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Isolation and analysis of bioactive constituents of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed kernel: an emerging functional food.  


A plant-based diet reduces the risk for the development of several chronic diseases, such as ischemic heart disease or cancer due to natural compounds found in plants. Numerous cereals, berries, fruits, and vegetables, including sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), which is a favored fruit worldwide, contain biological active components. The antioxidant components of the sour cherry seed kernel have not been investigated until now. The aim of our study was to isolate and analyze the bioactive constituents of sour cherry seed kernel. We separated the oil fraction of the kernel; then the remaining solid fraction was dried, and the oil-free kernel extract was further analyzed. Our results show that sour cherry seed kernel oil contains vegetable oils including unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acids, alpha-tocopherol, tocotrienols, and tocopherol-like components. The components of the solid fraction include various bioactive structures such as polyphenols, flavonoids, vegetable acids, and pro- and anthocyanidins, which could have useful therapeutic effects in the prevention of various vascular diseases. PMID:20482278

Bak, Istvan; Lekli, Istvan; Juhasz, Bela; Varga, Edit; Varga, Balazs; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Szendrei, Levente; Tosaki, Arpad



Foods and food constituents that affect the brain and human behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Until recently, it was generally believed that brain function was usually independent of day-to-day metabolic changes associated with consumption of food. Although it was acknowledged that peripheral metabolic changes associated with hunger or satiety might affect brain function, other effects of foods on the brain were considered unlikely. However, in 1971, Fernstrom and Wurtman discovered that under certain conditions, the protein-to-carbohydrate ratio of a meal could affect the concentration of a particular brain neurotransmitter. That neurotransmitter, serotonin, participates in the regulation of a variety of central nervous system (CNS) functions including sleep, pain sensitivity, aggression, and patterns of nutrient selection. The activity of other neurotransmitter systems has also been shown to be, under certain conditions, affected by dietary constituents which are given either as ordinary foods or in purified form. For example, the CNS turnover of two catecholamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine, can be altered by ingestion of their amino acid precursor, tyrosine, when neurons that release these monoamines are firing frequently. Similarly, lecithin, a dietary source of choline, and choline itself have been shown to increase the synthesis of acetylcholine when cholinergic neurons are very active. It is possible that other neurotransmitters could also be affected by precursor availability or other, as yet undiscovered peripheral factors governed by food consumption. The effects of food on neurotransmitters and behavior are discussed.

Lieberman, Harris R.; Wurtman, Richard J.



Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne


Functional Foods for Women's Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

Lindeman, Alice K.



Bioactive natural constituents from food sources-potential use in hypertension prevention and treatment.  


Prevention and management of hypertension are the major public health challenges worldwide. Uncontrolled high blood pressure may lead to a shortened life expectancy and a higher morbidity due to a high risk of cardiovascular complications such as coronary heart disease (which leads to heart attack) and stroke, congestive heart failure, heart rhythm irregularities, and kidney failure etc. In recent years, it has been recognized that many dietary constituents may contribute to human cardiovascular health. There has been an increased focus on identifying these natural components of foods, describing their physiological activities and mechanisms of actions. Grain, vegetables, fruits, milk, cheese, meat, chicken, egg, fish, soybean, tea, wine, mushrooms, and lactic acid bacteria are various food sources with potential antihypertensive effects. Their main bioactive constituents include angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides, vitamins C and E, flavonoids, flavanols, cathecins, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, polyphenols, tannins, resveratrol, polysaccharides, fiber, saponin, sterols, as well as K, Ca, and P. They may reduce blood pressure by different mechanisms, such as ACE inhibition effect, antioxidant, vasodilatory, opiate-like, Ca(2+) channel blocking, and chymase inhibitory activities. These functional foods may provide new therapeutic applications for hypertension prevention and treatment, and contribute to a healthy cardiovascular population. The present review summarizes the antihypertensive food sources and their bioactive constituents, as well as physiological mechanisms of dietary products, especially focusing on ACE inhibitory activity. PMID:23627503

Huang, Wu-Yang; Davidge, Sandra T; Wu, Jianping



Development of Functional Foods  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in intestinal microbiota research are the background for the appearance of functional foods. Lactic fermentation products are included in the functional foods and classified into 3 groups based on their mechanisms of action: probiotics, prebiotics and biogenics. Probiotics are viable microorganisms, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, that beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal bacterial balance. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients, such as oligosaccharides and dietary fiber, that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activities of beneficial intestinal bacteria in the colon and thus improve the health of the hosts. Biogenics are biologically active peptides, including immunopotentiators (biological response modifier: BRM), plant flavonoids, etc. They act directly or indirectly through modulation of intestinal microbiota on the health of the hosts. Thus, functional foods enhance bioregulation such as stresses, appetite and absorption; biodefence, such as immunity and suppression of allergies; prevent diseases, including diarrhea, constipation, cancer, cholesterolemia and diabetes; and suppress aging through immunostimulation as well as suppression of mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, oxidation processes, intestinal putrefaction, and cholesterolemia. PMID:25032085

MITSUOKA, Tomotari



Exercise and functional foods  

PubMed Central

Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects, and some of them are considered to be useful for promoting exercise performance or for prevention of injury. However, these foods should only be used when there is clear scientific evidence and with understanding of the physiological changes caused by exercise. This article describes various "functional foods" that have been reported to be effective for improving exercise performance or health promotion, along with the relevant physiological changes that occur during exercise. PMID:16749944

Aoi, Wataru; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu



Effect of PEF on Enzymes and Food Constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Food quality is of key importance in food preservation, even more in the context of novel technologies. The search for alternative\\u000a methods to preserve foods is driven by the trends in consumption patterns. Consumers nowadays demand healthier, fresher, and\\u000a more natural foods, with high sensory and nutritional qualities, and at the same time with the highest degree of safety. Pulsed

Pilar Mafias; Antonio Vercet


Phytoalexin-Enriched Functional Foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Functional foods have been a developing area of food science research for the last decade. Many foods are derived from plants that naturally contain compounds beneficial to human health and can often prevent certain diseases. Plant containing phytochemicals with potent anticancer and antioxidant a...


HUMAN NUTRITION -FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition -Functional Foods  

E-print Network

HUMAN NUTRITION - FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition - Functional Foods Poäng: 5.0 Betygskala grupparbeten. Litteratur: Garrow, J.S.; James, W.P.T.: Human nutrition and dietetics, 9th ed, Churchill Livingstone eller Whitney, E.S., Rolfes, S.R.: Understanding nutrition, 8th ed, 1999, West Publishing Company


Exercise and functional foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects,

Wataru Aoi; Yuji Naito; Toshikazu Yoshikawa



Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.  


Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability for probiotic effect, two major options are currently pursued for improving it--to enhance bacterial stress response and to use alternative products for incorporating probiotics (e.g., ice cream, cheeses, cereals, fruit juices, vegetables, and soy beans). Further, it seems that quorum sensing signal molecules released by probiotics may interact with human epithelial cells from intestine thus modulating several physiological functions. Under optimal processing conditions, functional microorganisms contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. Overproduction of free amino acids and vitamins are two classical examples. Besides, bioactive compounds (e.g., peptides, ?-amino butyric acid, and conjugated linoleic acid) may be released during food processing above the physiological threshold and they may exert various in vivo health benefits. Functional microorganisms are even more used in novel strategies for decreasing phenomenon of food intolerance (e.g., gluten intolerance) and allergy. By a critical approach, this review will aim at showing the potential of functional microorganisms for the quality of functional foods. PMID:20830633

Gobbetti, M; Cagno, R Di; De Angelis, M



[Food allergy, food intolerance or functional disorder?].  


The term "food allergy" is widely misused for all sorts of symptoms and diseases caused by food. Food allergy (FA) is an adverse reaction to food (food hypersensitivity) occurring in susceptible individuals, which is mediated by a classical immune mechanism specific for the food itself. The best established mechanism in FA is due to the presence of IgE antibodies against the offending food. Food intolerance (FI) are all non-immune-mediated adverse reactions to food. The subgroups of FI are enzymatic (e.g. lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency), pharmacological (reactions against biogenic amines, histamine intolerance), and undefined food intolerance (e.g. against some food additives). The diagnosis of an IgE-mediated FA is made by a carefully taken case history, supported by the demonstration of an IgE sensitization either by skin prick tests or by in vitro tests, and confirmed by positive oral provocation. For scientific purposes the only accepted test for the confirmation of FA/FI is a properly performed double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). A panel of recombinant allergens, produced as single allergenic molecules, may in future improve the diagnosis of IgE-mediated FA. Due to a lack of causal treatment possibilities, the elimination of the culprit "food allergen" from the diet is the only therapeutic option for patients with real food allergy. PMID:19340768

Wüthrich, B



Promises and Problems of Functional Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functionalfoods are branded foods, which claim, explicitly or implicitly, to improve health or well being. We review typical functional foods and their ingredients, efficacy, and safety. We also review regulations for health claims for foods worldwide. These regulations often allow manufacturers to imply that a food promotes health without providing proper scientific evidence. At the same time, regulations may




Modifying Bitterness in Functional Food Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional foods sector represents a significant and growing portion of the food industry, yet formulation of these products often involves the use of ingredients that elicit less than desirable oral sensations, including bitterness. Promising new functional ingredients, including polyphenolics, may be more widely and readily employed in the creation of novel functional foods if their aversive bitter taste can

Nicole J. Gaudette; Gary J. Pickering



[Search for biofunctional constituents from medicinal foods-elucidation of constituents with anti-proliferation effects and the target molecule from Citrullus colocynthis].  


Many foods are known to have not only nutritive and taste values but also medicinal effects. In Egypt, many medicinal foods have been used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases since ancient. However, in most cases, their effective constituents as well as the mechanism of action remained uncharacterized. In the course of our characterization studies on Egyptian medicinal foods and plants, cucurbitane-type triterpene and related compounds such as cucurbitacin E from the fruit of Citrullus colocynthis and the roots of Bryonia cretica were found to show anti-proliferation effects. We therefore synthesized a biotin-linked cucurbitacin E to isolate target proteins based on affinity for the molecule. As a result, cofilin, which regulates the depolymerization of actin, was isolated and suggested to be a target. PMID:23023425

Nakamura, Seikou



Anthocyanins as Functional Food Colors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthocyanins, a proanthocyanidin-type of flavonoid, contain an abundance of functional phytochemicals and occur in fruits such as cranberry, blueberry, orange, apple and in vegetables such as tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, and radishes. Functional and essential diets have been ingested in daily life since the primitive era of history. When anthocyanins are coupled with some water-soluble sugar molecules, their color becomes red, yellow, violet, or blue. It is very intriguing that anthocyanins provide the colorful variety of pigments for pansies, petunias, plums, and other diverse flowers. Chlorophyll in various fruits and vegetables is the main green phyto-component, while anthocyanins are probably the most important visible plant pigments in the natural kingdom having specific colors. Anthocyanins have been clinically used in many folklore medicines worldwide. Anthocyanins could provide health benefits for age-related diseases as well as other diseases. Anthocyanins have higher antioxidant capacity against oxidative stress induced by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and thus the human body might be protected from oxidative injury by anthocyanins. On the basis of these facts, we review the synthesis of plant flavonoids and their ability to scavenge oxidants, inhibit or activate enzymes, and the safety of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins present in common foods.

Motohashi, Noboru; Sakagami, Hiroshi



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The three-dimensional structure of a protein defines how it functions in foods. Processing treatments such as heat, pH, salt or shear and subsequent storage conditions can cause denaturation and even unfolding of the food protein. Subtle changes in protein structure may affect its functionality in f...


Genomics for food functionality and palatability.  


In the 1980s, Japan proposed the terminology of 'functional food' and its concept [1], and since then the importance of conducting basic and applied studies on food functionality has been emphasized globally. Functional foods in particular as well as common foods in general are constituted with a variety of components including functional factors, and it has been recognized as difficult to evaluate their functionalities by usual chemical, biochemical and physiological methodologies [2]. Against this backdrop, nutrigenomics came into being as a new method of evaluating functional foods, as well as nutrients, in a holistic manner. Meanwhile the endowed chair, Functional Food Genomics, was established at the University of Tokyo with the aegis of 32 food companies in Japan. This academia-industry collaboration has been working well to disclose why and how some particular functional foods elicit their effects in the body. These include soy protein isolate, cocoa polyphenol, sesamin as a lignan of sesame origin, and many others. On the other hand, food safety has been gaining public attention, and we applied genomics for assessment of the wholesomeness of newly developed hypoallergenic wheat flour compared with normal flour. The application of this way of holistic evaluation suggested that the new product was basically the same as the normal product in terms of all-gene expression profiles. The same method was applied to a new sweet protein, neoculin, which resembled toxic lectins in conformation. The result indicated that neoculin had lost its lectin activity, possessing no particular toxic effect. It is thus likely that genomics can be applied to a variety of foods in general for the purpose of simultaneously assessing their functionality. PMID:19367106

Abe, Keiko



Food protective effects of the active constituent isolated from Ostericum praeteritum against the stored food mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae.  


The acaricidal effects of the active constituent isolated from Ostericum praeteritum oil and its derivatives were compared with that of benzyl benzoate using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against Tyrophagus putrescentiae mites. The active compound of O. praeteritum was isolated by various chromatographic techniques and was identified as 3-methylphenol (C7H8O). On the basis of 50 % lethal dose values, 3-methylphenol (1.42 ?g/cm(2)) was determined to be 9.18 times more effective than benzyl benzoate (13.04 ?g/cm(2)), followed by 6-fluoro-3-methylphenol (2.18 ?g/cm(2)), 4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol (2.53 ?g/ cm(2)), and 6-chloro-3-methylphenol (4.03 ?g/cm(2)), against Tyrophagus putrescentiae mites in the fumigant bioassay. In the contact toxicity bioassay, 3-methylphenol (1.03 ?g/cm(2)) was the most-toxic compound against T. putrescentiae mites, followed by 6-fluoro-3-methylphenol (2.09 ?g/cm(2)), 4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol (2.11 ?g/cm(2)), 6-chloro-3-methylphenol (3.78 ?g/cm(2)), and benzyl benzoate (10.33 ?g/cm(2)). These results indicate that the introduction of chloro, isopropyl, and fluoro functional groups to the 3-methylphenol skeleton increased the acaricidal activity. Therefore, 3-methylphenol and its derivatives could potentially be used as natural acaricides against T. purescentiae. PMID:24215692

Kim, Min-Gi; Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon



Functional foods and the biomedicalisation of everyday life: a case of germinated brown rice.  


Germinated brown rice (GBR) is a functional food, whose benefits for chronic diseases have been demonstrated by scientific research on a single constituent of GBR, gamma aminobutyric acid. This article examines the processes through which the emphasis on biomedical rationality made during the production and consumption of functional foods is embedded in the complicated social contexts of the post-1990s. In the case of GBR, the Korean government, food scientists, mass media and consumers have added cultural accounts to the biomedical understanding of foods. In particular, consumers have transformed their households and online communities into a place for surveillance medicine. Functional foods are embedded in multiple actors' perspectives on what healthy foods mean and how and where the risks of chronic diseases should be managed. PMID:23116161

Kim, Hyomin



[Multiple emulsions; bioactive compounds and functional foods].  


The continued appearance of scientific evidence about the role of diet and/or its components in health and wellness, has favored the emergence of functional foods which currently constitute one of the chief factors driving the development of new products. The application of multiple emulsions opens new possibilities in the design and development of functional foods. Multiple emulsions can be used as an intermediate product (food ingredient) into technological strategies normally used in the optimization of the presence of bioactive compounds in healthy and functional foods. This paper presents a summary of the types, characteristics and formation of multiple emulsions, possible location of bioactive compounds and their potential application in the design and preparation of healthy and functional foods. Such applications are manifested particularly relevant in relation to quantitative and qualitative aspects of lipid material (reduced fat/calories and optimization of fatty acid profile), encapsulation of bioactive compounds mainly hydrophilic and sodium reduction. This strategy offers interesting possibilities regarding masking flavours and improving sensory characteristics of foods. PMID:24160194

Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco



Ginseng leaf-stem: bioactive constituents and pharmacological functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginseng root is used more often than other parts such as leaf stem although extracts from ginseng leaf-stem also contain similar active ingredients with pharmacological functions. Ginseng's leaf-stems are more readily available at a lower cost than its root. This article reviews the pharmacological effects of ginseng leaf-stem on some diseases and adverse effects due to excessive consumption. Ginseng leaf-stem

Hongwei Wang; Dacheng Peng; Jingtian Xie



Anthocyanins as Functional Food Colors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthocyanins, a proanthocyanidin-type of flavonoid, contain an abundance of functional phytochemicals\\u000a and occur in fruits such as cranberry, blueberry, orange, apple and in vegetables such as tomato, sweet\\u000a pepper, spinach, and radishes. Functional and essential diets have been ingested in daily life since the\\u000a primitive era of history. When anthocyanins are coupled with some water-soluble sugar molecules, their\\u000a color becomes

Noboru Motohashi; Hiroshi Sakagami



Ginseng leaf-stem: bioactive constituents and pharmacological functions  

PubMed Central

Ginseng root is used more often than other parts such as leaf stem although extracts from ginseng leaf-stem also contain similar active ingredients with pharmacological functions. Ginseng's leaf-stems are more readily available at a lower cost than its root. This article reviews the pharmacological effects of ginseng leaf-stem on some diseases and adverse effects due to excessive consumption. Ginseng leaf-stem extract contains numerous active ingredients, such as ginsenosides, polysaccharides, triterpenoids, flavonoids, volatile oils, polyacetylenic alcohols, peptides, amino acids and fatty acids. The extract contains larger amounts of the same active ingredients than the root. These active ingredients produce multifaceted pharmacological effects on the central nervous system, as well as on the cardiovascular, reproductive and metabolic systems. Ginseng leaf-stem extract also has anti-fatigue, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-obesity, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-aging properties. In normal use, ginseng leaf-stem extract is quite safe; adverse effects occur only when it is over dosed or is of poor quality. Extracts from ginseng root and leaf-stem have similar multifaceted pharmacological activities (for example central nervous and cardiovascular systems). In terms of costs and source availability, however, ginseng leaf-stem has advantages over its root. Further research will facilitate a wider use of ginseng leaf-stem. PMID:19849852

Wang, Hongwei; Peng, Dacheng; Xie, Jingtian



Functional metagenomics to decipher food-microbe-host crosstalk.  


The recent developments of metagenomics permit an extremely high-resolution molecular scan of the intestinal microbiota giving new insights and opening perspectives for clinical applications. Beyond the unprecedented vision of the intestinal microbiota given by large-scale quantitative metagenomics studies, such as the EU MetaHIT project, functional metagenomics tools allow the exploration of fine interactions between food constituents, microbiota and host, leading to the identification of signals and intimate mechanisms of crosstalk, especially between bacteria and human cells. Cloning of large genome fragments, either from complex intestinal communities or from selected bacteria, allows the screening of these biological resources for bioactivity towards complex plant polymers or functional food such as prebiotics. This permitted identification of novel carbohydrate-active enzyme families involved in dietary fibre and host glycan breakdown, and highlighted unsuspected bacterial players at the top of the intestinal microbial food chain. Similarly, exposure of fractions from genomic and metagenomic clones onto human cells engineered with reporter systems to track modulation of immune response, cell proliferation or cell metabolism has allowed the identification of bioactive clones modulating key cell signalling pathways or the induction of specific genes. This opens the possibility to decipher mechanisms by which commensal bacteria or candidate probiotics can modulate the activity of cells in the intestinal epithelium or even in distal organs such as the liver, adipose tissue or the brain. Hence, in spite of our inability to culture many of the dominant microbes of the human intestine, functional metagenomics open a new window for the exploration of food-microbe-host crosstalk. PMID:25417646

Larraufie, Pierre; de Wouters, Tomas; Potocki-Veronese, Gabrielle; Blottière, Hervé M; Doré, Joël



Functional Food Product Development Jim Smith and Edward Charter  

E-print Network

Functional Food Product Development Edited by Jim Smith and Edward Charter Prince Edward Island Food Technology Centre Charlottetown, Canada A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication #12;#12;Functional Food Product Development #12;A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication Functional Food Science

Haddadi, Hamed


Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: functional foods.  


It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics to recognize that although all foods provide some level of physiological function, the term functional foods is defined as whole foods along with fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods that have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis at effective levels based on significant standards of evidence. The Academy supports Food and Drug Administration-approved health claims on food labels when based on rigorous scientific substantiation. All food is essentially functional at some level as it provides energy and nutrients needed to sustain life. However, there is growing evidence that some food components, not considered nutrients in the traditional sense, may provide positive health benefits. Foods containing these food components are called functional foods. Functional food research holds many promises for improving the quality of life for consumers; however, to achieve such outcomes, scientific research must effectively establish the bioavailability and efficacy of these compounds at levels that are physiologically achievable under typical dietary patterns. This Position Paper reviews the complexities of defining functional foods; categories of foods marketed as functional; regulation of functional foods; the scientific substantiation of and advancement of functional food research; as well as a message to registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, on how to remain current in their knowledge of functional food research and the translation of this information to consumers. PMID:23885705

Crowe, Kristi M; Francis, Coni



Tackling metabolic syndrome by functional foods.  


The metabolic syndrome is one of the most vibrant and widely prevailing health concerns worldwide. It is characterized by several metabolic abnormalities, which involve obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, enhanced oxidative stress; hypertension and increased pro-inflammatory state that ultimate contribute towards poor health. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Pakistan according to different definitions is reported to be from 18 % to 46 %. Fifty percent of Pakistani population is at high risk of metabolic syndrome as being hypertensive. In studying dyslipidemia in Pakistan, hypertriglyceridemia is found in 27-54 % of the population, whereas 68-81 % has low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Population likes to eat healthier diet without changing their fundamental dietary pattern. Nutrition science has moved on from the classical concepts of avoiding nutrient deficiencies and basic nutritional adequacy to the concept of positive or optimal nutrition. Many traditional food products including fruits, vegetables, flaxseed, oat, barley, whole grains, soy and milk have been found to contain component with potential health benefits. Nowadays, functional foods are used in the prevention and amelioration of several chronic diseases, such as the metabolic syndrome. The relation of the consumption of certain functional foods and the improvement in health status is regulated through health claims. This review focuses on the different features of the metabolic syndrome and the influence of functional foods on these aspects, involving dyslipidemia, improvement of insulin sensitivity, serum lipid profile, antioxidant status, anti-inflammatory status and weight management of humans. PMID:24057596

Khan, Muhammad Issa; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Sohaib, Muhammad; Sameen, Aysha



Carbohydrate-rich foods: glycaemic indices and the effect of constituent macronutrients.  


The glycaemic index (GI) ranks foods according to their acute glycaemic impact and is used in planning meals for patients invoking glycaemic control through diet. Kurakkan (Eleusine coracana) flour roti, rice flour roti, atta flour roti, boiled breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis/Artocarpus communis) and boiled legumes (mungbean, cowpea and chickpea) were categorized as low-GI foods (relative to white bread; Prima Crust Top), and the corresponding GI (+/- standard error of the mean) values were 70+/-8, 69+/-7, 67+/-9, 64+/-7, 57+/-6, 49+/-8 and 29+/-5, respectively. Kurakkan flour pittu and wheat flour roti were classified as medium-GI foods with GI values of 85+/-6 and 72+/-6. Hoppers, rice flour pittu, wheat flour pittu and Olu-milk rice (seeds of Nymphaea lotus) were categorized as high-GI foods, and the corresponding GI (+/- standard error of the mean) values were 120+/-8, 103+/-7, 101+/-8 and 91+/-8, respectively. The GI values significantly (P<0.01) and negatively correlated with the insoluble dietary fibre (rho = - 0.780), soluble dietary fibre (rho = - 0.712) and protein (rho = - 0.738) contents in grams per 100 g digestible starch containing foods. PMID:19418327

Widanagamage, Rahal D; Ekanayake, Sagarika; Welihinda, Jayantha



Interactions of the bacteriocins sakacin P and nisin with food constituents.  


Bacteriocins are amphiphilic peptides susceptible to adsorption to food macromolecules and proteolytic degradation. These properties may limit their use as preservation agents. The aim of the present work has been to elucidate the fate of the bacteriocin sakacin P in food. Nisin was used in a few experiments for comparison. Recovery of bacteriocins was studied in homogenates of cold-smoked salmon, chicken cold cuts and raw chicken, with verification of the results in the corresponding food products. More than 80% of the added sakacin P and nisin were quickly adsorbed to proteins in the food matrix. In foods that had not been heat-treated, proteolytic activity caused a rapid degradation of the bacteriocins, with less than 1% of the total activity left after 1 week in cold-smoked salmon, and even less in raw chicken. In heat-treated foods, the bacteriocin activity was stable for more than 4 weeks. The high fat content in salmon compared to chicken had no adverse effect on bacteriocin recovery or activity. However, mixing of triglyceride oils and bacteriocin solutions caused a considerable loss of activity. No principal differences were observed between sakacin P and nisin, but less nisin was adsorbed to muscle proteins at low pH, and the negative effect of oils was less pronounced for nisin. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes was completely inhibited for at least 3 weeks in both chicken cold cuts and cold-smoked salmon by addition of sakacin P (3.5 microg/g), despite the proteolytic degradation in the salmon. PMID:12927705

Aasen, Inga Marie; Markussen, Sidsel; Møretrø, Trond; Katla, Tone; Axelsson, Lars; Naterstad, Kristine



Anti-hypertensive nutraceuticals and functional foods.  


Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that elevated blood pressure is one of the major risk factors for stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). A close association between blood pressure and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases is well established if systolic/diastolic blood pressure is above 140/90 mmHg. In recent years, nutraceuticals and functional foods have attracted considerable interest as potential alternative therapies for treatment of hypertension, especially for prehypertensive patients, whose blood pressure is marginally or mildly high but not high enough to warrant the prescription of blood pressure-lowering medications. This review summarizes the findings of recent studies on the chemistry, production, application, efficacy, and mechanisms of popular blood pressure-lowering nutraceuticals and functional foods including the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet plan, L-arginine, chlorogenic acid, fermented milk, garlic, onion, tea, soybean, ginger, hawthorn, and fish oil. PMID:19422223

Chen, Zhen-Yu; Peng, Cheng; Jiao, Rui; Wong, Yin Mei; Yang, Nan; Huang, Yu



Acaricidal activities of major constituents of essential oil of Juniperus chinensis leaves against house dust and stored food mites.  


The acaricidal activities of major constituents from the oil of Juniperus chinensis (var. globosa) leaves were compared with those of DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) by using impregnated fabric disk bioassay against Dermatophagoides spp. and Tyrophagus putrescentiae. Toxicity varied with doses as well as chemical composition. The 50% lethal doses (LD50) of J. chinensis oil against Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and T. putrescentiae were 21.60, 19.89, and 38.10 microg/cm2, respectively. The active constituent was purified using silica gel chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The acaricidal component was identified as bomyl acetate through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR, 1H-13C shift correlation spectrum-NMR, and distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer-NMR. The LD50 of bornyl acetate (2.94 microg/cm2) against D. farinae was significantly lower than those of DEET (37.13 microg/cm2) and alpha-eudesmol (29.72 microg/cm2). Similar results were observed when bomyl acetate and alpha-eudesmol were tested against D. pteronyssinus and T. putrescentiae. The lower LD50 of bornyl acetate indicates that it may be responsible for the major acaricidal activity against house dust and stored food mites, even though it constitutes only 19.5% of J. chinensis oil. Overall, these findings indicated that bornyl acetate and c-eudesmol have potential for use as control agents against house dust and stored food mites. PMID:19722401

Lee, Chi-Hoon; Park, Joon-Moh; Song, Ha-Yun; Jeong, Eun-Young; Lee, Hoi-Seon



Identification and quantitative determination of the polar constituents in Helichrysum italicum flowers and derived food supplements.  


Helichrysum italicum is widely used in traditional medicine, in cosmetic, in food and pharmaceutical field. In spite of this, very little is known about the chemical composition of its polar extracts. Therefore this study was addressed to the determination of the metabolite profile of the methanol extract of H. italicum flowers, by using LC-ESI(IT)MSMS. This approach oriented the isolation of 14 compounds, whose structures were unambiguously elucidated by NMR as belonging to flavonoid, phenylpropanoid and acylbenzofuran classes. In addition, one novel drimane sesquiterpene was identified. The quantitative determination of the main compounds occurring in the methanol extract of H. italicum flowers was carried out and their content was compared with that of three selected commercial food supplements based on H. italicum, by using LC-ESI(QqQ)MS. In conclusion the wide occurrence, in high amounts, of quinic acid derivatives in all the analyzed samples was highlighted, showing these compounds as chemical markers of the species for standardization procedures. PMID:24786189

Mari, Angela; Napolitano, Assunta; Masullo, Milena; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia



Melatonin, a potent agent in antioxidative defense: Actions as a natural food constituent, gastrointestinal factor, drug and prodrug  

PubMed Central

Melatonin, originally discovered as a hormone of the pineal gland, is also produced in other organs and represents, additionally, a normal food constituent found in yeast and plant material, which can influence the level in the circulation. Compared to the pineal, the gastrointestinal tract contains several hundred times more melatonin, which can be released into the blood in response to food intake and stimuli by nutrients, especially tryptophan. Apart from its use as a commercial food additive, supraphysiological doses have been applied in medical trials and pure preparations are well tolerated by patients. Owing to its amphiphilicity, melatonin can enter any body fluid, cell or cell compartment. Its properties as an antioxidant agent are based on several, highly diverse effects. Apart from direct radical scavenging, it plays a role in upregulation of antioxidant and downregulation of prooxidant enzymes, and damage by free radicals can be reduced by its antiexcitatory actions, and presumably by contributions to appropriate internal circadian phasing, and by its improvement of mitochondrial metabolism, in terms of avoiding electron leakage and enhancing complex I and complex IV activities. Melatonin was shown to potentiate effects of other antioxidants, such as ascorbate and Trolox. Under physiological conditions, direct radical scavenging may only contribute to a minor extent to overall radical detoxification, although melatonin can eliminate several of them in scavenger cascades and potentiates the efficacy of antioxidant vitamins. Melatonin oxidation seems rather important for the production of other biologically active metabolites such as N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) and N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK), which have been shown to also dispose of protective properties. Thus, melatonin may be regarded as a prodrug, too. AMK interacts with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, conveys protection to mitochondria, inhibits and downregulates cyclooxygenase 2. PMID:16153306

Hardeland, Rüdiger; Pandi-Perumal, SR



Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to constant health awareness and readily available information on usefulness of different diet and their direct link with\\u000a health, the demand of functional food is increasing day by day. The concept of functional foods includes foods or food ingredients\\u000a that exert a beneficial effect on host health and\\/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions.\\u000a Increasing

Arpita Das; Utpal Raychaudhuri; Runu Chakraborty



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to utilize new functional food ingredients containing soluble beta-glucan fiber that could be used to improve the health qualities of Asian foods. These functional food fibers were studied as replacements for coconut milk, butter, or saturated fat shortenings that are ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to utilize new functional food ingredients containing soluble betaglucan fiber that could be used to improve the heatlh qualities of Asian foods. These functional food fibers were studied as replacements for coconut milk, butter, or saturated fat shortenings that are w...


Worldwide consumption of functional foods: a systematic review.  


The present systematic review was performed to assess differences in the worldwide consumption of functional foods. The Medline and Scopus databases were used to search the existing literature. A total of 23 studies that examined functional food consumption and included information on the country, gender, and age of participants were identified for inclusion. The studies investigated a variety of functional foods, and analysis of the findings indicates it is not possible to reach generalized conclusions about consumer choices regarding functional food consumption. Gender, age, level of education, and personal health status may each predict consumption of one or more functional foods. Further studies aimed at gaining a better understanding of the factors that influence consumption of functional foods are needed. PMID:22835140

Ozen, Asli E; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A



Chemical constituents of fine particulate air pollution and pulmonary function in healthy adults: the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation study.  


The study examined the associations of 32 chemical constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ?2.5 ?m (PM?.?) with pulmonary function in a panel of 21 college students. Study subjects relocated from a suburban area to an urban area with changing ambient air pollution levels and contents in Beijing, China, and provided daily morning/evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV??) measurements over 6 months in three study periods. There were significant reductions in evening PEF and morning/evening FEV?? associated with various air pollutants and PM?.? constituents. Four PM?.? constituents (copper, cadmium, arsenic and stannum) were found to be most consistently associated with the reductions in these pulmonary function measures. These findings provide clues for the respiratory effects of specific particulate chemical constituents in the context of urban air pollution. PMID:23747477

Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Hao, Yu; Shima, Masayuki; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling; Huang, Jing; Qin, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao



Biofactors in food promote health by enhancing mitochondrial function  

E-print Network

Mitochondria are responsible for oxidative metabolism and converting substances from the foods we eat into energy for essential functions.mitochondria, an observa- tion consistent with reports that it can act as a protector of mitochondrial function.mitochondria (see page 136). Biofactors in food that enhance mito- chondrial function

Shenoy, Sonia F; Chowanadisai, Winyoo; Sharman, Edward; Keen, Carl L; Liu, Jiankang; Rucker, Robert B



Biofactors in food promote health by enhancing mitochondrial function  

E-print Network

mitochondria, an observa- tion consistent with reports that it can act as a protector of mitochondrial function.mitochondria (see page 136). Biofactors in food that enhance mito- chondrial functionMitochondria are responsible for oxidative metabolism and converting substances from the foods we eat into energy for essential functions.

Shenoy, Sonia F; Chowanadisai, Winyoo; Sharman, Edward; Keen, Carl L; Liu, Jiankang; Rucker, Robert B



The role of rabbit meat as functional food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functional food ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functional foods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview

Antonella Dalle Zotte; Zsolt Szendr?



Utilization of functional food components from pulses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dry beans, peas, and lentils (pulses) are a principle source of protein in many parts of the world and have long been known to be healthy foods. Their use in traditional ethnic foods is well established; however, unlike grains, meat, dairy products, and other vegetables, they are not universally pre...


Marine biotechnology advances towards applications in new functional foods.  


The marine ecosystem is still an untapped reservoir of biologically active compounds, which have considerable potential to supply food ingredients towards development of new functional foods. With the goal of increasing the availability and chemical diversity of functional marine ingredients, much research has been developed using biotechnological tools to discover and produce new compounds. This review summarizes the advances in biotechnological tools for production of functional ingredients, including enzymes, for the food industry. Tools involving biotechnological processes (bioreactors, fermentations, bioprocessing) and those involving genetic research designated as molecular biotechnology are discussed highlighting how they can be used in the controlled manipulation and utilization of marine organisms as sources of food ingredients, as well as discussing the most relevant shortcomings towards applications in new functional foods. PMID:22484300

Freitas, Ana C; Rodrigues, Dina; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Gomes, Ana M P; Duarte, Armando C



Quality function deployment in the food industry: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a detailed literature review on the topic of the application of quality function deployment (QFD) in the food industry. This review is extended with a thorough description of the methodologies involved in the practice of QFD within food companies, exemplified with the help of a case study on ketchup quality improvement. The benefits, drawbacks and challenges of

A. I. A Costa; M Dekker; W. M. F Jongen



Quality function deployment in the food industry: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a detailed literature review on the topic of the application of quality function deployment (QFD) in the food industry. This review is extended with a thorough description of the methodologies involved in the practice of QFD within food companies, exemplified with the help of a case study on ketchup quality improvement. The benefits, drawbacks and challenges of

A. I. A. Costa; W. M. F. Jongen



Investigating constituent order change with elicited pantomime: a functional account of SVO emergence.  


One of the most basic functions of human language is to convey who did what to whom. In the world's languages, the order of these three constituents (subject [S], verb [V], and object [O]) is uneven, with SOV and SVO being most common. Recent experiments using experimentally elicited pantomime provide a possible explanation of the prevalence of SOV, but extant explanations for the prevalence of SVO could benefit from further empirical support. Here, we test whether SVO might emerge because (a) SOV is not well suited for describing reversible events (a woman pushing a boy) and (b) pressures to be efficient and mention subjects before objects conspire to rule out many other alternatives. We tested this by asking participants to describe reversible and non-reversible events in pantomime, and we instructed some participants to be consistent in the form of their gestures and to teach them to the experimenter. These manipulations led to the emergence of SVO in speakers of both English (SVO) and Turkish (SOV). PMID:24641486

Hall, Matthew L; Ferreira, Victor S; Mayberry, Rachel I



Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius): a food with multiple functions.  


Functional foods are the focus of many studies worldwide. This is justified by the effects they have on public health and thus interest in elucidation of the mechanisms involved in their actions. The present review aims to broaden the discussions of the functional properties attributed to yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), considered a food with multiple functions since it possesses bioactive compounds (antimicrobial, antioxidant, and probiotic substances) that exert beneficial effects on the body. Although some studies have already demonstrated several of these functions, clinical evidence is scarce, making it necessary that more studies are conducted in this area. Still, since the availability of this food in the market is relatively new, its popularity depends on publications aimed at consumer education and development of new products by the food industry. PMID:24915403

de Almeida Paula, Hudsara Aparecida; Abranches, Monise Viana; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia



Functional herbal food ingredients used in type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

From many reports it is clear that diabetes will be one of the major diseases in the coming years. As a result there is a rapidly increasing interest in searching new medicines, or even better searching prophylactic methods. Based on a large number of chemical and pharmacological research work, numerous bioactive compounds have been found in functional herbal food ingredients for diabetes. The present paper reviews functional herbal food ingredients with regards to their anti-diabetic active principles and pharmacological test results, which are commonly used in Asian culinary system and medical system and have demonstrated clinical or/and experimental anti-diabetic effectiveness. Our idea of reviewing this article is to give more attention to these functional food ingredients as targets medicinal foods in order to prevent or slow down the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22654403

Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Li, Yunman



Functional foods as carriers for SYNBIO®, a probiotic bacteria combination.  


The popularity of functional foods continues to increase as consumers desire flavorful foods that will fulfil their health needs. Among these foods, probiotics may exert positive effects on the composition of gut microbiota and overall health. However, in order to be beneficial, the bacterial cultures have to remain live and active at the time of consumption. The aim of this study was to develop new probiotic food products, such as seasoned cheeses, salami, chocolate and ice-cream with a final probiotic concentration of approximately 10?CFU/daily dose of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® mixed 1:1 (SYNBIO®). The survival and viability of probiotics were determined during the foods shelf-life. The values of viable probiotic bacteria of all dairy and non-dairy foods were between 10? and 10?CFU/g of food at the end of the shelf-life and for some of them the values were maintained even after the expiry date. Based on the results of the current study, all the dairy ("Caciotta" cheese, "Pecorino" cheese, "Büscion" Swiss cheese and "Fiordilatte" ice-cream) and non-dairy ("Ciauscolo" salami, Larded salami, Swiss small salami, milk chocolate, dark chocolate, organic jam and chocolate mousse) food products studied would be excellent vehicles to deliver the probiotic health effects because of the high viability of probiotics during the shelf-life of foods and in some cases even after their expiry date. PMID:22727086

Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cecchini, Cinzia; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto



When is dietary fiber considered a functional food?  


Before answering the question of when dietary fiber can be considered a functional food we must first decide what can be called a dietary fiber. The generally accepted definition of dietary fiber is that of Trowell that dietary fiber consists of the remnants of edible plant cells polysaccharides, lignin, and associated substances resistant to (hydrolysis) digestion by the alimentary enzymes of humans. In Japan the food tables list the dietary fiber content of animal as well as plant tissues, while many countries accept saccharides of less than DP-10 as dietary fiber (inulin, oligofructose, Fibersol-2, polydextrose, fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides etc.). These shorter chain oligosaccharides do not precipitate as dietary fiber in the standard Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method, which is accepted by the US Food & Drug Administration, the US Department of Agriculture and the Food & Agriculture Organization of the World Health Organization for nutrition labeling purposes. In the United Kingdom the term dietary fiber has been replaced in nutrition labeling by nonstarch polysaccharides. Therefore the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) commissioned an ad hoc committee of scientists to evaluate continuing validity of the currently used definition, and if appropriate, to modify and update that definition. Obtaining scientific input from the community of analysts, health professionals, and dietary fiber researchers was considered a high priority. To this end three meetings were held in the space of six months to assure input from all persons knowledgeable in the field with the answer expected sometime before 2000. Dietary fiber can be considered a functional food when it imparts a special function to that food aside from the normal expected function and similarly when the dietary fiber is used as an additive to foods. For example, dietary fiber contributes to colonic health, bifidobacterial or lactobacillus stimulation in the gut, coronary artery health, cholesterol reduction, glucose metabolism, insulin response, blood lipids, cancer etc. The author discusses in detail the functional food properties of dietary fiber. PMID:11216498

Prosky, L



Influence of gender, age and motives underlying food choice on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods.  


The aims of the present study were to study the effect of different carriers and enrichments on the perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods; and to evaluate the effect of age, gender and motives underlying food choice. Participants had to evaluate different functional food concepts and had to answer a food choice questionnaire. Results showed that carrier products had the largest effect on consumers' perception of healthiness and willingness to try of the evaluated functional foods concepts. The highest positive relative utilities were achieved when the enrichment was a functional ingredient inherent in the product. Furthermore, gender, age and motives underlying food choice affected the preference patterns for the evaluated functional foods concepts, but it depended on the carrier and enrichment considered, suggesting that functional foods might not be accepted by all the consumers and that they could be tailored for certain groups. PMID:17335938

Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana



Chemosensory function and food preferences of children with cystic fibrosis.  


A major problem for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is the maintenance of adequate nutrition to maintain normal growth. The hypotheses that poor nutrition could be due to smell and/or taste dysfunction has been pursued in several studies with contradictory results. None, however, investigated whether inadequate nutrition is due to CF patients having different liking for foods compared to healthy children and whether liking can be linked to specific changes in smell or taste function. Here, the relationships between food liking, BMI, and smell and taste function in 42 CF and 42 healthy 5- to 18-year olds is pursued. A three-choice 16-item odor identification test and a gustatory identification test involving five concentrations of sweet, sour, bitter, and salty tastes, were used to assess chemosensory function. Food liking was assessed using a 94-item questionnaire. Patients identified significantly fewer odors than controls (89.8% vs. 95.7% correct; P < 0.001). However, only a few patients were affected and their loss of olfactory function was not substantial and unlikely to affect their liking for foods. Taste identification was similar for the two groups (patients 92.6% vs. controls 94.2% correct). There was no correlation between age and odor identification ability, but taste performance improved with age (r = 0.39, P < 0.05), suggesting cognition was the cause. Patients liked several types of foods and high-fat foods more than the controls. Both groups had a similar liking for low-fat foods and both liked high-fat foods more than low-fat foods. No significant relationships existed between FEV(1) and smell or taste function or liking for foods, the BMI of the groups were similar and there was no relationship between BMI and smell or taste function. The results indicate that the abnormal eating behavior reported for many CF patients is not due to changes in chemosensory function which remains normal in most CF patients at least to 18 years of age. PMID:20597084

Laing, David G; Armstrong, Jessica E; Aitken, Maggie; Carroll, Alistair; Wilkes, Fiona J; Jinks, Anthony L; Jaffé, Adam




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)



Beta Glucan: A Valuable Functional Ingredient in Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Glucan is a valuable functional ingredient and various extraction techniques are available for its extraction. Choice of an appropriate extraction technique is important as it may affect the quality, structure, rheological properties, molecular weight, and other functional properties of the extracted ?-glucan. These properties lead to the use of ?-glucan into various food systems and have important implications in human

Asif Ahmad; Faqir Muhammad Anjum; Tahir Zahoor; Haq Nawaz; Syed Muhammad Raihan Dilshad



Beta Glucan: A Valuable Functional Ingredient in Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Glucan is a valuable functional ingredient; various extraction techniques are available for its extraction. Choice of appropriate extraction technique is important as it may effect the quality, structure, rheological properties, molecular weight and other functional properties of extracted ? -glucan.These properties leads to the use of ? -glucan into various food systems and have important implication in human health. This




Functional foods and strategies contrasting bacterial adhesion.  


Antibacterial strategies targeting bacterial adhesion to substrates are considered a valuable alternative to traditional antibiotic therapy, in view of the great advantage they bring in combating the infectious process at the very early stage without selecting for drug resistant cells. Amongst bioactive compounds with activity against bacterial adhesion, several are found in natural food and beverages, such as cranberry, tea, coffee, wine and milk. For the analysis of their anti-infective potential, successful experimental models can be conducted using different substrates from the oral cavity. Studies conducted so far in this field allowed the discovery of a variety of anti-adhesive fractions and compounds proven to be effective against bacterial traits involved in the development of oral pathologies such as caries and gingivitis/periodontitis. Discovering new anti-adhesive compounds from natural products, unravelling and testing their prophylactic and therapeutic values, and improving their use in the general population are promising new frontiers in the global fight against human infectious diseases. PMID:21906930

Signoretto, Caterina; Canepari, Pietro; Stauder, Monica; Vezzulli, Luigi; Pruzzo, Carla



Strategies of functional food for cancer prevention in human beings.  


