worries (MHWs), negative affect (NA), and healthy lifestyles (HL) are relevant to consumers’
... Food. ... News & Events. Constituent Updates. -. FDA Announces Draft Guidance on Food Categories in Food Facility Registrations. August 14, 2012. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/newsevents/constituentupdates
A large data set of relative food-consumption estimates (QlB) of marine and freshwater fish populations (n = 108 populations, 38 species) is documented and used to derive a predictive model for Q\\/B, using asymptotic weight, habitat temperature, a morphological variable and food type as indejxndent variables. Salinity is shown to have no effect on QfB in fish well adapted to
It is amazing to see how much the approach of the food risk analysis evolved in the recent years. For half a century and the\\u000a birth of the risk assessment methodology in the food domain, only no appreciable health risk was considered acceptable by\\u000a the manager. This is the vocabulary used in the case of a voluntary, deliberated human action,
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) remains to be the most effective long-term treatment for obesity and its associated comorbidities, but the specific mechanisms involved remain elusive. Because RYGB patients appear to no longer be preoccupied with thoughts about food and are satisfied with much smaller meals and calorically dilute foods, brain reward mechanisms could be involved. Just as obesity can
Food ensures our survival and is a potential source of pleasure and general well-being. In order to survive, the human brain is required to optimize the resource allocation such that rewards are pursued when relevant. This means that food intake follows a similar cyclical time course to other rewards with phases related to expectation, consummation and satiety. Here we develop a multilevel model for the full cycle of eating behavior based on the evidence for the brain networks and mechanisms initiating, sustaining and terminating the various phases of eating. We concentrate on how the underlying reward mechanisms of wanting, liking and learning lead to how human food intake is governed by both hedonic and homeostatic principles. We describe five of the main processing principles controlling food intake: hunger and attentional signal processing; motivation-independent discriminative processing; reward representations; learning-dependent multimodal sensory representations and hedonic experience. Overall, the evidence shows that while human food intake is complex, we are making progress in understanding the underlying mechanisms and that the brain networks supporting the food pleasure cycle are remarkably similar to those underlying the processing of other rewards. PMID:22487544
Kringelbach, Morten L; Stein, Alan; van Hartevelt, Tim J
Eighty percent (80%) aqueous acetone extract from fruit of Piper chaba (Piperaceae) was found to have a hepatoprotective effect on D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in mice. Among the isolates, several amide constituents inhibited D-GalN/tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced death of hepatocytes, and the following structural requirements were suggested: i) the amide moiety was essential for strong activity; ii) the 1,9-decadiene structure between the benzene ring and the amide moiety tended to enhance the activity. Moreover, a principal constituent, piperine, exhibited strong in vivo hepatoprotective effect at a dose of 5 mg/kg, p.o. and its mode of action was suggested to depend on the reduced sensitivity of hepatocytes to TNF-alpha. PMID:20519856
Cell wall materials (CWM) are natural constituents of fruits and vegetables. They are added in a growing extent to foods as health ingredients to create innovative products (functionalfood). CWM or dietary fibres, respectively, have both physiological and technological functional properties, which are considerably modified during the dietary fibre preparation, during the incorporation of the dietary fibre ingredients into foods
Herbert Kunzek; Silke Müller; Silke Vetter; Ralf Godeck
Good data on functionalfood consumption necessary for an adequate Dutch\\u000anutrition policy are lacking. This lack may be overcome in future by\\u000aincluding functionalfood monitoring in the new dietary monitoring system\\u000ain the Netherlands. One specific form of monitoring could be an\\u000aInternet-based questionnaire for a large group of people. Although it is\\u000athought that consumption of functional
Rompelberg CJM; Jager M; Bakker MI; Buurma-Rethans EJM; Ocke MC
Functional neuroimaging was employed to study 10 obese and 10 lean healthy young right-handed women, divided equally into binge and non-binge eaters. Subjects were presented with visual and auditory stimuli of binge type foods, non-binge type foods, and non-food stimuli in the fMRI scanner. Brain areas activated by both the visual and auditory stimuli across all individual subjects within a
Allan Geliebter; Talya Ladell; Merranda Logan; Tzipporah Schweider; Mohammad Sharafi; Joy Hirsch
This bibliography contains citations concerning the migration of food-packaging materials into foods. Plastic, glass, cardboard, metal, and ceramic containers are discussed. Techniques for analyzing packaging contamination are included. (Contains 90 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)
This discussion paper examines the evolving functions of the wholesale institutions in Western Europe and how they adapt to their new environments. The functions of wholesale markets considered in the economics and management literature include physical functions (gathering food products in a single spot helping the distribution of flows from scattered sources, storage, grading, delivery) and economic functions (favouring stakeholders'
Jean-Joseph Cadilhon; Andrew P. Fearne; David R. Hughes; Paule Moustier
Countless debilitating pathologies exhibit symptoms that result from altered mechanical behavior of soft tissue. Therefore, it is of clinical and economic importance to mechanically evaluate soft tissues and attribute degenerative changes to alterations in structural constituents. The studies presented here focus on the annulus fibrosus and the sclera. Failure in these tissues is common and catastrophic. The annulus fibrosus may fail, resulting in herniation and nerve impingement, or the disc may degenerate over time, resulting in reduced mobility and pain. Similarly, the sclera may degenerate over time with intraocular pressure spurring creep behavior that distends the eye beyond its ideal shape. This causes myopic vision and puts patients at risk of macular degeneration and retinal detachment. These two tissues share a common structural role as the outer wall of a pressure vessel. Also, they are made of strikingly similar constituents, primarily consisting of water, type I collagen, glycosaminoglycans and elastin. The microstructure of these tissues, however, is very different. The annulus fibrosus is representative of an anisotropic tissue. Its well-organized fibril structure was analyzed via polarization modulated second harmonic microscopy in order to characterize fibril architecture. Structurally relevant biochemical constituents were quantified with biochemical assays. Morphologically healthy annulus tended to have a more highly organized microstructure and tended to absorb more strain energy when subject to a tensile load cycle. Given the strong correlation between fibril organization and select mechanical properties, predictive models will likely benefit from a characterization of fibril continuity and orientation coherence. The sclera is representative of an isotropic tissue. Its less-organized fibril structure has evolved to sustain biaxial plane stress. In the sclera, collagen content and associated crosslinks were primary determinants of stiffness. Substantial collagen crosslink accumulation is a primary factor causing the stiffening of sclera with increased age. The influence of crosslinks dominates diffusion and permeability behavior. Exogenous crosslinking may help modulate the mechanical and fluid transport properties of the sclera and cornea. Treatment with methylglyoxal reduces the permeability and increases the stiffness of both. However, differences in the pre-treatment level of organization within the microstructure encourages asymmetric results.
Functionalfoods and/or supplements may be used in the context of a healthy lifestyle or as a means to compensate for an unhealthy lifestyle. Adverse long-term and/or cumulative effects of functionalfood or supplement intake are of public health concern; it is therefore important to identify functionalfood and supplement users. The present study compared Dutch functionalfood and supplement consumers with non-consumers with regard to demographic and lifestyle factors. The consumption of the most common functionalfoods and supplements in 2000 was studied (yoghurt with extra lactic acid bacteria, cholesterol-lowering margarine, lemonade and sweets with extra vitamins and minerals, milk and margarine with extra Ca, Ca tablets, multivitamin and mineral supplements, and Echinacea supplements). Data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires filled in by a consumer panel, aged 19-91 years (response rate 76 %, n 1183), representative of the Dutch population. The number of daily consumers of functionalfoods or supplements appeared to be relatively low (daily use of multivitamin and mineral supplements, 20 %; all other products, 3-9 %). Explanatory variables depended on the type of product; but gender, age, education, and vegetable intake were significant factors in the logistic regression model. Consumption of cholesterol-lowering margarines was more likely to be reported by individuals with a poorer subjective health (odds ratio 2.62 (95 % CI 1.15, 6.05)) and by smokers (odds ratio 2.93 (95 % CI 1.34, 6.40)). In conclusion, determinants of functionalfood or supplement use depended on the type of product, so generalisation of consumer characteristics over different foods is not legitimate. In addition to research on lifestyle factors, surveys about consumers' attitudes, norms and knowledge regarding functionalfoods in relation to actual dietary patterns and health risk profiles are necessary. PMID:12575912
de Jong, Nynke; Ocké, Marga C; Branderhorst, Hester A C; Friele, Roland
Objectives. The authors examined factors associated with the food insecurity of elderly persons in the United States and particularly how functional impairments were associated with food insecurity. Methods. Data were from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-94) and the Nutri- tion Survey of the Elderly in New York State (1994). The authors used multiple logistic regression and
At a time when 150 million Americans spend over $20.5 billion on functionalfoods, nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is doing little to ensure that all the safe and efficacious products that could come to the market are allowed to do so. FDA has only responded slowly and reluctantly to Congressional action and to mandates
George A. Burdock; Ioana G. Carabin; James C. Griffiths
Many carnivorous mammals are known to consume variable quantities of different plant foods. For example, cedar nuts and berries are important food items for the sable. To understand whether its digestive tract has morphological and functional adaptations specifically related to plant consumption, we compared the sable with other mustelid species. The digestive system of mustelids, including the sable, has not
Many researches in literature highlight how today the consumer is more concerned about self- care and personal health and is seemingly demanding more information on how to achieve better health through diet. Consequently, the development and marketing of a growing spectrum of products called functional is a major trend in today's food industry. Despite the great interest of the food
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 10% food restriction on body weight, plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) levels, and exocrine pancreatic function in male Sprague-Dawley rats. A matched group of rats with unrestricted access to food served as controls. After ingesting the diets for 32 da, the rats were killed and blood obtained for plasma cholecystokinin, glucose,
Military interest in the effects of nutritional factors on cognitive function has stimulated considerable research on a variety of foodconstituents. This paper will review the research on the amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, caffeine and carbohydrate...
|Objective: The current study investigated relations among neurocognitive skills important for behavioral regulation, and the intake of fruit, vegetables, and snack food in children. Design: Participants completed surveys at a single time point. Setting: Assessments took place during school. Participants: Participants were 107 fourth-grade…
Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann
Functionalfoods marketed as promoting health or reducing the risk of disease open a promising avenue for consumers to pursue a healthier life. Despite the stable growth in functionalfoods in Taiwan, at present little is known about whether or not consumers with varying degrees of health consciousness and different healthy lifestyles will have dissimilar attitudes toward functionalfoods and
Neural networks are universal approximators for nonlinear functions. This study aimed to develop an algorithm for functional\\u000a link artificial neural network (FLANN), and to simulate insect’s food intake dynamics using the algorithm. Complete Matlab\\u000a codes for FLANN algorithm were given in the paper. Conventional models and FLANN were used to modeling accumulated food intake\\u000a of the larva of a holometabolous
Several Vietnamese seaweed species have economic importance as food for humans, as industrial materials, as ingredients in\\u000a traditional medicine, and as biofertilizers. The nutritional values of nine representative Vietnamese seaweed species were\\u000a analyzed. In this report, all of the species studied are rich in proteins, lipids (especially polyunsaturated fatty acids),\\u000a vitamins, pigments, and macro- and micro-elements. The effect of the
Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of extrusion conditions including moisture content (12–18%), temperature (150–175°C), screw speed (200–280rpm), and change in feed composition, durum clear flour (8–20%), partially defatted hazelnut flour (PDHF) (5–15%) and fruit waste (3–7%) contents on the physical and functional characteristics of the extruded snack food based on rice grit in combination with fruit
Functionalfoods are one of the most interesting areas of research and innovation in the food industry. A functionalfood or functional ingredient is considered to be any food or food component that provides health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Recently, consumers have shown interest in natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in the diet owing to their various beneficial effects for health. Water-soluble fibers and nondigestible oligosaccharides and polysaccharides can be defined as functionalfood ingredients. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin are resistant to direct metabolism by the host and reach the caecocolon, where they are used by selected groups of beneficial bacteria. Furthermore, they are able to improve physical and structural properties of food, such as hydration, oil-holding capacity, viscosity, texture, sensory characteristics, and shelf-life. This article reviews major innovative analytical developments to screen and identify FOS, inulins, and the most employed nonstarch carbohydrates added or naturally present in functionalfood formulations. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection (HPAEC-PED) is one of the most employed analytical techniques for the characterization of those molecules. Mass spectrometry is also of great help, in particularly matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), which is able to provide extensive information regarding the molecular weight and length profiles of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Moreover, MALDI-TOF-MS in combination with HPAEC-PED has been shown to be of great value for the complementary information it can provide. Some other techniques, such as NMR spectroscopy, are also discussed, with relevant examples of recent applications. A number of articles have appeared in the literature in recent years regarding the analysis of inulin, FOS, and other carbohydrates of interest in the field and they are critically reviewed. PMID:23420135
Investigated were relations among executive cognitive function (ECF), food intake, and physical activity in 184, fourth grade children. It was hypothesized that self-reported ECF proficiency would predict greater self-reported fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity, but less "snack food" intake. Structural models demonstrated that ECF was significantly correlated with less concurrent snack food intake and greater concurrent fruit/vegetable intake, but not physical activity. Baseline ECF also significantly predicted greater fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity four months later, but not snack food intake. One implication is to promote ECF as a correlate and predictor of food intake and physical activity in children by providing opportunities for youth to practice newly developing ECF capacities. PMID:20234954
Riggs, Nathaniel; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann
It has long been suspected that the relative abundance of specific nutrients can affect cognitive processes and emotions. Newly described influences of dietary factors on neuronal function and synaptic plasticity have revealed some of the vital mechanisms that are responsible for the action of diet on brain health and mental function. Several gut hormones that can enter the brain, or
This work deals with formulation and drying of a newly developed functionalfood. A watermelon and carrot juice mixture in the ratio 70:30 by volume was fermented at 37°C with Lactobacillus acidophilus to produce an innovative non-dairy-based food formulation with good flavor and high nutritional value. Viable count, pH, titrable acidity, protein content, and reducing sugar were measured during fermentation.
Objective: To evaluate the role of food habits and nutrient intake in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) considering their association with psychosocial factors.Design: Cross-sectional.Setting: A rural town in Mid-Western Finland.Subjects: After excluding organic gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, a total of 49 children with FGID and 78 control children without GI symptoms from a cohort of 422 children were studied.Methods: Food
The term “functionalfood” (FF) has a variety of definitions resulting in term ambiguity. It is unclear Registered Dietitians’ (RDs) understanding and practices about FF. A descriptive, cross-sectional study investigated RDs’ perceptions, attitudes and practices regarding FF. A national random sample (n=1800) of RDs was mailed a FF questionnaire, 385 (22%) responded. Given five definitions from food-nutrition authorities, the majority
The functionalfood concept has, in recent years, moved progressively towards the development of dietary supplementation that may affect gut microbial composition and activities. The rationale behind this derives from a realisation that the human colon contains pathogenic, benign and possibly health promoting species. This microbiota functions in such a manner that the colon is the most metabolically active organ
Fruits have been shown to contain high levels of antioxidant compounds such as carotenoids, vitamins, phenols, flavonoids, dietary glutathionine, and endogenous metabolites. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including acting as free radical scavengers, peroxide deco...
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Dietary factors are important in the pathogenesis of CVD and may to a large degree determine CVD risk, but have been less extensively investigated. Functionalfoods are those that are thought to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond their basic nutritional functions. The food industry has started to market products labelled as “functionalfoods.” Although many review articles have focused on individual dietary variables as determinants of CVD that can be modified to reduce the risk of CVD, the aim of this current paper was to examine the impact of functionalfoods in relation to the development and progression of CVD. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the association between certain dietary patterns and cardiovascular health. Research into the cardio-protective potential of their dietary components might support the development of functionalfoods and nutraceuticals. This paper will also compare the effect of individual bioactive dietary compounds with the effect of some dietary patterns in terms of their cardiovascular protection.
Although leaves of Curcuma mangga and Curcuma longa are used in food preparations, the bioactive components in it are not known. In this study, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities of leave extracts and its isolates were investigated using established bioassay procedures in our laboratory. The leaf extracts of both plants gave similar bioassay and chromatographic profiles. The methanolic and water extracts of C. mangga (CMM and CMW) and C. longa (CLM and CLW), at 100 ?g/mL, inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO) by 78%, 63%, 81% and 43%, cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 by 55%, 33%, 43% and 24% and COX-2 by 65%, 55%, 77% and 69%, respectively. At same concentration, CMM, CMW, CLM and CLW showed growth inhibition of human tumour cell lines by 0-46%. Therefore, a bioassay-guided isolation of water and methanolic extracts of C. longa was carried out and afforded nine isolates. At 25 ?g/mL, these compounds inhibited LPO by 11-87%, COX-1 and -2 enzymes by 0-35% and 0-82% and growth of human tumour cells by 0-36%, respectively. PMID:22868139
The manuscript reviews beneficial aspects of food processing with main focus on cooking\\/heat treatment, including other food-processing techniques (e.g. fermentation). Benefits of thermal processing include inactivation of food-borne pathogens, natural toxins or other detrimental constituents, prolongation of shelf-life, improved digestibility and bioavailability of nutrients, improved palatability, taste, texture and flavour and enhanced functional properties, including augmented antioxidants and other defense
Boekel van M. A. J. S; Vincenzo Fogliano; Nicoletta Pellegrini; Catherine Stanton; Gabriele Scholz; S. P. D. Lalljie; Veronika Somoza; Dietrich Knorr; Pratima Rao Jasti; Gerhard Eisenbrand
Objectives Obesity is on the rise in the US and is linked to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Emerging evidence over the last decade suggests that obesity may also adversely affect executive function and brain structure. Although a great deal of research focuses on how diet affects the brain and cognitive performance, no study focuses on how food choice may be associated with brain integrity. Here we investigated how lean and overweight/obese (o/o) adults differed in their food choices and how brain structure and cognition may be associated with those choices. Design As part of an ongoing study on diabetes and the brain, participants had routine blood work and a research MRI, received a battery of neurocognitive tests, and were instructed to keep a 3-day food diary. Results and conclusions The lean group ate more high quality foods and less low quality foods compared to the o/o group. In the o/o group, high quality food choices were associated with orbitofrontal cortex volume. The lean group performed better than the o/o group on neurocognitive measures of executive function, such as the Stroop Interference Test, the Wisconsin Card Sort Test and the Trail Making Test B-A, and on attention and concentration tasks such as the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Taken together, these preliminary data suggest that in obesity poor food choices may be associated with frontal cognitive impairments that may be the result of, or contribute to, decreases in orbitofrontal cortex volume. Therefore, longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate a causal link between food choice and executive functioning.
Recent theoretical and experimental work provides clear evidence that biodiversity loss can have profound impacts on functioning of natural and managed ecosystems and the ability of ecosystems to deliver ecological services to human societies. Work on simplified ecosystems in which the diversity of a single trophic level is manipulated shows that diversity can enhance ecosystem processes such as primary productivity
It is known that manufacturers quite often put into foodstuff marking or advertisement the information about its beneficial action into the consumers health, i.e. about its functional qualities. However in Russian Federation the rules are regulated using of term "functionalfoods" doesn't established. In the review of legislation acts which are regulated of using claims in the foodstuff marking or advertisement in the different countries have been shown that claims concerning of energy and nutritional values of foods (beneficial nutrition claims) should be used in compliance with established rules without additional investigations. Food health claims referring to the reduction of disease risk and (or) functionalfoods claims for children must maintain in compliance with established procedure. Only claims that have scientific evidence about its beneficial for health could be recommended for approval. Thereupon insistent necessity in development, discussion and approval regulation in the field of using Claims concerning the functional qualities of foods (described rules of using beneficial nutrition claims and claims referring to the reduction of disease risk and to children's development and growth) in Russian Federation and United Customs Union (EurAsEU) are obvious. PMID:23156044
: Food quality is a fundamental issue all over the world. There are two major requirements to provide the highest quality of food: having the lowest reachable concentrations of health-threatening ingredients or contaminants and having the optimal concentrations of health-improving functional ingredients. Often, the boundaries of both requirements are blurred, as might be best exemplified by nutraceuticals (enriched food products invented to prevent or even treat diseases), for which undesirable side effects have been reported sometimes. Accordingly, there is an increasing need for reliable methods to screen for health effects of wanted or unwanted ingredients in a complex food matrix before more complex model organisms or human probands become involved. In this chapter, we present the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum as a model organism to screen for effects of complex foods on healthspan or lifespan by assessing the survival of the beetles under heat stress at 42 °C after feeding different diets. There is a higher genetic homology between T. castaneum and humans when compared to other invertebrate models, such as Drosophila melanogaster or Caenorhabditis elegans. Therefore, the red flour beetle appears as an interesting model to study interactions between genes and food ingredients, with relevance for stress resistance and lifespan. In that context, we provide data showing reduced lifespans of the beetles when the food-relevant contaminant benz(a)pyrene is added to the flour they were fed on, whereas a lifespan extension was observed in beetles fed on flour enriched with an extract of red wine. PMID:23748350
Background/Aims Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is prevalent in general population. This study investigates the prevalence of IBS in medical college students in Korea as well as the influence of dietary habits and nutritional intake on IBS. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study of 319 students (239 males and 80 females, age 22.3 ± 2.5 years) from the 6 grade levels of the Medical College in Korea. All students filled out a self-reported questionnaire for ROME III criteria. They also completed a questionnaire to validate dietary habits and food frequency in Korean. Results The overall prevalence of IBS was 29.2% without correlation to age, body mass index and grade level in Medical School. However, the prevalence was significantly higher in females than males (33/80 vs 60/239, P = 0.007). There were no significant differences between the IBS-group and the non-IBS group in aspect of nutrition. Not only the diet habits, but also the daily nutritional intake, and even the breakdown into the 12 micronutrients, yielded no significant differences between the 2 groups. Conclusions Twenty-nine percent of the medical college students have IBS with a greater prevalence in females. The dietary habits and nutritional intake of the students might not be associated with IBS.
Jung, Hyun Joo; Moon, Won; Park, Seun Ja; Kim, Hyung Hun; Noh, Eun Ji; Lee, Gyu Jin; Kim, Joo Hoon; Kim, Dong Gyu
HPLC and HPLC-MS have become valuable tools to analyze the “functional lipids” in vegetable oils, nutraceuticals, functionalfoods, and conventional foods. These functional lipids include phytosterols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. These analytical methods have provided a means to id...
\\u000a Companies in the food industry have high expectations for food products that meet the consumers’ demand for a healthy life\\u000a style. In this context FunctionalFood plays a specific role. These foods are not intended only to satisfy hunger and provide\\u000a the necessary human nutrients, but also to prevent nutrition-related diseases and increase the physical and mental well-being\\u000a of their
Francesca Vergari; Arianna Tibuzzi; Giovanni Basile
The energetic resources in an organism’s environment are essential for executing a wide range of life history functions, including immunity and reproduction. Most energetic budgets, however, are limited, which can lead to trade-offs among competing functions. Increasing reproductive effort tends to decrease immunity in many cases; and increasing total energy via supplemental feedings can eliminate this effect. Testosterone (T), an important regulator of reproduction, and food availability are thus both potential factors regulating life-history processes, yet they are often tested in isolation of each other. In this study, we considered the effect of both food availability and elevated T on immune function and reproductive behavior in sagebrush lizards, Sceloporus graciosus, to assess how T and energy availability affect these trade-offs. We experimentally manipulated diet (via supplemental feedings) and T (via dermal patches) in males from a natural population. We determined innate immune response by calculating the bacterial killing capability of collected plasma exposed to E. coli ex vivo. We measured reproductive behavior by counting the number of courtship displays produced in a 20-min sampling period. We observed an interactive effect of food availability and T-patch on immune function, with food supplementation increasing immunity in T-patch lizards. Additionally, T increased courtship displays in control food lizards. Lizards with supplemental food had higher circulating T than controls. Collectively, this study shows that the energetic state of the animal plays a critical role in modulating the interactions among T, behavior and immunity in sagebrush lizards and likely other species.
...Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request...constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products and tobacco smoke. This information...following measures of abuse liability (addiction): [cir] Central...food (for smokeless tobacco products). FDA believes having...
