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Sample records for functional food constituent

  1. Folate: a functional food constituent.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Ramya; Tomar, S K

    2009-01-01

    Folate, a water-soluble vitamin, includes naturally occurring food folate and synthetic folic acid in supplements and fortified foods. Mammalian cells cannot synthesize folate and its deficiency has been implicated in a wide variety of disorders. A number of reviews have dwelt up on the health benefits associated with increased folate intakes and many countries possess mandatory folate enrichment programs. Lately, a number of studies have shown that high intakes of folic acid, the chemically synthesized form, but not natural folates, can cause adverse effects in some individuals such as the masking of the hematological manifestations of vitamin B(12) deficiency, leukemia, arthritis, bowel cancer, and ectopic pregnancies. As fermented milk products are reported to contain even higher amounts of folate produced by the food-grade bacteria, primarily lactic acid bacteria (LAB), the focus has primarily shifted toward the natural folate, that is, folate produced by LAB and levels of folate present in foods fermented by/or containing these valuable microorganisms. The proper selection and use of folate-producing microorganisms is an interesting strategy to increase "natural" folate levels in foods. An attempt has been made through this review to share information available in the literature on wide ranging aspects of folate, namely, bioavailability, analysis, deficiency, dietary requirements, and health effects of synthetic and natural folate, dairy and nondairy products as a potential source of folate, microorganisms with special reference to Streptococcus thermophilus as prolific folate producer, and recent insight on modulation of folate production levels in LAB by metabolic engineering. PMID:20492126

  2. Bioactive constituents in liposomes incorporated in orange juice as new functional food: thermal stability, rheological and organoleptic properties.

    PubMed

    Marsanasco, Marina; Piotrkowski, Bárbara; Calabró, Valeria; Del Valle Alonso, Silvia; Chiaramoni, Nadia S

    2015-12-01

    Liposomes were developed with bioactive constituents (omega-3, omega-6, tocopherol) incorporated in acid food. They were made of soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC) allowing the encapsulation of antioxidant vitamin C (VC) and tocopherol. Stearic acid (SA) or calcium stearate (CaS) was added as a bilayer stabilizer. The structural and oxidative stability of the liposomes were studied considering the heat effect of pasteurization. Size was analyzed by light scattering; shape and structure were studied by optical and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Membrane packing was studied with merocyanine 540. Surface charge and oxidative stability were analyzed by zeta potential and ORAC method, respectively. The liposomes showed significant stability in all of the parameters mentioned above and an important protective effect over thermolabile VC. To confirm their applicability in food, the rheological behavior and a sensory evaluation of liposomes with vitamin C and bioactive constituents were studied. The sensory evaluation of liposomes in orange juice was performed by the overall acceptability and triangular tests with 40 and 78 potential consumers, respectively. The incorporation of all liposomal formulation did not change the acceptability of orange juice. Noteworthy, SPC and SPC:SA systems had rheological behavior similar to a Newtonian fluid whereas that SPC:CaS presented a pseudoplastic one, both considered excellent for larger scale production. From all the obtained results, we can conclude that these liposomal formulations are suitable for food industry applications, incorporating bioactive constituents and generating functional orange juice that conserves its bioactivity after pasteurization. PMID:26604355

  3. [Search for antidiabetic constituents of medicinal food].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Many foods are known to have not only nutritive and taste values but also medicinal effects. In Chinese traditional medicine, the treatment using medicinal foods has been recommended highly. Recently, we examined the effects of the extract and constituents of several medicinal foods on experimental models of diabetes. In this paper, we focus on the bioactive constituents of four medicinal foods, namely the antidiabetic constituents from 1) the roots, stems and leaves of Salacia plants, 2) the male flowers of Borassus flabellifer, 3) the flower buds of Camellia sinensis, 4) the processed leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii (Hydrangeae Dulcis Folium). PMID:21628977

  4. Isolation and analysis of bioactive constituents of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed kernel: an emerging functional food.

    PubMed

    Bak, Istvan; Lekli, Istvan; Juhasz, Bela; Varga, Edit; Varga, Balazs; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Szendrei, Levente; Tosaki, Arpad

    2010-08-01

    A plant-based diet reduces the risk for the development of several chronic diseases, such as ischemic heart disease or cancer due to natural compounds found in plants. Numerous cereals, berries, fruits, and vegetables, including sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), which is a favored fruit worldwide, contain biological active components. The antioxidant components of the sour cherry seed kernel have not been investigated until now. The aim of our study was to isolate and analyze the bioactive constituents of sour cherry seed kernel. We separated the oil fraction of the kernel; then the remaining solid fraction was dried, and the oil-free kernel extract was further analyzed. Our results show that sour cherry seed kernel oil contains vegetable oils including unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acids, alpha-tocopherol, tocotrienols, and tocopherol-like components. The components of the solid fraction include various bioactive structures such as polyphenols, flavonoids, vegetable acids, and pro- and anthocyanidins, which could have useful therapeutic effects in the prevention of various vascular diseases. PMID:20482278

  5. Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

  6. Foods and food constituents that affect the brain and human behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, Harris R.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    Until recently, it was generally believed that brain function was usually independent of day-to-day metabolic changes associated with consumption of food. Although it was acknowledged that peripheral metabolic changes associated with hunger or satiety might affect brain function, other effects of foods on the brain were considered unlikely. However, in 1971, Fernstrom and Wurtman discovered that under certain conditions, the protein-to-carbohydrate ratio of a meal could affect the concentration of a particular brain neurotransmitter. That neurotransmitter, serotonin, participates in the regulation of a variety of central nervous system (CNS) functions including sleep, pain sensitivity, aggression, and patterns of nutrient selection. The activity of other neurotransmitter systems has also been shown to be, under certain conditions, affected by dietary constituents which are given either as ordinary foods or in purified form. For example, the CNS turnover of two catecholamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine, can be altered by ingestion of their amino acid precursor, tyrosine, when neurons that release these monoamines are firing frequently. Similarly, lecithin, a dietary source of choline, and choline itself have been shown to increase the synthesis of acetylcholine when cholinergic neurons are very active. It is possible that other neurotransmitters could also be affected by precursor availability or other, as yet undiscovered peripheral factors governed by food consumption. The effects of food on neurotransmitters and behavior are discussed.

  7. Activated oxygen species and oxidation of food constituents.

    PubMed

    Korycka-Dahl, M B; Richardson, T

    1978-01-01

    Activated oxygen species which may be important in initiating oxidative changes in foods include singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, ozone, superoxide anion (perhydroxyl radical at low pH), and hydrogen peroxide. Chemical and enzymic reactions known to occur in biological materials can generate singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide. Ozone is primarily a product of photoreactions in polluted air. Reactions involving singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, and ozone with food constituents can ultimately yield peroxides which decompose to initiate oxidative chain reactions. Superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide are relatively inert toward organic molecules but can decompose to produce the more reactive singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical. Inhibition of reactions initiated by reactive oxygen species in foods should be very important in preserving the oxidative stability of foods. The generation, detection, measurement, reaction, and inhibition of reactions of active oxygen species are surveyed in this review. PMID:215383

  8. FUNCTIONAL FOODS: AN OVERVIEW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional Foods: Any food, modified food or food ingredient that provides structural, functional or health benefits, thus promoting optimal health, longevity and quality of life, "Food products that provide specific health benefits beyond the traditional nutrients they contain". It is expected th...

  9. In vitro inhibition of phenolsulphotransferase by food and drink constituents.

    PubMed

    Gibb, C; Glover, V; Sandler, M

    1987-07-15

    Several natural and synthetic food and drink constituents were tested in vitro for their inhibitory actions on phenolsulphotransferase P and M (PST P, PST M) and monoamine oxidase A and B (MAO A, MAO B). Cyanidin 3-rutinoside, a simple anthocyanin, (+)-catechin, a flavanol, and carmoisine, a synthetic food colorant, were found to be particularly potent, reversible inhibitors of PST P. All inhibited this enzyme by 100% at a concentration of 5 microM and had an IC50 in the microM range. The effects of these compounds on PST M and MAO A and B were less pronounced. There was a considerable difference in the inhibitory ability of different purified anthocyanins but all were selective for PST P. Several other phenolic food colorants were also found to be specific inhibitors of PST P, though less potent in their actions. Tartrazine, a non-phenolic food colorant, had little effect. The phenolic extracts from two red wines were also found selectively to inhibit PST P in vitro, suggesting that it is within this fraction that these inhibitors are to be found. PST is an important enzyme involved in the inactivation of a wide range of exogenous and endogenous phenols. If such a degree of inhibition were to occur in vivo, potentially toxic concentrations of some phenolic substrates might result. PMID:3475069

  10. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  11. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate

  12. Functional foods innovations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ERRC, ARS, USDA, is to improve human health and well being by developing functional food and consumer products that utilize milk and fruit and vegetable processing residues of specialty crops. Major research approaches involve: biotec...

  13. The Constituent Ordering Process in Functional Discourse Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, John H.

    2012-01-01

    An essential task for the morphosyntactic level within the grammatical component of Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG) is the handling of constituent ordering. This area of grammar, which is known as positional syntax, constitutes the subject of the present paper, in which the ordering of constituents is examined within the framework of a dynamic

  14. [Constituent of natural food additive hokosshi extract and an analytical method for the additive in foods].

    PubMed

    Chino, Makoto; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Maitani, Tamio

    2002-12-01

    Hokosshi extract is obtained by ethanol extraction from the seeds of hokosshi (Psoralea corylifolia), which is used as a Chinese medicine. The constituents of hokosshi extract were analyzed. The main constituent was isolated using column chromatography, and identified as bakuchiol by TLC, LC/MS and NMR. Bavachinin A was also detected. In order to prepare a marker substance for hokosshi extract, bakuchiol was isolated from seeds of hokosshi using Sep-Pak cartridges. An analytical method for hokosshi extract in foods based on detection of bakuchiol was developed. Bakuchiol was extracted from food with 60 vol% ethanol. The extract was cleaned up using a Sep-Pak plus C18 cartridge, and bakuchiol was determined by HPLC. Seasoning and juice were spiked with hokosshi extract at 500 micrograms/g and analyzed by the proposed method. The recoveries of bakuchiol were 72-99%. The detection limit for the assay was 25 micrograms/g. PMID:12635337

  15. Development of Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in intestinal microbiota research are the background for the appearance of functional foods. Lactic fermentation products are included in the functional foods and classified into 3 groups based on their mechanisms of action: probiotics, prebiotics and biogenics. Probiotics are viable microorganisms, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, that beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal bacterial balance. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients, such as oligosaccharides and dietary fiber, that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activities of beneficial intestinal bacteria in the colon and thus improve the health of the hosts. Biogenics are biologically active peptides, including immunopotentiators (biological response modifier: BRM), plant flavonoids, etc. They act directly or indirectly through modulation of intestinal microbiota on the health of the hosts. Thus, functional foods enhance bioregulation such as stresses, appetite and absorption; biodefence, such as immunity and suppression of allergies; prevent diseases, including diarrhea, constipation, cancer, cholesterolemia and diabetes; and suppress aging through immunostimulation as well as suppression of mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, oxidation processes, intestinal putrefaction, and cholesterolemia. PMID:25032085

  16. Exercise and functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Aoi, Wataru; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects, and some of them are considered to be useful for promoting exercise performance or for prevention of injury. However, these foods should only be used when there is clear scientific evidence and with understanding of the physiological changes caused by exercise. This article describes various "functional foods" that have been reported to be effective for improving exercise performance or health promotion, along with the relevant physiological changes that occur during exercise. PMID:16749944

  17. Effects of Some Common Food Constituents on Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaling; Chan, Sze Wa; Hu, Miao; Walden, Richard; Tomlinson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and there is considerable interest in the role of dietary constituents and supplements in the prevention and treatment of these disorders. We reviewed the major publications related to potential effects on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes of some common dietary constituents: carotenoids, flavonoid-rich cocoa, tea, red wine and grapes, coffee, omega-3 fatty acids, and garlic. Increased intake of some of these has been associated with reduced all-cause mortality or reduced incidence of myocardial infraction, stroke, and hypertension. However, although the evidence from observational studies is supportive of beneficial effects for most of these foodstuffs taken as part of the diet, potential benefits from the use of supplements derived from these natural products remain largely inconclusive. PMID:22347642

  18. Microencapsulation and functional bioactive foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food, the essential unit of human nutrition has been both wholesome and safe through human history ensuring the continuity of the human race. Functionalized foods are the rediscovery of the need to provide all nutrients through foods without adulteration. The functional components of foods include...

  19. Functional foods and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hasler, C M; Kundrat, S; Wool, D

    2000-11-01

    Functional foods are foods that, by virtue of physiologically active food components, provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Many functional foods have been found to be potentially beneficial in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality in the United States. These foods include soybeans, oats, psyllium, flaxseed, garlic, tea, fish, grapes, nuts, and stanol- and sterol ester enhanced margarine. When eaten in adequate amounts on a consistent basis, these foods may aid in decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease by several potential mechanisms: lowering blood lipid levels, improving arterial compliance, reducing low-density lipoprotein oxidation, decreasing plaque formation, scavenging free radicals, and inhibiting platelet aggregation. PMID:11122780

  20. Phytoalexin-enriched functional foods.

    PubMed

    Boue, Stephen M; Cleveland, Thomas E; Carter-Wientjes, Carol; Shih, Betty Y; Bhatnagar, Deepak; McLachlan, John M; Burow, Matthew E

    2009-04-01

    Functional foods have been a developing area of food science research for the past decade. Many foods are derived from plants that naturally contain compounds beneficial to human health and can often prevent certain diseases. Plants containing phytochemicals with potent anticancer and antioxidant activities have spurred development of many new functional foods. This has led to the creation of functional foods to target health problems such as obesity and inflammation. More recent research into the use of plant phytoalexins as nutritional components has opened up a new area of food science. Phytoalexins are produced by plants in response to stress, fungal attack, or elicitor treatment and are often antifungal or antibacterial compounds. Although phytoalexins have been investigated for their possible role in plant defense, until recently they have gone unexplored as nutritional components in human foods. These underutilized plant compounds may possess key beneficial properties including antioxidant activity, anti-inflammation activity, cholesterol-lowering ability, and even anticancer activity. For these reasons, phytoalexin-enriched foods would be classified as functional foods. These phytoalexin-enriched functional foods would benefit the consumer by providing "health-enhanced" food choices and would also benefit many underutilized crops that may produce phytoalexins that may not have been considered to be beneficial health-promoting foods. PMID:19334749

  1. Phytoalexin-Enriched Functional Foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional foods have been a developing area of food science research for the last decade. Many foods are derived from plants that naturally contain compounds beneficial to human health and can often prevent certain diseases. Plant containing phytochemicals with potent anticancer and antioxidant a...