Functional food for prevention of chronic diseases is one of this century's key global challenges. Cancer is not only the first or second leading cause of death in China and other countries across the world, but also has diet as one of the most important modifiable risk factors. Major dietary factors now known to promote cancer development are polished grain foods and low intake of fresh vegetables, with general importance for an unhealthy lifestyle and obesity. The strategies of cancer prevention in human being are increased consumption of functional foods like whole grains (brown rice, barley, and buckwheat) and by-products, as well some vegetables (bitter melon, garlic, onions, broccoli, and cabbage) and mushrooms (boletes and Tricholoma matsutake). In addition some beverages (green tea and coffee) may be protective. Southwest China (especially Yunnan Province) is a geographical area where functional crop production is closely related to the origins of human evolution with implications for anticancer influence. PMID:23679240

Zeng, Ya-Wen; Yang, Jia-Zheng; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Du, Juan; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shu-Ming; Zhu, Wei-Hua



Bacterial spoilers of food: Behavior, fitness and functional properties.  


Most food products are highly perishable as they constitute a rich nutrient source for microbial development. Among the microorganisms contaminating food, some present metabolic activities leading to spoilage. In addition to hygienic rules to reduce contamination, various treatments are applied during production and storage to avoid the growth of unwanted microbes. The nature and appearance of spoilage therefore depend on the physiological state of spoilers and on their ability to resist the processing/storage conditions and flourish on the food matrix. Spoilage also relies on the interactions between the microorganisms composing the ecosystems encountered in food. The recent rapid increase in publicly available bacterial genome sequences, as well as the access to high-throughput methods, should lead to a better understanding of spoiler behavior and to the possibility of decreasing food spoilage. This review lists the main bacterial species identified as food spoilers, their ability to develop during storage and/or processing, and the functions potentially involved in spoilage. We have also compiled an inventory of the available genome sequences of species encompassing spoilage strains. Combining in silico analysis of genome sequences with experimental data is proposed in order to understand and thus control the bacterial spoilage of food better. PMID:25481061

Remenant, Benoît; Jaffrès, Emmanuel; Dousset, Xavier; Pilet, Marie-France; Zagorec, Monique



The role of rabbit meat as functional food.  


Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functional food ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functional foods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview of the studies performed on the strategies adopted to improve the functional value of rabbit meat. Dietary manipulation has been seen to be very effective in increasing the levels of essential FA, EPA, DHA, CLA, branched chain FA, vitamin E, and selenium in rabbit meat. Dietary fortification with vitamin E or natural products such as oregano essential oil, chia seed oil, and Spirulina platensis microalga seem promising in improving the oxidative stability of rabbit meat while also adding functional ingredients. PMID:21392894

Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Szendro, Zsolt



Sorghum Functionality as a Superhealthfood NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCE  

E-print Network

Sorghum Functionality as a Superhealthfood NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCE Texas AgriLife Research scientists include internationally recognized sorghum spe- cialists and innovators who are developing sorghum variety. Inflammation and Cancer · High levels of flavanones and flavones are found in sorghums, which


Preface: Biocatalysis and Biotechnology for Functional Foods and Industrial Products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth review of biocatalysis and biotechnology with emphasis on functional foods and industrial products. Biocatalysis and biotechnology defined in this book include enzyme catalysis, biotransformation, bioconversi...


Functional foods : An empirical study on perceived health benefits in relation to pre-purchase intentions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Functional foods, also known controversially as “phoods,” are perceived by many as the food industry's response to consumers' increasing desire to make healthier eating choices. The objective of the present study is to determine the influence of the production technology used to make functional foods on the perceived health value of functional foods. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To meet the

Joanne Labrecque; Sylvain Charlebois



The role and functionality of Veterinary Services in food safety throughout the food chain.  


Both national Veterinary Services and international standard-setting organisations have now embraced risk assessment as an essential tool for achieving their goals. Veterinarians have key roles in all aspects of the control of food-borne hazards of animal origin, but additional specialist skills are necessary for assessing, managing and communicating risk. Further, the deployment of Veterinary Services must reflect the multi-functional aspects of public and animal health activities. A generic risk management framework provides a systematic process whereby food safety standards and other measures are chosen and implemented on the basis of knowledge of risk and evaluation of other factors relevant to protecting human health and promoting non-discriminatory trade practices. In this context, a number of countries are exploring new administrative and structural arrangements for competent authorities. The traditional focus of veterinary involvement in food safety has been in meat hygiene at the level of the slaughterhouse. While this role continues, the emerging 'risk-based' approach to food control requires increased involvement in other segments of the meat food chain, as well as other areas such as production of milk and fish. This more extensive role requires a wider skill base and establishment of effective networks with a different range of stakeholders. PMID:17094715

McKenzie, A I; Hathaway, S C



Translating knowledge into dietetic practice: a Functional Foods for Healthy Aging Toolkit.  


The advance of functional foods has evolved because of research linking functional foods to health, a regulatory environment that allows health claims on foods, and consumer demand for health-promoting food products. Among consumers, the rapidly growing older adult segment is poised to benefit from functional foods because of age-related health issues that are linked to food and health. Registered Dietitians (RDs) are recognized as food and nutrition experts and are well positioned to communicate the benefits of functional foods. The Functional Foods for Healthy Aging Toolkit was developed to provide guidance and resource materials to assist RDs in communicating with older adults about functional foods. The toolkit provides background on functional foods, including definitions, regulations, and case studies of functional food product labels. The role of functional foods in Canada's aging demographic is examined and the relevance to disease risk is discussed. The toolkit is appended with educational resource sheets on common functional food bioactives, including antioxidants, dietary fibre, omega-3 fatty acids, plant sterols, prebiotics, and probiotics. This publicly available toolkit can help RDs and other healthcare professionals in their interactions with older adults to maximize the value and health benefits that dietary inclusion of functional foods can offer. PMID:24766248

Duncan, Alison M; Dunn, Hilary A; Stratton, Laura M; Vella, Meagan N



Food Derived Bioactive Peptides and Intestinal Barrier Function  

PubMed Central

A wide range of food-derived bioactive peptides have been shown to exert health-promoting actions and are therefore considered functional foods or nutraceuticals. Some of these actions are related to the maintenance, reinforcement or repairment of the intestinal barrier function (IBF) whose role is to selectively allow the absorption of water, nutrients and ions while preventing the influx of microorganisms from the intestinal lumen. Alterations in the IBF have been related to many disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease or metabolic syndrome. Components of IBF are the intestinal epithelium, the mucus layer, secretory immunoglobulin A and cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here we review the effects of food derived bioactive peptides on these IBF components. In vitro and in vivo effects, both in healthy and disease states, have been reviewed. Although limited, the available information indicates a potential for food-derived peptides to modify IBF and to contribute to disease treatment, but further research is needed to better isolate responsible peptides, and to help define their mode of action. PMID:25501338

Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Rivero-Gutiérrez, Belén; Mascaraque, Cristina; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín



Germinated grains: a superior whole grain functional food?  


Grains are global dietary staples that when consumed in whole grain form, offer considerable health benefits compared with milled grain foods, including reduced body weight gain and reduced cardiovascular and diabetes risks. Dietary patterns, functional foods, and other lifestyle factors play a fundamental role in the development and management of epidemic lifestyle diseases that share risks of developing adverse metabolic outcomes, including hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Whole grains provide energy, nutrients, fibres, and bioactive compounds that may synergistically contribute to their protective effects. Despite their benefits, the intake of grains appears to be lower than recommended in many countries. Of emerging interest is the application of germination processes, which may significantly enhance the nutritional and bioactive content of grains, as well as improve palatability. Enhancing grain foods in a natural way using germination techniques may therefore offer a practical, natural, dietary intervention to increase the health benefits and acceptability of whole grains, with potentially widespread effects across populations in attenuating adverse lifestyle disease outcomes. Continuing to build on the growing body of in-vitro studies requires substantiation with extended in-vivo trials so that we may further develop our understanding of the potential of germinated grains as a functional food. PMID:23746040

Nelson, Kristina; Stojanovska, Lily; Vasiljevic, Todor; Mathai, Michael



Functional food and diabetes: a natural way in diabetes prevention?  


Diabetes shows a wide range of variation in prevalence around the world and it is expected to affect 300 million by the year 2025. In a prevention framework where banning policies and educational strategies lead the interventions, functional foods (FFs) with their specific health effects could, in the future, indicate a new mode of thinking about the relationships between food and health in everyday life. Functional ingredients, such as stevioside, cinnamon, bitter melon, garlic and onion, ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre and fenugreek, have been addressed for their specific actions towards different reactions involved in diabetes development. New strategies involving the use of FF should be validated through large-scale population trials, considering validated surrogate end points to evaluate the effect of FF in prevention of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22107597

Ballali, Simonetta; Lanciai, Federico



Design management of functional foods for quality of life improvement.  


The paper examines the benefit of bread enriched with antioxidants on oxidative stress, and on the quantities of hydrosoluble antioxidants in a group of human subjects. The home-management of functional foods strategy seeks to improve prompt and effective basic nutrition using additional attributes that are directly positively beneficial for health and well-being. The purpose of this clinical study was to test the tolerance and benefits of multicomponent functional foods enriched with antioxidant compounds obtained from plant extracts on healthy adult volunteers. A detailed protocol was created to formalize and standardize the procedures for data collection, e.g. filling out standardized forms and functional diet questionnaires. For the research method, Group A was given the special diet enriched with multicomponent antioxidant foods and Group B (control). The data were analysed using the quantitative methods. They showed significant increase of hydrosoluble antioxidants in group A compared to control, from 220.61+/-27.92 - 313.56+/-37.09 micrograms/mL (p=0.05), compared to 280.47+/-32.1 - 238.27+/-44.93 micrograms/mL (p=0.45). Also, oxidative stress values showed a decrease in the diet group compared to control that reached statistical significance. Oxidative stress decreased in the diet group to 244 +/- 89 compared to 308+/-108 UFORT in the control group. The responses of the prevention of chronic diseases to a functional foods strategy depend on how they are absorbed and utilized in the body. An anti-oxidant diet with natural bioactive components could become an interesting solution for degenerative disorders in which oxidative stress is increased. PMID:24364445

Butnariu, Monica; Caunii, Angela



Finns and functional foods: socio-demographics, health efforts, notions of technology and the acceptability of health-promoting foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractEating is increasingly characterized by concerns over health and well-being. New types of foods designed to promote health or to reduce the risk of diseases, known as functional foods, have been entering the market since the 1990s. This article focuses on the appropriation of functional foods among Finnish consumers from the perspective of acceptability. We analyse the relationship between consumers’

Mari Niva; Johanna Mäkelä



Dopamine Genetics and Function in Food and Substance Abuse  

PubMed Central

Having entered the genomics era with confidence in the future of medicine, including psychiatry, identifying the role of DNA and polymorphic associations with brain reward circuitry has led to a new understanding of all addictive behaviors. It is noteworthy that this strategy may provide treatment for the millions who are the victims of “Reward Deficiency Syndrome” (RDS) a genetic disorder of brain reward circuitry. This article will focus on drugs and food being mutuality addictive, and the role of dopamine genetics and function in addictions, including the interaction of the dopamine transporter, and sodium food. We will briefly review our concept that concerns the genetic antecedents of multiple–addictions (RDS). Studies have also shown that evaluating a panel of established reward genes and polymorphisms enables the stratification of genetic risk to RDS. The panel is called the “Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS)”, and is a tool for the diagnosis of a genetic predisposition for RDS. The use of this test, as pointed out by others, would benefit the medical community by identifying at risk individuals at a very early age. We encourage, in depth work in both animal and human models of addiction. We encourage further exploration of the neurogenetic correlates of the commonalities between food and drug addiction and endorse forward thinking hypotheses like “The Salted Food Addiction Hypothesis”. PMID:23543775

Blum, K; Oscar-Berman, M; Barh, D; Giordano, J; Gold, MS



Demographic and lifestyle characteristics of functional food consumers and dietary supplement users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional foods and\\/or supplements may be used in the context of a healthy lifestyle or as a means to compensate for an unhealthy lifestyle. Adverse long-term and\\/or cumulative effects of functional food or supplement intake are of public health concern; it is therefore important to identify functional food and supplement users. The present study compared Dutch functional food and supplement

Nynke de Jong; Marga C. Ocké; Hester A. C. Branderhorst; Roland Friele



Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health.  


Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria and their environmental interactions. Moreover, functional genomics approaches have been used to understand the response of lactic acid bacteria to their environment. The results have been instrumental in understanding the adaptation of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal and industrial food fermentations as well as their interactions with the human host. Collectively, this has led to a detailed analysis of genes involved in colonization, persistence, interaction and signaling towards to the human host and its health. Finally, massive parallel genome re-sequencing has provided new opportunities in applied genomics, specifically in the characterization of novel non-GMO strains that have potential to be used in the food industry. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art of these functional genomics approaches and their impact in understanding, applying and designing lactic acid bacteria for food and health. PMID:25186768

Douillard, François P; de Vos, Willem M



Functional Foods Programs Serve as a Vehicle to Provide Nutrition Education to Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increase in consumer interest in functional foods provides an opportunity for FCS educators to use this topic in Extension programming to promote current nutrition recommendations. The Functional Foods for Life Educational Programs (FFL) are a curriculum of six evidence-based mini-seminars that highlight specific functional foods that have the…

Cirignano, Sherri M.



Biguanide related compounds in traditional antidiabetic functional foods.  


Biguanides such as metformin are widely used worldwide for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The identification of guanidine and related compounds in French lilac plant (Galega officinalis L.) led to the development of biguanides. Despite of their plant origin, biguanides have not been reported in plants. The objective of this study was to quantify biguanide related compounds (BRCs) in experimentally or clinically substantiated antidiabetic functional plant foods and potatoes. The corrected results of the Voges-Proskauer (V-P) assay suggest that the highest amounts of BRCs are present in green curry leaves (Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel) followed by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), green bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Descourt.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Whereas, garlic (Allium sativum L.), and sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.) contain negligible amounts of BRCs. In addition, the possible biosynthetic routes of biguanide in these plant foods are discussed. PMID:23411283

Perla, Venu; Jayanty, Sastry S



Preference for internucleotide linkages as a function of the number of constituents in a mixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phosphoimidazolide-activated ribomononucleotides (*pN; see Scheme I) are useful substrates for the nonenzymatic synthesis of oligonucleotides. In the presence of metal ions dilute neutral aqueous solutions of *pN (0.01 M) typically yield only small amounts of dimers and traces of oligomers; most of *pN hydrolyzes to yield nucleoside 5'-monophosphate (5'NMP). An earlier investigation of *pN reactions in highly concentrated aqueous solutions (up to 1.4 M) showed, as expected, that the percentage yield of the condensation products increases and the yield of the hydrolysis product correspondingly decreases with *pN concentration (Kanavarioti 1997). Here we report product distributions in reactions with one, two, or three reactive components at the same total nucleotide concentration. *pN used as substrates were the nucleoside 5'-phosphate 2-methylimidazolides, 2-MeImpN, with N = cytidine (C), uridine (U), or guanosine (G). Reactions were conducted as self-condensations, i. e., one nucleotide only, with two components in the three binary U,C, U,G, and C,G mixtures, and with three components in the ternary U,C, G mixture. The products are 5'NMP, 5',5'-pyrophosphate-, 2',5'-, 3', 5'-linked dimers, cyclic dimers, and a small percentage of longer oligomers. The surprising finding was that, under identical conditions, including the same total monomer concentration, the product distribution differs substantially from one reaction to another, most likely due to changing intermolecular interactions depending on the constituents. Even more unexpected was the observed trend according to which reactions of the U,C,G mixture produce the highest yield of internucleotide-linked dimers, whereas the self-condensations produce the least and the reactions with the binary mixtures produce yields that fall in between. What is remarkable is that the approximately two-fold increase in the percentage yield of internucleotide-linked dimers is not due to a concentration effect or a catalyst, but to the increased complexity of the system from a single to two and three components. These observations, perhaps, provide an example of how increased complexity in relatively simple chemical systems leads to organization of the material and consequently to chemical evolution. A possible link between prebiotic chemistry and the postulated RNA world is discussed.

Kanavarioti, A.



Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (?60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (n?=?200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Results Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p?=?0.045). Conclusions Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers. PMID:24886306



Egg and Egg-Derived Foods: Effects on Human Health and Use as Functional Foods  

PubMed Central

Eggs are sources of protein, fats and micronutrients that play an important role in basic nutrition. However, eggs are traditionally associated with adverse factors in human health, mainly due to their cholesterol content. Nowadays, however, it is known that the response of cholesterol in human serum levels to dietary cholesterol consumption depends on several factors, such as ethnicity, genetic makeup, hormonal factors and the nutritional status of the consumer. Additionally, in recent decades, there has been an increasing demand for functional foods, which is expected to continue to increase in the future, owing to their capacity to decrease the risks of some diseases and socio-demographic factors such as the increase in life expectancy. This work offers a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of egg consumption and the potential market of functional eggs, and it explores the possibilities of the development of functional eggs by technological methods. PMID:25608941

Miranda, Jose M.; Anton, Xaquin; Redondo-Valbuena, Celia; Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Lamas, Alexandre; Franco, Carlos M.; Cepeda, Alberto



From functional food to medicinal product: Systematic approach in analysis of polyphenolics from propolis and wine  

PubMed Central

In the last decade we have been working on standardization of propolis extract and determination of active constituents of wine those are rich in polyphenolics and have nutritional as well as therapeutic value. Here we are summarizing our results and providing overview on systematic approach how to analyse natural products rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids. Chromatographic methods (thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography) were used for identification, quantification, and characterization of individual flavonoid or phenolic acid. Total content of active constituents and antioxidant activity were determined by spectrophotometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and using appropriate software. Quantitative structure-activity relationship study of antioxidant activity was conducted, as well as assessment of prolonged propolis supplementation on antioxidative status of organism. Thin layer chromatography-densitometry has been proven as quick and reliable method for standard analysis of propolis and wine; the best mobile phase being chloroform – methanol – formic acid (98–100%) in ratio 44 : 3.5 : 2.5 (v/v). Higher number of polyphenolics was determined by high performance liquid chromatography; 15 compared to 9 by thin layer chromatography. Interactions in situ with acetylsalicylic acid were detected with most of polyphenolics analysed. Plasma protein binding and blood-barrier penetration was greatest for flavone. The interactions with human serum albumin have been grater than 95% for all flavonoids analysed. The prolonged propolis consumption increased superoxide dismutase activity. The necessity of standardization of natural products and their registration as functional nutraceuticals demand easy, quick and inexpensive methods of analysis. In this work we provided overview of analytical part for polyphenolics that could be used as data for possible registration of final products either as functional food or medicinal product. This feature introduces the readers to the authors' research through a concise overview of the selected topic. Reference to important work from others in the field is included. PMID:19624827

Medi?-Šari?, Marica; Rastija, Vesna; Boji?, Mirza; Maleš, Željan



Functional Foods: A Survey of Health Claims, Pros and Cons, and Current Legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional foods stand for a new category of remarkably promising foods bearing properties (i.e., low cholesterol, antioxidant, anti-aging, anticancer, etc.) that have already rendered them quite appealing. There are many classes of functional foods (pro- and pre-biotics, dietary fiber, low fat, etc.), and their definition is occasionally confused with that of nutraceuticals and novel foods. Consumers' main skepticism regarding functional

Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis; Maria Van Houwelingen-Koukaliaroglou



Executive function and food approach behavior in middle childhood  

PubMed Central

Executive function (EF) has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating “hot” affective and “cool” cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation of eating behavior. So far, however, the links between EF and eating behavior have rarely been investigated in children and non-clinical populations. First, we examined whether EF can be divided into hot and cool factors or whether they actually correspond to a unitary construct in middle childhood. Second, we examined how hot and cool EF are associated with different eating styles that put children at risk of becoming overweight during development. Hot and cool EF were assessed experimentally in a non-clinical population of 1657 elementary-school children (aged 6–11 years). The “food approach” behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires. Findings indicate that hot EF is distinguishable from cool EF. However, only cool EF seems to represent a coherent functional entity, whereas hot EF does not seem to be a homogenous construct. This was true for a younger and an older subgroup of children. Furthermore, different EF components were correlated with eating styles, such as responsiveness to food, desire to drink, and restrained eating in girls but not in boys. This shows that lower levels of EF are not only seen in clinical populations of obese patients but are already associated with food approach styles in a normal population of elementary school-aged girls. Although the direction of effect still has to be clarified, results point to the possibility that EF constitutes a risk factor for eating styles contributing to the development of overweight in the long-term. PMID:24904466

Groppe, Karoline; Elsner, Birgit



Introduce Freshness Estimate Function into Cooling System of Foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cooling system controlled by the freshness estimate function to freshly store foods,was examined. To drive the freshness estimate expression,an experiment on storage of tuna was made and the following results were obtained. 1) Ratio of weight to initial weight,yield,was greatly influenced by conditions of humidity and velocity of air. 2) K value was not influenced by conditions of air velocity under 95-75% humidity and 0 -1m/s air velocity. 3) Change of color was influenced by conditions of humidity and velocity of air. So using weight of evaporated water in tuna as a function,relative expression of humidity and velocity of air for saving weight loss of tuna was induced.

Ishikawa, Makiko; Matsuoka, Fumio; Sugimoto, Takeshi


Development of a locally sustainable functional food based on mutandabota, a traditional food in southern Africa.  


A probiotic dairy product was developed on the basis of a traditional dish called mutandabota to enable resource-poor populations in southern Africa to benefit from a functional food. Mutandabota is widely consumed in rural southern Africa, making it an ideal food matrix to carry probiotics. First, a process to produce probiotic mutandabota was designed. Raw cow milk was boiled and subsequently cooled to ambient temperature (25°C). Next, dry pulp from the fruit of the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L.) was added to the milk at a concentration of 4% (wt/vol). This mixture was inoculated with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba and left to ferment for 24h, while the growth of the bacterial culture was monitored. Final ingredients were then added to produce probiotic mutandabota that had 14% (wt/vol) baobab fruit pulp and 7% (wt/vol) sugar in cow milk. The pH of probiotic mutandabota was pH 3.5, which ensures that the product is microbiologically safe. The viable plate count of L. rhamnosus yoba increased from 5.8 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL at the point of inoculation to 8.8 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL at the moment of consumption, thereby meeting the criterion to have a viable count of the probiotic bacterium in excess of 6 log cfu/mL of a product. Baobab fruit pulp at 4% promoted growth of L. rhamnosus yoba with a maximal specific growth rate (?max) of 0.6 ± 0.2/h at 30°C. The developed technology, though specific for this particular product, has potential to be applied for the delivery of probiotics through a variety of indigenous foods in different regions of the world. Upon consumption, probiotic mutandabota is expected to improve the population's intestinal health, which is especially relevant for vulnerable target groups such as children and elderly people. PMID:24630646

Mpofu, Augustine; Linnemann, Anita R; Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco; Nout, M J R; Smid, Eddy J




EPA Science Inventory

Effect of Oil Combustion Particle Bioavailable Constituents on Ex Vivo Vascular Function of Aortae Recovered from Healthy and Early Type 2 Diabetic Rats KL Dreher1, SE Kelly2, SD Proctor2, and JC Russell2. 1National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, US EPA, RTP, NC;...


Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health  

PubMed Central

In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward the field of free radical chemistry. Free radicals reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are generated by our body by various endogenous systems, exposure to different physiochemical conditions or pathological states. A balance between free radicals and antioxidants is necessary for proper physiological function. If free radicals overwhelm the body's ability to regulate them, a condition known as oxidative stress ensues. Free radicals thus adversely alter lipids, proteins, and DNA and trigger a number of human diseases. Hence application of external source of antioxidants can assist in coping this oxidative stress. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole have recently been reported to be dangerous for human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with antioxidative activity has been intensified in recent years. The present review provides a brief overview on oxidative stress mediated cellular damages and role of dietary antioxidants as functional foods in the management of human diseases. PMID:22228951

Lobo, V.; Patil, A.; Phatak, A.; Chandra, N.



Cholesterol-Lowering Foods Tasty, functional foods help you lower cholesterol naturally.  

E-print Network

can't handle the side effects from cholesterol drugs. Focusing on diet gives us all a new option. #12 people still need drugs to reduce their risk of heart disease. Also, remember that these foods aren Harris, DrPH, RD, spokeswoman, American Dietetic Association. U.S. Food and Drug Administration web site


Strawberry as a functional food: an evidence-based review.  


Emerging research provides substantial evidence to classify strawberries as a functional food with several preventive and therapeutic health benefits. Strawberries, a rich source of phytochemicals (ellagic acid, anthocyanins, quercetin, and catechin) and vitamins (ascorbic acid and folic acid), have been highly ranked among dietary sources of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. It should however be noted that these bioactive factors can be significantly affected by differences in strawberry cultivars, agricultural practices, storage, and processing methods: freezing versus dry heat has been associated with maximum retention of strawberry bioactives in several studies. Nutritional epidemiology shows inverse association between strawberry consumption and incidence of hypertension or serum C-reactive protein; controlled feeding studies have identified the ability of strawberries to attenuate high-fat diet induced postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation, or postprandial hyperglycemia, or hyperlipidemia in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. Mechanistic studies have elucidated specific biochemical pathways that might confer these protective effects of strawberries: upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, downregulation of NF-kB activity and subsequent inflammation, or inhibitions of carbohydrate digestive enzymes. These health effects may be attributed to the synergistic effects of nutrients and phytochemicals in strawberries. Further studies are needed to define the optimal dose and duration of strawberry intake in affecting levels of biomarkers or pathways related to chronic diseases. PMID:24345049

Basu, Arpita; Nguyen, Angel; Betts, Nancy M; Lyons, Timothy J



Fermented Milks and Milk Products as Functional Foods - A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermented foods and beverages possess various nutritional and therapeutic properties. Lactic acid bacteria play a major role in determining the positive health effects of fermented milks and related products. The L.acidophilus and Bifidobacteria spp are known for their use in probiotic dairy foods. Cultured products sold with any claim of health benefits should meet the criteria of suggested minimum number




Complex interactions in microbial food webs: Stoichiometric and functional approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food web structure in some high mountain lakes deviates from the established tendency of high heterotrophic bacteria: phyto- plankton biomass ratios in oligotrophic ecosystems. Thus, the microbial food web in La Caldera Lake is weakly developed, and bacteria constitute a minor component of the plankton community in terms of abundance, biomass and production. Autotrophic picoplankton is absent, and heterotrophic

Presentación Carrillo; Juan Manuel Medina-Sánchez; Manuel Villar-Argaiz; José Antonio Delgado-Molina; Francisco José Bullejos


Sweetpotato purees and powders for functional food ingredients  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Processing technologies have been developed in various parts of the world to convert sweetpotatoes into purees and dehydrated forms that can be used as food ingredients in numerous food products. This article reviews the processing operations involved in these technologies and their effects on quali...



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This entire issue is devoted to the problem of producing enough food for the world population and of distributing it equitably. Areas covered include reports on the latest agricultural research, biological research concerned with more efficient photosynthesis, nutrition, and the world social structure, politics, and economics of food. (MA)

Science, 1975



Functional foods and food supplements for athletes: from myths to benefit claims substantiation through the study of selected biomarkers.  


The development of the sports food market and industrial involvement have led to numerous nutritional studies to define the type of nutrients that are most suited to support energy metabolism, fluid balance and muscle function. The key question in many of these studies was: 'Does the product lead to a significant product/consumer benefit that can be used as a claim on the package?' New methods and techniques have been developed, partly with sponsorship of the food industry, with the goal of measuring the effects of specific nutrients and supplements on athletic performance and metabolism. In line with this development, a wide variety of supplements and sports foods/drinks labelled with various performance or health benefit statements have been launched on the sports nutrition market. Although a variety of products have been tested clinically, there are also many products on the market with benefit claims that cannot be supported by sound nutritional and sports physiological science. The current short review highlights some of the methods and biomarkers that are used to substantiate product/consumer benefit claims for foods and drinks that are marketed as functional foods for athletes. PMID:12495460

Brouns, Fred; Nieuwenhoven, Michiel van; Jeukendrup, Asker; Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter van



Functional properties of whey protein and its application in nanocomposite materials and functional foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whey is a byproduct of cheese making; whey proteins are globular proteins which can be modified and polymerized to add functional benefits, these benefits can be both nutritional and structural in foods. Modified proteins can be used in non-foods, being of particular interest in polymer films and coatings. Food packaging materials, including plastics, can linings, interior coatings of paper containers, and beverage cap sealing materials, are generally made of synthetic petroleum based compounds. These synthetic materials may pose a potential human health risk due to presence of certain chemicals such as Bisphenol A (BPA). They also add to environmental pollution, being difficult to degrade. Protein-based materials do not have the same issues as synthetics and so can be used as alternatives in many packaging types. As proteins are generally hydrophilic they must be modified structurally and their performance enhanced by the addition of waterproofing agents. Polymerization of whey proteins results in a network, adding both strength and flexibility. The most interesting of the food-safe waterproofing agents are the (large aspect ratio) nanoclays. Nanoclays are relatively inexpensive, widely available and have low environmental impact. The clay surface can be modified to make it organophilic and so compatible with organic polymers. The objective of this study is the use of polymerized whey protein (PWP), with reinforcing nanoclays, to produce flexible surface coatings which limit the transfer of contents while maintaining food safety. Four smectite and kaolin type clays, one treated and three natural were assessed for strengthening qualities and the potential waterproofing and plasticizing benefits of other additives were also analyzed. The nutritional benefits of whey proteins can also be used to enhance the protein content of various foodstuffs. Drinkable yogurt is a popular beverage in the US and other countries and is considered a functional food, especially when produced with probiotic bacteria. Carbonation was applied to a drinkable yogurt to enhance its benefits. This process helps reduce the oxygen levels in the foodstuff thus potentially being advantageous to the microaerophilic probiotic bacteria while simultaneously producing a product, somewhat similar to kefir, which has the potential to fill a niche in the functional foods market. Yogurt was combined with a syrup to reduce its viscosity, making it drinkable, and also to allow infusion of CO2. This dilution reduced the protein content of the drink and so whey protein concentrate was added to increase levels in the final product. High-methoxyl pectins were used to provide stability by reducing the tendency of the proteins to sediment out. The objectives of this study were to develop a manufacturing technology for drinkable carbonated symbiotic yogurts, and to evaluate their physicochemical properties. Two flavors of yogurt drink, pomegranate and vanilla, were formulated containing inulin as prebiotic, along with probiotic bacteria, producing symbiotic dairy beverages.

Walsh, Helen


Food-packaging materials: migration of constituents into food contents. January 1982-December 1988 (Citations from Packaging Science and technology Abstracts data base). Report for January 1982-December 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the migration of food-packaging materials into foods. Plastic, glass, cardboard, metal, and ceramic containers are discussed. Techniques for analyzing packaging contamination are included. (Contains 90 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available



Diurnal rhythmicity in biological processes involved in bioavailability of functional food factors  

PubMed Central

In the past few decades, many types of functional factors have been identified in dietary foods; for example, flavonoids are major groups widely distributed in the plant kingdom. However, the absorption rates of the functional food factors are usually low, and many of these are difficult to be absorbed in the intact forms because of metabolization by biological processes during absorption. To gain adequate beneficial effects, it is therefore mandatory to know whether functional food factors are absorbed in sufficient quantity, and then reach target organs while maintaining beneficial effects. These are the reasons why the bioavailability of functional food factors has been well investigated using rodent models. Recently, many of the biological processes have been reported to follow diurnal rhythms recurring every 24 h. Therefore, absorption and metabolism of functional food factors influenced by the biological processes may vary with time of day. Consequently, the evaluation of the bioavailability of functional food factors using rodent models should take into consideration the timing of consumption. In this review, we provide a perspective overview of the diurnal rhythm of biological processes involved in the bioavailability of functional food factors, particularly flavonoids. PMID:23704810

Tsurusaki, Takashi; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Aoshima, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Sakono, Masanobu; Shimoi, Kayoko



Executive Cognitive Function as a Correlate and Predictor of Child Food Intake and Physical Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated were relations among executive cognitive function (ECF), food intake, and physical activity in 184, fourth grade children. It was hypothesized that self-reported ECF proficiency would predict greater self-reported fruit\\/vegetable intake and physical activity, but less “snack food” intake. Structural models demonstrated that ECF was significantly correlated with less concurrent snack food intake and greater concurrent fruit\\/vegetable intake, but not

Nathaniel Riggs; Chih-Ping Chou; Donna Spruijt-Metz; Mary Ann Pentz



Functional properties of anthocyanins and betalains in plants, food, and in human nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthocyanins and betalains play important roles both in plant physiology, visual attraction for pollinators and seed dispersers, but also in food mainly defining its aesthetic value. Since anthocyanin and betalain structures allow to predict only part of their appearance, additional chemical and anatomical functions are required to modulate the appearance of plants and coloured food. Physiological effects that the same

Florian C Stintzing; Reinhold Carle



Factors Associated With Food Insecurity Among U.S. Elderly Persons: Importance of Functional Impairments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The authors examined factors associated with the food insecurity of elderly persons in the United States and particularly how functional impairments were associated with food insecurity. Methods. Data were from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-94) and the Nutri- tion Survey of the Elderly in New York State (1994). The authors used multiple logistic regression and

Jung Sun Lee; Edward A. Frongillo


Executive Cognitive Function and Food Intake in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The current study investigated relations among neurocognitive skills important for behavioral regulation, and the intake of fruit, vegetables, and snack food in children. Design: Participants completed surveys at a single time point. Setting: Assessments took place during school. Participants: Participants were 107 fourth-grade children…

Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann



Food and symptom generation in functional gastrointestinal disorders: physiological aspects.  


The response of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to ingestion of food is a complex and closely controlled process, which allows optimization of propulsion, digestion, absorption of nutrients, and removal of indigestible remnants. This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms that control the response of the GIT to food intake. During the cephalic phase, triggered by cortical food-related influences, the GIT prepares for receiving nutrients. The gastric phase is dominated by the mechanical effect of the meal volume. Accumulation of food in the stomach activates tension-sensitive mechanoreceptors, which in turn stimulate gastric accommodation and gastric acid secretion through the intrinsic and vago-vagal reflex pathways. After meal ingestion, the tightly controlled process of gastric emptying starts, with arrival of nutrients in the duodenum triggering negative feedback on emptying and stimulating secretion of digestive enzymes through the neural (mainly vago-vagal reflex, but also intrinsic) and endocrine (release of peptides from entero-endocrine cells) pathways. Several types of specialized receptors detect the presence of all main categories of nutrients. In addition, the gastrointestinal mucosa expresses receptors of the T1R and T2R families (taste receptors) and several members of the transient receptor potential channel family, all of which are putatively involved in the detection of specific tastants in the lumen. Activation of nutrient and taste sensors also activates the extrinsic and intrinsic neural, as well as entero-endocrine, pathways. During passage through the small bowel, nutrients are progressively extracted, and electrolyte-rich liquid intestinal content with non-digestible residue is delivered to the colon. The colon provides absorption of the water and electrolytes, storage of non-digestible remnants of food, aboral propulsion of contents, and finally evacuation through defecation. PMID:23458851

Farré, Ricard; Tack, Jan



Bioactive compounds in seaweed: functional food applications and legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seaweed is more than the wrap that keeps rice together in sushi. Seaweed biomass is already used for a wide range of other\\u000a products in food, including stabilising agents. Biorefineries with seaweed as feedstock are attracting worldwide interest\\u000a and include low-volume, high value-added products and vice versa. Scientific research on bioactive compounds in seaweed usually\\u000a takes place on just a

Susan Løvstad Holdt; Stefan Kraan



Innovative analytical tools to characterize prebiotic carbohydrates of functional food interest.  


Functional foods are one of the most interesting areas of research and innovation in the food industry. A functional food or functional ingredient is considered to be any food or food component that provides health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Recently, consumers have shown interest in natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in the diet owing to their various beneficial effects for health. Water-soluble fibers and nondigestible oligosaccharides and polysaccharides can be defined as functional food ingredients. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin are resistant to direct metabolism by the host and reach the caecocolon, where they are used by selected groups of beneficial bacteria. Furthermore, they are able to improve physical and structural properties of food, such as hydration, oil-holding capacity, viscosity, texture, sensory characteristics, and shelf-life. This article reviews major innovative analytical developments to screen and identify FOS, inulins, and the most employed nonstarch carbohydrates added or naturally present in functional food formulations. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection (HPAEC-PED) is one of the most employed analytical techniques for the characterization of those molecules. Mass spectrometry is also of great help, in particularly matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), which is able to provide extensive information regarding the molecular weight and length profiles of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Moreover, MALDI-TOF-MS in combination with HPAEC-PED has been shown to be of great value for the complementary information it can provide. Some other techniques, such as NMR spectroscopy, are also discussed, with relevant examples of recent applications. A number of articles have appeared in the literature in recent years regarding the analysis of inulin, FOS, and other carbohydrates of interest in the field and they are critically reviewed. PMID:23420135

Corradini, Claudio; Lantano, Claudia; Cavazza, Antonella



Understanding heterogeneity among elderly consumers: an evaluation of segmentation approaches in the functional food market.  


It is beneficial for both the public health community and the food industry to meet nutritional needs of elderly consumers through product formats that they want. The heterogeneity of the elderly market poses a challenge, however, and calls for market segmentation. Although many researchers have proposed ways to segment the elderly consumer population, the elderly food market has received surprisingly little attention in this respect. Therefore, the present paper reviewed eight potential segmentation bases on their appropriateness in the context of functional foods aimed at the elderly: cognitive age, life course, time perspective, demographics, general food beliefs, food choice motives, product attributes and benefits sought, and past purchase. Each of the segmentation bases had strengths as well as weaknesses regarding seven evaluation criteria. Given that both product design and communication are useful tools to increase the appeal of functional foods, we argue that elderly consumers in this market may best be segmented using a preference-based segmentation base that is predictive of behaviour (for example, attributes and benefits sought), combined with a characteristics-based segmentation base that describes consumer characteristics (for example, demographics). In the end, the effectiveness of (combinations of) segmentation bases for elderly consumers in the functional food market remains an empirical matter. We hope that the present review stimulates further empirical research that substantiates the ideas presented in this paper. PMID:24924413

van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M



Effect of Dietary Carotenoid Supplementation on Food Intake and Immune Function in a Songbird with no Carotenoid  

E-print Network

Effect of Dietary Carotenoid Supplementation on Food Intake and Immune Function in a Songbird endogenous accumulation and health. We tested the effect of carotenoid supplementation on food intake, caro

McGraw, Kevin J.


Macroscopic and microscopic spatially-resolved analysis of food contaminants and constituents using laser-ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging.  


Laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) does not require very flat surfaces, high-precision sample preparation, or the addition of matrix. Because of these features, LAESI-MSI may be the method of choice for spatially-resolved food analysis. In this work, LAESI time-of-flight MSI was investigated for macroscopic and microscopic imaging of pesticides, mycotoxins, and plant metabolites on rose leaves, orange and lemon fruit, ergot bodies, cherry tomatoes, and maize kernels. Accurate mass ion-map data were acquired at sampling locations with an x-y center-to-center distance of 0.2-1.0 mm and were superimposed onto co-registered optical images. The spatially-resolved ion maps of pesticides on rose leaves suggest co-application of registered and banned pesticides. Ion maps of the fungicide imazalil reveal that this compound is only localized on the peel of citrus fruit. However, according to three-dimensional LAESI-MSI the penetration depth of imazalil into the peel has significant local variation. Ion maps of different plant alkaloids on ergot bodies from rye reveal co-localization in accordance with expectations. The feasibility of using untargeted MSI for food analysis was revealed by ion maps of plant metabolites in cherry tomatoes and maize-kernel slices. For tomatoes, traveling-wave ion mobility (TWIM) was used to discriminate between different lycoperoside glycoalkaloid isomers; for maize quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) was successfully used to elucidate the structure of a localized unknown. It is envisaged that LAESI-MSI will contribute to future research in food science, agriforensics, and plant metabolomics. PMID:24961635

Nielen, Michel W F; van Beek, Teris A



Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been suspected that the relative abundance of specific nutrients can affect cognitive processes and emotions. Newly described influences of dietary factors on neuronal function and synaptic plasticity have revealed some of the vital mechanisms that are responsible for the action of diet on brain health and mental function. Several gut hormones that can enter the brain, or

Fernando Gómez-Pinilla



Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Dietary factors are important in the pathogenesis of CVD and may to a large degree determine CVD risk, but have been less extensively investigated. Functional foods are those that are thought to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond their basic nutritional functions. The food industry has started to market products labelled as “functional foods.” Although many review articles have focused on individual dietary variables as determinants of CVD that can be modified to reduce the risk of CVD, the aim of this current paper was to examine the impact of functional foods in relation to the development and progression of CVD. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the association between certain dietary patterns and cardiovascular health. Research into the cardio-protective potential of their dietary components might support the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This paper will also compare the effect of individual bioactive dietary compounds with the effect of some dietary patterns in terms of their cardiovascular protection. PMID:22570771

Alissa, Eman M.; Ferns, Gordon A.



Green tea: a novel functional food for the oral health of older adults.  


Functional foods are foods with positive health effects that extend beyond their nutritional value. They affect the function of the body and help in the management of specific health conditions. Green tea, a time-honoured Chinese herb, might be regarded as a functional food because of its inherent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antimutagenic properties. They are attributed to its reservoir of polyphenols, particularly the catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Owing to these beneficial actions, this traditional beverage was used in the management of chronic systemic diseases including cancer. Recently, it has been emphasized that the host immuno-inflammatory reactions destroy the oral tissues to a greater extent than the microbial activity alone. Green tea with its wide spectrum of activities could be a healthy alternative for controlling these damaging reactions seen in oral diseases, specifically, chronic periodontitis, dental caries and oral cancer, which are a common occurrence in the elderly population. PMID:24261512

Gaur, Sumit; Agnihotri, Rupali



Expansion and functional diversification of a leucyl aminopeptidase family that encodes the major protein constituents of Drosophila sperm  

PubMed Central

Background The evolutionary diversification of gene families through gene creation (and loss) is a dynamic process believed to be critical to the evolution of functional novelty. Previous identification of a closely related family of eight annotated metalloprotease genes of the M17 Merops family in the Drosophila sperm proteome (termed, Sperm-LeucylAminoPeptidases, S-LAPs 1-8) led us to hypothesize that this gene family may have experienced such a diversification during insect evolution. Results To assess putative functional activities of S-LAPs, we (i) demonstrated that all S-LAPs are specifically expressed in the testis, (ii) confirmed their presence in sperm by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, (iii) determined that they represent a major portion of the total protein in sperm and (iv) identified aminopeptidase enzymatic activity in sperm extracts using LAP-specific substrates. Functionally significant divergence at the canonical M17 active site indicates that the largest phylogenetic group of S-LAPs lost catalytic activity and likely acquired novel, as yet undetermined, functions in sperm prior to the expansion of the gene family. Conclusions Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses revealed the dramatic expansion of the S-LAP gene family during Drosophila evolution and copy number heterogeneity in the genomes of related insects. This finding, in conjunction with the loss of catalytic activity and potential neofunctionalization amongst some family members, extends empirical support for pervasive "revolving door" turnover in the evolution of reproductive gene family composition and function. PMID:21466698



Essential fatty acids as functional components of foods- a review.  