A previous longitudinal three-country study in Egypt, Kenya and Mexico found significant positive associations between intake of animal source foods (ASF) and growth, cognitive development and physical activity. To test for a causal relationship, a controlled school feeding intervention study was designed to test the hypotheses that ASF would improve micronutrient status, growth and cognitive function in Kenyan primary school
Charlotte G. Neumann; Nimrod O. Bwibo; Suzanne P. Murphy; Marian Sigman; Lindsay H. Allen; Donald Guthrie; Montague W. Demment
The prevalence of obesity and its associated health problems is rising to epidemic proportions throughout the world. Soy hulls, an industrial waste from oil extraction, contain a high proportion of fiber—soluble and insoluble—and may be a potential ingredient of functionalfoods for the prevention of obesity. However, crude soybeans, as do all legumes, present challenges to their use because of
María Catalina Olguin; Marta Delia Posadas; Gilda Celina Revelant; Verónica Beatriz Labourdette; Héctor Daniel Elías; María Rosa Venezia
The main objective of this article is to examine econometric estimates of price elasticities of food trade functions. We investigate the relevance of the prominent gravity approach. This approach is based on the assumptions of symmetric, monotone, homothetic, Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) preferences. We test all these assumptions using intra-European trade in cheese. In general, the assumptions made on
Pectin is used in a number of foods as a gelling agent, thickener, texturizer, emulsifier and stabilizer. Sugar-beet pulp, the residue left from sugar extraction, is a rich source of pectin. It was the purpose of this study to optimize the extraction of pectin from sugar-beet pulp and to improve the functional properties of this pectin for more potential uses.
Several regulatory substances participate in the regulation of both food intake\\/energy metabolism and reproduction in mammals. Most of these neuropeptides originate and act in the central nervous system, mainly at specific hypothalamic areas. Leptin represents a signal integrating all these functions, but originating from the periphery (adipose tissue) and carrying information mainly to central structures. Observations in rodent models of
Osteoporosis is a serious threat to public health. The quantity and quality of dietary calcium intake play important roles in osteoporosis prevention. Functionalfoods containing active components promoting calcium absorption or high-quality calcium are useful sources to maximize calcium utilization through dietary modification. In the first study, the acute and chronic effects of whey proteins on calcium and bone metabolism
Most herbs and functionalfoods have not been scientifically tested; this is especially true for the horse. This paper reviews some of the literature pertinent to herbal supplementation in horses and other species. Common supplements like Echinacea, garlic, ginger, ginseng, and yucca are not regulated, and few studies have investigated safe, efficacious doses. Ginseng has been found to exert an
A lab experiment was conducted in France to evaluate the impact of health information on consumers’ choices for functionalfood. Successive messages revealing benefits and uncertainties of consuming yoghurts with added plant sterols for reducing cholesterol were delivered. Results show a significant and positive influence of the message linked to the cholesterol reduction on willingness to pay, even for participants
Stéphan Marette; Jutta Roosen; Sandrine Blanchemanche; Eve Feinblatt-Mélèze
The production of fermented foods is based on the use of starter cultures, for instance lactic acid bacteria that initiate rapid acidification of the raw material. Recently, new starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria with an industrially important functionality are being developed. The latter can contribute to the microbial safety or offer one or more organoleptic, technological, nutritional, or health
Predictive microbiology generally focuses on the potential outgrowth of spoilage bacteria and foodborne pathogens in foods. Little attention has been paid to the biokinetics of beneficial foodgrade microorganisms, such as lactic acid bacteria. The latter is commonly used in the food fermentation industry, mainly for the in situ production of the antimicrobial lactic acid to extend the shelf life of the food. Furthermore, many strains show additional industrial potential as novel starter cultures since they produce functional metabolites, such as bacteriocins and exopolysaccharides. The production of these functional metabolites has been demonstrated during in vitro experiments, but in many cases these novel starter cultures seem to be less efficient when applied in a food system. A modelling approach may contribute to a better understanding of the tight relation between the food environment and bacterial functionality. Primary modelling can be applied to fit the experimental data concerning cell growth, sugar metabolism, and the production of functional metabolites for a given set of environmental conditions. This led to conclusions concerning the growth-associated production of bacteriocin and exopolysaccharides, the inactivation of these molecules when cell growth levels off, and a minimum cell concentration to trigger on bacteriocin production. Examples deal with the production of the bacteriocin sakacin K by the natural fermented sausage isolate Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494, and the production of heteropolysaccharides by the yoghurt starter culture Streptococcus thermophilus LY03. Secondary modelling of biokinetic parameters quantifies the production of bacteriocin and exopolysaccharides in function of environmental factors. As an example, the specific bacteriocin production by Lb. sakei CTC 494 decreases with increasing sodium chloride concentrations. Furthermore, since the assessment of functionality is frequently hampered by the nature of the food system, mathematical modelling techniques may help to predict the functional behaviour of novel lactic acid bacteria starter cultures in a food matrix, and hence quantify in situ production. For example, a model may simulate cell growth and exopolysaccharide production of S. thermophilus LY03 in a milk environment, where direct measurements are difficult to perform. PMID:11934033
. There is currently considerable interest in the potential health benefits of isoflavones in functionalfoods and in the future\\u000a prospects for the development of new products of benefit to the consumer. The potential health benefits of isoflavones may\\u000a include protection against age-related diseases including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, hormone-dependent cancer and\\u000a loss of cognitive function. The mechanisms involved may include weak
M. C. Y. Wong; P. W. Emery; V. R. Preedy; H. Wiseman
The increasing interest of consumers in functionalfoods has brought about a rise in demand for functional ingredients obtained using “natural” processes. In this review, new environmentally clean technologies for producing natural food ingredients are discussed. This work provides an updated overview on the principal applications of two clean processes, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction, used to isolate
There is currently considerable interest in the potential health benefits of isoflavones in functionalfoods and in the future prospects for the development of new products of benefit to the consumer. The potential health benefits of isoflavones may include protection against age-related diseases including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, hormone-dependent cancer and loss of cognitive function. The mechanisms involved may include weak oestrogenic action and antioxidant activity. Our proteomic investigations of changes in the human serum profile in response to the consumption of isoflavones in soya functionalfoods suggest potentially beneficial modulation of the levels of a number of serum proteins, including increased apolipoprotein E (involved in lipid metabolism) and caeruloplasmin (antioxidant and copper regulatory properties) levels and decreased alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (involved in immunomodulation) levels that may contribute to vascular protection. Furthermore, preliminary metabonomic data indicates an alteration in the urinary metabolite profile after isoflavone consumption, which may be of significance. PMID:18815737
Functionalfoods marketed as promoting health or reducing the risk of disease open a promising avenue for consumers to pursue a healthier life. Despite the stable growth in functionalfoods in Taiwan, at present little is known about whether or not consumers with varying degrees of health consciousness and different healthy lifestyles will have dissimilar attitudes toward functionalfoods and will vary in their willingness to use them. Regression analysis of this empirical study verifies that consumers' attitudes toward functionalfoods do have an impact on their willingness to use such foods. Moreover, moderated regression analysis (MRA) reveals that the joint moderator of health consciousness and healthy lifestyle indeed exerts an impact on consumers' willingness to consume functionalfoods. Finally, one-way ANOVA tests show that there are some differences between the consumers of the "Healthy Life Attentive" group and those of the "Healthy Life Inattentive" one both in attitudes toward and in willingness to consume functionalfoods. The empirical results and findings from this study would be valuable for the marketers in the functionalfood industry to formulate marketing communication strategies and facilitate this industry's development. PMID:21609743
Serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) is a key regulator of serotonin neurotransmission and a major target of antidepressants. Antidepressants, such as selectively serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), that block SERT function are known to affect food intake and body weight. Here, we provide genetic evidence that food intake and metabolism are regulated by separable mechanisms of SERT function. SERT-deficient mice ate less during both normal diet and high fat diet feeding. The reduced food intake was accompanied with markedly elevated plasma leptin levels. Despite reduced food intake, SERT-deficient mice exhibited glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, and progressively developed obesity and hepatic steatosis. Several lines of evidence indicate that the metabolic deficits of SERT-deficient mice are attributable to reduced insulin-sensitivity in peripheral tissues. First, SERT-deficient mice exhibited beta-cell hyperplasia and islet-mass expansion. Second, biochemical analyses revealed constitutively elevated JNK activity and diminished insulin-induced AKT activation in the liver of SERT-deficient mice. SERT-deficient mice exhibited hyper-JNK activity and hyperinsulinemia prior to the development of obesity. Third, enhancing AKT signaling by PTEN deficiency corrected glucose tolerance in SERT-deficient mice. These findings have potential implications for designing selective SERT drugs for weight control and the treatment of metabolic syndromes.
Chen, Xiaoning; Margolis, Kara J.; Gershon, Michael D.; Schwartz, Gary J.; Sze, Ji Y.
As carbon and energy flow through the soil food web they are depleted by the metabolic and production functions of organisms. To be sustained, a "long" food web, with a large biomass at higher trophic levels, must receive a high rate of rhizodeposition or detrital subsidy, or be top-populated by organisms of slow growth and long life cycle. Disturbed soil food webs tend to be bottom heavy and recalcitrant to restoration due to the slow growth of upper predator populations, physical and chemical constraints of the soil matrix, biological imbalances, and the relatively low mobility and invasion potential of soil organisms. The functional roles of nematodes, determined by their metabolic and behavioral activities, may be categorized as ecosystem services, disservices or effect-neutral. Among the disservices attributable to nematodes are overgrazing, which diminishes services of prey organisms, and plant-damaging herbivory, which reduces carbon fixation and availability to other organisms in the food web. Unfortunately, management to ameliorate potential disservices of certain nematodes results in unintended but long-lasting diminution of the services of others. Beneficial roles of nematodes may be enhanced by environmental stewardship that fosters greater biodiversity and, consequently, complementarity and continuity of their services. PMID:22736838
Serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) is a key regulator of serotonin neurotransmission and a major target of antidepressants. Antidepressants, such as selectively serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), that block SERT function are known to affect food intake and body weight. Here, we provide genetic evidence that food intake and metabolism are regulated by separable mechanisms of SERT function. SERT-deficient mice ate less during both normal diet and high fat diet feeding. The reduced food intake was accompanied with markedly elevated plasma leptin levels. Despite reduced food intake, SERT-deficient mice exhibited glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, and progressively developed obesity and hepatic steatosis. Several lines of evidence indicate that the metabolic deficits of SERT-deficient mice are attributable to reduced insulin-sensitivity in peripheral tissues. First, SERT-deficient mice exhibited beta-cell hyperplasia and islet-mass expansion. Second, biochemical analyses revealed constitutively elevated JNK activity and diminished insulin-induced AKT activation in the liver of SERT-deficient mice. SERT-deficient mice exhibited hyper-JNK activity and hyperinsulinemia prior to the development of obesity. Third, enhancing AKT signaling by PTEN deficiency corrected glucose tolerance in SERT-deficient mice. These findings have potential implications for designing selective SERT drugs for weight control and the treatment of metabolic syndromes. PMID:22412882
Chen, Xiaoning; Margolis, Kara J; Gershon, Michael D; Schwartz, Gary J; Sze, Ji Y
The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functionalfood ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.
The present work looks at the role of phytate-degrading Pediococcus pentosaceus CFR R123 application in functionalfoods to evaluate the fate of phytate and calcium solubility during fermentation. Under standard conditions, CFR R123 grown in modified MRS containing sodium phytate CFR R123 showed 43% degradation of sodium phytate in 15 minutes. Fermentation of malted finger millet seed coat (MFSC) and soya milk (SM) with CFR R123 for 12 h resulted in 5.6-12% phytate degradation and a notable increase in calcium availability (125%) was observed. The isolate CFR R123 was found to decrease the phytic acid levels resulting in increased levels of calcium during MFSC and soya milk fermentation. This study introduces phytate-degrading P. pentosaceus CFR R123 that can be employed as a starter culture as well as an ingredient of functionalfood to provide nutritive benefits to the consumer with a natural phenomenon. PMID:21831790
In this paper, a food chain model with Ivlev functional response and impulsive effect of top predator is investigated. Conditions for extinction of mid-level predator are given. By using the Floquet theory of linear ?-period impulsive differential equation and small amplitude perturbation skills, we show that the lowest-level prey and the mid-level predator extinction periodic solution is unstable, while the
The mechanisms of food procurement in the surgeonfishesCtenochaetus striatus andAcanthurus nigrofuscus from the Great Barrier Reef were determined by functional analyses of the jaws and associated structural elements (based on myological and osteological examinations and X-ray photographs) and by video analyses of actions of the mouth and body during feeding.Acanthurus nigrofuscus has relatively robust jaw bones. The movement of the
Background:The major aim of this study was to investigate whether the motivational salience of food cues (as reflected by their attention-grabbing properties) differs between obese and normal-weight subjects in a manner consistent with altered reward system function in obesity.Methodology\\/Principal Findings:A total of 18 obese and 18 normal-weight, otherwise healthy, adult women between the ages of 18 and 35 participated in
E H Castellanos; E Charboneau; M S Dietrich; B P Bradley; K Mogg; R L Cowan
Functionalfoods is a relatively new concept covering food products enriched with various kinds of (natural) substances (eg vitamins, minerals or probiotic cultures) or modified so as to provide consumers with an additional physiological benefit presumed to prevent disease or promote health, without them having to change their eating habits fundamentally. 2. Health is one of the most important choice
Tino Bech-Larsen; Klaus. G. Grunert; Jacob Poulsen
Liking of a particular food after repeated consumption may be reduced, limiting the effectiveness of health-functionalfoods requiring on-going consumption to deliver their benefits. This study examined the effect of repeated consumption of foods containing the novel ingredient, Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKFibre) on sensory acceptability in the dietary intervention setting. In a single-blind randomised crossover 4-week
Ramon S. Hall; Amynta L. Baxter; Cathy Fryirs; Stuart K. Johnson
Pomegranate fruit presents strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiobesity, and antitumoral properties, thus leading to an increased popularity as a functionalfood and nutraceutical source since ancient times. It can be divided into three parts: seeds, peel, and juice, all of which seem to have medicinal benefits. Several studies investigate its bioactive components as a means to associate them with a specific beneficial effect and develop future products and therapeutic applications. Many beneficial effects are related to the presence of ellagic acid, ellagitannins (including punicalagins), punicic acid and other fatty acids, flavonoids, anthocyanidins, anthocyanins, estrogenic flavonols, and flavones, which seem to be its most therapeutically beneficial components. However, the synergistic action of the pomegranate constituents appears to be superior when compared to individual constituents. Promising results have been obtained for the treatment of certain diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, intestinal inflammation, and cancer. Although moderate consumption of pomegranate does not result in adverse effects, future studies are needed to assess safety and potential interactions with drugs that may alter the bioavailability of bioactive constituents of pomegranate as well as drugs. The aim of this review is to summarize the health effects and mechanisms of action of pomegranate extracts in chronic inflammatory diseases.
This paper outlines the methodology to add glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) functionality to food DietPLUS, a Microsoft Excel-based Malaysian food composition database and diet intake calculator. Locally determined GI values and published international GI databases were used as the source of GI values. Previously published methodology for GI value assignment was modified to add GI and GL calculators to the database. Two popular local low GI foods were added to the DietPLUS database, bringing up the total number of foods in the database to 838 foods. Overall, in relation to the 539 major carbohydrate foods in the Malaysian Food Composition Database, 243 (45%) food items had local Malaysian values or were directly matched to International GI database and another 180 (33%) of the foods were linked to closely-related foods in the GI databases used. The mean ± SD dietary GI and GL of the dietary intake of 63 women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, calculated using DietPLUS version3 were, 62 ± 6 and 142 ± 45, respectively. These values were comparable to those reported from other local studies. DietPLUS version3, a simple Microsoft Excel-based programme aids calculation of diet GI and GL for Malaysian diets based on food records. PMID:22507605
Shyam, Sangeetha; Wai, Tony Ng Kock; Arshad, Fatimah
Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of foodconstituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)
|Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of foodconstituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)|
|Objective: "Functionalfoods" (FF)--foods containing nutritional supplements in addition to natural nutrients--have an increasing presence in the marketplace. Expanding on previous research, the authors investigated college students' acceptance of FF. Participants: In September-March 2004, 811 undergraduates in Canada, the United States, and…
Iron-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis. The present investigations were performed to test whether hydrophobic fungal siderophores - hexadentate trihydroxamates desferricoprogen, desferrichrome, desferrirubin, and desferrichrysin - might suppress heme-catalyzed LDL oxidation and the toxic effects of heme-treated LDL on vascular endothelium. Indeed, two of these - desferricoprogen and desferrichrome - markedly increased the resistance of LDL to heme-catalyzed oxidation. In similar dose-response fashion, these siderophores also inhibited the generation of LDL products cytotoxic to human vascular endothelium. When iron-free fungal siderophores were added to LDL/heme oxidation reactions, the product failed to induce heme oxygenase-1, a surrogate marker for the noncytocidal effects of oxidized LDL (not in the case of desferrichrysin). Desferricoprogen also hindered the iron-mediated peroxidation of lipids from human atherosclerotic soft plaques in vitro, and was taken up in the gastrointestinal tract of rat. The absorbed siderophore was accumulated in the liver and was secreted in its iron-complexed form in the feces and urine. The consumption of mold-ripened food products such as aged cheeses and the introduction of functionalfoods and food additives rich in fungal iron chelators in diets may lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:18646004
This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functionalfoods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas (“health-food stores”), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas.
Pochettino, Maria Lelia; Puentes, Jeremias P.; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M.; Ulibarri, Emilio A.; Hurrell, Julio A.
This review provides an overview of the current status of the chemistry and biology of di-d-fructose dianhydrides (DFAs) with a focus on their potential as functionalfoods. The history of this family of cyclic ketodisaccharides has expanded for almost 100 years and offers a paradigmatic example of artificial synthetic molecules that were identified as natural products later on and finally encountered in our own table. Issued from fundamental investigations on the reactivity of carbohydrates in strongly acidic media, DFAs remained laboratory curiosities for decades. Early reports on their isolation from plants raised doubts, until the formation of some DFA representatives by the action of microorganisms on fructans was reported in the middle 1980s. Since then, research on DFAs has run in parallel in the areas of microbiology and carbohydrate chemistry. Evidence of the potential of these compounds as functionalfood was accumulated from both sides, with the development of biotechnological processes for mass production of selected candidates and of chemical methodologies to prepare DFA-enriched products from sucrose or inulin. In 1994 a decisive discovery in the field took place in the laboratory of Jacques Defaye in Grenoble, France: the presence of DFAs in a commercial sucrose caramel was evidenced in a quite significant 18% mass proportion! The development of an efficient analytical protocol for DFAs and the stereoselective synthesis of individual standards allowed one to demonstrate that DFAs and their glycosylated derivatives (glycosyl-DFAs) are universally formed during caramelization reactions. They are not potential food products; they have actually always been in our daily food. Most important, they seem to exert beneficial effects: they are acariogenic, low-caloric, and promote the growth of beneficial microflora in the gut.
Defatted soy flour (DSF), soy protein isolate (SPI), hemp protein isolate (HPI), medium-roast peanut flour (MPF), and pea protein isolate (PPI) stably bind and concentrate cranberry (CB) polyphenols, creating protein/polyphenol-enriched matrices. Proanthocyanidins (PAC) in the enriched matrices ranged from 20.75 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 10.68 mg/g (CB-SPI). Anthocyanins (ANC) ranged from 3.19 mg/g (CB-DSF) to 1.68 mg/g (CB-SPI), whereas total phenolics (TP) ranged from 37.61 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 21.29 mg/g (CB-SPI). LC-MS indicated that the enriched matrices contained all identifiable ANC, PAC, and flavonols present in CB juice. Complexation with SPI stabilized and preserved the integrity of the CB polyphenolic components for at least 15 weeks at 37 °C. PAC isolated from enriched matrices demonstrated comparable antiadhesion bioactivity to PAC isolated directly from CB juice (MIC 0.4-0.16 mg/mL), indicating their potential utility for maintenance of urinary tract health. Approximately 1.0 g of polyphenol-enriched matrix delivered the same amount of PAC available in 1 cup (300 mL) of commercial CB juice cocktail, which has been shown clinically to be the prophylactic dose for reducing recurring urinary tract infections. CB-SPI inhibited Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial growth. Nutritional and sensory analyses indicated that the targeted CB-matrix combinations have high potential for incorporation in functionalfood formulations. PMID:23786629
Grace, Mary H; Guzman, Ivette; Roopchand, Diana E; Moskal, Kristin; Cheng, Diana M; Pogrebnyak, Natasha; Raskin, Ilya; Howell, Amy; Lila, Mary Ann
The vitamin E (VE) content of tissues from the Antarctic notothenioid fish, Chaenocephalus aceratus, Champsocephalus gunnari and Gobionotothen gibberifrons, and extracts of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba and phytoplankton collected from the Antarctic Peninsula was examined. Included in the VE composition was a newly described 'marine-derived' tocopherol (MDT), an unsaturated-isoprenoid derivative of alpha-tocopherol, that is attributed to enhancing antioxidant protection of cellular lipids at low temperature. MDT was found to co-exist with alpha-tocopherol in all Antarctic samples, ranging from 2.8 to 22.3% of the total VE composition. The highest level of VE was found in the liver of G. gibberifrons (VE=416.7 pmol/mg wet tissue) although this tissue had a low MDT composition (7.7%), whereas the greatest MDT composition was measured in the liver of C. gunnari (MDT=22.3%). In notothenioids, the pectoral adductor muscle, which has a high density of mitochondria, contained higher levels of VE than white myotomal muscle, but differences in MDT composition were small. Phytoplankton and krill also contained MDT, which supports the contention that MDT is obtained directly from the primary food chain. Our finding of MDT in Antarctic organisms is consistent with its putatively adaptive function to enhance antioxidant protection in coldwater metabolism. PMID:12431397
Dunlap, Walter C; Fujisawa, Akio; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Moylan, Thomas J; Sidell, Bruce D
We consider a Bayesian analysis using WinBUGS to estimate the distribution of usual intake for episodically consumed foods and energy (calories). The model uses measures of nutrition and energy intakes via a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) along with repeated 24 hour recalls and adjusting covariates. In order to estimate the usual intake of the food, we phrase usual intake in terms of person-specific random effects, along with day-to-day variability in food and energy consumption. Three levels are incorporated in the model. The first level incorporates information about whether an individual in fact reported consumption of a particular food item. The second level incorporates the amount of intake from those individuals who reported consumption of the food, and the third level incorporates the energy intake. Estimates of posterior means of parameters and distributions of usual intakes are obtained by using Markov chain Monte Carlo calculations. This R function reports to users point estimates and credible intervals for parameters in the model, samples from their posterior distribution, samples from the distribution of usual intake and usual energy intake, trace plots of parameters and summary statistics of usual intake, usual energy intake and energy adjusted usual intake. PMID:22837731
Chemical and functional properties of unprocessed (raw) and locally processed seeds ofBrachystegia eurycoma, Detarium microcarpum andMucuna sloanei that affect their utilization as sources of human food were investigated. The seeds, which are underutilized food sources\\u000a in Nigeria, were subjected to local processing methods which included roasting, boiling, dehulling\\/shelling, soaking and the\\u000a changes in composition and functional properties were estimated. Chemical
Phenolic phytochemicals from food-grade plants that are antioxidants are an important part of a healthy diet in a global population that is projected to reach 9 billion in the next 50 years. Such phytochemicals are being targeted for designing conventional foods with added health benefits and are called functionalfoods. These value-added foods are needed for dietary support to manage
Effects of global species loss on ecosystem function have traditionally been extrapolated from studies which investigate the effect of random species loss or addition. Real species loss is highly patterned and clumped according to trophic position, taxonomic relatedness and interconnectedness with the remainder of the food web. Using pond microcosms, I evoked a realistic pattern of species loss using toxins and warming. Species loss was predictably highly patterned. Influences on ecosystem functions ranged from simple and linear in the case of algal productivity, through to complex and step-like in the case of bacterial decomposition. Impacts on algal productivity were mediated by effects on the rate of grazing by invertebrates. There is strong evidence from the bacterial decomposition results of an `insurance effect' whereby the presence of multiple stressors has a strong, non-additive effect on function. These results clearly show that the traditional ecotoxicological practice of studying effects of single toxins on single species may be highly misleading.