  2. Functional foods: planning and development.

    PubMed

    Fogliano, Vincenzo; Vitaglione, Paola

    2005-03-01

    The discussion on functional foods among scientific communities and EC commissions is mainly focused on definitions and on legislative issues related to the presence on the market of this kind of products. Although many new products continuously appear, the functional food market is characterized by a high rate of failure. To realize a successful functional food, experts having different background should work together following a detailed workplan. In this paper, the problems related to planning and development of functional foods are considered using a step-by-step approach. The strategies for invention and development, formulation and validation of nutritional claims are regarded also illustrating practical examples of functional food development. The concept of food for special medical purposes, intended for individuals who are being treated under medical supervision, is also introduced. PMID:15744710

  3. From detrimental to beneficial constituents in foods: tracking the publication trends in JAFC.

    PubMed

    Seiber, James N; Kleinschmidt, Loreen

    2012-07-11

    A large part of the research focus on food constituents in the 20th century was toward health-detrimental contaminants-pathogens, toxins, chemical residues, and some food additives. This is reflected in the publications in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry and other journals. This era witnessed the formation of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the rise and fall of DDT and other synthetic chemicals, as well as a number of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, and coloring/flavoring agents that attracted consumer and government attention. During the past 25 years or so, the emphasis in food chemistry and biochemistry has trended more toward health-beneficial chemicals in foods, as their examination yields information on naturally occurring components-polyphenolic antioxidants, unsaturated fatty acids, soluble fibers, and many other classes of constituents that may ward off chronic diseases. This perspective addresses the changes in emphases in published research to the present and trends that indicate the directions that food chemistry/biochemistry and related sciences might follow in the future. PMID:22449169

  4. Platelet function and constituents of platelet rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, M H; Malhotra, A; Brighton, T; Walsh, W R; Lindeman, R

    2013-01-01

    Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) therapies require blood to be processed prior to application, however, the full assessment of the output of platelet sequestration devices is lacking. In this study the products of the Autologous Fluid Concentrator (Circle BiologicsTM, Minneapolis, MN) and the Gravitational Platelet Separation System (GPS, Biomet, Warsaw, IN, USA) were evaluated in terms of platelet viability and PRP constituents. The AFC and GPS produced 6.4 (1.0) ml and 6.3 (0.4) ml of PRP, with platelet recovery of 46.4% (14.7%) and 59.8% (24.2%) producing fold increases of platelets of 4.19 (1.62) and 5.19 (1.62), respectively. Fibrinogen concentration was increased above baseline PPP produced with the AFC. pH was lower for both of the processed samples than for whole blood. White Blood Cell count was increased around 5 fold. Functional tests showed preserved viability with both devices. This represents essential knowledge that every treating physician should have before they can confidently administer PRP therapy produced by any method. These are the first published results of platelet function for the GPS system and the first performance results of the AFC system. The PRP produced is classified according to broad classifications as Leukocyte-PRP (L-PRP) for both devices. PMID:22893324

  5. Plant species forbidden in health food and their toxic constituents, toxicology and detoxification.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xi-Lin; Shang, Yu; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2016-02-17

    Many plants with pharmacological efficacies are widely used as ingredients in so-called "health foods", but many of them are toxic. In order to ensure the safety of "health food", the Chinese Ministry of Health has listed 59 materials that are forbidden from being used in health food and are called health food forbidden species (HFFS). This review focuses on 47 plants among the HFFS to discuss research regarding their pharmacology, toxicology, and detoxification methods. According to the literature published in the last 2 decades, the main constituents and the pharmacology of such plants are described here, especially their toxic constituents and toxicology. The toxicity mechanisms of several typical toxic components from the 47 plants are outlined and some effective detoxification methods are introduced. Although all HFFS are poisonous, they are considered to be useful in the treatment of many diseases. How to keep their pharmacological effects and at the same time decrease their toxicity is a great challenge. In the future, more attention should be paid to the application of modern science and technology in the exploration of the toxicology and detoxification of HFFS. PMID:26674019

  6. Peanuts as functional food: a review.

    PubMed

    Arya, Shalini S; Salve, Akshata R; Chauhan, S

    2016-01-01

    Peanut is an important crop grown worldwide. Commercially it is used mainly for oil production but apart from oil, the by-products of peanut contains many other functional compounds like proteins, fibers, polyphenols, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals which can be added as a functional ingredient into many processed foods. Recently it has also revealed that peanuts are excellent source of compounds like resveratrol, phenolic acids, flavonoids and phytosterols that block the absorption of cholesterol from diet. It is also a good source of Co-enzyme Q10 and contains all the 20 amino acids with highest amount of arginine. These bioactive compounds have been recognized for having disease preventive properties and are thought to promote longevity. The processing methods like roasting and boiling have shown increase in the concentration of these bioactive compounds. In the present paper an overview on peanut bioactive constituents and their health benefits are presented. PMID:26787930

  7. Is coffee a functional food?

    PubMed

    Dórea, José G; da Costa, Teresa Helena M

    2005-06-01

    Definitions of functional food vary but are essentially based on foods' ability to enhance the quality of life, or physical and mental performance, of regular consumers. The worldwide use of coffee for social engagement, leisure, enhancement of work performance and well-being is widely recognised. Depending on the quantities consumed, it can affect the intake of some minerals (K, Mg, Mn, Cr), niacin and antioxidant substances. Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown positive effects of regular coffee-drinking on various aspects of health, such as psychoactive responses (alertness, mood change), neurological (infant hyperactivity, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) and metabolic disorders (diabetes, gallstones, liver cirrhosis), and gonad and liver function. Despite this, most reviews do not mention coffee as fulfilling the criteria for a functional food. Unlike other functional foods that act on a defined population with a special effect, the wide use of coffee-drinking impacts a broad demographic (from children to the elderly), with a wide spectrum of health benefits. The present paper discusses coffee-drinking and health benefits that support the concept of coffee as a functional food. PMID:16022745

  8. [Food allergy, food intolerance or functional disorder?].

    PubMed

    Wthrich, B

    2009-04-01

    The term "food allergy" is widely misused for all sorts of symptoms and diseases caused by food. Food allergy (FA) is an adverse reaction to food (food hypersensitivity) occurring in susceptible individuals, which is mediated by a classical immune mechanism specific for the food itself. The best established mechanism in FA is due to the presence of IgE antibodies against the offending food. Food intolerance (FI) are all non-immune-mediated adverse reactions to food. The subgroups of FI are enzymatic (e.g. lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency), pharmacological (reactions against biogenic amines, histamine intolerance), and undefined food intolerance (e.g. against some food additives). The diagnosis of an IgE-mediated FA is made by a carefully taken case history, supported by the demonstration of an IgE sensitization either by skin prick tests or by in vitro tests, and confirmed by positive oral provocation. For scientific purposes the only accepted test for the confirmation of FA/FI is a properly performed double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). A panel of recombinant allergens, produced as single allergenic molecules, may in future improve the diagnosis of IgE-mediated FA. Due to a lack of causal treatment possibilities, the elimination of the culprit "food allergen" from the diet is the only therapeutic option for patients with real food allergy. PMID:19340768

  9. Complexing of Green Tea Catechins with Food Constituents and Degradation of the Complexes by Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    HAYASHI, Taeko; UEDA, Shuhei; TSURUTA, Hiroki; KUWAHARA, Hiroshige; OSAWA, Ro

    2012-01-01

    Complexing of green tea catechins with food constituents and their hydrolysis by tannase-producing Lactobacillus plantarum strains, were investigated. Our observations indicated that 1) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and other catechin galloyl esters bound with food ingredients (i.e., proteins) to form a complex that is likely to be unabsorbable through the intestinal wall, whereas most catechins not esterified with gallic acid (GA) remain in free form, not complexing with food ingredients; 2) tannase activity of L. plantarum is strain dependent, possibly grouped into those with high tannase activity hydrolyzing EGCg to epigallocatechin and GA and those with the low activity; and 3) L. plantarum strains with high tannase activity are capable of hydrolyzing not only intact EGCg but also EGCg and other catechin galloyl esters complexed with dietary proteins to free non-galloyl ester catechins and GA. The evidence suggests that L. plantarum with high tannase activity, if it colonizes the human intestine, would release free non-galloyl-ester catechins and GA that are readily absorbed through the human intestinal epithelia from the complexes, thereby ensuring maximum delivery of the bioactive polyphenols of green tea to the host. PMID:24936346

  10. Self-assembled nanoparticle of common food constituents that carries a sparingly soluble small molecule.

    PubMed

    Bhopatkar, Deepak; Feng, Tao; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Genyi; Carignano, Marcelo; Park, Sung Hyun; Zhuang, Haining; Campanella, Osvaldo H; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2015-05-01

    A previously reported nanoparticle formed through the self-assembly of common food constituents (amylose, protein, and fatty acids) was shown to have the capacity to carry a sparingly soluble small molecule (1-naphthol) in a dispersed system. Potentiometric titration showed that 1-naphthol locates in the lumen of the amylose helix of the nanoparticle. This finding was further supported by calorimetric measurements, showing higher enthalpies of dissociation and reassociation in the presence of 1-naphthol. Visually, the 1-naphthol-loaded nanoparticle appeared to be well-dispersed in aqueous solution. Molecular dynamics simulation showed that the self-assembly was favorable, and at 500 ns, the 1-naphthol molecule resided in the helix of the amylose lumen in proximity to the hydrophobic tail of the fatty acid. Thus, sparingly soluble small molecules, such as some nutraceuticals or drugs, could be incorporated and delivered by this soft nanoparticle carrier. PMID:25880884

  11. [Analysis of constituents of ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives].

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Masuda, Aino; Sugimoto, Naoki; Yamagata, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2007-12-01

    The differences in the constituents of ten ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives in Japan (urushi wax, carnauba wax, candelilla wax, rice bran wax, shellac wax, jojoba wax, bees wax, Japan wax, montan wax, and lanolin) were investigated. Several kinds of gum bases showed characteristic TLC patterns of lipids. In addition, compositions of fatty acid and alcohol moieties of esters in the gum bases were analyzed by GC/MS after methanolysis and hydrolysis, respectively. The results indicated that the varieties of fatty acids and alcohols and their compositions were characteristic for each gum base. These results will be useful for identification and discrimination of the ester-type gum bases. PMID:18203503

  12. Anthocyanins as Functional Food Colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motohashi, Noboru; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    Anthocyanins, a proanthocyanidin-type of flavonoid, contain an abundance of functional phytochemicals and occur in fruits such as cranberry, blueberry, orange, apple and in vegetables such as tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, and radishes. Functional and essential diets have been ingested in daily life since the primitive era of history. When anthocyanins are coupled with some water-soluble sugar molecules, their color becomes red, yellow, violet, or blue. It is very intriguing that anthocyanins provide the colorful variety of pigments for pansies, petunias, plums, and other diverse flowers. Chlorophyll in various fruits and vegetables is the main green phyto-component, while anthocyanins are probably the most important visible plant pigments in the natural kingdom having specific colors. Anthocyanins have been clinically used in many folklore medicines worldwide. Anthocyanins could provide health benefits for age-related diseases as well as other diseases. Anthocyanins have higher antioxidant capacity against oxidative stress induced by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and thus the human body might be protected from oxidative injury by anthocyanins. On the basis of these facts, we review the synthesis of plant flavonoids and their ability to scavenge oxidants, inhibit or activate enzymes, and the safety of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins present in common foods.

  13. Ginseng leaf-stem: bioactive constituents and pharmacological functions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwei; Peng, Dacheng; Xie, Jingtian

    2009-01-01

    Ginseng root is used more often than other parts such as leaf stem although extracts from ginseng leaf-stem also contain similar active ingredients with pharmacological functions. Ginseng's leaf-stems are more readily available at a lower cost than its root. This article reviews the pharmacological effects of ginseng leaf-stem on some diseases and adverse effects due to excessive consumption. Ginseng leaf-stem extract contains numerous active ingredients, such as ginsenosides, polysaccharides, triterpenoids, flavonoids, volatile oils, polyacetylenic alcohols, peptides, amino acids and fatty acids. The extract contains larger amounts of the same active ingredients than the root. These active ingredients produce multifaceted pharmacological effects on the central nervous system, as well as on the cardiovascular, reproductive and metabolic systems. Ginseng leaf-stem extract also has anti-fatigue, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-obesity, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-aging properties. In normal use, ginseng leaf-stem extract is quite safe; adverse effects occur only when it is over dosed or is of poor quality. Extracts from ginseng root and leaf-stem have similar multifaceted pharmacological activities (for example central nervous and cardiovascular systems). In terms of costs and source availability, however, ginseng leaf-stem has advantages over its root. Further research will facilitate a wider use of ginseng leaf-stem. PMID:19849852

  14. Functional foods: traditional use and European legislation.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Mauro; Stanzione, Alessandra; Foddai, Sebastiano

    2012-03-01

    The concept of functional foods was born in Japan in the 1980s. They are foods that were developed specifically to promote health or reduce the risk of disease. Functional foods have not already been defined by the legislation in Europe. Generally, they are considered as those foods which are intended to be consumed as part of the normal diet and which contain biologically active components which offer the potential of enhanced health or reduced risk of disease. Attention concerning this category of foods has grown, new products have appeared in the European market and interest has turned to define the standards and guidelines for the development and promotion of this kind of foods. In the European Union, there is harmonised legislation on health claims, while compounds, ingredients, plants are still regulated only at national level. The question of traditional use and the role of European Food Safety Authority as European Authority for Food Safety will be examined. PMID:22117621

  15. Flaxseed-a potential functional food source.

    PubMed

    Kajla, Priyanka; Sharma, Alka; Sood, Dev Raj

    2015-04-01

    There is currently much interest in phytochemicals as bioactive molecules of food. Functional foods are an emerging field in food science due to their increasing popularity among health conscious consumers. Flaxseed is cultivated in many parts of world for fiber, oil as well as for medicinal purposes and also as nutritional product. In this review, nutrients, anti-nutrients, functional properties, processing, metabolism and health benefits of bioactive molecules viz., essential fatty acids, lignans and dietary fiber of flaxseed are discussed. PMID:25829567

  16. FOOD PROTEINS:INTERACTIONS AND FUNCTIONALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The three-dimensional structure of a protein defines how it functions in foods. Processing treatments such as heat, pH, salt or shear and subsequent storage conditions can cause denaturation and even unfolding of the food protein. Subtle changes in protein structure may affect its functionality in f...

  17. Functional Foods Baseline and Requirements Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, M. R.; Bermudez-Aguirre, L. D.; Douglas, G.

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight foods were evaluated to determine if their nutrient profile supports positioning as a functional food and if the stability of the bioactive compound within the food matrix over an extended shelf-life correlated with the expected storage duration during the mission. Specifically, the research aims were: Aim A. To determine the amount of each nutrient in representative spaceflight foods immediately after processing and at predetermined storage time to establish the current nutritional state. Aim B. To identify the requirements to develop foods that stabilize these nutrients such that required concentrations are maintained in the space food system throughout long duration missions (up to five years). Aim C. To coordinate collaborations with health and performance groups that may require functional foods as a countermeasure.

  18. [Life style diseases and functional foods].

    PubMed

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    In Japan the onset of lifestyle-related diseases has increased, the people interests in "food and health", and the movement of the food industry is actively to respond to it. Healthy life expectancy is essential for mitigation of social medical expenses and improvement of the personal QOL in the super-aged society. Daily diet becomes the nucleus of healthy life expectancy. Historically, the concept of "functional food" system was born in the mid-1980s in ahead of our country in the world. Administration as a response to it to allow on that review, "food for specified health uses" was born. Furthermore, foods with a prevention function of lifestyle-related diseases, such as "Foods with Function Claims" system have been developing from 2015. In this paper, we want to further describe these circumstances, the current situation and the outlook. PMID:26923985

  19. Food Protein Functionality-A New Model.

    PubMed

    Foegeding, E Allen

    2015-12-01

    Proteins in foods serve dual roles as nutrients and structural building blocks. The concept of protein functionality has historically been restricted to nonnutritive functions-such as creating emulsions, foams, and gels-but this places sole emphasis on food quality considerations and potentially overlooks modifications that may also alter nutritional quality or allergenicity. A new model is proposed that addresses the function of proteins in foods based on the length scale(s) responsible for the function. Properties such as flavor binding, color, allergenicity, and digestibility are explained based on the structure of individual molecules; placing this functionality at the nano/molecular scale. At the next higher scale, applications in foods involving gelation, emulsification, and foam formation are based on how proteins form secondary structures that are seen at the nano and microlength scales, collectively called the mesoscale. The macroscale structure represents the arrangements of molecules and mesoscale structures in a food. Macroscale properties determine overall product appearance, stability, and texture. The historical approach of comparing among proteins based on forming and stabilizing specific mesoscale structures remains valid but emphasis should be on a common means for structure formation to allow for comparisons across investigations. For applications in food products, protein functionality should start with identification of functional needs across scales. Those needs are then evaluated relative to how processing and other ingredients could alter desired molecular scale properties, or proper formation of mesoscale structures. This allows for a comprehensive approach to achieving the desired function of proteins in foods. PMID:26513109

  20. Functional Foods Containing Whey Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whey proteins, modified whey proteins, and whey components are useful as nutrients or supplements for health maintenance. Extrusion modified whey proteins can easily fit into new products such as beverages, confectionery items (e.g., candies), convenience foods, desserts, baked goods, sauces, and in...

  1. Characterization of typical household food wastes from disposers: fractionation of constituents and implications for resource recovery at wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, M; Chowdhury, M M I; Nakhla, G; Keleman, M

    2015-05-01

    Food wastes with typical US food composition were analyzed to characterize different constituents in both particulate and soluble phases i.e., solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P). Relationships between various pollutants were also investigated using 50 samples. One gram of dry food waste generated 1.21 g COD, 0.58 g BOD5, 0.36 g Total SS, 0.025 g Total N, and 0.013 g Total P. Distribution of constituents between particulate and aqueous phases indicated that 40% of COD and 30% of nitrogen were present in soluble form. Relative mass ratios of COD and nitrogen to solids were three to five times higher in particulates than in aqueous phase. However, COD/N ratios were higher in aqueous form than particulates at 63:1 versus 42:1. Detailed relationships between parameters showed that COD, nitrogen, and phosphorus in particulates are 200%, 3.6%, and 3.5% of the volatile suspended solids. PMID:25723128

  2. Modulation of Immune Functions by Foods

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Evidence is rapidly accumulating as to the beneficial effects of foods. However, it is not always clear whether the information is based on data evaluated impartially in a scientific fashion. Human research into whether foods modulate immune functions in either intervention studies or randomized controlled trials can be classified into three categories according to the physical state of subjects enrolled for investigation: (i) studies examining the effect of foods in healthy individuals; (ii) studies analyzing the effect of foods on patients with hypersensitivity; and (iii) studies checking the effect of foods on immunocompromized subjects, including patients who had undergone surgical resection of cancer and newborns. The systematization of reported studies has made it reasonable to conclude that foods are able to modulate immune functions manifesting as either innate immunity (phagocytic activity, NK cell activity) or acquired immunity (T cell response, antibody production). Moreover, improvement of immune functions by foods can normalize the physical state of allergic patients or cancer patients, and may reduce the risk of diseases in healthy individuals. Therefore, it is valuable to assess the immune-modulating abilities of foods by measuring at least one parameter of either innate or acquired immunity. PMID:15841257

  3. [Review: functional foods and ingredients derived from milk].