During the recent decades, awareness towards the role of essential fatty acids in human health and disease prevention has been unremittingly increasing among people. Fish, fish oils and some vegetable oils are rich sources of essential fatty acids. Many studies have positively correlated essential fatty acids with reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, infant development, cancer prevention, optimal brain and vision functioning, arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and neurological/neuropsychiatric disorders. Beneficial effects may be mediated through several different mechanisms, including alteration in cell membrane composition, gene expression or eicosanoid production. However, the mechanisms whereby essential fatty acids affect gene expression are complex and involve multiple processes. Further understanding of the molecular aspects of essential fatty acids will be the key to devising novel approaches to the treatment and prevention of many diseases. PMID:25328170

Kaur, Narinder; Chugh, Vishal; Gupta, Anil K



Bioavailability and metabolism of botanical constituents and enhancement of intestinal barrier function by caffeic acid derivatives in Caco-2 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000aPublic interest in botanical supplements has increased greatly in recent years as various plant materials might be used for anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, antioxidant and cancer preventive effects. Our long term goal is to improve our understanding of the characteristics of phytochemicals that contribute to human health benefits on gut functions, and thereby pave the way for optimizing herbal supplements for study

Zhiyi Qiang



Promoting functional foods as acceptable alternatives to doping: potential for information-based social marketing approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Substances with performance enhancing properties appear on a continuum, ranging from prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED) through dietary supplements to functional foods (FF). Anti-doping messages designed to dissuade athletes from using PEDs have been typically based on moralising sport competition and\\/or employing scare campaigns with focus on the negative consequences. Campaigns offering comparable and acceptable alternatives are nonexistent, nor

Ricky James; Declan P Naughton; Andrea Petróczi



Magical food and health beliefs: a portrait of believers and functions of the beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the present two studies were to delineate a portrait of people who are attracted to magical beliefs about food and health and to study the self-reported functions for the beliefs. Participants were Finnish men and women ranging in age from 15 to 66 years (N=3261 in study 1 and N=189 in study 2), and they filled in

Kia Aarnio; Marjaana Lindeman



Application of transfer functions to the thermal processing of particulate foods enclosed in liquid medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of transfer functions in foods for heat and mass transfer problems with variable boundary conditions has been the subject of several studies over the last decade.In this work, the heat processing of products immersed in a low-viscosity medium (where convection is the main heat transfer mechanism), is analyzed. The thermal histories are related to kinetic parameters to evaluate

Carlos A. Márquez; Antonio De Michelis; Viviana O. Salvadori; Rodolfo H. Mascheroni



Compounds in functional food fenugreek spice exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seeds of fenugreek plant (Trigonella foenum-graecum) are widely used in the preparation of seasonings, pickles, curry powders and dietary supplements. The fenugreek seeds are also used in traditional medicine to relieve the common cold, arthritic pain and high blood sugar. Therefore, we have investigated the functional food quality of fenugreek seeds by determining the lipid peroxidation (LPO) and cyclooxyganase

Yunbao Liu; Rajesh Kakani; Muraleedharan G. Nair


Functional foods and cardiometabolic diseases* International Task Force for Prevention of Cardiometabolic Diseases.  


Mounting evidence supports the hypothesis that functional foods containing physiologically-active components may be healthful. Longitudinal cohort studies have shown that some food classes and dietary patterns are beneficial in primary prevention, and this has led to the identification of putative functional foods. This field, however, is at its very beginning, and additional research is necessary to substantiate the potential health benefit of foods for which the diet-health relationships are not yet scientifically validated. It appears essential, however, that before health claims are made for particular foods, in vivo randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trials of clinical end-points are necessary to establish clinical efficacy. Since there is need for research work aimed at devising personalized diet based on genetic make-up, it seems more than reasonable the latter be modeled, at present, on the Mediterranean diet, given the large body of evidence of its healthful effects. The Mediterranean diet is a nutritional model whose origins go back to the traditional dietadopted in European countries bordering the Mediterranean sea, namely central and southern Italy, Greece and Spain; these populations have a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases than the North American ones, whose diet is characterized by high intake of animal fat. The meeting in Naples and this document both aim to focus on the changes in time in these two different models of dietary habits and their fall out on public health. PMID:25467217

Assmann, G; Buono, P; Daniele, A; Della Valle, E; Farinaro, E; Ferns, G; Krogh, V; Kromhout, D; Masana, L; Merino, J; Misciagna, G; Panico, S; Riccardi, G; Rivellese, A A; Rozza, F; Salvatore, F; Salvatore, V; Stranges, S; Trevisan, M; Trimarco, B; Vetrani, C



Child and parent perceived food-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders.  


It is unknown whether children with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders identify specific foods that exacerbate their GI symptoms. The objectives of this study were to determine the perceived role of food on GI symptoms and to determine the impact of food-induced symptoms on quality of life (QOL) in children with functional GI disorders. Between August and November 2010, 25 children ages 11 to 17 years old with functional GI disorders and a parent completed a food symptom association questionnaire and validated questionnaires assessing FGID symptoms and QOL. In addition, children completed a 24-hour food recall, participated in focus groups to identify problematic foods and any coping strategies, and discussed how their QOL was affected. Statistical analyses were conducted using ?2, t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed rank, and Spearman's ?. Children identified a median of 11 (range=2 to 25) foods as exacerbating a GI symptom, with the most commonly identified foods being spicy foods, cow's milk, and pizza. Several coping strategies were identified, including consuming smaller portions, modifying foods, and avoiding a median of 8 (range=1 to 20) foods. Children reported that food-induced symptoms interfered with school performance, sports, and social activities. Although the parent's assessment of their child's QOL negatively correlated with the number of perceived symptom-inducing foods in their child, this relationship was not found in the children. Findings suggest that specific foods are perceived to exacerbate GI symptoms in children with functional GI disorders. In addition, despite use of several coping strategies, food-induced symptoms can adversely impact children's QOL in several important areas. PMID:24360501

Carlson, Michelle J; Moore, Carolyn E; Tsai, Cynthia M; Shulman, Robert J; Chumpitazi, Bruno P



Functional Effects of Parasites on Food Web Properties during the Spring Diatom Bloom in Lake Pavin: A Linear  

E-print Network

Functional Effects of Parasites on Food Web Properties during the Spring Diatom Bloom in Lake Pavin Abstract This study is the first assessment of the quantitative impact of parasitic chytrids-derived fluxes. Model results support recent theories on the probable impact of parasites on food web function

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Sub and supercritical fluid extraction of functional ingredients from different natural sources: Plants, food-by-products, algae and microalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing interest of consumers in functional foods has brought about a rise in demand for functional ingredients obtained using “natural” processes. In this review, new environmentally clean technologies for producing natural food ingredients are discussed. This work provides an updated overview on the principal applications of two clean processes, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction, used to isolate

Miguel Herrero; Alejandro Cifuentes; Elena Ibañez



A model for the development of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti as a function of the available food.  


We discuss the preimaginal development of the mosquito Aedes aegypti from the point of view of the statistics of developmental times and the final body-size of the pupae and adults. We begin the discussion studying existing models in relation to published data for the mosquito. The data suggest a developmental process that is described by exponentially distributed random times. The existing data show as well that the idea of cohorts emerging synchronously is verified only in optimal situations created at the laboratory but it is not verified in field experiments. We propose a model in which immature individuals progress in successive stages, all of them with exponentially distributed times, according to two different rates (one food-dependent and the other food-independent). This phenomenological model, coupled with a general model for growing, can explain the existing observations and new results produced in this work. The emerging picture is that the development of the larvae proceeds through a sequence of steps. Some of the steps depend on the available food. While food is in abundance, all steps can be thought as having equal duration, but when food is scarce, those steps that depend on food take considerably longer times. For insufficient levels of food, increase in larval mortality sets in. As a consequence of the smaller rates, the average pupation time increases and the cohort disperses in time. Dispersion, as measured by standard deviation, becomes a quadratic function of the average time indicating that cohort dispersion responds to the same causes than delays in pupation and adult emergence. During the whole developmental process the larva grows monotonically, initially at an exponential rate but later at decreasing rates, approaching a final body-size. Growth is stopped by maturation when it is already slow. As a consequence of this process, there is a slight bias favoring small individuals: Small individuals are born before larger individuals, although the tendency is very weak. PMID:25451964

Romeo Aznar, Victoria; De Majo, María Sol; Fischer, Sylvia; Francisco, Diego; Natiello, Mario A; Solari, Hernán G



What are the ideal properties for functional food peptides with antihypertensive effect? A computational peptidology approach.  


Peptides with antihypertensive potency have long been attractive to the medical and food communities. However, serving as food additives, rather than therapeutic agents, peptides should have a good taste. In the present study, we explore the intrinsic relationship between the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and bitterness of short peptides in the framework of computational peptidology, attempting to find out the appropriate properties for functional food peptides with satisfactory bioactivities. As might be expected, quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling reveals a significant positive correlation between the ACE inhibition and bitterness of dipeptides, but this correlation is quite modest for tripeptides and, particularly, tetrapeptides. Moreover, quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics analysis of the structural basis and energetic profile involved in ACE-peptide complexes unravels that peptides of up to 4 amino acids long are sufficient to have efficient binding to ACE, and more additional residues do not bring with substantial enhance in their ACE-binding affinity and, thus, antihypertensive capability. All of above, it is coming together to suggest that the tripeptides and tetrapeptides could be considered as ideal candidates for seeking potential functional food additives with both high antihypertensive activity and low bitterness. PMID:23871047

Zhou, Peng; Yang, Chao; Ren, Yanrong; Wang, Congcong; Tian, Feifei



Acute effects of tea constituents L-theanine, caffeine, and epigallocatechin gallate on cognitive function and mood: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  


A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted on 11 randomized placebo-controlled human studies of acute effects of tea constituents L-theanine and epigallocatechin gallate, administered alone or in combination with caffeine, on cognitive function and mood. The outcome measures of mood were alertness, calmness, and contentedness, derived from the Bond-Lader scales, and state anxiety, from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Cognitive measures assessed were attentional switch, intersensory attention, and rapid visual information processing. Standardized mean differences between placebo and treatment groups are presented for each study and outcome measure. Meta-analysis using a random-effects model was conducted when data were available for three or more studies. Evidence of moderate effect sizes in favor of combined caffeine and L-theanine in the first 2 hours postdose were found for outcome measures Bond-Lader alertness, attentional switching accuracy, and, to a lesser extent, some unisensory and multisensory attentional outcomes. Moderator analysis of caffeine and L-theanine doses revealed trends toward greater change in effect size for caffeine dose than for L-theanine dose, particularly during the first hour postdose. PMID:24946991

Camfield, David A; Stough, Con; Farrimond, Jonathon; Scholey, Andrew B



Phytate-degrading Pediococcus pentosaceus CFR R123 for application in functional foods.  


The present work looks at the role of phytate-degrading Pediococcus pentosaceus CFR R123 application in functional foods to evaluate the fate of phytate and calcium solubility during fermentation. Under standard conditions, CFR R123 grown in modified MRS containing sodium phytate CFR R123 showed 43% degradation of sodium phytate in 15 minutes. Fermentation of malted finger millet seed coat (MFSC) and soya milk (SM) with CFR R123 for 12 h resulted in 5.6-12% phytate degradation and a notable increase in calcium availability (125%) was observed. The isolate CFR R123 was found to decrease the phytic acid levels resulting in increased levels of calcium during MFSC and soya milk fermentation. This study introduces phytate-degrading P. pentosaceus CFR R123 that can be employed as a starter culture as well as an ingredient of functional food to provide nutritive benefits to the consumer with a natural phenomenon. PMID:21831790

Raghavendra, P; Ushakumari, S R; Halami, P M



Obese adults have visual attention bias for food cue images: evidence for altered reward system function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:The major aim of this study was to investigate whether the motivational salience of food cues (as reflected by their attention-grabbing properties) differs between obese and normal-weight subjects in a manner consistent with altered reward system function in obesity.Methodology\\/Principal Findings:A total of 18 obese and 18 normal-weight, otherwise healthy, adult women between the ages of 18 and 35 participated in

E H Castellanos; E Charboneau; M S Dietrich; B P Bradley; K Mogg; R L Cowan



Rubus fruticosus L.: constituents, biological activities and health related uses.  


Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food. PMID:25072202

Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Moga, Marius



Functional Screening of Antibiotic Resistance Genes from a Representative Metagenomic Library of Food Fermenting Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) represent the predominant microbiota in fermented foods. Foodborne LAB have received increasing attention as potential reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR) determinants, which may be horizontally transferred to opportunistic pathogens. We have previously reported isolation of AR LAB from the raw ingredients of a fermented cheese, while AR genes could be detected in the final, marketed product only by PCR amplification, thus pointing at the need for more sensitive microbial isolation techniques. We turned therefore to construction of a metagenomic library containing microbial DNA extracted directly from the food matrix. To maximize yield and purity and to ensure that genomic complexity of the library was representative of the original bacterial population, we defined a suitable protocol for total DNA extraction from cheese which can also be applied to other lipid-rich foods. Functional library screening on different antibiotics allowed recovery of ampicillin and kanamycin resistant clones originating from Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus genomes. We report molecular characterization of the cloned inserts, which were fully sequenced and shown to confer AR phenotype to recipient bacteria. We also show that metagenomics can be applied to food microbiota to identify underrepresented species carrying specific genes of interest. PMID:25243126

Devirgiliis, Chiara; Barile, Simona; Perozzi, Giuditta



Functional screening of antibiotic resistance genes from a representative metagenomic library of food fermenting microbiota.  


Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) represent the predominant microbiota in fermented foods. Foodborne LAB have received increasing attention as potential reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR) determinants, which may be horizontally transferred to opportunistic pathogens. We have previously reported isolation of AR LAB from the raw ingredients of a fermented cheese, while AR genes could be detected in the final, marketed product only by PCR amplification, thus pointing at the need for more sensitive microbial isolation techniques. We turned therefore to construction of a metagenomic library containing microbial DNA extracted directly from the food matrix. To maximize yield and purity and to ensure that genomic complexity of the library was representative of the original bacterial population, we defined a suitable protocol for total DNA extraction from cheese which can also be applied to other lipid-rich foods. Functional library screening on different antibiotics allowed recovery of ampicillin and kanamycin resistant clones originating from Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus genomes. We report molecular characterization of the cloned inserts, which were fully sequenced and shown to confer AR phenotype to recipient bacteria. We also show that metagenomics can be applied to food microbiota to identify underrepresented species carrying specific genes of interest. PMID:25243126

Devirgiliis, Chiara; Zinno, Paola; Stirpe, Mariarita; Barile, Simona; Perozzi, Giuditta



Chemical Effects during Storage of Frozen Foods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)

Powrie, W. D.



Dietary fibre and fibre-rich by-products of food processing: Characterisation, technological functionality and commercial applications: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incidental products derived from the manufacturing or processing of plant based foods: cereals, fruits, vegetables, as well as algae, are sources of abundant dietary fibre. These fibre-rich by-products can fortify foods, increase their dietary fibre content and result in healthy products, low in calories, cholesterol and fat. They may also serve as functional ingredients to improve physical and structural properties

Mohamed Elleuch; Dorothea Bedigian; Olivier Roiseux; Souhail Besbes; Christophe Blecker; Hamadi Attia



Function and Food Webs of Springs Near Treeline in the Swiss National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated ecosystem function and food web structure of high elevation springs in the Swiss National Park. Functional characteristics were derived from measures of ecosystem metabolism, sediment respiration, and nutrient uptake experiments in 4 springs. Food webs were assessed using stable isotope analysis (C, N) of different ecosystem compartments from 20 springs encompassing 6 different spring types. Gross primary production (GPP) ranged from 2.4 to 4.3 g O2 m-2 d-1 and ecosystem respiration (ER) from 3.6 to 6.7 g O2 m-2 d-1, suggesting springs were net-heterotrophic (P/R<0.75). One iron-oxide rich spring had GPP = 65 and ER = 96 g O2 m-2 d-1. Bacterial abundances (DAPI) ranged from 2-3×108 cells/ml, and benthic sediments were mostly anaerobic. Uptake lengths of both N and P were <50 m, with uptake rates of P at 0.3-3.1 mg m-2 h-1 and N at 57-178 mg m-2 h-1, suggesting springs were important nutrient sinks. Food webs were simple (<8 taxa) and primarily detritus based. The dominate stonefly predator relied on instream production of invertebrates. Terrestrial predators (lycosid spiders) near springs fed on a terrestrial diet. These data suggest these springs derive most of their energy from allochthonous sources and are net-heterotrophic ecosystems.

Robinson, C. T.; Schmid, D.; Svoboda, M.



Can Suillus granulatus (L.) Roussel be classified as a functional food?  


The present work outlines a detailed chemical characterization of Suillus granulatus species, besides presenting the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of their methanolic extracts. The study was carried out with samples drawn from Portugal and Serbia in order to prove that though mushrooms are strongly influenced by the environment in which they develop, they have a specific chemical profile that can be typical of their genus/species. The studied species proved to be healthy foods, low in fat and rich in protein and carbohydrates, with mannitol and trehalose being the main free sugars detected. They also proved to be a source of organic and phenolic acids, as well as mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids and tocopherols. The Serbian samples revealed higher antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Accordingly, we find that the S. granulatus species can be considered to be a functional food, since it is a source of nutraceutical and biologically active compounds. PMID:25231126

Reis, Filipa S; Stojkovi?, Dejan; Barros, Lillian; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; ?iri?, Ana; Sokovi?, Marina; Martins, Anabela; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R



Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in a Market of Bolivian Immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina)  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas (“health-food stores”), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas. PMID:22203866

Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P.; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M.; Ulibarri, Emilio A.; Hurrell, Julio A.



Stable Binding of Alternative Protein-enriched Food Matrices with Concentrated Cranberry Bioflavonoids for Functional Food Applications  

PubMed Central

Defatted soy flour (DSF), soy protein isolate (SPI), hemp protein isolate (HPI), medium roast peanut flour (MPF) and pea protein isolate (PPI) stably bind and concentrate cranberry (CB) polyphenols, creating protein/polyphenol-enriched matrices. Proanthocyanidins (PAC) in the enriched matrices ranged from 20.75 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 10.68 mg/g (CB-SPI). Anthocyanins (ANC) ranged from 3.19 mg/g (CB-DSF) to 1.68 mg/g (CB-SPI), while total phenolics (TP) ranged from 37.61 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 21.29 mg/g (CB-SPI). LC-MS indicated that the enriched matrices contained all identifiable ANC, PAC and flavonols present in CB juice. Complexation with SPI stabilized and preserved the integrity of the CB polyphenolic components for at least 15 weeks at 37 °C. PAC isolated from enriched matrices demonstrated comparable anti-adhesion bioactivity to PAC isolated directly from CB juice (MIC 0.4 to 0.16 mg/mL), indicating their potential utility for maintenance of urinary tract health. Approximately 1.0 g of polyphenol-enriched matrix delivered the same amount of PAC available in one cup (300 mL) of commercial CB juice cocktail; which has been shown clinically to be the prophylactic dose for reducing recurring urinary tract infections. CB-SPI inhibited gram- positive and gram-negative bacterial growth. Nutritional and sensory analyses indicated that the targeted CB-matrix combinations have high potential for incorporation in functional food formulations. PMID:23786629

Grace, Mary H.; Guzman, Ivette; Roopchand, Diana E.; Moskal, Kristin; Cheng, Diana M.; Pogrebnyak, Natasha; Raskin, Ilya; Howell, Amy; Lila, Mary Ann



Difructose Dianhydrides (DFAs) and DFA-Enriched Products as Functional Foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review provides an overview of the current status of the chemistry and biology of di-d-fructose dianhydrides (DFAs) with a focus on their potential as functional foods. The history of this family of cyclic ketodisaccharides has expanded for almost 100 years and offers a paradigmatic example of artificial synthetic molecules that were identified as natural products later on and finally encountered in our own table. Issued from fundamental investigations on the reactivity of carbohydrates in strongly acidic media, DFAs remained laboratory curiosities for decades. Early reports on their isolation from plants raised doubts, until the formation of some DFA representatives by the action of microorganisms on fructans was reported in the middle 1980s. Since then, research on DFAs has run in parallel in the areas of microbiology and carbohydrate chemistry. Evidence of the potential of these compounds as functional food was accumulated from both sides, with the development of biotechnological processes for mass production of selected candidates and of chemical methodologies to prepare DFA-enriched products from sucrose or inulin. In 1994 a decisive discovery in the field took place in the laboratory of Jacques Defaye in Grenoble, France: the presence of DFAs in a commercial sucrose caramel was evidenced in a quite significant 18% mass proportion! The development of an efficient analytical protocol for DFAs and the stereoselective synthesis of individual standards allowed one to demonstrate that DFAs and their glycosylated derivatives (glycosyl-DFAs) are universally formed during caramelization reactions. They are not potential food products; they have actually always been in our daily food. Most important, they seem to exert beneficial effects: they are acariogenic, low-caloric, and promote the growth of beneficial microflora in the gut.

Mellet, Carmen Ortiz; Fernández, José M. García


The construction of web database server-client system for functional food factors.  


In food, other than known nutrients, such as lipid, carbohydrate, protein, vitamins, and minerals, many substances with physiological function and medicinal action exist, and it is contributing to healthy improvement and/or prevention of illness. Although carotenoid, flavonoid and polyphenol, terpenoid, volatile substance and sulfur compounds, peptide, etc. have the function of illness prevention, and research of those non-nutrient functional food factors (FFF) became globally active, the research of this field is not yet done systematically. We evaluate function of FFF and reappraise known knowledge, and this knowledge is standardized and accumulated, aimed at building a web database server-client system which is easy to use for the people and nutritional research. We also collected related data such as chemical characters of FFF from literatures and other source, and formatted them into the database. We constructed the web database server-client system with MySQL database server and Apache web server based on Linux, and used Tomcat JSP engine for data connecting since they were reliable in stability and speed. We are opening the database at for test now. PMID:15630306

Zhuo, Xing-Gang; Watanabe, Shaw



Preventive and Prophylactic Mechanisms of Action of Pomegranate Bioactive Constituents  

PubMed Central

Pomegranate fruit presents strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiobesity, and antitumoral properties, thus leading to an increased popularity as a functional food and nutraceutical source since ancient times. It can be divided into three parts: seeds, peel, and juice, all of which seem to have medicinal benefits. Several studies investigate its bioactive components as a means to associate them with a specific beneficial effect and develop future products and therapeutic applications. Many beneficial effects are related to the presence of ellagic acid, ellagitannins (including punicalagins), punicic acid and other fatty acids, flavonoids, anthocyanidins, anthocyanins, estrogenic flavonols, and flavones, which seem to be its most therapeutically beneficial components. However, the synergistic action of the pomegranate constituents appears to be superior when compared to individual constituents. Promising results have been obtained for the treatment of certain diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, intestinal inflammation, and cancer. Although moderate consumption of pomegranate does not result in adverse effects, future studies are needed to assess safety and potential interactions with drugs that may alter the bioavailability of bioactive constituents of pomegranate as well as drugs. The aim of this review is to summarize the health effects and mechanisms of action of pomegranate extracts in chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:23737845

Viladomiu, Monica; Hontecillas, Raquel; Lu, Pinyi; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep



Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix G: Ground support system analysis. Appendix H: Galley functional details analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capabilities for preflight feeding of flight personnel and the supply and control of the space shuttle flight food system were investigated to determine ground support requirements; and the functional details of an onboard food system galley are shown in photographic mockups. The elements which were identified as necessary to the efficient accomplishment of ground support functions include the following: (1) administration; (2) dietetics; (3) analytical laboratories; (4) flight food warehouse; (5) stowage module assembly area; (6) launch site module storage area; (7) alert crew restaurant and disperse crew galleys; (8) ground food warehouse; (9) manufacturing facilities; (10) transport; and (11) computer support. Each element is discussed according to the design criteria of minimum cost, maximum flexibility, reliability, and efficiency consistent with space shuttle requirements. The galley mockup overview illustrates the initial operation configuration, food stowage locations, meal assembly and serving trays, meal preparation configuration, serving, trash management, and the logistics of handling and cleanup equipment.



Blood pressure lowering effect of lactotripeptides assumed as functional foods: a meta-analysis of current available clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral assumption of lactotripeptides Valine–Proline–Proline (VPP) and Isoleucine–Proline–Proline (IPP) as nutraceuticals or functional foods is supposed to improve blood pressure (BP) control by angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibition. However, data derived from clinical trials have reached conflicting conclusions. To perform a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled clinical trials evaluating the anti-hypertensive effect of lactotripeptides assumed as nutraceuticals or functional foods. Trials identified using a

A F G Cicero; B Gerocarni; L Laghi; C Borghi; AFG Cicero



Hericium erinaceus (Yamabushitake): a unique resource for developing functional foods and medicines.  


Hericium erinaceus (HE) is a fungus inhabiting the mountainous areas of the northeast territories in Asia. HE has been used in traditional folk medicine and medicinal cuisine in China, Korea and Japan. Evidence has been adduced for a variety of physiological effects, including anti-aging, anti-cancer, anti-gastritis, and anti-metabolic disease properties. Hence, HE is an attractive target resource for developing not only medicines, but also functional foods. Basic studies on the physiological functions of HE and on the chemical identification of its active ingredients have progressed in recent decades. In this article, we provide an overview of the biochemical and pharmacological studies on HE, especially of its antitumor and neuroprotective functions, together with a survey of recent developments in the chemical analysis of its polysaccharides, which comprise its major active components. PMID:25317734

Wang, Mingxing; Gao, Yang; Xu, Duoduo; Konishi, Tetsuya; Gao, Qipin



Engineering functional nanothin multilayers on food packaging: ice-nucleating polyethylene films.  


Polyethylene is the most prevalent plastic and is commonly used as a packaging material. Despite its common use, there are not many studies on imparting functionalities to those films which can make them more desirable for frozen food packaging. Here, commercial low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films were oxidized by UV-ozone (UVO) treatment to obtain a negatively charged hydrophilic surface to allow fabrication of functional multilayers. An increase in hydrophilicity was observed when films were exposed to UVO for 4 min and longer. Thin multilayers were formed by dipping the UVO-treated films into biopolymer solutions, and extracellular ice nucleators (ECINs) were immobilized onto the film surface to form a functional top layer. Polyelectrolyte adsorption was studied and confirmed on silicon wafers by measuring the water contact angles of the layers and investigating the surface morphology via atomic force microscopy. An up to 4-5 °C increase in ice nucleation temperatures and an up to 10 min decrease in freezing times were observed with high-purity deionized water samples frozen in ECIN-coated LDPE films. Films retained their ice nucleation activity up to 50 freeze-thaw cycles. Our results demonstrate the potential of using ECIN-coated polymer films for frozen food application. PMID:23611300

Gezgin, Zafer; Lee, Tung-Ching; Huang, Qingrong



Potential herbs and herbal nutraceuticals: food applications and their interactions with food components.  


Since ancient times, herbs have been used as natural remedies for curing many physiological disorders. Traditional medicinal literature appreciated their value as nature's gift to mankind for the healing of illnesses. Some of the herbs have also been used for culinary purposes, and few of them have been used in cheese manufacture both as coagulating agents and flavor ingredients. Scientific investigations regarding biological activity and toxicity of chemical moieties present in many herbs have been carried out over a period of time. Consequently, literature related to the use of herbs or their functional ingredients in foods and their interaction with food constituents has been appearing in recent times. This article presents the information regarding some biologically active constituents occurring in commonly used herbs, viz., alkaloids, anthraquinones, bitters, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and essential oils, their physiological functionalities, and also the description of few herbs of importance, viz., Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Bacopa monniera, Pueraria tuberose, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia arjuna, and Aloe vera, in terms of their chemical composition, biological functionality, and toxicity. This article also reviews the use of herbs and their active ingredients in foods and their interactions with different food constituents. PMID:24915396

Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Panjagari, Narender Raju; Singh, R R B; Patil, G R



Bioactive food components that enhance gammadelta T cell function may play a role in cancer prevention.  


Gammadelta T cells are found largely within the epithelium and recognize antigens differently than their alphabeta T cell counterparts. TCR delta-/- knock out mice exhibit a rapid tumor onset, along with increased tumor incidence. Although limited, research demonstrates that nutrients and bioactive food components can influence gammadelta T cell cytotoxicity, cytokine secretion, and proliferative capacity, and the results are nonetheless intriguing. Among other functions, gammadelta T cells play a role in immunosurveillance against malignant cells, as shown by the T cell receptor (TCR)delta-/- knock out mice that exhibit a rapid tumor onset and increased tumor incidence. Some common dietary modifiers of gammadelta T cell numbers or activity are apple condensed tannins, dietary nucleotides, fatty acids, and dietary alkylamines. A recent clinical study demonstrated that ingesting a fruit and vegetable juice concentrate increased the number of circulating gammadelta T cells. Clinical studies also document that the oral consumption of a tea component, L-theanine, enhances gammadelta T cell proliferation and interferon-gamma secretion. The significance of these studies awaits additional examination of the influence of exposures and duration on these and other food components. Adoptive transfer and TCRdelta-/- knock out mice models should be used more extensively to determine the physiological impact of the number and activity of these cells as a function of dietary component exposures. While clarifying the diet and gammadelta T interrelationship may not be simple, the societal implications are enormous. PMID:18156395

Percival, Susan S; Bukowski, Jack F; Milner, John



The role of functional foods in the psychobiology of health and disease.  


The effect of psychological stress on health is becoming a serious concern, with figures from the World Health Organization showing that stress-related disorders affect nearly 450 million individuals worldwide. Heightened physiological stress responses and psychosocial factors have been linked to disease pathways such as hypertension and CVD. This has prompted significant interest within the scientific community, public health bodies and industry to employ interventions to control and reduce the impact of stress on health. There is now strong potential for functional foods to offer stress management benefits. Various physiological pathways have been targeted by specific dietary supplements for stress reduction, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system. Presently there are a number of ingredients, which include vitamin C, milk proteins, a number of herbal extracts (ginkgo biloba, ginseng, kava, valerian and lemon balm), and n-3 fatty acids, that have demonstrated potential stress reactivity-lowering and mood-enhancing effects, although further work is required to substantiate the efficacy in human subjects. Dietary supplements that can alleviate excessive stress responses may play an increasingly important role for the maintenance of health in a stressful environment. However, future research should employ a greater range of measures that will provide stronger evidence to substantiate functional food claims for stress relief. PMID:19079896

Hamer, Mark; Owen, Gail; Kloek, Joris



Role of Bioactive Food Components in Diabetes Prevention: Effects on Beta-Cell Function and Preservation  

PubMed Central

Bioactive compounds found in fruits and vegetables can have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic effects and can be protective against various diseases and metabolic disorders. These beneficial effects make them good candidates for the development of new functional foods with potential protective and preventive properties for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the most relevant results concerning the effects of various bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, vitamins, and carotenoids on several aspects of beta-cell functionality. Studies using animal models with induced diabetes and diabetic patients support the hypothesis that bioactive compounds could ameliorate diabetic phenotypes. Published data suggest that there might be direct effects of bioactive compounds on enhancing insulin secretion and preventing beta-cell apoptosis, and some compounds might modulate beta-cell proliferation. Further research is needed to establish any clinical effects of these compounds. PMID:25092987

Oh, Yoon Sin; Jun, Hee-Sook



Functional food and nutraceutical registration processes in Japan and China: a diffusion of innovation perspective.  


Purpose - This paper looks into the functional food and nutraceutical registration processes in Japan and China. The Japanese have developed the Foods for Specified Health Use (FOSHU) registration process whereas the Chinese have put into place the Health Food (HF) registration process. The aim of this paper is to compare the regulation processes between the two countries in search for answers to three core empirical questions: (1) how have the registration processes developed and changed? (2) What are the similarities and differences between the processes of registration in the two countries investigated? (3) Why are the registration processes similar/different? Method - The study was conducted using secondary sources. The literature surveyed covered academic journals, trade journals, magazine and newspaper articles, market reports, proceedings, books and web pages of relevant regulatory authorities and regulatory consultants. Information from the more recently published sources was used preferentially over older sources. As well as using the most recent sources, information was selected on the basis of which source it was from. Official regulations and SFDA and MHLW websites would contain accurate and up to date information and information from here would be taken as true over other sources of information. Results - The two diagrams of the registration processes respectively in Japan and China clearly show that there are similarities and differences. There are six categories under which these can be found: (1) the scientific evidence required; (2) the application process; (3) the evaluation process; (4) the law and the categories of products; (5) the labels and the types of claims; and finally (6) the cost and the time involved. Conclusions -The data analysis suggests that the process of diffusion of innovation played a role in the development of the regulations. Further it was found that while Japan was at the outset a pioneer innovator in nutraceutical registration processes, there are indications that in more recent years it too imitated other countries. NOVELTY STATEMENT: The assortment of regulatory regimes creates much uncertainty for the firms and the lack of familiarity and poor knowledge of the regulatory situation increases the risk of failure. The research presented in this paper provides highly valuable information to any biotech/pharmaceutical/nutraceutical companies developing their market entry strategy in Japan and China. There are few national and international studies of drug registration application processes but even fewer comparative studies of functional food and neutraceutical registration application processes such as this one and none using a diffusion of innovation perspective. PMID:19183509

Patel, Darshika; Dufour, Yvon; Domigan, Neil



High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods—A Review  

PubMed Central

Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:22072996

Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid



Evaluation of coriander spice as a functional food by using in vitro bioassays.  


Coriander leaves and seeds are widely used as a condiment and spice. The use of roasted coriander seeds in food and beverage is very common. In this study, we investigated raw and roasted coriander seeds for their functional food quality using antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and human tumour cell proliferation inhibitory assays. The hexane and methanolic extracts of raw and roasted coriander seeds showed identical chromatographic and bioassay profiles. Chromatographic purification of the roasted seed extracts afforded tripetroselinin as the predominant component. Other isolates were petroselinic acid, 1,3-dipetroselinin, 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol, 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-O-?-d-glucopyranoside and linalool. Hexane and methanolic extracts of both raw and roasted seeds and pure isolates from them showed comparable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities to the positive controls used in the assays, and inhibited the growth of human tumour cells AGS (gastric carcinoma), DU-145 and LNCaP (prostate carcinoma), HCT-116 (colon carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma) and NCI-H460 (lung carcinoma) by 4-34%, respectively. PMID:25148954

Zhang, Chuan-Rui; Dissanayake, Amila A; Kevsero?lu, Kudret; Nair, Muraleedharan G



Metabolic fate of ellagitannins: implications for health, and research perspectives for innovative functional foods.  


Consumption of dietary ellagitannins (ETs) has been associated with different health benefits. Nonetheless, ETs are not bioavailable as such and are metabolized in vivo. They are partially converted into ellagic acid (EA) in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but this first metabolite is also poorly bioavailable. In the lower GI tract, EA and residual ETs are metabolized by gut microbiota to produce urolithins, which, together with their conjugate relatives, persist at relatively high concentrations in plasma and urine for days after ingestion of dietary ETs. Thus, ETs and EA may exert local health benefits on the GI tract but systemic health benefits are more likely to result from urolithins. Cellular models suggest that, at physiological concentration, urolithins are active against chronic degenerative diseases. Health benefits have been proven in animal models and during clinical studies. Even so, the crucial involvement of gut microbiota in ET bioconversion induces important variability of physiological response among humans, giving rise to the concept of high and low urolithin producers. This variability among consumers in obtaining potential health benefits from dietary ETs raises new challenges for the functional food industry. Different research perspectives are discussed to tackle this significant issue for nutritionists, food technologists, and consumers. PMID:24580560

Garcia-Muñoz, Cristina; Vaillant, Fabrice



Food Chains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, you will discover the way food chains function by viewing four different types of food chains and designing your favorite one. How is the flow of energy traced through a food chain? Use your cluster organizer to record information for four different food chains and what the consumers, 1st level consumers, 2nd level consumers, and 3rd level consumers are and what they eat. Begin by viewing ecosystems: Introduction to Ecosystems Now that you know what an ...

Hammond, Ms.



Affiliation Package CONSTITUENT CLUBS  

E-print Network

Affiliation Package CONSTITUENT CLUBS =Club Name: To become affiliated, you must do the following (tick as you comply): Hold an AGM (Annual General Meeting): q Give Notice of the AGM to Club members and Arc Student Development via email to, at least 7 days in advance of the meeting

Blennerhassett, Peter


Preparation and storage stability of flaxseed chutney powder, a functional food adjunct.  


Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) chutney powder (FSCP), a palatable functional food adjunct was prepared by mixing roasted and powdered flaxseeds with other selected spice ingredients. The protein content of these powders was 24.2% and 23.4% in flaxseed powder (FSP) and FSCP respectively. Total polyphenol content of FSP and FSCP was 439 and 522 mg/100 g respectively. The free fatty acid content of FSCP increased from 0.38 to 1.03 after 6 months storage. The critical moisture content for FSP and FSCP was 10.2 and 13.5%, which were equilibrated at 82 and 68% RH respectively and the ERH studies indicated both the powders are non-hygroscopic in nature. Overall sensory quality of FSCP served with cooked rice scored 'good' (7.4) even after 6 months of storage. PMID:24425897

Rao, Pamidighantam Prabhakara; Rao, Galla Narsing; Mala, Kripanand Sathiya; Balaswamy, Karakala; Satyanarayana, Akula



Genetic diversity of functional food species Spinacia oleracea L. by protein markers.  


Exploration of genetic diversity contributes primarily towards crop improvement. Spinaciaoleracea L. is a functional food species but unfortunately the genetic diversity of this vegetable is still unexplored. Therefore, this research was planned to explore the genetic diversity of S. oleracea by using morphological and protein markers. Protein profile of 25 accessions was generated on sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel. Total allelic variation of 27 bands was found. Out of these, 20 were polymorphic and the rest of the bands were monomorphic. Molecular weights of the bands ranged from 12.6 to 91.2 kDa. Major genetic differences were observed in accession 20541 (Peshawar) followed by 20180 (Lahore) and 19902 (AVRDC). Significant differences exist in the protein banding pattern. This variation can further be studied by advanced molecular techniques, including two-dimensional electrophoresis and DNA markers. PMID:24499432

Rashid, M; Yousaf, Z; Haider, M S; Khalid, S; Rehman, H A; Younas, A; Arif, A



Predator-dependent functional response in wolves: from food limitation to surplus killing.  


The functional response of a predator describes the change in per capita kill rate to changes in prey density. This response can be influenced by predator densities, giving a predator-dependent functional response. In social carnivores which defend a territory, kill rates also depend on the individual energetic requirements of group members and their contribution to the kill rate. This study aims to provide empirical data for the functional response of wolves Canis lupus to the highly managed moose Alces alces population in Scandinavia. We explored prey and predator dependence, and how the functional response relates to the energetic requirements of wolf packs. Winter kill rates of GPS-collared wolves and densities of cervids were estimated for a total of 22 study periods in 15 wolf territories. The adult wolves were identified as the individuals responsible for providing kills to the wolf pack, while pups could be described as inept hunters. The predator-dependent, asymptotic functional response models (i.e. Hassell-Varley type II and Crowley-Martin) performed best among a set of 23 competing linear, asymptotic and sigmoid models. Small wolf packs acquired >3 times as much moose biomass as required to sustain their field metabolic rate (FMR), even at relatively low moose abundances. Large packs (6-9 wolves) acquired less biomass than required in territories with low moose abundance. We suggest the surplus killing by small packs is a result of an optimal foraging strategy to consume only the most nutritious parts of easy accessible prey while avoiding the risk of being detected by humans. Food limitation may have a stabilizing effect on pack size in wolves, as supported by the observed negative relationship between body weight of pups and pack size. PMID:25109601

Zimmermann, Barbara; Sand, Håkan; Wabakken, Petter; Liberg, Olof; Andreassen, Harry Peter



Permanence and periodic solutions for an impulsive reaction-diffusion food-chain system with ratio-dependent functional response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An impulsive reaction-diffusion periodic food-chain system with ratio-dependent functional response is investigated in the present paper. Sufficient conditions for the ultimate boundedness and permanence of the food-chain system are established based on the comparison theory of differential equation and upper and lower solution method. By constructing appropriate auxiliary function, the conditions for the existence of a unique globally stable positive periodic solution are also obtained. Some numerical examples are presented to verify our results. A discussion is given in the end of the paper.

Liu, Zijian; Zhong, Shouming; Liu, Xiaoyun



Food synergy: an operational concept for understanding nutrition1234  

PubMed Central

Research and practice in nutrition relate to food and its constituents, often as supplements. In food, however, the biological constituents are coordinated. We propose that “thinking food first”' results in more effective nutrition research and policy. The concept of food synergy provides the necessary theoretical underpinning. The evidence for health benefit appears stronger when put together in a synergistic dietary pattern than for individual foods or food constituents. A review of dietary supplementation suggests that although supplements may be beneficial in states of insufficiency, the safe middle ground for consumption likely is food. Also, food provides a buffer during absorption. Constituents delivered by foods taken directly from their biological environment may have different effects from those formulated through technologic processing, but either way health benefits are likely to be determined by the total diet. The concept of food synergy is based on the proposition that the interrelations between constituents in foods are significant. This significance is dependent on the balance between constituents within the food, how well the constituents survive digestion, and the extent to which they appear biologically active at the cellular level. Many examples are provided of superior effects of whole foods over their isolated constituents. The food synergy concept supports the idea of dietary variety and of selecting nutrient-rich foods. The more we understand about our own biology and that of plants and animals, the better we will be able to discern the combinations of foods, rather than supplements, which best promote health. PMID:19279083

Gross, Myron D; Tapsell, Linda C



Chemical constituents of Asparagus  

PubMed Central

Asparagus species (family Liliaceae) are medicinal plants of temperate Himalayas. They possess a variety of biological properties, such as being antioxidants, immunostimulants, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antioxytocic, and reproductive agents. The article briefly reviews the isolated chemical constituents and the biological activities of the plant species. The structural formula of isolated compounds and their distribution in the species studied are also given. PMID:22228964

Negi, J. S.; Singh, P.; Joshi, G. P.; Rawat, M. S.; Bisht, V. K.



Formulation and characterization of functional foods based on fruit and vegetable residue flour.  


Fruits and vegetables are extensively processed and the residues are often discarded. However, due to their rich composition, they could be used to minimize food waste. This study aimed to develop food products based on the solid residue generated from the manufacture of an isotonic beverage. This beverage was produced based on integral exploitation of several fruits and vegetables: orange, passion fruit, watermelon, lettuce, courgette, carrot, spinach, mint, taro, cucumber and rocket. The remaining residue was processed into flour and its functional properties were evaluated. The fruit and vegetable residue (FVR) flour was incorporated with different levels (20 to 35 %) into biscuits and cereal bars. The proximate composition, microbiological stability until 90 days and consumer acceptance were analyzed. The FVR flour presented a higher water holding capacity than oil holding capacity, respectively 7.43 and 1.91 g g(-1) of flour, probably associated with its high levels of carbohydrates (53 %) and fibres (21.5 %). Biscuits enriched with 35 % of FVR flour presented significantly higher fibre, ranging from 57 % to 118 % and mineral contents, from 25 % to 37 % than when only 20 % was added. Cereal bars presented about 75 % of fibres and variable mineral contents between 14 % and 37 %. The incorporation of FVR did not change the fat content. The microbiological examinations are within acceptable limits according to international regulation. The incorporation of FVR flour did not impair consumer acceptance, the sensory attributes averaged around 6. The chemical, microbiological and sensorial results of the designed products attested for an alternative towards applying and reducing agro-industrial wastes. PMID:25694690

Ferreira, Mariana S L; Santos, Mônica C P; Moro, Thaísa M A; Basto, Gabriela J; Andrade, Roberta M S; Gonçalves, Édira C B A



Food Crystallization and Egg Products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a food product can be either beneficial or detrimental and is of particular importance in candy and frozen desserts. The most common crystal in foods is sugar which affects th...


Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs of individual plants: plant species and community effects.  


Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers and providers of resources to the soil food web, are of vital importance for the composition, structure, and functioning of soil communities. However, whether natural soil food webs that are completely open to immigration and emigration differ underneath individual plants remains unknown. In a biodiversity restoration experiment we first compared the soil nematode communities of 228 individual plants belonging to eight herbaceous species. We included grass, leguminous, and non-leguminous species. Each individual plant grew intermingled with other species, but all plant species had a different nematode community. Moreover, nematode communities were more similar when plant individuals were growing in the same as compared to different plant communities, and these effects were most apparent for the groups of bacterivorous, carnivorous, and omnivorous nematodes. Subsequently, we analyzed the composition, structure, and functioning of the complete soil food webs of 58 individual plants, belonging to two of the plant species, Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae) and Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae). We isolated and identified more than 150 taxa/groups of soil organisms. The soil community composition and structure of the entire food webs were influenced both by the species identity of the plant individual and the surrounding plant community. Unexpectedly, plant identity had the strongest effects on decomposing soil organisms, widely believed to be generalist feeders. In contrast, quantitative food web modeling showed that the composition of the plant community influenced nitrogen mineralization under individual plants, but that plant species identity did not affect nitrogen or carbon mineralization or food web stability. Hence, the composition and structure of entire soil food webs vary at the scale of individual plants and are strongly influenced by the species identity of the plant. However, the ecosystem functions these food webs provide are determined by the identity of the entire plant community. PMID:21058562

Bezemer, T M; Fountain, M T; Barea, J M; Christensen, S; Dekker, S C; Duyts, H; van Hal, R; Harvey, J A; Hedlund, K; Maraun, M; Mikola, J; Mladenov, A G; Robin, C; de Ruiter, P C; Scheu, S; Setälä, H; Smilauer, P; van der Putten, W H



Determination of Constituent Composition of Hemoglobin and Structural/Morphological Parameters of Skin Based on Approximating Functions for Radiation Fluxes Backscattered from Skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained an analytical expression approximating the dependence of the backscatter signals, detected outside the region where the skin is irradiated, on the optical and structural parameters of the skin. A method is proposed for fast determination of the optical and structural/morphological parameters of skin and also the constituent composition of hemoglobin (including oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, and sulfhemoglobin), based on measurements of the spatially resolved spectral backscatter signals and their analytical dependence on the unknown parameters. Based on numerical modeling results for the backscatter signal, we studied the effectiveness of the proposed method and have shown that it is possible to improve the diagnostic power as a result of simultaneous processing of the spectral and spatial characteristics of backscatter from skin.

Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.



Traditional plants as source of functional foods: a review Plantas tradicionales como fuente de alimentos funcionales: una revisión  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to assess the following plants as functional foods that can be found in Mexico: white sapote (Casimiroa edulis), jicama (Pachyrhizus spp.), amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus), sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), oregano (Lippia graveolens), pitahaya (Hylocereus sp.), agave (Agave americana), pelitre (Heliopsis longipes), and purslane (Portulaca oleracea L). The main characteristics, components and active substances, forms of

G. Rivera; V. Bocanegra-García; A. Monge



Impact of Exotic Invertebrate Invaders on Food Web Structure and Function in the Great Lakes: a Network Analysis Approach  

E-print Network

Impact of Exotic Invertebrate Invaders on Food Web Structure and Function in the Great Lakes a second wave of species invasions dominated by exotic invertebrates- Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha invasions (e.g., sea Lamprey and Alewife), these invertebrates inserted themselves in the lower trophic


From functional food to medicinal product: Systematic approach in analysis of polyphenolics from propolis and wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade we have been working on standardization of propolis extract and determination of active constituents of wine those are rich in polyphenolics and have nutritional as well as therapeutic value. Here we are summarizing our results and providing overview on systematic approach how to analyse natural products rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids. Chromatographic methods (thin layer

Marica Medi?-Šari?; Vesna Rastija; Mirza Boji?; Željan Maleš



Functional foods effective for hepatitis C: Identification of oligomeric proanthocyanidin and its action mechanism.  


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis and currently infects approximately 170 million people worldwide. An infection by HCV causes high rates of chronic hepatitis (> 75%) and progresses to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma ultimately. HCV can be eliminated by a combination of pegylated ?-interferon and the broad-spectrum antiviral drug ribavirin; however, this treatment is still associated with poor efficacy and tolerability and is often accompanied by serious side-effects. While some novel direct-acting antivirals against HCV have been developed recently, high medical costs limit the access to the therapy in cost-sensitive countries. To search for new natural anti-HCV agents, we screened local agricultural products for their suppressive activities against HCV replication using the HCV replicon cell system in vitro. We found a potent inhibitor of HCV RNA expression in the extracts of blueberry leaves and then identified oligomeric proanthocyanidin as the active ingredient. Further investigations into the action mechanism of oligomeric proanthocyanidin suggested that it is an inhibitor of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) such as hnRNP A2/B1. In this review, we presented an overview of functional foods and ingredients efficient for HCV infection, the chemical structural characteristics of oligomeric proanthocyanidin, and its action mechanism. PMID:25544874

Ishida, Yo-Ichi; Takeshita, Masahiko; Kataoka, Hiroaki



Functional foods effective for hepatitis C: Identification of oligomeric proanthocyanidin and its action mechanism  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis and currently infects approximately 170 million people worldwide. An infection by HCV causes high rates of chronic hepatitis (> 75%) and progresses to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma ultimately. HCV can be eliminated by a combination of pegylated ?-interferon and the broad-spectrum antiviral drug ribavirin; however, this treatment is still associated with poor efficacy and tolerability and is often accompanied by serious side-effects. While some novel direct-acting antivirals against HCV have been developed recently, high medical costs limit the access to the therapy in cost-sensitive countries. To search for new natural anti-HCV agents, we screened local agricultural products for their suppressive activities against HCV replication using the HCV replicon cell system in vitro. We found a potent inhibitor of HCV RNA expression in the extracts of blueberry leaves and then identified oligomeric proanthocyanidin as the active ingredient. Further investigations into the action mechanism of oligomeric proanthocyanidin suggested that it is an inhibitor of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) such as hnRNP A2/B1. In this review, we presented an overview of functional foods and ingredients efficient for HCV infection, the chemical structural characteristics of oligomeric proanthocyanidin, and its action mechanism. PMID:25544874

Ishida, Yo-ichi; Takeshita, Masahiko; Kataoka, Hiroaki



Strain screening, fermentation, separation, and encapsulation for production of nattokinase functional food.  


This study presents a novel and integrated preparation technology for nattokinase functional food, including strain screening, fermentation, separation, and encapsulation. To rapidly screen a nattokinase-productive strain, PCR-based screening method was combined with fibrinolytic activity-based method, and a high productive strain, Bacillus subtilis LSSE-22, was isolated from Chinese soybean paste. Reduction of poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA) concentration may contribute to separation of nattokinase and reduction of late-onset anaphylaxis risk. Chickpeas were confirmed as the favorable substrate for enhancement of nattokinase production and reduction of ?-PGA yield. Using cracked chickpeas, the nattokinase activity reached 356.25?±?17.18 FU/g (dry weight), which is much higher than previous reports. To further reduce ?-PGA concentration, ethanol fractional extraction and precipitation were applied for separation of nattokinase. By extraction with 50 % and precipitation with 75 % ethanol solution, 4,000.58?±?192.98 FU/g of nattokinase powders were obtained, and the activity recovery reached 89?±?1 %, while ?-PGA recovery was reduced to 21?±?2 %. To improve the nattokinase stability at acidic pH condition, the nattokinase powders were encapsulated, and then coated with methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate copolymer. After encapsulation, the nattokinase was protected from being denatured under various acid conditions, and pH-responsible controlled release at simulated intestinal fluid was realized. PMID:22987066

Wei, Xuetuan; Luo, Mingfang; Xie, Yuchun; Yang, Liangrong; Li, Haojian; Xu, Lin; Liu, Huizhou



Quality traits of Indian peanut cultivars and their utility as nutritional and functional food.  


Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is considered as a highly nutritious foodstuff. Of late, the importance of peanut as a functional food has been growing. Kernels of forty-one Indian peanut cultivars were analyzed for their oil, fatty acid profiles, sucrose, raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs); phenolics, and free amino acids contents along with antioxidant capacity. The range and the mean value (given in parenthesis) for each of the traits analysed were, oil: 44.1-53.8% (50.1%), O/L ratio: 0.9-2.8 (1.4), sucrose: 2.61-6.5% (4.63%), RFOs: 0.12-0.76% (0.47%), phenolics: 0.14-0.39% (0.23%), free amino acids: 0.052-0.19% (0.12%) and antioxidant capacity: 1.05-6.97 (3.40) ?mol TEg(-1). The significant correlation between phenol content and antioxidant capacity suggests phenol content as an easy marker for rapid screening of genotypes for their antioxidant capacity. A few cultivars with desirable traits and their prospective utility were identified which would be useful for future breeding programme to develop nutritional superior peanuts. PMID:25148966

Bishi, S K; Lokesh, Kumar; Mahatma, M K; Khatediya, N; Chauhan, S M; Misra, J B



Lead and cadmium in functional health foods and Korean herbal medicines.  


Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in functional health foods (FHF) and Korean herbal medicines (KHM) were analysed by the standard addition method with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A total of 672 samples were collected from 2347 people (1015 adults, 557 students and 775 infants and children) who lived in Korea. Pb and Cd concentrations were analysed in the samples (FHF, n = 535; KHM, n = 50). Method validation was carried out using standard reference material (SRM), recovery rate and limits of detection and quantification. Recovery rates for Pb and Cd using three SRMs were 94.9%-101.6% and 96.7%-115.2%, respectively. Mean Pb values in FHF and KHM were 0.146 and 0.349 mg kg?¹, respectively. Mean Cd levels in FHF and KHM were 0.035 and 0.056 mg kg?¹, respectively. Mean values in Spirulina and yeast products were the highest in the FHF samples (0.940 mg kg?¹ for Pb in Spirulina products and 0.115 mg kg?¹ for Cd in yeast products). PMID:24779882

Kim, Wooseok; Lee, Kwang-Geun




Microsoft Academic Search

Rats exposed to 100- to 200-r doses of x rays in utero between days 14 ; and 18 of gestation were placed on a 22-hr food deprivation cycle. Their ages at ; the start of the experiment varied from 75 to 735 days. Speed of adjustment to ; the food deprivation, measured in terms of the number of days that

R. S. Tacker; E. Furchtgott



Invited review: Caseins and the casein micelle: their biological functions, structures, and behavior in foods.  


A typical casein micelle contains thousands of casein molecules, most of which form thermodynamically stable complexes with nanoclusters of amorphous calcium phosphate. Like many other unfolded proteins, caseins have an actual or potential tendency to assemble into toxic amyloid fibrils, particularly at the high concentrations found in milk. Fibrils do not form in milk because an alternative aggregation pathway is followed that results in formation of the casein micelle. As a result of forming micelles, nutritious milk can be secreted and stored without causing either pathological calcification or amyloidosis of the mother's mammary tissue. The ability to sequester nanoclusters of amorphous calcium phosphate in a stable complex is not unique to caseins. It has been demonstrated using a number of noncasein secreted phosphoproteins and may be of general physiological importance in preventing calcification of other biofluids and soft tissues. Thus, competent noncasein phosphoproteins have similar patterns of phosphorylation and the same type of flexible, unfolded conformation as caseins. The ability to suppress amyloid fibril formation by forming an alternative amorphous aggregate is also not unique to caseins and underlies the action of molecular chaperones such as the small heat-shock proteins. The open structure of the protein matrix of casein micelles is fragile and easily perturbed by changes in its environment. Perturbations can cause the polypeptide chains to segregate into regions of greater and lesser density. As a result, the reliable determination of the native structure of casein micelles continues to be extremely challenging. The biological functions of caseins, such as their chaperone activity, are determined by their composition and flexible conformation and by how the casein polypeptide chains interact with each other. These same properties determine how caseins behave in the manufacture of many dairy products and how they can be used as functional ingredients in other foods. PMID:23958008

Holt, C; Carver, J A; Ecroyd, H; Thorn, D C



Intake of Phthalate-Tainted Foods Alters Thyroid Functions in Taiwanese Children  

PubMed Central

Background On April-May, 2011, two Taiwan chemical companies were found to have intentionally added phthalates, Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and/or Di-isononyl phthalate, as a substitute of emulsifier to many foodstuffs. This study aimed to investigate whether exposure to these foods altered endocrine functions in children aged ?10 years and, if so, whether those changes could be reversed by stopping exposure. Methods One Phthalates Clinic for Children was established in southern Taiwan between May 31 and June 17, 2011. All eligible children had their exposure information, blood and/or urine specimens collected. Endocrine functions were assessed in serum. The exposure groups were categorized into three (High, >500 ppm, Low, 1–500 ppm, and No, <1 ppm of DEHP). After six months, some children were followed up for the selected endocrine hormones. Results Sixty children were eligible in this study; all were Tanner stage 1 with no pubic hair. Compared to non-exposed group, both high and low exposure groups had significantly lower serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels (P?=?0.001 and 0.024). At six months follow-up, serum triiodothyronine (T3) levels was significantly changed (P?=?0.034) in high exposure group (n?=?13). For serum estradiol (E2), the detectable rate (?8 pg/mL) decreased from 76.9% (10/13) to 30.8% (4/13) (P?=?0.070). Conclusions This study shows that serum TSH levels can be altered when children were exposed to high concentrations of phthalate-tainted foodstuffs. Serum E2 and T3 may be partially recovered after stopping exposure. PMID:23383031

Wu, Ming-Tsang; Wu, Chia-Fang; Chen, Bai-Hsiun; Chen, Eric K.; Chen, Yi-Ling; Shiea, Jentaie; Lee, Wei-Te; Chao, Mei-Chyn; Wu, Jiunn-Ren



Functional foods-based diet as a novel dietary approach for management of type 2 diabetes and its complications: A review  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes is a complicated metabolic disorder with both short- and long-term undesirable complications. In recent years, there has been growing evidence that functional foods and their bioactive compounds, due to their biological properties, may be used as complementary treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this review, we have highlighted various functional foods as missing part of medical nutrition therapy in diabetic patients. Several in vitro, animal models and some human studies, have demonstrated that functional foods and nutraceuticals may improve postprandial hyperglycemia and adipose tissue metabolism modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Functional foods may also improve dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, and attenuate oxidative stress and inflammatory processes and subsequently could prevent the development of long-term diabetes complications including cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. In conclusion available data indicate that a functional foods-based diet may be a novel and comprehensive dietary approach for management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24936248

Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Azizi, Fereidoun



A randomised controlled trial of a probiotic ‘functional food’ in the management of irritable bowel syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common condition characterised by pain, distension and altered bowel habit. Evidence suggests functional foods containing probiotics improve gastrointestinal transit, however, data are limited by short follow-up periods and evaluation in selected populations. Methods A multi-centre, randomized, double blind, controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a probiotic vs non-probiotic dairy product on symptoms in IBS with a constipation element (IBS – Constipation or IBS – Mixed profile). Set in 13 general practices within central England. Individuals meeting the ROME III criteria for IBS, aged 18–65 completed a pre-study diary. Eligible individuals were randomized to consume dairy ‘yoghurt’ products which either did or did not contain active probiotics twice daily and to complete a daily diary. Primary outcome was subjective global assessment of symptom relief at week 4. Other outcomes comprised, IBS symptom scores, pain, bloating and flatulence levels, stool frequency, stool consistency, ease of bowel movement and quality of life. Results 179 were randomized (91 active, 88 placebo). 76 (43 active, 33 placebo) completed the study. No significant between group differences existed at 4 weeks (57% active vs 53% placebo, reported adequate relief (p = 0.71)). By week 8, 46% active vs 68% placebo reported adequate relief (p = 0.03). This was sustained at week 12. Conclusions Significant improvements were reported for most outcomes in all trial participants but improvement did not differ by group. This trial does not provide evidence for effectiveness of a probiotic in IBS, in variance with a body of published literature and review conclusions. Differential drop out may however cloud interpretation of data. UK Trial registration:ISRCTN78863629 PMID:23496803



Development of a functional food or drug against unloading-mediated muscle atrophy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is a primary regulator of muscle protein turnover, providing a mechanism for selective degradation of regulatory and structural proteins. This pathway is constitutively active in muscle fibers and mediates both intracellular signaling events and normal muscle protein turnover. However, conditions of decreased muscle use, so called unloading, remarkably stimulate activity of this pathway, resulting in loss of muscle protein. In fact, we previously reported that expression of several ubiquitin ligase genes, such as MuRF-1, Cbl-b, and Siah-1A, which are rate-limiting enzymes of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway, are significantly up-regulated in rat skeletal muscle during spaceflight. Moreover, we found that Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1, an important intermediates of IGF-1 signal transduction, contributes to muscle atrophy during unloading. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1 leads to prevention of muscle atrophy during unloading. In this study, we aimed to evaluate oligopeptide as an inhibitor against ubiquitination of IRS-1 by Cbl-b. We synthesized various oligopeptides that may competitively inhibit the binding of Cbl-b to IRS-1 on the basis of their structures and screened inhibitory effects of these synthesized oligopeptides on Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination of IRS-1 using in vitro ubiquitination systems. We found that two synthetic oligopeptides with specific amino acid sequences effectively inhibited interaction with Cbl-b and IRS-1, resulting in decreased ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1 (Patent pending). In contrast, we also found inhibitory activity against Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination of IRS-1 in soy protein-derived oligopeptides, whereas their inhibitory effects were weaker than those of synthetic oligopeptides. Our results suggest that specific oligopeptides may be available as a functional food against the muscle atrophy, especially through downregulation of the Cbl-b-mediated IRS-1 degradation.

Nikawa, Takeshi; Nakao, Reiko; Kagawa, Sachiko; Yamada, Chiharu; Abe, Manami; Tamura, Seiko; Kohno, Shohei; Sukeno, Akiko; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Okumura, Yuushi; Ishidoh, Kazumi


Cactus Pear: A Fruit of Nutraceutical and Functional Importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constantly increasing demand for nutraceuticals is paralleled by a more pronounced request for natural ingredients and health-promoting foods. The multiple functional properties of cactus pear fit well this trend. Recent data revealed the high content of some chemical constituents, which can give added value to this fruit on a nutritional and technological functionality basis. High levels of betalains, taurine,

Antonio Piga



Membrane Bioreactor Technology for the Development of Functional Materials from Sea-Food Processing Wastes and Their Potential Health Benefits  

PubMed Central

Sea-food processing wastes and underutilized species of fish are a potential source of functional and bioactive compounds. A large number of bioactive substances can be produced through enzyme-mediated hydrolysis. Suitable enzymes and the appropriate bioreactor system are needed to incubate the waste materials. Membrane separation is a useful technique to extract, concentrate, separate or fractionate the compounds. The use of membrane bioreactors to integrate a reaction vessel with a membrane separation unit is emerging as a beneficial method for producing bioactive materials such as peptides, chitooligosaccharides and polyunsaturated fatty acids from diverse seafood-related wastes. These bioactive compounds from membrane bioreactor technology show diverse biological activities such as antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antitumor, anticoagulant, antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. This review discusses the application of membrane bioreactor technology for the production of value-added functional materials from sea-food processing wastes and their biological activities in relation to health benefits. PMID:24957872

Kim, Se-Kwon; Senevirathne, Mahinda



Nutrition, brain function and cognitive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military interest in the effects of nutritional factors on cognitive function has stimulated considerable research on a variety of food constituents. This paper will review the research on the amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, caffeine and carbohydrate. It will focus on research that addresses the potential utility of these compounds in military applications, particularly the acute, as opposed to chronic,

Harris R Lieberman



Two functional serotonin polymorphisms moderate the effect of food reinforcement on BMI  

PubMed Central

Food reinforcement, or the motivation to eat, has been associated with increased energy intake, greater body weight and prospective weight gain. Much of the previous research on the reinforcing value of food has focused on the role of dopamine, but it may be worthwhile to examine genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin and opioid systems as these neurotransmitters have been shown to be related to reinforcement processes and to influence energy intake. We examined the relationship among 44 candidate genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine, serotonin and opioid systems, and food reinforcement and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 245 individuals. Polymorphisms in the Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-LPR) and serotonin receptor 2A genes (rs6314) moderated the effect of food reinforcement on BMI, accounting for an additional 5-10% variance and revealed a potential role of the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs6314 in the serotonin 2A receptor as a differential susceptibility factor for obesity. Differential susceptibility describes a factor that can confer either risk or protection depending on a second variable, such that rs6314 is predictive of both high and low BMI based on the level of food reinforcement, while the diathesis stress or dual-gain model influences only one end of the outcome measure. The interaction with MAOA-LPR better fit the dual-risk or diathesis stress model, with the 3.5R/4R allele conferring protection for individuals low in food reinforcement. These results provide new insight into genes theoretically involved in obesity and support the hypothesis that genetics moderate the association between food reinforcement on BMI. PMID:23544600

Carr, Katelyn A.; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D.; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K.; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard; Faith, Myles; Allison, David; Stice, Eric; Epstein, Leonard H.



Occurrence of toxigenic fungi and determination of mycotoxins by HPLC-FLD in functional foods and spices in China markets.  


Twenty-four samples including 14 functional foods and 10 spices obtained from Chinese markets were examined for their mould profile. The mycotoxin contamination levels were also determined by an optimized HPLC-FLD method. 124 fungal isolates belonging to four different genera were recovered with Aspergillus and Penicillium as predominant fungi, with an incidence of 66.1% and 15.3%, respectively. In functional foods Aspergillus niger section (57.1%) was isolated more frequently, followed by Aspergillus flavi section (50.0%) and Aspergillus ochraceus section (21.4%), with the most contaminated samples being Coix seeds. Similar fungal presence and frequency were encountered in spice with A. niger section group (60.0%) and A. flavi section (40.0%) as main fungi. Cumin and Pricklyash peel samples showed the highest fungal contamination. Four functional foods and three spices were found to be positive at low levels for mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 (up to 0.26?g/kg) and ochratoxin A (OTA) (5.0?g/kg). The more frequently detected mycotoxin was AFB1 (16.7%). PMID:24176349

Kong, Weijun; Wei, Riwei; Logrieco, Antonio F; Wei, Jianhe; Wen, Jing; Xiao, Xiaohe; Yang, Meihua



Effects of safranal, a constituent of saffron, and vitamin E on nerve functions and histopathology following crush injury of sciatic nerve in rats.  


Safranal is one of the major components of saffron and has many biological effects such as antioxidant property. The present study investigated the effects of safranal on sciatic nerve function after induction of crush injury. We also used of vitamin E as a reference potent antioxidant agent. In anesthetized rats, right sciatic nerve was crushed using a small haemostatic forceps. Functional recovery was assessed using sciatic functional index (SFI). Acetone spray and von Frey filament tests were used for neuropathic pain assay. Histopathological changes including severities of Wallerian degeneration of sciatic nerve and gastrocnemius muscle atrophy were investigated by light microscopy. Blood levels of malodialdehyde (MDA) were also measured. The SFI values were accelerated, cold and mechanical allodynia were suppressed, the severities of Wallerian degeneration and muscular atrophy were improved, and the increased MDA level was reversed with 10 consecutive days intraperitoneal injections of 0.2 and 0.8 mg/kg of safranal and 100 mg/kg of vitamin E. It is concluded that safranal and vitamin E produced same improving effects on crushed-injured sciatic nerve functions. Inhibition of oxidative stress pathway may be involved in improving effects of safranal and vitamin E on functions and histopathology of an injured peripheral nerve. PMID:24315349

Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Maroufi, Shirin; Kazemi-Shojaei, Sharare; Erfanparast, Amir; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Taati, Mina; Dabbaghi, Milad; Escort, Mona



The use of dry Jerusalem artichoke as a functional nutrient in developing extruded food with low glycaemic index.  


This study considers the use of dry Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as a functional nutrient in developing food products with enhanced nutritional characteristics and low glycaemic index (GI). Three different formulations based on buckwheat and JA were developed and processed using extrusion technology. Nutritional properties including the levels of total dietary fibre (TDF), protein, inulin, total carbohydrates and lipids were analysed. A clinical study was performed on ten healthy volunteers (aged between 21 and 56) to determine the level of GI and glycaemic load (GL). The results revealed that JA significantly (P<0.05) increased the levels of TDF and inulin whilst decreasing carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. The resulting products had a significant (P<0.05) effect on IAUC between reference food and extruded products, GI and GL. Samples containing 80% of Jerusalem artichoke were considered as a low GI food whilst samples containing 30% and 60% of Jerusalem artichoke as a medium GI food. A similar trend was seen in terms of GL. PMID:25660861

Radovanovic, Ana; Stojceska, Valentina; Plunkett, Andrew; Jankovic, Slobodan; Milovanovic, Dragan; Cupara, Snezana



Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.  


Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers. PMID:24760975

Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David



The Importance of Take-Out Food Packaging Attributes: Conjoint Analysis and Quality Function Deployment Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research aims to investigate the importance of take-out food packaging attributes, using conjoint analysis and QFD approach among consumers of take-out food products in Jakarta, Indonesia. The conjoint results indicate that perception about packaging material (such as paper, plastic, and polystyrene foam) plays the most important role overall in consumer perception. The clustering results that there is strong segmentation in which take-out food packaging material consumer consider most important. Some consumers are mostly oriented toward the colour of packaging, while another segment of customers concerns on packaging shape and packaging information. Segmentation variables based on packaging response can provide very useful information to maximize image of products through the package's impact. The results of House of Quality development described that Conjoint Analysis - QFD is a useful combination of the two methodologies in product development, market segmentation, and the trade off between customers' requirements in the early stages of HOQ process

Lestari Widaningrum, Dyah



An analysis of food-web structure and function in a shortgrass prairie, a mountain meadow, and a lodgepole pine forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of the below-ground detrital food web was similar in three different semiarid vegetation types: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta subsp. latifolia), mountain meadow (Agropyron smithii), and shortgrass prairie (Bouteloua gracilis). The densities of component food-web functional groups and the response to removal of component groups, differed however. As measured by biomass, bacteria were dominant in the meadow and prairie,

E. R. Ingham; J. C. Moore



(An information method based on bibliometric analysis of keywords used for data structuring and classification in newly emerging scientific fields. Example: functional food)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article addresses a methodological procedure based on keyword analysis and structuring of data into information systems in the field of functional foods as a newly emerging scientific field within the broader scope of food sciences and technology. Experiment was based on selection of a research field or research subject, selection of search profile, selection and processing of relevant databases,

Simona JUVAN


Evaluation of the antioxidant effect of a new functional food enriched with Sideritis euboea in healthy subjects.  


Sideritis euboea is a Greek plant that is traditionally consumed as a beverage (mountain tea). From in vitro studies, its extract has shown antioxidant and estrogenic activities. In our study we used S. euboea as an enriching food factor in order to produce a new functional food, a jelly dessert, in order to explore its antioxidant effects if consumed on a daily basis by healthy subjects. In this placebo-controlled clinical trial, 63 subjects were recruited for a 1-month nutritional intervention. Twelve subjects were excluded. The remaining 51 subjects were randomly classified in the intervention group (daily consumption of the jelly containing 0.3 g of S. euboea extract) or the placebo group (daily consumption of the same jelly without the enrichment). Vitamins C, A, and E, glutathione, coenzyme Q10, total nitrites, nitrates, total nitrogen oxide, nitrites/nitrates ratio, and total antioxidant status were measured in blood samples before and after the intervention. After the intervention, free glutathione and coenzyme Q10 increased, and nitrites decreased significantly in both groups. The other antioxidant markers were not altered. No statistical significant differences were observed between the two groups. The daily consumption of the functional food, for 30 days, had no effects on the antioxidant status of healthy volunteers. PMID:19857076

Skouroliakou, Maria; Kastanidou, Olympia; Stathopoulou, Maria; Vourli, Georgia



Bioactive food components that enhance gammadelta T cell function may play a role in cancer prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gammadelta T cells are found largely within the epithelium and recognize antigens differently than their alphabeta T cell counterparts. TCR delta-\\/- knock out mice exhibit a rapid tumor onset, along with increased tumor incidence. Although limited, research demonstrates that nutrients and bioactive food components can influence gammadelta T cell cytotoxicity, cytokine secretion, and proliferative capacity, and the results are nonetheless

Susan S. Percival; Jack F. Bukowski; John A. Milner



Regulatory effects of a fermented food concentrate on immune function parameters in healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveNutrition is known to influence the immune system and can thereby modulate resistance to infection. The objective of this clinical trial was to assess the influence of a cascade-fermented food consisting of fruits, nuts, and vegetables rich in polyphenols (Regulat) on the immune system in healthy volunteers.

Christiane Schoen; Anne Schulz; Jennifer Schweikart; Sabine Schütt; Volker von Baehr



Mesolimbic dopaminergic system activity as a function of food reward: A microdialysis study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mesolimbic dopaminergic system (MDS) has been shown to be implicated in feeding behaviors. The present experiment was conducted to examine the effects of the sensory properties of food ingested on MDS activity. Microdialysis coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was employed to measure the extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and its main metabolites (DOPAC and HVA) in

Patricia Martel; Marc Fantino



Application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Authentication of Functional Food Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the authentication of edible fats and oils has become an important issue for food producers, consumers, and regulatory authorities due to religious and economic reasons. Some high-priced edible oils such as extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), virgin coconut oil (VCO), and cod liver oil (CLO) are adulterated with lower price oils to improve profits. These oils can

Abdul Rohman; Y. B. Che Man



Demystifying the U.S. Food and Drug Administration: I. Understanding agency structure and function.  


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for oversight of the safety and efficacy of pharmaceuticals and devices, including biologics and devices that combine biologics with other materials. Within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research is specifically responsible for the evaluation and approval of biological products. This department of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has a series of mechanisms in place to aid researchers in the process of developing new biologics. This article outlines the study phases involved in developing new biologics and how the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research and investigators can work together to facilitate this process. It also discusses issues specific to biologics that have been encountered in the past and that investigators should consider when developing and obtaining approval for new biologics. The equivalent center within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for approving medical devices is the Center for Devices and Radiological Health. The equivalent process of development and approval of medical devices is similarly discussed. Finally, essential contacts for investigators within the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research and the Center for Devices and Radiological Health are provided. PMID:24867731

Levi, Benjamin; Lisiecki, Jeffrey; Rubin, Peter; D'Amico, Richard A; Hume, Keith M; Seward, Bill; Cederna, Paul S



Mechanical properties of foods used in experimental studies of primate masticatory function  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In vivo studies of jaw-muscle behavior have been integral factors in the development of our current understanding the primate masticatory apparatus. However, even though it has been shown that food textures and mechanical properties influence jaw- muscle activity during mastication, very little effo...


Identification of epicatechin as one of the key bioactive constituents of polyphenol-enriched extracts that demonstrate an anti-allergic effect in a murine model of food allergy.  


Polyphenols are naturally derived bioactive compounds with numerous reported health benefits. We have previously reported on the beneficial effect of a polyphenol-enriched apple extract in a murine model of food allergy. The objectives of the present study were to elucidate the class of bioactive polyphenols that exhibit a beneficial anti-allergic effect and to assess whether the protective effect matches the in vivo bioavailable metabolite concentrations. Female BALB/c mice were sensitised to ovalbumin (OVA) following the protocol of a well-established murine model of food allergy. They were fed diets containing polyphenol-enriched extracts or purified epicatechin for 8 d after the last sensitisation. The sensitised mice were orally challenged with OVA after the intervention. The allergy symptoms, in addition to allergen-specific serum Ig concentrations and gene expression profiles in the intestine, of the control and treated mice were compared. Plasma samples were collected to compare the concentrations of bioavailable epicatechin metabolites in the treatment groups. Polyphenol-enriched fruit extracts containing epicatechin exhibited a significant anti-allergic effect in vivo. This effect was unambiguously attributed to epicatechin, as oral administration of this purified polyphenol to sensitised mice by inclusion in their diet modulated allergy symptoms in a dose-dependent manner. Immune parameters were also affected by the administration of epicatechin. Bioavailability measurements in plasma indicated that the attenuation of allergy symptoms could be due to the higher concentrations of bioavailable epicatechin metabolites. In conclusion, epicatechin is a key bioactive polyphenol that has the ability to modulate allergy outcomes in sensitised mice. PMID:24854295

Singh, Anurag; Demont, Audrey; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Holvoet, Sébastien; Lévêques, Antoine; Lepage, Melissa; Nutten, Sophie; Mercenier, Annick



Rat mammary gland fatty acid synthase: localization of the constituent domains and two functional polyadenylation/termination signals in the cDNA.  

PubMed Central

The rat fatty acid synthase (FAS) is active only as a dimer, although the eight component functions are contained in a single polypeptide chain. Using mRNA from lactating rat mammary glands a cDNA expression library was established. With the overlapping immunologically positive clones we have an 8.9kb cDNA sequence for rat FAS. In the 3'-nontranslated region of the rat FAS cDNA we find a prototype polyadenylation/termination signal and 779 nucleotides upstream, a mutated one. Both of these polyadenylation/termination signals are used and give rise to two equally abundant mRNA species which are coordinately regulated. In the derived amino acid sequence we could locate six of the eight component functions; their order is NH2- beta-ketoacyl synthase - acetyl/malonyl transferases -enoyl reductase - acyl carrier protein - thioesterase -COOH. Comparison of FAS from different sources shows that the primary sequence is conserved only for the active residues and the amino acids in their immediate vicinity. Images PMID:2915923

Schweizer, M; Takabayashi, K; Laux, T; Beck, K F; Schreglmann, R



Long-term association of food and nutrient intakes with cognitive and functional1 decline: a 13-year follow-up study of elderly French women2  

E-print Network

1 Long-term association of food and nutrient intakes with cognitive and functional1 decline: a 13, as well as higher intakes of dairy dessert and ice-cream. IADL impairment was45 associated with lower

Boyer, Edmond


The Biochemical and Functional Food Properties of the Bowman-Birk Inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) is a small water-soluble protein present in soybean and almost all monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds. The molecular size of BBI ranges from 1,513 Da to about 20,000 Da. BBI is to seeds what ?1-antitrypsin is to humans. Soy-based food products rich in BBI include soybean grits, soymilk, oilcake, soybean isolate, and soybean protein concentrate. BBI is

Jack N. Losso



Food Crystals: the Role of Eggs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a food product can be beneficial or detrimental and is of particular importance in candy and frozen desserts. The most common crystal in foods is sugar which affects the quali...


Functional requirement of AgRP and NPY neurons in ovarian cycle-dependent regulation of food intake  

PubMed Central

In female mammals including rodents and humans, feeding decreases during the periovulatory period of the ovarian cycle, which coincides with a surge in circulating estrogen levels. Ovariectomy increases food intake, which can be normalized by estrogen treatment at a dose and frequency mimicking those during the estrous cycle. Furthermore, administration of estrogen to rodents potently inhibits food intake. Despite these well-known effects of estrogen, neuronal subtypes that mediate estrogen's anorexigenic effects have not been identified. In this study, we show that changes in hypothalamic expression of agouti-related protein (Agrp) and neuropeptide Y (Npy) coincide with the cyclic changes in feeding across the estrous cycle. These cyclic changes in feeding are abolished in mice with degenerated AgRP neurons even though these mice cycle normally. Central administration of 17?-estradiol (E2) decreases food intake in controls but not in mice lacking the AgRP neurons. Furthermore, E2 treatment suppresses fasting-induced c-Fos activation in AgRP and NPY neurons and blunts the refeeding response. Surprisingly, although estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) is the key mediator of estrogen's anorexigenic effects, we find that expression of ER? is completely excluded from AgRP and NPY neurons in the mouse hypothalamus, suggesting that estrogen may regulate these neurons indirectly via presynaptic neurons that express ER?. This study indicates that neurons coexpressing AgRP and NPY are functionally required for the cyclic changes in feeding across estrous cycle and that AgRP and NPY neurons are essential mediators of estrogen's anorexigenic function. PMID:19805233

Olofsson, Louise E.; Pierce, Andrew A.; Xu, Allison W.



Aegle marmelos fruit pectin for food and pharmaceuticals: Physico-chemical, rheological and functional performance.  


Pectin is used in a number of foods as a gelling agent, thickener, texturizer, emulsifier and stabilizer. Bael fruit, obtained from Aegle marmelos, is a rich source of pectin. Bael fruit pectin (BFP) was extracted from ripe Bael fruits. The process yielded 15% (w/w) pure BFP. The swelling index decreased in the following order: water>pH 7.4>pH 6.8>pH 1.2>HCl (0.1N). Galacturonic acid content of 87.8%, degree of esterification of 47.2%, 17.3% methoxy groups, 0.29% acetyl groups and equivalent weight of 1209.5, indicate it to be a good gelling agent and easily amenable to derivatization. BFP exhibited a significant concentration-dependent prolongation of prothrombin time. The absence of hemagglutinating activity and antinutritional factors coupled with the activity to confer better emulsion capacity, stability and antimicrobial activity gives BFP a clear edge over commercial citrus pectin (CP) for exploitation as an additive in food and pharmaceuticals. PMID:23499073

Jindal, Manish; Kumar, Vineet; Rana, Vikas; Tiwary, A K



HPLC, HPLC-MS and Lipidomics methods for the analysis of functional lipids in vegetable oils, nutraceuticals, and functional foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Functional lipids include triacylglycerols (some contain health-promoting omega-3 fatty acids), phytosterols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids, and related natural products. Until recently, thin layer chromatography was commonly used for their qualitative separation and gas chromatography (GC...


[Effects on the lipid profile in humans of a polyphenol-rich carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) extract in a dairy matrix like a functional food; a pilot study].  


The design of functional foods enriched in nutrients that favorably alter the lipid profile to prevent cardiovascular diseases and stimulate bowel function is of great interest. We have assayed a non-extractable-tannates-rich carob-fiber (PF-1®) in a milk matrix developed by Biosearch S.A. to discover its effects on the lipid profile and bowel function of human volunteers. A 4-week interventional study (400 mL daily consumption of this functional food, containing 20 g of PF-1®/L), was conducted: blood samples were analyzed for lipid profile, glucose, transaminases, creatinine and fat-soluble vitamins. The body-mass index and bowel function of the participants in the study were also measured. A tendency for triglyceride levels to diminish was observed in all participants (P = 0.066), and in the normal-cholesterol group in particular (P = 0.078). Another tendency to total cholesterol levels fell in the hypercholesterolemic group (P = 0.061) was also found. In the normal-cholesterol group, total cholesterol (CT), HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels significantly increased with the consumption of the functional food (P < 0.05). A better bowel function was also recorded by volunteers. This preliminary study highlights the possible positive influence of this functional food on the regulation of the lipid profile and bowel function in humans. PMID:24506389

Martínez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos; Fonollá-Joya, Juristo



Brazilian fruit pulps as functional foods and additives: evaluation of bioactive compounds.  


Eight tropical fruit pulps from Brazil were simultaneously characterised in terms of their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Antioxidant activity was screened by DPPH radical scavenging activity (126-3987 mg TE/100g DW) and ferric reduction activity power (368-20819 mg AAE/100g DW), and complemented with total phenolic content (329-12466 mg GAE/100g DW) and total flavonoid content measurements (46-672 mg EE /100g DW), whereas antimicrobial activity was tested against the most frequently found food pathogens. Acerola and açaí presented the highest values for the antioxidant-related measurements. Direct correlations between these measurements could be observed for some of the fruits. Tamarind exhibited the broadest antimicrobial potential, having revealed growth inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus. Açaí and tamarind extracts presented an inverse relationship between antibacterial and antioxidant activities, and therefore, the antibacterial activity cannot be attributed (only) to phenolic compounds. PMID:25442579

Paz, Mário; Gúllon, Patricia; Barroso, M Fátima; Carvalho, Ana P; Domingues, Valentina F; Gomes, Ana M; Becker, Helena; Longhinotti, Elisane; Delerue-Matos, Cristina



Plant sterols and stanols as cholesterol-lowering ingredients in functional foods.  


This article reviews developments related to the use of plant sterols and stanols as cholesterol-lowering ingredients in foods and nutraceuticals preparations. Plant sterols and stanols are extracted from the deodorizer distillates of vegetable oil refining and from tall oil, a by-product of paper pulping industry. Plant sterols/stanols inhibit cholesterol absorption possibly by competitively inhibiting its incorporation into the mixed micelles in the small intestine although other mechanisms can not be excluded. Daily consumption of 1-2 grams of plant sterols or stanols was shown to cause 10-20% reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL cholesterol). Combinations of plant sterols/stanols with certain lipid-lowering ingredients were shown to potentate their cholesterol-lowering effects and, in some cases, add triacylglycerol-lowering effects. In this article, patents based information is also discussed. PMID:20653521

Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Moazzami, Ali



An antioxidant bearberry ( Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) extract modulates surface hydrophobicity of a wide range of food-related bacteria: implications for functional food safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant extracts intended for use in foods may also have biological effects on bacteria. The influence of an antioxidant ethanolic bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) leaf extract on the surface hydrophobicities of 25 food-related bacteria was determined by the bacterial attachment to hydrocarbon assay. The presence of the extract caused a significant increase (p<0.05) in hydrophobicity of 14, a significant decrease (p<0.05)

Gary A Dykes; Ryszard Amarowicz; Ronald B Pegg



Healthy and Adverse Effects of Plant-Derived Functional Metabolites: The Need of Revealing their Content and Bioactivity in a Complex Food Matrix  

PubMed Central

In recent years, both food quality and its effect on human health have become a fundamental issue all over the world. As a consequence of this new and increased awareness, American, European, and Asian policymakers have strongly encouraged the research programs on food quality and safety thematic. Attempts to improve human health and to satisfy people's desire for healthcare without intake of pharmaceuticals, has led the food industry to focus attention on functional or nutraceutical food. For a long time, compounds with nutraceutical activity have been produced chemically, but the new demands for a sustainable life have gradually led the food industry to move towards natural compounds, mainly those derived from plants. Many phytochemicals are known to promote good health, but, sometimes, undesirable effects are also reported. Furthermore, several products present on the market show few benefits and sometimes even the reverse – unhealthy effects; the evidence of efficacy is often unconvincing and epidemiological studies are necessary to prove the truth of their claims. Therefore, there is a need for reliable analytical control systems to measure the bioactivity, content, and quality of these additives in the complex food matrix. This review describes the most widespread nutraceutics and an analytical control of the same using recently developed biosensors which are promising candidates for routine control of functional foods. PMID:23072533

Lavecchia, Teresa; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Giardi, Maria T.



Functional Food Targeting the Regulation of Obesity-Induced Inflammatory Responses and Pathologies  

PubMed Central

Obesity is associated with a low-grade systemic chronic inflammatory state, characterized by the abnormal production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipocytokines. It has been found that immune cells such as macrophages can infiltrate adipose tissue and are responsible for the majority of inflammatory cytokine production. Obesity-induced inflammation is considered a potential mechanism linking obesity to its related pathologies, such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes, and some immune disorders. Therefore, targeting obesity-related inflammatory components may be a useful strategy to prevent or ameliorate the development of such obesity-related diseases. It has been shown that several food components can modulate inflammatory responses in adipose tissue via various mechanisms, some of which are dependent on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), whereas others are independent on PPAR?, by attenuating signals of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and/or c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK). In this review, we introduce the beneficial effects of anti-inflammatory phytochemicals that can help prevent obesity-induced inflammatory responses and pathologies. PMID:20508825

Hirai, Shizuka; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Lin, Shan; Uemura, Taku; Yu, Rina; Kawada, Teruo



Plant sterols: factors affecting their efficacy and safety as functional food ingredients  

PubMed Central

Plant sterols are naturally occurring molecules that humanity has evolved with. Herein, we have critically evaluated recent literature pertaining to the myriad of factors affecting efficacy and safety of plant sterols in free and esterified forms. We conclude that properly solubilized 4-desmetyl plant sterols, in ester or free form, in reasonable doses (0.8–1.0 g of equivalents per day) and in various vehicles including natural sources, and as part of a healthy diet and lifestyle, are important dietary components for lowering low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and maintaining good heart health. In addition to their cholesterol lowering properties, plant sterols possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenicity, and anti-oxidation activities, and should thus be of clinical importance, even for those individuals without elevated LDL cholesterol. The carotenoid lowering effect of plant sterols should be corrected by increasing intake of food that is rich in carotenoids. In pregnant and lactating women and children, further study is needed to verify the dose required to decrease blood cholesterol without affecting fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoid status. PMID:15070410

Berger, Alvin; Jones, Peter JH; Abumweis, Suhad S



Choice of resolution by functional trait or taxonomy affects allometric scaling in soil food webs.  


Abstract Belowground organisms often display a shift in their mass-abundance scaling relationships due to environmental factors such as soil chemistry and atmospheric deposition. Here we present new empirical data that show strong differences in allometric scaling according to whether the resolution at the local scale is based on a taxonomic or a functional classification, while only slight differences arise according to soil environmental conditions. For the first time, isometry (an inverse 1?1 proportion) is recognized in mass-abundance relationships, providing a functional signal for constant biomass distribution in soil biota regardless of discrete trophic levels. Our findings are in contrast to those from aquatic ecosystems, in that higher trophic levels in soil biota are not a direct function of increasing body mass. PMID:25560559

Sechi, Valentina; Brussaard, Lijbert; De Goede, Ron G M; Rutgers, Michiel; Mulder, Christian



Canned bluefin tuna, an in vitro cardioprotective functional food potentially safer than commercial fish oil based pharmaceutical formulations.  


Commercial canned fish species typical in the Italian market were evaluated for their lipid profile. Bluefin tuna samples showed the highest content in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) among the canned fish samples analyzed. Tests on H9C2 cardiomyocytes revealed that bluefin tuna n-3 PUFA may responsible for a significant cell protection against both physiological and doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress. Analogous tests performed by incubating cardiac cells with n-3 PUFA ethyl esters, of which most of fish oil pharmaceutical formulations (FOPF) are based, showed cytotoxicity at high doses. Our results highlighted that n-3 PUFA contents in a 50 g canned bluefin tuna portion would be almost equivalent to and potentially safer than those of 1 FOPF capsule (1000 mg)/die usually suggested for hyperlipidaemic subjects. Thus, Italian commercial canned bluefin tuna could be indicated as a functional food with potential health benefits for the prevention and care of cardiovascular disorders. PMID:24972354

Tenore, Gian Carlo; Calabrese, Giorgio; Ritieni, Alberto; Campiglia, Pietro; Giannetti, Daniela; Novellino, Ettore



Sexually dimorphic functional connectivity in response to high vs. low energy-dense food cues in obese humans: an fMRI study.  