Polyethylene is the most prevalent plastic and is commonly used as a packaging material. Despite its common use, there are not many studies on imparting functionalities to those films which can make them more desirable for frozen food packaging. Here, commercial low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films were oxidized by UV-ozone (UVO) treatment to obtain a negatively charged hydrophilic surface to allow fabrication of functional multilayers. An increase in hydrophilicity was observed when films were exposed to UVO for 4 min and longer. Thin multilayers were formed by dipping the UVO-treated films into biopolymer solutions, and extracellular ice nucleators (ECINs) were immobilized onto the film surface to form a functional top layer. Polyelectrolyte adsorption was studied and confirmed on silicon wafers by measuring the water contact angles of the layers and investigating the surface morphology via atomic force microscopy. An up to 4-5 °C increase in ice nucleation temperatures and an up to 10 min decrease in freezing times were observed with high-purity deionized water samples frozen in ECIN-coated LDPE films. Films retained their ice nucleation activity up to 50 freeze-thaw cycles. Our results demonstrate the potential of using ECIN-coated polymer films for frozen food application. PMID:23611300
The unique properties of wheat reside primarily in its gluten-forming storage proteins. Their intrinsic viscoelastic behavior is responsible for the characteristics of different wheat-based foods and for the use of wheat gluten proteins in different food products. Wheat-based food processing generally develops and sets the gluten protein network. Heat-induced gluten aggregation proceeds through cross-linking within and between its protein fractions. Prominent reactions include sulfhydryl (SH) oxidation and SH-disulfide (SS) interchange, which lead to SS cross-links. Other covalent bonds are also formed. Gluten functionality can be (bio-) chemically impacted. We focus on bread making, in which gluten proteins contribute to dough properties, bread loaf volume, and structure, and on pasta production, in which gluten proteins generate the desired cooking quality. Furthermore, it is speculated that the structure and texture of soft wheat products are also, at least to some degree, shaped by the heat-induced changes in the gluten protein fraction. PMID:22224557
This review evaluates the health benefits of the functionalfood, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) - a heterogeneous group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid predominantly found in milk, milk products, meat and meat products of ruminants. During the past couple of decades, hundreds of reports - principally based on in vitro, microbial, animal, and of late clinical trials on humans - have been accumulating with varying biological activities of CLA isomers. These studies highlight that CLA, apart form the classical nuclear transcription factors-mediated mechanism of action, appear to exhibit a number of inter-dependent molecular signalling pathways accounting for their reported health benefits. Such benefits relate to anti-obesitic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetagenic, immunomodulatory, apoptotic and osteosynthetic effects. On the other hand, negative effects of CLA have been reported such as fatty liver and spleen, induction of colon carcinogenesis and hyperproinsulinaemia. As far as human consumption is concerned, a definite conclusion for CLA safety has not been reached yet. Parameters such as administration of the type of CLA isomer and/or their combination with other polyunsaturated fatty acids, mode of administration (eg., as free fatty acid or its triglyceride form, liquid or solid), daily dose and duration of consumption, gender, age, or ethnic and geographical backgrounds remain to be determined. Yet, it appears from trials so far conducted that CLA are functionalfood having prevailing beneficial health effects for humans.
The Wageningen Delivery of Functionality symposium covered all aspects involved with food structural design to arrive at high-quality foods which meet demanding customer expectations and regulatory requirements. The symposium integrated aspects from the structural organization of foods at molecular and supramolecular scales to dedicated techniques required to describe and visualize such structures, the gastro-intestinal events and how to model these in a laboratory setting, and finally the impact those food structures and ingredients have on the consumer’s physiology and on the human perception. As an interdisciplinary platform, bringing together more than 160 researchers from academia and industry, the symposium meanwhile fulfills an important role in the food science community.
Ordinary classification techniques can drive a conceptually simple constituent parser that achieves near state-of-the-art accuracy on standard test sets. Here we present such a parser, which avoids some of the limitations of other discriminative parsers. In particular, it does not place any restrictions upon which types of fea- tures are allowed. We also present sev- eral innovations for faster training
Asparagus species (family Liliaceae) are medicinal plants of temperate Himalayas. They possess a variety of biological properties, such as being antioxidants, immunostimulants, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antioxytocic, and reproductive agents. The article briefly reviews the isolated chemical constituents and the biological activities of the plant species. The structural formula of isolated compounds and their distribution in the species studied are also given.
Negi, J. S.; Singh, P.; Joshi, G. P.; Rawat, M. S.; Bisht, V. K.
In 1999, the University of Missouri-Columbia implemented the MoDOT Constituent Service Quality Survey (CSQS), collection responses from 1,581 Missourians randomly sampled by telephone in three geographic regions (St. Louis, Kansas City, and Remainder of t...
The functional and physical properties, rather than the nutritional value, of protein in protein-containing products will\\u000a largely determine their acceptability as ingredients in prepared foods. The nature of the protein per se, the presence of\\u000a other constituents naturally present in protein-containing products, the degree to which the protein product is refined, the\\u000a presence of other ingredients in a food system
The effect of dehydration in the presence or absence of continued food intake on renal function was evaluated in chickens. In addition, renal transport of organic anions and cations under these conditions was assessed in vitro by uptake of 14C-para-aminohippuric acid and 14C-tetraethylammonium bromide by renal slices. Water restriction with continued food intake resulted in increases in serum osmolality and
Preschool children's (N = 64) ability to use tactile information and function cues on less-realistic and more-realistic food-appearing, deceptive objects was examined before and after training on the function of deceptive objects. They also responded to appearance and reality questions about deceptive objects. Half of the children (F-S:…
The evolution of the human diet over the past 10,000 years from a Paleolithic diet to our current modern pattern of intake has resulted in profound changes in feeding behavior. Shifts have occurred from diets high in fruits, vegetables, lean meats, and seafood to processed foods high in sodium and hydrogenated fats and low in fiber. These dietary changes have adversely affected dietary parameters known to be related to health, resulting in an increase in obesity and chronic disease, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and cancer. Some intervention trials using Paleolithic dietary patterns have shown promising results with favorable changes in CVD and diabetes risk factors. However, such benefits may be offset by disadvantages of the Paleolithic diet, which is low in vitamin D and calcium and high in fish potentially containing environmental toxins. More advantageous would be promotion of foods and food ingredients from our ancestral era that have been shown to possess health benefits in the form of functionalfoods. Many studies have investigated the health benefits of various functionalfood ingredients, including omega-3 fatty acids, polyphenols, fiber, and plant sterols. These bioactive compounds may help to prevent and reduce incidence of chronic diseases, which in turn could lead to health cost savings ranging from $2 to $3 billion per year as estimated by case studies using omega-3 and plant sterols as examples. Thus, public health benefits should result from promotion of the positive components of Paleolithic diets as functionalfoods. PMID:19857053
Jew, Stephanie; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Jones, Peter J H
Companies in the food industry have high expectations for food products that meet the consumers' demand for a healthy life style. In this context FunctionalFood plays a specific role. These foods are not intended only to satisfy hunger and provide the necessary human nutrients, but also to prevent nutrition-related diseases and increase the physical and mental well-being of their consumer. Among participants in space science and missions, recognition of nutraceuticals and dietary supplements is growing for their potential in reducing health risks and to improve health quality and eating habits during long-term flights and missions. In 2008 the entire functionalfoods market was worth over an estimated US $80 billion, with the US holding a majority share in the nutraceuticals market (35%) followed byJapan (25%) and with the ever-growing European market, currently estimated at US$8 billion. India and China are the two major countries known for their production of traditional functionalfood products and nutraceuticals, but other South-East Asian countries and Gulf nations are developing potential markets. PMID:21520721
Vergari, Francesca; Tibuzzi, Arianna; Basile, Giovanni
Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functionalfoods and nutraceuticals.
Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functionalfoods and nutraceuticals. PMID:22072996
In recent decades, the most successful strategy for controlling blood pressure has been inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). ACE inhibitors of chemical synthesis (captopril, enalapril, ramipril and trandolapril) have been widely used clinically to reduce mortality in patients with heart failure, and in patients with recent myocardial infarction and heart failure or marked left ventricular dysfunction. In addition to preventive and therapeutic drugs, increased attention has been paid to identifying dietary compounds that may contribute to cardiovascular treatment and prevention. ACE inhibitory peptides, derived from a multitude of plant and animal proteins such as milk, soy or fish, represent sources of health-enhancing components. These ACE inhibitory peptides can be enzymatically released from precursor proteins in vitro and in vivo, respectively during food processing and gastrointestinal digestion. They have shown the ability to lower blood pressure by limiting the vasoconstrictory effects of Angiotensin II and potentiating the vasodilatory effects of Bradykinin. By using specific procedures they may be generated in or incorporated into functionalfoods for the development of 'natural' beneficial health products. Several products containing peptides with ACE inhibitory properties are currently on the market or in development. This review focuses on the use, application and future perspective of bioactive peptides with properties relevant to cardiovascular health. PMID:19925416
Australia and New Zealand are currently reviewing the regulations governing nutrition function, health and related claims on foods. Health claims currently are not permitted on food labels, with one exception. The aim of this study was to describe the use of such claims on packaged food for sale in Australia (excluding nutrient content claims) prior to any changes to the regulations, and measure compliance with existing regulations. A survey was conducted of the labelling of 7850 products (including multiple pack sizes of individual foods) in 47 different food categories on sale in New South Wales in 2003. A total of 2098 nutrition function, health or related claims and 12 therapeutic claims were recorded. Fourteen percent of products carried some sort of claim. If nutrient function and general health maintenance claims are excluded, 8.1% of products carried a health or related claim. Using the claims categorisation proposed by Food Standards Australia New Zealand for a new standard on claims, general-level claims were found on 9.8% of products and high-level and therapeutic claims (illegal at the time) on 1.2%. The food categories with the highest proportion of products carrying claims were sports drinks (92%), energy drinks (84%), sports bars (57%) and breakfast cereals (54%). 118 high-level and therapeutic claims did not conform to current food standards and there were many general-level claims for ingredient benefits that were unlikely to be able to be scientifically substantiated. The results of this survey suggest that more than 5% of claims were not complying with the current regulations and that the standards were not being fully enforced. To be effective, the new standard will need to be accompanied by clear guidelines for manufacturers on requirements for substantiating claims. Comprehensive education and enforcement frameworks also will be needed, to reduce the number of illegal or apparently unsubstantiated claims. PMID:16500873
Nanotechnology-based strategies have resulted in the development of improved equipment surfaces that enhance food safety. The properties of food processing surfaces make it possible to manipulate conformations for more resistance to bacterial contamination and corrosion. Imaging techniques, scanning...
Dietary restraint is a characteristic associated with greater increase in food intake after smoking cessation, and salivation is a marker of physiological responsiveness to food that may be influenced by cessation. The present study examined the effect of brief smoking abstinence (16 h) vs. no abstinence on salivary and subjective responses to food taste cues in women smokers high vs.
Kenneth A. Perkins; Shari L. Mitchell; Leonard H. Epstein
Food fermentations with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are employed to produce safe and shelf stable food products with characteristic flavour and texture. Advances in genomics and physiology of lactic acid bacteria enabled to link individual genetic and metabolic traits of starter cultures to specific food quality attributes. The empirical selection of starter cultures is increasingly supported by the targeted selection
Background Cues predictive of food availability are powerful modulators of appetite as well as food-seeking and ingestive behaviors. The neurobiological underpinnings of these conditioned responses are not well understood. Monitoring regional immediate early gene expression is a method used to assess alterations in neuronal metabolism resulting from upstream intracellular and extracellular signaling. Furthermore, assessing the expression of multiple immediate early genes offers a window onto the possible sequelae of exposure to food cues, since the function of each gene differs. We used immediate early gene and proenkephalin expression as a means of assessing food cue-elicited regional activation and alterations in functional connectivity within the forebrain. Results Contextual cues associated with palatable food elicited conditioned motor activation and corticosterone release in rats. This motivational state was associated with increased transcription of the activity-regulated genes homer1a, arc, zif268, ngfi-b and c-fos in corticolimbic, thalamic and hypothalamic areas and of proenkephalin within striatal regions. Furthermore, the functional connectivity elicited by food cues, as assessed by an inter-regional multigene-expression correlation method, differed substantially from that elicited by neutral cues. Specifically, food cues increased cortical engagement of the striatum, and within the nucleus accumbens, shifted correlations away from the shell towards the core. Exposure to the food-associated context also induced correlated gene expression between corticostriatal networks and the basolateral amygdala, an area critical for learning and responding to the incentive value of sensory stimuli. This increased corticostriatal-amygdalar functional connectivity was absent in the control group exposed to innocuous cues. Conclusion The results implicate correlated activity between the cortex and the striatum, especially the nucleus accumbens core and the basolateral amygdala, in the generation of a conditioned motivated state that may promote excessive food intake. The upregulation of a number of genes in unique patterns within corticostriatal, thalamic, and hypothalamic networks suggests that food cues are capable of powerfully altering neuronal processing in areas mediating the integration of emotion, cognition, arousal, and the regulation of energy balance. As many of these genes play a role in plasticity, their upregulation within these circuits may also indicate the neuroanatomic and transcriptional correlates of extinction learning.
Schiltz, Craig A; Bremer, Quentin Z; Landry, Charles F; Kelley, Ann E
In this project, you will discover the way food chains function by viewing four different types of food chains and designing your favorite one. How is the flow of energy traced through a food chain? Use your cluster organizer to record information for four different food chains and what the consumers, 1st level consumers, 2nd level consumers, and 3rd level consumers are and what they eat. Begin by viewing ecosystems: Introduction to Ecosystems Now that you know what an ...
Summary Based on its distinctive profiles functional-food (FF) can be considered as a mixture of food and pharmaceutical items. Apparently, these different characteristics that exist beyond conventional food products contribute success of the commercialization of new innovative FFs. Therefore, assumption can be made by arguing that for the marketing a FF a distinctive marketing-strategic beyond the one usually used for
The aim of this article is to provide information about L-carnitine, its physiological role in the human body and its content in some foods. This chemical compound is mainly synthesized in the liver, kidney and brain and is composed of two aminoacids, lyzine and metionine. L-carnitine regulates the level of acylo-CoA and CoA in the mitochondium and cytozolum, and it provides acetyl moieties for the biosythesis of acetocholine. L-carnitine plays a vital function in the metabolism of lipids and it carries long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for beta-oxidation. An increase of the amount of L-carnitine in the human body may lead to reduction and inhibition of production of fatty tissue. Despite the fact that human body can synthesise L-carnitine, about 80% of this chemical compound is delivered by food. It is crucial, especially for people who are on a slimming diet, to choose products rich in L-carnitine because this compound may potentially reduce the body weight. Animal by-products contain the highest amount of L-carnitine, and these are, e.g , kangaroo meat (637 mg), horse meat (423mg), beef (139 mg per 100 g of dry weight). The amount of L-carnitine in milk products may range from 1,4 to 42,8 mg per 100 g of dry matter. Vegetables and fruits are products which contain less than 5 mg of L-carnitine per 100 g of dry matter. Lipids are also very low in L-carnitine, e.g sunflower oil is free from this compound. It is worth mentioning that mushrooms are richer in L-carnitine than plants. The amount of L-carnitine (53 mg/100 g dry matter) in pleureotus ostreatus equals approximately 100 g of minced pork. PMID:23879010
Liking of a particular food after repeated consumption may be reduced, limiting the effectiveness of health-functionalfoods requiring on-going consumption to deliver their benefits. This study examined the effect of repeated consumption of foods containing the novel ingredient, Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKFibre) on sensory acceptability in the dietary intervention setting. In a single-blind randomised crossover 4-week intervention, participants consumed both control and equivalent LKFibre-containing products daily on separate interventions separated by a 4-week period on habitual diet. Seven products: muesli, bread, muffin, chocolate brownie, chocolate milk drink, pasta and instant mashed potato were assessed twice (days 4 and 18 of intervention), by 38 participants for appearance, texture, flavour and general acceptability using a structured graphic hedonic scale. Overall the results showed there was no reduction (P=0.594) in general acceptability of LKFibre foods after repeated consumption, suggesting potential for long-term consumption. The control food products were however generally preferred (P<0.001) over the LKFibre foods; the mean difference for general acceptability between being <6% (0.82cm) of the 15cm hedonic scale used, suggesting LKF addition did not severely affect product palatability. PMID:20542068
Hall, Ramon S; Baxter, Amynta L; Fryirs, Cathy; Johnson, Stuart K
The aim of this work was to assess the following plants as functionalfoods that can be found in Mexico: white sapote (Casimiroa edulis), jicama (Pachyrhizus spp.), amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus), sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), oregano (Lippia graveolens), pitahaya (Hylocereus sp.), agave (Agave americana), pelitre (Heliopsis longipes), and purslane (Portulaca oleracea L). The main characteristics, components and active substances, forms of
Antioxidants can improve nerve dysfunction in hyperglycaemic rats. We evaluated whether the standard supplementation of rat food with vitamin E (normally added for preservation purposes) or high-dose vitamin E treatment improves nerve conduction in maturing streptozotocin-diabetic rats, a model widely used to study diabetic neuropathy. Hyperglycaemic rats received food containing 25 mg\\/kg (non-supplemented), 70 mg\\/kg (standard food) or 12 g\\/kg
P. Sytze van Dam; Bert Bravenboer; B. Sweder van Asbeck; Joannes J. M Marx; Willem Hendrik Gispen
This study presents a novel and integrated preparation technology for nattokinase functionalfood, including strain screening, fermentation, separation, and encapsulation. To rapidly screen a nattokinase-productive strain, PCR-based screening method was combined with fibrinolytic activity-based method, and a high productive strain, Bacillus subtilis LSSE-22, was isolated from Chinese soybean paste. Reduction of poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA) concentration may contribute to separation of nattokinase and reduction of late-onset anaphylaxis risk. Chickpeas were confirmed as the favorable substrate for enhancement of nattokinase production and reduction of ?-PGA yield. Using cracked chickpeas, the nattokinase activity reached 356.25?±?17.18 FU/g (dry weight), which is much higher than previous reports. To further reduce ?-PGA concentration, ethanol fractional extraction and precipitation were applied for separation of nattokinase. By extraction with 50 % and precipitation with 75 % ethanol solution, 4,000.58?±?192.98 FU/g of nattokinase powders were obtained, and the activity recovery reached 89?±?1 %, while ?-PGA recovery was reduced to 21?±?2 %. To improve the nattokinase stability at acidic pH condition, the nattokinase powders were encapsulated, and then coated with methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate copolymer. After encapsulation, the nattokinase was protected from being denatured under various acid conditions, and pH-responsible controlled release at simulated intestinal fluid was realized. PMID:22987066
The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with foodconstituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI cannot always be ingested as a single dose on an empty stomach with impunity. PMID:277126
There is an increasing array of functionalfoods available that are designed to confer health benefits. However, individuals' worries about new technology and modernity may influence the acceptance of these products. In this study, we investigated how modern health worries influence attitudes and decisions about functionalfoods. We asked participants (n ¼ 390) to rate pictures of products with either
Daniel A. Devcich; Irene K. Pedersen; Keith J. Petrie
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of food concentration, animal interaction and water volume on survival, growth and reproduction of Daphnia magna under flow-through conditions. A response surface design was used to determine the inter...
G. A. LeBlanc D. A. Schoenfeld D. C. Surprenant R. E. Bentley
Background and Aims The distinction between pearl bodies (or pearl glands) and food bodies (FBs) is not clear; neither is our understanding of what these structures really represent. The present work examined the ontogenesis, structure, ultrastructure and histochemical aspects of the protuberances in Cissus verticillata, which have been described since the beginning of the 19th century as pearl glands or pearl bodies, in order to establish a relationship between their structure and function. Methods Segments of stems and leaves in different stages of development were collected and fixed for study under light microscopy as well as electron transmission and scanning microscopy. Samples of FBs were subjected to chemical analysis using thin-layer chromatography. Key Results The FBs in C. verticillata are globose and attached to the plant by a short peduncle. These structures are present along the entire stem during primary growth, and on the inflorescence axis and the abaxial face of the leaves. The FBs were observed to be of mixed origin, with the participation of both the epidermis and the underlying parenchymatic cells. The epidermis is uniseriate with a thin cuticle, and the cells have dense cytoplasm and a large nucleus. The internal parenchymatic cells have thin walls; in the young structures these cells have dense cytoplasm with a predominance of mitochondria and plastids. In the mature FBs, the parenchymatic cells accumulate oils and soluble sugars; dictyosomes and rough endoplasmic reticulum predominate in the cytoplasm; the vacuoles are ample. Removal of the FBs appears to stimulate the formation of new ones, at the same place. Conclusions The vegetative vigour of the plant seems to influence the number of FBs produced, with more vigorous branches having greater densities of FBs. The results allow the conclusion that the structures traditionally designated pearl glands or pearl bodies in C. verticillata constitute FBs that can recruit large numbers of ants.
Paiva, Elder Antonio Sousa; Buono, Rafael Andrade; Lombardi, Julio Antonio
The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is a primary regulator of muscle protein turnover, providing a mechanism for selective degradation of regulatory and structural proteins. This pathway is constitutively active in muscle fibers and mediates both intracellular signaling events and normal muscle protein turnover. However, conditions of decreased muscle use, so called unloading, remarkably stimulate activity of this pathway, resulting in loss of muscle protein. In fact, we previously reported that expression of several ubiquitin ligase genes, such as MuRF-1, Cbl-b, and Siah-1A, which are rate-limiting enzymes of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway, are significantly up-regulated in rat skeletal muscle during spaceflight. Moreover, we found that Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1, an important intermediates of IGF-1 signal transduction, contributes to muscle atrophy during unloading. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1 leads to prevention of muscle atrophy during unloading. In this study, we aimed to evaluate oligopeptide as an inhibitor against ubiquitination of IRS-1 by Cbl-b. We synthesized various oligopeptides that may competitively inhibit the binding of Cbl-b to IRS-1 on the basis of their structures and screened inhibitory effects of these synthesized oligopeptides on Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination of IRS-1 using in vitro ubiquitination systems. We found that two synthetic oligopeptides with specific amino acid sequences effectively inhibited interaction with Cbl-b and IRS-1, resulting in decreased ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1 (Patent pending). In contrast, we also found inhibitory activity against Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination of IRS-1 in soy protein-derived oligopeptides, whereas their inhibitory effects were weaker than those of synthetic oligopeptides. Our results suggest that specific oligopeptides may be available as a functionalfood against the muscle atrophy, especially through downregulation of the Cbl-b-mediated IRS-1 degradation.