    PubMed

    Silva Hernndez, Eryck R; Verdalet Guzmn, Iigo

    2003-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the main research works related to functional foods and ingredients derived from milk. Research in functional foods has increased during last twelve years with the intention of increasing life expectancy and improving human health conditions. Probiotics, prebiotics, bioactive peptides or proteins, dietetic fibers and fatty acids, as well as the addition of fitochemical compounds in dairy products and a record of some allergic compounds are also discussed. The demand of this kind of products is increasing due to intense advertising campaigns posted in many countries. Basically, these campaigns promise better health and/or the prevention of certain illnesses. Milk contains diverse constituents with physiological functionality, which might change the traditional view point that we have about drugs. The topic of functional foods in general, and specifically that from milk and dairy products, has still not been completely exploited, and in the future it will be found that the best work has not been carried out in this area. PMID:15125074

  4. Metal chelation, radical scavenging and inhibition of Aβ42 fibrillation by food constituents in relation to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Chan, Stephen; Kantham, Srinivas; Rao, Venkatesan M; Palanivelu, Manoj Kumar; Pham, Hoang L; Shaw, P Nicholas; McGeary, Ross P; Ross, Benjamin P

    2016-05-15

    Various food constituents have been proposed as disease-modifying agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD), due to epidemiological evidence of their beneficial effects, and for their ability to ameliorate factors linked to AD pathogenesis, namely by: chelating iron, copper and zinc; scavenging reactive oxygen species; and suppressing the fibrillation of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ). In this study, nine different food constituents (l-ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, caffeine, curcumin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), gallic acid, propyl gallate, resveratrol, and α-tocopherol) were investigated for their effects on the above factors, using metal chelation assays, antioxidant assays, and assays of Aβ42 fibrillation. An assay method was developed using 5-Br-PAPS to examine the complexation of Zn(II) and Cu(II). EGCG, gallic acid, and curcumin were identified as a multifunctional compounds, however their poor brain uptake might limit their therapeutic effects. The antioxidants l-ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol, with better brain uptake, deserve further investigation for specifically addressing oxidative stress within the AD brain. PMID:26775960

  5. Functional foods and the biomedicalisation of everyday life: a case of germinated brown rice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyomin

    2013-07-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is a functional food, whose benefits for chronic diseases have been demonstrated by scientific research on a single constituent of GBR, gamma aminobutyric acid. This article examines the processes through which the emphasis on biomedical rationality made during the production and consumption of functional foods is embedded in the complicated social contexts of the post-1990s. In the case of GBR, the Korean government, food scientists, mass media and consumers have added cultural accounts to the biomedical understanding of foods. In particular, consumers have transformed their households and online communities into a place for surveillance medicine. Functional foods are embedded in multiple actors' perspectives on what healthy foods mean and how and where the risks of chronic diseases should be managed. PMID:23116161

  6. Lectin-Like Constituents of Foods Which React with Components of Serum, Saliva, and Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, R. J.; Dankers, I.

    1981-01-01

    Hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared from 22 commonly ingested fruits, vegetables, and seeds. When tested by agar diffusion, extracts from 13 and 10 of the foods formed precipitin bands with samples of normal rabbit serum and human saliva, respectively; extracts from four of the foods also reacted with antigen extracts of strains of Streptococcus mutans. When added to rabbit antiserum, extracts from 18 of 21 foods tested inhibited reactivity with antigen extracts derived from S. mutans MT3. Extracts from 16 foods agglutinated whole S. mutans cells, whereas those from 10 foods agglutinated human erythrocytes of blood types A and B. The lectin-like activities of extracts which reacted with human saliva were studied further. Pretreatment of saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (S-HA) beads with extracts of bananas, coconuts, carrots, alfalfa, and sunflower seeds markedly reduced the subsequent adsorption of S. mutans MT3. Pretreatment of S-HA with banana extract also strongly inhibited adsorption of S. mutans H12 and S. sanguis C1, but it had little effect on attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii L13 or A. viscosus LY7. Absorption experiments indicated that the component(s) in banana extract responsible for inhibiting streptococcal adsorption to S-HA was identical to that which bound to human erythrocytes. The banana hemagglutinin exhibited highest activity between pH 7 and 8, and it was inhibited by high concentrations of glucosamine, galactosamine, and, to a lesser extent, mannosamine. Other sugars tested had no effect. The selective bacterial adsorption-inhibiting effect noted for banana extract was also observed in studies with purified lectins. Thus, pretreating S-HA with wheat germ agglutinin and concanavalin A inhibited adsorption of S. mutans MT3 cells, whereas peanut agglutinin, Ulex agglutinin, Dolichos agglutinin, and soybean agglutinin had little effect; none of these lectins affected attachment of A. viscosus LY7. Collectively, the observations suggest that many foods contain lectins which can interact with components of human saliva and S. mutans cells. Because of their potential to influence host-parasite interactions in the mouth and elsewhere in the gastrointestinal canal, these reactions warrant further study. Images PMID:6786220

  7. Functional metagenomics to decipher food-microbe-host crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Larraufie, Pierre; de Wouters, Tomas; Potocki-Veronese, Gabrielle; Blottière, Hervé M; Doré, Joël

    2015-02-01

    The recent developments of metagenomics permit an extremely high-resolution molecular scan of the intestinal microbiota giving new insights and opening perspectives for clinical applications. Beyond the unprecedented vision of the intestinal microbiota given by large-scale quantitative metagenomics studies, such as the EU MetaHIT project, functional metagenomics tools allow the exploration of fine interactions between food constituents, microbiota and host, leading to the identification of signals and intimate mechanisms of crosstalk, especially between bacteria and human cells. Cloning of large genome fragments, either from complex intestinal communities or from selected bacteria, allows the screening of these biological resources for bioactivity towards complex plant polymers or functional food such as prebiotics. This permitted identification of novel carbohydrate-active enzyme families involved in dietary fibre and host glycan breakdown, and highlighted unsuspected bacterial players at the top of the intestinal microbial food chain. Similarly, exposure of fractions from genomic and metagenomic clones onto human cells engineered with reporter systems to track modulation of immune response, cell proliferation or cell metabolism has allowed the identification of bioactive clones modulating key cell signalling pathways or the induction of specific genes. This opens the possibility to decipher mechanisms by which commensal bacteria or candidate probiotics can modulate the activity of cells in the intestinal epithelium or even in distal organs such as the liver, adipose tissue or the brain. Hence, in spite of our inability to culture many of the dominant microbes of the human intestine, functional metagenomics open a new window for the exploration of food-microbe-host crosstalk. PMID:25417646

  8. Chemical constituents of peppers (Piper spp.) and application to food preservation: naturally occurring antioxidative compounds.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, N; Inatani, R; Ohta, H; Nishioka, A

    1986-08-01

    In a structure analysis of the compounds of the genus Piper (Family Piperaceae), we identified five phenolic amides from Piper nigrum, seven compounds from P. retrofractum, and two compounds from P. baccatum. All the phenolic amides possess significant antioxidant activities that are more effective than the naturally occurring antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol. One amide, feruperine, has antioxidant activity as high as the synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Naturally occurring antioxidants, therefore, may surpass BHA and BHT in their ability to inactivate mutagens in food. PMID:3757949

  9. Dieticians' intentions to recommend functional foods: The mediating role of consumption frequency of functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiyeon; Song, Mi Jung

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the conceptual framework of dieticians' intentions to recommend functional food and the mediating role of consumption frequency. A web-based survey was designed using a self-administered questionnaire. A sample of Korean dieticians (N=233) responded to the questionnaire that included response efficacy, risk perception, consumption frequency, and recommendation intention for functional foods. A structural equation model was constructed to analyze the data. We found that response efficacy was positively related to frequency of consumption of functional foods and to recommendation intention. Consumption frequency also positively influenced recommendation intention. Risk perception had no direct influence on recommendation intention; however, the relationship was mediated completely by consumption frequency. Dieticians' consumption frequency and response efficacy were the crucial factors in recommending functional foods. Dieticians may perceive risks arising from the use of functional foods in general, but the perceived risks do not affect ratings describing dieticians' intentions to recommend them. The results also indicated that when dieticians more frequently consume functional foods, the expression of an intention to recommend functional foods may be controlled by the salience of past behaviors rather than by attitudes. PMID:20198212

  10. Functional foods for health: focus on diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rudkowska, Iwona

    2009-03-20

    Type 2 diabetes is one of the fastest growing public health problems worldwide. Menopause may present additional challenges for women who have diabetes by increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and making blood glucose control more difficult. Functional foods may have the potential to improve glycemic control, but little evidence is known about the efficacy of these foods. The purpose of this literature review is to establish a recommendation for the intake of functional foods in a healthy diet - such as nuts, omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) and cinnamon - for the glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Nuts and omega-3 FAs appear to have an overall beneficial effect on CVD; however, their effect on glucose homeostasis is uncertain. In addition, cinnamon appears to inconsistently improve glycemic parameters in diabetic patients. Overall, more research on the potential effect of all of these functional foods on patients with type 2 diabetes is needed to able to make specific recommendations. In conclusion, there is reason to consider the inclusion of nuts and fish, as a source of omega-3 FAs, in the diets of individuals with diabetes in view of their potential to reduce CVD risk, even though their ability to influence overall glycemic control remains to be established. PMID:19233576

  11. Analysis of Functional Constituents in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Twigs by Different Cultivars, Producing Areas, and Heat Processings

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang Won; Jang, Yeon Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin; Leem, Hyun Hee; Kim, Eun Ok

    2013-01-01

    Four functional constituents, oxyresveratrol 3?-O-?-D-glucoside (ORTG), oxyresveratrol (ORT), t-resveratrol (RT), and moracin (MC) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs by a series of isolation procedures, including solvent fractionation, and silica-gel, ODS-A, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their chemical structures were identified by NMR and FABMS spectral analysis. Quantitative changes of four phytochemicals in mulberry twigs were determined by HPLC according to cultivar, producing area, and heat processing. ORTG was a major abundant compound in the mulberry twigs, and its levels ranged from 23.7 to 105.5 mg% in six different mulberry cultivars. Three other compounds were present in trace amounts (<1 mg/100 g) or were not detected. Among mulberry cultivars examined, Yongcheon showed the highest level of ORTG, whereas Somok had the least ORTG content. Levels of four phytochemicals in the mulberry twigs harvested in early September were higher than those harvested in early July. Levels of ORTG and ORT in the Cheongil mulberry twigs produced in the Uljin area were higher than those produced in other areas. Generally, levels of ORTG and ORT in mulberry twigs decreased with heat processing, such as steaming, and microwaving except roasting, whereas those of RT and MC did not considerably vary according to heat processing. These results suggest that the roasted mulberry twigs may be useful as potential sources of functional ingredients and foods. PMID:24551827

  12. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: functional foods.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Kristi M; Francis, Coni

    2013-08-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics to recognize that although all foods provide some level of physiological function, the term functional foods is defined as whole foods along with fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods that have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis at effective levels based on significant standards of evidence. The Academy supports Food and Drug Administration-approved health claims on food labels when based on rigorous scientific substantiation. All food is essentially functional at some level as it provides energy and nutrients needed to sustain life. However, there is growing evidence that some food components, not considered nutrients in the traditional sense, may provide positive health benefits. Foods containing these food components are called functional foods. Functional food research holds many promises for improving the quality of life for consumers; however, to achieve such outcomes, scientific research must effectively establish the bioavailability and efficacy of these compounds at levels that are physiologically achievable under typical dietary patterns. This Position Paper reviews the complexities of defining functional foods; categories of foods marketed as functional; regulation of functional foods; the scientific substantiation of and advancement of functional food research; as well as a message to registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, on how to remain current in their knowledge of functional food research and the translation of this information to consumers. PMID:23885705

  13. Physical modification of food starch functionalities.

    PubMed

    BeMiller, James N; Huber, Kerry C

    2015-01-01

    Because, in general, native starches do not have properties that make them ideally suited for applications in food products, most starch is modified by dervatization to improve its functionality before use in processed food formulations, and because food processors would prefer not to have to use the modified food starch label designation required when chemically modified starches are used, there is considerable interest in providing starches with desired functionalities that have not been chemically modified. One investigated approach is property modification via physical treatments, that is, modifications of starches imparted by physical treatments that do not result in any chemical modification of the starch. Physical treatments are divided into thermal and nonthermal treatments. Thermal treatments include those that produce pregelatinized and granular cold-water-swelling starches, heat-moisture treatments, annealing, microwave heating, so-called osmotic pressure treatment, and heating of dry starch. Nonthermal treatments include ultrahigh-pressure treatments, instantaneous controlled pressure drop, use of high-pressure homogenizers, dynamic pulsed pressure, pulsed electric field, and freezing and thawing. PMID:25884280

  14. Melatonin, a potent agent in antioxidative defense: Actions as a natural food constituent, gastrointestinal factor, drug and prodrug

    PubMed Central

    Hardeland, Rüdiger; Pandi-Perumal, SR

    2005-01-01

    Melatonin, originally discovered as a hormone of the pineal gland, is also produced in other organs and represents, additionally, a normal food constituent found in yeast and plant material, which can influence the level in the circulation. Compared to the pineal, the gastrointestinal tract contains several hundred times more melatonin, which can be released into the blood in response to food intake and stimuli by nutrients, especially tryptophan. Apart from its use as a commercial food additive, supraphysiological doses have been applied in medical trials and pure preparations are well tolerated by patients. Owing to its amphiphilicity, melatonin can enter any body fluid, cell or cell compartment. Its properties as an antioxidant agent are based on several, highly diverse effects. Apart from direct radical scavenging, it plays a role in upregulation of antioxidant and downregulation of prooxidant enzymes, and damage by free radicals can be reduced by its antiexcitatory actions, and presumably by contributions to appropriate internal circadian phasing, and by its improvement of mitochondrial metabolism, in terms of avoiding electron leakage and enhancing complex I and complex IV activities. Melatonin was shown to potentiate effects of other antioxidants, such as ascorbate and Trolox. Under physiological conditions, direct radical scavenging may only contribute to a minor extent to overall radical detoxification, although melatonin can eliminate several of them in scavenger cascades and potentiates the efficacy of antioxidant vitamins. Melatonin oxidation seems rather important for the production of other biologically active metabolites such as N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) and N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK), which have been shown to also dispose of protective properties. Thus, melatonin may be regarded as a prodrug, too. AMK interacts with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, conveys protection to mitochondria, inhibits and downregulates cyclooxygenase 2. PMID:16153306

  15. Functional food science and gastrointestinal physiology and function.

    PubMed

    Salminen, S; Bouley, C; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Cummings, J H; Franck, A; Gibson, G R; Isolauri, E; Moreau, M C; Roberfroid, M; Rowland, I

    1998-08-01

    The gut is an obvious target for the development of functional foods, acting as it does as the interface between diet and the metabolic events which sustain life. The key processes in digestive physiology which can be regulated by modifying diet are satiety, the rate and extent of macronutrient breakdown and absorption from the small bowel, sterol metabolism, the colonic microflora, fermentation, mucosal function and bowel habit, and the gut immune system. The intestinal microflora is the main focus of many current functional foods. Probiotics are foods which contain live bacteria which are beneficial to health whilst prebiotics, such as certain non-digestible oligosaccharides which selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria in the colon, are already on the market. Their claimed benefits are to alleviate lactose maldigestion, increase resistance to invasion by pathogenic species of bacteria in the gut, stimulate the immune system and possibly protect against cancer. There are very few reports of well-designed human intervention studies with prebiotics as yet. Certain probiotic species have been shown to shorten the duration of rotavirus diarrhoea in children but much more work is needed on the mechanism of immunomodulation and of competitive exclusion and microflora modification. The development of functional foods for the gut is in its infancy and will be successful only if more fundamental research is done on digestive physiology, the gut microflora, immune system and mucosal function. PMID:9849357

  16. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius): a functional food.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Grethel Teresa Choque; Tamashiro, Wirla Maria da Silva Cunha; Marstica Junior, Mrio Roberto; Pastore, Glaucia Maria

    2013-09-01

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is an Andean tuberous root that is regarded as a functional food given that it contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS), inulin and phenolic compounds. The consumption of FOS and inulin improves the growth of bifidobacteria in the colon, enhances mineral absorption and gastrointestinal metabolism and plays a role in the regulation of serum cholesterol. Furthermore, the literature reports that the consumption of these prebiotics promotes a positive modulation of the immune system, improving resistance to infections and allergic reactions. Certain studies have demonstrated the potential of yacon as an alternative food source for those patients with conditions that require dietary changes. This review intends to describe the potential of yacon as a prebiotic and its cultivation and industrial processing for human consumption. PMID:23709016