Sexually-dimorphic behavioral and biological aspects of human eating have been described. Using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis, we investigated sex-based differences in functional connectivity with a key emotion-processing region (amygdala, AMG) and a key reward-processing area (ventral striatum, VS) in response to high vs. low energy-dense (ED) food images using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in obese persons in fasted and fed states. When fed, in response to high vs. low-ED food cues, obese men (vs. women) had greater functional connectivity with AMG in right subgenual anterior cingulate, whereas obese women had greater functional connectivity with AMG in left angular gyrus and right primary motor areas. In addition, when fed, AMG functional connectivity with pre/post-central gyrus was more associated with BMI in women (vs. men). When fasted, obese men (vs. women) had greater functional connectivity with AMG in bilateral supplementary frontal and primary motor areas, left precuneus, and right cuneus, whereas obese women had greater functional connectivity with AMG in left inferior frontal gyrus, right thalamus, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. When fed, greater functional connectivity with VS was observed in men in bilateral supplementary and primary motor areas, left postcentral gyrus, and left precuneus. These sex-based differences in functional connectivity in response to visual food cues may help partly explain differential eating behavior, pathology prevalence, and outcomes in men and women. PMID:24862077

Atalayer, Deniz; Pantazatos, Spiro P; Gibson, Charlisa D; McOuatt, Haley; Puma, Lauren; Astbury, Nerys M; Geliebter, Allan



Functional equivalence of grasping cerci and nuptial food gifts in promoting ejaculate transfer in katydids.  


The function of nuptial gifts has generated longstanding debate. Nuptial gifts consumed during ejaculate transfer may allow males to transfer more ejaculate than is optimal for females. However, gifts may simultaneously represent male investment in offspring. Evolutionary loss of nuptial gifts can help elucidate pressures driving their evolution. In most katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae), males transfer a spermatophore comprising two parts: the ejaculate-containing ampulla and the spermatophylax-a gelatinous gift that females eat during ejaculate transfer. Many species, however, have reduced or no spermatophylaces and many have prolonged copulation. Across 44 katydid species, we tested whether spermatophylaces and prolonged copulation following spermatophore transfer are alternative adaptations to protect the ejaculate. We also tested whether prolonged copulation was associated with (i) male cercal adaptations, helping prevent female disengagement, and (ii) female resistance behavior. As predicted, prolonged copulation following (but not before) spermatophore transfer was associated with reduced nuptial gifts, differences in the functional morphology of male cerci, and behavioral resistance by females during copulation. Furthermore, longer copulation following spermatophore transfer was associated with larger ejaculates, across species with reduced nuptial gifts. Our results demonstrate that nuptial gifts and the use of grasping cerci to prolong ejaculate transfer are functionally equivalent. PMID:24724547

Vahed, Karim; Gilbert, James D J; Weissman, David B; Barrientos-Lozano, Ludivina



Occurrence and role of umami molecules in foods.  


Glutamate is a multifunctional amino acid. It plays a key role in central neurotransmission, in intermediate metabolism of carbohydrate as well as in taste, representing the major ligand having the umami taste. Glutamate is one of the main constituents of dietary proteins and is also consumed in many prepared foods as a flavour enhancer in the form of glutamate salts. Umami perception is based on multiple receptor systems distributed in the oral cavity and in the gastrointestinal tract which activates a number of regions of the brain involved in different functions, from food identification to the formation of an affective value related to a particular food, which may influence appetitive behaviour. Future research on umami taste and umami compounds will be fundamental in gaining a better understanding of their physiological significance and to promote their status in a healthy and pleasant diet. PMID:22475013

Ghirri, Alessia; Bignetti, Enrico



Flavonoid content in ethanolic extracts of selected raw and traditionally processed indigenous foods consumed by vulnerable groups of Kenya: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related functional properties.  


The present study evaluated the flavonoid content, antioxidant as well as type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activities of ethanolic extract of certain raw and traditionally processed indigenous food ingredients including cereals, legumes, oil seeds, tubers, vegetables and leafy vegetables, which are commonly consumed by vulnerable groups in Kenya. The vegetables exhibited higher flavonoid content (50-703 mg/100 g) when compared with the grains (47-343 mg/100 g). The ethanolic extract of presently studied food ingredients revealed 33-93% DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 486-6,389 mmol Fe(II)/g reducing power, 19-43% ?-amylase inhibition activity and 14-68% ?-glucosidase inhibition activity. Among the different food-stuffs, the drumstick and amaranth leaves exhibited significantly higher flavonoid content with excellent functional properties. Roasting of grains and cooking of vegetables were found to be suitable processing methods in preserving the functional properties. Hence, such viable processing techniques for respective food samples will be considered in the formulation of functional supplementary foods for vulnerable groups in Kenya. PMID:21375390

Kunyanga, Catherine N; Imungi, Jasper K; Okoth, Michael W; Biesalski, Hans K; Vadivel, Vellingiri



Infrared measurements of atmospheric constituents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this program is to obtain data concerning the concentration versus altitude of various constituents of interest in the photochemistry of the stratospheric ozone layer. Data pertinent to this objective are obtained using balloon-borne instruments to measure the atmospheric transmission and emission in the mid infrared. In addition to obtaining constituent profile information, the spectral data obtained are also used to identify absorption or emission features which may interfere with the retrieval of constituent data from satellite instruments using lower spectral resolution. The spectral resolution obtained with the solar spectral system is 0.0025 cm(exp -1) and represents about a factor of 5 greater resolution than any solar spectra previously obtained in this spectral region. As a result of the increase in spectral resolution, a large number of features are observed in these spectra which were not observed in previous studies. Identification and analysis of these features is in progress. The results of this analysis to date shows a number of HNO3 features which have not been observed before, and these occur where they will interfere with the retrieval of other constituents. An example of the interference is the occurrence of features in the 780.2 cm(exp -1) region which overlap the ClONO2 feature which will be used for retrieval of ClONO2 by the CLAES instrument on UARS. A number of features due to COF2 were also identified in the 1250 cm(exp -1) region which may interfere with retrieval of N2O5.

Murcray, David G.; Murcray, Frank J.; Goldman, Aaron; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Flaud, J. M.



[Chemical food contaminants].  


Chemical food contaminants are substances which are neither present naturally in the usual raw material used for food production nor are added during the regular production process. Examples are environmental pollutants or contaminants derived from agricultural production of crops or livestock or from inadequate manufacturing of the food product itself. More difficult is the classification of those compounds formed during regular manufacturing such as products of thermal processes including flavoring substances. In these cases, it is common practice to call those compounds contaminants which are known for their adverse effects such as acrylamide, whereas constituents which add to the food-specific flavor such as Maillard products formed during roasting, baking etc. are not termed contaminants. From a toxicological viewpoint this distinction is not always clear-cut. Important groups of chemical contaminants are metals such as mercury or lead, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and related pollutants, which are regularly found in certain types of food originating from background levels of these compounds in our environment. Furthermore, natural toxins form microorganisms or plants, and compounds formed during thermal treatment of food are of major interest. In general, a scientific risk assessment has to be carried out for any known contaminant. This comprises an exposure analysis and a toxicological and epidemiological assessment. On these grounds, regulatory and/or technological measures can often improve the situation. Major conditions for a scientific risk assessment and a successful implementation of regulations are highly developed food quality control, food toxicology and nutritional epidemiology. PMID:15378171

Schrenk, D



Food Chains and Food Webs - Balance within Natural Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a continued focus on the Sonoran Desert, students are introduced to the concepts of food chains and food webs through a PowerPoint® presentation. They learn the difference between producers and consumers and study how these organisms function within their communities as participants in various food chains. They further understand ecosystem differences by learning how multiple food chains link together to form intricate and balanced food webs. At lesson end, students construct food webs using endemic desert species.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program


Comparison of the effects of the degree of food restriction during rearing on ovarian function at the onset of lay in unselected ducks (anas platyrhynchos) and in a line selected for improved food efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Ovarian structure and function at sexual maturity in two lines of ducks (selected or not selected for juvenile food efficiency), fed ad libitum or restricted to achieve 0.50, 0.65 or 0.80 of unrestricted body weight at 24 weeks, were compared in a randomised block factorial experiment.2. Selected ducks were larger but not fatter or older at sexual maturity, had

P. M. Hocking



Effects of Maharishi Amrit Kalash 5 as an Ayurvedic herbal food supplement on immune functions in aged mice  

PubMed Central

Background Maharishi Amrit Kalash (MAK) 5, one of the Ayurvedic food supplements, belongs to a group of substances known as Rasayana. MAK5 and other Rasayanas are believed to enhance the body's resistance to infections and disease, and enhance longevity. In this study, we determined the effects of administration of MAK5, one of the Ayurvedic food supplements on immune functions in young and old mice. Methods Male C3H/He N mice were divided into five groups: two no treatment groups (old control: 22-month-old and young control: 2-month-old) and three MAK5 treated groups with differing dose of MAK5. MAK5 was given p.o. at 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg per day (3 days/week) for 2 months. Results We found that glucose consumption of peritoneal macrophages from old mice treated with MAK5 at all doses and incubated for 48 and 72 h were significantly greater than that in the control group. Nitric oxide production of peritoneal macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in old mice treated with MAK5 at all doses was significantly greater than that in the old control group, but not compared to the young control group. Stimulation index (S.I.) in old mice gavaged with MAK5 at all doses was significantly higher than that in the old control group. IL-2 production stimulated by Con A in old mice given MAK5 at all doses was significantly higher than that in the old control group. Production of IFN-? stimulated by Con A in old mice given MAK5 at doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg were significantly higher than that in the old control group. IL-4 production of splenic lymphocyte stimulated by Con A in old mice given MAK5 at dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg were significantly higher than that in the old control group. Conclusion The results suggest that MAK5 suppressed the age associated glucose consumption of peritoneal macrophages and cellular immune function reduction, and that it contributes to the prevention of the immunosenescence. PMID:15790423

Inaba, Ryoichi; Mirbod, Seyed Mohammad; Sugiura, Haruo



Maternal consumption of a docosahexaenoic acid-containing functional food during pregnancy: benefit for infant performance on problem-solving but not on recognition memory tasks at  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are few studies reporting on docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n3) supplementation during pregnancy and infant cognitive function. DHA supplementation in pregnancy and infant problem solving in the first year have not been investigated. Objective:Wetestedthehypothesisthatinfantsborntowomenwho consumed a DHA-containing functional food during pregnancy would demonstrate better problem-solving abilities and recognition memory than would infants born to women who consumed the pla-

Michelle P Judge; Ofer Harel; Carol J Lammi-Keefe


Food phenolics and lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic compounds are important constituents of food products of plant origin. These compounds are directly related to sensory characteristics of foods such as flavour, astringency, and colour. In addition, the presence of phenolic compounds on the diet is beneficial to health due to their chemopreventive activities against carcinogenesis and mutagenesis, mainly due to their antioxidant activities. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

Héctor Rodríguez; José Antonio Curiel; José María Landete; Blanca de las Rivas; Félix López de Felipe; Carmen Gómez-Cordovés; José Miguel Mancheño; Rosario Muñoz



Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) in foods: a comprehensive review on consumption, functionality, safety, and regulatory matters.  


Caffeine ranks as one of the top most commonly consumed dietary ingredients throughout the world. It is naturally found in coffee beans, cacao beans, kola nuts, guarana berries, and tea leaves including yerba mate. The total daily intake, as well as the major source of caffeine varies globally; however, coffee and tea are the 2 most prominent sources. Soft drinks are also a common source of caffeine as well as energy drinks, a category of functional beverages. Moderate caffeine consumption is considered safe and its use as a food ingredient has been approved, within certain limits, by numerous regulatory agencies around the world. Performance benefits attributed to caffeine include physical endurance, reduction of fatigue, and enhancing mental alertness and concentration. Caffeine has also been recently linked to weight loss and consequent reduction of the overall risks for developing the metabolic syndrome. However, the caloric contribution of caffeine-sweetened beverages needs to be considered in the overall energy balance. Despite all these benefits the potential negative effects of excessive caffeine intake should also be considered, particularly in children and pregnant women. PMID:20492310

Heckman, Melanie A; Weil, Jorge; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira



Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.): a potential source of high-value components for functional foods and nutraceuticals--a review.  


Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), a herbal plant, belonging to the family Apiceae, is valued for its culinary and medicinal uses. All parts of this herb are in use as flavoring agent and/or as traditional remedies for the treatment of different disorders in the folk medicine systems of different civilizations. The plant is a potential source of lipids (rich in petroselinic acid) and an essential oil (high in linalool) isolated from the seeds and the aerial parts. Due to the presence of a multitude of bioactives, a wide array of pharmacological activities have been ascribed to different parts of this herb, which include anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anxiolytic, anti-epileptic, anti-depressant, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-dyslipidemic, anti-hypertensive, neuro-protective and diuretic. Interestingly, coriander also possessed lead-detoxifying potential. This review focuses on the medicinal uses, detailed phytochemistry, and the biological activities of this valuable herb to explore its potential uses as a functional food for the nutraceutical industry. PMID:23281145

Sahib, Najla Gooda; Anwar, Farooq; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid; Alkharfy, Khalid M



Food search through the eyes of a monkey: a functional substitution approach for assessing the ecology of primate color vision.  


Efficient detection and selection of reddish fruits against green foliage has long been thought to be a major selective pressure favoring the evolution of primate trichromatic color vision. This has recently been questioned by studies of free-ranging primates that fail to show predicted differences in foraging efficiency between dichromats and trichromats. In the present study, we use a unique approach to evaluate the adaptive significance of trichromacy for fruit detection by undertaking a functional substitution model. The color vision phenotypes of neotropical monkeys are simulated for human observers, who use a touch-sensitive computer interface to search for monkey food items in digital images taken under natural conditions. We find an advantage to trichromatic phenotypes - especially the variant with the most spectrally separated visual pigments - for red, yellow and greenish fruits, but not for dark (purple or black) fruits. These results indicate that trichromat advantage is task-specific, and that shape, size and achromatic contrast variation between ripe and unripe fruits cannot completely mitigate the advantage of color vision. Similarities in fruit foraging performance between primates with different phenotypes in the wild likely reflect the behavioral flexibility of dichromats in overcoming a chromatic disadvantage. PMID:23643907

Melin, A D; Kline, D W; Hickey, C M; Fedigan, L M



Rover\\/sitter Drosophila melanogaster larval foraging polymorphism as a function of larval development, food-patch quality, and starvation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetically based rover\\/sitter behavioral difference in Drosophila melanogasterlarval foraging is expressed throughout most of the larval instars when larvae forage on food patches of differing food quality. The amount of locomotor behavior decreases when third-instar larvae of both rover and sitter strains are starved just prior to the behavioral test. Such strain differences in locomotor behavior are maintained despite

Susanne A. Graf; Maria B. Sokolowski



Chemical constituents of Prunella vulgaris.  


Nine compounds were isolated from the spikes of Prunella vulgaris by various kinds of chromatography. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis as polygalacerebroside (1), ursolic acid (2), ?-amyrin (3), quercetin (4), quercetin-3-O-?-D-galactoside (5), ?-spinasterol (6), stigmasterol (7), ?-sitosterol (8), daucosterol (9). Compound 1 was isolated from this genus for the first time. Phytochemical investigation on the spikes of P. vulgaris provided chemical constituents diversity, which were performed to facilitate further development and utilization of P. vulgaris pharmaceutical resource. PMID:25078822

Gu, Xiaojie; Li, Youbin; Mu, Jun; Zhang, Yi



Trace constituents in the mesosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper examines recent composition measurements, the large-scale distributions of trace constituents, and the interpretation of these global patterns in the light of the current understanding of chemistry and transport. Attention is given to results from the following space missions: the Nimbus 7 LIMS and SAMS experiments; the SMM UV spectrometer solar occultation experiment; the SME UVS and AGS experiments; and the Spacelab 1 solar occultation experiment. A brief summary of measurements and their implications is presented for three long-lived species, CO, NO, and H2O. The reactive or short-lived species OH and O3 are also examined.

Thomas, Gary E.



[Phenolic constituents from Oplopanax horridus].  


The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic techniques indluding silica gel, reverse phase silica gel, sephadex LH-20 and pre-HPLC and identified by their physicochemical properties and spectral data. Sixteen phenolic compounds had been isolated and n-butanol extracts which were fractionated from the ethanol extract of Oplopanax horridus roots bark. Their structures were identified as below, including 7 phenylpropanoid compounds, ferulic acid (1), 3-acetylcaffeic acid (2), caffeic acid (3), homovanillyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 3-hydroxyphenethyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), 3, 5-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), and 3-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7). Three coumarins, scopoletin (8), esculetin (9) and 3'-angeloyl-4'-acetyl-cis-knellactone (10). And 6 lignan compounds, (+)-isolaricires-inol-9'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (11), 3, 3'-dimethoxy-4, 9, 9'-trihydroxy-4', 7-epoxy-5', 8-lignan-4, 9-bis-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (12), (+)-5, 5'-dimethoxylariciresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (13), (-)-5,5'-dimethoxylariciresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (14), (-)-pinoresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (15), and (+)-5, 5'-dimethoxylariciresinol 9'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (16). All compounds were isolated and identified for the first time from this plant All the constituents except compounds 4, 6, 12 and 13 were obtained for the first time from the genus Oplopanax. PMID:25282894

Huang, Wei-Hua; Luo, Wei; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Nie, Ming-Kun; Shi, Shu-Yun; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng



Glycaemic index of foods.  


From the mid-1970s several groups realized progressively that the same amounts of carbohydrates in different foods produce quite different blood glucose curves after ingestion. The glycaemic index (GI) was introduced by Jenkins to express the rise of blood glucose after eating a food against a standard blood glucose curve after glucose (or white bread) in the same subject. The GI ranges from about 20 for fructose and whole barley to about 100 for glucose and baked potato. A table is given of representative GI values. There appears to be no general correlation between GI and per cent resistant starch in foods. Questions about methodology for GI are discussed and the factors in food that affect glycaemic response are briefly reviewed. The GI is affected by the physical form of a food, by processing and by associated fat in the food, which reduces the GI, presumably by delayed gastric emptying. As a rule the degree of insulin response to carbohydrate-containing foods is similar to the glycaemic response. Most investigators have found that the GI of a meal of mixed foods can be predicted from the (weighted) GI of its constituent foods. The GI concept is proving useful in dietary design for the management of diabetes mellitus, especially the non-insulin-dependent type. It may prove useful for prevention of diabetes and perhaps also in pre-event meals for athletes, as a factor in dental cariogenesis, in determining satiety, and conceivably regular low GI foods could delay ageing by reducing glycosylation of body proteins. PMID:1330533

Truswell, A S




Microsoft Academic Search

Biological materials contain a variety of individual soluble components. When cellular biological materials are immersed in osmotic solution, multicomponent mass transfer occurs, which ultimately leads to the loss of water from the food, or osmotic dehydration. Mass transfer of food constituents during osmotic dehydration may cause changes in food quality in terms of nutritional value, texture, color, and taste. The

John Shi; Marc Le Maguer



Antimicrobial constituents of Rhus glabra.  


The antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract and isolated constituents of Rhus glabra (Anacardiaceae), a species used in folk medicine by North American native people, was evaluated against 11 microorganisms, including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The extract was subsequently fractionated and monitored by bioassays leading to the isolation of three antibacterial compounds, the methyl ester of 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (methyl gallate) (minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) 12.5 micrograms/ml), 4-methoxy-3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (MIC 25 micrograms/ml) and gallic acid (MIC > 1000 micrograms/ml). The first two compounds are reported here for the first time from Rhus glabra. Their structures were established using spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:8072309

Saxena, G; McCutcheon, A R; Farmer, S; Towers, G H; Hancock, R E



Lidar measurements of atmospheric constituents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of depth-resolving, remote measurement techniques for the determination of atmospheric constituents added a new dimension to the investigation of atmospheric phenomena. In this paper optical, or lidar, techniques suited for this purpose are reviewed. After a presentation of the processes used and the algorithms necessary to extract the interesting information from the optical return signals, a few considerations about the necessary instrumentation are presented. For illustration, one example is shown of results obtained with elastic backscatter, differential absorption and scattering. Raman lidar, and Raman DIAL. Of the numerous new developments in actual progress, one example, BELINDA, has been chosen that in a way marks the borderline between elastic backscatter and differential absorption lidar.

Weitkamp, Klaus C. H.



Bioactive constituents of Thuja occidentalis.  


An ethyl acetate-soluble extract of the combined leaves and twigs of Thuja occidentalis was found to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in cultured mouse epidermal ME 308 cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of six active constituents (1-6), namely, (+)-7-oxo-13-epi-pimara-14,15-dien-18-oic acid (1), (+)-7-oxo-13-epi-pimara-8,15-dien-18-oic acid (2), (+)-isopimaric acid (3), (1S,2S,3R)-(+)-isopicrodeoxypodophyllotoxin (4), (-)-deoxypodophyllotoxin (5), and (-)-deoxypodorhizone (6). Compounds 1 and 4 are new natural products, and their structures and stereochemistry were determined using spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1-6 were evaluated for inhibition of the transformation of murine epidermal JB6 cells, inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase induction with murine epidermal ME 308 cells, and cytotoxic activity against KB cells. PMID:11000026

Chang, L C; Song, L L; Park, E J; Luyengi, L; Lee, K J; Farnsworth, N R; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D



[Chemical constituents of Rauvolfia verticillata].  


The study on the Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill., which belongs to Apocynaceae, was carried out to look for its chemical constituents and pharmacological activity. The isolation and purification were performed by chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and ODS (octadecyl silane) open column. The structures of obtained compounds were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Three indole alkaloids and one acridone alkaloid were isolated from chloroform layer extract and identified as ajmalicine B (1), sandwicine (2), raunescine (3) and 7-hydroxynoracronycine (4) separately. Ajmalicine B (1) is a new compound belonging to indole alkaloid. Compound 4 as an acridone alkaloid was a new type compound isolated from Rauvolfia genus for the first time. We also did some biological activity research on the new type compound (4) to explore other pharmacological activities in addition to antihypertensive activity. PMID:22919724

Hong, Bo; Li, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Chun-Jie



Chemical constituents of fugitive dust.  


Wind erosion selectively winnows the fine, most chemically concentrated portions of surface soils and results in the inter-regional transport of fugitive dust containing plant nutrients, trace elements and other soil-borne contaminants. We sampled and analyzed surface soils, sediments in transport over eroding fields, and attic dust from a small area of the Southern High Plains of Texas to characterize the physical nature and chemical constituents of these materials and to investigate techniques that would allow relatively rapid, low cost techniques for estimating the chemical constituents of fugitive dust from an eroding field. From chemical analyses of actively eroding sediments, it would appear that Ca is the only chemical species that is enriched more than others during the process of fugitive dust production. We found surface soil sieved to produce a sub-sample with particle diameters in the range of 53-74 microm to be a reasonably good surrogate for fugitive dust very near the source field, that sieved sub-samples with particle diameters <10 microm have a crustal enrichment factor of approximately 6, and that this factor, multiplied by the chemical contents of source soils, may be a reasonable estimator of fugitive PM(10) chemistry from the soils of interest. We also found that dust from tractor air cleaners provided a good surrogate for dust entrained by tillage and harvesting operations if the chemical species resulting from engine wear and exhaust were removed from the data set or scaled back to the average of enrichment factors noted for chemical species with no known anthropogenic sources. Chemical analyses of dust samples collected from attics approximately 4 km from the nearest source fields indicated that anthropogenic sources of several environmentally important nutrient and trace element species are much larger contributors, by up to nearly two orders of magnitude, to atmospheric loading and subsequent deposition than fugitive dust from eroding soils. PMID:17285256

Van Pelt, R Scott; Zobeck, Ted M



Bactericidal activities against pathogenic bacteria by selected constituents of plant extracts in carrot broth  

Microsoft Academic Search

HPLC-DAD analysis provided evidence for the certain identification of some constituents of hydroalcoholic extracts from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Rheum palmatum, Thymus vulgaris, Lippia citriodora, and a mixture of Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia lavandulifolia and Thymus mastichina. Their inhibitory and bactericidal activities in vitro against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated either in Luria–Bertani (LB) broth or a model food system, Tyndallised

S. Vegara; L. Funes; N. Martí; D. Saura; V. Micol; M. Valero



Applications of Constituent Data Assimilation Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Organizations in Europe, Australia, and the United States have recently broadened constituent assimilation activities beyond that water vapor, which has been assimilated for years in the numerical weather prediction community. Many of these activities have focused on ozone, with some efforts focused on the entire suite of reactive constituents that control the ozone distribution. This talk will draw from results from the near real-time ozone data assimilation system being run by NASA's Data Assimilation Office. This system utilizes ozone observations from both the TOMS and the SBUV instrument to generate global synoptic maps of ozone. The initial application of this product is to provide ozone fields to assist in the atmospheric corrections' that are necessary for the retrieval of information from other NASA instruments. The validation of the ozone assimilation system shows that the assimilated product agrees well with independent HALOE and ozonesonde observations. This suggests that the product is of sufficient quality to be extended to other applications. This talk will enumerate these other applications and present initial results from exploratory research. The applications being considered include estimates of tropospheric ozone, provision of ozone fields for interactive retrievals, use of analysis increments from the assimilation to evaluate model performance, and development of long-term consistent three-dimensional global ozone fields. The results from the exploratory studies are promising, and help demonstrate how assumptions made in the p development of the ozone assimilation impact the other applications. For instance, RMS errors in the current product are large near the tropopause, which is sensitive to the specification of vertical correlation functions, which in turns impacts the amount of ozone analyzed to be in the troposphere. How these sensitivities impact the different applications will also be discussed.

Rood, Richard B.; Stajner, Ivanka



Functional Effects of Parasites on Food Web Properties during the Spring Diatom Bloom in Lake Pavin: A Linear Inverse Modeling Analysis  

PubMed Central

This study is the first assessment of the quantitative impact of parasitic chytrids on a planktonic food web. We used a carbon-based food web model of Lake Pavin (Massif Central, France) to investigate the effects of chytrids during the spring diatom bloom by developing models with and without chytrids. Linear inverse modelling procedures were employed to estimate undetermined flows in the lake. The Monte Carlo Markov chain linear inverse modelling procedure provided estimates of the ranges of model-derived fluxes. Model results support recent theories on the probable impact of parasites on food web function. In the lake, during spring, when ‘inedible’ algae (unexploited by planktonic herbivores) were the dominant primary producers, the epidemic growth of chytrids significantly reduced the sedimentation loss of algal carbon to the detritus pool through the production of grazer-exploitable zoospores. We also review some theories about the potential influence of parasites on ecological network properties and argue that parasitism contributes to longer carbon path lengths, higher levels of activity and specialization, and lower recycling. Considering the “structural asymmetry” hypothesis as a stabilizing pattern, chytrids should contribute to the stability of aquatic food webs. PMID:21887240

Niquil, Nathalie; Jobard, Marlène; Saint-Béat, Blanche; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore



Comparison of Marketed Cosmetic Products Constituents with the Antigens Included in Cosmetic-related Patch Test  

PubMed Central

Background Currently, cosmetic series (Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden) is the most widely used cosmetic-related patch test in Korea. However, no studies have been conducted on how accurately it reflects the constituents of the cosmetics in Korea. Objective We surveyed the constituents of various cosmetics and compare with the cosmetic series, to investigate whether it is accurate in determining allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics sold in Korea. Methods Cosmetics were classified into 11 categories and the survey was conducted on the constituents of 55 cosmetics, with 5 cosmetics in each category. The surveyed constituents were classified by chemical function and compared with the antigens of cosmetic series. Results 155 constituents were found in 55 cosmetics, and 74 (47.7%) of constituents were included as antigen. Among them, only 20 constituents (27.0%) were included in cosmetic series. A significant number of constituents, such as fragrance, vehicle and surfactant were not included. Only 41.7% of antigens in cosmetic series were found to be in the cosmetics sampled. Conclusion The constituents not included in the patch test but possess antigenicity are widely used in cosmetics. Therefore, the patch test should be modified to reflect ingredients in the marketed products that may stimulate allergies. PMID:20711261

Cheong, Seung Hyun; Choi, You Won; Myung, Ki Bum



[Chemical constituents from Euphorbia lunulata].  


The chemical constituents from Euphorbia lunulata was investigated in this paper. Fourteen compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatographies on silica gel and preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified by physiochemical properties and NMR data analysis as lupeol (1), euphol (2), cassipourol(3) , 24-methylenecycloartan-3beta-ol (4), 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25-en-3beta-ol (5), 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3beta-ol (6), betulin (7), uvaol (8), (23E) -25-methoxycycloart-23-en-3beta-ol (9), (23E) -cycloart-23,25-dien-3beta-ol (10), 24-methylenecycloartan-3beta, 28-diol (11), salicinolide (12), 2alpha, 3beta, 5alpha, 9alpha, 15beta-pentaacetoxy-11,12-epoxy-7beta, 8alpha-diisobutyryloxyjatropha-6 (17) -en-14-one (13) and 3beta, 5alpha, 15beta-triacetoxy-7beta-isobutyryloxy-9alpha-nicotinoyloxyjatropha-6 (17), 11(E)-dien-14-one (14). Among them, compounds 1-11 were isolated from E. lunulata for the first time. PMID:25244761

Zhao, Ming; Wu, Shuang; Li, Jun; Tang, Wan-Xia; Wang, Jin-Lan; Zhang, Shu-Jun



[Chemical constituents of Illicium burmanicum].  


Chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract of Illicium burmanicum were isolated and purified by various chromatographic methods,including Silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, C18 reverse-phased silica gel, Preparative TLC and Preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified by spectral analysis including NMR and MS data. Fourteen compounds were separated from I. burmanicum and their structures were identified as 7S,8R-erythro-4,7,9,9'-tetrahydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (1), 7R,8R-threo-4,7, 9,9'-tetrahydroxy-3,3 '-dimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan(2) ,polystachyol(3), (-) -massoniresinol(4), angustanoic acid F (5), trans-sobrerol(6), (3S,6R) -6,7-dihydroxy-6,7-dihydrolinalool (7), (3S, 6S) -6,7-dihydroxy-6,7-dihydrolinalool (8), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-allyl-phenol (9), 3,5-dihydroxy4-hydroxy benzaldehyde (10), 3-hydroxy4-methoxybenzaldehyde (11), methyl vanillate (12), shikimic acid ethylester (13) and beta-sitosrerol (14). Except compound 14, the rest thirteen compounds were separated from this plant for the first time. PMID:25276976

Wang, Jia-Ping; Guan, Zheng-Ye; Dong, Chuan-Fu; Gao, Li; Luo, Shi-De; Wang, Yi-Fen



Constituency Leadership: A Model for School Leaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principals must integrate information originating from many sectors among the schools' constituents. The degree to which constituent groups participate in school activities helps determine the quality of instruction and learning. Crucial to the role of administrator is a network of interactions between people and things, school board pressures and…

Strodl, Peter


Genetic Screening of Functional Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria in a Fermented Pearl Millet Slurry and in the Metagenome of Fermented Starchy Foods?  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (n = 152) in African pearl millet slurries and in the metagenomes of amylaceous fermented foods were investigated by screening 33 genes involved in probiotic and nutritional functions. All isolates belonged to six species of the genera Pediococcus and Lactobacillus, and Lactobacillus fermentum was the dominant species. We screened the isolates for the abilities to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract and to synthesize folate and riboflavin. The isolates were also tested in vitro for their abilities to survive exposure to bile salts and to survive at pH 2. Because the ability to hydrolyze starch confers an ecological advantage on LAB that grow in starchy matrixes as well as improving the nutritional properties of the gruels, we screened for genes involved in starch metabolism. The results showed that genes with the potential ability to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract were widely distributed among isolates and metagenomes, whereas in vitro tests showed that only a limited set of isolates, mainly those belonging to L. fermentum, could tolerate a low pH. In contrast, the wide distribution of genes associated with bile salt tolerance, in particular bsh, is consistent with the high frequency of tolerance to bile salts observed. Genetic screening revealed a potential for folate and riboflavin synthesis in both isolates and metagenomes, as well as high variability among genes related to starch metabolism. Genetic screening of isolates and metagenomes from fermented foods is thus a promising approach for assessing the functional potential of food microbiotas. PMID:22003019

Turpin, Williams; Humblot, Christèle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre



Genetic screening of functional properties of lactic acid bacteria in a fermented pearl millet slurry and in the metagenome of fermented starchy foods.  


Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (n = 152) in African pearl millet slurries and in the metagenomes of amylaceous fermented foods were investigated by screening 33 genes involved in probiotic and nutritional functions. All isolates belonged to six species of the genera Pediococcus and Lactobacillus, and Lactobacillus fermentum was the dominant species. We screened the isolates for the abilities to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract and to synthesize folate and riboflavin. The isolates were also tested in vitro for their abilities to survive exposure to bile salts and to survive at pH 2. Because the ability to hydrolyze starch confers an ecological advantage on LAB that grow in starchy matrixes as well as improving the nutritional properties of the gruels, we screened for genes involved in starch metabolism. The results showed that genes with the potential ability to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract were widely distributed among isolates and metagenomes, whereas in vitro tests showed that only a limited set of isolates, mainly those belonging to L. fermentum, could tolerate a low pH. In contrast, the wide distribution of genes associated with bile salt tolerance, in particular bsh, is consistent with the high frequency of tolerance to bile salts observed. Genetic screening revealed a potential for folate and riboflavin synthesis in both isolates and metagenomes, as well as high variability among genes related to starch metabolism. Genetic screening of isolates and metagenomes from fermented foods is thus a promising approach for assessing the functional potential of food microbiotas. PMID:22003019

Turpin, Williams; Humblot, Christèle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre



ILSI Brazil International Workshop on Functional Foods: a narrative review of the scientific evidence in the area of carbohydrates, microbiome, and health  

PubMed Central

To stimulate discussion around the topic of ‘carbohydrates’ and health, the Brazilian branch of the International Life Sciences Institute held the 11th International Functional Foods Workshop (1–2 December 2011) in which consolidated knowledge and recent scientific advances specific to the relationship between carbohydrates and health were presented. As part of this meeting, several key points related to dietary fiber, glycemic response, fructose, and impacts on satiety, cognition, mood, and gut microbiota were realized: 1) there is a need for global harmonization of a science-based fiber definition; 2) low-glycemic index foods can be used to modulate the postprandial glycemic response and may affect diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes; 3) carbohydrate type may influence satiety and satiation; glycemic load and glycemic index show links to memory, mood, and concentration; 4) validated biomarkers are needed to demonstrate the known prebiotic effect of carbohydrates; 5) negative effects of fructose are not evident when human data are systematically reviewed; 6) new research indicates that diet strongly influences the microbiome; and 7) there is mounting evidence that the intestinal microbiota has the ability to impact the gut–brain axis. Overall, there is much promise for development of functional foods that impact the microbiome and other factors relevant to health, including glycemic response (glycemic index/glycemic load), satiety, mood, cognition, and weight management. PMID:23399638

Meheust, Agnès; Augustin, Livia; Benton, David; Ber?ík, P?emysl; Birkett, Anne; Eldridge, Alison L.; Faintuch, Joel; Hoffmann, Christian; Jones, Julie Miller; Kendall, Cyril; Lajolo, Franco; Perdigon, Gabriela; Prieto, Pedro Antonio; Rastall, Robert A.; Sievenpiper, John L.; Slavin, Joanne; de Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel



Nonequilibrium hadronization and constituent quark number scaling  

SciTech Connect

The constituent quark number scaling of elliptic flow is studied in a nonequilibrium hadronization and freeze-out model with rapid dynamical transition from ideal, deconfined, and chirally symmetric quark-gluon plasma, to final noninteracting hadrons. In this transition a bag model of constituent quarks is considered, where the quarks gain constituent quark mass while the background bag field breaks up and vanishes. The constituent quarks then recombine into simplified hadron states, while chemical, thermal, and flow equilibrium break down one after the other. In this scenario the resulting temperatures and flow velocities of baryons and mesons are different. Using a simplified few source model of the elliptic flow, we are able to reproduce the constituent quark number scaling, with assumptions on the details of the nonequilibrium processes.

Zschocke, Sven [TU Dresden, Institut fuer Planetare Geodaesie, Lohrmann-Observatorium, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Horvat, Szabolcs [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 55, N-5007 Bergen (Norway); Faculty of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, Kogalniceanu str 1, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Mishustin, Igor N. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Csernai, Laszlo P. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 55, N-5007 Bergen (Norway); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); MTA-KFKI Research Institute for Particle Physics and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)



Functional asymmetry of the frontal cortex and lateral hypothalamus of cats during an operant food-related conditioned reflex.  


The extent of correlation and the latency of evoked potentials to sound, recorded bilaterally in the frontal cortex and lateral hypothalamus of cats, were studied at different stages of the acquisition of an operant food-related reflex and during sudden transfer to 30% food reinforcement. High correlation coefficients between the evoked responses of the cortex and hypothalamus with left-sided dominance were seen in conditions of high levels of food motivation at the beginning of each experiment and in conditions of the high-probability appearance of the acquired conditioned reflex throughout the rest of the experiment. Comparison of the peak latencies of the early positive (P55-80) components of evoked potentials on the right and left sides showed that shorter latent periods were seen in the cortex on the left side at all behavioral stages, while this occurred (on the left side) in the hypothalamus only when the conditioned reflex was unfixed, while after fixation of the reflex and provision of 30% reinforcement, shorter latent periods were seen on the right side. It is concluded that the high level of left-sided correlation of evoked potentials in the hypothalamus was associated with the motivational and motor components of purposive behavior and was not associated with the emotional tension of the animals provoked by the disruption of the food reinforcement stereotype. PMID:15526426

Vanetsian, G L; Pavlova, I V



Comparative analysis of food webs based on flow networks: effects of nutrient supply on structure and function of coastal plankton communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of COMWEB was to develop efficient analytical, numerical and experimental methods for assessing and predicting the effects of nutrient (N, P, Si) supply on the stability and persistence of pelagic food web structure and function in coastal waters. The experimental comparative work included a geographic gradient covering Baltic, Mediterranean, and NE Atlantic waters and a NE Atlantic gradient in state of eutrophication. COMWEB has been an experimental approach to coastal eutrophication, studying effects of enhanced nutrient supply on components and flows of the entire lower pelagic food web. Flow network representations of pelagic food webs has been a framework of data reduction and flows were established by sophisticated inverse modelling. Fundamental information on physiological properties of functional key species in the pelagic food web was used to constrain flow estimations. A main conclusion derived from the flow networks was that very little energy and materials were transferred from the microbial food web to the main food chain. The lower food web could therefore be described as two parallel food chains with relatively limited interaction between heterotrophic groups. Short-term effects of nutrient perturbations were examined in mesocosms along the geographic gradient. The response was comparable in all systems, with a stronger effect on the activity and biomass of autotrophic groups than those of heterotrophic ones. Mediterranean waters showed much lower autotrophic biomass response than Baltic and NE Atlantic waters, which responded almost equally. The response of primary production was, however, more comparable. High phytoplankton lysis rate explained this low accumulation of biomass in Mediterranean waters. The study of Atlantic coastal waters of different eutrophic states revealed that the ecological response was higher in the closed nutrient perturbed mesocosms than in open systems exposed for >4 summer months (summer/autumn season). The Atlantic lagoon evolved gradually from the natural oligotrophic situation towards the more eutrophicated North Sea during fertilisation. The responses observed on seasonal and long-term scale (>10 years) may therefore be equal. The differences between short-term (weeks) and intermediate-term (seasonal) responses is most likely a result of the different time scales of perturbation and observation and the variable exchange rates with surrounding waters (water dilution rate). The analysis of pelagic flow networks provided a framework of diagnostic criteria for state and quality assessment of coastal waters. The nutrient loading rates related better to estimates of biotic fluxes than to concentrations of biotic compartments and total nutrients. On the contrary, the concentration of biotic compartments, or the biomasses, related better to total nutrient concentrations. Primary production, mesozooplankton grazing and growth, fraction of primary production consumed by grazers, bacterial production relative to primary production, cycling indices, and path lengths were all well related to nutrient loading rate. Autotrophic biomass, ratio of autotrophic to heterotrophic biomass, and fraction of pico-cyanobacteria of total autotrophic biomass were all related to total nutrients. Some of these variables, which responded equally in all systems, have the potential of becoming unified response functions in a management model for European coastal waters. COMWEB has provided further insight into the mechanisms behind coastal eutrophication. A main achievement is the conceptual framework for unified response functions, important components of management models for nutrient emission to coastal waters.

Olsen, Yngvar; Reinertsen, Helge; Vadstein, Olav; Andersen, Tom; Gismervik, Ingrid; Duarte, Carlos; Agusti, Susana; Stibor, Herwig; Sommer, Ulrich; Lignell, Risto; Tamminen, Timo; Lancelot, Christiane; Rousseau, Veronique; Hoell, Espen; Sanderud, Knut Arvid



The Influence of Food Texture and Liquid Consistency Modification on Swallowing Physiology and Function: A Systematic Review.  


Texture modification has become one of the most common forms of intervention for dysphagia, and is widely considered important for promoting safe and efficient swallowing. However, to date, there is no single convention with respect to the terminology used to describe levels of liquid thickening or food texture modification for clinical use. As a first step toward building a common taxonomy, a systematic review was undertaken to identify empirical evidence describing the impact of liquid consistency and food texture on swallowing behavior. A multi-engine search yielded 10,147 non-duplicate articles, which were screened for relevance. A team of ten international researchers collaborated to conduct full-text reviews for 488 of these articles, which met the study inclusion criteria. Of these, 36 articles were found to contain specific information comparing oral processing or swallowing behaviors for at least two liquid consistencies or food textures. Qualitative synthesis revealed two key trends with respect to the impact of thickening liquids on swallowing: thicker liquids reduce the risk of penetration-aspiration, but also increase the risk of post-swallow residue in the pharynx. The literature was insufficient to support the delineation of specific viscosity boundaries or other quantifiable material properties related to these clinical outcomes. With respect to food texture, the literature pointed to properties of hardness, cohesiveness, and slipperiness as being relevant both for physiological behaviors and bolus flow patterns. The literature suggests a need to classify food and fluid behavior in the context of the physiological processes involved in oral transport and flow initiation. PMID:25343878

Steele, Catriona M; Alsanei, Woroud Abdulrahman; Ayanikalath, Sona; Barbon, Carly E A; Chen, Jianshe; Cichero, Julie A Y; Coutts, Kim; Dantas, Roberto O; Duivestein, Janice; Giosa, Lidia; Hanson, Ben; Lam, Peter; Lecko, Caroline; Leigh, Chelsea; Nagy, Ahmed; Namasivayam, Ashwini M; Nascimento, Weslania V; Odendaal, Inge; Smith, Christina H; Wang, Helen



Compound orbits break-up in constituents: an algorithm  

E-print Network

In this paper decomposition of periodic orbits in bifurcation diagrams are derived in unidimensional dynamics system $x_{n+1}=f(x_{n};r)$, being $f$ an unimodal function. We proof a theorem which states the necessary and sufficient conditions for the break-up of compound orbits in their simpler constituents. A corollary to this theorem provides an algorithm for the computation of those orbits. This process closes the theoretical framework initiated in (Physica D, 239:1135--1146, 2010).

Jesús San Martín; A. González Gómez; Ma José Moscoso; Daniel Rodríguez-Pérez



Regulatory issues related to functional foods and natural health products in Canada: possible implications for manufacturers of conjugated linoleic acid1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Food and Drugs Act and Regulations, through its definitions of food and drug, currently restricts health-related claims for foods, food ingredients, and natural health products (NHPs). Over the past few decades, scientific research has led to a large body of information that demonstrates the benefits for health of many food and NHP ingredients. Health Canada recognized the constraints

Kelley C Fitzpatrick


Optimization of continuous hydrogen fermentation of food waste as a function of solids retention time independent of hydraulic retention time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) were used for hydrogen fermentation and fed with food waste (4.4±0.2% volatile solids (VS) containing 27g carbohydrate-COD\\/L). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of solids retention time (SRT) in the range 24–160h and hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the range 24–42h. Achieving high SRT independent of HRT with internal sludge

Sang-Hyoun Kim; Sun-Kee Han; Hang-Sik Shin



Harnessing functional food strategies for the health challenges of space travel—Fermented soy for astronaut nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astronauts face numerous health challenges during long-duration space missions, including diminished immunity, bone loss and increased risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Changes in the intestinal flora of astronauts may contribute to these problems. Soy-based fermented food products could provide a nutritional strategy to help alleviate these challenges by incorporating beneficial lactic acid bacteria, while reaping the benefits of soy isoflavones. We

Nicole D. Buckley; Claude P. Champagne; Adriana I. Masotti; Lisa E. Wagar; Thomas A. Tompkins; Julia M. Green-Johnson



Holiday Foods.  