The constituents of the essential oil obtained from flowerheads of Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rausch. plants growing around Medianeira city, in Paraná State, Brazil, were analyzed by GC\\/MS. The major constituents identified in the oil were similar to those found in oils from other parts of the world. The Brazilian oil contained the following major components: bisabolol oxide B (23%), bisabolol
F. J. A. Matos; M. I. L. Machado; J. W. Alencar; A. A. Craveiro
Rats trained in one context to use stimuli arising from food deprivation as discriminative signals for shock were tested in\\u000a other contexts to assess the basis of conditioned responding (i.e., freezing or behavioral immobility). In Experiment 1, discriminative\\u000a control by 24-h food-deprivation cues failed to promote transfer responding in a test context that had no association with\\u000a shock. This indicated
To our knowledge, there are no data on parental influences on child purchasing behavior of healthy or unhealthy foods. Mothers and children in ten families were given $5.00 to purchase portions of preferred fruits\\/vegetables and high energy-dense snack foods for each of ten trials of price manipulations. For five of the trials the price of the fruit\\/vegetable increased in price
Leonard H. Epstein; Kelly K. Dearing; Elizabeth A. Handley; James N. Roemmich; Rocco A. Paluch
A method for simultaneous determination of eight adulterants including two appetite suppressants, two energy expenditure-enhancing drugs, one diuretic and three cathartics in slimming functionalfoods by high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI–MS\\/MS) was established. After samples were ultrasonically extracted with 70% (v\\/v) methanol aqueous solution and centrifuged, the components of ephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, fenfluramine, sibutramine, clopamide, emodin,
Functions of veterinarians in the context of food safety assurance have changed very much in the last ten years as a consequence\\u000a of new legislation. The aim of this review is to evaluate the management tools in veterinary public health that shall be used\\u000a in response to the actual need and consider some possible key performance indicators. This review involved
1. The role of body weight during rearing and food allocation after photostimulation on ovarian function in broiler breeder females was examined in two experiments. In experiment 1 birds were fed ad libitum, or to grow to 0.7 or 0.4 of ad libitum?fed body weight at 20 weeks of age. After photostimulation at 16, 19 and 22 weeks respectively they
In healthy individuals, food cues can trigger hunger and feeding behavior. Likewise, smoking cues can trigger craving and relapse in smokers. Brain imaging studies report that structures involved in appetitive behaviors and reward, notably the insula, striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex, tend to be activated by both visual food and smoking cues. Here, by carrying out a meta-analysis of human neuro-imaging studies, we investigate the neural network activated by: 1) food versus neutral cues (14 studies, 142 foci) 2) smoking versus neutral cues (15 studies, 176 foci) 3) smoking versus neutral cues when correlated with craving scores (7 studies, 108 foci). PubMed was used to identify cue-reactivity imaging studies that compared brain response to visual food or smoking cues to neutral cues. Fourteen articles were identified for the food meta-analysis and fifteen articles were identified for the smoking meta-analysis. Six articles were identified for the smoking cue correlated with craving analysis. Meta-analyses were carried out using activation likelihood estimation. Food cues were associated with increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, and striatum. Smoking cues were associated with increased BOLD signal in the same areas, with the exception of the insula. However, the smoking meta-analysis of brain maps correlating cue-reactivity with subjective craving did identify the insula, suggesting that insula activation is only found when craving levels are high. The brain areas identified here are involved in learning, memory and motivation, and their cue-induced activity is an index of the incentive salience of the cues. Using meta-analytic techniques to combine a series of studies, we found that food and smoking cues activate comparable brain networks. There is significant overlap in brain regions responding to conditioned cues associated with natural and drug rewards. PMID:22450260
The present study investigates the production of gluten-free bread enhanced with polyphenols and related antioxidants derived from a natural aqueous extract from green-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa). Puree and four aqueous extracts, produced from ripe green kiwifruit in the absence of artificial preservatives, were subjected to storage stability trials at 4 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 38 degrees C, and were chemically characterized (phenolic, vitamin C and pectic polysaccharide contents). The aqueous extract with good stability and high phenolic and vitamin C contents was used for gluten-free bread-making. The resultant kiwifruit extract-enhanced bread was acceptable to a taste panel, possessing softer and smoother texture than plain gluten-free bread. Thus, the aqueous extract of kiwifruit puree containing health-beneficial constituents can be considered a functional ingredient for gluten-free bread formulation. PMID:19548162
Chemical and functional properties of unprocessed (raw) and locally processed seeds of Brachystegia eurycoma, Detarium microcarpum and Mucuna sloanei that affect their utilization as sources of human food were investigated. The seeds, which are underutilized food sources in Nigeria, were subjected to local processing methods which included roasting, boiling, dehulling/shelling, soaking and the changes in composition and functional properties were estimated. Chemical analyses showed that the crude protein contents of the raw seeds ranged from 12.2 to 23.2%; fat varied from 4.9 to 12.0%. The level of phytic acid in the raw seeds (192.4-215 mg/100 g) was observed to be lower than the levels found in some commonly consumed pulses in Nigeria. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between crude protein contents and the least gelation concentrations of the raw and processed samples, but processing (roasting, boiling, dehulling and soaking) significantly (p = 0.011) improved in vitro protein digestibility, water and fat absorption capacity and decreased the bulk density, nitrogen solubility and the phytic acid and polyphenol contents of the samples. Processed samples had high water (3.4-3.8 g/g) and fat (1.8-2.1 g/g) absorption capacities and hence may be useful as functional agents in fabricated foods such as bakery products and ground meat formulations. PMID:9198112
Twenty-four samples including 14 functionalfoods and 10 spices obtained from Chinese markets were examined for their mould profile. The mycotoxin contamination levels were also determined by an optimized HPLC-FLD method. 124 fungal isolates belonging to four different genera were recovered with Aspergillus and Penicillium as predominant fungi, with an incidence of 66.1% and 15.3%, respectively. In functionalfoods Aspergillus niger section (57.1%) was isolated more frequently, followed by Aspergillus flavi section (50.0%) and Aspergillus ochraceus section (21.4%), with the most contaminated samples being Coix seeds. Similar fungal presence and frequency were encountered in spice with A. niger section group (60.0%) and A. flavi section (40.0%) as main fungi. Cumin and Pricklyash peel samples showed the highest fungal contamination. Four functionalfoods and three spices were found to be positive at low levels for mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 (up to 0.26?g/kg) and ochratoxin A (OTA) (5.0?g/kg). The more frequently detected mycotoxin was AFB1 (16.7%). PMID:24176349
Prodigious food hoarding in Syrian hamsters Mesocricetus auratus Waterhouse is strongly linked to appetite and is made possible by large internal cheek pouches. We provide a functional analysis of the cheek pouch and its associated retractor muscle. Frame-by-frame analysis of videotaped pouch-filling behavior revealed multiple jaw cycles for each food item pouched and the use of more jaw cycles to pouch large food items ( approximately 2.5 g chow pellets) than small (corn kernels or sunflower seed with husks). These results stand in contrast to previously reported pouching kinematics in the externally pouched Dipodomys deserti, which uses only one jaw cycle per pouching event. Comparison of pouching and mastication in the same individuals also suggests that in Syrian hamsters, feeding jaw cycles are modulated to accommodate pouch filling primarily by the addition of a pause between fast open and fast close phases, which we call ;gape phase'. Contrary to previous assertions, the retractor muscle does not merely provide structural support for the full pouch during locomotion. Video analysis of ten hamsters with unilaterally denervated retractor muscles and electrophysiological study of an anaesthetized subject confirmed that retractor muscle activity during pouch filling increases pouching efficiency for food items subsequent to the first. PMID:17704084
Buckley, Carolyn A; Schneider, Jill E; Cundall, David
A discrete choice experiment is applied to examine consumer valuation of a new generation of functionalfoods. Data were collected from 1,704 households in Ohio through a mail survey. Results indicate health benefits and ingredient naturalness are positively valued but such preferences depend on individual's education, income, and food purchase behavior.
A major outcome for recycled plastics con- sists of making food packaging materials. However, any contamination of collected plastics with chemicals may then be of concern for public health. A solution to mind migration is to use a layer of virgin polymer, named functional barrier, intercalated between thé recycled layer and thé food. This article aims to provide expérimental values
The article addresses a methodological procedure based on keyword analysis and structuring of data into information systems in the field of functionalfoods as a newly emerging scientific field within the broader scope of food sciences and technology. Experiment was based on selection of a research field or research subject, selection of search profile, selection and processing of relevant databases,
Spatial soil water-holding capacities were estimated for the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) digital Soil Map of the World (SMW) by employing continuous pedotransfer functions (PTF) within global pedon databases and linking these results to the SMW. The procedure first estimated representative soil properties for the FAO soil units by statistical analyses and taxotransfer depth algorithms [Food and Agriculture Organization
Soil microplots were amended with organic materials of varying nature and complexity but providing similar amounts of carbon. Materials were either placed on the soil surface or incorporated. Unamended and mineral fertilizer control plots were established. Plots were maintained vegetation-free so that the food web activity was fueled by resident soil organic matter and the input material. Enrichment-opportunist bacterivore nematodes
Over the last four decades, spanning David Coleman's career, and in no small measure thanks to him, soil ecologists have made tremendous progress in describing and understanding the overwhelming complexity of biological, biophysical and biochemical interactions in soil. These interactions shape the soil as a habitat for the soil food web and the vegetation and, thereby, regulate the two main
L. Brussaard; M. M. Pulleman; E. Ouédraogo; A. Mando
Objective. Patients with perceived food hypersensitivity typically present with multiple health complaints. We aimed to assess the severity of their intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms. Materials and methods. In a prospective study, 84 patients referred to our outpatient clinic for investigation of perceived food hypersensitivity were enrolled consecutively. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was diagnosed according to the Rome III criteria. Severity and impact of bowel symptoms, fatigue and musculoskeletal pain were evaluated by using the following questionnaires: The IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS), the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS), the FibroFatigue Scale (FFS), and visual analogue scales (VAS) for scoring of musculoskeletal pain. Results. All but one patient were diagnosed with IBS, 58% with severe symptoms. Extra-intestinal symptoms suggestive of chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia were demonstrated in 85% and 71%, respectively. Neither IgE-mediated food allergy nor organic pathology could explain the patients' symptoms. Nevertheless, malabsorption of fat was demonstrated in 10 of 38 subjects. Conclusions. Perceived food hypersensitivity may be associated with severe, debilitating illness. The comorbid triad of IBS, chronic fatigue, and musculoskeletal pain is striking and may point to a common underlying cause.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), founded by Regulation EC 178\\/2002, is now in its fifth year of activity and has already gone through a positive external evaluation procedure. This paper takes the reader through the many objectives of this Organization in defining the mission of EFSA as well as the organizational structure that has been developed so far in
New scientific knowledge regarding the role that diet may play in preventing disease is rapidly emerging as information continues to reveal components within food that not only promote general health and well being but can also reduce the risk of illness. These findings are resulting in an increased desire to incorporate \\
This ethnographic study was undertaken to build a picture of physiotherapy practice through prolonged observation. Several building blocks of the therapists' culture were created one of which was the negotiation and meaning of food rituals in the practice of a team of physiotherapists in a UK National Health Service hospital. Interviews were carried out following the observations to gain the
Highly valued for its unique flavor, texture, and color, recent research has shown cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) to be high in many beneficial compounds. The diversity of applications to which Physalis peruviana can be put gives this fruit great importance. The food industry has used cape gooseberry in different products, including beverages, yoghurts, and jams. With the rapidly growing
Linguistic analyses suggest that sentences are not mere strings of words but possess a hierarchical structure with constituents nested inside each other. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to search for the cerebral mechanisms of this theoretical construct. We hypothesized that the neural assembly that encodes a constituent grows with its size, which can be approximately indexed by the number of words it encompasses. We therefore searched for brain regions where activation increased parametrically with the size of linguistic constituents, in response to a visual stream always comprising 12 written words or pseudowords. The results isolated a network of left-hemispheric regions that could be dissociated into two major subsets. Inferior frontal and posterior temporal regions showed constituent size effects regardless of whether actual content words were present or were replaced by pseudowords (jabberwocky stimuli). This observation suggests that these areas operate autonomously of other language areas and can extract abstract syntactic frames based on function words and morphological information alone. On the other hand, regions in the temporal pole, anterior superior temporal sulcus and temporo-parietal junction showed constituent size effect only in the presence of lexico-semantic information, suggesting that they may encode semantic constituents. In several inferior frontal and superior temporal regions, activation was delayed in response to the largest constituent structures, suggesting that nested linguistic structures take increasingly longer time to be computed and that these delays can be measured with fMRI.
Background: High-fat meals have negative effects on endothelial function, but vitamin-rich side orders may prevent these negative effects. Objective: The acute effects of conventional and alternative fast- food meals on vascular function and various cardiovascular bio- markers were investigated. Design: In a crossover study, flow-mediated endothelium- dependentdilatation(FMD)andcardiovasculardiseaseriskmarkers wereinvestigatedin24healthyvolunteersbeforeand2and4hafter 3 fast-food meals: a conventional beef burger with French fries, ketchup,andcarbonatedlemon-flavoredsoda(meal1);avegetarian burger
Tanja K Rudolph; Kaike Ruempler; Edzard Schwedhelm; Jing Tan-Andresen; Ulrich Riederer; Rainer H Böger; Renke Maas
The establishment of an association between hypertension and the level of sodium in the diet1-2 has focused interest in many countries on the amount of salt added to food, with estimates of intake in western countries being in the range 6-14 g per person per day3,4. As a result, many health authorities have advocated a decrease in salt consumption by
Conclusively, studies on the possible beneficial effect of specific types of food or of adding supplements like calcium and\\u000a vitamin D to the daily diet have somewhat equivocal results. It is not possible to conclude with certainty whether a low fat\\u000a diet with increased fibre, fruit and vegetables has a particular benefit in preventing colon cancer. The same applies to
The Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) is a small water-soluble protein present in soybean and almost all monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds. The molecular size of BBI ranges from 1,513 Da to about 20,000 Da. BBI is to seeds what ?1-antitrypsin is to humans. Soy-based food products rich in BBI include soybean grits, soymilk, oilcake, soybean isolate, and soybean protein concentrate. BBI is
In response to unbalanced energy budgets, animals must allocate resources among competing physiological systems to maximize fitness. Constraints can be imposed on energy availability or energy expenditure, and adjustments can be made via changes in metabolism or trade-offs with competing demands such as body-mass maintenance and immune function. This study investigates changes in constitutive immune function and the acute-phase response in shorebirds (red knots) faced with limited access time to food. We separated birds into two experimental groups receiving either 6 h or 22 h of food access and measured constitutive immune function. After 3 wk, we induced an acute-phase response, and after 1 wk of recovery, we switched the groups to the opposite food treatment and measured constitutive immune function again. We found little effect of food treatment on constitutive immune function, which suggests that even under resource limitation, a baseline level of immune function is maintained. However, birds enduring limited access to food suppressed aspects of the acute-phase response (decreased feeding and mass loss) to maintain energy intake, and they downregulated thermoregulatory adjustments to food treatment to maintain body temperature during simulated infection. Thus, under resource-limited conditions, birds save energy on the most costly aspects of immune defense. PMID:19650727
Buehler, Deborah M; Encinas-Viso, Francisco; Petit, Magali; Vézina, François; Tieleman, B Irene; Piersma, Theunis
Background Glucocorticoids levels are high in catabolic conditions but it is unclear how much of the catabolic effects are due to negative energy balance versus glucocorticoids and whether there are distinct effects on metabolism and functions of specific muscle proteins. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined whether 14 days of high dose methylprednisolone (MPred, 4 mg/kg/d) Vs food restriction (FR, food intake matched to MPred) in rats had different effects on muscle mitochondrial function and protein fractional synthesis rates (FSR). Lower weight loss (15%) occurred in FR than in MPred (30%) rats, while a 15% increase occurred saline-treated Controls. The per cent muscle loss was significantly greater for MPred than FR. Mitochondrial protein FSR in MPred rats was lower in soleus (51 and 43%, respectively) and plantaris (25 and 55%) than in FR, while similar decline in protein FSR of the mixed, sarcoplasmic, and myosin heavy chain occurred. Mitochondrial enzymatic activity and ATP production were unchanged in soleus while in plantaris cytochrome c oxidase activity was lower in FR than Control, and ATP production rate with pyruvate + malate in MPred plantaris was 28% lower in MPred. Branched-chain amino acid catabolic enzyme activities were higher in both FR and MPred rats indicating enhanced amino acid oxidation capacity. Conclusion/Significance MPred and FR had little impact on mitochondrial function but reduction in muscle protein synthesis occurred in MPred that could be explained on the basis of reduced food intake. A greater decline in proteolysis may explain lesser muscle loss in FR than in MPred rats.
Jourdan, Marion; Klaus, Katherine A.; Walrand, Stephane; Nair, K. Sreekumaran
BACKGROUND: Supplementation of nutritional deficiencies helps to improve immune function and resistance to infections in malnourished subjects. However, the suggested benefits of dietary supplementation for immune function in healthy well nourished subjects is less clear. Among the foodconstituents frequently associated with beneficial effects on immune function are micronutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, ?-carotene and zinc, and colostrum.
Danielle AW Wolvers; Margot HGM Logman; Reggy PJ van der Wielen; Ruud Albers
The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of "health functionalfood (HFF)" intake and related factors in Busan and Gyeongnam area and provide useful information for health promotion through the use of HFF. Among subjects of this study (n = 634), about 64% of the subjects reported that they are currently taking HFFs or other health foods or had HFFs in the last year. The reason of subjects taking HFF was to maintain and promote their health. They choose HFF by their own judgement or knowledge and the main place of purchasing HFF was the HFF store. Main food sources for promoting health in study subjects were nutrient fortified foods (76.8%), fruit or vegetable extracts (64.8%), HFF (64%), herbs or oriental medicines (29.6%), folk remedies or unidentified remedies (24.9%), respectively. The preference type of the products was capsule and liquid. 60.6% of consumers thought that HFF are expensive. 9.7% of consumers experienced the side effect such as stomachache and gastroenteric trouble. Using logistic regression analysis, the use of HFF was 1.9 times higher in female than male subjects indicating strong association between gender and HFF use. Additionally higher prevalence was found in female subjects for right conception of HFF and distinction of HFF. Interestingly subjects who consume less salts exhibited a higher tendency (-1.5 folds) in HFF intake than who prefer to use salt and seasonings in diets. In total study subjects 83.9% of them have known and heard about definition of the HFF. The major route of acquiring the information about HFF was mass media such as TV, internet and newspapers. Also subjects who had taken HFF exhibited high a proper conception toward the knowledge about 'distinction of HFF'. Taken together education programs considering gender, dietary habit and life style is necessary for consumers to select proper HFF.
ProSAAS is the precursor of a number of peptides that have been proposed to function as neuropeptides. Because proSAAS mRNA is highly expressed in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, we examined the cellular localization of several proSAAS-derived peptides in the mouse hypothalamus and found that they generally colocalized with neuropeptide Y (NPY), but not ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone. However, unlike proNPY mRNA, which is upregulated by food deprivation in the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither proSAAS mRNA nor proSAAS-derived peptides were significantly altered by 1–2 days of food deprivation in wild-type mice. Furthermore, while proSAAS mRNA levels in the mediobasal hypothalamus were significantly lower in Cpefat/fat mice as compared to wild-type littermates, proNPY mRNA levels in the mediobasal hypothalamus and in other subregions of the hypothalamus were not significantly different between wild-type and Cpefat/fat mice. Intracerebroventricular injections of antibodies to two proSAAS-derived peptides (big LEN and PEN) significantly reduced food intake in fasted mice, while injections of antibodies to two other proSAAS-derived peptides (little LEN and little SAAS) did not. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of parvocellular neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, a target of arcuate NPY projections, showed that big LEN produced a rapid and reversible inhibition of synaptic glutamate release that was spike independent and abolished by blocking postsynaptic G protein activity, suggesting the involvement of a postsynaptic G protein-coupled receptor and the release of a retrograde synaptic messenger. Taken together with previous studies, these findings support a role for proSAAS-derived peptides such as big LEN as neuropeptides regulating food intake.
Wardman, Jonathan H.; Berezniuk, Iryna; Di, Shi; Tasker, Jeffrey G.; Fricker, Lloyd D.
... News & Events. Constituent Updates. -. Keeping Your Food and Water Safe during Floods, Hurricanes, and Power Outages. October 30, 2012. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/newsevents/constituentupdates
... News & Events. Constituent Updates. -. Web-Based Training Module, "ALERT: Food Defense Awareness" Now Available in Spanish. August 22, 2008 ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/newsevents/constituentupdates
Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a food product can be beneficial or detrimental and is of particular importance in candy and frozen desserts. The most common crystal in foods is sugar which affects the quali...
In female mammals including rodents and humans, feeding decreases during the periovulatory period of the ovarian cycle, which coincides with a surge in circulating estrogen levels. Ovariectomy increases food intake, which can be normalized by estrogen treatment at a dose and frequency mimicking those during the estrous cycle. Furthermore, administration of estrogen to rodents potently inhibits food intake. Despite these well-known effects of estrogen, neuronal subtypes that mediate estrogen's anorexigenic effects have not been identified. In this study, we show that changes in hypothalamic expression of agouti-related protein (Agrp) and neuropeptide Y (Npy) coincide with the cyclic changes in feeding across the estrous cycle. These cyclic changes in feeding are abolished in mice with degenerated AgRP neurons even though these mice cycle normally. Central administration of 17beta-estradiol (E2) decreases food intake in controls but not in mice lacking the AgRP neurons. Furthermore, E2 treatment suppresses fasting-induced c-Fos activation in AgRP and NPY neurons and blunts the refeeding response. Surprisingly, although estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) is the key mediator of estrogen's anorexigenic effects, we find that expression of ERalpha is completely excluded from AgRP and NPY neurons in the mouse hypothalamus, suggesting that estrogen may regulate these neurons indirectly via presynaptic neurons that express ERalpha. This study indicates that neurons coexpressing AgRP and NPY are functionally required for the cyclic changes in feeding across estrous cycle and that AgRP and NPY neurons are essential mediators of estrogen's anorexigenic function. PMID:19805233
Olofsson, Louise E; Pierce, Andrew A; Xu, Allison W
During the next century, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is projected to more than double, potentially slowing litter decomposition by altering microbial community composition and function. If the flow of energy though detrital food webs is diminished by the slowing of decay under higher rates of atmospheric N deposition, this agent of global change could also negatively impact the abundance and composition of soil fauna. To test this hypothesis, we studied soil faunal communities in four sugar-maple-dominated forests that comprise a long-term N deposition experiment. To examine whether changes in soil faunal communities could then feed back to influence litter decay, litterbags with 13C-enriched aspen litter were placed in the forest floor in one study site. The microbial community within the litterbags was characterized using PLFA analysis. Overall, long-term experimental N deposition reduced the abundance of microarthropods (ambient vs. experimental N deposition: 7844 vs. 4357 individuals/m2, respectively; P = 0.004). We attribute this overall decline partly to the reduced energy flow entering the detrital food web, which has been documented in previous work in our system. Although there was no difference in microarthropod species richness between N deposition treatments, there was a shift in community composition within the most abundant group (Oribatida), indicating species-specific responses to N deposition. Experimental N deposition reduced the number of microarthropods colonizing litterbags by 41% (P = 0.014). This was associated with a reduction in 13C mobilization from leaf litter into microbial biomass. Overall, this study demonstrates that chronic N deposition has a detrimental effect on the soil detritus food web, and that the negative effect may feed back to influence litter decay and ecosystem functioning. PMID:24147404
Pectin is used in a number of foods as a gelling agent, thickener, texturizer, emulsifier and stabilizer. Bael fruit, obtained from Aegle marmelos, is a rich source of pectin. Bael fruit pectin (BFP) was extracted from ripe Bael fruits. The process yielded 15% (w/w) pure BFP. The swelling index decreased in the following order: water>pH 7.4>pH 6.8>pH 1.2>HCl (0.1N). Galacturonic acid content of 87.8%, degree of esterification of 47.2%, 17.3% methoxy groups, 0.29% acetyl groups and equivalent weight of 1209.5, indicate it to be a good gelling agent and easily amenable to derivatization. BFP exhibited a significant concentration-dependent prolongation of prothrombin time. The absence of hemagglutinating activity and antinutritional factors coupled with the activity to confer better emulsion capacity, stability and antimicrobial activity gives BFP a clear edge over commercial citrus pectin (CP) for exploitation as an additive in food and pharmaceuticals. PMID:23499073
Jindal, Manish; Kumar, Vineet; Rana, Vikas; Tiwary, A K
This review compiles recently published scientific reports on the bioactive compounds present in virgin argan oil along with their possible beneficial effects on human health, which could justify consideration of this oil as a new functionalfood. Virgin argan oil is characterized by high levels of linoleic and oleic acids, tocopherols (especially ?-tocopherol), and minor compounds such as sterols, carotenoids, and squalene. The total antioxidant capacity of virgin argan oil is higher than that of other vegetable oils. Recent studies suggest that this edible oil, as a functionalfood, may play a role in disease prevention. For example, some authors have found it to have hypolipidemic, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive effects as well as a possible role in cancer prevention. This review demonstrates the need for further studies in order to fully characterize argan oil from bromatological, nutritional, culinary, and technological perspectives. In particular, the scarcity of clinical data hampers relevant conclusions from being drawn regarding the therapeutic effects of virgin argan oil. PMID:22537213
Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Marfil, Rocío; Giménez, Rafael; Martínez-Augustin, Olga
The chemical constituents of Parthenocissus quinque were investigated. The chemical constituents were isolated by column chromatography on silical gel and sephadex LH-20. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis and of comparison of physical constant. Nine compounds were isolated from this plant and the structures of them were identified as 3,4,5-trihydroxy- benzoic acid (1), piceatannol (2), resveratrol (3), resveratrol trans-dehydrodimer (4), cyphoste mmin B (5), pallidol (6), cyphostemmin A (7), quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (8), myricetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (9), respectively. Compounds 1, 4-9 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:20815210
Nematomorph parasites manipulate crickets to enter streams where the parasites reproduce. These manipulated crickets become a substantial food subsidy for stream fishes. We used a field experiment to investigate how this subsidy affects the stream community and ecosystem function. When crickets were available, predatory fish ate fewer benthic invertebrates. The resulting release of the benthic invertebrate community from fish predation indirectly decreased the biomass of benthic algae and slightly increased leaf break-down rate. This is the first experimental demonstration that host manipulation by a parasite can reorganise a community and alter ecosystem function. Nematomorphs are common, and many other parasites have dramatic effects on host phenotypes, suggesting that similar effects of parasites on ecosystems might be widespread. PMID:22583960
Context: Lipodystrophy is a disease characterized by a paucity of adipose tissue and low circulating concentrations of adipocyte-derived leptin. Leptin-replacement therapy improves eating and metabolic disorders in patients with lipodystrophy. Objective: The aim of the study was to clarify the pathogenic mechanism of eating disorders in lipodystrophic patients and the action mechanism of leptin on appetite regulation. Subjects and Interventions: We investigated food-related neural activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging in lipodystrophic patients with or without leptin replacement therapy and in healthy controls. We also measured the subjective feelings of appetite. Results: Although there was little difference in the enhancement of neural activity by food stimuli between patients and controls under fasting, postprandial suppression of neural activity was insufficient in many regions of interest including amygdala, insula, nucleus accumbens, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus in patients when compared with controls. Leptin treatment effectively suppressed postprandial neural activity in many of these regions of interest, whereas it showed little effect under fasting in patients. Consistent with these results, postprandial formation of satiety feeling was insufficient in patients when compared with controls, which was effectively reinforced by leptin treatment. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the insufficiency of postprandial suppression of food-related neural activity and formation of satiety feeling in lipodystrophic patients, which was effectively restored by leptin. The findings in this study emphasize the important pathological role of leptin in eating disorders in lipodystrophy and provide a clue to understanding the action mechanism of leptin in human, which may lead to development of novel strategies for prevention and treatment of obesity.