  17. Position of the American Dietetic Association: functional foods.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Clare M; Brown, Amy C

    2009-04-01

    All foods are functional at some physiological level, but it is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that functional foods that include whole foods and fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis, at effective levels. ADA supports research to further define the health benefits and risks of individual functional foods and their physiologically active components. Health claims on food products, including functional foods, should be based on the significant scientific agreement standard of evidence and ADA supports label claims based on such strong scientific substantiation. Food and nutrition professionals will continue to work with the food industry, allied health professionals, the government, the scientific community, and the media to ensure that the public has accurate information regarding functional foods and thus should continue to educate themselves on this emerging area of food and nutrition science. Knowledge of the role of physiologically active food components, from plant, animal, and microbial food sources, has changed the role of diet in health. Functional foods have evolved as food and nutrition science has advanced beyond the treatment of deficiency syndromes to reduction of disease risk and health promotion. This position paper reviews the definition of functional foods, their regulation, and the scientific evidence supporting this evolving area of food and nutrition. Foods can no longer be evaluated only in terms of macronutrient and micronutrient content alone. Analyzing the content of other physiologically active components and evaluating their role in health promotion will be necessary. The availability of health-promoting functional foods in the US diet has the potential to help ensure a healthier population. However, each functional food should be evaluated on the basis of scientific evidence to ensure appropriate integration into a varied diet. PMID:19338113

  18. Functional Foods as Modifiers of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Carol

    2009-01-01

    There is growing consensus that systemic inflammation is at the heart of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Inflammation is a key feature of the immune system, functioning to defend tissue integrity and function. However, chronic stimulation of inflammatory mediators leads to lasting vascular reactivity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and, subsequently, chronic disease. Dietary practices to minimize inflammatory stimuli and CVD risk include regular intakes of fatty fish rich in the eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids that compete with the more pervasive membrane fatty acid, arachidonic acid, disrupting the metabolic cascades that stimulate inflammation. Another effective dietary strategy is to consume less arachidonic acid by reducing beef, poultry, fish, and eggs from the diet (e.g., adopting a vegetarian-like diet). Since oxidative stress plays a prominent role in immune system activation, regular ingestion of ample amounts of fruits and vegetables (8+ servings/d) rich in antioxidant compounds, the polyphenols, carotenoids, and vitamin C (e.g., citrus, tomatoes, berries, carrots, and greens), lowers inflammatory mediators and risk for chronic disease. Whole grains, legumes, and nuts have also been demonstrated in clinical trials to effectively reduce inflammatory mediators and risk for CVD. Hence, as proclaimed in antiquity, let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food. PMID:20368755

  19. Investigating Constituent Order Change with Elicited Pantomime: A Functional Account of SVO Emergence

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew L.; Ferreira, Victor S.; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most basic functions of human language is to convey who did what to whom. In the worlds languages, the order of these three constituents (subject (S), verb (V), and object (O)) is uneven, with SOV and SVO being most common. Recent experiments using experimentally-elicited pantomime provide a possible explanation for the prevalence of SOV, but extant explanations for the prevalence of SVO could benefit from further empirical support. Here, we test whether SVO might emerge because (a) SOV is not well suited for describing reversible events (a woman pushing a boy), and (b) pressures to be efficient and mention subjects before objects conspire to rule out many other alternatives. We tested this by asking participants to describe reversible and non-reversible events in pantomime, and instructed some participants to be consistent in the form of their gestures and to teach them to the experimenter. These manipulations led to the emergence of SVO in speakers of both English (SVO) and Turkish (SOV). PMID:24641486

  20. NEW FUNCTIONAL FOOD INGREDIENTS FOR IMPROVING THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF ASIAN FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to utilize new functional food ingredients containing soluble betaglucan fiber that could be used to improve the heatlh qualities of Asian foods. These functional food fibers were studied as replacements for coconut milk, butter, or saturated fat shortenings that are w...

  1. NEW FUNCTIONAL FOOD INGREDIENTS FOR IMPROVING THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF ASIAN FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to utilize new functional food ingredients containing soluble beta-glucan fiber that could be used to improve the health qualities of Asian foods. These functional food fibers were studied as replacements for coconut milk, butter, or saturated fat shortenings that are ...

  2. Linking structure and function in food webs: maximization of different ecological functions generates distinct food web structures.

    PubMed

    Yen, Jian D L; Cabral, Reniel B; Cantor, Mauricio; Hatton, Ian; Kortsch, Susanne; Patrício, Joana; Yamamichi, Masato

    2016-03-01

    Trophic interactions are central to ecosystem functioning, but the link between food web structure and ecosystem functioning remains obscure. Regularities (i.e. consistent patterns) in food web structure suggest the possibility of regularities in ecosystem functioning, which might be used to relate structure to function. We introduce a novel, genetic algorithm approach to simulate food webs with maximized throughput (a proxy for ecosystem functioning) and compare the structure of these simulated food webs to real empirical food webs using common metrics of food web structure. We repeat this analysis using robustness to secondary extinctions (a proxy for ecosystem resilience) instead of throughput to determine the relative contributions of ecosystem functioning and ecosystem resilience to food web structure. Simulated food webs that maximized robustness were similar to real food webs when connectance (i.e. levels of interaction across the food web) was high, but this result did not extend to food webs with low connectance. Simulated food webs that maximized throughput or a combination of throughput and robustness were not similar to any real food webs. Simulated maximum-throughput food webs differed markedly from maximum-robustness food webs, which suggests that maximizing different ecological functions can generate distinct food web structures. Based on our results, food web structure would appear to have a stronger relationship with ecosystem resilience than with ecosystem throughput. Our genetic algorithm approach is general and is well suited to large, realistically complex food webs. Genetic algorithms can incorporate constraints on structure and can generate outputs that can be compared directly to empirical data. Our method can be used to explore a range of maximization or minimization hypotheses, providing new perspectives on the links between structure and function in ecological systems. PMID:26749320

  3. Uremic plasma impairs barrier function and depletes the tight junction protein constituents of intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Goshtasbi, Nisa; Yuan, Jun; Jellbauer, Stefan; Moradi, Hamid; Raffatellu, Manuela; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2013-01-01

    Back ground CKD causes intestinal barrier dysfunction which by allowing influx of endotoxin and other noxious products contributes to the CKD-associated systemic inflammation and uremic toxicity. We have recently shown that intestinal barrier dysfunction in CKD animals is due to degradation of trans-cellular [claudin-1 and occludin] and intra-cellular [ZO1] constituents of epithelial tight junction (TJ). This study determined whether CKD-associated disruption of TJ is mediated by retained uremic toxins/metabolites and if so whether they are removed by hemodialysis. Methods The TJ-forming human enterocytes (T84 cells) were seeded on the Transwell plates and utilized when trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TER) exceeded 1000 m?/cm2 to ensure full polarization and TJ formation. The cells were then incubated for 24 hr in media containing 10% pre- or post-hemodialysis plasma from ESRD patients or healthy individuals. TER was then measured and cells were processed for Western blot and immunohistological analyses. Results Compared with the control plasma, incubation in media containing pre-dialysis plasma from ESRD patients resulted in a marked drop in TER pointing to increased epithelial permeability. This was accompanied by significant reductions in cluadin-1 (85%), occludin (15%), and ZO1 (70%) abundance. The severity of TJ damage and dysfunction was significantly less in cells exposed to the post-dialysis than per-dialysis plasma. These findings point to the presence of as-yet unidentified product(s) in the uremic plasma capable of depleting epithelial TJ. Conclusions Exposure to uremic milieu damages the intestinal epithelial TJ and impairs its barrier function, events which are mediated by agents which are partially removed by hemodialysis. PMID:23128155

  4. VARIATION IN SURFACE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF COTTON FIBER AS A FUNCTION OF MATURITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MODERN COTTON YARN PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY HAS MADE IT IMPERATIVE THAT NEW PREDICTORS OF YARN SPINNING EFFICIENCY BE DETERMINED. SURFACE FRICTIONAL FORCES PLAY A LARGE ROLE IN SPINNING EFFICIENCY, YET LITTLE IS KNOWN ABOUT THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS COMPRISING THE COTTON FIBER SURFACE OR THEIR RESPEC...

  5. Present and future prospects of seaweeds in developing functional foods.

    PubMed

    Mendis, Eresha; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    There has been a combined effort among scientists to explore and utilize varying food sources to develop functional foods to cater the ever-increasing demand from the consumers, who seek health-promoting roles of dietary compounds. Considering the diversity of biochemicals in seaweeds that are capable of exerting bioactivities, a growing trend is developing across globe to employ seaweeds in functional food development. Proteins, peptides, amino acids, polysaccharides, phenolics, lipids, vitamins, and minerals in seaweeds and their functional properties provide insights into the success of potential functional food products that can be developed utilizing seaweeds. However, several factors need to be taken into consideration in designing seaweed-based functional foods to obtain the market success. This chapter elaborates on the prospects of seaweeds in developing seaweed-based functional food products. PMID:22054934

  6. Recent research and development of functional food in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Sun Hwang, Lucy

    2007-08-01

    As the living standard rises, people are more concerned with the health benefits of foods. Functional foods are, therefore, receiving increasing attention worldwide. The functional food market in Taiwan reached 1.78 billion US dollars in 2005. Only those which have been certified by the Department of Health can claim their health benefits. Until January 2007, only 88 functional foods have received the certificates. In addition to the product development in the food industry, research institutes and universities are also actively engaged in the technology development and basic research of functional foods. Many raw materials harvested in Taiwan, including edible plants, herbs, medicinal mushrooms, and sea foods, are investigated for their health benefits, bioactive components and suitable processing technologies. PMID:17878694

  7. Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 P...

  8. Characterization of nutraceuticals and functional foods by innovative HPLC methods.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Claudio; Galanti, Roberta; Nicoletti, Isabella

    2002-04-01

    In recent years there is a growing interest in food and food ingredient which may provide health benefits. Food as well as food ingredients containing health-preserving components, are not considered conventional food, but can be defined as functional food. To characterise such foods, as well as nutraceuticals specific, high sensitive and reproducible analytical methodologies are needed. In light of this importance we set out to develop innovative HPLC methods employing reversed phase narrow bore column and high-performance anion-exchange chromatographic methods coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD), which are specific for carbohydrate analysis. The developed methods were applied for the separation and quantification of citrus flavonoids and to characterize fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and fructans added to functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:12073884

  9. Utilization of functional food components from pulses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry beans, peas, and lentils (pulses) are a principle source of protein in many parts of the world and have long been known to be healthy foods. Their use in traditional ethnic foods is well established; however, unlike grains, meat, dairy products, and other vegetables, they are not universally pre...

  10. [Fiber, food intolerances, FODMAPs, gluten and functional gastrointestinal disorders--update 2014].

    PubMed

    Lei, O

    2014-11-01

    The controversial effects of dietary fiber on symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders are summarized. Studies concerning adverse reaction to foods are mentioned and the possible role of food allergy and food intolerances, especially pseudoallergic reactions to biogenes amines, in symptom provocation is discussed. The known effects of lactose deficiency and fructose malabsorption are reviewed. The FODMAP concept (fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols) is presented in more detail and recent studies on pathophysiological effects of FODMAP constituents and of therapeutic effects of a low FODMAP diet on symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome are discussed. Finally, studies on the new disorder non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) are summarized and the state of the discussion whether wheat intolerance is due to gluten or the grains is given. PMID:25390215

  11. Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent: a review.

    PubMed

    Das, Arpita; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2012-12-01

    Due to constant health awareness and readily available information on usefulness of different diet and their direct link with health, the demand of functional food is increasing day by day. The concept of functional foods includes foods or food ingredients that exert a beneficial effect on host health and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions. Increasing awareness of consumer health and interest in functional foods to achieve a healthy lifestyle has resulted in the need for food products with versatile health-benefiting properties. Cereal- and cereal component-based food products offer opportunities to include probiotics, prebiotics, and fibers in the human diet. Various growth studies using probiotic Lactic acid bacteria on cereal-based substrates and utilization of whole grain or components as high-fiber foods in developing novel food products lend support to the idea that cereal-based media may well be good probiotic carriers. It is essential that science and traditional knowledge should go together to find mutually beneficial results. In the Indian subcontinent, making use of fermented food and beverages using local food crops and other biological resources are very common. But the nature of the products and the base material vary from region to region. PMID:24293685

  12. Marine biotechnology advances towards applications in new functional foods.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Ana C; Rodrigues, Dina; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Gomes, Ana M P; Duarte, Armando C

    2012-01-01

    The marine ecosystem is still an untapped reservoir of biologically active compounds, which have considerable potential to supply food ingredients towards development of new functional foods. With the goal of increasing the availability and chemical diversity of functional marine ingredients, much research has been developed using biotechnological tools to discover and produce new compounds. This review summarizes the advances in biotechnological tools for production of functional ingredients, including enzymes, for the food industry. Tools involving biotechnological processes (bioreactors, fermentations, bioprocessing) and those involving genetic research designated as molecular biotechnology are discussed highlighting how they can be used in the controlled manipulation and utilization of marine organisms as sources of food ingredients, as well as discussing the most relevant shortcomings towards applications in new functional foods. PMID:22484300

  13. The Role of Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, and Food Supplements in Intestinal Health

    PubMed Central

    Cencic, Avrelija; Chingwaru, Walter

    2010-01-01

    New eating habits, actual trends in production and consumption have a health, environmental and social impact. The European Union is fighting diseases characteristic of a modern age, such as obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, allergies and dental problems. Developed countries are also faced with problems relating to aging populations, high energy foods, and unbalanced diets. The potential of nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements in mitigating health problems, especially in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is discussed. Certain members of gut microflora (e.g., probiotic/protective strains) play a role in the host health due to its involvement in nutritional, immunologic and physiological functions. The potential mechanisms by which nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements may alter a host’s health are also highlighted in this paper. The establishment of novel functional cell models of the GI and analytical tools that allow tests in controlled experiments are highly desired for gut research. PMID:22254045

  14. Functional group diversity increases with modularity in complex food webs.

    PubMed

    Montoya, D; Yallop, M L; Memmott, J

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity increases the ability of ecosystems to provide multiple functions. Most studies report a positive relationship between species richness and the number of ecosystem functions. However, it is not known whether the number of functional groups is related to the structure of the underlying species interaction network. Here we present food web data from 115 salt marsh islands and show that network structure is associated with the number of functional groups present. Functional group diversity is heterogeneously distributed across spatial scales, with some islands hosting more functional groups than others. Functional groups form modules within the community so that food webs with more modular architectures have more functional group diversity. Further, in communities with different interaction types, modularity can be seen as the multifunctional equivalent of trophic complementarity. Collectively, these findings reveal spatial heterogeneity in the number of functional groups that emerges from patterns in the structure of the food web. PMID:26059871

  15. Functional group diversity increases with modularity in complex food webs

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, D.; Yallop, M.L.; Memmott, J.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity increases the ability of ecosystems to provide multiple functions. Most studies report a positive relationship between species richness and the number of ecosystem functions. However, it is not known whether the number of functional groups is related to the structure of the underlying species interaction network. Here we present food web data from 115 salt marsh islands and show that network structure is associated with the number of functional groups present. Functional group diversity is heterogeneously distributed across spatial scales, with some islands hosting more functional groups than others. Functional groups form modules within the community so that food webs with more modular architectures have more functional group diversity. Further, in communities with different interaction types, modularity can be seen as the multifunctional equivalent of trophic complementarity. Collectively, these findings reveal spatial heterogeneity in the number of functional groups that emerges from patterns in the structure of the food web. PMID:26059871

  16. Strategies of Functional Foods Promote Sleep in Human Being

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yawen; Yang, Jiazhen; Du, Juan; Pu, Xiaoying; Yang, Xiaomen; Yang, Shuming; Yang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is a vital segment of life, however, the mechanisms of diet promoting sleep are unclear and are the focus of research. Insomnia is a general sleep disorder and functional foods are known to play a key role in the prevention of insomnia. A number of studies have demonstrated that major insomnia risk factors in human being are less functional foods in dietary. There are higher functional components in functional foods promoting sleep, including tryptophan, GABA, calcium, potassium, melatonin, pyridoxine, L-ornithine and hexadecanoic acid; but wake-promoting neurochemical factors include serotonin, noradrenalin, acetylcholine, histamine, orexin and so on. The factors promoting sleep in human being are the functional foods include barley grass powder, whole grains, maca, panax, Lingzhi, asparagus powder, lettuce, cherry, kiwifruits, walnut, schisandra wine, and milk; Barley grass powder with higher GABA and calcium, as well as potassium is the most ideal functional food promoting sleep, however, the sleep duration for modern humans is associated with food structure of ancient humans. In this review, we put forward possible mechanisms of functional components in foods promoting sleep. Although there is clear relevance between sleep and diet, their molecular mechanisms need to be studied further. PMID:26005400