E-print Network

strong flavored foods, some sweet and some sour, such as mashed potatoes and broccoli and sweet and sour pork . Choose different colored foods such as cauliflower and broccoli or tomatoes and lettuce. ~lnclude some crisp foods and soft foods... are a natu ral for families attending the games. The station wagon tailgate makes a convenient table for serving the food. Buffet service is a convenient way to serve Baked Beans Potato Salad Fresh Vegetable Relish - Tomato Wedges, Carrot Strips...

Reasonover, Frances L.; Sweeten, Mary K.



World Food Clock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Scout Staff keeps an eye out for sites that are both informative and interactive, and the World Food Clock does not disappoint. A true feat of graphic design, we loved this site for its innovative and effective presentation of information. The World Food Clock succeeds in providing relevant statistics in an easily digestible manner, with clean and informative visual representations. Likewise, the navigation is both fun and functional, allowing the user to have a stimulating learning experience about global consumption and production.How much food is being consumed around the world right now? It's a vast question that can be answered by the World Food Clock. This interesting website draws on information provided by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and presents a streaming set of data on global food consumption, global food waste, and other informative topics. It's visually arresting and users can scroll down to look through different "clocks" that track statistics such as the land used to grow wasted food and the stages of food waste, which include production, processing, and consumption. This is a wonderful tool for folks with an interest in food security, environmental studies, public health, and international relations. It could also be used in any number of design courses to illustrate a range of techniques and visualization strategies.

Twyman, Luke


Classical relativistic constituent particles and composite states. II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A classical theory of interacting relativistic constituent and composite particles is developed further. The Lorentz-invariant Lagrangian, a function of the single unmeasurable evolution parameter s, is considered for attractive and repulsive harmonic-oscillator forces acting pairwise between constituent particles. Nonrelativistic Newtonian equations of motion can be derived by letting c-->? in ``equal-time'' solutions, but, in general, there is a ``surplus'' of solutions which have no nonrelativistic counterpart. These solutions are used to construct classical models of strongly interacting composite particles. Asymptotic selection rules and constituent confinement are postulated and lead to space-time conservation laws for systems of scattering composite particles. Constituent four-vectors are linear combinations of ``kinematic'' terms and ``intrinsic'' normal modes. The latter are identified with internal symmetries of the composite particles, which are labeled by sets of ``intrinsic numbers'' analogous to additive quantum numbers. Formation of two- and three-body composite particles follows an exact analogy to the color quark model, in which the meson is composed of a quark and an antiquark of the same color, and the baryon is formed from three quarks of three different colors. Scattering examples are given analogous to MM-->MM, MB-->MB, and BB-->BB. The reactions take place through constituent exchange, and total intrinsic numbers are conserved. There are other similarities to quantum field theory, such as particle-antiparticle pair creation and annihilation, fixed relative values of internal angular momenta, fixed orbital angular momentum, and many-particle systems characterized by a vacuum state (lowest energy state) and the existence of virtual composite particles as well as physically observable composite particles.

King, Marcia J.



66 FR 37830 - Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...protectants: Food includes articles used for food or drink...from the fields of biochemistry, microbial ecology...ecology, ecology, biochemistry (including studies...ecology, ecology, biochemistry (including the constituents...The following books, articles and reports were...



Therapeutic Implications of Black Seed and Its Constituent Thymoquinone in the Prevention of Cancer through Inactivation and Activation of Molecular Pathways  

PubMed Central

The cancer is probably the most dreaded disease in both men and women and also major health problem worldwide. Despite its high prevalence, the exact molecular mechanisms of the development and progression are not fully understood. The current chemotherapy/radiotherapy regime used to treat cancer shows adverse side effect and may alter gene functions. Natural products are generally safe, effective, and less expensive substitutes of anticancer chemotherapeutics. Based on previous studies of their potential therapeutic uses, Nigella sativa and its constituents may be proved as good therapeutic options in the prevention of cancer. Black seeds are used as staple food in the Middle Eastern Countries for thousands of years and also in the treatment of diseases. Earlier studies have shown that N. sativa and its constituent thymoquinone (TQ) have important roles in the prevention and treatment of cancer by modulating cell signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the role of N. sativa and its constituents TQ in the prevention of cancer through the activation or inactivation of molecular cell signaling pathways. PMID:24959190

Rahmani, Arshad H.; Alzohairy, Mohammad A.; Khan, Masood A.; Aly, Salah M.



40 CFR 264.342 - Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs). 264... Incinerators § 264.342 Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs). (a) Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) in...



Food masquerade.  


Radishes cut to look like roses, watermelons carved into fruit baskets, apples made into swans, cakes frosted to look like dolls—when did this game of food masquerade start and how? This essay speculates about food's on-going history of disguise, of pretending to be what it's not. From the Renaissance courtier's delight in confections disguised as beasts, birds, and other fancies to our present day fascination with Japanese bento lunch boxes, food masquerade would seem to be a fanciful part of the history of food.Food masquerade injects some levity into our growing seriousness about food, our suspicion that most supermarket food is riddled with toxins and bad karma. It proposes that eating food should be fun. Food masquerade also gets to the very heart of artistic visual representation: the magical transformation of paint, clay or wood into an image of something else. It is a synecdoche for art itself. PMID:21539044

Bermingham, Ann



User's manual for the Graphical Constituent Loading Analysis System (GCLAS)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the Graphical Constituent Loading Analysis System (GCLAS), an interactive cross-platform program for computing the mass (load) and average concentration of a constituent that is transported in stream water over a period of time. GCLAS computes loads as a function of an equal-interval streamflow time series and an equal- or unequal-interval time series of constituent concentrations. The constituent-concentration time series may be composed of measured concentrations or a combination of measured and estimated concentrations. GCLAS is not intended for use in situations where concentration data (or an appropriate surrogate) are collected infrequently or where an appreciable amount of the concentration values are censored. It is assumed that the constituent-concentration time series used by GCLAS adequately represents the true time-varying concentration. Commonly, measured constituent concentrations are collected at a frequency that is less than ideal (from a load-computation standpoint), so estimated concentrations must be inserted in the time series to better approximate the expected chemograph. GCLAS provides tools to facilitate estimation and entry of instantaneous concentrations for that purpose. Water-quality samples collected for load computation frequently are collected in a single vertical or at single point in a stream cross section. Several factors, some of which may vary as a function of time and (or) streamflow, can affect whether the sample concentrations are representative of the mean concentration in the cross section. GCLAS provides tools to aid the analyst in assessing whether concentrations in samples collected in a single vertical or at single point in a stream cross section exhibit systematic bias with respect to the mean concentrations. In cases where bias is evident, the analyst can construct coefficient relations in GCLAS to reduce or eliminate the observed bias. GCLAS can export load and concentration data in formats suitable for entry into the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System. GCLAS can also import and export data in formats that are compatible with various commonly used spreadsheet and statistics programs.

Koltun, G.F.; Eberle, Michael; Gray, J.R.; Glysson, G.D.



Food and cancer.  


Food is an important factor in determining cancer incidence in many countries and regions. Food components relevant to cancer development can be divided into macro- and microcomponents. The former tends to act indirectly. The latter usually has a clearly defined action, for example as genotoxic agents. Food can have both positive (carcinogenic) and negative (preventive) effects. Total calory intake appears to have a strong positive influence on cancer incidence. Food typical of advanced nations including fat-rich food is associated with increases in breast, colon and prostate cancers. Vegetables rich in antioxidants and fibers tend to reduce cancer incidence. Carcinogenic plant alkaloids, myctoxins and other food contaminants frequently enter our bodies. Heat-cooking generates genotoxicants, including aromatic hydrocarbons (via combustion) and heterocyclic amines (HCAs) through reactions involving creatin(in)e, sugar and amino acids in meat. HCAs are relatively newcomers as food genotoxicants and can produce breast, colon and prostate cancers in rodents. Some epidemiological investigations positively correlate HCA intake and cancer incidence. HCAs can produce other toxicological effects including salivary gland atrophy and myocardial degeneration. Improved food, better life styles and developments in the functional food industry are all crucila to cancer prevention. PMID:12505279

Sugimura, Takashi



Food Chain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K describes how energy moves through nature. You will learn about the food chain, and its members: producers, consumers, scavengers. It shows where humans fit into the food chain.

Ptv, Idaho



Food Allergy  


... trigger allergic reactions include fish, shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts, such as walnuts. Problem foods for children can include eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, and wheat. Symptoms of food allergy ...


Food Allergy  


... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food Allergy Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share ... National Institutes of Health for research in food allergy. We are committed to supporting efforts to help ...


[Food allergy or food intolerance?].  


Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management. PMID:24834642

Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C



Determination of antioxidant constituents in cactus pear fruits.  


An analytical study was carried out on the presence of antioxidant constituents and the in vitro antioxidant capacity in the extracts of three species of Spanish red-skinned cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia undulata and Opuntia stricta). The cactus pear fruit extracts were analyzed for determined constituents: ascorbic acid, flavonoids (quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, kaempferol and luteolin), betalains, taurine, total carotenoids and total phenolics. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by means of two different methods: the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical method. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extract had the strongest antioxidant capacity and taurine content. O. stricta fruits were the richest in ascorbic acid and total phenolics, whereas O. undulata fruits showed the highest carotenoid content. Quercetin and isorhamnetin were the main flavonoids detected. This study provides basic information on the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in extracts of cactus pear fruits, in order to consider these extracts as ingredient for the production of health-promoting food. PMID:20811778

Fernández-López, José A; Almela, Luís; Obón, José M; Castellar, Rosario



Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Food web reading. Build a food web and design a creature. Requires downloaded program. Download your assignment Food Web Assignment Sheet. Use the following sites and activities to answer the questions. Do not start the creature creator until Mr. Wood has seen your food web and completed assignment and allowed you to move on. Type your answers on the sheet and edit it to fit one page. When ...

Wood, Mr.



Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts 4 different food webs: Antarctica, the African Grasslands, the Australia Grasslands and a Marine environment. A separate food web for scavengers and decomposers is present in the African Grasslands section. Viewers must first build the web by moving boxes with the organism's picture and name to the appropriate spot on a grid. Clues describing food requirements are given as the boxes are moved. When the boxes are correctly placed a complete food web (with arrows) is displayed.


Food Scorecard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy


How does the resuspension of the biofilm alter the functioning of the benthos-pelagos coupled food web of a bare mudflat in Marennes-Oléron Bay (NE Atlantic)?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intertidal mudflats are ecosystems submitted to natural hydrodynamical forcings during each tide. When the offshore water flows at high tide, a proportion of the biofilm produced at low tide can be resuspended in the water column and interact with the pelagic food web. As a consequence, the resuspension creates a link between the benthos and the pelagos, modifying their properties and the stability of the meta-ecosystem they form together. The aim of this study is to describe the consequences of the microbial biofilm resuspension on the pelagic food web, and to investigate the question of the stability of the benthos-pelagos coupling resulting from the biofilm resuspension. Two food webs were considered, corresponding to different hydrodynamical conditions in summer condition: one allowing the biofilm massive resuspension, and one without resuspension, but with particle sedimentation. The Monte-Carlo Markov Chain Linear Modelling was used to estimate the unknown flows of the food web. The comparison of the Ecological Network Analysis indices for the two food webs allowed defining their respective differences of structure and functioning. The results showed that the massive resuspension of the microbial biofilm stimulates pelagic primary production and microbial food web via a higher bacterivory. The higher activity of the whole system coupled with both a drop in the specialisation of the trophic pathways and a low cycling activity demonstrated that when massive resuspension occurs, the system is disturbed. In contrast, when sedimentation occurs, the food webs show functioning features pointing out to a higher stability of the whole system.

Saint-Béat, Blanche; Dupuy, Christine; Agogué, Hélène; Carpentier, Alexandre; Chalumeau, Julien; Como, Serena; David, Valérie; De Crignis, Margot; Duchêne, Jean-Claude; Fontaine, Camille; Feunteun, Eric; Guizien, Katell; Hartmann, Hans; Lavaud, Johann; Lefebvre, Sébastien; Lefrançois, Christel; Mallet, Clarisse; Montanié, Hélène; Mouget, Jean-Luc; Orvain, Francis; Ory, Pascaline; Pascal, Pierre-Yves; Radenac, Gilles; Richard, Pierre; Vézina, Alain F.; Niquil, Nathalie



Food Chains and Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explains how energy travels through an ecosystem. This flow can be diagrammed in food chains and food webs as shown in the lesson's illustrations. Key terms are hyperlinked so students can easily view definitions of new concepts.



Immunomodulatory Effects of Triphala and its Individual Constituents: A Review  

PubMed Central

The role of plant extracts and Ayurvedic polyherbal preparations in treating various ailments has been acknowledged since time immemorial. Studies based on the effect of these extracts in treatment of different diseases have also been well documented. Indian medicinal literature also emphasizes the synergistic effect of polyherbal drugs in restoring and rejuvenating immune system. This review focuses on the immunomodulatory potential of the polyherbal preparation, Triphala and its three constituents, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The role of Triphala and its extract has been emphasized in stimulating neutrophil function. Under stress condition such as noise, Triphala significantly prevents elevation of IL-4 levels as well as corrects decreased IL-2 and IFN-? levels. Under the condition of inflammatory stress its immunosuppressive activity is attributed to its inhibitory action on complement system, humoral immunity, cell mediated immunity and mitogen-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the individual constituents reportedly enhance especially the macrophage activation due to their free radical scavenging activity and the ability to neutralize reactive oxygen species. This study thus concludes the use of Triphala and its three individual constituents as potential immunostimulants and/or immunosuppressants further suggests them to be a better alternative for allopathic immunomodulators.

Belapurkar, Pranoti; Goyal, Pragya; Tiwari-Barua, Preeti



Functional changes due to invasive species: Food web shifts at shallow Posidonia oceanica seagrass beds colonized by the alien macroalga Caulerpa racemosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple stable isotope analyses were used to examine the trophic shifts at faunal assemblages within the invading macroalga Caulerpa racemosa in comparison to established communities of Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows. Sampling of macrobenthic invertebrates and their potential food sources of algal mats and seagrass meadows in Mallorca (NW Mediterranean) showed differences in species composition of faunal and primary producers among seagrass and C. racemosa. Accordingly, changes in food web structure and trophic guilds were observed, not only at species level but also at community level. The carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures of herbivores, detritivores and deposit feeders confirmed that the seagrass provided a small contribution to the macrofaunal organisms. ? 13C at the P. oceanica seagrass and at the C. racemosa assemblages differed, ranging from -6.19 to -21.20‰ and -2.67 to -31.41‰, respectively. ? 15N at the Caulerpa mats was lower (ranging from 2.64 to 10.45‰) than that at the seagrass meadows (3.51-12. 94‰). Significant differences in isotopic signatures and trophic level among trophic guilds at P. oceanica and C. racemosa were found. N fractionation at trophic guild level considerable differed between seagrass and macroalgae mats, especially for detritivores, deposit feeders, and herbivores. Filter feeders slightly differed with a relatively lower N signal at the seagrass and CR values at community level and at trophic guild level were higher in the C. racemosa invaded habitats indicating an increase in diversity of basal resource pools. C. racemosa did seem to broaden the niche diversity of the P. oceanica meadows it colonised at the base of the food web, may be due to the establishment of a new basal resource. The extent of the effects of invasive species on ecosystem functioning is a fundamental issue in conservation ecology. The observed changes in invertebrate and macrophytic composition, stable isotope signatures of concomitant species and consequent trophic guild and niche breadth shifts at invaded Caulerpa beds increase our understanding of the seagrass systems.

Deudero, S.; Box, A.; Alós, J.; Arroyo, N. L.; Marbà, N.



Food allergies and food intolerances.  


Adverse reactions to foods, aside from those considered toxic, are caused by a particular individual intolerance towards commonly tolerated foods. Intolerance derived from an immunological mechanism is referred to as Food Allergy, the non-immunological form is called Food Intolerance. IgE-mediated food allergy is the most common and dangerous type of adverse food reaction. It is initiated by an impairment of normal Oral Tolerance to food in predisposed individuals (atopic). Food allergy produces respiratory, gastrointestinal, cutaneous and cardiovascular symptoms but often generalized, life-threatening symptoms manifest at a rapid rate-anaphylactic shock. Diagnosis is made using medical history and cutaneous and serological tests but to obtain final confirmation a Double Blind Controlled Food Challenge must be performed. Food intolerances are principally caused by enzymatic defects in the digestive system, as is the case with lactose intolerance, but may also result from pharmacological effects of vasoactive amines present in foods (e.g. Histamine). Prevention and treatment are based on the avoidance of the culprit food. PMID:16782524

Ortolani, Claudio; Pastorello, Elide A



Dispersive solid-phase microextraction and capillary electrophoresis separation of food colorants in beverages using diamino moiety functionalized silica nanoparticles as both extractant and pseudostationary phase.  


In this work, a new method for the determination of food colorants in beverage samples is developed, using diamino moiety functionalized silica nanoparticles (dASNPs) as both adsorbents in dispersive solid-phase microextraction (dSPME) and pseudostationary phases (PSPs) in capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation. dASNPs were firstly used as adsorbents for the preconcentration of four colorants by the dSPME process. After that, colorants were efficiently separated by CE using 30mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) containing 2mM ?-CD and 0.9mg/mL dASNPs as additives. All factors influencing dSPME and CE separations were optimized in detail. The investigated analytes showed good linearities with correlation coefficients (R(2)) higher than 0.9932. The limits of detection for the four food colorants were between 0.030 and 0.36mg/L, which are lower than those reported previously. The established method was also used to analyze four colorants in beverage samples with recoveries ranging from 82.7% to 114.6%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to use NPs both as extractants in dSPME and pseudostationary phases in CE for the analytical purpose. PMID:25476319

Liu, Feng-Jie; Liu, Chuan-Ting; Li, Wei; Tang, An-Na



Inclusion of Fermented Foods in Food Guides around the World  

PubMed Central

Fermented foods have been a well-established part of the human diet for thousands of years, without much of an appreciation for, or an understanding of, their underlying microbial functionality, until recently. The use of many organisms derived from these foods, and their applications in probiotics, have further illustrated their impact on gastrointestinal wellbeing and diseases affecting other sites in the body. However, despite the many benefits of fermented foods, their recommended consumption has not been widely translated to global inclusion in food guides. Here, we present the case for such inclusion, and challenge health authorities around the world to consider advocating for the many benefits of these foods. PMID:25580813

Chilton, Stephanie N.; Burton, Jeremy P.; Reid, Gregor



Functional food and satiety. Impact of a satiating context effect on appetite control of non-obese men.  


The aim of this study was to verify if the addition of satiating nutrients and a satiating context effect could influence appetite sensations, spontaneous energy intake and food appreciation under conditions of standardized energy density of a meal. Eighteen non-obese men were submitted to a control, a satiating, and a context effect condition composed of a standardized breakfast and an ad libitum test lunch (macaroni entrée plus chocolate cake). The satiating macaroni contained more proteins, unsaturated fats, fibres and calcium than the control macaroni despite similar energy density, appearance and palatability. In the context effect condition, participants believed they were eating "a highly satiating macaroni", but were served the control macaroni. Appreciation of the macaronis, quantities of macaroni and cake consumed and 4-h satiating potential were measured for each condition. Quantities of macaroni and dessert consumed did not differ between conditions. Satiating potential was greater for the context effect meal compared to the control and/or the satiating meals up to 4h after its consumption. The context effect macaroni obtained higher appreciation rates than the control and the satiating macaronis. The context effect may positively influence the appreciation toward a meal and contribute to increase its satiety potential for many hours. PMID:22100660

Arguin, Hélène; Gagnon-Sweeney, Marlène; Pigeon, Étienne; Tremblay, Angelo



Harnessing functional food strategies for the health challenges of space travel—Fermented soy for astronaut nutrition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronauts face numerous health challenges during long-duration space missions, including diminished immunity, bone loss and increased risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Changes in the intestinal flora of astronauts may contribute to these problems. Soy-based fermented food products could provide a nutritional strategy to help alleviate these challenges by incorporating beneficial lactic acid bacteria, while reaping the benefits of soy isoflavones. We carried out strain selection for the development of soy ferments, selecting strains of lactic acid bacteria showing the most effective growth and fermentation ability in soy milk ( Streptococcus thermophilus ST5, Bifidobacterium longum R0175 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052). Immunomodulatory bioactivity of selected ferments was assessed using an in vitro challenge system with human intestinal epithelial and macrophage cell lines, and selected ferments show the ability to down-regulate production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 following challenge with tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The impact of fermentation on vitamin B1 and B6 levels and on isoflavone biotransformation to agluconic forms was also assessed, with strain variation-dependent biotransformation ability detected. Overall this suggests that probiotic bacteria can be successfully utilized to develop soy-based fermented products targeted against health problems associated with long-term space travel.

Buckley, Nicole D.; Champagne, Claude P.; Masotti, Adriana I.; Wagar, Lisa E.; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Green-Johnson, Julia M.



Acoustic constituents of prosodic typology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different languages sound different, and considerable part of it derives from the typological difference of prosody. Although such difference is often referred to as lexical accent types (stress accent, pitch accent, and tone; e.g. English, Japanese, and Chinese respectively) and rhythm types (stress-, syllable-, and mora-timed rhythms; e.g. English, Spanish, and Japanese respectively), it is unclear whether these types are determined in terms of acoustic properties, The thesis intends to provide a potential basis for the description of prosody in terms of acoustics. It argues for the hypothesis that the source component of the source-filter model (acoustic features) approximately corresponds to prosody (linguistic features) through several experimental-phonetic studies. The study consists of four parts. (1) Preliminary experiment: Perceptual language identification tests were performed using English and Japanese speech samples whose frequency spectral information (i.e. non-source component) is heavily reduced. The results indicated that humans can discriminate languages with such signals. (2) Discussion on the linguistic information that the source component contains: This part constitutes the foundation of the argument of the thesis. Perception tests of consonants with the source signal indicated that the source component carries the information on broad categories of phonemes that contributes to the creation of rhythm. (3) Acoustic analysis: The speech samples of Chinese, English, Japanese, and Spanish, differing in prosodic types, were analyzed. These languages showed difference in acoustic characteristics of the source component. (4) Perceptual experiment: A language identification test for the above four languages was performed using the source signal with its acoustic features parameterized. It revealed that humans can discriminate prosodic types solely with the source features and that the discrimination is easier as acoustic information increases. The series of studies showed the correspondence of the source component to prosodic features. In linguistics, prosodic types have not been discussed purely in terms of acoustics; they are usually related to the function of prosody or phonological units such as phonemes. The present thesis focuses on acoustics and makes a contribution to establishing the crosslinguistic description system of prosody.

Komatsu, Masahiko


Combining fructooligosaccharide and dried plum has the greatest effect on restoring bone mineral density among select functional foods and bioactive compounds.  


Functional foods and/or their bioactive compounds playing a role in improving skeletal health have received considerable attention. The objective of the present study was to determine the extent to which certain functional foods as (1) whole, e.g., dried plum (DP), figs, dates, raisin, and blueberry, (2) fractionated, e.g., DP puree, DP juice, and DP pulp/skin, or (3) isolated, e.g., DP polyphenols, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, forms reverse bone loss in an ovariectomized (Ovx) rat model of osteoporosis. Additionally, some of these components were tested in reversal of bone loss in combination. For this purpose, 180 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 15 groups (n = 12) and either Ovx (14 groups) or sham-operated (Sham, one group). Rats were maintained on a semipurified standard diet for 45 days after surgery to establish bone loss. Thereafter, rats were placed on one of the following dietary treatments for 60 days: casein-based diet (Sham and Ovx). The remaining 13 Ovx groups were placed on various treatment diets. Results showed that diets supplemented with 5% FOS + 7.5% DP was most effective in reversing both right femur and fourth lumbar bone mineral density and fourth lumbar calcium loss while significantly decreasing trabecular separation. There were no significant effects of treatment on serum or urine measures of bone turnover. Although other treatments were good at altering some bone parameters, none had the success in altering several bone health indicators as the diets supplemented with 5% FOS + 7.5% DP. The findings of this study suggest the combination of 5% FOS + 7.5% DP is capable of reversing Ovx-induced bone loss. PMID:20132045

Arjmandi, Bahram H; Johnson, Catherine D; Campbell, Sara C; Hooshmand, Shirin; Chai, Sheau C; Akhter, Mohammed P



Food for thought: the importance of glucose and other energy substrates for sustaining brain function under varying levels of activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brain requires a constant and substantial energy supply to maintain its main functions. For decades, it was assumed that glucose was the major if not the only significant source of energy for neurons. This view was supported by the expression of specific facilitative glucose transporters on cerebral blood vessels, as well as neurons. Despite the fact that glucose remains

L. Pellerin



What Happens to the Food We Eat? Children's Conceptions of the Structure and Function of the Digestive System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes children's conceptions of the structure and function of the human digestive system based on an investigation carried out with children aged 4-10 (n=45). Finds that children possess biological knowledge as an independent knowledge domain from the age of four. Discusses acquisition of and barriers to scientific concepts related to human…

Teixeira, Francimar Martins



A Functional mathematical index for predicting effects of food processing on eight sweet potato(Ipomoea batatas)cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this paper we apply an improved functional mathematical index (FMI), modified from those presented in previous publications, to define the influence of different cooking processes of eight sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars on composition of six bioactive phenolic compounds (flavonoids). Th...


Photoperiod, Ambient Temperature, and Food Availability Interact to Affect Reproductive and Immune Function in Adult Male Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter is often stressful. Increased energetic demands in winter and concurrent reductions in energy availability can lead to an energetic imbalance and compromise survival. To increase the odds of surviving winter, individuals of some nontropical rodent species have evolved mechanisms to enhance immune function in advance of harsh winter conditions. Short day lengths provide a proximate cue for enhancement of

Gregory E. Demas; Randy J. Nelson



Food Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate aim of activities and interventions aimed at guaranteeing food security is to arrive at a healthy and well-nourished\\u000a population that can take on, to the maximum of its capacities, the development of its own community, area or country. In these\\u000a efforts, agriculture, in its role as food producer, plays a crucial role. (Sufficient quality) food should be available

R. P. Roetter; H. VAN KEULEN



Comparison of serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine as kidney function biomarkers in healthy geriatric cats fed reduced protein foods enriched with fish oil, L-carnitine, and medium-chain triglycerides.  


The purpose of this study was to determine whether feeding cats reduced protein and phosphorus foods with added fish oil, L-carnitine, and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) altered serum biomarkers of renal function. Thirty-two healthy cats, mean age 14.0 (8.3-19.6) years, were fed control food or one of two experimental foods for 6 months. All foods had similar concentrations of moisture, protein, and fat (approximately 8.0%, 26.5%, and 20.0%, respectively). Both experimental foods contained added fish oil (1.5%) and L-carnitine (500?mg/kg). Experimental-food 2 also contained increased MCT (10.5% from coconut oil), 1.5% added corn oil, and reduced animal fat. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), serum biochemistries, renal function biomarkers including serum creatinine (sCr) and symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA), and plasma metabolomic profiles were measured at baseline, and at 1.5, 3, and 6 months. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Although both experimental foods altered plasma fatty acids, carnitine and related metabolites, and lysophospholipid concentrations, there were no changes in renal function biomarkers. There was, however, a benefit in using SDMA versus sCr to assess renal function in older cats with less total lean mass. Compared with cats <12 years, those >15 years had lower total lean mass (P?

Hall, J A; Yerramilli, M; Obare, E; Yerramilli, M; Yu, S; Jewell, D E



Constituents from the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa.  


Thirteen new phenolic glycosides were obtained by further study of constituents from the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa (MART. ex DC) Standley (Bignoniaceae). The structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, mass spectral and chemical evidence. Most of them have a glycosyl unit esterified by a benzoic acid derivative. PMID:16394542

Warashina, Tsutomu; Nagatani, Yoshimi; Noro, Tadataka



Re-Affiliation Package CONSTITUENT CLUBS  

E-print Network

Re-Affiliation Package CONSTITUENT CLUBS Club Name: To renew your affiliation with Arc, you must do the following (tick as you comply): Hold an AGM (Annual General Meeting): q Give Notice of the AGM to Club members and Arc Student Development via email to, at least 7 days in advance

Blennerhassett, Peter


Affiliation Package Constituent CLuBs  

E-print Network

Affiliation Package Constituent CLuBs =Club Name: To become affiliated, you must do the following (tick as you comply): Hold an AGM (Annual General Meeting): q Give Notice of the AGM to Club members and Arc Student Development via email to, at least 7 days in advance of the meeting

Blennerhassett, Peter


Neuroprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neuroprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) and some of its constituents were tested by using the mouse and the rat model of focal cerebral ischemia, the rat model of global cerebral ischemia and primary cultures of neurons obtained from newborn rat hippocampi and chick embryo telencephalic hemispheres. In the models of focal ischemia, 2 days after occlusion

Josef Krieglstein; Franz Ausmeier; Hanan El-Abhar; Klaus Lippert; Matthias Welsch; Katrin Rupalla; Petra Henrich-Noack



Investigating Constituent Values and School Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a sociopolitical perspective to understand the alignment of community values and school policies, we conducted focus groups in three geographically close but economically varied neighborhood in one Midwest urban area. The article presents findings related to constituent values, social capital, and school policies, including charter school…

Allen, Ann; Glassman, Michael; Riegel, Lisa; Dawson, Heather



Food additives  

PubMed Central

Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

Spencer, Michael



Earth GRAM-99 and Trace Constituents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-99) is an engineering-level model of Earth's atmosphere. It provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly- and geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0-27 km, GRAM thermodynamics and winds are based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. Above 120 km, GRAM is based on the NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model. In the intervening altitude region, GRAM is based on Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) climatology that also forms the basis of the 1986 COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). Atmospheric composition is represented in GRAM by concentrations of both major and minor species. Above 120 km, MET provides concentration values for N2, O2, Ar, O, He, and H. Below 120 km, species represented also include H2O, O3, N2O, CO, CH4, and CO2. At COSPAR 2002 a comparison was made between GRAM constituents below 120 km and those provided by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) climatology. No current need to update GRAM constituent climatology in that height range was identified. This report examines GRAM (MET) constituents between 100 and 1000 km altitudes. Discrepancies are noted between GRAM (MET) constituent number densities and mass density or molecular weight. Near 110 km altitude, there is up to about 25% discrepancy between MET number density and mass density (with mass density being valid and number densities requiring adjustment). Near 700 km altitude there is also up to about 25% discrepancy between MET number density and mean molecular weight (with molecular weight requiring adjustment). In neither case are MET mass density estimates invalidated. These discrepancies have been traced to MET subroutines SLV (which affects 90-170 km height range) and SLVH (which affects helium above 440 km altitude). With these discrepancies corrected, results are presented to illustrate GRAM (MET) constituent mole fractions in terms of height-latitude cross sections from 100 to 1000 km altitude, and latitude-longitude 'maps' at 450 km (approximate height of International Space Station). Plans are discussed for an update of MET (and GRAM) to correct these constituent inconsistencies and to incorporate several new thermospheric model features.

Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Keller, Vernon W.



Dealing with Food and Eggs in Mouthbrooding Cichlids: Structural and Functional Trade-Offs in Fitness Related Traits  

PubMed Central

Background As in any vertebrate, heads of fishes are densely packed with functions. These functions often impose conflicting mechanical demands resulting in trade-offs in the species-specific phenotype. When phenotypical traits are linked to gender-specific parental behavior, we expect sexual differences in these trade-offs. This study aims to use mouthbrooding cichlids as an example to test hypotheses on evolutionary trade-offs between intricately linked traits that affect different aspects of fitness. We focused on the oral apparatus, which is not only equipped with features used to feed and breathe, but is also used for the incubation of eggs. We used this approach to study mouthbrooding as part of an integrated functional system with diverging performance requirements and to explore gender-specific selective environments within a species. Methodology/Principal Findings Because cichlids are morphologically very diverse, we hypothesize that the implications of the added constraint of mouthbrooding will primarily depend on the dominant mode of feeding of the studied species. To test this, we compared the trade-off for two maternal mouthbrooding cichlid species: a “suction feeder” (Haplochromis piceatus) and a “biter” (H. fischeri). The comparison of morphology and performance of both species revealed clear interspecific and intersex differences. Our observation that females have larger heads was interpreted as a possible consequence of the fact that in both the studied species mouthbrooding is done by females only. As hypothesized, the observed sexual dimorphism in head shape is inferred as being suboptimal for some aspects of the feeding performance in each of the studied species. Our comparison also demonstrated that the suction feeding species had smaller egg clutches and more elongated eggs. Conclusions/Significance Our findings support the hypothesis that there is a trade-off between mouthbrooding and feeding performance in the two studied haplochromine cichlids, stressing the importance of including species-specific information at the gender level when addressing interspecific functional/morphological differences. PMID:22348043

tkint, Tim; Verheyen, Erik; De Kegel, Barbara; Helsen, Philippe; Adriaens, Dominique



A Computer?Aided Strategy for Structure?Function Relation Study of Food Proteins Using Unsupervised Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data mining (DM) based on Bayesian neural networks (BNN) is popular for exploring consistent patterns and\\/or systematic relationships of variables in chemometrics. A combination of the unsupervised principal component similarity (PCS) analysis with the random?centroid optimization for site?directed mutagenesis of amino acid sequences (RCG) is proposed to correlate the sequence data with functions of proteins. Principal component similarity based on

Shuryo Nakai; Masahiro Ogawa; Soichiro Nakamura; Jingli Dou; Kazumi Funane



Food Allergy  


... of links for more information about food allergy Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the ... incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food ...


Food Allergy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The incidence of food allergy appears to be increasing, as is our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, treatment options, identifying, and characterizing allergenic proteins within food sources. The aim of this book is to translate how this vast array of information may fit into development o...


Irradiated foods  


... and reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes and for the control of insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.


Food jags  


Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... you can do to help your child try new foods include: Have other family members help set ... that are pleasing to the eye. Start introducing new tastes, especially green vegetables, beginning at 6 months, ...


Food Safety  


... germs. Chill - put fresh food in the refrigerator right away. In the grocery store, avoid cans that are bulging or jars that have cracks or loose lids. Check packages to be sure food hasn't reached its expiration date. United States Department of Agriculture


Novel mechanism of modulating natural antioxidants in functional foods: involvement of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria NRRL B-30488.  


The significance of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mediated increase in antioxidant potential in vegetables is yet unknown. The plant growth-promoting bacterium Bacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488 (B-30488) mediated induction of dietary antioxidant in vegetables ( Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lactuca sativa, Spinacia oleracea, and Daucus carota) and fruit ( Citrus sinensis) after minimal processing (fresh, boiled, and frozen) was tested by estimating the total phenol content, level of antioxidant enzymes, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide scavenging activities along with integral radical scavenging capacity by photochemiluminescence assay and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Minimal processing of vegetables showed that T. foenum-graecum had the highest phenol content in B-30488-treated plants followed by L. sativa, D. carota, and S. oleracea. Thermally treated vegetables T. foenum-graecum (26-114.5 GAE microg mg (-1)) had an exceptionally high total phenolic content, followed by D. carota (25.27-101.32 GAE microg mg (-1)), L. sativa (23.22-101.10 GAE microg mg (-1)), and S. oleracea (21.87-87.57 GAE microg mg (-1)). Among the vegetables and fruit used in this study for enzymatic estimation, induction of antioxidant enzymes, namely, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD), was observed in edible parts of T. foenum-graecum, L. sativa, S. oleracea, and D. carota, after inoculation with B-30488. The scavenging capacity of the vegetables treated with B-30488 against DPPH and superoxide anion radical activity was found to be significantly high as compared to nontreated control. Mild food processing had no adverse effect on radical scavenging capacity. Photochemiluminescence also ascertains the above findings. The ability of the plant extracts to protect against lipid peroxidation and its ability to prevent oxidation of reduced glutathione (GSH) was measured in rat liver homogenate, and the results suggested that the inoculated plant exhibited better activity in all of the screened plants. Significant increases in shoot length, root length, and dry weight, averaging 164, 132, and 135% in T. foenum-graecum, 174, 141, and 156% in L. sativa, 129, 141, and 59%, in S. oleracea, and 125, 146, and 42% in D. carota, respectively, over untreated controls, were attained in greenhouse trials. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of PGPR-mediated induction of antioxidant enzyme activity (PPO, APX, CAT, and SOD) along with the antioxidant activity of the extracts in both in vitro (DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide scavenging) and ex vivo conditions using the rat liver tissue (percent inhibition of lipid peroxidation and prevention of oxidation of GSH) and phenolic content. The results demonstrate the PGPR-mediated induction of antioxidant level in vegetables and fruit controls oxidative damage even after minimal processing and thus is indicative of its potential as a viable substitute of synthetic antioxidants. PMID:18491912

Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Govindarajan, Raghavan; Lavania, Meeta; Pushpangadan, Palpu



Food porn.  


Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

McBride, Anne E




PubMed Central

The results of chemical analyses reveal that it is possible to secure preparations of elementary bodies of vaccinia that possess a considerable uniformity in their chemical constituents. Furthermore, the amounts of certain of these constituents, namely, nitrogen, alpha-amino nitrogen after hydrolysis, phosphorus, total fat, phospholipid, neutral fat, reducing sugar after hydrolysis, and cystine, in the purified virus are significantly different from those in the various materials discarded during the process of purification. The amounts of phospholipid and neutral fat in the virus preparations are not appreciably affected by extraction with ethyl ether or by digestion with lipase, procedures which do not inactivate the virus. Cholesterol, on the contrary, is apparently completely removed by these manipulations, and hence is not considered to play an important part in the economy of the virus. PMID:19870995

Hoagland, Charles L.; Smadel, Joseph E.; Rivers, Thomas M.



Chemical constituents of eroded gun surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study has been made on the distribution of chemical constituents on eroded surfaces of retired guns using the instrument, PHI Model 548 ESCA/Auger with a SAM attachment. Three eroded gun tubes in progressive stages of corrosion were examined by Scanning Auger Microprobe. The elemental constituents were first established from Auger spectra of various sampling spots using a wide primary electron beam, and then Auger images of selected elements were obtained from a beam width approximately 5 ?m. The chemical elements present on the top surface layer depend largely on the propellants used in firings. The prominent features of the eroded surface were extensive oxidation and severe thermal cracking. The heterogeneous distribution and the accumulation of the major elements which participated in the surface erosion are imaged and illustrated.

Lin, Sin-Shong



[Chemical constituents from rhizome of Phlomis umbrosa].  


Phlomis umbrosa is a traditional medicinal plant, distributed in the north of China. In the west of Hubei province, its roots were used in the treatment of the rheumatic diseases in Tujia nationality. To study the chemical constituents from the rhizome of Phlomis umbrosa chemical constituents were isolated from the plant by using repeated silica gel, toyopearl HW-40 and preparative HPLC chromatography. The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopic techniques and HRESI-MS. Ten compounds, 6"-syringyl-sesamoside (1), decaffeoylverbascoside (2), calcelarioside B (3), verbascoside (4), isoverbascoside (5), alyssonoside (6), sesamoside (7), shanzhiside methyl ester (8), 8-acetyl-shanzhiside methyl ester (9), 7-epiphlomiol (10) were isolated from P. umbrosa. Compound 1 is a new compound. Compounds 2-6 are isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:17633208

Liu, Pu; Teng, Jie; Zhang, Yan-wen; Takaishi, Yoshihisa; Duan, Hong-quan



Phytochemical constituents of some Indian medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardie glycoside distribution in seven medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Aegle marmelos, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Moringa pterygosperma, Pongamia pinnata, Sida acuta and Tridax procumbens. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India. PMID:22557280

Dhandapani, R.; Sabna, B.



Hybrid States from Constituent Glue Model  

E-print Network

The hybrid meson is one of the most interesting new hadron specie beyond the naive quark model. It acquire a great attention both from the theoretical and experimental efforts. Many good candidates have been claimed to be observed, but there is no absolute confirmation about existence of hybrid mesons. In the present work we propose new calculations of the masses and decay widths of the hybrid mesons in the context of constituent gluon model.

F. Iddir; L. Semlala



Phytochemical constituents of some Indian medicinal plants.  


Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardie glycoside distribution in seven medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Aegle marmelos, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Moringa pterygosperma, Pongamia pinnata, Sida acuta and Tridax procumbens. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India. PMID:22557280

Dhandapani, R; Sabna, B



Baryon Spectroscopy and the Constituent Quark Model  

SciTech Connect

We explore further the idea that the lattice QCD data for hadron properties in the region m[^2][_pi] > 0.2GeV^2 can be described by the constituent quark model. This leads to a natural explanation of the fact that nucleon excited states are generally stable for pion masses greater than their physical excitation energies. Finally, we apply these same ideas to the problem of how pentaquarks might behave in lattice QCD, with interesting conclusions.

A.W. Thomas; R.D. Young



Volatile Constituents of Averrhoa bilimbi L. Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile constituents of Averrhoa bilimbi L. fruit were isolated by steam distillation with subsequent extraction of the distillate with dichloromethane. The concentrated extract was analyzed by capillary GC and GC\\/MS. Fifty-three components were identified, aliphatic acids accounting for 47.8% of the total volatiles with hexadecanoic acid (20.4%) and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid predominating. Among the 12 esters found butyl nicotinate (1.6%)

K. C. Wong; S. N. Wong



Chemical Constituents from Bletilla ochracea Schltr  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the chemical constituents in Bletilla ochracea Schltr., repeated column chromatographies and preparative TLC were used for the isolation of compounds, and spectroscopic techniques (NMR, IR, UV and MS) were used for their structural identification. Seven compounds, 2,7-bis (allyloxy)-5-methoxy-3-methyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (1), gastrodin (2), gastrodigenin (3), ?-sitosterol (4), stigmasterol (5), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (6), and daucosterol (7) were obtained from the roots of

Jin-yan CAI; Lin ZHAO; De-zhi ZHANG



Essential Oils in Food Preservation: Mode of Action, Synergies, and Interactions with Food Matrix Components  

PubMed Central

Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defense as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds’ mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods. PMID:22291693

Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Meyer, Rikke Louise



Hydrogeomorphology and river impoundment affect food-chain length of diverse Neotropical food webs  

E-print Network

Hydrogeomorphology and river impoundment affect food-chain length of diverse Neotropical food webs-900 Parana´, Brasil. Food-chain length is a central characteristic of ecological communities that affects community structure and ecosystem function. What determines the length of food chains is not well resolved

Hoeinghaus, David J.


Toxicological evaluation of the ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. for use as a dietary supplement and in functional foods.  


TARRALIN is an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus (Russian tarragon), a common medicinal and culinary herb with centuries of use. Artemisia dracunculus is a close relative of the French or cooking tarragon and contains components common to many herbs that are routinely consumed without reported adverse effects. Since safety information of Artemisia dracunculus and its extract is limited to historical use, TARRALIN was examined in a series of toxicological studies. Complete Ames analysis did not reveal any mutagenic activity either with or without metabolic activation. TARRALIN was tested in an acute limit test at 5000 mg/kg with no signs of toxicity noted. In a 14 day repeated dose oral toxicity study, rats appeared to well tolerate 1000 mg/kg/day. Subsequently, TARRALIN was tested in an oral subchronic 90-day toxicity study (rat) at doses of 10, 100 and 1000 mg/kg/day. No noteworthy signs of toxicity were noted in feeding or body weight, functional observational battery or motor activity. Gross necropsy and clinical chemistry did not reveal any effects on organ mass or blood chemistry and microscopic examinations found no lesions associated with treatment. Therefore, TARRALIN appears to be safe and non-toxic in these studies and a no-observed adverse effect level in rats is established at 1000 mg/kg/day. PMID:15019182

Ribnicky, David M; Poulev, Alexander; O'Neal, Joseph; Wnorowski, Gary; Malek, Dolores E; Jäger, Ralf; Raskin, Ilya



Central Administration of Leptin to Ovariectomized Ewes Inhibits Food Intake without Affecting the Secretion of Hormones from the Pituitary Gland: Evidence for a Dissociation of Effects on Appetite and Neuroendocrine Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the effect of leptin on food intake and neuroen- docrine function in ovariectomized ewes. Groups (n 5 5) received intracerebroventricular infusions of either vehicle or leptin (20 mg\\/h) for 3 days and were blood sampled ove r6ho ndays 21, 2, and for 3 h on day 3 relative to the onset of the infusion. The animals were




Food Grab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners design devices that will catch prey or gather plants. After testing their devices, learners investigate the food-gathering adaptations of animals in their activity site. Activity background information gives multiple examples of real animals and their food-grabbing mechanisms including shark jaws, rodent teeth, hawk talons, etc. Learners consider the concept of food-gathering adaptations of animals and compare them with human methods. An extension of this activity is observing various animals around the neighborhood as they capture prey and eat plants.