Objective: Malnutrition is a frequent problem in the elderly and is associated with an impaired functional status and higher morbidity and mortality. In this study we evaluated the effect of a 12-wk nutritional intervention with fortified food on nutritional and functional status in nursing home residents at risk of malnutrition. Methods: Nutritional status was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment.
Christine Smoliner; Kristina Norman; Ramona Scheufele; Wolfgang Hartig; Matthias Pirlich; Herbert Lochs
This critical review article presents the current state of knowledge on isomalto-oligosaccharides, some well known functional oligosaccharides in Asia, to evaluate their potential as emergent prebiotics in the American and European functionalfood market. It includes first a unique inventory of the different families of compounds which have been considered as IMOs and their specific structure. A description has been
Dorothee Goffin; Nathalie Delzenne; Christophe Blecker; Emilien Hanon; Claude Deroanne; Michel Paquot
The Mexico Collaborative Research and Support Program on Nutrition and Function (Mexico CRSP) was a joint effort of researchers from the Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran (INN), Division de Nutricion de Comunidad in Mexico City and the U...
We examined effects of supplementation of food quantity and quality (=enhanced methionine) on hematologic and immunologic parameters of wild, but enclosed, adult male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in north-central Oklahoma. Sheet metal enclosures were stocked with a high density of wild-caught cotton rats (160 animals/ha) and randomly assigned a treatment of no supplementation, mixed-ration supplementation or methionine-enhanced supplementation. Aside from small increases in counts of red blood cells and hematocrit levels, most indices of erythrocytic characteristics were not affected by supplementation with the mixed-ration or enhanced methionine. In contrast, platelet counts were highest in mixed-ration and methionine treatments and counts of total white blood cells were highest with methionine supplementation, albeit relative proportions of different leukocytes did not differ among treatments. Immunologically, neither delayed-type hypersensitivity response nor hemolytic-complement activity differed among treatments. Supplementation of food quantity and quality did not broadly affect hematologic parameters and immune function of male cotton rats, but enhanced platelet and leukocyte counts may confer advantages to overall health. Clarification of the role of such effects on population limitation or regulation requires additional research. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Webb, R. E.; Leslie, Jr. , D. M.; Lochmiller, R. L.; Masters, R. E.
... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have ...
Root of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (Sanqi in Chinese) is one of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) based functionalfood. Saponins are the major bioactive components. The shortage of reference compounds or chemical standards is one of the main bottlenecks for quality control of TCMs. A novel strategy, i.e. standardized reference extract based qualification and single calibrated components directly quantitative estimation of multiple analytes, was proposed to easily and effectively control the quality of natural functionalfoods such as Sanqi. The feasibility and credibility of this methodology were also assessed with a developed fast HPLC method. Five saponins, including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rd and notoginsenoside R1 were rapidly separated using a conventional HPLC in 20min. The quantification method was also compared with individual calibration curve method. The strategy is feasible and credible, which is easily and effectively adapted for improving the quality control of natural functionalfoods such as Sanqi. PMID:23910599
Li, S P; Qiao, C F; Chen, Y W; Zhao, J; Cui, X M; Zhang, Q W; Liu, X M; Hu, D J
The chemical constituents of Desmodium sambuense were studied. Chromatographic techniques were applied to isolate and purify the constituents, and the structures were identified on the basis of physico-chemical and spectroscopeic methods. Thirteen compounds were isolated from the 75% ethanol extract of Desmodium sambuens and elucidated as beta-amyrin(1), betulic acid(2), daucosterol(3), triacontanoic acid(4), lup-20(29)-en-3-one(5), tetracosanoic-2,3-dihydroxypropylester(6), stigmast-5-ene-3beta, 7alpha-ol (7),methyl phaeophorbidea(8), o-hydroxy benzoic acid(9),beta-sitosterol(10),d-catechin(11), luteolin (12), epigallocatechin (13). All of the compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:21141491
Two studies investigated whether participants' motivational state and the context in which attitude reports are made influence food attitudes. Specifically, these studies examined whether hunger and the time-typicality of foods (i.e. match or mismatch between the time when a food is typically eaten and the time the attitude is reported) interact to influence reported attitudes. Study 1 suggests that hunger
An update of Virchow's triad for thrombogenesis can be considered by reference to abnormalities in the endothelium/endocardium ('abnormal vessel wall'), abnormalities of haemorhelogy and turbulence at bifurcations,atheroma at vessel wall ('abnormal bloodflow') and abnormalities in platelet as well as the coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways ('abnormal blood constituents'). The constituents of the blood are many and varied, but soluble coagulation factors (such as fibrinogen and tissue factor) and cells (such as platelets)are clearly important. Clearly, 'a continuum exists between health, 'statistically' increased haemostatic abnormalities in prothrombotic or hypercoagulable states and 'overtly' increased clotting in acute thrombosis.Thus, the patients with the highest levels of the markers appear to be the highest risk of disease progression,and if so, a panel of 'high risk' blood constituent indices (platelet and coagulation markers) may potentially give a composite score of risk, and may be a useful tool in predicting subjects at highest risk. Further longitudinal studies are clearly required. There is no doubt that Virchow would be impressed on how his classical triad has expanded to encompass the wide range of pathophysiological processes leading to thrombogenesis. PMID:15692259
The assessment of relevant spatial scales at which ecological processes occur is of special importance for a thorough understanding\\u000a of ecosystem functioning. In coastal ecosystems, the variability of trophic interactions has been studied at different spatial\\u000a scales, but never at scales from centimetres to metres. In the present study, we investigated the link between habitat structure\\u000a and small-scale variability of
Aspects of food safety and quality control are described, with a focus on consumer protection. On the assumption that there can be no ‘zero-risk’, not only in life generally but even in food, appropriate food control is required in order to assess compliance with labelling (e.g. in the case of functionalfood) and to ensure the safety of food. People
The present study evaluated the flavonoid content, antioxidant as well as type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activities of ethanolic extract of certain raw and traditionally processed indigenous food ingredients including cereals, legumes, oil seeds, tubers, vegetables and leafy vegetables, which are commonly consumed by vulnerable groups in Kenya. The vegetables exhibited higher flavonoid content (50-703 mg/100 g) when compared with the grains (47-343 mg/100 g). The ethanolic extract of presently studied food ingredients revealed 33-93% DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 486-6,389 mmol Fe(II)/g reducing power, 19-43% ?-amylase inhibition activity and 14-68% ?-glucosidase inhibition activity. Among the different food-stuffs, the drumstick and amaranth leaves exhibited significantly higher flavonoid content with excellent functional properties. Roasting of grains and cooking of vegetables were found to be suitable processing methods in preserving the functional properties. Hence, such viable processing techniques for respective food samples will be considered in the formulation of functional supplementary foods for vulnerable groups in Kenya. PMID:21375390
Kunyanga, Catherine N; Imungi, Jasper K; Okoth, Michael W; Biesalski, Hans K; Vadivel, Vellingiri
Animal experimentation has a long tradition for risk assessment of new drugs before they reach the clinic. To reduce expensive animal experimentation, attempts have been made to build inexpensive and convenient intestinal functional cell models to study toxicity and bioavailability of new substances along with providing relevant models to study interactions between the host, pathogens and intestinal microflora. We review the available cell lines and models of the intestine and their potential uses. Tumor derived cell lines such as Caco-2, T84 and HT-29 are widely used despite many drawbacks, which are discussed with respect to complexity of the gut, where various cell types interact with commensal microbiota and gut-associated lymphoid tissue. To address this complexity, 3D models of human and animal gut represent a promising in vitro system to mimic in vivo situation without the use of transformed cell lines. PMID:20444515
The distribution of metallic constituents in torrential rivers as a function of the size particle cannot be frequently achieved by conventional analytical procedures, because of the lack of sufficient amounts of the fine fractions. For the study of river sediments in the Basque Country, microanalytical methods have been developed both for major (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Si) and
The article focuses on adsorption of heavy metal ions on soils and soils constituents such as clay minerals, metal (hydr)oxides, and soil organic matter. Empirical and mechanistic model approaches for heavy metal adsorption and parameter determination in such models have been reviewed. Sorption mechanisms in soils, the influence of surface functional groups and surface complexation as well as parameters influencing
This commentary reviews selected biomedical and clinical research examining the relationship between physical exercise and cognitive function especially in youth with disability. Youth with physical disability may not benefit from the effects of exercise on cardiovascular fitness and brain health since they are less active than their non-disabled peers. In animal models, physical activity enhances memory and learning, promotes neurogenesis and protects the nervous system from injury and neurodegenerative disease. Neurotrophins, endogenous proteins that support brain plasticity likely mediate the beneficial effects of exercise on the brain. In clinical studies, exercise increases brain volume in areas implicated in executive processing, improves cognition in children with cerebral palsy and enhances phonemic skill in school children with reading difficulty. Studies examining the intensity of exercise required to optimize neurotrophins suggest that moderation is important. Sustained increases in neurotrophin levels occur with prolonged low intensity exercise, while higher intensity exercise, in a rat model of brain injury, elevates the stress hormone, corticosterone. Clearly, moderate physical activity is important for youth whose brains are highly plastic and perhaps even more critical for young people with physical disability. PMID:18781504
Chemical constituents were investigated on the ethyl acetate extract of Salvia chinensis. Compounds were separated and purified by various chromatograhic techniques including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and reversed-phase HPLC. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic data analysis. Eleven compounds were isolated and purified and their structures were identified as oresbiusin A(1), ethyl dihydrocaffeate (2), ethyl rosmarinate (3), rosmarinic acid (4), methyl rosmarinate (5), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (6), salvianol acid C (7), methyl salvianol acid C (8), methyl salvianolate A (9), dimethyl lithospermate B (10), and salvianolic acid A(11). Except for rosmarinic acid, the remaining compounds were isolated from S. chinensis for the first time. PMID:23947137
To study chemical constituents of Eupatorium lindleyanum. Ethyl acetate extractive fractions were separated with silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 by column chromatography, and their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. Sixteen compounds were separated and identified as scopoletin (1), 6, 7-dimethylesculetin (2), nepetin (3), eupatrin (4), luteolin (5), isoquerecitrin (6), jaceosidin (7), quceritin (8), kaempferol (9), rutin (10), cirsiliol (11), taraxasterylacetate (12), pseudotaraxasteryl acetate (13), pseudotaraxasterol (14), butanoic acid (15) and n-hexadecanoic acid (16). Of them, compounds 1-6 and 11, 13 and 15 were separated from this plant for the first time. PMID:22792793
The aim of the study was to analyze the differences between older and younger Poles in functionalfood consumption, awareness of metabolic syndrome risk and perceived barriers to health improvement. A national representative sample of 1005 adults aged 15+ was selected for the study. The eldest age group (65+ years) more often than the youngest age group (15–24 years) reported
Lidia W?do?owska; Marzena Danowska-Oziewicz; Barbara Stewart-Knox; Maria Daniel Vaz de Almeida
The Food, GI-tract Functionality and Human Health Cluster brings together 64 research partners from 16 European countries in the quest to obtain greater knowledge of the role of the intestinal microbiota in human health and disease and to develop new func...
The aliphatic amino diacid alpha-aminosuberic acid can function as an effective, stable mimic of the hydrolysis-susceptible Tyr(SO3H) group in sulfakinin neuropeptide analogues for both hindgut contractile activity in a cockroach and food-intake inhibition activity in the desert locust. In the anal...
A method for simultaneous determination of eight adulterants including two appetite suppressants, two energy expenditure-enhancing drugs, one diuretic and three cathartics in slimming functionalfoods by high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was established. After samples were ultrasonically extracted with 70% (v/v) methanol aqueous solution and centrifuged, the components of ephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, fenfluramine, sibutramine, clopamide, emodin, rhein, and chrysophanol in sample solution were separated by a Hypersil Gold column (2.1 mm × 150 mm, 5 ?m) using a programmed gradient elution. A mobile phase consisting of 0.02% (v/v) formic acid-ammonium formate buffer solution (pH=3.50) and methanol was used for elution with a flow rate set at 250 ?L/min and column temperature of 25 °C. Qualitative determination was based on characteristic ion pairs and retention time of the targeted compounds using SRM (selective reaction monitoring) mode. Clenbuterol and ibuprofen were internal standards in positive and negative ionization mode, respectively. The internal standard curves were used for quantification measurement. The average recoveries of three different concentrations were from 80.2% to 94.5%. The limits of detection (LODs) were from 0.03 to 0.66 mg/kg (except chrysophanol 1.6 mg/kg). The linear dynamic range covered from 1 to 500 ?g/L (except chrysophanol 50-5000 ?g/L) for the twelve samples analyzed. Adulterants in four different kinds of slimming functionalfoods were determined by this developed method, and satisfactory results were obtained. These experimental results showed that, adulteration of sibutramine or/and fenfluramine were the major adulterating components with contents varying from 6.1 to 1.3×10(3) mg/kg and 1.9 to 9.7×10(3) mg/kg, respectively. In addition, three cathartic compounds were detected in six of those tested samples, and ephedrine, norpseudoephedrine and clopamide were not detected in all samples. PMID:21899853
Background: There are few studies reporting on docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n3) supplementation during pregnancy and infant cognitive function. DHA supplementation in pregnancy and infant problem solving in the first year have not been investigated. Objective:Wetestedthehypothesisthatinfantsborntowomenwho consumed a DHA-containing functionalfood during pregnancy would demonstrate better problem-solving abilities and recognition memory than would infants born to women who consumed the pla-
Aims: To investigate the relation between psychological functioning of subjects with Down syndrome, and their levels of urine peptide and serum antibodies to food proteins. Meth- ods: 55 children with Down syndrome in a cross-sectional study. Psychological functioning was measured by the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition, McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and Fagan's computer based test of novelty preference.
Egil Nygaard; Karl Ludvig Reichelt; Joseph F. Fagan
There is evidence for a role of insulin and leptin in food intake, but the effects of these adiposity signals on the brain reward system are not well understood. Furthermore, the effects of insulin and leptin on food intake in females are underinvestigated. These studies investigated the role of insulin and leptin in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc) on food intake and brain reward function in female rats. The intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the effects of insulin and leptin on the reward system. Elevations in brain reward thresholds are indicative of a decrease in brain reward function. The bilateral administration of leptin into the VTA (15–500 ng/side) or Arc (15–150 ng/side) decreased food intake for 72 h. The infusion of leptin into the VTA or Arc resulted in weight loss during the first 48 (VTA) or 24 h (Arc) after the infusions. The administration of insulin (0.005–5 mU/side) into the VTA or Arc decreased food intake for 24 h but did not affect body weights. The bilateral administration of low, but not high, doses of leptin (15 ng/side) or insulin (0.005 mU/side) into the VTA elevated brain reward thresholds. Neither insulin nor leptin in the Arc affected brain reward thresholds. These studies suggest that a small increase in leptin or insulin levels in the VTA leads to a decrease in brain reward function. A relatively large increase in insulin or leptin levels in the VTA or Arc decreases food intake.
Inhibition of angiogenesis and telomerase activity with vitamin E compounds, especially for tocotrienol (T3), has been investigated. Nutrigenomic tools have been used for elucidating the bioactive mechanisms of T3. In the cell culture experiments, T3 reduced the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Among T3 isomers, delta-T3 appeared the highest activity. The T3 inhibited the new blood vessels formation on the growing chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay for an in vivo model of angiogenesis). In contrast, tocopherol did not. The findings suggested that the T3 has potential use for reducing angiogenic disorder. DNA chip analysis revealed that T3 specifically down-regulates the expression of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) in endothelial cells. It is well-known that VEGF regulates angiogenesis by binding to VEGFR. Therefore, T3 could block the intracellular signaling of VEGF via down-regulation of VEGFR, which resulted in the inhibition of angiogenesis. On the other hand, DNA chip analysis also revealed that T3 down-regulates the expression of protein kinase C (PKC) in the cultured HUVEC. Since PKC is involved with the control of telomerase activity, T3 has potential to act as anti-telomerase inhibitor via PKC inhibition. In this manner, DNA chip technology provides efficient access to genetic information regarding foodfunction and its mechanism. PMID:15630161
Seaweeds and soy are two commonly eaten foods in Asia. Both have been reported to affect thyroid function, seaweed because of its iodine content and soy because of its goitrogenic effect. Twenty-five healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) completed a double-blinded randomized crossover study. Ten capsules (5 g/day) of placebo or seaweed (Alaria esculenta), providing 475 microg of iodine/day, were consumed daily for 7 weeks. A powdered soy protein isolate (Solae Co., St. Louis, MO), providing 2 mg of isoflavones/kg of body weight, was given daily during the last week of each treatment arm. On average, this provided 141.3 mg of isoflavones/day and 67.5 g of protein/day. Blood samples and 48-hour urine samples were collected before and after each intervention period, and urinary I/C (microg of iodine/g of creatinine) and serum thyroxine, free thyroxine index, total triiodothyronine, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured. Seaweed ingestion increased I/C concentrations (P < .0001) and serum TSH (P < .0001) (1.69 +/- 0.22 vs. 2.19 +/- 0.22 microU/mL, mean +/- SE). Soy supplementation did not affect thyroid end points. Seven weeks of 5 g/day seaweed supplementation was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in TSH. Soy protein isolate supplementation was not associated with changes in serum thyroid hormone concentrations. PMID:17472472
Teas, Jane; Braverman, Lewis E; Kurzer, Mindy S; Pino, Sam; Hurley, Thomas G; Hebert, James R
BACKGROUND: Cues predictive of food availability are powerful modulators of appetite as well as food-seeking and ingestive behaviors. The neurobiological underpinnings of these conditioned responses are not well understood. Monitoring regional immediate early gene expression is a method used to assess alterations in neuronal metabolism resulting from upstream intracellular and extracellular signaling. Furthermore, assessing the expression of multiple immediate early
Craig A Schiltz; Quentin Z Bremer; Charles F Landry; Ann E Kelley
Studies of ornamental carotenoid coloration suggest that animals may have evolved specialized mechanisms for maximizing color expression and advertising their potential worth as a mate. For example, when given a choice of foods, many carotenoid-pigmented fishes and birds select the more colorful, presumably carotenoid-rich foods, and then accumulate these pigments at high levels in both the integument and systemically, in
Kevin J. McGraw; Ondi L. Crino; William Medina-Jerez; Paul M. Nolan
Where energy is the first limiting resource in a food it is proposed that an animal will try to eat the food at the rate that is needed to just meet its requirement for energy. An immature animal in a thermally neutral environment is assumed to need energy only for maintenance, including some level of physical activity, protein retention and
The quality of food and food plants can be modified and optimized to meet the nutritional and health needs of at-risk and compromised populations prevalent in most of the developing countries. High rates of malnutrition, infectious disease as well as diet-related diseases such as diabetes and hypertension are prevalent in many developing countries. These are as a result of compromised
Most studies on garlic during the past 15 years have been primarily in the fields of cardiovascular and cancer research. Cardiovascular studies have been mainly related to atherosclerosis, where effects were examined on serum cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides. Although the studies were not consistent in relation to the dosage, standardization of garlic preparations, and period of treatment, most findings suggest that garlic decreases cholesterol and triglycerides levels in patients with increased levels of these lipids. Lowering of serum lipids by garlic ingestion may decrease the atherosclerosis process. The other major beneficial effect of garlic is due to its antithrombotic actions. This field of garlic research has been extensively studied. Garlic extracts and several garlic constituents demonstrate significant antithrombotic actions both in vitro and in vivo systems. Allicin and adenosine are the most potent antiplatelet constituents of garlic because of their in vitro effects. Since both allicin and adenosine are rapidly metabolized in human blood and other tissues, it is doubtful that these compounds contribute to any antithrombotic actions in the body. In addition, ajoene also seems not to be an active antiplatelet principle, because it is not naturally present in garlic, garlic powders, or other commercial garlic preparations. Only a small amount of ajoene can be found in garlic oil-macerates; however, ajoene is being developed as a drug for treatment of thromboembolic disorders. Recent findings on the identification of potent enzyme inhibiting activities of adenosine deaminase and cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase in garlic extracts are interesting, and may have a significant role in the pharmacological actions in the body. Presence of such enzyme inhibitors in garlic may perhaps explain several clinical effects in the body, including the antithrombotic, vasodilatory, and anticancer actions. Epidemiological studies have suggested that garlic plays a significant role in the reduction of deaths caused by malignant diseases. This had led many investigators to examine garlic and garlic constituents for their antitumor and cytotoxic actions both in vitro and in laboratory animals. The data from these investigations suggest that garlic contains several potentially important agents that possess antitumor and anticarcinogenic properties. In summary, the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data have proved that garlic contains many biologically and pharmacologically important compounds, which are beneficial to human health from cardiovascular, neoplastic, and several other diseases. Numerous studies are in progress all over the world to develop effective and odorless garlic preparations, as well as to isolate the active principles that may be therapeutically useful. PMID:8788216
The chemical constituent of Scolopendra negrocapitis Zhang et Wang were systematically analyzed and compared with S. subspinipes mutilans L. Koch. The results showed the lipid content was 18.7%, protein was 63.4% and total amino acid was 11.9%; S. negrocapitis contained the same twelve fat acids (the content of unsaturated fat acid was nearly 64% in its fat acids), twenty one amino acids and twelve trace elements as S. subspinipes mutilans had. The protein of S. negrocapitis showed forteen bands as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. S. negrocapitis and S. subspinipes mutilans have the same main chemical composition. The contents of compositions are different. S. negrocapitis is worth as the nature resources of medicinal centepede. PMID:12575073
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A centrifugal separator apparatus and method for improving the efficiency of the separation of constituents in a fluid stream. A cyclone separator includes an assembly for separately discharging both constituents through the same end of the separator housing. A rotary separator includes a rotary housing having a baffle disposed therein for minimizing the differential rotational velocities of the constituents in the housing, thereby decreasing turbulence, and increasing efficiency. The intensity of the centrifugal force and the time which the constituents reside within the housing can be independently controlled to improve efficiency of separation.
Maronde, Carl P. (McMurray, PA); Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)
Five different plant essential oils (Satureja hortensis, Thymus sipyleus ssp. rosulans, Thymus haussknechtii, Origanum rotundifolium (cultured form) and Origanum acutidens (wild and cultured form)) and their two major constituents carvacarol and thymol were evaluated for antibacterial activity against food-borne Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis) and Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus
Neslihan Dikbas; Recep Kotan; Fatih Dadasoglu; Kenan Karagöz; Ramazan Çakmakci
Food quality has increasingly become one of the main drivers of food choice, and attributes such as food composition are gaining importance in product quality considerations. This paper describes food quality trends observed in the international context and the manifestation of these trends within the food industry. From a consumer's perspective, improved knowledge of the composition and function of foods
The identification and characterization of benefits as a consequence of consumption of food, foodconstituents or nutrients used to be neglected in comparison to the assessment of risks because the safety of food had priority. Interest in benefit assessment is the consequence of the realisation that both adverse and positive effects on health can follow the consumption of the same
Biological materials contain a variety of individual soluble components. When cellular biological materials are immersed in osmotic solution, multicomponent mass transfer occurs, which ultimately leads to the loss of water from the food, or osmotic dehydration. Mass transfer of foodconstituents during osmotic dehydration may cause changes in food quality in terms of nutritional value, texture, color, and taste. The
The fraudulent misdescription of food contents on product labels is a widespread problem, particularly with high added-value products commanding a premium price. Proving conclusively that fraud has occurred requires the detection and quantification of foodconstituents. These are often biochemically similar to the materials they replace, making their identification and measurement extremely difficult. Despite the fact that food matrices are
KEYWORDS Mutagenic; chromosomal aberrations; monoazo dyes ABSTRACT Colour, a vital constituent of food, is indispensable to the modern day consumer as a means for the rapid identification and ultimate acceptance of food. A number of reviews concerning the toxicology of natural and synthetic dyes, especially those used in food, have appeared since the dyestuffs became potential suspects for causing cancer.