  17. Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults123

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Falcon, Luis M; Wilde, Parke E; Tucker, Katherine L

    2009-01-01

    Background: Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 Puerto Ricans aged 4575 y living in Massachusetts in relation to cognitive function performances. Design: Food security was assessed with the US Household Food Security Scale. Cognitive function was measured to capture general cognition with a battery of 7 tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning (verbal memory), digit span (attention), clock drawing and figure copying (visual-spatial ability), and Stroop and verbal fluency tests (fluency executive functioning). Results: The overall prevalence of food insecurity during the past 12 mo was 12.1%; 6.1% of the subjects reported very low food security. Food insecurity was inversely associated with global cognitive performance, as assessed by the MMSE score. The adjusted difference in the MMSE score was ?0.90 (95% CI: ?1.6, ?0.19; P for trend = 0.003) for a comparison of participants with very low food security with those who were food secure, after adjustment for age, smoking, education, poverty status, income, acculturation, plasma homocysteine, alcohol, diabetes, and hypertension. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower scores for word-list learning, percentage retention, letter fluency, and digit span backward tests. Conclusions: Very low food security was prevalent among the study subjects and was associated with lower cognitive performance. Further studies, both observational and experimental, are warranted to clarify the direction of causality in this association. PMID:19225117

  18. Regulatory frameworks for functional foods and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Christine Lewis

    2004-02-01

    An understanding of the legal and regulatory requirements for foods, including dietary supplements and so-called functional foods, helps to focus attention on the special challenges that exist, which range from safety determinations to claim substantiation and consumer understanding. This article provides an overview of the Food and Drug Administration's regulatory framework for these products; it also highlights issues that are emerging and will require consideration and dialog. PMID:15080366

  19. Dietary fiber, low-molecular-weight food constituents and colo-rectal inflammation in animal models -- a review.

    PubMed

    Schrenk, Dieter

    2009-10-01

    This review provides an overview over studies in experimental animals aimed at elucidating the influence of dietary constituents on colo-rectal inflammation. Human studies as well as in vitro investigations will not be covered. In experimental animals, a variety of chemical treatments and genetic modifications, lead to various types of gut inflammation. In a number of these models, there is good evidence for an anti-inflammatory action of dietary tocopherols, certain polyphenols, and curcumin at relatively high oral doses. It has also been established, that oral application of fats and oils rich in n-3 PUFAs and/or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can attenuate certain types of colitis in experimental animal models. While the effect of dietary calcium on experimental colitis is less clear, there are hints indicating that certain high-fiber diets or diets rich in digestion-resistant carbohydrates ("fiber") can attenuate experimental colitis in animals, although contradictory results have been reported. In summary, the anti-inflammatory potency of dietary constituents on colon inflammation in experimental animals seems to be rather limited. The reasons for this lack of activity seem to be manifold including pharmacokinetic limitations and intestinal degradation of the compounds, in particular insufficient local, i. e., intra- or sub-mucosal levels of the effective compounds, and general limitations of animal models. PMID:19764068

  20. Functional foods: concepts and application to inulin and oligofructose.

    PubMed

    Roberfroid, Marcel B

    2002-05-01

    A food can be regarded as functional if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects, in a way which is relevant to either the state of well-being and health or the reduction of the risk of a disease. Health claims are expected to be authorized for functional foods based either on enhanced function (type A claim) or disease risk reduction (type B claim). Their development is a unique opportunity to contribute to the improvement of the quality of the food offered to consumer's choice for the benefit of his well-being and health. But only a rigorous scientific approach producing sound data will guarantee its success. The functional food components that are discussed in the proceedings of the 3rd ORAFTI Research Conference are the inulin-type fructans, natural food components found in miscellaneous edible plants. They are non-digestible oligosaccharides that are classified as dietary fiber. The targets for their functional effects are the colonic microflora that use them as selective 'fertilizers'; the gastrointestinal physiology; the immune functions; the bioavailability of minerals; and the metabolism of lipids. Potential health benefits may also concern reduction of the risk of some diseases like intestinal infections, constipation, non-insulin dependent diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis or colon cancer. The present proceedings review the scientific data available and, by reference to the concepts in functional food science, they assess the scientific evidence which will be used to substantiate health claims. PMID:12088510

  1. Health Risks and Adverse Reactions to Functional Foods.

    PubMed

    Ameratunga, Rohan; Crooks, Christine; Simmons, Greg; Woon, See-Tarn

    2016-01-25

    Functional foods have become increasingly popular with consumers anxious to mitigate the effects of an unhealthy lifestyle or aging. In spite of attractive health claims, these products do not have legal or regulatory status in most countries and are regulated through their health claims. Regulation of functional foods by health claims does not address health risks and adverse effects of these products. In this essay regulatory aspects of functional foods are reviewed along with adverse effects published in the peer-reviewed literature. We detail why the lack of an internationally accepted definition of functional foods places consumers at risk of adverse outcomes. Our review will assist regulatory agencies, manufacturers and consumer groups to assess the benefits and reduce the risks associated with these products. PMID:25163007

  2. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius): a food with multiple functions.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Paula, Hudsara Aparecida; Abranches, Monise Viana; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Clia Lcia

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods are the focus of many studies worldwide. This is justified by the effects they have on public health and thus interest in elucidation of the mechanisms involved in their actions. The present review aims to broaden the discussions of the functional properties attributed to yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), considered a food with multiple functions since it possesses bioactive compounds (antimicrobial, antioxidant, and probiotic substances) that exert beneficial effects on the body. Although some studies have already demonstrated several of these functions, clinical evidence is scarce, making it necessary that more studies are conducted in this area. Still, since the availability of this food in the market is relatively new, its popularity depends on publications aimed at consumer education and development of new products by the food industry. PMID:24915403

  3. Functional foods as potential therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brown, L; Poudyal, H; Panchal, S K

    2015-11-01

    Obesity as part of metabolic syndrome is a major lifestyle disorder throughout the world. Current drug treatments for obesity produce small and usually unsustainable decreases in body weight with the risk of major adverse effects. Surgery has been the only treatment producing successful long-term weight loss. As a different but complementary approach, lifestyle modification including the use of functional foods could produce a reliable decrease in obesity with decreased comorbidities. Functional foods may include fruits such as berries, vegetables, fibre-enriched grains and beverages such as tea and coffee. Although health improvements continue to be reported for these functional foods in rodent studies, further evidence showing the translation of these results into humans is required. Thus, the concept that these fruits and vegetables will act as functional foods in humans to reduce obesity and thereby improve health remains intuitive and possible rather than proven. PMID:26345360

  4. Food safety and functional foods in the European Union: obesity as a paradigmatic example for novel food development.

    PubMed

    Palou, Andreu; Pic, Catalina; Bonet, M Luisa

    2004-07-01

    Since 1997, the European Union has undergone deep changes in the scientific assessment of food-related problems. Among the immediate challenges in the near future are the scientific and technological developments and regulatory measures for the so-called "functional foods," which can positively affect the health and well- being of consumers. Obesity, whose genetic and molecular basis are increasingly understood, is now foreseen as one of the key targets for novel functional foods developments, and offers a paradigmatic example of the complexity of a biological system as a target to be controlled. PMID:15387485

  5. Functional foods with digestion-enhancing properties.

    PubMed

    Valussi, Marco

    2012-03-01

    On analyzing the traditional societies' plant lore by treatment and plant categories, one cannot but notice the greater weight given to treatment of digestive disturbances and ailments compared to modern Western pharmacopoeias, and the blurred boundaries between medicines and foods, in contrast to the clear-cut distinction made in contemporary industrialized societies. Hence, there is an interest in exploring the issue of multifunctional food and traditional ingredients with digestive properties. In this paper, I examine the coevolutionary foundations for digestive activities, the problems and ambiguities that emerge in the analysis of traditional data, and the possible biological mechanisms underlying the actions of bitter, aromatic and pungent compounds. After these premises, this paper presents a short review of those plants with a significant body of research supporting the claims that they have a digestive action, with particular emphasis on clinical data. The plants that have a substantial body of data in support of their digestion-enhancing activities mainly belong to one of three groups: bitter, aromatic and pungent plants. Amongst the most important we can find ginger, peppermint, aniseed and fennel, citrus fruits, dandelion and artichoke, melissa and chamomile, but many more have a significant body of experimental data available. PMID:22010973

  6. Hydrogels from biopolymer hybrid for biomedical, food, and functional food applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid hydrogels from biopolymers have been applied for various indications across a wide range of biomedical, pharmaceutical, and functional food industries. In particular, hybrid hydrogels synthesized from two biopolymers have attracted increasing attention. The inclusion of a second biopolymer st...

  7. Applications and functions of food-grade phosphates.

    PubMed

    Lampila, Lucina E

    2013-10-01

    Food-grade phosphates are used in the production of foods to function as buffers, sequestrants, acidulants, bases, flavors, cryoprotectants, gel accelerants, dispersants, nutrients, precipitants, and as free-flow (anticaking) or ion-exchange agents. The actions of phosphates affect the chemical leavening of cakes, cookies, pancakes, muffins, and doughnuts; the even melt of processed cheese; the structure of a frankfurter; the bind and hydration of delicatessen meats; the fluidity of evaporated milk; the distinctive flavor of cola beverages; the free flow of spice blends; the mineral content of isotonic beverages; and the light color of par-fried potato strips. In the United States, food-grade phosphates are generally recognized as safe, but use levels have been defined for some foods by the Code of Federal Regulations, specifically Titles 9 and 21 for foods regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), respectively. Standards for food purity are defined nationally and internationally in sources such as the Food Chemicals Codex and the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives. PMID:24033359

  8. Food labels as boundary objects: how consumers make sense of organic and functional foods.

    PubMed

    Eden, Sally

    2011-03-01

    This paper considers how consumers make sense of food labeling, drawing on a qualitative, empirical study in England. I look in detail at two examples of labeling: 1) food certified as produced by organic methods and 2) functional food claimed to be beneficial for human health, especially probiotic and cholesterol-lowering products. I use the concept of "boundary objects" to demonstrate how such labels are intended to work between the worlds of food producers and food consumers and to show how information is not merely transferred as a "knowledge fix" to consumer ignorance. Rather, consumers drew on a binary of "raw" and "processed" food and familiarity with marketing in today's consumer culture to make sense of such labeling. PMID:21657133

  9. Functional components and medicinal properties of food: a review.

    PubMed

    Abuajah, Christian Izuchukwu; Ogbonna, Augustine Chima; Osuji, Chijioke Maduka

    2015-05-01

    Research has proved a relationship between functional components of food, health and well-being. Thus, functional components of food can be effectively applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. They act simultaneously at different or identical target sites with the potential to impart physiological benefits and promotion of wellbeing including reducing the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, inflammation, type II diabetes, and other chronic degenerative diseases, lowering of blood cholesterol, neutralization of reactive oxygen species and charged radicals, anticarcinogenic effect, low-glycaemic response, etc. Previously, it was thought that functional ingredients such as non-starchy carbohydrates including soluble and insoluble dietary fibres, fucoidan; antioxidants including polyphenols, carotenoids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols, isoflavones, organosulphur compounds; plant sterols and soy phytoestrogens occur only in plant foods (whole grains, fruits, and vegetables) as phytochemicals. However, probiotics, prebiotics, conjugated linolenic acid, long-chain omega-3, -6 and -9-polyunsaturated fatty acids, and bioactive peptides have proved that functional components are equally available in animal products such as milk, fermented milk products and cold-water fish. The way a food is processed affects its functional components. Many processing techniques have been found to lower the concentration of functional components in food. Conversely, other techniques were found to increase them. Hence, in a time when the role of a healthy diet in preventing non-communicable diseases is well accepted, the borderline between food and medicine is becoming very thin. PMID:25892752

  10. Mechanisms of Probiosis and Prebiosis: Considerations for Enhanced Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Saulnier, Delphine M. A.; Spinler, Jennifer K.; Gibson, Glenn R.; Versalovic, James

    2009-01-01

    The technologies of metagenomics and metabolomics are broadening our knowledge of the roles the human gut microbiota play in health and disease. For many years now, probiotics and prebiotics have been included in foods for their health benefits, however we have only recently begun to understand their modes of action. This review highlights recent advances in deciphering the mechanisms of probiosis and prebiosis, and describes how this knowledge could be transferred to select for enhancing functional foods targeting different populations. A special focus will be given to the addition of prebiotics and probiotics in functional foods for infants and seniors. PMID:19243931

  11. Newer Approaches to Identify Potential Untoward Effects in Functional Foods.

    PubMed

    Marone, Palma Ann; Birkenbach, Victoria L; Hayes, A Wallace

    2016-03-01

    Globalization has greatly accelerated the numbers and variety of food and beverage products available worldwide. The exchange among greater numbers of countries, manufacturers, and products in the United States and worldwide has necessitated enhanced quality measures for nutritional products for larger populations increasingly reliant on functionality. These functional foods, those that provide benefit beyond basic nutrition, are increasingly being used for their potential to alleviate food insufficiency while enhancing quality and longevity of life. In the United States alone, a steady import increase of greater than 15% per year or 24 million shipments, over 70% products of which are food related, is regulated under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This unparalleled growth has resulted in the need for faster, cheaper, and better safety and efficacy screening methods in the form of harmonized guidelines and recommendations for product standardization. In an effort to meet this need, the in vitro toxicology testing market has similarly grown with an anticipatory 15% increase between 2010 and 2015 of US$1.3 to US$2.7 billion. Although traditionally occupying a small fraction of the market behind pharmaceuticals and cosmetic/household products, the scope of functional food testing, including additives/supplements, ingredients, residues, contact/processing, and contaminants, is potentially expansive. Similarly, as functional food testing has progressed, so has the need to identify potential adverse factors that threaten the safety and quality of these products. PMID:26657815

  12. Consumer issues and expectations for functional foods.

    PubMed

    Wrick, K L

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary consumer data have indicated that about 50% of American adults, especially in the older age groups, not only have read or heard about natural substances in foods that may help prevent chronic diseases, but they also believe that these substances really do work. The readiness of the marketplace for disease-preventing products, such as those that could deliver enhanced levels of antioxidants, raises many marketing and regulatory issues, but also some consumer issues as well. The following discussion frames the consumer issues that are important for the scientific, regulatory, and business community to understand and address so that substances with disease-preventing capabilities reach those who will truly benefit the most. PMID:7748476

  13. Application of cereals and cereal components in functional foods: a review.

    PubMed

    Charalampopoulos, D; Wang, R; Pandiella, S S; Webb, C

    2002-11-15

    The food industry is directing new product development towards the area of functional foods and functional food ingredients due to consumers' demand for healthier foods. In this respect, probiotic dairy foods containing human-derived Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species and prebiotic food formulations containing ingredients that cannot be digested by the human host in the upper gastrointestinal tract and can selectively stimulate the growth of one or a limited number of colonic bacteria have been recently introduced into the market. The aim of these products is to affect beneficially the gut microbial composition and activities. Cereals offer another alternative for the production of functional foods. The multiple beneficial effects of cereals can be exploited in different ways leading to the design of novel cereal foods or cereal ingredients that can target specific populations. Cereals can be used as fermentable substrates for the growth of probiotic microorganisms. The main parameters that have to be considered are the composition and processing of the cereal grains, the substrate formulation, the growth capability and productivity of the starter culture, the stability of the probiotic strain during storage, the organoleptic properties and the nutritional value of the final product. Additionally, cereals can be used as sources of nondigestible carbohydrates that besides promoting several beneficial physiological effects can also selectively stimulate the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria present in the colon and act as prebiotics. Cereals contain water-soluble fibre, such as beta-glucan and arabinoxylan, oilgosaccharides, such as galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides and resistant starch, which have been suggested to fulfil the prebiotic concept. Separation of specific fractions of fibre from different cereal varieties or cereal by-products, according to the knowledge of fibre distribution in cereal grains, could be achieved through processing technologies, such as milling, sieving, and debranning or pearling. Finally, cereal constituents, such as starch, can be used as encapsulation materials for probiotics in order to improve their stability during storage and enhance their viability during their passage through the adverse conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. It could be concluded that functional foods based on cereals is a challenging perspective, however, the development of new technologies of cereal processing that enhance their health potential and the acceptability of the food product are of primary importance. PMID:12382693

  14. Functional herbal food ingredients used in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Li, Yunman

    2012-01-01

    From many reports it is clear that diabetes will be one of the major diseases in the coming years. As a result there is a rapidly increasing interest in searching new medicines, or even better searching prophylactic methods. Based on a large number of chemical and pharmacological research work, numerous bioactive compounds have been found in functional herbal food ingredients for diabetes. The present paper reviews functional herbal food ingredients with regards to their anti-diabetic active principles and pharmacological test results, which are commonly used in Asian culinary system and medical system and have demonstrated clinical or/and experimental anti-diabetic effectiveness. Our idea of reviewing this article is to give more attention to these functional food ingredients as targets medicinal foods in order to prevent or slow down the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22654403

  15. Preference for internucleotide linkages as a function of the number of constituents in a mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.