Science, Lawrence H.



Space Food  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.



Food for talk: discursive identities, food choice and eating practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis focuses on the construction and use of identities in food interaction. Insights from discursive psychology and conversation analysis are drawn upon to examine the interactional functions of identities in online food talk.<\\/span>Discursive psychology (DP) explores how psychological themes, such as identity, are handled and managed in discourse, by participants themselves. The main principle of this approach is that

P. W. J. Sneijder




PubMed Central

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of respiratory compromise throughout postnatal life. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the respiratory compromise in offspring following IUGR is not known. We hypothesized that IUGR following maternal food restriction (MFR) would affect extracellular matrix deposition in the lung, explaining the long-term impairment in pulmonary function in the IUGR offspring. Using a well-established rat model of MFR during gestation to produce IUGR pups, we found that at postnatal day 21, and at 9 months of age the expression and abundance of elastin and alpha smooth muscle actin (?SMA), two key extracellular matrix proteins, were increased in IUGR lungs when compared to controls (p<0.05, n = 6), as determined by both Western and immunohistochemistry analyses. Compared to controls, the MFR group showed no significant change in pulmonary resistance at baseline, but did have significantly decreased pulmonary compliance at 9 months (p<0.05 vs control, n=5). In addition, MFR lungs exhibited increased responsiveness to methacholine challenge. Furthermore, exposing cultured fetal rat lung fibroblasts to serum deprivation increased the expression of elastin and elastin-related genes, which was blocked by serum albumin supplementation, suggesting protein deficiency as the predominant mechanism for increased pulmonary elastin deposition in IUGR lungs. We conclude that accompanying the changes in lung function, consistent with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, expression of the key alveolar extracellular matrix proteins elastin and ?SMA increased in the IUGR lung, thus providing a potential explanation for the compromised lung function in IUGR offspring. PMID:22058072

Rehan, Virender K.; Sakurai, Reiko; Li, Yishi; Karadag, Ahmet; Corral, Julia; Bellusci, Saverio; Xue, Ying Ying; Belperio, John; Torday, John S.



A Simple Mixture Theory for ? Newtonian and Generalized Newtonian Constituents  

E-print Network

This work presents development of mathematical models based on conservation laws for a saturated mixture of ? homogeneous, isotropic, and incompressible constituents for isothermal flows. The constituents and the mixture ...

Powell, Michael Joseph



40 CFR 264.342 - Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS...OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL...264.342 Principal organic hazardous constituents...Constituents (POHCs) in the waste feed must be...




EPA Science Inventory

This project addresses the problem of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge disposal to land. Specifically, the chemical species of FGD sludge constituents are thermodynamically modeled using the equilibrium constant approach, in an attempt to predict the constituent concentratio...


Nature and Chlorine Reactivity of Organic Constituents from  

E-print Network

Nature and Chlorine Reactivity of Organic Constituents from Reclaimed Water in Groundwater, Los 808, L-231, Livermore, California 94550 The nature and chlorine reactivity of organic constituents (TOX) yields upon chlorination, and these structures also were responsiblefortheenhanced


Involvement of extracellular matrix constituents in breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

It has recently been established that the extracellular matrix is required for normal functional differentiation of mammary epithelia not only in culture, but also in vivo. The mechanisms by which extracellular matrix affects differentiation, as well as the nature of extracellular matrix constituents which have major impacts on mammary gland function, have only now begun to be dissected. The intricate variety of extracellular matrix-mediated events and the remarkable degree of plasticity of extracellular matrix structure and composition at virtually all times during ontogeny, make such studies difficult. Similarly, during carcinogenesis, the extracellular matrix undergoes gross alterations, the consequences of which are not yet precisely understood. Nevertheless, an increasing amount of data suggests that the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-receptors might participate in the control of most, if not all, of the successive stages of breast tumors, from appearance to progression and metastasis.

Lochter, Andre; Bissell, Mina J



Ambient methods and apparatus for rapid laser trace constituent analysis  


A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring trace amounts of constituents in samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence under ambient conditions. The laser induced fluorescence is performed at a selected wavelength corresponding to an absorption state of a selected trace constituent. The intensity value of the emission decay signal which is generated by the trace constituent is compared to calibrated emission intensity decay values to determine the amount of trace constituent present.

Snyder, Stuart C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jeffery, Charles L. (Blackfoot, ID)



Food poisoning  


... Toxins in spoiled or tainted fish or shellfish Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Shigella Infants and elderly people are at the greatest risk for food poisoning. You are also at higher risk if: ...


Food Allergies  


... food allergy reactions: milk eggs peanuts soy wheat tree nuts (such as walnuts and cashews) fish shellfish ( ... peanut allergy and about 10% of kids with tree nut allergy outgrow their allergy. Fish and shellfish ...


Food Justice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this adaptation of a video that high school students created in collaboration with the Environmental Justice League of Rhode Island, learn what's whack about our current food systems and the many actions individuals can take to address these issues.



Future food.  


Journalists and science fiction writers love to speculate that soon we will not be eating food as we have known it for millennia, but only the encapsulated products of the 'farmaceutical' industry. What nonsense! PMID:11852285

Malcolm, Alan D B



Food dehydration and product structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dehydration of biological material is a controlled effort to preserve the structure or create a new one that serves for functional purposes. In this context, food dehydration is revisited from the perspective of recent advances in food materials science, knowledge from desiccation in Nature, microstructural probing, novel processing technologies and deeper insights into drying mechanisms, among others. The role of

José Miguel Aguilera; Amparo Chiralt; Pedro Fito



Meson Clouds and Dressed Constituent Quarks in the Complete Rg-Improvement Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea quark densities in the nucleon, based on the constituent quark model are analyzed. To model the asymmetry of these densities, the meson cloud or alternatively chiral quark model (?QM) is used. Valence quark densities of the meson which are required to extract the sea quark densities in the constituent quarks are obtained using the phenomenological valon model. In addition to the standard perturbative QCD approach which uses the /lineMS scheme with a physical choice of renormalization scale, the calculations are also performed using the complete RG-improvement (CORGI) approach. To avoid a physically unacceptable Q2 behavior of the sea densities inside the constituent quarks, we assume that the free parameter which exists in the vertex function of the boson-quark splitting function, is Q2-dependent. Using the unsymmetrized sea densities of the nucleon which result from convoluting the constituent density in a nucleon with the quark density in the constituent quark, the Gottfried sum rule (GSR) is calculated using the standard perturbative and CORGI approaches. The CORGI result is closer to the reported experimental value for the GSR. The extracted sea and valence quark density in a nucleon, using ?QM and also the CORGI approach, have been compared with available experimental data and what was obtained, based on ?QM in the standard approach. This comparison confirms the anticipated better agreement of the CORGI approach with the data.

Keshavarzian, K.; Mirjalili, A.; Yazdanpanah, M. M.


Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread  

PubMed Central

Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT) is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF). The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread. PMID:21995616



Monitoring of trace amounts of heavy metals in different food and water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer after preconcentration by amine-functionalized graphene nanosheet.  


We are introducing graphene oxide modified with amine groups as a new solid phase for extraction of heavy metal ions including cadmium(II), copper(II), nickel(II), zinc(II), and lead(II). Effects of pH value, flow rates, type, concentration, and volume of the eluent, breakthrough volume, and the effect of potentially interfering ions were studied. Under optimized conditions, the extraction efficiency is >97 %, the limit of detections are 0.03, 0.05, 0.2, 0.1, and 1 ?g L(-1) for the ions of cadmium, copper, nickel, zinc, and lead, respectively, and the adsorption capacities for these ions are 178, 142, 110, 125, and 210 mg g(-1). The amino-functionalized graphene oxide was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The proposed method was successfully applied in the analysis of environmental water and food samples. Good spiked recoveries over the range of 95.8-100.0 % were obtained. This work not only proposes a useful method for sample preconcentration but also reveals the great potential of modified graphene as an excellent sorbent material in analytical processes. PMID:25023747

Behbahani, Mohammad; Tapeh, Nasim Akbari Ghareh; Mahyari, Mojtaba; Pourali, Ali Reza; Amin, Bahareh Golrokh; Shaabani, Ahmad



Gentio-oligosaccharides from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-1426 dextransucrase as prebiotics and as a supplement for functional foods with anti-cancer properties.  


Gentio-oligosaccharides (GnOS) were synthesized by the acceptor reaction of dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-1426 with gentiobiose and sucrose. GnOS were purified by gel permeation chromatography using a Bio-Gel P-2 column and identified by mass spectrometry. The purified GnOS (degree of polymerization ?3) were investigated for their in vitro prebiotic and cytotoxic activity. GnOS exhibited a significantly lower degree of digestibility of 18.1% by simulated human gastric juice (pH 1.0) and 7.1% by human ?-amylase (pH 7.0) after 6 h, whereas inulin, a standard prebiotic, showed 39.7% and 12.8% of digestibility, respectively. The prebiotic score showed that GnOS significantly supported the growth of probiotics such as Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus and was comparable to that of inulin. The selective inhibitory effect of GnOS on human colon carcinoma (HT-29) cells revealed its potential as an anti-cancer agent that can serve as a functional food additive for the benefit of human health. PMID:25524369

Kothari, Damini; Goyal, Arun



Food Chain Security and Vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our contemporary societies, the food chain could be defined as a macro-technical system, which depends on a wide variety of actors and risks analysis methods. In this contribution, risks related to the food chain are defined in terms of "modern risks" (Beck 1992). The whole national economic sector of food production/distribution is vulnerable to a local accident, which can affect the functioning of food chain, the export programs and even the political system. Such a complex socio-technical environment is undoubtedly vulnerable to intentional act such as terrorism.

Brunet, Sébastien; Delvenne, Pierre; Claisse, Frédéric


[New pharmacological activities of garlic and its constituents].  


According to the recent pharmacological findings, garlic is a preventive rather than therapeutic. Epidemiological studies in China, Italy and USA showed the inverse relationship between stomach and colon cancer incidences and dietary garlic intake. Anti-carcinogenic activities of garlic and its constituents including sulfides and S-allyl cysteine, have been demonstrated using several animal models. Garlic preparations has been also shown to lower serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, which are major risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, through inhibition of their bio-synthesis in the liver, and to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoprotein. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed that aged garlic extract stimulated immune functions, such as proliferation of lymphocyte, cytokine release, NK activity and phagocytosis. More recently, aged garlic extract has been demonstrated to prolong life span of senescence accelerated mice and prevent brain atrophy. Manufacturing processes significantly affect chemical constituents in garlic preparations. Different forms contain different phytochemicals and may have different effects and toxicities. For example, aged garlic extract inhibited t-BuOOH-induced oxidation, whereas raw garlic stimulated the oxidation. Although garlic has been used as a condiment and folklore for a long time, it has been noted to cause adverse reactions, such as stomach ulcer and anemia. Among the garlic preparations, only aged garlic extract has been proven to be safe through toxicological studies. Thus, aged garlic extract could be the most promising garlic preparation for disease prevention. PMID:9503413

Sumiyoshi, H



Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems  

SciTech Connect

Objectives of this project are: (1) define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and (2) characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail; elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur; and develop, based on the information required in a. and b. above, a tractable process'' model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the nature and distribution of products. The work discussed highlights recent accomplishments in modeling synthetic char particle combustion times and temperatures with allowance for oxygen dissociation in the char boundary layer; in developing a continuum model for residual ash information and char fragmentation, permitting a more detailed time-resolved study of ash coalescence within a burning char particle; and in continuing development of the engineering model for ash particle formation. 40 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

Boni, A.A.; Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (USA)); Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA)); Huffman, G.P.; Huggins, F.E. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (USA))



Modification of EEG functional connectivity and EEG power spectra in overweight and obese patients with food addiction: An eLORETA study.  


We evaluated the modifications of electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectra and EEG connectivity in overweight and obese patients with elevated food addiction (FA) symptoms. Fourteen overweight and obese patients (3 men and 11 women) with three or more FA symptoms and fourteen overweight and obese patients (3 men and 11 women) with two or less FA symptoms were included in the study. EEG was recorded during three different conditions: 1) five minutes resting state (RS), 2) five minutes resting state after a single taste of a chocolate milkshake (ML-RS), and 3) five minutes resting state after a single taste of control neutral solution (N-RS). EEG analyses were conducted by means of the exact Low Resolution Electric Tomography software (eLORETA). Significant modification was observed only in the ML-RS condition. Compared to controls, patients with three or more FA symptoms showed an increase of delta power in the right middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann Area [BA] 8) and in the right precentral gyrus (BA 9), and theta power in the right insula (BA 13) and in the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47). Furthermore, compared to controls, patients with three or more FA symptoms showed an increase of functional connectivity in fronto-parietal areas in both the theta and alpha band. The increase of functional connectivity was also positively associated with the number of FA symptoms. Taken together, our results show that FA has similar neurophysiological correlates of other forms of substance-related and addictive disorders suggesting similar psychopathological mechanisms. PMID:25332109

Imperatori, Claudio; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Innamorati, Marco; Farina, Benedetto; Quintiliani, Maria Isabella; Lamis, Dorian A; Mazzucchi, Edoardo; Contardi, Anna; Vollono, Catello; Della Marca, Giacomo



Trace Constituents, and the Habitability of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The only organic constituent ever reported on Mars is methane gas in the atmosphere. No organics -- indigenous or extraplanetary -- have ever been positively identified in the surface. The reported ``detection'' of methane is tantalizing, but tentative [1]. If confirmed, it would have important implications for extinct or extant life on Mars. Although life as we know it produces methane -- 90-95% of the methane in Earth's atmosphere is ultimately derived from biological processes -- the presence of methane at Mars does not necessarily imply existence of life, now or in the past. A precise knowledge of related trace constituents and stable isotopes in the atmosphere and solid samples, together with the geochemical and geologic data for determining preservation potential of the environment is essential to satisfactorily address the question of habitability of Mars. In this talk, we will review the current status of methane, related trace constituents and relevant isotopes, surface and atmospheric oxidants, and provide a brief summary of specific measurements planned by the Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation [2] on Mars Science Laboratory that are anticipated to make significant contribution to an understanding of habitability of Mars. Relevant publications may be downloaded from˜atreya. References: [1] S. K. Atreya, O. Witasse, V. F. Chevrier, F. Forget, P. R. Mahaffy, B. Price, C. R. Webster, R. W. Zurek, Methane on Mars: Current Observations, Interpretation, and Future Plans. Planet. Space Science, 59, 133-136, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2010.10.008. [2] P. R. Mahaffy et al., The Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation and Instrument Suite on Mars Science Laboratory. Space Science Reviews, in press, 2012.

Atreya, Sushil K.; Mahaffy, Paul



Fatty Acid Composition and Volatile Constituents of Protaetia brevitarsis Larvae  

PubMed Central

A total of 48 different volatile oils were identified form P. brevitarsis larvae by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acids (48.67%) were detected as the major group in P. brevitarsis larvae comprising the largest proportion of the volatile compounds, followed by esters (19.84%), hydrocarbons (18.90%), alcohols (8.37%), miscellaneous (1.71%), aldehydes (1.35%) and terpenes (1.16%). The major volatile constituents were 9-hexadecenoic acid (16.75%), 6-octadecenoic acid (14.88%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (11.06%). The composition of fatty acid was also determined by GC analysis and 16 fatty acids were identified. The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (C18:1, 64.24%) followed by palmitic acid (C16:0, 15.89%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 10.43%) and linoleic acid (C18:2, 4.69%) constituting more than 95% of total fatty acids. The distinguished characteristic of the fatty acid profile of P. brevitarsis larvae was the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (80.54% of total fatty acids) versus saturated fatty acids (19.46% of total fatty acids). Furthermore, small but significant amounts of linoleic, linolenic and ?-linolenic acids bestow P. brevitarsis larvae with considerable nutritional value. The novel findings of the present study provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of the insect as a nutritionally promising food source and a possibility for more effective utilization. PMID:24471125

Yeo, Hyelim; Youn, Kumju; Kim, Minji; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira



Atmospheric constituent measurements using commercial 747 airliners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is implementing a Global Atmospheric Monitoring Program to measure the temporal and spatial distribution of particulate and gaseous constituents related to aircraft engine emissions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (6 to 12 Km). Several 747 aircraft operated by different airlines flying routes selected for maximum world coverage will be instrumented. An instrumentation system is being assembled and tested and is scheduled for operation in airline service in late 1974. Specialized instrumentation and an electronic control unit are required for automatic unattended operation on commercial airliners. An ambient air sampling system was developed to provide undisturbed outside air to the instruments in the pressurized aircraft cabin.

Perkins, P. J.; Reck, G. M.



Kelvin wave signatures in stratospheric trace constituents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Connections, sometimes tenuous, have previously been noted between stratospheric Kelvin waves and several stratospheric trace constituents. The present study finds evidence of Kelvin wave signatures in ozone from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) instruments aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. Predominant variations near 10 days are associated with a Kelvin wave mode previously identified in MLS temperature. Variations in CLAES nitrous oxide also show some evidence of influence by this Kelvin mode. The results presented here show that the observing characteristics of the instrument can influence the derived structure and properties of Kelvin waves.

Mote, Philip W.; Dunkerton, Timothy J.



Successes and failures of the constituent quark model  

SciTech Connect

Our approach considers the model as a possible bridge between QCD and the experimental data and examines its predictions to see where these succeed and where they fail. We also attempt to improve the model by looking for additional simple assumptions which give better fits to the experimental data. But we avoid complicated models with too many ad hoc assumptions and too many free parameters; these can fit everything but teach us nothing. We define our constituent quark model by analogy with the constituent electron model of the atom and the constituent nucleon model of the nucleus. In the same way that an atom is assumed to consist only of constituent electrons and a central Coulomb field and a nucleus is assumed to consist only of constituent nucleons hadrons are assumed to consist only of their constituent valence quarks with no bag, no glue, no ocean, nor other constituents. Although these constituent models are oversimplified and neglect other constituents we push them as far as we can. Atomic physics has photons and vacuum polarization as well as constituent electrons, but the constituent model is adequate for calculating most features of the spectrum when finer details like the Lamb shift are neglected. 54 references.

Lipkin, H.J.



Modeling of Alkane Oxidation Using Constituents and Species  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is currently not possible to perform simulations of turbulent reactive flows due in particular to complex chemistry, which may contain thousands of reactions and hundreds of species. This complex chemistry results in additional differential equations, making the numerical solution of the equation set computationally prohibitive. Reducing the chemical kinetics mathematical description is one of several important goals in turbulent reactive flow modeling. A chemical kinetics reduction model is proposed for alkane oxidation in air that is based on a parallel methodology to that used in turbulence modeling in the context of the Large Eddy Simulation. The objective of kinetic modeling is to predict the heat release and temperature evolution. This kinetic mechanism is valid over a pressure range from atmospheric to 60 bar, temperatures from 600 K to 2,500 K, and equivalence ratios from 0.125 to 8. This range encompasses diesel, HCCI, and gas-turbine engines, including cold ignition. A computationally efficient kinetic reduction has been proposed for alkanes that has been illustrated for n-heptane using the LLNL heptane mechanism. This model is consistent with turbulence modeling in that scales were first categorized into either those modeled or those computed as progress variables. Species were identified as being either light or heavy. The heavy species were decomposed into defined 13 constituents, and their total molar density was shown to evolve in a quasi-steady manner. The light species behave either in a quasi-steady or unsteady manner. The modeled scales are the total constituent molar density, Nc, and the molar density of the quasi-steady light species. The progress variables are the total constituent molar density rate evolution and the molar densities of the unsteady light species. The unsteady equations for the light species contain contributions of the type gain/loss rates from the heavy species that are modeled consistent with the developed mathematical forms for the total constituent molar density rate evolution; indeed, examination of these gain/loss rates shows that they also have a good quasi-steady behavior with a functional form resembling that of the constituent rate. This finding highlights the fact that the fitting technique provides a methodology that can be repeatedly used to obtain an accurate representation of full or skeletal kinetic models. Assuming success with the modified reduced model, the advantage of the modeling approach is clear. Because this model is based on the Nc rate rather than on that of individual heavy species, even if the number of species increases with increased carbon number in the alkane group, providing that the quasi-steady rate aspect persists, then extension of this model to higher alkanes should be conceptually straightforward, although it remains to be seen if the functional fits would remain valid or would require reconstruction.

Bellan, Jasette; Harstad, Kenneth G.



Taste and the taste of foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At least 12 distinct taste sensations can be elicited from different parts of the oral cavity by distinct chemical compounds. The chemicals eliciting each sensation are often common constituents of foods, thus the umami sensations arise with stimulation by monosodium glutamate and nucleotides. These sensations can often be related to different physical/chemical stimulus parameters (e.g., bitterness and hydrophobicity) and neural activity in distinct chemosensory channels.

Boudreau, James C.



High-Pressure Air Constituent Plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-Pressure air plasmas are finding increasing application in plasma processing industry as plasma reactors, light sources, and biological decontaminants. One of the major issues particular to such plasma is the high radio-frequency power required to initiate and sustain the discharge. However, once the gas breakdown has occurred and the discharge is initiated, radio frequency power can be more efficiently absorbed by the plasma through inductive coupling of the wave fields. Mixing noble gasses with the air constituents and improving the gas flow can also reduce power requirements. A high-density 10^12 -10^14 cm-3, large volume plasma of air constituents (N_2, O_2, Air, and Argon mixtures) is created by either laser (300 mJ for 20() ns half- pulse width) preionization of an organic gas (2-6 mTorr) seeded in a high- pressure gas (760 Torr); or by high power (1-25 kW) pulsed rf sources in gas mixtures. The effect of gas flow on the discharge characteristics will be presented. A multi-turn helical antenna is used to couple rf power through a capacitive matching network. A 105 GHz interferometer is employed to obtain plasma density in the presence of high collisionality utilizing phase shift and amplitude attenuation. A Boltzmann plot of the emission spectrum is used to calculate the excitation temperature. Network analyzer measurements of the antenna impedance provide an ANTENNA-II code predicted density estimate

Akhtar, Kamran; Scharer, John E.; Tysk, Shane M.; White, Ben O.; Denning, C. Mark; Kho, Enny



Some thermodynamic considerations in food formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several factors underlie the thermodynamic similarity of foods. First is the common physiological storage function of most important components of food raw materials. Second is the general character of non-specific intermolecular interactions of food macromolecules. Third is the mimicry of biopolymers that underlie quite similar physico-chemical properties of biopolymer species. Molecular mimicry and molecular symbiosis affect phase behaviour and rheology

Vladimir Tolstoguzov



Active organization of membrane constituents in living cells.  


A search for organizing principles underlying molecular patterning at the cell surface and its regulation over different scales is necessary. This is important for understanding how the cell builds membrane bound organelles that emanate from it and for how the cell interacts with its physical and chemical milieu. This requires a broad framework to rationalize the mass of accumulated data about the spatial localization and dynamics of its constituents, and their physical and chemical environment. Lateral heterogeneities in the organization of membrane components of a living cell appear to be a hallmark of how a cell addresses sorting and signaling functions. Here we explore two classes of mechanisms of segregation of membrane components in the plasma membrane. We suggest that viewing the membrane as a passive, thermally equilibrated system is unlikely to provide an adequate framework to understand the mechanisms of membrane component segregation in vivo. Instead the surface of living cells behaves as an active membrane composite. PMID:24975942

Rao, Madan; Mayor, Satyajit



Ionospheric chemistry. [minor neutrals and ionized constituents of thermosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report deals primarily with progress in the chemistry of minor neutrals and ionized constituents of the thermosphere. Significant progress was made over the last few years in quantitative studies of many chemical processes. This success was primarily due to the advent of multiparameter multisatellite programs which permitted accurate simultaneous measurements to be made of many important parameters. In many cases studies of chemical reactions were made with laboratory-like precision. Rate coefficients have been derived as functions of temperature for a number of important reactions. New information has been acquired on nearly every major process which occurs in the thermosphere, including the recombination rates of all major molecular ions, charge transfer reactions, ion atom interchange reactions, and reactions of neutral and ionized metastable atoms and molecules.

Torr, D. G.



Naturally Occurring Lactococcal Plasmid pAH90 Links Bacteriophage Resistance and Mobility Functions to a Food-Grade Selectable Marker  

PubMed Central

The bacteriophage resistance plasmid pAH90 (26,490 bp) is a natural cointegrate plasmid formed via homologous recombination between the type I restriction-modification specificity determinants (hsdS) of two smaller lactococcal plasmids, pAH33 (6,159 bp) and pAH82 (20,331 bp), giving rise to a bacteriophage-insensitive mutant following phage challenge (D. O'Sullivan, D. P. Twomey, A. Coffey, C. Hill, G. F. Fitzgerald, and R. P. Ross, Mol. Microbiol. 36:866–876; 2000). In this communication we provide evidence that the recombination event is favored by phage infection. The entire nucleotide sequence of plasmid pAH90 was determined and found to contain 24 open reading frames (ORFs) responsible for phenotypes which include restriction-modification, phage adsorption inhibition, plasmid replication, cadmium resistance, cobalt transport, and conjugative mobilization. The cadmium resistance property, encoded by the cadA gene, which has an associated regulatory gene (cadC), is of particular interest, as it facilitated the selection of pAH90 in other phage-sensitive lactococci after electroporation. In addition, we report the identification of a group II self-splicing intron bounded by two exons which have the capacity to encode a relaxase implicated in conjugation in gram-positive bacteria. The functionality of this intron was evident by demonstrating splicing in vivo. Given that pAH90 encodes potent phage defense systems which act at different stages in the phage lytic cycle, the linkage of these with a food-grade selectable marker on a replicon that can be mobilized among lactococci has significant potential for natural strain improvement for industrial dairy fermentations which are susceptible to phage inhibition. PMID:11157264

O' Sullivan, David; Ross, R. Paul; Twomey, Denis P.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Hill, Colin; Coffey, Aidan



Food Allergies DEFINITIONS  

E-print Network

are a digestive system response and are much more common than food allergies. Food Allergy vs. Food Intolerance's digestive system or when a person is unable to properly digest a food. SYMPTOMS: Symptoms of an AllergicFood Allergies DEFINITIONS: Definition of a Food Allergy: Immune system response to a food

Maxwell, Bruce D.


Deicing chemicals as source of constituents of highway runoff  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The dissolved major and trace constituents of deicing chemicals as a source of constituents in highway runoff must be quantified for interpretive studies of highway runoff and its effects on surface water and groundwater. Dissolved constituents of the deicing chemicals-sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and premix (a mixture of sodium and calcium chloride)-were determined by analysis of salt solutions created in the laboratory and are presented as mass ratios to chloride. Deicing chemical samples studied are about 98 and 97 percent pure sodium chloride and calcium chloride, respectively: however, each has a distinct major and trace ion constituent signature. The greatest impurity in sodium chloride road sail samples was sulfate, followed by calcium, potassium, bromide, vanadium, magnesium, fluoride, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. The greatest impurity in the calcium chloride road salt samples was sodium, followed by potassium, sulfate, bromide, silica, fluoride. strontium, magnesium, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. Major constituents of deicing chemicals in highway runoff may account for a substantial source of annual chemical loads. Comparison of estimated annual loads and first flush concentrations of deicing chemical constituents in highway runoff with those reported in the literature indicate that although deicing chemicals are not a primary source of trace constituents, they are not a trivial source, either. Therefore, deicing chemicals should be considered as a source of many major and trace constituents in highway and urban runoff.

Granato, G.E.



Food Deserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food deserts and accessibility represent a new frontier in the assault of life-threatening, dietrelated diseases, including diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Scholars represent the research literature from diverse disciplines, such as anthropology, agriculture, sociology, economics, marketing, public policy, sociology, and social epidemiology. Applied sociology has not contributed to this important conversation. Applied sociology's integration and use of theory, methods, and

Anthony Troy Adams; Monika J. Ulrich; Amanda Coleman



Food Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written to teach deaf students skills in food services, this guide and the two related documents (see note) present practical skills needed to work in a school dining room setting serving approximately two hundred students and faculty. Eleven units are included, with each unit containing from three to eleven lessons. Each lesson includes an…

Furneisen, Barbara K.


Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners construct possible food webs for six different ecosystems as they learn about the roles of different kinds of living organisms. Learners will also discuss and classify producers vs. consumers and different kinds of consumers (herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, decomposers and scavengers). This lesson guide includes background information, variations and bilingual (English/Spanish) cards.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.



Relativistic constituent quark model with infrared confinement  

SciTech Connect

We refine the relativistic constituent quark model developed in our previous papers to include the confinement of quarks. It is done, first, by introducing the scale integration in the space of {alpha} parameters, and, second, by cutting this scale integration on the upper limit which corresponds to an infrared cutoff. In this manner one removes all possible thresholds present in the initial quark diagram. The cutoff parameter is taken to be the same for all physical processes. We adjust other model parameters by fitting the calculated quantities of the basic physical processes to available experimental data. As an application, we calculate the electromagnetic form factors of the pion and the transition form factors of the {omega} and {eta} Dalitz decays.

Branz, Tanja; Faessler, Amand; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Ivanov, Mikhail A. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Koerner, Juergen G. [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)



[Chemical constituents of Camellia sinensis var. assamica].  


To study the chemical constituents of Camellia sinensis var. assamica. The compounds were isolated by NKA Macroporous resin silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, RP-C18 column chromatographies and semi-preparative HPLC,and their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Thirteen compounds were isolated and identified as caffeine (1), theobromine (2), gallic acid (3), (+)-catechin (4), ampelopsin (5), (-)-epicatechin (6), (-)-epiafzelechin (7), (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (8), (-)-epiafzelechin-3-O-gallate (9) , (+)-catechin-3-O-gallate (10) , (+)-afzelechin-3-O-gallate (11), quemefin-3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosid (12), and (-)-epicatechin-3-O-p-hydroxybenzoate (13). Compounds 2, 5, 10-13 were isolated from this plant for the first time, and compound 11 is a new natural product. PMID:23944074

Zhu, Hong-Bo; Li, Bao-Min; Liu, Chao; Chen, Ruo-Yun



Chemical constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston.  


The current study targets the chemical constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston and investigates the bioactivities of the isolated compounds. Fourteen known compounds were isolated using column chromatography, and structural identification was performed by physical and spectral analyses. The biological activities of the compounds were also evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 2,2-diphenlyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Emodin (6), baicalein (9), and apigenin (12) displayed antitumor activities against the MGC-803 cell line, while quercetin (2), rutin (5), baicalein (9), and epicatechin (13) showed stronger DPPH scavenging activities compared with ascorbic acid. Andrographolide (1), quercetin (2), bergenin (4), rutin (5), emodin (6), betulin (7), baicalein (9), polydatin (10), salicin (11), and apigenin (12), were obtained from C. decapetala (Roth) Alston for the first time. PMID:23340256

Wei, Xiao-Hua; Yang, Sheng-Jie; Liang, Na; Hu, De-Yu; Jin, Lin-Hong; Xue, Wei; Yang, Song



Regional differences in constituents of gall stones.  


The pathogenesis of pigment and mixed gall stone formation remains elusive. The elemental constituents of gall stones from southern states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka have been characterized. Our aim was to determine the elemental concentration of representative samples of pigment, mixed and cholesterol gall stones from Andhra Pradesh using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a 3 MV horizontal pelletron accelerator. Pigment gall stones had significantly high concentrations of copper, iron and lead; chromium was absent. Except for iron all these elements were significantly low in cholesterol gall stones and intermediate levels were seen in mixed gall stones. Highest concentrations of chromium was seen in cholesterol and titanium in mixed gall stones respectively; latter similar to other southern states. Arsenic was distinctly absent in cholesterol and mixed gall stones. The study has identified differences in elemental components of the gall stones from Andhra Pradesh. PMID:16225049

Ashok, M; Nageshwar Reddy, D; Jayanthi, V; Kalkura, S N; Vijayan, V; Gokulakrishnan, S; Nair, K G M



Masses of constituent quarks confined in open bottom hadrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply color-spin and flavor-spin quark-quark interactions to the meson and baryon constituent quarks, and calculate constituent quark masses, as well as the coupling constants of these interactions. The main goal of this paper was to determine constituent quark masses from light and open bottom hadron masses, using the fitting method we have developed and clustering of hadron groups. We use color-spin Fermi-Breit (FB) and flavor-spin Glozman-Riska (GR) hyperfine interaction (HFI) to determine constituent quark masses (especially b quark mass). Another aim was to discern between the FB and GR HFI because our previous findings had indicated that both interactions were satisfactory. Our improved fitting procedure of constituent quark masses showed that on average color-spin (FB) HFI yields better fits. The method also shows the way how the constituent quark masses and the strength of the interaction constants appear in different hadron environments.

Borka Jovanovi?, V.; Borka, D.; Jovanovi?, P.; Miloševi?, J.; Ignjatovi?, S. R.



Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...


Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...


Food Court  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit of four lessons from NCTM's Illuminations lets students conduct surveys and represent data in a variety of ways. They also find and compare measures of center. The lessons center around a food court, where students create and use menus in a meaningful way. Topics covered include bar graphs, line plots, and pictographs, measures of center, and probability of events. Individual lessons link to related tools where appropriate, and include questions for students, assessment options, and teacher reflection questions.

Grace M. Burton



Food Pyramid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn about the different food groups and how to put them to use in planning meals. Objective: By following the steps in this program,the student will be able to gather information to help develop skills in the area of \\"Independent Living\\" according to the Transition Plan of an IEP and the students specific IEP goals. Learning will be assessed by observation and from work sheets and menus ...

Allan, Mrs.



Medical foods for Alzheimer's disease.  


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition associated with cognitive loss, behavioural changes, functional ability decline and caregiver burden. Given the worldwide public health impact of AD, novel interventions to reduce suffering experienced by AD patients need to be developed. Foods may offer a mechanism for intervention complementary to drugs, devices, biologicals and vaccines. Apart from foods with health claims (including dietary supplements), medical foods are also being explored as an intervention option. The purpose of this article is to describe how medical foods may complement other interventions for AD patients by: (i) defining what a medical food is; (ii) discussing whether AD is a condition amenable to medical food intervention; (iii) reviewing current clinical trial data on medical foods used in participants with AD; and (iv) highlighting steps needed to establish a more comprehensive framework for developing medical foods for AD. While medical foods may be defined differently in other countries, the US Orphan Drug Act of 1998 defined a medical food as a food formulated for enteral intake, taken under physician supervision, and intended to meet the distinctive nutritional requirements identified for a disease or condition. For AD to be amenable to medical food intervention, it must: (i) result in limited or impaired capacity to ingest, digest, absorb or metabolize ordinary foodstuff or certain nutrients; or (ii) have unique, medically determined nutrient requirements; and (iii) require dietary management that cannot be achieved by modification of the normal diet alone. While these criteria are most likely met in advanced AD, identifying unique nutritional requirements in early AD that cannot be met by normal diet modification requires a better understanding of AD pathophysiology. A PubMed search using the terms 'medical food' and 'Alzheimer', limited to clinical trials published in English with human participants with AD aged >65 years and supplemented by other articles known to meet the inclusion criteria, revealed that only two medical foods, AC-1202 and Souvenaid® with Fortasyn Connect™, have clinical trial results available for discussion. As medical food development for AD is a relatively new endeavour, a window of opportunity exists for all stakeholders to develop a comprehensive framework for assuring that medical food interventions for AD achieve the highest possible scientific and ethical standards to warrant commercialization. PMID:21534638

Shah, Raj C



Antiproliferative constituents in umbelliferae plants. IV. Constituents in the fruits of Anthriscus sylvestris Hoffm.  


The constituents in the fruit of Anthriscus sylvestris Hoffm. were investigated, and four lignans [deoxypodophyllotoxin, morelensin, (-)-deoxypodorhizone, and (-)-hinokinin], one phenylpropanoid [1-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-1 xi-hydroxy-2-propene], two phenylpropanoid esters [3',4'-dimethoxycinnamyl (Z)-2-angeloyloxymethyl-2-butenoate and 3',4'-dimethoxycinnamyl (Z)-2-tigloyloxymethyl-2-butenoate], and one polyacetylenic compound (falcarindiol) were isolated. Their antiproliferative activity against MK-1, HeLa and B16F10 cell lines is reported. PMID:9621423

Ikeda, R; Nagao, T; Okabe, H; Nakano, Y; Matsunaga, H; Katano, M; Mori, M



EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Protecting consumers with food allergies: understanding food consumption, meeting regulations and identifying unmet needs.  


Individuals suffering from IgE-mediated food allergy usually have to practise life-long food allergen avoidance. This document aims to provide an overview of recent evidence-based recommendations for allergen risk assessment and management in the food industry and discusses unmet needs and expectations of the food allergic consumer in that context. There is a general duty of care on the food industry and obligations in European Union legislation to reduce and manage the presence of allergens alongside other food hazards. Current evidence enables quantification of allergen reference doses used to set-up reliable food safety management plans for some foods. However, further work is required to include a wider variety of foods and to understand the impact of the food matrix as well as additional factors which affect the progression and severity of symptoms as a function of dose. Major concerns have been raised by patients, carers and patient groups about the use of precautionary 'may contain' labelling to address the issue of unintended presence of allergens; these therefore need to be reconsidered. New and improved allergen detection methods should be evaluated for their application in food production. There is an urgent requirement for effective communication between healthcare professionals, patient organizations, food industry representatives and regulators to develop a better approach to protecting consumers with food allergies. PMID:24888964

Muraro, A; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Holzhauser, T; Poulsen, L K; Gowland, M H; Akdis, C A; Mills, E N C; Papadopoulos, N; Roberts, G; Schnadt, S; van Ree, R; Sheikh, A; Vieths, S



Autophagy in food biotechnology.  


The purpose of this review is not to explain autophagy (as clearly there is a plethora of reviews and research papers on the topic) but to provide the autophagy-savvy reader with an overview of the impact of autophagy research on a number of current topics in food biotechnology. To understand this connection, we need to remember that autophagy is, at the end of the day, a type of stress response. Since as humans we are heterotrophic eukaryotic organisms, our cells, and the cells of those organisms that we consume, use autophagy as part of the day-to-day business of living. Thus, a number of food biotechnology processes such as brewing and winemaking employ eukaryotic organisms under autophagy-inducing conditions, as noted below. In addition, food spoilage processes also involve eukaryotic organisms and these processes also involve physiological aspects that impinge on autophagy. Finally, the recently introduced concept of "functional foods" introduces the possibility of engineering foodstuff for the induction or inhibition of autophagy in the consumer, with a potential promise of health benefits that merits further research. In this review, we will provide a perspective on the current literature in these three areas, their relationship to current basic research in autophagy, and their future applicative potential. PMID:19556866

Abeliovich, Hagai; Gonzalez, Ramon



What's Cookin' in Food Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recent issue of BioMedNet's Webzine HMS Beagle (reviewed in the February 14, 1997 Scout Report) offers this intriguing introduction to food science. Although the article's tone targets the general public, many hyperlinks to academic resources make it worthwhile for researchers. The site covers the science of taste, texture, nutrition, food allergies, and "functional food," among other topics. Of particular use will be the links at the bottom of the site, which connect to a host of resources throughout academic, governmental, and nongovernmental fields.


Overview: The history, technical function and safety of rebaudioside A, a naturally occurring steviol glycoside, for use in food and beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rebaudioside A is a sweet tasting steviol glycoside extracted and purified from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni). Steviol glycosides can currently be used as a food ingredient in only a handful of countries. Questions on specifications, safety and special population effects have prevented steviol glycosides from obtaining a legal status permitting their use as a sweetener in most countries. A set of

M. C. Carakostas; L. L. Curry; A. C. Boileau; D. J. Brusick



Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...


Incinerability ranking systems for RCRA hazardous constituents  

SciTech Connect

The selection of Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) and determination of the incinerability ranking have been the subject of considerable scientific and policy debate since the RCRA/hazardous waste incinerator standards were established in 1981. POHCs have typically been selected for measurement of their Destruction and Removal Efficiencies (DREs) during incinerator trial burns based on their heats of combustion. In 1987, EPA's OSW joined ORD to evaluate the possibility of developing an improved POHC incinerability ranking system based on the concept of thermal stability under oxygen-starved, post-flame conditions. A theoretical evaluation of the thermal stability of 320 organic compounds on the Appendix VIII list was undertaken. These compounds were grouped in accordance with their possible reaction mechanisms. Selected compounds were tested in a laboratory-scale thermal decomposition unit equipped with a gas chromatograph to determine their Destruction Efficiencies (DEs) under low-oxygen, post-flame conditions. The Paper provides both the heat of combustion ranking system and the thermal stability ranking system for comparison and application.

Lee, C.C.; Huffman, G.L.; Stelmack, S.



[Chemical constituents of leaves of Psidium guajava].  


To study the chemical constituents of the 95% ethanol extract of Psidium guajava. Compounds were separated by using a combination of various chromatographic methods including silica gel, D101 macroporous resin, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectral data Eighteen compounds were isolated and identified as (+) -globulol (1), clovane-2beta, 9alpha-diol (2), 2beta-acetoxyclovan-9alpha-ol (3), (+) -caryolane-1 ,9beta-diol (4), ent-T-muurolol (5), clov-2-ene-9alpha-ol (6), isophytol (7), tamarixetin (8), gossypetin (9), quercetin (10), kaempferol (11), guajaverin (12), avicularin (13), chrysin 6-C-glucoside (14), 3'-O-methyl-3, 4-methylenedioxyellagic acid 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (15), p-hydroxy-benzoic acid (16), guavinoside A (17) and guavinoside B (18). Compounds 2-9 and 14-16 were isolated from this plant for the first time. The ethanol extract showed 61.3% inhibition against the proliferation of colon cancer cell line SW480. PMID:24956844

Shao, Meng; Wang, Ying; Jian, Yu-Qing; Sun, Xue-Gang; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai



Channel constituents in synthetic beryl: ammonium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrared spectra and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of channel constituents in beryls synthesized hydrothermally in the presence of NH4Cl were investigated. Two forms of ammonium ion were observed to be incorporated into the c-channel. IR-spectra show the double band at 3295 and 3232cm-1 and two broad bands between 2600 and 3000cm-1 which were assigned to the NH3 molecule and NH4+ ion, respectively. Similar N-H stretching vibrations are also observed in Regency hydrothermal synthetic beryls and can be used to separate these synthetic beryls from their natural counterparts. After ?-irradiation of hydrothermally grown samples at 77 K, the EPR of the NH3+(I) radical was observed. The NH3+(II) radical replaces the NH3+(I) radical when the sample is heated to room temperature. Both the NH3 molecule and the NH3+ radical have their C3 symmetry axes perpendicular to the crystal c-axis. The spin Hamiltonian parameters of the NH3+(I) are axial-symmetric due to the rapid rotation of the radical about the c-axis. The NH3+(II) radical has a low symmetry and shows a hindered rotation because of its shift from the c-axis position and an interaction with the proton in the near neighbourhood. Possible models for the paramagnetic centres are discussed.

Mashkovtsev, R. I.; Solntsev, V. P.


Constituent Participation and the IASB's International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee  

Microsoft Academic Search

While international convergence of accounting standards is becoming more of a reality, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) continues to seek greater acceptance and legitimacy as an institution. Constituent participation is one key component for an organization to obtain legitimacy and success. This study investigates constituent participation of one significant part of the IASB, the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee

Robert K. Larson



Volatile Constituents of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Fruits from Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile constituents obtained from four cultivars of guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruits by simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction, and analyzed by GC\\/MS. More than 40 compounds were identified in each cultivar, 17 of which have been identified for the first time as volatile constituents of guava. Each cultivar has a typical composition, characterized by a specific ratio between die main components

Jorge A. Pino; Ariel Ortega; Aristides Rosado



The anaerobic biodegradability of paper mill wastewater constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodegradability of ten paper mill wastewater constituents under methanogenic conditions was evaluated in this study. The compounds studied included wood resin constituents and low molecular weight lignin derivatives. Biodegradation was assessed in batch bioassays inoculated with anaerobic granular sludge at 30 ± 2°C. The assays were supplied with low concentrations of the test chemicals (35–200 mg 1) to prevent

M. Kato; G. Lettinga



2005 Nature Publishing Group The abundances of constituents of  

E-print Network

from the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS), including altitude profiles of the constituents? The Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS)3 on the Huygens probe was designed to help answer, isotopic ratios and trace species (including organic compounds). The primary constituents were confirmed

Atreya, Sushil


Differentially expressed late constituents of the epidermal cornified envelope.  