The flavedo extracts of twenty-one varieties of citrus fruits (oranges, satsumah, clementine, mandarins, tangor, bergamot, lemon, tangelos, kumquat, calamondin and pamplemousses) grown in Mauritius were examined for their total phenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C contents and antioxidant activities. Total phenolics correlated strongly with the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging activity assays (r > 0.85). Based on their antioxidant activities in these three assays nine citrus fruits namely, one orange, clementine, tangor and pamplemousse variety, two tangelo varieties and three mandarin varieties, were further characterized for their flavanone, flavonol and flavone levels by HPLC and their antioxidant activities were assessed by the copper-phenanthroline and iron chelation assays. The flavanone, hesperidin, was present at the highest concentrations in all flavedo extracts except for pamplemousses where it was not detected. Contents in hesperidin ranged from 83 ± 0.06 to 234 ± 1.73 mg/g FW. Poncirin, didymin, diosmin, isorhoifolin and narirutin were also present in all extracts whereas naringin was present only in one mandarin variety. The nine flavedo extracts exhibited good DNA protecting ability in the cuphen assay with IC?? values ranging from 6.3 ± 0.46 to 23.0 ± 0.48 mg FW/mL. Essentially the flavedos were able to chelate metal ions however, tangor was most effective with an IC?? value of 9.1 ± 0.08 mg FW/mL. The flavedo extracts of citrus fruits represent a significant source of phenolic antioxidants with potential prophylactic properties for the development of functionalfoods. PMID:20100535
... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system makes ... a serious reaction. Back Continue How Are Food Allergies Treated? There is no special medicine for food ...
... food additives have to do with man-made ingredients that are added to foods, including: Antibiotics given to food producing animals Antioxidants in oily or fatty foods Artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame, saccharine, and sodium cyclamate ...
Choose a Food Group MyPlate illustrates the five food groups that are the building blocks for a healthy diet using a ... half your grains whole. >> See Grains Group Protein Foods Go lean with protein. >> See Protein Foods Group ...
Many ant species are polydomous, forming multiple spatially segregated nests that exchange workers and brood. However, why\\u000a polydomy occurs is still uncertain. We investigated whether colonies of Crematogaster torosa form new polydomous nests to better exploit temporally stable food resources. Specifically, we tested the effect of food\\u000a presence or absence and distance on the likelihood that colonies would form a
Michele C. Lanan; Anna Dornhaus; Judith L. Bronstein
European consumers and, in particular, German consumers are known to be very critical towards the introduction of genetically modified (GM) foods. It is analyzed here whether German consumers do reject second-generation GMO foods, too. Whereas first-generation GM crops induced producer-related benefits, second-generation GM crops are associated with consumer-oriented benefits like an improvement of nutritional quality. The determinants of demand for
|The family size of the constituents of compound words, or the number of compounds sharing the constituents, has been shown to affect adults' access to compound words in the mental lexicon. The present study was designed to see if family size would affect children's segmentation of compounds. Twenty-five English-speaking children between 3;7 and…
Constituencies are de jure apportionment of space for the purpose of electing representatives of people living in the territorial limits of a democratic state. The elected representatives represent not only the people but also their respective segments of territory, the constituencies. These two — the land and the people — and the prevailing law of the country provide the basis
The study was focused on the evaluation of textural and sensory quality enhancing functionality of cassava flour in the production\\u000a of maize tuwo (a non-fermented maize-based food dumpling). The cassava flour was added to maize flour at the level of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%,\\u000a 25% and 30% (w\\/w), respectively. The bulk density and water holding capacity of maize\\/cassava flour mixes
The efficacy of long-term intake of a novel functionalfood supplement Funciona™ containing vitamins and juiced fruits was evaluated in order to assess the net effect of physical activity and antioxidant potentials in healthy older adult population. The long-term (2 years) and large-scale (400 older adult subjects) interventional study was based on both moderate-intensity exercise practice and concurrent supplementation. Sustained
Maria E. Muñoz; Ana I. Galan; Encarna Palacios; Maria A. Diez; Begoña Muguerza; Cesar Cobaleda; Jose I. Calvo; Okezie I. Aruoma; Isidro Sanchez-Garcia; Rafael Jimenez
The present modelling study aimed to evaluate if and by how much functionalfoods containing phytosterols\\/-stanols add to the benefits of statins in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in terms of cost-effectiveness. Long-term health effects, measured as quality-adjusted life-years gained, and costs for scenarios with additional phytosterol\\/-stanol use were compared to scenarios without extra use. Phytosterols\\/-stanols were given only to
Simone R. B. M. Eussen; Talitha L. Feenstra; Ido B. Toxopeus; Jeljer Hoekstra; Olaf H. Klungel; Hans Verhagen; Henk J. van Kranen; Cathy J. M. Rompelberg
The constituent quark number scaling of elliptic flow is studied in a nonequilibrium hadronization and freeze-out model with rapid dynamical transition from ideal, deconfined, and chirally symmetric quark-gluon plasma, to final noninteracting hadrons. In this transition a bag model of constituent quarks is considered, where the quarks gain constituent quark mass while the background bag field breaks up and vanishes. The constituent quarks then recombine into simplified hadron states, while chemical, thermal, and flow equilibrium break down one after the other. In this scenario the resulting temperatures and flow velocities of baryons and mesons are different. Using a simplified few source model of the elliptic flow, we are able to reproduce the constituent quark number scaling, with assumptions on the details of the nonequilibrium processes.
Zschocke, Sven [TU Dresden, Institut fuer Planetare Geodaesie, Lohrmann-Observatorium, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Horvat, Szabolcs [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 55, N-5007 Bergen (Norway); Faculty of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, Kogalniceanu str 1, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Mishustin, Igor N. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Csernai, Laszlo P. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 55, N-5007 Bergen (Norway); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); MTA-KFKI Research Institute for Particle Physics and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)
Phytochemical study on the ethanol extract of rhubarb led to the isolation of fifteen compounds, including five anthraquinones: chrysophanol (1), physcion (2), emodin (7), chrysophanol-8-O-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (9) and emodin-8-O-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (15), and ten stilbenes: desoxyrhaponticin (3), rhaponticin (4), resveratrol (5), desoxyrhapotigenin (6), rhapontigenin (8), piceatannol-3'-O-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (10), piceid (11), epsilon-viniferin (12), ampelopsin B (13) and isorhaponticin (14). Their structures were identified by comparing the physicochemical data with those of published papers. Among the isolated compounds, stilbene derivatives (3-6, 8 and 10-14) showed remarkable inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase with IC(50) values ranging from 6.7 to 74.1 microM. The inhibition kinetics analyzed by Lineweaver-Burk plots found that they were competitive inhibitors with the linoleic acid at the active site of lipoxygenase. In addition, stilbenes exhibited significantly free radical scavenging activity against ABTS(.+) with trolox equivalent activity capacity (TEAC) values ranging from 1.16 to 4.64. Whereas, anthraquinone derivatives (1-2, 7, 9 and 15) neither inhibited lipoxygenase nor scavenged free radical ABTS(.+). These results indicated that stilbene derivatives were considerate to be mainly lipoxygenase inhibitor and free radical scavenger constituents of rhubarb. PMID:18481015
As part of our systematic study of Korean toxic mushrooms, we have investigated the constituents of Amanita subjunquillea. The column chromatographic separation of the MeOH extract of A. subjunquillea led to the isolation of four ergosterols, two cerebrosides and four cyclopeptides. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods to be (22E,24R)-5alpha,8alpha-epidioxyergosta-6,9,22-triene-3beta-ol (1), (22E,24R)-5alpha,8alpha-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3beta-ol (2), (22E,24R)-5alpha,6alpha-epoxyergosta-8,22-diene-3beta,7beta-diol (3), (24S)-ergost-7-en-3beta-ol (4), 8,9-dihydrosoyacerebroside I (5), soyacerebroside I (6), beta-amanitin (7), phalloin (8), alpha-amanitin (9), and phalloidin (10). The compounds 1-6 and 8 were isolated for the first time from this mushroom. The isolated compounds were evaluated for the cytotoxicity against A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2 and HCT15 cells. Compound 9 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2 and HCT15 with ED(50) values of 1.47, 0.26, 1.57 and 1.32 microM, respectively. PMID:18481012
Kim, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sang Un; Park, Ki Moon; Seok, Soon Ja; Lee, Kang Ro
To study the chemical constituents of Dipsacus asper, chromatographic methods such as D101 macroporous resin, silica gel, octadecylsilyl (ODS) column chromatographic techniques and preparative HPLC were used, and five compounds were isolated from 70% (v/v) ethanol extract of the plant. By using spectroscopic techniques including 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and TOF-MS, the compounds were identified as 3beta-hydroxy-24-nor-urs-4 (23), 12-dien-28-oic acid (1), ursolic acid (2), oleanolic acid (3), 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnosyl(1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-rhamnosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (4), 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 4)] [alpha-L-rhamnosyl(1 --> 3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-rhamnosyl(1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin (5), separately. Among them, 1 is a new compound, and 2 is isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:24133979
From a brief discussion of forms of meteorite carbon it is concluded that almost all the carbon in the carbonaceous chondrites is present as organic matter. Attempts to extract and identify this organic matter are then reviewed. It is shown that only 25 per cent has been extracted and only about 5 per cent chemically characterized. Of this 5 per cent, most is a complex mixture of hydroxylated aromatic acids together with various hydrocarbons of the paraffin, naphthene and aromatic series. Small amounts of amino acids, sugars and fatty acids also are present. The possible chemical nature of the major fraction is discussed. It is suggested to be a mixture of high-molecular weight aromatic and hydrocarbon polymers. Possible sources of contamination of the meteorites are described and evidence indicating a general lack of organic contaminants is presented. It is concluded, that most of the organic constituents are indigenous to the meteorites and are extra terrestrial in origin. Synthetic processes for the compounds are mentioned and it is concluded that the organic material is probably of abiogenic origin. A brief review on studies of "organized elements" contained within the meteorites is presented. Difficulties of identification are discussed and photographs of some microstructures of several carbonaceous chondrites are presented. No final conclusion about the nature of these objects is possible, but some appear to be various indigenous organic and mineral structures, while others are terrestrial contaminants. PMID:11881656
Constituent-quark models formulated in the frame work of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics have been successful in accounting for the mass spectra of mesons and baryons. Applications to elastic electron scattering require relativistic dynamics. Relativistic quantum mechanics of constituent quarks can be formulated by constructing a suitable unitary representation of the Poincare group on the three-quark Hilbert space. The mass and spin operators of this representation specify the relativistic model dynamics. The dynamics of fundamental quark fields, on the other hand, is specified by a Euclidean functional integral. In this paper I show how the dynamics of the fundamental fields can be related in principle to the Hamiltonian dynamics of quark particles through the properties of the Wightman functions. 14 refs.
Introduced species can alter the topology of food webs. For instance, an introduction can aid the arrival of free-living consumers using the new species as a resource, while new parasites may also arrive with the introduced species. Food-web responses to species additions can thus be far more complex than anticipated. In a subarctic pelagic food web with free-living and parasitic species, two fish species (arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus and three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus) have known histories as deliberate introductions. The effects of these introductions on the food web were explored by comparing the current pelagic web with a heuristic reconstruction of the pre-introduction web. Extinctions caused by these introductions could not be evaluated by this approach. The introduced fish species have become important hubs in the trophic network, interacting with numerous parasites, predators and prey. In particular, five parasite species and four predatory bird species depend on the two introduced species as obligate trophic resources in the pelagic web and could therefore not have been present in the pre-introduction network. The presence of the two introduced fish species and the arrival of their associated parasites and predators increased biodiversity, mean trophic level, linkage density, and nestedness; altering both the network structure and functioning of the pelagic web. Parasites, in particular trophically transmitted species, had a prominent role in the network alterations that followed the introductions. PMID:23053223
Amundsen, Per-Arne; Lafferty, Kevin D; Knudsen, Rune; Primicerio, Raul; Kristoffersen, Roar; Klemetsen, Anders; Kuris, Armand M
|Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)|
Marine food webs influence climate by channeling carbon below the permanent pycnocline, where it can be sequestered. Because most of the organic matter exported from the euphotic zone is remineralized within the "upper ocean" (i.e., the water column above the depth of sequestration), the resulting CO2 would potentially return to the atmosphere on decadal timescales. Thus ocean-climate models must consider the cycling of carbon within and from the upper ocean down to the depth of sequestration, instead of only to the base of the euphotic zone. Climate-related changes in the upper ocean will influence the diversity and functioning of plankton functional types. In order to predict the interactions between the changing climate and the ocean's biology, relevant models must take into account the roles of functional biodiversity and pelagic ecosystem functioning in determining the biogeochemical fluxes of carbon. We propose the development of a class of models that consider the interactions, in the upper ocean, of functional types of plankton organisms (e.g., phytoplankton, heterotrophic bacteria, microzooplankton, large zooplankton, and microphagous macrozooplankton), food web processes that affect organic matter (e.g., synthesis, transformation, and remineralization), and biogeochemical carbon fluxes (e.g., photosynthesis, calcification, respiration, and deep transfer). Herein we develop a framework for this class of models, and we use it to make preliminary predictions for the upper ocean in a high-CO2 world, without and with iron fertilization. Finally, we suggest a general approach for implementing our proposed class of models.
To stimulate discussion around the topic of ‘carbohydrates’ and health, the Brazilian branch of the International Life Sciences Institute held the 11th International FunctionalFoods Workshop (1–2 December 2011) in which consolidated knowledge and recent scientific advances specific to the relationship between carbohydrates and health were presented. As part of this meeting, several key points related to dietary fiber, glycemic response, fructose, and impacts on satiety, cognition, mood, and gut microbiota were realized: 1) there is a need for global harmonization of a science-based fiber definition; 2) low-glycemic index foods can be used to modulate the postprandial glycemic response and may affect diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes; 3) carbohydrate type may influence satiety and satiation; glycemic load and glycemic index show links to memory, mood, and concentration; 4) validated biomarkers are needed to demonstrate the known prebiotic effect of carbohydrates; 5) negative effects of fructose are not evident when human data are systematically reviewed; 6) new research indicates that diet strongly influences the microbiome; and 7) there is mounting evidence that the intestinal microbiota has the ability to impact the gut–brain axis. Overall, there is much promise for development of functionalfoods that impact the microbiome and other factors relevant to health, including glycemic response (glycemic index/glycemic load), satiety, mood, cognition, and weight management.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (n = 152) in African pearl millet slurries and in the metagenomes of amylaceous fermented foods were investigated by screening 33 genes involved in probiotic and nutritional functions. All isolates belonged to six species of the genera Pediococcus and Lactobacillus, and Lactobacillus fermentum was the dominant species. We screened the isolates for the abilities to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract and to synthesize folate and riboflavin. The isolates were also tested in vitro for their abilities to survive exposure to bile salts and to survive at pH 2. Because the ability to hydrolyze starch confers an ecological advantage on LAB that grow in starchy matrixes as well as improving the nutritional properties of the gruels, we screened for genes involved in starch metabolism. The results showed that genes with the potential ability to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract were widely distributed among isolates and metagenomes, whereas in vitro tests showed that only a limited set of isolates, mainly those belonging to L. fermentum, could tolerate a low pH. In contrast, the wide distribution of genes associated with bile salt tolerance, in particular bsh, is consistent with the high frequency of tolerance to bile salts observed. Genetic screening revealed a potential for folate and riboflavin synthesis in both isolates and metagenomes, as well as high variability among genes related to starch metabolism. Genetic screening of isolates and metagenomes from fermented foods is thus a promising approach for assessing the functional potential of food microbiotas. PMID:22003019
Food adulteration is as old as the marketing of food. Discusses the work of the Ministry of Food working party on food authenticity who are working to develop tests to enable some modern food frauds being perpetrated to be detected. Comments too on recent reports on detecting fraud in fish products, emanating from the Steering Group on Chemical Aspects of
The objective of COMWEB was to develop efficient analytical, numerical and experimental methods for assessing and predicting the effects of nutrient (N, P, Si) supply on the stability and persistence of pelagic food web structure and function in coastal waters. The experimental comparative work included a geographic gradient covering Baltic, Mediterranean, and NE Atlantic waters and a NE Atlantic gradient in state of eutrophication. COMWEB has been an experimental approach to coastal eutrophication, studying effects of enhanced nutrient supply on components and flows of the entire lower pelagic food web. Flow network representations of pelagic food webs has been a framework of data reduction and flows were established by sophisticated inverse modelling. Fundamental information on physiological properties of functional key species in the pelagic food web was used to constrain flow estimations. A main conclusion derived from the flow networks was that very little energy and materials were transferred from the microbial food web to the main food chain. The lower food web could therefore be described as two parallel food chains with relatively limited interaction between heterotrophic groups. Short-term effects of nutrient perturbations were examined in mesocosms along the geographic gradient. The response was comparable in all systems, with a stronger effect on the activity and biomass of autotrophic groups than those of heterotrophic ones. Mediterranean waters showed much lower autotrophic biomass response than Baltic and NE Atlantic waters, which responded almost equally. The response of primary production was, however, more comparable. High phytoplankton lysis rate explained this low accumulation of biomass in Mediterranean waters. The study of Atlantic coastal waters of different eutrophic states revealed that the ecological response was higher in the closed nutrient perturbed mesocosms than in open systems exposed for >4 summer months (summer/autumn season). The Atlantic lagoon evolved gradually from the natural oligotrophic situation towards the more eutrophicated North Sea during fertilisation. The responses observed on seasonal and long-term scale (>10 years) may therefore be equal. The differences between short-term (weeks) and intermediate-term (seasonal) responses is most likely a result of the different time scales of perturbation and observation and the variable exchange rates with surrounding waters (water dilution rate). The analysis of pelagic flow networks provided a framework of diagnostic criteria for state and quality assessment of coastal waters. The nutrient loading rates related better to estimates of biotic fluxes than to concentrations of biotic compartments and total nutrients. On the contrary, the concentration of biotic compartments, or the biomasses, related better to total nutrient concentrations. Primary production, mesozooplankton grazing and growth, fraction of primary production consumed by grazers, bacterial production relative to primary production, cycling indices, and path lengths were all well related to nutrient loading rate. Autotrophic biomass, ratio of autotrophic to heterotrophic biomass, and fraction of pico-cyanobacteria of total autotrophic biomass were all related to total nutrients. Some of these variables, which responded equally in all systems, have the potential of becoming unified response functions in a management model for European coastal waters. COMWEB has provided further insight into the mechanisms behind coastal eutrophication. A main achievement is the conceptual framework for unified response functions, important components of management models for nutrient emission to coastal waters.
A highly selective flow injection sorption system was developed for the fast determination of total iron in food samples. Iron (III) was reduced to iron (II) by ascorbic acid and preconcentrated on a mini-column packed with polyurethane foam (PUF) functionalized with N,N-bis(salicylidene)-1,3-propanediamine (SPDA). The retained Fe (II) was eluted with hydrochloric acid and subsequently reacted to 2,4,6-tri(2'-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPTZ) then measured at 593 nm. The procedure has resulted preconcentration factor 36, sample frequency 20 h(-1) and detection limit 18 ?g L(-1). The precision (RSD) was found to be 5.7% and 3.1% at concentration levels 0.1 and 5.0 ?g mL(-1) iron (II), respectively. Finally, the method was successfully applied to determination of total iron in reference material and food samples. PMID:23411293
Abdel-Azeem, S M; Bader, N R; Kuss, H M; El-Shahat, M F
Functionalfoods have become an increasingly popular alternative to prevent diseases and maintain body health status. Gui-ling-gao (GLG, also known as turtle jelly) is a well-known traditional functionalfood popular in Southern China and Hong Kong. This study aimed to investigate the antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects of GLG, a traditional Chinese functionalfood, on preventing oxidative stress-induced injury in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. In this study, the antioxidative capacities of GLG were measured by using both a cell-free assay [2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl assay] and biological methods [2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)-induced haemolysis assay and H(2)O(2)-induced cell damage on H9c2 cardiomyocytes]. Additionally, the total phenolic content was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Furthermore, the anti-apoptotic effect of GLG was evaluated by nuclear staining and a DNA fragmentation assay. GLG was found to have good antioxidant activities and high total phenolic content. In H(2)O(2)-induced cell damage on H9c2 cells, GLG was demonstrated to ameliorate the apoptotic effects, such as nuclear condensations, increased intracellular caspase-3 activity and inter-nucleosomal DNA cleavage, induced by H(2)O(2). The present study demonstrated for the first time that GLG possesses anti-apoptotic potential in vitro and this effect may be mediated, in part, by its antioxidative function. Additionally, the antioxidative capacities of GLG were proved both chemically and biologically. This study provides scientific evidence to prove the anecdotal health-beneficial claim that the consumption of GLG could help the body to handle endogenous toxicants such as free radicals. PMID:23467630
We show how scattering equivalences can be used to simplify current operators in constituent quark models . Starting with a relativistic constituent quark model that fits the meson mass spectrum, we construct a new model with a different confining interaction that has the identical mass spectrum and the additional property that it can reproduce the measured pion form factor using a point-like constituent quark impulse current. Both the original and transformed models are relativistic direct-interaction models with a light-front kinematic subgroup. The method can be applied to a large class of relativistic models. [1.] Evan Sengbusch and W. N. Polyzou, Pointlike constituent quarks and scattering equivalences, nucl-th/0406042
...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Definitions Â§ 930.16 Sales constituency. Sales...
This manual describes the Graphical Constituent Loading Analysis System (GCLAS), an interactive cross-platform program for computing the mass (load) and average concentration of a constituent that is transported in stream water over a period of time. GCLAS computes loads as a function of an equal-interval streamflow time series and an equal- or unequal-interval time series of constituent concentrations. The constituent-concentration time series may be composed of measured concentrations or a combination of measured and estimated concentrations. GCLAS is not intended for use in situations where concentration data (or an appropriate surrogate) are collected infrequently or where an appreciable amount of the concentration values are censored. It is assumed that the constituent-concentration time series used by GCLAS adequately represents the true time-varying concentration. Commonly, measured constituent concentrations are collected at a frequency that is less than ideal (from a load-computation standpoint), so estimated concentrations must be inserted in the time series to better approximate the expected chemograph. GCLAS provides tools to facilitate estimation and entry of instantaneous concentrations for that purpose. Water-quality samples collected for load computation frequently are collected in a single vertical or at single point in a stream cross section. Several factors, some of which may vary as a function of time and (or) streamflow, can affect whether the sample concentrations are representative of the mean concentration in the cross section. GCLAS provides tools to aid the analyst in assessing whether concentrations in samples collected in a single vertical or at single point in a stream cross section exhibit systematic bias with respect to the mean concentrations. In cases where bias is evident, the analyst can construct coefficient relations in GCLAS to reduce or eliminate the observed bias. GCLAS can export load and concentration data in formats suitable for entry into the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System. GCLAS can also import and export data in formats that are compatible with various commonly used spreadsheet and statistics programs.
Koltun, G. F.; Eberle, Michael; Gray, J. R.; Glysson, G. D.
... Shell Egg Producer Registration; Reportable Food Registry for Industry; Acidified and Low-Acid Canned Foods. -. -. Items of Interest. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/industry
Text Version... radiation to food) is a technology that improves the safety and extends the ... Sterilized foods are useful in hospitals for patients with severely impaired ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling
Text Version... FDA guidance for the food industry states that food allergen advisory statements, eg, “may contain [allergen]” or “produced in a facility that also uses ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling
The technical objectives of this project are: To: (1) define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and (2) characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail. To elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes (involving basic principles of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics) by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur. To develop, based on the information required in a. and b. above, a tractable process'' model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the nature and distribution of products.
Helble, J.J.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States))
The technical objectives of this project are to: Define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and to characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail; elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes (involving basic principles of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics) by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur; and develop, based on the information required above, a tractable process'' model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the nature and distribution of products.
Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States))
The Department of Energy (DOE) has several facilities that either generate and/or store transuranic (TRU)-waste from weapons program research and production. Much of this waste also contains hazardous waste constituents as regulated under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Toxicity characteristic metals in the waste principally include lead, occurring in leaded rubber gloves and shielding. Other RCRA metals may occur as contaminants in pyrochemical salt, soil, debris, and sludge and solidified liquids, as well as in equipment resulting from decontamination and decommissioning activities. Volatile organic compounds (VOCS) contaminate many waste forms as a residue adsorbed on surfaces or occur in sludge and solidified liquids. Due to the presence of these hazardous constituents, applicable disposal regulations include land disposal restrictions established by Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA). The DOE plans to dispose of TRU-mixed waste from the weapons program in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) by demonstrating no-migration of hazardous constituents. This paper documents the current technical basis for methodologies proposed to develop a post-closure RCRA hazardous constituent source term. For the purposes of demonstrating no-migration, the hazardous constituent source term is defined as the quantities of hazardous constituents that are available for transport after repository closure. Development of the source term is only one of several activities that will be involved in the no-migration demonstration. The demonstration will also include uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of contaminant transport.
The clinical expression of food hypersensitivity or food allergy is usually the end-result of a series of complex interactions among ingested food antigens, the digestive tract, tissue mast cells and circulating basophils, and food antigen-specific IgE. In some well-defined, food-induced diseases, such as gluten-induced enteropathy, additional immunologic mechanisms are involved. An understanding of the nature of antigens in foods capable
Four anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) were used for hydrogen fermentation and fed with food waste (4.4±0.2% volatile solids (VS) containing 27g carbohydrate-COD\\/L). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of solids retention time (SRT) in the range 24–160h and hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the range 24–42h. Achieving high SRT independent of HRT with internal sludge
Observed stock changes in perturbed ecosystems sometimes, but not always, are smaller than predicted by the trophic cascade hypothesis. These varying outcomes can be explained by (1) using detailed analysis of trophic-level interactions within the standard energy-based linear food-chain model, or (2) invoking web models and\\/or non-energy interactions between organisms. Previously I developed an analytic approach for the linear chain
Several hypotheses have been developed to explain what benefits a donor may gain from sharing food with another individual, with nutritional gain assumed to be the sole benefit for the beggar. Recently, it has been proposed that begging behaviour serves a social function in non-human primates. In this study, the nutritional-gain assumption was again challenged based on observations on a captive group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana), or golden snub-nosed monkeys. The major findings from this study are that (1) beggars sometimes left their own branches or passed by available branches to beg for similar food from other individuals, (2) beggars occasionally ignored branches that were acquired by begging and (3) food begging occurred more frequently in the all-male unit after the social rank had changed between 2 individuals in this unit. Overall, these preliminary findings suggest that some begging behaviours in captive golden snub-nosed monkeys were not driven by nutritional gain only; instead, we propose that these begging behaviours could be interpreted as attempts at deriving social benefits. PMID:21212680
An analytical study was carried out on the presence of antioxidant constituents and the in vitro antioxidant capacity in the extracts of three species of Spanish red-skinned cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia undulata and Opuntia stricta). The cactus pear fruit extracts were analyzed for determined constituents: ascorbic acid, flavonoids (quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, kaempferol and luteolin), betalains, taurine, total carotenoids and total phenolics. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by means of two different methods: the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical method. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extract had the strongest antioxidant capacity and taurine content. O. stricta fruits were the richest in ascorbic acid and total phenolics, whereas O. undulata fruits showed the highest carotenoid content. Quercetin and isorhamnetin were the main flavonoids detected. This study provides basic information on the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in extracts of cactus pear fruits, in order to consider these extracts as ingredient for the production of health-promoting food. PMID:20811778
Fernández-López, José A; Almela, Luís; Obón, José M; Castellar, Rosario
Runoff quantity and quality data from four urban basins in south Florida were analyzed to determine the entrainment of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total carbon, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, and total lead within the stormwater runoff. Land use of the homogeneously developed basins are residential (single family), highway, commercial, and apartment (multifamily). A computational procedure was used to calculate, for all storms that had water-quality data, the percentage of constituent load entrainment in specified depths of runoff. The plot of percentage of constituent load entrained as a function of runoff is termed the percentage-entrainment curve. Percentage-entrainment curves were developed for three different source areas of basin runoff: (1) the hydraulically effective impervious area, (2) the contributing area, and (3) the drainage area. With basin runoff expressed in inches over the contributing area, the depth of runoff required to remove 90 percent of the constituent load ranged from about 0.4 inch to about 1.4 inches; and to remove 80 percent, from about 0.3 to 0.9 inch. Analysis of variance, using depth of runoff from the contributing area as the response variable, showed that the factor 'basin' is statistically significant, but that the factor 'constituent' is not statistically significant in the forming of the percentage-entrainment curve. Evidently the sewerage design, whether elongated or concise in plan dictates the shape of the percentage-entrainment curve. The percentage-entrainment curves for all constituents were averaged for each basin and plotted against basin runoff for three source areas of runoff-the hydraulically effective impervious area, the contributing area, and the drainage area. The relative positions of the three curves are directly related to the relative sizes of the three source areas considered. One general percentage-entrainment curve based on runoff from the contributing area was formed by averaging across both constituents and basins. Its coordinates are: 0.25 inch of runoff for 50-percent entrainment, 0.65 inch of runoff for 80-percent entrainment, and 0.95 inch of runoff for 90-percent entrainment. The general percentage-entrainment curve based on runoff from the hydraulically effective impervious area has runoff values of 0.35, 0.95, 1.6 inches, respectively.
In today's food system, farm workers face difficult and hazardous conditions, low-income neighborhoods lack supermarkets but abound in fast-food restaurants and liquor stores, food products emphasize convenience rather than wholesomeness, and the international reach of American fast-food franchises has been a major contributor to an epidemic of \\
Age-related cognitive decline (ARCD) and dementia are of increasing concern to an ageing population. In recent years, there has been considerable research focused on effective dietary interventions that may prevent or ameliorate ARCD and dementia. While a number of studies have considered the impact that dairy products may have on physiological health, particularly with regard to the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular health, further research is currently needed in order to establish the impact that dairy products have in the promotion of healthy brain function during ageing. The present review considers the available evidence for the positive effects of dairy products on the metabolic syndrome and glucose regulation, with consideration of the implications for neurocognitive health. A literature search of current (September 2010) meta-analyses/reviews and original research regarding dairy products and cognition was conducted through SCOPUS using the following search terms for dairy consituents: dairy, milk, cheese, yoghurt, probiotics, whey protein, alpha lactalbumin, calcium, B-12, bioactive peptides and colostrinin (CLN). These search terms for dairy products were combined with the following search terms related to cognition and health: cognition, cognitive decline, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, insulin resistance and glucose regulation. Concerns regarding SFA and other fatty acids found in dairy products are also reviewed in relation to different forms of dairy products. The review also considers recent evidence for positive neurocognitive effects associated with bioactive peptides, CLN and proline-rich polypeptides, ?-lactalbumin, vitamin B12, calcium and probiotics. Future directions for the extraction and purification of beneficial constituents are also discussed. It is concluded that low-fat dairy products, when consumed regularly as part of a balanced diet, may have a number of beneficial outcomes for neurocognitive health during ageing. PMID:21338538
Camfield, David A; Owen, Lauren; Scholey, Andrew B; Pipingas, Andrew; Stough, Con
The numbers of marketing claims and food, beverage, and drug products claiming to increase mental energy have risen rapidly, thus increasing the need for scientific specificity in marketing and food label claims. Mental energy is a three-dimensional construct consisting of mood (transient feelings about the presence of fatigue or energy), motivation (determination and enthusiasm), and cognition (sustained attention and vigilance). The present review focuses on four dietary constituents/supplements (Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, glucose, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) to illustrate the current state of the literature on dietary constituents and mental energy. The strongest evidence suggests effects of Ginkgo biloba on certain aspects of mood and on attention in healthy subjects, as well as associations between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and reduced risk of age-related cognitive decline. Limitations of the current data and challenges for future research are discussed. PMID:21091914
Gorby, Heather E; Brownawell, Amy M; Falk, Michael C
Sunset yellow FCF (SY), a permitted food color, is extensively used in various food preparations and quite often exceeds the permissible levels (100-200 mg/kg). Several toxicity studies on SY are reported, however immunomodulatory properties have not been explored yet. To investigate the immunotoxic properties of SY, splenocytes were isolated, cultured and subjected to mitogen stimulated proliferation assay (lipopolysaccharide, LPS or concanavalin A, Con A), mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assay, immunophenotypic analysis of cell surface receptor expression and assay for cytokines release in the culture supernatants were performed in the presence of SY. Since SY did not exhibit any cytotoxicity up to 250 ?g/ml, this dose was used for further studies. It was observed that SY (250 ?g/ml) significantly (p<0.05) suppressed the mitogen induced proliferation of splenocytes and MLR response. Further, immunophenotypic analysis revealed that SY alters the relative expression of CD3e/CD4/CD8 in T cells and CD19 in B-cells. Consistent with the suppression of T-cell and B-cell responses and altered surface receptor expression, SY also lowered the expression of IL2, IL4, IL6, IL-17, IFN-? and TNF-? cytokines. These results suggest that non-cytotoxic dose of SY may have immunomodulatory effects. PMID:23287708
Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food\\u000a proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies,\\u000a implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young\\u000a children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in
This lesson, supported by the provided power point lecture (LESSON 1 and 2 Ecology Lecture Supplement ), introduces students to the concepts of food chains and food webs. Through its use, students learn the difference between producers and consumers and study how these organisms function within their communities to interact in various food chains. Multiple food chains link together to form intricate and balanced food webs. Focus continues to rest on the Sonoran Desert. At the conclusion of this lesson, students are asked to construct a food web using endemic desert species.
This work presented a new analytical methodology based on hydrophilic interaction ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry in multiple-reaction monitoring mode for analysis of 24 underivatized free amino acids (FAAs) in functionalfoods. The proposed method was first reported and validated by assessing the matrix effects, linearity, limit of detections and limit of quantifications, precision, repeatability, stability and recovery of all target compounds, and it was used to determine the nutritional substances of FAAs in ginkgo seeds and further elucidate the nutritional value of this functionalfood. The result showed that ginkgo seed turned out to be a good source of FAAs with high levels of several essential FAAs and to have a good nutritional value. Furthermore, the principal component analysis was performed to classify the ginkgo seed samples on the basis of 24 FAAs. As a result, the samples could be mainly clustered into three groups, which were similar to areas classification. Overall, the presented method would be useful for the investigation of amino acids in edible plants and agricultural products. PMID:23361945
Radishes cut to look like roses, watermelons carved into fruit baskets, apples made into swans, cakes frosted to look like dolls—when did this game of food masquerade start and how? This essay speculates about food's on-going history of disguise, of pretending to be what it's not. From the Renaissance courtier's delight in confections disguised as beasts, birds, and other fancies to our present day fascination with Japanese bento lunch boxes, food masquerade would seem to be a fanciful part of the history of food.Food masquerade injects some levity into our growing seriousness about food, our suspicion that most supermarket food is riddled with toxins and bad karma. It proposes that eating food should be fun. Food masquerade also gets to the very heart of artistic visual representation: the magical transformation of paint, clay or wood into an image of something else. It is a synecdoche for art itself. PMID:21539044
Recently, research on natural antioxidants has become increasingly active in various fields. Ac- cordingly, numerous articles on natural antioxidants, including polyphenols, flavonoids, vitamins, and volatile chemicals, have been published. Assays developed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of plants and foodconstituents vary. Therefore, to investigate the antioxidant activity of chemical(s), choosing an adequate assay based on the chemical(s) of interest
The effects of sucrose on the physical properties and thermal stability of foams prepared from 10% (w/v) protein solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI), egg white protein (EWP), and their combinations (WPI/EWP) were investigated in wet foams and angel food cakes. Incorporation of 12.8 (w/v) sucrose increased EWP foam stability (drainage 1/2 life) but had little effect on the stability of WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Increased stability was not due to viscosity alone. Sucrose increased interfacial elasticity (E ') of EWP and decreased E' of WPI and WPI/EWP combinations, suggesting that altered interfacial properties increased stability in EWP foams. Although 25% WPI/75% EWP cakes had similar volumes as EWP cakes, cakes containing WPI had larger air cells. Changes during heating showed that EWP foams had network formation starting at 45 degrees C, which was not observed in WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Moreover, in batters, which are foams with additional sugar and flour, a stable foam network was observed from 25 to 85 degrees C for batters made from EWP foams. Batters containing WPI or WPI/EWP mixtures showed signs of destabilization starting at 25 degrees C. These results show that sucrose greatly improved the stability of wet EWP foams and that EWP foams form network structures that remain stable during heating. In contrast, sucrose had minimal effects on stability of WPI and WPI/EWP wet foams, and batters containing these foams showed destabilization prior to heating. Therefore, destabilization processes occurring in the wet foams and during baking account for differences in angel food cake quality. PMID:19646042
Food allergies affect up to 6% of young children and 3%-4% of adults. They encompass a range of disorders that may be IgE and/or non-IgE mediated, including anaphylaxis, pollen food syndrome, food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, food-induced proctocolitis, eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and atopic dermatitis. Many complex host factors and properties of foods are involved in the development of food allergy. With recent advances in the understanding of how these factors interact, the development of several novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies is underway and showing promise. PMID:21364287
We investigate the relaxation dynamics of melanin model constituents including monomers, dimers, and tetramers, upon excitation, using state-of-the-art, time-dependent, density functional theory calculations. The results explain the ability of these molecules to transform photon energy into thermal energy in a remarkably short timescale of ?100 fs. We find that after electronic excitation by light absorption, ultrafast energy conversion takes place through two novel mechanisms: proton transfer on a timescale of 110 fs and state mixing upon oligomerization on a timescale of <50 fs. These results are in good agreement with available experiments and help elucidate melanin's role in photoprotection against ultraviolet radiation.
Multiple stable isotope analyses were used to examine the trophic shifts at faunal assemblages within the invading macroalga Caulerpa racemosa in comparison to established communities of Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows. Sampling of macrobenthic invertebrates and their potential food sources of algal mats and seagrass meadows in Mallorca (NW Mediterranean) showed differences in species composition of faunal and primary producers among seagrass and C. racemosa. Accordingly, changes in food web structure and trophic guilds were observed, not only at species level but also at community level. The carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures of herbivores, detritivores and deposit feeders confirmed that the seagrass provided a small contribution to the macrofaunal organisms. ? 13C at the P. oceanica seagrass and at the C. racemosa assemblages differed, ranging from -6.19 to -21.20‰ and -2.67 to -31.41‰, respectively. ? 15N at the Caulerpa mats was lower (ranging from 2.64 to 10.45‰) than that at the seagrass meadows (3.51-12. 94‰). Significant differences in isotopic signatures and trophic level among trophic guilds at P. oceanica and C. racemosa were found. N fractionation at trophic guild level considerable differed between seagrass and macroalgae mats, especially for detritivores, deposit feeders, and herbivores. Filter feeders slightly differed with a relatively lower N signal at the seagrass and CR values at community level and at trophic guild level were higher in the C. racemosa invaded habitats indicating an increase in diversity of basal resource pools. C. racemosa did seem to broaden the niche diversity of the P. oceanica meadows it colonised at the base of the food web, may be due to the establishment of a new basal resource. The extent of the effects of invasive species on ecosystem functioning is a fundamental issue in conservation ecology. The observed changes in invertebrate and macrophytic composition, stable isotope signatures of concomitant species and consequent trophic guild and niche breadth shifts at invaded Caulerpa beds increase our understanding of the seagrass systems.
Deudero, S.; Box, A.; Alós, J.; Arroyo, N. L.; Marbà, N.
We show how to account approximately for the soft fluctuating gluon, and quark (anti-quark) fields, present in hadrons. Summing tree diagrams we get lower bounds on the virtualities of the hard constituents, which translate themselves into the upper bound...
Two known coloring constituents, methyl 4,4'-dimethoxyvulpinate (1) and 4,4'-dimethoxyvulpinic acid (2) have been isolated from the fruit body of fungus Scleroderma sinnamariense Mont. The methanolic extract, its fractions and compound (2) showed moderate activity to inhibit the growth of some pathogenic testing microbes used. PMID:21485274
A brief and biased overview of the status of the constituent quark model is presented. We concentrate on open issues and goals of hadronic phenomenology, rather than specific physics conundrums in the field. Modern attempts at addressing these issues are also presented.
Different languages sound different, and considerable part of it derives from the typological difference of prosody. Although such difference is often referred to as lexical accent types (stress accent, pitch accent, and tone; e.g. English, Japanese, and Chinese respectively) and rhythm types (stress-, syllable-, and mora-timed rhythms; e.g. English, Spanish, and Japanese respectively), it is unclear whether these types are determined in terms of acoustic properties, The thesis intends to provide a potential basis for the description of prosody in terms of acoustics. It argues for the hypothesis that the source component of the source-filter model (acoustic features) approximately corresponds to prosody (linguistic features) through several experimental-phonetic studies. The study consists of four parts. (1) Preliminary experiment: Perceptual language identification tests were performed using English and Japanese speech samples whose frequency spectral information (i.e. non-source component) is heavily reduced. The results indicated that humans can discriminate languages with such signals. (2) Discussion on the linguistic information that the source component contains: This part constitutes the foundation of the argument of the thesis. Perception tests of consonants with the source signal indicated that the source component carries the information on broad categories of phonemes that contributes to the creation of rhythm. (3) Acoustic analysis: The speech samples of Chinese, English, Japanese, and Spanish, differing in prosodic types, were analyzed. These languages showed difference in acoustic characteristics of the source component. (4) Perceptual experiment: A language identification test for the above four languages was performed using the source signal with its acoustic features parameterized. It revealed that humans can discriminate prosodic types solely with the source features and that the discrimination is easier as acoustic information increases. The series of studies showed the correspondence of the source component to prosodic features. In linguistics, prosodic types have not been discussed purely in terms of acoustics; they are usually related to the function of prosody or phonological units such as phonemes. The present thesis focuses on acoustics and makes a contribution to establishing the crosslinguistic description system of prosody.
Text Version... longevity. • Sterilization – irradiation can be used to sterilize foods, which can then be stored for years without refrigeration. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/resourcesforyou
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Text Version... In today's world, we're all being more cautious as we go about our daily routines. ... Carefully examine all food product packaging. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/fooddefense
d-Psicose (Psi) might be an ideal sucrose (Suc) substitute for food products due to its sweet taste, easy processing, and functional properties (noncaloric and low glycemic response). In the present study, the effects of Psi on foaming properties of egg white (EW) protein and the quality of butter cookies were analyzed to find a better use of Psi in aerated food systems. The results showed that Psi could improve the foaming properties of EW protein with increasing whipping time in comparison to Suc and d-fructose (Fru). The addition of Psi to butter cookies, as partial replacement of Suc, had no influence on the cook loss while significantly contributing to a color change of the cookie crust through a nonenzymatic browning reaction. Furthermore, Psi-containing cookies possessed the highest antioxidant capacity in all tested cookies using two assays of radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power. It was found that there was a close correlation between the crust color and the antioxidant activity of the cookie. The results suggest that the addition of Psi enhanced the browning reaction during cookie processing and, consequently, produced a strong antioxidant activity. PMID:18517216
Sun, Yuanxia; Hayakawa, Shigeru; Ogawa, Masahiro; Fukada, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken
Tartrazine and carmoisine are an organic azo dyes widely used in food products, drugs and cosmetics. The present study conducted to evaluate the toxic effect of these coloring food additives; on renal, hepatic function, lipid profile, blood glucose, body-weight gain and biomarkers of oxidative stress in tissue. Tartrazine and carmoisine were administered orally in two doses, one low and the other high dose for 30 days followed by serum and tissue sample collection for determination of ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose in serum and estimation of GSH, catalase, SOD and MDA in liver tissue in male albino rat. Our data showed a significant increase in ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine total protein and albumin in serum of rats dosed with tartrazine and carmoisine compared to control rats and these significant change were more apparent in high doses than low, GSH, SOD and Catalase were decreased and MDA increased in tissue homogenate in rats consumed high tartrazine and both doses of carmoisine. We concluded that tartrazine and carmoisine affect adversely and alter biochemical markers in vital organs e.g. liver and kidney not only at higher doses but also at low doses. PMID:20678534
In the present study, we aimed to investigate the neuromodulatory role played by hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the regulation of acute cardiovascular and feeding responses to melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) activation. In vitro, a selective MC4R agonist, MK1, stimulated BDNF release from isolated rat hypothalami and this effect was blocked by preincubation with the MC3/4R antagonist SHU-9119. In vivo, peripheral administration of MK1 decreased food intake in rats and this effect was blocked by pretreatment with an anti-BDNF antibody administered into the third ventricle. When anorexia was induced with the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) antagonist AM251, the anti-BDNF antibody did not prevent the reduction in food intake. Peripheral administration of MK1 also increased mean arterial pressure, heart rate and body temperature. These effects were prevented by pretreatment with the anti-BDNF antibody whereas the intracerebroventricular administration of BDNF caused changes similar to those of MK1. These findings demonstrate for the first time that activation of MC4R leads to an acute release of BDNF in the hypothalamus. This release is a prerequisite for MC4R-induced effects on appetite, body temperature and cardiovascular function. By contrast, CB1R antagonist-mediated anorexia is independent of the MC4R/BDNF pathway. Overall, these results show that BDNF is an important downstream mediator of the MC4R pathway. PMID:18001327
Nicholson, J R; Peter, J-C; Lecourt, A-C; Barde, Y-A; Hofbauer, K G
Astronauts face numerous health challenges during long-duration space missions, including diminished immunity, bone loss and increased risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Changes in the intestinal flora of astronauts may contribute to these problems. Soy-based fermented food products could provide a nutritional strategy to help alleviate these challenges by incorporating beneficial lactic acid bacteria, while reaping the benefits of soy isoflavones. We carried out strain selection for the development of soy ferments, selecting strains of lactic acid bacteria showing the most effective growth and fermentation ability in soy milk ( Streptococcus thermophilus ST5, Bifidobacterium longum R0175 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052). Immunomodulatory bioactivity of selected ferments was assessed using an in vitro challenge system with human intestinal epithelial and macrophage cell lines, and selected ferments show the ability to down-regulate production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 following challenge with tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The impact of fermentation on vitamin B1 and B6 levels and on isoflavone biotransformation to agluconic forms was also assessed, with strain variation-dependent biotransformation ability detected. Overall this suggests that probiotic bacteria can be successfully utilized to develop soy-based fermented products targeted against health problems associated with long-term space travel.
Buckley, Nicole D.; Champagne, Claude P.; Masotti, Adriana I.; Wagar, Lisa E.; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Green-Johnson, Julia M.
Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized:(1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack;(2) to even out seasonal supplies;(3) to improve their eating quality;(4) to improve their nutritional value.The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives.
|The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A,…
Fried foods may taste good, but they can have terrible effects on your body if you eat too many of them. Someone who has bulimia would be likely to binge eat these fried foods. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted binge eats and then purges, or gets rid of, all of the food they just ate.
With the increasing use of a large variety of chemicals, opportunities for contamination of food are becoming greater. Food may be involved following some accidental occurrence or from more general environmental contamination. Three examples are given: an outbreak of paralysis in Morocco involved 10,000 people who had ingested food adulterated with triorthocresyl phosphate; an epidemic of jaundice in London followed
Endocannabinoids have a variety of effects by acting through cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors located throughout the brain. However, since CB1 receptors are located presynaptically, and because the strength of downstream coupling varies with brain region, expression studies alone do not provide a firm basis for interpreting sites of action. Likewise, to date most functional studies have used high doses of
G. T. Dodd; J. A. Stark; S. Mckie; S. R. Williams; S. M. Luckman
In this paper we apply an improved functional mathematical index (FMI), modified from those presented in previous publications, to define the influence of different cooking processes of eight sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars on composition of six bioactive phenolic compounds (flavonoids). Th...
|Describes children's conceptions of the structure and function of the human digestive system based on an investigation carried out with children aged 4-10 (n=45). Finds that children possess biological knowledge as an independent knowledge domain from the age of four. Discusses acquisition of and barriers to scientific concepts related to human…
A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data.