    1998-01-01

    Phosphoimidazolide-activated ribomononucleotides (*pN; see Scheme I) are useful substrates for the nonenzymatic synthesis of oligonucleotides. In the presence of metal ions dilute neutral aqueous solutions of *pN (0.01 M) typically yield only small amounts of dimers and traces of oligomers; most of *pN hydrolyzes to yield nucleoside 5'-monophosphate (5'NMP). An earlier investigation of *pN reactions in highly concentrated aqueous solutions (up to 1.4 M) showed, as expected, that the percentage yield of the condensation products increases and the yield of the hydrolysis product correspondingly decreases with *pN concentration (Kanavarioti 1997). Here we report product distributions in reactions with one, two, or three reactive components at the same total nucleotide concentration. *pN used as substrates were the nucleoside 5'-phosphate 2-methylimidazolides, 2-MeImpN, with N = cytidine (C), uridine (U), or guanosine (G). Reactions were conducted as self-condensations, i. e., one nucleotide only, with two components in the three binary U,C, U,G, and C,G mixtures, and with three components in the ternary U,C, G mixture. The products are 5'NMP, 5',5'-pyrophosphate-, 2',5'-, 3', 5'-linked dimers, cyclic dimers, and a small percentage of longer oligomers. The surprising finding was that, under identical conditions, including the same total monomer concentration, the product distribution differs substantially from one reaction to another, most likely due to changing intermolecular interactions depending on the constituents. Even more unexpected was the observed trend according to which reactions of the U,C,G mixture produce the highest yield of internucleotide-linked dimers, whereas the self-condensations produce the least and the reactions with the binary mixtures produce yields that fall in between. What is remarkable is that the approximately two-fold increase in the percentage yield of internucleotide-linked dimers is not due to a concentration effect or a catalyst, but to the increased complexity of the system from a single to two and three components. These observations, perhaps, provide an example of how increased complexity in relatively simple chemical systems leads to organization of the material and consequently to chemical evolution. A possible link between prebiotic chemistry and the postulated RNA world is discussed.

  16. Functional foods as carriers for SYNBIO, a probiotic bacteria combination.

    PubMed

    Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cecchini, Cinzia; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2012-07-16

    The popularity of functional foods continues to increase as consumers desire flavorful foods that will fulfil their health needs. Among these foods, probiotics may exert positive effects on the composition of gut microbiota and overall health. However, in order to be beneficial, the bacterial cultures have to remain live and active at the time of consumption. The aim of this study was to develop new probiotic food products, such as seasoned cheeses, salami, chocolate and ice-cream with a final probiotic concentration of approximately 10?CFU/daily dose of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501 and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502 mixed 1:1 (SYNBIO). The survival and viability of probiotics were determined during the foods shelf-life. The values of viable probiotic bacteria of all dairy and non-dairy foods were between 10? and 10?CFU/g of food at the end of the shelf-life and for some of them the values were maintained even after the expiry date. Based on the results of the current study, all the dairy ("Caciotta" cheese, "Pecorino" cheese, "Bscion" Swiss cheese and "Fiordilatte" ice-cream) and non-dairy ("Ciauscolo" salami, Larded salami, Swiss small salami, milk chocolate, dark chocolate, organic jam and chocolate mousse) food products studied would be excellent vehicles to deliver the probiotic health effects because of the high viability of probiotics during the shelf-life of foods and in some cases even after their expiry date. PMID:22727086

  17. Exposure to Anacardiaceae volatile oils and their constituents induces lipid peroxidation within food-borne bacteria cells.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Ricardo M; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Demuner, Antonio J; Silva, Cleber J; Andrade, Nelio J; Ismail, Fyaz M D; Barbosa, Maria C A

    2012-01-01

    The chemical composition of the volatile oils from five Anacardiaceae species and their activities against Gram positive and negative bacteria were assessed. The peroxidative damage within bacterial cell membranes was determined through the breakdown product malondialdehyde (MDA). The major constituents in Anacardium humile leaves oil were (E)-caryophyllene (31.0%) and ?-pinene (22.0%), and in Anacardium occidentale oil they were (E)-caryophyllene (15.4%) and germacrene-D (11.5%). Volatile oil from Astronium fraxinifolium leaves were dominated by (E)-?-ocimene (44.1%) and ?-terpinolene (15.2%), whilst the oil from Myracrodruon urundeuva contained an abundance of ?-3-carene (78.8%). However, Schinus terebinthifolius leaves oil collected in March and July presented different chemical compositions. The oils from all species, except the one from A. occidentale, exhibited varying levels of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Oil extracted in July from S. terebinthifolius was more active against all bacterial strains than the corresponding oil extracted in March. The high antibacterial activity of the M. urundeuva oil could be ascribed to its high ?-3-carene content. The amounts of MDA generated within bacterial cells indicate that the volatile oils induce lipid peroxidation. The results suggest that one putative mechanism of antibacterial action of these volatile oils is pro-oxidant damage within bacterial cell membrane explaining in part their preservative properties. PMID:22893019

  18. Functional foods and strategies contrasting bacterial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Signoretto, Caterina; Canepari, Pietro; Stauder, Monica; Vezzulli, Luigi; Pruzzo, Carla

    2012-04-01

    Antibacterial strategies targeting bacterial adhesion to substrates are considered a valuable alternative to traditional antibiotic therapy, in view of the great advantage they bring in combating the infectious process at the very early stage without selecting for drug resistant cells. Amongst bioactive compounds with activity against bacterial adhesion, several are found in natural food and beverages, such as cranberry, tea, coffee, wine and milk. For the analysis of their anti-infective potential, successful experimental models can be conducted using different substrates from the oral cavity. Studies conducted so far in this field allowed the discovery of a variety of anti-adhesive fractions and compounds proven to be effective against bacterial traits involved in the development of oral pathologies such as caries and gingivitis/periodontitis. Discovering new anti-adhesive compounds from natural products, unravelling and testing their prophylactic and therapeutic values, and improving their use in the general population are promising new frontiers in the global fight against human infectious diseases. PMID:21906930

  19. Allanblackia Oil: Phytochemistry and Use as a Functional Food.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Sara L

    2015-01-01

    The consumption and commercial exploitation of Allanblackia (Clusiaceae) seed oils is of current interest. The favorable physicochemical characteristics of Allanblackia oil (solid at room temperature; high stearic acid content) lend food products that contain it (i.e., vegetable-based dairy products, ice cream, spreads) health advantages over others that contain higher levels of lauric, myristic, and/or palmitic acids, which can increase blood cholesterol levels. Such considerations are important for individuals prone to cardiovascular disease or with hypercholesterolemia. Domestication projects of several Allanblackia species in tropical Africa are underway, but wildcrafting of fruits to meet the seed demand still occurs. Proper species authentication is important, since only authenticated oil can be deemed safe for human consumption. The chemical constituency of Allanblackia seed oils, and potential roles of these phytochemicals in preventive strategies (e.g., as part of a healthy diet) and as pharmacological agents used to treat chronic disease were examined in this review. The primary and secondary metabolite constituency of the seed oils of nearly all Allanblackia species is still poorly known. The presence, identity, and quantity of potentially bioactive secondary metabolites in the seed oils, and pharmacological testing of isolated compounds were identified as important directions for future research. PMID:26389891

  20. Allanblackia Oil: Phytochemistry and Use as a Functional Food

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Sara L.

    2015-01-01

    The consumption and commercial exploitation of Allanblackia (Clusiaceae) seed oils is of current interest. The favorable physicochemical characteristics of Allanblackia oil (solid at room temperature; high stearic acid content) lend food products that contain it (i.e., vegetable-based dairy products, ice cream, spreads) health advantages over others that contain higher levels of lauric, myristic, and/or palmitic acids, which can increase blood cholesterol levels. Such considerations are important for individuals prone to cardiovascular disease or with hypercholesterolemia. Domestication projects of several Allanblackia species in tropical Africa are underway, but wildcrafting of fruits to meet the seed demand still occurs. Proper species authentication is important, since only authenticated oil can be deemed safe for human consumption. The chemical constituency of Allanblackia seed oils, and potential roles of these phytochemicals in preventive strategies (e.g., as part of a healthy diet) and as pharmacological agents used to treat chronic disease were examined in this review. The primary and secondary metabolite constituency of the seed oils of nearly all Allanblackia species is still poorly known. The presence, identity, and quantity of potentially bioactive secondary metabolites in the seed oils, and pharmacological testing of isolated compounds were identified as important directions for future research. PMID:26389891

  1. Functional food concept and its application to prebiotics.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Roberfroid M

    2002-09-01

    A food can be regarded as functional if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects, in a way which is relevant to either the state of wellbeing and health or the reduction of the risk of a disease. A food can be made functional by increasing the concentration, adding or improving the bioavailability of a particular component. Functional food science will serve to establish claims based either on enhanced function or disease risk reduction. Inulin and oligofructose are functional food ingredients present in miscellaneous edible plants. They are non-digestible oligosaccharides classified as dietary fibres. The target for their functional effects is the colonic microflora that ferment them and for which they serve as selective "fertilizers"; the gastrointestinal physiology; the immune functions; the bioavailability of minerals; the metabolism of lipids; and colonic carcinogenesis. The scientific data available on the nutritional effects of inulin and oligofructose provide strong evidence for a prebiotic effect (i.e., selective stimulation of growth of bifidobacteria in colonic microbiota), improvement of bowel habit (both stool frequency and stool weight) and improved calcium bioavailability.

  2. Functional food concept and its application to prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Roberfroid, M

    2002-09-01

    A food can be regarded as functional if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects, in a way which is relevant to either the state of wellbeing and health or the reduction of the risk of a disease. A food can be made functional by increasing the concentration, adding or improving the bioavailability of a particular component. Functional food science will serve to establish claims based either on enhanced function or disease risk reduction. Inulin and oligofructose are functional food ingredients present in miscellaneous edible plants. They are non-digestible oligosaccharides classified as dietary fibres. The target for their functional effects is the colonic microflora that ferment them and for which they serve as selective "fertilizers"; the gastrointestinal physiology; the immune functions; the bioavailability of minerals; the metabolism of lipids; and colonic carcinogenesis. The scientific data available on the nutritional effects of inulin and oligofructose provide strong evidence for a prebiotic effect (i.e., selective stimulation of growth of bifidobacteria in colonic microbiota), improvement of bowel habit (both stool frequency and stool weight) and improved calcium bioavailability. PMID:12408452

  3. Flax and flaxseed oil: an ancient medicine & modern functional food.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankit; Sharma, Vivek; Upadhyay, Neelam; Gill, Sandeep; Sihag, Manvesh

    2014-09-01

    Flaxseed is emerging as an important functional food ingredient because of its rich contents of ?-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3 fatty acid), lignans, and fiber. Flaxseed oil, fibers and flax lignans have potential health benefits such as in reduction of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, autoimmune and neurological disorders. Flax protein helps in the prevention and treatment of heart disease and in supporting the immune system. As a functional food ingredient, flax or flaxseed oil has been incorporated into baked foods, juices, milk and dairy products, muffins, dry pasta products, macaroni and meat products. The present review focuses on the evidences of the potential health benefits of flaxseed through human and animals' recent studies and commercial use in various food products. PMID:25190822

  4. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-07-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative. PMID:26151025

  5. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative. PMID:26151025

  6. Family Functioning as a Constituent Aspect of a Child's Chronic Illness.

    PubMed

    Cipolletta, Sabrina; Marchesin, Valentina; Benini, Franca

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how family functioning may contribute to trace a child's illness trajectory. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 33 parents of children in care at a hospice in northern Italy. We also examined the medical records of the children, and interviewed the physician who cared for them. Data analysis was based on the grounded theory approach. Different illness progressions corresponded to the different ways with which families experienced the illness: possibility, focus on illness, denial, and anger. Clinical interventions should involve the whole family and take into account their role in the construction of illness trajectories. PMID:25682020

  7. The Role of Functional Foods in Cutaneous Anti-aging

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Soyun

    2014-01-01

    Oral supplementation of micronutrients, or functional foods, to prevent aging has gained much attention and popularity as society ages and becomes more affluent, and as science reveals the pathological mechanisms of aging. Aging of the skin combines biologic aging and extrinsic aging caused predominantly by sunlight and other environmental toxins. Anti-aging functional foods exert their influence mostly through their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, thereby abrogating collagen degradation and/or increasing procollagen synthesis. Clinical evidence supporting a role in preventing cutaneous aging is available for oral supplements such as carotenoids, polyphenols, chlorophyll, aloe vera, vitamins C and E, red ginseng, squalene, and omega-3 fatty acids. Collagen peptides and proteoglycans are claimed to provide building blocks of the dermal matrix. This review summarizes the current study findings of these functional foods. PMID:26064850

  8. The Role of Functional Foods in Cutaneous Anti-aging.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soyun

    2014-03-01

    Oral supplementation of micronutrients, or functional foods, to prevent aging has gained much attention and popularity as society ages and becomes more affluent, and as science reveals the pathological mechanisms of aging. Aging of the skin combines biologic aging and extrinsic aging caused predominantly by sunlight and other environmental toxins. Anti-aging functional foods exert their influence mostly through their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, thereby abrogating collagen degradation and/or increasing procollagen synthesis. Clinical evidence supporting a role in preventing cutaneous aging is available for oral supplements such as carotenoids, polyphenols, chlorophyll, aloe vera, vitamins C and E, red ginseng, squalene, and omega-3 fatty acids. Collagen peptides and proteoglycans are claimed to provide building blocks of the dermal matrix. This review summarizes the current study findings of these functional foods. PMID:26064850

  9. 75 FR 33814 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee:...

  10. 75 FR 22147 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee:...

  11. Bacterial spoilers of food: behavior, fitness and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Remenant, Benot; Jaffrs, Emmanuel; Dousset, Xavier; Pilet, Marie-France; Zagorec, Monique

    2015-02-01

    Most food products are highly perishable as they constitute a rich nutrient source for microbial development. Among the microorganisms contaminating food, some present metabolic activities leading to spoilage. In addition to hygienic rules to reduce contamination, various treatments are applied during production and storage to avoid the growth of unwanted microbes. The nature and appearance of spoilage therefore depend on the physiological state of spoilers and on their ability to resist the processing/storage conditions and flourish on the food matrix. Spoilage also relies on the interactions between the microorganisms composing the ecosystems encountered in food. The recent rapid increase in publicly available bacterial genome sequences, as well as the access to high-throughput methods, should lead to a better understanding of spoiler behavior and to the possibility of decreasing food spoilage. This review lists the main bacterial species identified as food spoilers, their ability to develop during storage and/or processing, and the functions potentially involved in spoilage. We have also compiled an inventory of the available genome sequences of species encompassing spoilage strains. Combining in silico analysis of genome sequences with experimental data is proposed in order to understand and thus control the bacterial spoilage of food better. PMID:25481061

  12. Materiality matters: Blurred boundaries and the domestication of functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Kate; Will, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Previous scholarship on novel foods, including functional foods, has suggested that they are difficult to categorise for both regulators and users. It is argued that they blur the boundary between ‘food' and ‘drug' and that uncertainties about the products create ‘experimental' or ‘restless' approaches to consumption. We investigate these uncertainties drawing on data about the use of functional foods containing phytosterols, which are licensed for sale in the EU for people wishing to reduce their cholesterol. We start from an interest in the products as material objects and their incorporation into everyday practices. We consider the scripts encoded in the physical form of the products through their regulation, production and packaging and find that these scripts shape but do not determine their use. The domestication of phytosterols involves bundling the products together with other objects (pills, supplements, foodstuffs). Considering their incorporation into different systems of objects offers new understandings of the products as foods or drugs. In their accounts of their practices, consumers appear to be relatively untroubled by uncertainties about the character of the products. We conclude that attending to materials and practices offers a productive way to open up and interrogate the idea of categorical uncertainties surrounding new food products. PMID:26157471

  13. Metabolically active functional food ingredients for weight control.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, E M R; Mela, D J

    2006-02-01

    The scale of the obesity epidemic creates a pressing consumer need as well as an enormous business opportunity for successful development and marketing of food products with added benefits for weight control. A number of proposed functional food ingredients have been shown to act post-absorptively to influence substrate utilization or thermogenesis. Characteristics and supporting data on conjugated linoleic acid, diglycerides, medium-chain triglycerides, green tea, ephedrine, caffeine, capsaicin and calcium, are reviewed here, giving examples of how these could act to alter energy expenditure or appetite control. Consideration is also given to other factors, in addition to efficacy, which must be satisfied to get such ingredients into foods. We conclude that, for each of the safe, putatively metabolically active agents, there remain gaps in clinical evidence or knowledge of mechanisms, which need to be addressed in order to specify the dietary conditions and food product compositions where these ingredients could be of most benefit for weight control. PMID:16436103

  14. Nutraceuticals and functional foods in the management of hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gu; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2014-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Hypolipidemic nutraceuticals and functional foods help improve serum lipid profiles as reducing total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, while elevating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The effectiveness of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, phytosterols, dietary fiber, and tea catechin in management of hyperlipidemia has been clearly demonstrated in epidemiological and interventional trials. Studies on mechanism reveal that they act as inhibitor or activator of critical enzyme, agonist or inhibitor of transcription factor, competitor of transporter, and sequestrant of bile acid to modulate lipid homeostasis. Hypolipidemic effects are also claimed in dietary proteins, many polyphenols, other phytochemicals, raw extract, or even whole food. This review attempts to give an overview of lipid homeostasis and summarize recent findings of hypolipidemic nutraceuticals and functional foods according to their active ingredients, focusing on the efficacy and underlying mechanisms. PMID:24499150

  15. Preface: Biocatalysis and Biotechnology for Functional Foods and Industrial Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth review of biocatalysis and biotechnology with emphasis on functional foods and industrial products. Biocatalysis and biotechnology defined in this book include enzyme catalysis, biotransformation, bioconversi...