Barrier activity of skin and internal barrier-forming epithelial linings are conferred by a lipid-corneocyte structure (stratum corneum in skin). The integrity of the corneocytes depends on the outer cornified envelope and is essential for maintenance of barrier function. During epidermal development and differentiation, proteins are sequentially incorporated into the envelope via action of epidermal transglutaminases in a well documented process. However, recent knockouts of major cornified envelope constituents have failed to disrupt barrier function significantly, suggesting that additional unidentified components are involved. We report a new gene cluster in the epidermal differentiation complex at human 1q21 encoding a family of 18 proteins that are substrates for epidermal transglutaminases. These proteins incorporate into the cornified envelope late in development and late in the process of envelope maturation during epidermal differentiation. The genes cluster within the epidermal differentiation complex according to expression pattern, i.e., epidermally expressed proteins cluster together while proteins from internal barrier-forming epithelia also cluster. We propose that these proteins modulate barrier activity over the surface of the animal, in a manner analogous to that proposed for the well characterized cornified envelope precursors, the small proline-rich proteins. To emphasize the incorporation of these proteins late in envelope assembly, we call the human proteins late envelope proteins. PMID:11698679

Marshall, D; Hardman, M J; Nield, K M; Byrne, C



Non-equilibrium hadronization and constituent quark number scaling  

E-print Network

The constituent quark number scaling of elliptic flow is studied in a non-equilibrium hadronization and freeze-out model with rapid dynamical transition from ideal, deconfined and chirally symmetric Quark Gluon Plasma, to final non-interacting hadrons. In this transition a Bag model of constituent quarks is considered, where the quarks gain constituent quark mass while the background Bag-field breaks up and vanishes. The constituent quarks then recombine into simplified hadron states, while chemical, thermal and flow equilibrium break down one after the other. In this scenario the resulting temperatures and flow velocities of baryons and mesons are different. Using a simplified few source model of the elliptic flow, we are able to reproduce the constituent quark number scaling, with assumptions on the details of the non-equilibrium processes.

Sven Zschocke; Szabolcs Horvat; Igor N. Mishustin; Laszlo P. Csernai



A watershed approach to upgrade rainfed agriculture in water scarce regions through Water System Innovations: an integrated research initiative on water for food and rural livelihoods in balance with ecosystem functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenge of producing food for a rapidly increasing population in semi-arid agro-ecosystems in Southern Africa is daunting. More food necessarily means more consumptive use of so-called green water flow (vapour flow sustaining crop growth). Every increase in food production upstream in a watershed will impact on water user and using systems downstream. Intensifying agriculture has in the past often been carried out with negative side effects in terms of land and water degradation. Water legislation is increasingly incorporating the requirement to safeguard a water reserve to sustain instream ecology. To address the challenges of increasing food production, improving rural livelihoods, while safeguarding critical ecological functions, a research programme has recently been launched on “Smallholder System Innovations in Integrated Watershed Management” (SSI). The programme takes an integrated approach to agricultural water management, analysing the interactions between the adoption and participatory adaptation of water system innovations (such as water harvesting, drip irrigation, conservation farming, etc.), increased water use in agriculture and water flows to sustain ecological functions that deliver critical ecosystem services to humans. The research is carried out in the Pangani Basin in Tanzania and the Thukela Basin in South Africa. A nested scale approach is adopted, which will enable the analysis of scale interactions between water management at the farm level, and cascading hydrological impacts at watershed and basin scale. This paper describes the integrated research approach of the SSI programme, and indicates areas of potential to upgrade rainfed agriculture in water scarcity-prone agro-ecosystems while securing water for downstream use.

Rockström, J.; Folke, C.; Gordon, L.; Hatibu, N.; Jewitt, G.; Penning de Vries, F.; Rwehumbiza, F.; Sally, H.; Savenije, H.; Schulze, R.


Probiotics and food allergy.  


The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-characterized types of allergy, and they might be particularly harmful especially in children. According to the "hygiene hypothesis" low or no exposure to exogenous antigens in early life may increase the risk of allergic diseases by both delaying the development of the immune tolerance and limiting the Th2/Th1 switch. The critical role of intestinal microbiota in the development of immune tolerance improved recently the interest on probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acid, folate and vitamins, which seem to have positive effects on the immune functions.Probiotics consist in bacteria or yeast, able to re-colonize and restore microflora symbiosis in intestinal tract. One of the most important characteristics of probiotics is their safety for human health. Thanks to their ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and to modulate and stabilize the composition of gut microflora, probiotics bacteria may play an important role in the regulation of intestinal and systemic immunity. They actually seem capable of restoring the intestinal microbic equilibrium and modulating the activation of immune cells.Several studies have been recently conducted on the role of probiotics in preventing and/or treating allergic disorders, but the results are often quite contradictory, probably because of the heterogeneity of strains, the duration of therapy and the doses administered to patients. Therefore, new studies are needed in order to clarify the functions and the utility of probiotics in food allergies and ion other types of allergic disorders. PMID:23895430

Castellazzi, Anna Maria; Valsecchi, Chiara; Caimmi, Silvia; Licari, Amelia; Marseglia, Alessia; Leoni, Maria Chiara; Caimmi, Davide; Miraglia del Giudice, Michele; Leonardi, Salvatore; La Rosa, Mario; Marseglia, Gian Luigi



Effect of drying methods on the phenolic constituents of meadowsweet ( Filipendula ulmaria) and willow ( Salix alba)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of drying conditions on the phenolic constituents and colour of extracts of organically grown white willow and meadowsweet for incorporation into a functional beverage with potential anti-inflammatory properties. The herbs were freeze-dried, air-dried, oven or tray-dried at 30 or 70°C. The drying kinetics of the herbs was first determined. Both

Niamh Harbourne; Eunice Marete; Jean Christophe Jacquier; Dolores O'Riordan



Cardioprotective and Anti-oxidant Effects of the Terpenoid Constituents of Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb 761)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemodynamic and electron spin resonance analyses were used to assess thein vivoandin vitrocardioprotective and antioxidant effects of therapeutically relevant doses ofGinkgo bilobaextract (EGb 761) and its terpenoid constituents (ginkgolides A and B, bilobalide) in the rat. Significant anti-ischemic effects, indicating improved myocardial functional recovery, were observed after repeated (15-day) oral treatments with both EGb 761 (60 mg\\/kg\\/day) and ginkgolide A

Sylvia Pietri; Eziana Maurelli; Katy Drieu; Marcel Culcasi



Settlement of larvae of the giant scallop, Placopecten magellanicus , in 9-m deep mesocosms as a function of temperature stratification, depth, food, and substratum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January and February 1992 an experiment was conducted in a 10.5-m deep tank (diameter: 3.7 m, volume: 117 m3) to examine the effects of food distribution with respect to a stable thermocline, depth, and substratum type on the settlement and metamorphosis of larvae of the giant scallop, Placopecten magellanicus (Gmelin). Polyethylene tube bags (diameter: 0.60 m) were used to

C. M. Pearce; S. M. Gallager; J. L. Manuel; D. A. Manning; R. K. O'Dor; E. Bourget



Leucine acts in the brain to suppress food intake but does not function as a physiological signal of low dietary protein.  


Intracerebroventricular injections of leucine are sufficient to suppress food intake, but it remains unclear whether brain leucine signaling represents a physiological signal of protein balance. We tested whether variations in dietary and circulating levels of leucine, or all three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), contribute to the detection of reduced dietary protein. Of the essential amino acids (EAAs) tested, only intracerebroventricular injection of leucine (10 ?g) was sufficient to suppress food intake. Isocaloric low- (9% protein energy; LP) or normal- (18% protein energy) protein diets induced a divergence in food intake, with an increased consumption of LP beginning on day 2 and persisting throughout the study (P < 0.05). Circulating BCAA levels were reduced the day after LP diet exposure, but levels subsequently increased and normalized by day 4, despite persistent hyperphagia. Brain BCAA levels as measured by microdialysis on day 2 of diet exposure were reduced in LP rats, but this effect was most prominent postprandially. Despite these diet-induced changes in BCAA levels, reducing dietary leucine or total BCAAs independently from total protein was neither necessary nor sufficient to induce hyperphagia, while chronic infusion of EAAs into the brain of LP rats failed to consistently block LP-induced hyperphagia. Collectively, these data suggest that circulating BCAAs are transiently reduced by dietary protein restriction, but variations in dietary or brain BCAAs alone do not explain the hyperphagia induced by a low-protein diet. PMID:24898843

Laeger, Thomas; Reed, Scott D; Henagan, Tara M; Fernandez, Denise H; Taghavi, Marzieh; Addington, Adele; Münzberg, Heike; Martin, Roy J; Hutson, Susan M; Morrison, Christopher D



Food Price Volatility and Decadal Climate Variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The agriculture system is under pressure to increase production every year as global population expands and more people move from a diet mostly made up of grains, to one with more meat, dairy and processed foods. Weather shocks and large changes in international commodity prices in the last decade have increased pressure on local food prices. This paper will review several studies that link climate variability as measured with satellite remote sensing to food price dynamics in 36 developing countries where local monthly food price data is available. The focus of the research is to understand how weather and climate, as measured by variations in the growing season using satellite remote sensing, has affected agricultural production, food prices and access to food in agricultural societies. Economies are vulnerable to extreme weather at multiple levels. Subsistence small holders who hold livestock and consume much of the food they produce are vulnerable to food production variability. The broader society, however, is also vulnerable to extreme weather because of the secondary effects on market functioning, resource availability, and large-scale impacts on employment in trading, trucking and wage labor that are caused by weather-related shocks. Food price variability captures many of these broad impacts and can be used to diagnose weather-related vulnerability across multiple sectors. The paper will trace these connections using market-level data and analysis. The context of the analysis is the humanitarian aid community, using the guidance of the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network and the United Nation's World Food Program in their response to food security crises. These organizations have worked over the past three decades to provide baseline information on food production through satellite remote sensing data and agricultural yield models, as well as assessments of food access through a food price database. Econometric models and spatial analysis are used to describe the connection between shocks and food prices, and to demonstrate the importance of these metrics in overall outcomes in food-insecure communities.

Brown, M. E.



The new food policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food and food policies are becoming more central in the social policy arena. not least because of their impact on health and poverty. This paper reviews some of the key trends in the food system notably the over production of food in the west ,the growing domination odf the food industries by hugecorporations and the rediscovery of the links between

Tim Lang



Flexible packaging of foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rationale for packaging foods in flexible materials is reviewed from product and marketing viewpoints. For each category of food, published and other information on markets, packaging requirements, packaging and equipment are discussed. Food products packaging in flexible materials which are reviewed fall into the categories: bakery; biscuit and cracker; canned foods; cereals; coffee; confectionery; convenience foods; dairy; dehydrated; desserts:

Aaron L. Brody; Stanley Sacharow



The Food Guide Pyramid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Food Guide Pyramid Automated Analysis System (FGPAAS) would classify foods under the appropriate categories of the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP). Further, it would provide an estimation of the serving size(s) of the food group(s) for the food being analyzed, per the FGP guidelines provided by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). In the development of this automated analysis

J. Muthukannan



Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.


Scale dependencies of proton spin constituents with a nonperturbative ?s  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By introducing the contribution from dynamically generated gluon mass, we present a brand new parametrized form of QCD beta function to get an inferred limited running behavior of QCD coupling constant ?s. This parametrized form is regarded as an essential factor to determine the scale dependencies of the proton spin constituents at the very low scale. In order to compare with experimental results directly, we work within the gauge-invariant framework to decompose the proton spin. Utilizing the updated next-to-next-leading-order evolution equations for angular momentum observables within a modified minimal subtraction scheme, we indicate that gluon contribution to proton spin cannot be ignored. Specifically, by assuming asymptotic limits of the total quark/gluon angular momentum valid, respectively, the scale dependencies of quark angular momentum Jq and gluon angular momentum Jg down to Q2˜1GeV2 are presented, which are comparable with the preliminary analysis of deeply virtual Compton scattering experiments by HERMES and JLab. After solving scale dependencies of quark spin ??q, orbital angular momenta of quarks Lq are given by subtraction, presenting a holistic picture of proton spin partition within up and down quarks at a low scale.

Jia, Shaoyang; Huang, Feng



[Chemical constituents of Kadsura oblongifolia and evaluation of their toxicity].  


To study the chemical constituents of K. oblongifolia, silica gel column chromatography, MCI and Sephadex LH-20 were used to separate the 70% acetone extract of the stems of K. oblongifolia. The structures of the isolated compounds have been established on the basis of physicochemical and NMR spectroscopic evidence as well as ESI-MS in some cases. Twenty compounds were obtained and identified as heteroclitalignan A (1), kadsulignan F (2), kadoblongifolin C (3), schizanrin F (4), heteroclitalignan C (5), kadsurarin (6), kadsulignan O (7), eburicol (8), meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (9), kadsufolin A (10), tiegusanin M (11), heteroclitin B (12), (7'S)-parabenzlactone (13), angeloylbinankadsurin B (14), propinquain H (15), quercetin (16), kadsulignan P (17), schizanrin G (18), micrandilactone C (19) and (-)-shikimic acid (20). Compouds 1, 5, 8, 11-15, 18 and 20 were isolated from this plant for the first time. Toxicity of compounds 1-10 were evaluated with zebrafish model to observe the effect on its embryonic development and heart function. The results showed that compounds 7, 9 and 10 caused edema of zebrafish embryo and decreased the heart rate of zebrafish, which exhibited interference effect on heart development of zebrafish. PMID:25518329

Zhang, Jin; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Liu, Ke-Chun; He, Qiu-Xia; Qi, Yao-Dong; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Liu, Hai-Tao; Xiao, Pei-Gen



Bioactive Natural Constituents from Food Sources - Potential Use in Hypertension Prevention and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevention and management of hypertension are the major public health challenges worldwide. Uncontrolled high blood pressure may lead to a shortened life expectancy and a higher morbidity due to a high risk of cardiovascular complications such as coronary heart disease (which leads to heart attack) and stroke, congestive heart failure, heart rhythm irregularities, and kidney failure etc. In recent years,




Space Shuttle food galley design concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A food galley has been designed for the crew compartment of the NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter. The rationale for the definition of this design was based upon assignment of priorities to each functional element of the total food system. Principle priority categories were assigned in the following order: food quality, nutrition, food packaging, menu acceptance, meal preparation efficiency, total system weight, total system volume, and total power requirements. Hence, the galley was designed using an 'inside-out' approach which first considered the food and related biological functions and subsequently proceeded 'outward' from the food to encompass supporting hardware. The resulting galley is an optimal design incorporating appropriate priorities for trade-offs between biological and engineering constraints. This design approach is offered as a model for the design of life support systems.

Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Smith, M. C.; Fischer, R.; Cooper, B.



Food insecurity, neighborhood food access, and food assistance in Philadelphia.  


An estimated 17.6 million American households were food insecure in 2012, meaning they were unable to obtain enough food for an active and healthy life. Programs to augment local access to healthy foods are increasingly widespread, with unclear effects on food security. At the same time, the US government has recently enacted major cuts to federal food assistance programs. In this study, we examined the association between food insecurity (skipping or reducing meal size because of budget), neighborhood food access (self-reported access to fruits and vegetables and quality of grocery stores), and receipt of food assistance using the 2008, 2010, and 2012 waves of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey. Of 11,599 respondents, 16.7% reported food insecurity; 79.4% of the food insecure found it easy or very easy to find fruits and vegetables, and 60.6% reported excellent or good quality neighborhood grocery stores. In our regression models adjusting for individual- and neighborhood-level covariates, compared to those who reported very difficult access to fruits and vegetables, those who reported difficult, easy or very easy access were less likely to report food insecurity (OR 0.62: 95% CI 0.43-0.90, 0.33: 95% CI 0.23-0.47, and 0.28: 95% CI 0.20-0.40). Compared to those who reported poor stores, those who reported fair, good, and excellent quality stores were also less likely to report food insecurity (OR 0.81: 95% CI 0.60-1.08, 0.58: 95% CI 0.43-0.78, and 0.43: 95% CI 0.31-0.59). Compared to individuals not receiving food assistance, those receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits were significantly more likely to be food insecure (OR 1.36: 95% CI 1.11-1.67), while those receiving benefits from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) (OR 1.17: 95% CI 0.77-1.78) and those receiving both SNAP and WIC (OR 0.84: 95% CI 0.61-1.17) did not have significantly different odds of food insecurity. In conclusion, better neighborhood food access is associated with lower risk of food insecurity. However, most food insecure individuals reported good access. Improving diet in communities with high rates of food insecurity likely requires not only improved access but also greater affordability. PMID:25047157

Mayer, Victoria L; Hillier, Amy; Bachhuber, Marcus A; Long, Judith A



Diabetes food pyramid (image)  


The Diabetes Food Pyramid divides food into six groups, which vary in size to show relative amounts of servings for ... Guide Pyramid released by the USDA. In the Diabetes Food Pyramid, the groups are based on protein content ...


MRSA and Food Products  


... of Veterans Affairs (VA) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) MRSA and Food Products Be food safe Studies over ... years have found antibiotic-resistant organisms, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in a variety of food products including ...


Electrotechnologies to process foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Electrical energy is being used to process foods. In conventional food processing plants, electricity drives mechanical devices and controls the degree of process. In recent years, several processing technologies are being developed to process foods directly with electricity. Electrotechnologies use...


Forest Food Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Food webs are an interconnection of producers, consumers, and decomposers. It is important to understand that a change to any level of the food web directly and indirectly affects other organisms within the food web.

Katie Hale (CSUF;Biological Sciences)



Estuarine Food for Thought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research in animal and human nutrition has shown the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) such as the n-3 LC-PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These LC-PUFA are needed for healthy development and functioning of the nervous and vascular systems. De novo synthesis or elongation to LC-PUFA in animals is inefficient at best; thus sufficient amounts of these PUFA must be supplied by food sources. Algae, especially diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cryptophytes, are the quantitatively most important producers of EPA and DHA. These types of algae often dominate estuarine producer communities. The upper San Francisco Estuary is no exception, and we found its LC-PUFA-rich phytoplankton biomass, but not the quantitatively prevalent terrestrial plant detritus, to be highly predictive of zooplankton (Daphnia) growth. In contrast, in freshwater lakes dominated by relatively LC-PUFA-poor phytoplankton, EPA, not total phytoplankton biomass, best predicted Daphnia growth. The commonly high abundance of LC-PUFA-rich algae in estuaries may help explain the high trophic efficiencies in these systems and resulting high consumer production. Moreover, LC-PUFA-rich estuarine food resources may also provide essential nutrition and associated health and evolutionary benefits to land-dwelling consumers of such foods, including humans. Ensuring LC-PUFA-rich, uncontaminated estuarine production is thus an important goal for estuarine restoration and a convincing argument for estuarine conservation.

M�ller-Solger, A. B.; M�ller-Navarra, D. B.



Dietary intake and main food sources of vitamin D as a function of age, sex, vitamin D status, body composition, and income in an elderly German cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Elderly subjects are at risk of insufficient vitamin D status mainly because of diminished capacity for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. In cases of insufficient endogenous production, vitamin D status depends on vitamin D intake. Objective The purpose of this study is to identify the main food sources of vitamin D in elderly subjects and to analyse whether contributing food sources differ by sex, age, vitamin D status, body mass index (BMI), or household income. In addition, we analysed the factors that influence dietary vitamin D intake in the elderly. Design and subjects This is a cross-sectional study in 235 independently living German elderly aged 66–96 years (BMI=27±4 kg/m2). Vitamin D intake was assessed by a 3-day estimated dietary record. Results The main sources of dietary vitamin D were fish/fish products followed by eggs, fats/oils, bread/bakery products, and milk/dairy products. Differences in contributing food groups by sex, age, vitamin D status, and BMI were not found. Fish contributed more to vitamin D intake in subjects with a household income of <1,500 €/month compared to subjects with higher income. In multiple regression analysis, fat intake and frequency of fish consumption were positive determinants of dietary vitamin D intake, whereas household income and percentage total body fat negatively affected vitamin D intake. Other parameters, including age, sex, physical activity, smoking, intake of energy, milk, eggs and alcohol, showed no significant association with vitamin D intake. Conclusion Low habitual dietary vitamin D intake does not affect vitamin D status in summer, and fish is the major contributor to vitamin D intake independent of sex, age, vitamin D status, BMI, and the income of subjects. PMID:25317118

Jungert, Alexandra; Spinneker, Andre; Nagel, Anja; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika



Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: Testing for Toxic Constituents of Comfrey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the possibilities of toxins present in medicinal herbs. Describes an experiment in which toxic constituents can be selectively detected by thin-layer chromatography and NMR spectroscopy. (TW)

Vollmer, John J.; And Others



Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization, Burning, and Grazing on Reserve Constituents  

E-print Network

Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization, Burning, and Grazing on Reserve Constituents of Big Bluestem of nitrogen fertilization, burning, and grazing on total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) and nitrogen and nitrogen reserves were lowered when growth exceeded photosynthetic production and nutrient assimilation

Owensby, Clenton E.


Relating polymer matrix composite delamination behavior to constituent properties  

E-print Network

Developing predictive capabilities of composite material behavior from constituent properties is an important component of accelerating materials insertion. Many models exist that accomplish this objective for a range of ...

Gregory, Jeremy R. (Jeremy Ryan), 1976-



Immobilization Technologies in Probiotic Food Production  

PubMed Central

Various supports and immobilization/encapsulation techniques have been proposed and tested for application in functional food production. In the present review, the use of probiotic microorganisms for the production of novel foods is discussed, while the benefits and criteria of using probiotic cultures are analyzed. Subsequently, immobilization/encapsulation applications in the food industry aiming at the prolongation of cell viability are described together with an evaluation of their potential future impact, which is also highlighted and assessed. PMID:24288597

Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Nedovic, Viktor; Goyal, Arun; Kourkoutas, Yiannis



Food Safety Education for Food Service Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food safety is paramount in a hospital setting because of the high at-risk population that is being served. Education of food service workers is often difficult because of the various levels of interest and education they possess. A series of games was developed along with an award system for educating the food service worker.Games were created to simulate popular game

M. Fitzgerald



Chemical constituents from the leaves of Psidium guajava  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five constituents including one new pentacyclic triterpenoid guajanoic acid (1) and four known compounds ?-sitosterol (2), uvaol (3), oleanolic acid (4), and ursolic acid (5) have been isolated from the leaves of Psidium guajava.The new constituent1has been characterized as 3?-p-E-coumaroyloxy-2?-methoxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid through 2D NMR techniques and chemical transformations. This is the first report of isolation of compound 3 from the

Sabira Begum; Syed Imran Hassan; Syed Nawazish Ali; Bina S. Siddiqui



Determination of Antioxidant Constituents in Cactus Pear Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical study was carried out on the presence of antioxidant constituents and the in vitro antioxidant capacity in the extracts of three species of Spanish red-skinned cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia undulata and Opuntia stricta). The cactus pear fruit extracts were analyzed for determined constituents: ascorbic acid, flavonoids (quercetin, isorhamnetin,\\u000a myricetin, kaempferol and luteolin), betalains, taurine, total carotenoids

José A. Fernández-López; Luís Almela; José M. Obón; Rosario Castellar



Quantitative analysis of hydrocolloids in food systems by methanolysis coupled to reverse HPLC. Part 2. Pectins, alginates and xanthan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for quantitative determination of pectins, alginates and xanthan, in complex food systems, is presented. It involves three main steps: (i) homogenization and freeze-drying of food sample; (ii) direct methanolysis of dried sample; (iii) reverse HPLC analysis of specific constituent sugars released from hydrocolloids. The proposed method allows the determination of hydrocolloids in the presence of the other ones,

B Quemener; C Marot; L Mouillet; V Da Riz; J Diris



Genetically engineered foods  


... chap 105. Committee on Identifying and Assessing Unintended Effects of Genetically Engineered Foods on Human Health, National Research Council. Safety of genetically engineered foods: Approaches to ...


Initial eccentricity and constituent quark number scaling of elliptic flow in ideal and viscous dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In the Israel-Stewart theory of dissipative hydrodynamics, the scaling properties of elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions are studied. The initial energy density of the fluid was fixed to reproduce STAR data on phi-meson multiplicity in 0-5% Au+Au collisions such that, irrespective of fluid viscosity, entropy at the freeze-out is similar in ideal or in viscous evolution. The initial eccentricity or constituent quark number scaling is only approximate in ideal or minimally viscous (eta/s=1/4pi) fluid. Eccentricity scaling becomes nearly exact in more viscous fluid (eta/s>=0.12). However, in more viscous fluid, constituent quark number scaled elliptic flow for mesons and baryons splits into separate scaling functions. Simulated flows also do not exhibit 'universal scaling'; that is, elliptic flow scaled by the constituent quark number and charged particles v{sub 2} is not a single function of transverse kinetic energy scaled by the quark number. From a study of the violation of universal scaling, we obtain an estimate of quark-gluon plasma viscosity, eta/s=0.12+-0.03. The error is statistical only. The systematic error in eta/s could be as large.

Chaudhuri, A. K. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)



Hierarchical structure in a self-created communication system: Building nominal constituents in homesign.  


Deaf children whose hearing losses are so severe that they cannot acquire spoken language and whose hearing parents have not exposed them to sign language nevertheless use gestures, called homesigns, to communicate. Homesigners have been shown to refer to entities by pointing at that entity (a demonstrative, that). They also use iconic gestures and category points that refer, not to a particular entity, but to its class (a noun, bird). We used longitudinal data from a homesigner called David to test the hypothesis that these different types of gestures are combined to form larger, multi-gesture nominal constituents (that bird). We verified this hypothesis by showing that David's multi-gesture combinations served the same semantic and syntactic functions as demonstrative gestures or noun gestures used on their own. In other words, the larger unit substituted for the smaller units and, in this way, functioned as a nominal constituent. Children are thus able to refer to entities using multi-gesture units that contain both nouns and demonstratives, even when they do not have a conventional language to provide a model for this type of hierarchical constituent structure. PMID:23626381

Hunsicker, Dea; Goldin-Meadow, Susan



Hierarchical structure in a self-created communication system: Building nominal constituents in homesign  

PubMed Central

Deaf children whose hearing losses are so severe that they cannot acquire spoken language and whose hearing parents have not exposed them to sign language nevertheless use gestures, called homesigns, to communicate. Homesigners have been shown to refer to entities by pointing at that entity (a demonstrative, that). They also use iconic gestures and category points that refer, not to a particular entity, but to its class (a noun, bird). We used longitudinal data from a homesigner called David to test the hypothesis that these different types of gestures are combined to form larger, multi-gesture nominal constituents (that bird). We verified this hypothesis by showing that David's multi-gesture combinations served the same semantic and syntactic functions as demonstrative gestures or noun gestures used on their own. In other words, the larger unit substituted for the smaller units and, in this way, functioned as a nominal constituent. Children are thus able to refer to entities using multi-gesture units that contain both nouns and demonstratives, even when they do not have a conventional language to provide a model for this type of hierarchical constituent structure.* PMID:23626381

Hunsicker, Dea; Goldin-Meadow, Susan



Recovery of alkali metal constituents from catalytic coal conversion residues  


In a coal gasification operation (32) or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by contacting them (46, 53, 61, 69) with water or an aqueous solution to remove water-soluble alkali metal constituents and produce an aqueous solution enriched in said constituents. The aqueous solution thus produced is then contacted with carbon dioxide (63) to precipitate silicon constituents, the pH of the resultant solution is increased (81), preferably to a value in the range between about 12.5 and about 15.0, and the solution of increased pH is evaporated (84) to increase the alkali metal concentration. The concentrated aqueous solution is then recycled to the conversion process (86, 18, 17) where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

Soung, Wen Y. (Houston, TX)



Food webs for parasitologists: a review.  


This review examines the historical origins of food web theory and explores the reasons why parasites have traditionally been left out of food web studies. Current paradigms may still be an impediment because, despite several attempts, it remains virtually impossible to retrofit parasites into food web theory in any satisfactory manner. It seems clear that parasitologists must return to first principles to solve how best to incorporate parasites into ecological food webs, and a first step in changing paradigms will be to include parasites in the classic ecological patterns that inform food web theory. The limitations of current food web models are discussed with respect to their logistic exclusion of parasites, and the traditional matrix approach in food web studies is critically examined. The well-known energetic perspective on ecosystem organization is presented as a viable alternative to the matrix approach because it provides an intellectually powerful theoretical paradigm for generating testable hypotheses on true food web structure. This review proposes that to make significant contributions to the food web debate, parasitologists must work from the standpoint of natural history to elucidate patterns of biomass, species abundance, and interaction strengths in real food webs, and these will provide the basis for more realistic models that incorporate parasite dynamics into the overall functional dynamics of the whole web. A general conclusion is that only by quantifying the effects of parasites in terms of energy flows (or biomass) will we be able to correctly place parasites into food webs. PMID:19891512

Sukhdeo, Michael V K



Chemical Scent Constituents in the Urine of the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes L.) During the Winter Season  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four volatile chemical compounds have been identified as apparently unique constituents in urines of red foxes (both sexes) during the winter season when mating occurs. Quinaldine was found only in male fox urine. Several other compounds identified are found in other species also. Some or all of these compounds may function in olfactory communication in the red fox.

J. W. Jorgenson; M. Novotny; M. Carmack; G. B. Copland; S. R. Wilson; S. Katona; W. K. Whitten



Mood Food  

PubMed Central

Background Much lore but few studies describe a relation of chocolate to mood. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of chocolate consumption with depressed mood in adult men and women. Methods A sample of 1018 adults (694 men and 324 women) from San Diego, California, without diabetes or known coronary artery disease was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. The 931 subjects who were not using antidepressant medications and provided chocolate consumption information were the focus of the analysis. Mood was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Cut points signaling a positive depression screen result (CES-D score, ?16) and probable major depression (CES-D score, ?22) were used. Chocolate servings per week were provided by 1009 subjects. Chocolate consumption frequency and rate data from the Fred Hutchinson Food Frequency Questionnaire were also available for 839 subjects. Chocolate consumption was compared for those with lower vs higher CES-D scores. In addition, a test of trend was performed. Results Those screening positive for possible depression (CES-D score ?16) had higher chocolate consumption (8.4 servings per month) than those not screening positive (5.4 servings per month) (P = .004); those with still higher CES-D scores (?22) had still higher chocolate consumption (11.8 servings per month) (P value for trend, <.01). These associations extended to both men and women. These findings did not appear to be explained by a general increase in fat, carbohydrate, or energy intake. Conclusion Higher CES-D depression scores were associated with greater chocolate consumption. Whether there is a causal connection, and if so in which direction, is a matter for future prospective study. PMID:20421555

Rose, Natalie; Koperski, Sabrina; Golomb, Beatrice A.



Nutrition. Michigan School Food Service Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Definitions, advantages, and functions of nutrition are the starting point for this food service training manual, which includes lessons on proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, and water- and fat-soluble vitamins. Energy foods for child nutrition programs are also identified, as are balanced diets and meal pattern guidelines. Class activities,…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Cooperative Extension Service.


Microencapsulation of Probiotic Cells for Food Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of microencapsulated probiotic cells to food products is a relatively new functional food concept. Most of the published scientific research in this field is not older than ten years. However, the technological background reaches back to the 1980s, where lactic acid bacteria were microencapsulated within the concept of the so-called immobilized cell technology (ICT). Target applications of ICT

Thomas Heidebach; Petra Först; Ulrich Kulozik



Effects of Thymol and Carvacrol, Constituents of Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil, on the Inflammatory Response  

PubMed Central

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae) is an aromatic and medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine, phytopharmaceutical preparations, food preservatives, and as an aromatic ingredient. The effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) and its isolated constituents thymol and cavacrol (CVL) were studied in the following experimental models: ear edema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy, and chemotaxis in vitro. In the pleurisy model, TEO, CVL, and thymol significantly inhibited inflammatory edema. However, only TEO and CVL inhibited leukocyte migration. In the in vitro chemotaxis experiment, CVL inhibited leukocyte migration, whereas thymol exerted a potent chemoattractant effect. In the ear edema model, CVL (10?mg/ear), applied topically, reduced edema formation, exerting a topical anti-inflammatory effect. Thymol did not reduce edema formation but rather presented an irritative response, probably dependent on histamine and prostanoid release. Our data suggest that the antiinflammatory effects of TEO and CVL are attributable to the inhibition of inflammatory edema and leukocyte migration. PMID:22919415

Fachini-Queiroz, Fernanda Carolina; Kummer, Raquel; Estevão-Silva, Camila Fernanda; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Cunha, Joice Maria; Grespan, Renata; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura



Studies on protein characteristics and toxic constituents of Simarouba glauca oilseed meal.  


In order to exploit the protein rich (47.7 g/100g) simarouba meal in food/feed, studies were conducted on its chemical composition with emphasis on protein characteristics and toxic constituents. Simarouba meal contained high calcium (143 mg/100g) and sodium (79 mg/100g). Saponins with triterpenoid aglycone (3.7 g/100g), alkaloids (1.01 g/100g), phenolics (0.95 g/100g) and phytic acid (0.73 g/100g) were the major toxic constituents identified in simarouba meal. TLC and HPLC results indicated that among different fractions of simarouba saponins, one dominant fraction accounted for about 28%. Proteins of simarouba recorded high in vitro digestibility (88%). SDS-PAGE revealed four major protein bands in molecular weight ranges of 20-24, 36-45 and 55-66 kDa. Apart from, glutamic acid (23.43 g/100g protein) and arginine (10.75 g/100g protein), simarouba protein contained high essential amino acids like leucine (7.76 g/100g protein), lysine (5.62 g/100g protein) and valine (6.12 g/100g protein). Among nutritional indices, simarouba meal recorded a good EAA Index (75.02), C-PER (1.90) and PDCAAS (1.0-Adult group). PMID:19286447

Govindaraju, K; Darukeshwara, J; Srivastava, Alok K



[Application of molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction in the separation and determination of active constituents from natural compounds].  


The active constituents of natural medicine resources are complicated and in low content, which are difficult to be extracted and separated by general methods. Molecularly imprinted polymers are functional porous materials with molecular-specific recognition sites to a particular target molecule. The molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction has been used as a sample preparation technique for the separation of active constituents from natural medicine resources. The target molecules in a mixture of chemical species can be recognized selectively. In this review, the applications of the molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for the determination and separation of active constituents (e. g. flavonoids, polyphenols, alkaloids, organic acids, phenylpropanoids, terpenoids, etc. ) from natural compounds in recent years are summarized. PMID:24164030

Chen, Fangfang; Shi, Yanping



Make Better Food Choices  


... Food-A-Pedia makes it easy to compare nutrition information for more than 8,000 foods. cut back on some foods Cut calories by cutting out foods high in solid fats and added sugar. Limit fatty meats like ribs, bacon, and hot dogs. Choose cakes, cookies, candies, and ice cream as ...


The Food Chain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn about the food chain. In your notebook, write everything you know about the food chain and what you think goes at the top and bottom of the chain. After you write what you know go here to learn more about the food chain Food Chain Video. Click on "Play Movie." Now after watching the movie you should have ...

Jodi, Miss



Food Safety Myths Exposed  


... why keeping cooked food warmed to the right temperature is critical for food safety . Myth #9: Marinades are acidic, which kills bacteria—so it’s OK to marinate foods on the counter. Fact: Even in the ... at room temperatures. To marinate foods safely, it’s important to marinate ...


Prevention of Food Poisoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.


Food Business Entrepreneurship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though not a very traditional career path for food scientists, one option is to go into business for yourself by starting a food business. Food business entrepreneurship is a difficult career that entails long work hours, extensive decision making, and tasks that require knowledge beyond food science. However, there is high potential for rewards, including financial rewards, career progression, and personal flexibility.

Weber, Peter


Personal Food System Mapping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personal food system mapping is a practical means to engage community participants and educators in individualized and shared learning about food systems, decisions, and behaviors. Moreover, it is a useful approach for introducing the food system concept, which is somewhat abstract. We developed the approach to capture diversity of personal food

Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally



Food-web models predict species abundances in response to habitat change.  


Plant and animal population sizes inevitably change following habitat loss, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. We experimentally altered habitat volume and eliminated top trophic levels of the food web of invertebrates that inhabit rain-filled leaves of the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea. Path models that incorporated food-web structure better predicted population sizes of food-web constituents than did simple keystone species models, models that included only autecological responses to habitat volume, or models including both food-web structure and habitat volume. These results provide the first experimental confirmation that trophic structure can determine species abundances in the face of habitat loss. PMID:17002518

Gotelli, Nicholas J; Ellison, Aaron M



Food-Web Models Predict Species Abundances in Response to Habitat Change  

PubMed Central

Plant and animal population sizes inevitably change following habitat loss, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. We experimentally altered habitat volume and eliminated top trophic levels of the food web of invertebrates that inhabit rain-filled leaves of the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea. Path models that incorporated food-web structure better predicted population sizes of food-web constituents than did simple keystone species models, models that included only autecological responses to habitat volume, or models including both food-web structure and habitat volume. These results provide the first experimental confirmation that trophic structure can determine species abundances in the face of habitat loss. PMID:17002518

Gotelli, Nicholas J; Ellison, Aaron M



Daily Food Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will find daily food recommendations based upon their age, weight, height, and activity level. Standard 2 Objective1: a,b,c It is helpful to have a guide that can give us directions on the type and quantity of foods we should eat daily. Lets first view the basics of our food groups. Click the Food Group Basics link below and see if you can answer the questions provided. Food Group Basics What is the ...

Mr. Peterson



Daily Food Checklist

The daily food checklist method is a form of food record. The tool is comprised of a list of foods; over the course of a day, a respondent makes a check beside a food each time she or he eats it. The checklist shares an advantage of other record methods in that it does not rely on memory. In addition, it avoids some disadvantages of complete quantitative food records in that it has relatively low respondent and investigator burden.


Processing Effects for Safety and Quality in Some Non-Predominant Food Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food functionality can be related to nutrient and non-nutrient compounds. Some foods are fortified with various nutrients whereas others are manipulated using their physicochemical properties in order to make them “functional.” Texture, color, taste, odor, and other physicochemical properties may affect the overall quality and, hence, acceptance of food products. Since food safety is also an important factor to be

Enrique Ortega-Rivas



Characteristic Fingerprint Based on Low Polar Constituents for Discrimination of Wolfiporia extensa according to Geographical Origin Using UV Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Methods  

PubMed Central

The fungus species Wolfiporia extensa has a long history of medicinal usage and has also been commercially used to formulate nutraceuticals and functional foods in certain Asian countries. In the present study, a practical and promising method has been developed to discriminate the dried sclerotium of W. extensa collected from different geographical sites based on UV spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods. Characteristic fingerprint of low polar constituents of sample extracts that originated from chloroform has been obtained in the interval 250–400?nm. Chemometric pattern recognition methods such as partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied to enhance the authenticity of discrimination of the specimens. The results showed that W. extensa samples were well classified according to their geographical origins. The proposed method can fully utilize diversified fingerprint characteristics of sclerotium of W. extensa and requires low-cost equipment and short-time analysis in comparison with other techniques. Meanwhile, this simple and efficient method may serve as a basis for the authentication of other medicinal fungi. PMID:25544933

Li, Yan; Zhao, Yanli; Li, Zhimin; Li, Tao



Volatile Constituents, Inorganic Elements and Primary Screening of Bioactivity of Black Coral Cigarette Holders  

PubMed Central

Black corals (BC) have been used for a long time in Chinese medicine, and may have some pharmaceutical functions when used as material for cigarette holders in southeast China. This study is aimed to investigate the bioactivities of volatile constituents in BC and to explore the folklore behind the use of BC cigarette holders (BCCHs). We extracted the volatile constituents of BC by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide (CO2-SFE), then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 15 components were reliably identified in BC and found to be biologically active. These included triethyl phosphate, butylated hydroxytoluene, cedrol, n-hexadecanoic acid, squalene, and cholesterol. Meanwhile 13 inorganic elements (P, Ca, Mg, S, B, Si, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba, etc.) were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometer (ICPS). In the bioactivity tests, the BC extract (BCE) showed a scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals and hydroxyl radicals by phenanthroline-Fe (II) oxidation and moderate inhibition of Gram-positive microorganisms. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of BC, which are related to the active chemical composition, may explain the perceived benefit for cigarette smokers who use BCCHs. PMID:21673895

Bai, Xueting; Chen, Yicun; Chen, Weizhou; Lei, Huaping; Shi, Ganggang



An optimized ultrasound-assisted extraction and simultaneous quantification of 26 characteristic components with four structure types in functional foods from ginkgo seeds.  


An optimized method of ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UAE-UHPLC-TQ/MS(2)) was proposed for the simultaneous extraction and determination of 26 characteristic components covering four structure types (flavonoids, terpene lactones, ginkgolic acids and phenylpropanols) in ginkgo seeds (GSs). The UAE parameters (ultrasound power, time and solvent-to-material ratio) were optimized using a response surface methodology. This is the first report of the simultaneous analysis of 26 compounds in Ginkgo biloba using UHPLC-TQ/MS(2); this analysis afforded good linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. UAE-UHPLC-TQ/MS(2) was successfully applied to ginkgo seed samples, and the analysis showed that GSs are rich in terpene lactones and could be selected as a healthy food resource. The results suggest that UAE-UHPLC-TQ/MS(2) might be able to be utilized as a tool for the quality assessment of samples from GSs or other related products using flavonoids, terpene lactones, ginkgolic acids and phenylpropanols as markers. PMID:24731329

Zhou, Guisheng; Yao, Xin; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Zhang, Li; Jin, Chun; Qin, Yong; Duan, Jin-ao



Anti-Obesity and Anti-Hyperglycemic Effects of Cinnamaldehyde via altered Ghrelin Secretion and Functional impact on Food Intake and Gastric Emptying  

PubMed Central

Cinnamon extract is associated to different health benefits but the active ingredients or pathways are unknown. Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) imparts the characteristic flavor to cinnamon and is known to be the main agonist of transient receptor potential-ankyrin receptor 1 (TRPA1). Here, expression of TRPA1 in epithelial mouse stomach cells is described. After receiving a single-dose of CIN, mice significantly reduce cumulative food intake and gastric emptying rates. Co-localization of TRPA1 and ghrelin in enteroendocrine cells of the duodenum is observed both in vivo and in the MGN3-1 cell line, a ghrelin secreting cell model, where incubation with CIN up-regulates expression of TRPA1 and Insulin receptor genes. Ghrelin secreted in the culture medium was quantified following CIN stimulation and we observe that octanoyl and total ghrelin are significantly lower than in control conditions. Additionally, obese mice fed for five weeks with CIN-containing diet significantly reduce their cumulative body weight gain and improve glucose tolerance without detectable modification of insulin secretion. Finally, in adipose tissue up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation was observed. Taken together, the results confirm anti-hyperglycemic and anti-obesity effects of CIN opening a new approach to investigate how certain spice derived compounds regulate endogenous ghrelin release for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25605129

Camacho, Susana; Michlig, Stephanie; de Senarclens-Bezençon, Carole; Meylan, Jenny; Meystre, Julie; Pezzoli, Maurizio; Markram, Henry; le Coutre, Johannes



[Isolation and identification of phenolic constituents from Juncus effusus].  


To study the phenolic constituents from the dry stem of Juncus effusus L. , the constituents were isolated by normal-phase and reverse-phase silica gel column chromatography from the EtOAc extract. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. Six phenolic constituents were purified and identified as 7-carboxy-2-hydroxy-1-methyl-5-vinyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (1) , 2,3-isopylidene-1-O-ferulic acid glyceride ( 2 ) , ( 2S )-2, 3-isopylidene-1-0-p-coumaroyl glyceride (3 ) , dehydroeffusal ( 4 ) , p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (5) and luteolin-5,3'-dimethyl ether (6). Compounds 1 and 2 are new compounds. Compounds 5 and 6 were isolated from Juncaceae plant for the first time. 13C NMR data of compound 6 were reported for the first time. PMID:17518046

Li, Hong-xia; Deng, Tie-zhong; Chen, Yu; Feng, Hui-jin; Yang, Guang-zhong