Species of the genus of Cistanche (Rou Cong Rong in Chinese) are perennial parasite herbs, and are mainly distributed in arid lands and warm deserts. As a superior tonic for the treatment of kidney deficiency, impotence, female infertility, morbid leucorrhea, profuse metrorrhagia and senile constipation, Cistanche herbs earned the honor of "Ginseng of the desert". Recently, there has been increasing scientific attention on Herba Cistanche for its remarkable bioactivities including antioxidation, neuroprotection, and anti-aging. The chemical constituents of Cistanche plants mainly include volatile oils and non-volatile phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs), iridoids, lignans, alditols, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Pharmacological studies show that PhGs are the main active components for curing kidney deficiency, antioxidation and neuroprotection; galactitol and oligosaccharides are the representatives for the treatment of senile constipation, while polysaccharides are responsible for improving body immunity. In this paper, the advances on the chemical constituents of Cistanche plants and their corresponding analyses are reviewed. PMID:18691718
The chemical constituents of Chinese red ginseng (Panax ginseng) were investigated. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by silca gel, ODS, and Sephedex LH-20, column chromatography, and preparative HPLC. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectra data. Fourteen compounds were isolated and identified as: notoginsenoside R2 (1), 20(S) -ginsenoside Rg3 (2), 20(R) -ginsenoside Rg3 (3), 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg2 (4), 20(R) -ginsenosideRg2 (5), 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rh1 (6), 20(R) -ginsenoside Rh1 (7), ginsenoside Rh4 (8), -Ro (9), -Rb1 (10), -Rg1 (11), Re-(12), Rf (13), maltol (14). Compounds 1, 4, 6, were obtained from red ginseng for the first time. Compounds 2 and 3, 4 and 5-7 were enantiomers respectively, enantiomers 6 and 7 were isolated as monomer for the first time. PMID:21598542
Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. The three major types of tea, green tea, oolong tea, and black tea, differ in terms of the manufacture and chemical composition. There are numerous studies in humans, animal models, and cell lines to suggest potential health benefits from the consumption of tea, including prevention of cancer and heart diseases. Many of the health benefits have been attributed to the polyphenolic constituents in tea. Catechins and their dimers (theaflavins) and polymers (thearubigins) have been identified as the major components in tea. Methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation, and ring-fission metabolism represent the major metabolic pathways for tea catechins. The present review summarizes the data concerning the chemistry and biotransformation of tea constituents. PMID:21371557
Sang, Shengmin; Lambert, Joshua D; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yang, Chung S
We reconsider the Constituent Chiral Quark Model of Manohar and Georgi in the presence of S U ( 3 × S U ( 3 external sources. As recently emphasized by Weinberg, the corresponding effective Lagrangian is renormalizable in the large- N limit. We show, however, that the number of the required counterterms depends crucially on the value of g and it is minimized for g = 1 . We then find that with a rather small value for the constituent quark mass, which we fix phenomenologically to M = ( 190 ± 40 ) MeV , the model reproduces rather well the values of several well-known low-energy constants. We also comment on the limitations of the model as well as on a few exceptional applications, to more complicated low-energy observables, where one can expect the model to make reasonably good predictions.
Western-trained researchers and clinicians can better understand herbal medicine if they master at least a basic set of essential concepts used by herbal practitioners to describe how herbs work. Constituents, such as carotenoids and flavonoids, can all be used to develop a basis for imputed herb actions. Tissue affinity is also an important concept shared by all herb traditions, which can enhance clinical results and illuminate traditional herbal use. PMID:22432461
We explore further the idea that the lattice QCD data for hadron properties in the region m[^2][_pi] > 0.2GeV^2 can be described by the constituent quark model. This leads to a natural explanation of the fact that nucleon excited states are generally stable for pion masses greater than their physical excitation energies. Finally, we apply these same ideas to the problem of how pentaquarks might behave in lattice QCD, with interesting conclusions.
Corrosion is a primary degradation mechanism that affects the durability and integrity of structures made of aluminum alloys, and it is a concern for commercial transport and military aircraft. In aluminum alloys, corrosion results from local galvanic coupling between constituent particles and the metal matrix. Due to variability in particle sizes, spatial location, and chemical composition, to name a few critical variables, corrosion is a complex stochastic process. Severe pitting is caused by particle clusters that are located near the material surface, which, in turn, serve as nucleation sites for subsequent corrosion fatigue crack growth. These evolution processes are highly dependent on the spatial statistics of particles. The localized corrosion growth rate is primarily dependent on the galvanic process perpetuated by particle-to-particle interactions and electrochemical potentials. Frequently, severe pits are millimeters in length, and these pits have a dominant impact on the structural prognosis. To accommodate large sizes, a model for three-dimensional (3-D) constituent particle microstructure is proposed. To describe the constituent particle microstructure in three dimensions, the model employs a fusion of classic stereological techniques, spatial point pattern analyses, and qualitative observations. The methodology can be carried out using standard optical microscopy and image analysis techniques.
Corrosion is a primary degradation mechanism that affects the durability and integrity of structures made of aluminum alloys, and it is a concern for commercial transport and military aircraft. In aluminum alloys, corrosion results from local galvanic coupling between constituent particles and the metal matrix. Due to variability in particle sizes, spatial location, and chemical composition, to name a few critical variables, corrosion is a complex stochastic process. Severe pitting is caused by particle clusters that are located near the material surface, which, in turn, serve as nucleation sites for subsequent corrosion fatigue crack growth. These evolution processes are highly dependent on the spatial statistics of particles. The localized corrosion growth rate is primarily dependent on the galvanic process perpetuated by particle-to-particle interactions and electrochemical potentials. Frequently, severe pits are millimeters in length, and these pits have a dominant impact on the structural prognosis. To accommodate large sizes, a model for three-dimensional (3-D) constituent particle microstructure is proposed. To describe the constituent particle microstructure in three dimensions, the model employs a fusion of classic stereological techniques, spatial point pattern analyses, and qualitative observations. The methodology can be carried out using standard optical microscopy and image analysis techniques.
A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring trace amounts of constituents in samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence under ambient conditions. The laser induced fluorescence is performed at a selected wavelength corresponding to an absorption state of a selected trace constituent. The intensity value of the emission decay signal which is generated by the trace constituent is compared to calibrated emission intensity decay values to determine the amount of trace constituent present.
Snyder, Stuart C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jeffery, Charles L. (Blackfoot, ID)
It has recently been established that the extracellular matrix is required for normal functional differentiation of mammary epithelia not only in culture, but also in vivo. The mechanisms by which extracellular matrix affects differentiation, as well as the nature of extracellular matrix constituents which have major impacts on mammary gland function, have only now begun to be dissected. The intricate variety of extracellular matrix-mediated events and the remarkable degree of plasticity of extracellular matrix structure and composition at virtually all times during ontogeny, make such studies difficult. Similarly, during carcinogenesis, the extracellular matrix undergoes gross alterations, the consequences of which are not yet precisely understood. Nevertheless, an increasing amount of data suggests that the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-receptors might participate in the control of most, if not all, of the successive stages of breast tumors, from appearance to progression and metastasis.
Sea quark densities in the nucleon, based on the constituent quark model are analyzed. To model the asymmetry of these densities, the meson cloud or alternatively chiral quark model (?QM) is used. Valence quark densities of the meson which are required to extract the sea quark densities in the constituent quarks are obtained using the phenomenological valon model. In addition to the standard perturbative QCD approach which uses the /lineMS scheme with a physical choice of renormalization scale, the calculations are also performed using the complete RG-improvement (CORGI) approach. To avoid a physically unacceptable Q2 behavior of the sea densities inside the constituent quarks, we assume that the free parameter which exists in the vertex function of the boson-quark splitting function, is Q2-dependent. Using the unsymmetrized sea densities of the nucleon which result from convoluting the constituent density in a nucleon with the quark density in the constituent quark, the Gottfried sum rule (GSR) is calculated using the standard perturbative and CORGI approaches. The CORGI result is closer to the reported experimental value for the GSR. The extracted sea and valence quark density in a nucleon, using ?QM and also the CORGI approach, have been compared with available experimental data and what was obtained, based on ?QM in the standard approach. This comparison confirms the anticipated better agreement of the CORGI approach with the data.
Keshavarzian, K.; Mirjalili, A.; Yazdanpanah, M. M.
This study offers a longitudinal analytic model designed to tap the degree to which members of the U.S. House of Representatives are responsive to constituency opinion in a dynamic sense. This, after all, is what constituency electoral control means: Regular elections are supposed to assure ongoing constituency control and force the representative to change his or her policy making behavior
The ultimate aim of activities and interventions aimed at guaranteeing food security is to arrive at a healthy and well-nourished\\u000a population that can take on, to the maximum of its capacities, the development of its own community, area or country. In these\\u000a efforts, agriculture, in its role as food producer, plays a crucial role. (Sufficient quality) food should be available
Food melanoidins were isolated from bread crust, coffee, and tomato sauce and their composition was investigated by thermal degradation. Among the generated volatiles, important food flavor compounds were detected: in particular furans, carbonyl compounds, 1,3-dioxolanes, pyrroles, pyrazines, pyridines, thiophenes, and phenols. The results indicated that the isolated melanoidin fractions mainly consisted of compounds formed from carbohydrates and their degradation products. Besides proteins, other foodconstituents were incorporated in the melanoidin structure as well, such as lipid oxidation products in tomato melanoidins and phenolic compounds in coffee melanoidins. A comparison of the thermal generation of volatiles between these food-derived melanoidins and model melanoidins prepared from a single carbonyl compound and an amino acid showed that the degradation pattern of food melanoidins is quite different from that obtained from a glucose-glycine model system. PMID:15884851
Adams, An; Borrelli, Rosa Cinzia; Fogliano, Vincenzo; De Kimpe, Norbert
Disjunction between market surpluses of food and worldwide nutritional shortfalls appears to be symptomatic of underlying vulnerabilities, raising questions about the sustainability of agricultural production.
Eukaryotic organisms as well as some prokaryotes and viruses contain sphingolipids, which are defined by a common structural feature, i.e. , a "sphingoid base" backbone such as D-erythro-1,3-dihydroxy, 2-aminooctadec-4-ene (sphingosine). The sphingolipids of mammalian tissues, lipoproteins, and milk include ceramides, sphingomyelins, cerebrosides, gangliosides and sulfatides; plants, fungi and yeast have mainly cerebrosides and phosphoinositides. The total amounts of sphingolipids in food vary considerably, from a few micromoles per kilogram (fruits) to several millimoles per kilogram in rich sources such as dairy products, eggs and soybeans. With the use of the limited data available, per capita sphingolipid consumption in the United States can be estimated to be on the order of 150-180 mmol (approximately 115-140 g) per year, or 0.3-0.4 g/d. There is no known nutritional requirement for sphingolipids; nonetheless, they are hydrolyzed throughout the gastrointestinal tract to the same categories of metabolites (ceramides and sphingoid bases) that are used by cells to regulate growth, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular functions. Studies with experimental animals have shown that feeding sphingolipids inhibits colon carcinogenesis, reduces serum LDL cholesterol and elevates HDL, suggesting that sphingolipids represent a "functional" constituent of food. Sphingolipid metabolism can also be modified by constituents of the diet, such as cholesterol, fatty acids and mycotoxins (fumonisins), with consequences for cell regulation and disease. Additional associations among diet, sphingolipids and health are certain to emerge as more is learned about these compounds. PMID:10395583
Vesper, H; Schmelz, E M; Nikolova-Karakashian, M N; Dillehay, D L; Lynch, D V; Merrill, A H
Objectives of this project are: (1) define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and (2) characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail; elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur; and develop, based on the information required in a. and b. above, a tractable process'' model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the nature and distribution of products. The work discussed highlights recent accomplishments in modeling synthetic char particle combustion times and temperatures with allowance for oxygen dissociation in the char boundary layer; in developing a continuum model for residual ash information and char fragmentation, permitting a more detailed time-resolved study of ash coalescence within a burning char particle; and in continuing development of the engineering model for ash particle formation. 40 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.
Boni, A.A.; Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (USA)); Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA)); Huffman, G.P.; Huggins, F.E. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (USA))
The technical objectives of this project are: a. To: (1) define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and (2) characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail. b. To elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes (involving basic principles of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics) by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur. (c) To develop, based on the information required in a. and b. above, a tractable process model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the nature and distribution of products. This report summarizes work accomplished during the seventeenth quarter of this project. The work discussed herein highlights: the recent completion of vaporization modeling at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.), and the summarization of ash vaporization results from coals and synthetic chars; at PSI Technology Company (PSIT), in examining the stickiness of pure montmorillonite as a model clay compound; and also at PSIT, in applying the Engineering Model for ash particle size and composition to Kentucky No. 11 combustion results. 21 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.
Boni, A.A.; Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (USA)); Graham, K.A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))
The technical objectives of this project are: (a) To: (1) define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and (2) to characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail; (b) To elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes (involving basic principles of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics) by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur; and (c) To develop, based on the information required in a. and b. above, a tractable process model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the distribution and nature of products. This report represents work accomplished in the eighth quarter of performance on the contract. The authors specifically highlight work accomplished; at PSI Technology Company (PSIT) on (1) transformation of minerals during pure mineral and synthetic char experiments, (2) mineral transformations, size and composition distributions from selected program coals during combustion, and (3) kinetic descriptions of alkali transformations in coal combustion systems; at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology on modeling the distribution of minerals in pulverized coal size fractions; and at the University of Kentucky, on determining the composition of individual ash particles using newly developed software and computer controlled SEM. Individual progress reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.
Boni, A.A.; Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (USA)); Huffman, G.P. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (USA)); Sarofim, A.F. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))
Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defense as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds' mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods. PMID:22291693
Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Meyer, Rikke Louise
In spite of the importance of feces in scent marking and intraspecific chemical communication of many mammals, only a few studies have examined the chemical constituents of feces that could have a signaling function. We described here the chemicals found in feces recently deposited in the wild by adult and pup Iberian wolves (Canis lupus signatus). By means of analyses
We have used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopies to investigate potential aging mechanisms in filled RTV polysiloxane foams, diatomaceous earth, and their other constituents. Intense, broad EPR resonances in the RTV foams were recorded at room temperature as a function of microwave power. These signals were shown to come from the diatomaceous earth filler (Celite® 350) in
M. W. Blair; R. E. Muenchausen; R. D. Taylor; A. Labouriau; D. W. Cooke; T. S. Stephens
Weight Loss Food Choices The Best Food Choices Plan Your Meals Portion Distortion How Many Calories Do I Need? Tips ... Enroll today. Home > Food and Fitness > Fitness > Weight Loss > Food Choices > The Best Food Choices The Best Food ...
Certain foods lead may to allergic responses in certain individuals. \\u000aMain allergenic foods are Crustacea (shrimp, lobster, crab), egg, fish,\\u000amilk, peanuts, soybeans, tree nuts, and wheat, and allergens are always\\u000aproteins. A wide array of symptoms can result from food allergy\\u000a(gastrointestinal, skin, respiratory). Severe and life threatening\\u000asituations can occur. The prevalence is about 2% of the population;
Our approach considers the model as a possible bridge between QCD and the experimental data and examines its predictions to see where these succeed and where they fail. We also attempt to improve the model by looking for additional simple assumptions which give better fits to the experimental data. But we avoid complicated models with too many ad hoc assumptions and too many free parameters; these can fit everything but teach us nothing. We define our constituent quark model by analogy with the constituent electron model of the atom and the constituent nucleon model of the nucleus. In the same way that an atom is assumed to consist only of constituent electrons and a central Coulomb field and a nucleus is assumed to consist only of constituent nucleons hadrons are assumed to consist only of their constituent valence quarks with no bag, no glue, no ocean, nor other constituents. Although these constituent models are oversimplified and neglect other constituents we push them as far as we can. Atomic physics has photons and vacuum polarization as well as constituent electrons, but the constituent model is adequate for calculating most features of the spectrum when finer details like the Lamb shift are neglected. 54 references.
The prospect of sustainable production of food ingredients from photoautotrophic microalgae was reviewed. Clearly, there is scope for microalgal oils to replace functions of major vegetable oils, and in addition to deliver health benefits to food products. Furthermore, with a limited production surface, a substantial portion of the European Union market could be supplied with edible oils and proteins from microalgae. Yet, before microalgal ingredients can become genuinely sustainable and cost effective alternatives for current food commodities, major breakthroughs in production technology and in biorefinery approaches are required. Moreover, before market introduction, evidence on safety of novel microalgal ingredients, is needed. In general, we conclude that microalgae have a great potential as a sustainable feedstock for food commodities. PMID:23084075
Draaisma, René B; Wijffels, René H; Slegers, P M Ellen; Brentner, Laura B; Roy, Adip; Barbosa, Maria J
Every clinician is asked "What should I feed my pet?" Understanding the ingredients in pet food is an important part of making the best recommendation. Pet food can be as simple as one ingredient or as complicated as containing more than 60 ingredients. Pet food and its ingredients are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and state feed officials. Part of that regulation is the review and definition of ingredients. Existing ingredients change and new ingredients become available so the need for ingredient definitions grows. Ingredients for product formulations are chosen based on their nutrient content, digestibility, palatability, functionality, availability, and cost. As an example, a typical, nutritionally complete dry dog food with 42 ingredients is examined and the ingredients are discussed here. Safe, healthy pet food starts with safe ingredients sourced from well-monitored suppliers. The ultimate goal of both veterinarians and pet food manufacturers is the same--long healthy lives for dogs and cats. PMID:18656839
The only organic constituent ever reported on Mars is methane gas in the atmosphere. No organics -- indigenous or extraplanetary -- have ever been positively identified in the surface. The reported ``detection'' of methane is tantalizing, but tentative . If confirmed, it would have important implications for extinct or extant life on Mars. Although life as we know it produces methane -- 90-95% of the methane in Earth's atmosphere is ultimately derived from biological processes -- the presence of methane at Mars does not necessarily imply existence of life, now or in the past. A precise knowledge of related trace constituents and stable isotopes in the atmosphere and solid samples, together with the geochemical and geologic data for determining preservation potential of the environment is essential to satisfactorily address the question of habitability of Mars. In this talk, we will review the current status of methane, related trace constituents and relevant isotopes, surface and atmospheric oxidants, and provide a brief summary of specific measurements planned by the Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation  on Mars Science Laboratory that are anticipated to make significant contribution to an understanding of habitability of Mars. Relevant publications may be downloaded from www.umich.edu/˜atreya. References:  S. K. Atreya, O. Witasse, V. F. Chevrier, F. Forget, P. R. Mahaffy, B. Price, C. R. Webster, R. W. Zurek, Methane on Mars: Current Observations, Interpretation, and Future Plans. Planet. Space Science, 59, 133-136, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2010.10.008.  P. R. Mahaffy et al., The Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation and Instrument Suite on Mars Science Laboratory. Space Science Reviews, in press, 2012.
The incidence of food allergy appears to be increasing, as is our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, treatment options, identifying, and characterizing allergenic proteins within food sources. The aim of this book is to translate how this vast array of information may fit into development o...
“Organic” or “organically grown” foods are commonly represented as “food grown without pesticides; grown without artificial fertilizers; grown in soil whose humus content is increased by the additions of organic matter; grown in soil whose mineral content is increased with applications of natural mineral fertilizers; which has not been treated with preservatives, hormones, antibiotics, etc.” The substitution of “organic” for
... dehydration may have made you weak and tired. Don't use anti-diarrheal medications. Drugs intended to treat diarrhea, ... are cooked to a safe temperature is to use a food thermometer. You can kill harmful organisms in most foods by cooking them to the right temperature. ...
This research paper investigated foodservice operators' food terrorism risk perception and the perceptional gap between importance and performance of food terrorism preventive measures. Cluster analysis was performed using 35 gap scores. T-tests and chi-square tests were performed to compare clusters and address research questions. The largest discrepancy between importance and practice was found for practices related to communication. Smaller incongruities
We investigated the constituents of Veronicastrum villosulum (Miquel) Yamazaki (Scrophulariaceae), an endangered species belonging to the IA group. From the aerial parts of this plant cultivated at the\\u000a botanical garden of Sojo University, we isolated two new cucurbitacine-type glycosides, 3-O-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-[?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)]-?-d-glucopyranosides of 3?,25-dihydroxycucurbit-5,23(E)-diene-7-one-25-methyl ether and 3?,23-dihydroxycucurbit-5,24-diene-7-one-23-methyl ether.
The glycosidic constituents of whole plants of Anoectochilus formosanus propagated by tissue culture were investigated. A new compound, 2-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxymethyl)-5-hydroxymethylfuran, along with the known compounds, 3-(R)-3-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxybutanolide (kinsenoside), 3-(R)-3-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxybutanoic acid, 1-O-isopropyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, (R)-(+)-3,4-dihydroxy-butanoic acid y-lactone, 4-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)benzyl alcohol, (6R,9S)-9-hydroxy-megastigma-4,7-dien-3-one-9-O-beta-glucopy ranoside, and corchoionoside C were isolated. PMID:11086921
Gynura divaricata Kitam. subsp. formosana is a folk medicine used as a hypoglycemic agent for diabetes patients in Taiwan. Guided by the hexose transport assay, the hypoglycemic constituents of the aerial part of this plant were disclosed through chromatographic methods. They are fructooligosaccharides, including beta-D-fructofuranose, sucrose, 1-kestose, nystose, and 1(F)-beta-fructofuranosylnystose. The hexose transport assay indicated that nystose was the most potent among these compounds, showing a 46.7% difference from pinitol in the stimulation index at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. PMID:22474963
Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT) is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF). The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread.
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT) is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF). The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread. PMID:21995616
Chemical constituents of the bark of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) was investigated not only to develop further bark utilization but also to understand the biochemical function of the bark in the forest environment. A new phenylpropanoid-substituted catechin, namely, swietemacrophyllanin [(2R*,3S*,7"R*)-catechin-8,7"-7,2"-epoxy-(methyl 4",5"-dihydroxyphenylpropanoate)] (1) was isolated from the bark of S. macrophylla together with two known compounds, catechin (2) and epicatechin (3). The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic data and by comparison of the NMR data with those of catiguanins A and B, phenylpropanoid-substituted epicatechins. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of the isolated compounds indicated that all of the three compounds have strong activity compared with trolox as a reference. Swietemacrophyllanin (1) had the strongest activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 56 microg mL(-1). PMID:19266907
Although certain commonalities exist between eating and drug use (mood effects, external cue-control of appetites, reinforcement, etc.), it is argued that the vast majority of cases of (self-reported) food craving and food “addiction” should not be viewed as addictive behavior. An explanation is proposed that instead gives a prominent role to the psychological processes of ambivalence and attribution, operating together
Lactacin F is a two-component class II bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus johnsonii VPI 11088. The laf operon is composed of the bacteriocin structural genes, lafA and lafX, and a third open reading frame, ORFZ. Two strategies were employed to study the function of ORFZ. This gene was disrupted in the chromosome of NCK64, a lafA729 lafX ORFZ derivative of VPI 11088. A disruption cassette consisting of ORFZ interrupted with a cat gene was cloned into pSA3 and introduced into NCK64. Manipulation of growth temperatures and antibiotic selection resulted in homologous recombination which disrupted the chromosomal copy of ORFZ with the cat gene. This ORFZ mutation resulted in loss of immunity to lactacin F but had little effect on production of LafX, which is not bactericidal without LafA. Expression of ORFZ in this ORFZ- background rescued the immune phenotype. Expression of ORFZ in a bacteriocin-sensitive derivative of VPI 11088 also reestablished immunity. These data indicate that ORFZ, renamed lafI, encodes the immunity factor for the lactacin F system. The sensitivity of various Lactobacillus strains to lactacin F was further evaluated. Lactacin F inhibited 11 strains including several members of the A1, A2, A3, A4, B1, and B2 L. acidophilus homology groups. Expression of lafI in bacteriocin-sensitive strains L. acidophilus ATCC 4356, L. acidophilus NCFM/N2, L. fermentum NCDO1750, L. gasseri ATCC 33323, and L. johnsonii ATCC 33200 provided immunity to lactacin F. Furthermore, it was shown that lactacin F production by VPI 11088 could be used to select for L. fermentum NCDO1750 transformants containing the recombinant plasmid encoding LafI. The data demonstrate that lafI is functional in heterologous hosts, suggesting that it may be a suitable food-grade genetic marker for use in lactobacillus species.
Background. Despite recognition that weight loss is a problem in elderly persons with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), increasing their food intake remains a challenge. To effectively enhance intake, interventions must work with individuals' changing needs and intake patterns. Previously, the authors reported greater food consumption at breakfast, a high-carbohydrate meal, compared with dinner, and shifts toward carbohydrate preference at dinner
Karen W. H. Young; Carol E. Greenwood; Robert van Reekum; Malcolm A. Binns