  16. Research at the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dr. Peggy Tomasula is Research Leader of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ARS, USDA, Wyndmoor, PA, a group that includes 11 Research Scientists, 4 of whom are Lead Scientists (LS), 13 support scientists, and 3 Retired Collaborators. The mission of the DFFRU is to solve critical ...

  17. Dairy and functional foods research in the Agricultural Research Service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit is the only group in the Agricultural Research Service that is dedicated to solving critical problems in milk utilization and fruit and vegetable byproducts from specialty crops. The many areas of investigation include development of specialty cheese, c...

  18. Making claims: functional foods for managing appetite and weight.

    PubMed

    Blundell, John

    2010-01-01

    Functional food products promote claims such as 'freedom from hunger' and 'feel fuller for longer'. A legislative framework has been established by the European Food Safety Authority to evaluate the validity of such claims: a claim must be substantiated by scientific evidence and should be clearly understood by consumers. Since consumed foods influence appetite by means of a system of physiological satiety signals, functional foods could in principle act by increasing the potency and/or duration of these signals. Importantly, what constitutes a useful action: a reduction in hunger, an increase in fullness, a change in food intake at a meal, an adjustment in daily energy balance or a reduction in body weight? Any claim should not go beyond the scientific evidence of an effect, and methods exist to scientifically evaluate claims. The wording of a claim is, therefore, critical. The difference between a proof of concept and a guarantee of success is an important point that needs to be conveyed to the consumer. PMID:20010971

  19. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry.

    PubMed

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application. PMID:26761849

  20. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry

    PubMed Central

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application. PMID:26761849

  1. Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    It has long been suspected that the relative abundance of specific nutrients can affect cognitive processes and emotions. Newly described influences of dietary factors on neuronal function and synaptic plasticity have revealed some of the vital mechanisms that are responsible for the action of diet on brain health and mental function. Several gut hormones that can enter the brain, or that are produced in the brain itself, influence cognitive ability. In addition, well-established regulators of synaptic plasticity, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, can function as metabolic modulators, responding to peripheral signals such as food intake. Understanding the molecular basis of the effects of food on cognition will help us to determine how best to manipulate diet in order to increase the resistance of neurons to insults and promote mental fitness. PMID:18568016

  2. Food reward functions as affected by obesity and bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shin, AC; Berthoud, H-R

    2012-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) remains to be the most effective long-term treatment for obesity and its associated comorbidities, but the specific mechanisms involved remain elusive. Because RYGB patients appear to no longer be preoccupied with thoughts about food and are satisfied with much smaller meals and calorically dilute foods, brain reward mechanisms could be involved. Just as obesity can produce maladaptive alterations in reward functions, reversal of obesity by RYGB could normalize these changes or even further reset the food reward system through changes in gut hormone secretion, aversive conditioning and/or secondary effects of weight loss. Future studies with longitudinal assessments of reward behaviors and their underlying neural circuits before and after surgery will be necessary to uncover the specific mechanisms involved. Such new insights could be the base for future `knifeless' pharmacological and behavioral approaches to obesity. PMID:21912387

  3. EFFECT OF OIL COMBUSTION PARTICLE BIOAVAILABLE CONSTITUENTS ON EX VIVO VASCULAR FUNCTION OF AORTAS RECOVERED FROM NORMAL AND TYPE 2 DIABETIC RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of Oil Combustion Particle Bioavailable Constituents on Ex Vivo Vascular Function of Aortae Recovered from Healthy and Early Type 2 Diabetic Rats
    KL Dreher1, SE Kelly2, SD Proctor2, and JC Russell2. 1National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, US EPA, RTP, NC;...

  4. Phytoestrogens as bioactive ingredients in functional foods: Canadian regulatory update.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nora

    2006-01-01

    Some food products naturally contain phytoestrogens, but there are few in Western diets that are significant sources. The foods that are the most significant sources are soy beans, containing isoflavones, and flaxseed, which contains lignans. These foods have, however, until recently been relatively little used in Canada and the United States in the human diet. While the Japanese diet contains from 20 to 80 mg of isoflavones per day, Canadian and U.S. diets tend to be below 1 mg/day in the absence of soy protein. The number of foods sold in the West that have ingredients derived from soybeans has been increasing. Many of these have soybean oil, soy protein, or other ingredients serving functional roles in the food. However, with increasing interest among consumers in dietary choices that help to improve health and reduce risk of disease, products in which soy is featured are quite readily available, and it is common, at least in Canada, to find bread and other bakery products with flaxseed added. Soy foods sales in the United States increased at a 15% compounded annually growth rate between 1992 and 2003, with a major increase occurring between 2000 and 2001 (1). Growth rates are reported to have declined somewhat in 2004 (2). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of a health claim associating soy protein intake with reduced risk of heart disease in 1999 is attributed with fueling the very sizable growth since 2000. The claim identifies 25 g/day as the amount needed to derive the claimed health benefit. Because the isoflavone content of soy products is highly variable, depending on the method of processing (3), it is difficult to estimate quantitatively the impact of the increased rate of soy product consumption on soy isoflavone intake, although an overall increase can be expected. In contrast, PMID:16915856

  5. Public participation: democratic ideal or pragmatic tool? The cases of GM foods and functional foods.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annika Porsborg; Lassen, Jesper; Sande, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Over recent decades, public participation initiatives have been employed across Europe often with a focus on science and technology issues. In the area of new food technologies most participation initiatives have centered on genetically modified foods. By contrast, in the area of functional foods--where significant EU legislation was recently passed--we have seen no initiatives towards public inclusion. This applies also for Denmark, the country which is the focus of this article. Based on an interview study with members of the Danish parliament the article examines why such considerable differences exist between initiatives to involve the public, and it challenges the role that public participation plays in Danish politics. The main claim made in the article is that although politicians argue for the value and relevance of public participation their willingness to initiate participatory processes is overruled by their concern with playing by the rules of the political game. PMID:21657132

  6. Functional foods for dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular risk prevention.

    PubMed

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Galli, Claudio; Anderson, James W; Sirtori, Elena; Arnoldi, Anna

    2009-12-01

    A food can be regarded as 'functional' if it can demonstrate a beneficial efficacy on one or more target functions in the body in a convincing way. Beyond adequate nutritional qualities, functional foods should either improve the state of health and wellbeing and/or reduce the risk of disease. Functional foods that are marketed with claims of heart disease reduction focus primarily on the major risk factors, i.e. cholesterol, diabetes and hypertension. Some of the most innovative products are designed to be enriched with 'protective' ingredients, believed to reduce risk. They may contain, for example, soluble fibre (from oat and psyllium), useful both for lowering cholesterol and blood pressure, or fructans, effective in diabetes. Phytosterols and stanols lower LDL-cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. Soya protein is more hypocholesterolaemic in subjects with very high initial cholesterol and recent data indicate also favourable activities in the metabolic syndrome. n-3 Fatty acids appear to exert significant hypotriacylglycerolaemic effects, possibly partly responsible for their preventive activity. Dark chocolate is gaining much attention for its multifunctional activities, useful both for the prevention of dyslipidaemia as well as hypertension. Finally, consensus opinions about tea and coffee have not emerged yet, and the benefits of vitamin E, garlic, fenugreek and policosanols in the management of dyslipidaemia and prevention of arterial disease are still controversial. PMID:20003590

  7. [Inulin and derivates as key ingredients in functional foods].

    PubMed

    Madrigal, Lorena; Sangronis, Elba

    2007-12-01

    Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate that is contained in many vegetables, fruits and cereals. It is industrially produced from the chicory's root (Cichorium intybus) and it is widely used as ingredient in functional foods. Inulin and its derivate compounds (oligofructose, fructooligosaccharides) are usually called fructans, as they are basically based on linear fructose chains. This review presents a description of inulin and its most common derivate compounds: chemical structure, natural sources, physic-chemical properties, technological functionality, industrial manufacturing, analytical method for determination and health benefits: prebiotic, dietary fiber, low caloric value, hypoglycemic action, enhancement of calcium and magnesium bioavailability. Potential benefits: lipid parameters regulation, reduction of colon cancer risk and others, improvement of immune response, intestinal disorders protection. From technological point of view, these compounds exhibit a variety of properties: thickener, emulsifier, gel forming, sugar and fat substitute, humectant, freezing point depression. Inulin and derivates are been used in pharmaceutical, chemical and processing industry as technological additives and excipients. They are also been used for animal feeding. They are been considered as "bioactive" compounds to be proposed as future packaging material. Fructans are proposed to be classified as "functional fiber", according to recent concepts based on physiological effects on individuals. This review of inulin and its derivates was useful to show the broad boundaries of these compounds in the food industry and why they may be considered as key ingredients in the expanding functional food market. PMID:18524324

  8. Design considerations on the proof of efficacy of functional foods.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Ileana; Gregori, Dario

    2012-03-01

    Functional food research encompasses several types of study designs, including observational studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Markers that can predict potential benefits or risks relating to certain health conditions are often the primary endpoints of such studies since a direct measurement of the effect of food on health and well-being and/or reduction of disease risk is often not possible. Whether RCT should be at the top of the pyramid also in nutritional research remains a controversial issue. Undoubtedly, further research is needed to redesign RCT methodology that would adequately serve the need to demonstrate the health effects of foods. We address this functional food research question by assuming that there is a known relationship between the surrogate and the true endpoint explored during the surrogacy assessment. Statistical inference on the true (unobserved) endpoint is derived on the basis of its predicted values. We illustrate this approach through a motivating example from the literature on coronary heart disease, integrated with simulated scenarios. PMID:21942855

  9. Food Derived Bioactive Peptides and Intestinal Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Rivero-Gutiérrez, Belén; Mascaraque, Cristina; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of food-derived bioactive peptides have been shown to exert health-promoting actions and are therefore considered functional foods or nutraceuticals. Some of these actions are related to the maintenance, reinforcement or repairment of the intestinal barrier function (IBF) whose role is to selectively allow the absorption of water, nutrients and ions while preventing the influx of microorganisms from the intestinal lumen. Alterations in the IBF have been related to many disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease or metabolic syndrome. Components of IBF are the intestinal epithelium, the mucus layer, secretory immunoglobulin A and cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here we review the effects of food derived bioactive peptides on these IBF components. In vitro and in vivo effects, both in healthy and disease states, have been reviewed. Although limited, the available information indicates a potential for food-derived peptides to modify IBF and to contribute to disease treatment, but further research is needed to better isolate responsible peptides, and to help define their mode of action. PMID:25501338

  10. Germinated grains: a superior whole grain functional food?

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kristina; Stojanovska, Lily; Vasiljevic, Todor; Mathai, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Grains are global dietary staples that when consumed in whole grain form, offer considerable health benefits compared with milled grain foods, including reduced body weight gain and reduced cardiovascular and diabetes risks. Dietary patterns, functional foods, and other lifestyle factors play a fundamental role in the development and management of epidemic lifestyle diseases that share risks of developing adverse metabolic outcomes, including hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Whole grains provide energy, nutrients, fibres, and bioactive compounds that may synergistically contribute to their protective effects. Despite their benefits, the intake of grains appears to be lower than recommended in many countries. Of emerging interest is the application of germination processes, which may significantly enhance the nutritional and bioactive content of grains, as well as improve palatability. Enhancing grain foods in a natural way using germination techniques may therefore offer a practical, natural, dietary intervention to increase the health benefits and acceptability of whole grains, with potentially widespread effects across populations in attenuating adverse lifestyle disease outcomes. Continuing to build on the growing body of in-vitro studies requires substantiation with extended in-vivo trials so that we may further develop our understanding of the potential of germinated grains as a functional food. PMID:23746040

  11. Functional food and diabetes: a natural way in diabetes prevention?

    PubMed

    Ballali, Simonetta; Lanciai, Federico

    2012-03-01

    Diabetes shows a wide range of variation in prevalence around the world and it is expected to affect 300 million by the year 2025. In a prevention framework where banning policies and educational strategies lead the interventions, functional foods (FFs) with their specific health effects could, in the future, indicate a new mode of thinking about the relationships between food and health in everyday life. Functional ingredients, such as stevioside, cinnamon, bitter melon, garlic and onion, ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre and fenugreek, have been addressed for their specific actions towards different reactions involved in diabetes development. New strategies involving the use of FF should be validated through large-scale population trials, considering validated surrogate end points to evaluate the effect of FF in prevention of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22107597

  12. Immunoglobulin A in Bovine Milk: A Potential Functional Food?

    PubMed

    Cakebread, Julie A; Humphrey, Rex; Hodgkinson, Alison J

    2015-08-26

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an anti-inflammatory antibody that plays a critical role in mucosal immunity. It is found in large quantities in human milk, but there are lower amounts in bovine milk. In humans, IgA plays a significant role in providing protection from environmental pathogens at mucosal surfaces and is a key component for the establishment and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis via innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. To date, many of the dairy-based functional foods are derived from bovine colostrum, targeting the benefits of IgG. IgA has a higher pathogenic binding capacity and greater stability against proteolytic degradation when ingested compared with IgG. This provides IgA-based products greater potential in the functional food market that has yet to be realized. PMID:26165692

  13. Design management of functional foods for quality of life improvement.

    PubMed

    Butnariu, Monica; Caunii, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines the benefit of bread enriched with antioxidants on oxidative stress, and on the quantities of hydrosoluble antioxidants in a group of human subjects. The home-management of functional foods strategy seeks to improve prompt and effective basic nutrition using additional attributes that are directly positively beneficial for health and well-being. The purpose of this clinical study was to test the tolerance and benefits of multicomponent functional foods enriched with antioxidant compounds obtained from plant extracts on healthy adult volunteers. A detailed protocol was created to formalize and standardize the procedures for data collection, e.g. filling out standardized forms and functional diet questionnaires. For the research method, Group A was given the special diet enriched with multicomponent antioxidant foods and Group B (control). The data were analysed using the quantitative methods. They showed significant increase of hydrosoluble antioxidants in group A compared to control, from 220.61+/-27.92 - 313.56+/-37.09 micrograms/mL (p=0.05), compared to 280.47+/-32.1 - 238.27+/-44.93 micrograms/mL (p=0.45). Also, oxidative stress values showed a decrease in the diet group compared to control that reached statistical significance. Oxidative stress decreased in the diet group to 244 +/- 89 compared to 308+/-108 UFORT in the control group. The responses of the prevention of chronic diseases to a functional foods strategy depend on how they are absorbed and utilized in the body. An anti-oxidant diet with natural bioactive components could become an interesting solution for degenerative disorders in which oxidative stress is increased. PMID:24364445

  14. Regulatory issues of functional foods, feeds, and nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Storey, Maureen L

    2004-01-01

    It is clear that the prospects of functional foods and nutraceuticals already excite the scientific community into discovering new substances that promise to extend healthy life. The greatest challenge will remain in the public policy and regulatory arenas, which will encourage research and development of products providing health benefits and permit remarking of products in truthful, nonmisleading communications while protecting public health and maintaining public confidence. PMID:15032134

  15. Is lactate an undervalued functional component of fermented food products?

    PubMed Central

    Garrote, Graciela L.; Abraham, Analía G.; Rumbo, Martín

    2015-01-01

    Although it has been traditionally regarded as an intermediate of carbon metabolism and major component of fermented dairy products contributing to organoleptic and antimicrobial properties of food, there is evidence gathered in recent years that lactate has bioactive properties that may be responsible of broader properties of functional foods. Lactate can regulate critical functions of several key players of the immune system such as macrophages and dendritic cells, being able to modulate inflammatory activation of epithelial cells as well. Intraluminal levels of lactate derived from fermentative metabolism of lactobacilli have been shown to modulate inflammatory environment in intestinal mucosa. The molecular mechanisms responsible to these functions, including histone deacetylase dependent-modulation of gene expression and signaling through G-protein coupled receptors have started to be described. Since lactate is a major fermentation product of several bacterial families with probiotic properties, we here propose that it may contribute to some of the properties attributed to these microorganisms and in a larger view, to the properties of food products fermented by lactic acid bacteria. PMID:26150815

  16. Dopamine Genetics and Function in Food and Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Blum, K; Oscar-Berman, M; Barh, D; Giordano, J; Gold, MS

    2013-01-01

    Having entered the genomics era with confidence in the future of medicine, including psychiatry, identifying the role of DNA and polymorphic associations with brain reward circuitry has led to a new understanding of all addictive behaviors. It is noteworthy that this strategy may provide treatment for the millions who are the victims of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) a genetic disorder of brain reward circuitry. This article will focus on drugs and food being mutuality addictive, and the role of dopamine genetics and function in addictions, including the interaction of the dopamine transporter, and sodium food. We will briefly review our concept that concerns the genetic antecedents of multipleaddictions (RDS). Studies have also shown that evaluating a panel of established reward genes and polymorphisms enables the stratification of genetic risk to RDS. The panel is called the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS), and is a tool for the diagnosis of a genetic predisposition for RDS. The use of this test, as pointed out by others, would benefit the medical community by identifying at risk individuals at a very early age. We encourage, in depth work in both animal and human models of addiction. We encourage further exploration of the neurogenetic correlates of the commonalities between food and drug addiction and endorse forward thinking hypotheses like The Salted Food Addiction Hypothesis. PMID:23543775

  17. Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria and their environmental interactions. Moreover, functional genomics approaches have been used to understand the response of lactic acid bacteria to their environment. The results have been instrumental in understanding the adaptation of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal and industrial food fermentations as well as their interactions with the human host. Collectively, this has led to a detailed analysis of genes involved in colonization, persistence, interaction and signaling towards to the human host and its health. Finally, massive parallel genome re-sequencing has provided new opportunities in applied genomics, specifically in the characterization of novel non-GMO strains that have potential to be used in the food industry. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art of these functional genomics approaches and their impact in understanding, applying and designing lactic acid bacteria for food and health. PMID:25186768

  18. Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health.

    PubMed

    Douillard, François P; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-08-29

    Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria and their environmental interactions. Moreover, functional genomics approaches have been used to understand the response of lactic acid bacteria to their environment. The results have been instrumental in understanding the adaptation of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal and industrial food fermentations as well as their interactions with the human host. Collectively, this has led to a detailed analysis of genes involved in colonization, persistence, interaction and signaling towards to the human host and its health. Finally, massive parallel genome re-sequencing has provided new opportunities in applied genomics, specifically in the characterization of novel non-GMO strains that have potential to be used in the food industry. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art of these functional genomics approaches and their impact in understanding, applying and designing lactic acid bacteria for food and health. PMID:25186768

  19. High-resolution screening combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for identification of potential health-promoting constituents in sea aster and searocket--new Nordic food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Wubshet, Sileshi G; Schmidt, Jeppe S; Wiese, Stefanie; Staerk, Dan

    2013-09-11

    Sea aster (Aster tripolium L.) and searocket (Cakile maritima Scop.), potential ingredients in the New Nordic Diet, were analyzed by high-resolution radical scavenging and high-resolution ?-glucosidase inhibition assays. Results from the two bioactivity profiles were used to guide subsequent structural analysis toward constituents with potential health-promoting effects. Structural analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction and automated tube transfer nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, that is, HPLC-HRMS-SPE-ttNMR. High-resolution mass spectrometry together with detailed analysis of one- and two-dimensional proton detected NMR experiments enabled unambiguous assignment of the targeted analytes. This revealed a series of caffeoyl esters (1, 2, 5), flavonoid glycosides (3, 4, 6, 11-15), flavonoids (7-9), sinapate esters (10, 16, 17), and sinapinic acid (18) associated with radical scavenging and/or ?-glucosidase inhibition. In vitro assays implemented in this study showed that sea aster holds potential as a future functional food ingredient for lowering postprandial blood glucose level for diabetics, but further investigations are needed to prove the effect in vivo. PMID:23962163

  20. Scientific substantiation of claims in the USA: focus on functional foods.

    PubMed

    Lupton, Joanne R

    2009-12-01

    Although functional foods are currently regulated the same as conventional foods by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) there is some concern that they should not be. One concern is whether functional foods can/should carry the same type of health and nutrition labeling claims as conventional foods. For example, the type of nutrient content claim that describes a level of the nutrient such as "good or excellent source" presents a problem for functional foods since these claims relate back to a standard value for nutrients (the daily value or DV). At this time the bioactive or functional components in a functional food do not have daily values so they could not take advantage of this type of claim. Structure/function claims are also at issue since they are required to relate to the food's attributes of taste, aroma, and nutritive value, rather than attributes of functionality (which would pertain to functional foods). There appear to be three categories of issues concerning the regulation of functional foods: safety; efficacy; and their effect on the overall diet. Since bioactive components can be synthesized or extracted and concentrated, the concern is that the amounts of these substances in functional foods might reach levels which are actually injurious to health or they may negate beneficial effects of substances in the same food. Most people/organizations consider that functional foods need to document their functionality. This means that unlike conventional foods, all functional foods, by definition, would have to apply for a health claim. Finally, the long term overarching concern is what will be the impact of a functional food-driven market on overall health. It is of interest to see how the regulatory environment for functional foods evolves in the next few years and what impact that environment has on the future of these foods. PMID:19937443

  1. Biguanide related compounds in traditional antidiabetic functional foods.

    PubMed

    Perla, Venu; Jayanty, Sastry S

    2013-06-01

    Biguanides such as metformin are widely used worldwide for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The identification of guanidine and related compounds in French lilac plant (Galega officinalis L.) led to the development of biguanides. Despite of their plant origin, biguanides have not been reported in plants. The objective of this study was to quantify biguanide related compounds (BRCs) in experimentally or clinically substantiated antidiabetic functional plant foods and potatoes. The corrected results of the Voges-Proskauer (V-P) assay suggest that the highest amounts of BRCs are present in green curry leaves (Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel) followed by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), green bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Descourt.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Whereas, garlic (Allium sativum L.), and sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.) contain negligible amounts of BRCs. In addition, the possible biosynthetic routes of biguanide in these plant foods are discussed. PMID:23411283

  2. From functional food to medicinal product: Systematic approach in analysis of polyphenolics from propolis and wine

    PubMed Central

    Medić-Šarić, Marica; Rastija, Vesna; Bojić, Mirza; Maleš, Željan

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade we have been working on standardization of propolis extract and determination of active constituents of wine those are rich in polyphenolics and have nutritional as well as therapeutic value. Here we are summarizing our results and providing overview on systematic approach how to analyse natural products rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids. Chromatographic methods (thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography) were used for identification, quantification, and characterization of individual flavonoid or phenolic acid. Total content of active constituents and antioxidant activity were determined by spectrophotometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and using appropriate software. Quantitative structure-activity relationship study of antioxidant activity was conducted, as well as assessment of prolonged propolis supplementation on antioxidative status of organism. Thin layer chromatography-densitometry has been proven as quick and reliable method for standard analysis of propolis and wine; the best mobile phase being chloroform – methanol – formic acid (98–100%) in ratio 44 : 3.5 : 2.5 (v/v). Higher number of polyphenolics was determined by high performance liquid chromatography; 15 compared to 9 by thin layer chromatography. Interactions in situ with acetylsalicylic acid were detected with most of polyphenolics analysed. Plasma protein binding and blood-barrier penetration was greatest for flavone. The interactions with human serum albumin have been grater than 95% for all flavonoids analysed. The prolonged propolis consumption increased superoxide dismutase activity. The necessity of standardization of natural products and their registration as functional nutraceuticals demand easy, quick and inexpensive methods of analysis. In this work we provided overview of analytical part for polyphenolics that could be used as data for possible registration of final products either as functional food or medicinal product. This feature introduces the readers to the authors' research through a concise overview of the selected topic. Reference to important work from others in the field is included. PMID:19624827

  3. Egg and Egg-Derived Foods: Effects on Human Health and Use as Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Jose M.; Anton, Xaquin; Redondo-Valbuena, Celia; Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Lamas, Alexandre; Franco, Carlos M.; Cepeda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are sources of protein, fats and micronutrients that play an important role in basic nutrition. However, eggs are traditionally associated with adverse factors in human health, mainly due to their cholesterol content. Nowadays, however, it is known that the response of cholesterol in human serum levels to dietary cholesterol consumption depends on several factors, such as ethnicity, genetic makeup, hormonal factors and the nutritional status of the consumer. Additionally, in recent decades, there has been an increasing demand for functional foods, which is expected to continue to increase in the future, owing to their capacity to decrease the risks of some diseases and socio-demographic factors such as the increase in life expectancy. This work offers a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of egg consumption and the potential market of functional eggs, and it explores the possibilities of the development of functional eggs by technological methods. PMID:25608941

  4. Egg and egg-derived foods: effects on human health and use as functional foods.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Jose M; Anton, Xaquin; Redondo-Valbuena, Celia; Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Rodriguez, Jose A; Lamas, Alexandre; Franco, Carlos M; Cepeda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are sources of protein, fats and micronutrients that play an important role in basic nutrition. However, eggs are traditionally associated with adverse factors in human health, mainly due to their cholesterol content. Nowadays, however, it is known that the response of cholesterol in human serum levels to dietary cholesterol consumption depends on several factors, such as ethnicity, genetic makeup, hormonal factors and the nutritional status of the consumer. Additionally, in recent decades, there has been an increasing demand for functional foods, which is expected to continue to increase in the future, owing to their capacity to decrease the risks of some diseases and socio-demographic factors such as the increase in life expectancy. This work offers a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of egg consumption and the potential market of functional eggs, and it explores the possibilities of the development of functional eggs by technological methods. PMID:25608941

  5. Olive oil as a functional food: epidemiology and nutritional approaches.

    PubMed

    Stark, Aliza H; Madar, Zecharia

    2002-06-01

    Olive oil is an integral ingredient of the Mediterranean diet and accumulating evidence suggests that it may have health benefits that include reduction of risk factors of coronary heart disease, prevention of several varieties of cancers, and modification of immune and inflammatory responses. Olive oil appears to be an example of a functional food, with varied components that may contribute to its overall therapeutic characteristics. Olive oil is known for its high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and is also a good source of phytochemicals including polyphenolic compounds, squalene, and alpha-tocopherol. PMID:12078915

  6. Functional Foods Programs Serve as a Vehicle to Provide Nutrition Education to Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirignano, Sherri M.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in consumer interest in functional foods provides an opportunity for FCS educators to use this topic in Extension programming to promote current nutrition recommendations. The Functional Foods for Life Educational Programs (FFL) are a curriculum of six evidence-based mini-seminars that highlight specific functional foods that have the…

  7. Functional Foods Programs Serve as a Vehicle to Provide Nutrition Education to Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirignano, Sherri M.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in consumer interest in functional foods provides an opportunity for FCS educators to use this topic in Extension programming to promote current nutrition recommendations. The Functional Foods for Life Educational Programs (FFL) are a curriculum of six evidence-based mini-seminars that highlight specific functional foods that have the

  8. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (?60years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (n?=?200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Results Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p?=?0.045). Conclusions Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers. PMID:24886306

  9. Executive function and food approach behavior in middle childhood

    PubMed Central

    Groppe, Karoline; Elsner, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Executive function (EF) has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating “hot” affective and “cool” cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation of eating behavior. So far, however, the links between EF and eating behavior have rarely been investigated in children and non-clinical populations. First, we examined whether EF can be divided into hot and cool factors or whether they actually correspond to a unitary construct in middle childhood. Second, we examined how hot and cool EF are associated with different eating styles that put children at risk of becoming overweight during development. Hot and cool EF were assessed experimentally in a non-clinical population of 1657 elementary-school children (aged 6–11 years). The “food approach” behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires. Findings indicate that hot EF is distinguishable from cool EF. However, only cool EF seems to represent a coherent functional entity, whereas hot EF does not seem to be a homogenous construct. This was true for a younger and an older subgroup of children. Furthermore, different EF components were correlated with eating styles, such as responsiveness to food, desire to drink, and restrained eating in girls but not in boys. This shows that lower levels of EF are not only seen in clinical populations of obese patients but are already associated with food approach styles in a normal population of elementary school-aged girls. Although the direction of effect still has to be clarified, results point to the possibility that EF constitutes a risk factor for eating styles contributing to the development of overweight in the long-term. PMID:24904466

  10. Advances in the development of functional foods from buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Li, S Q; Zhang, Q H

    2001-09-01

    Buckwheat originated in North or East Asia and is widely adapted in North America. It has been grown since at least 1000 BC in China. It has very strong adaptability to adverse environments with a very short growing span. Many varieties are growing around the world, but mainly in the north hemisphere. Currently the most common buckwheat spice is Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (common buckwheat or sweet buckwheat), while Fagopyrum tartaricum is also available in some mountainous regions. Many nutraceutical compounds exist in buckwheat seeds and other tissues. Buckwheat has been used and will be better used as an important raw material for functional food production. In this review we focus on works related to the development of functional foods from common buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. A lot of research has be conducted in the functionalities and properties of buckwheat proteins, flavonoids, flavones, phytosterols, thiamin-binding proteins, and other rare compounds in buckwheat seeds. Buckwheat proteins have unique amino acid composition with special biological activities of cholesterol-lowering effects, antihypertensition effects, and improving the constipation and obisity conditions by acting similar as to dietary fiber and interrupting the in vivo metabolisms. The trypsin inhibitors isolated from buckwheat seeds are heat stable and can cause poor digestion if they are not suitably cooked before consumption. The allergenic proteins existing in the buckwheat seeds and their derivatives were reviewed with respect to their chemical and biochemical characteristics as well as the physiological reactions after digestion. Some possible mechanisms involved in these effects are discussed in this review. Experiments, both with animal models and with human beings, revealed that buckwheat flour can improve diabetes, obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and constipation. Methods to exploit buckwheat seeds and flour to produce highly effective nutraceuticals are also reviewed. PMID:11592684

  11. Development of a locally sustainable functional food based on mutandabota, a traditional food in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Mpofu, Augustine; Linnemann, Anita R; Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco; Nout, M J R; Smid, Eddy J

    2014-05-01

    A probiotic dairy product was developed on the basis of a traditional dish called mutandabota to enable resource-poor populations in southern Africa to benefit from a functional food. Mutandabota is widely consumed in rural southern Africa, making it an ideal food matrix to carry probiotics. First, a process to produce probiotic mutandabota was designed. Raw cow milk was boiled and subsequently cooled to ambient temperature (25C). Next, dry pulp from the fruit of the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L.) was added to the milk at a concentration of 4% (wt/vol). This mixture was inoculated with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba and left to ferment for 24h, while the growth of the bacterial culture was monitored. Final ingredients were then added to produce probiotic mutandabota that had 14% (wt/vol) baobab fruit pulp and 7% (wt/vol) sugar in cow milk. The pH of probiotic mutandabota was pH 3.5, which ensures that the product is microbiologically safe. The viable plate count of L. rhamnosus yoba increased from 5.8 0.3 log cfu/mL at the point of inoculation to 8.8 0.4 log cfu/mL at the moment of consumption, thereby meeting the criterion to have a viable count of the probiotic bacterium in excess of 6 log cfu/mL of a product. Baobab fruit pulp at 4% promoted growth of L. rhamnosus yoba with a maximal specific growth rate (?max) of 0.6 0.2/h at 30C. The developed technology, though specific for this particular product, has potential to be applied for the delivery of probiotics through a variety of indigenous foods in different regions of the world. Upon consumption, probiotic mutandabota is expected to improve the population's intestinal health, which is especially relevant for vulnerable target groups such as children and elderly people. PMID:24630646

  12. SIGNIFICANCE OF SAMPLE PREPARATION IN DEVELOPING ANALYTICAL METHODOLOGIES FOR ACCURATE ESTIMATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN FUNCTIONAL FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional foods are defined as foods or food components that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition (for the intended population). Increased interest in bioactive food components and phytochemicals arose from numerous epidemiological studies that suggested that certain phytochemicals can ...

  13. Structure-function relationships in soft tissue mechanics: Examining how the micro-scale architecture of biochemical constituents effects health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, David Sheldon

    Countless debilitating pathologies exhibit symptoms that result from altered mechanical behavior of soft tissue. Therefore, it is of clinical and economic importance to mechanically evaluate soft tissues and attribute degenerative changes to alterations in structural constituents. The studies presented here focus on the annulus fibrosus and the sclera. Failure in these tissues is common and catastrophic. The annulus fibrosus may fail, resulting in herniation and nerve impingement, or the disc may degenerate over time, resulting in reduced mobility and pain. Similarly, the sclera may degenerate over time with intraocular pressure spurring creep behavior that distends the eye beyond its ideal shape. This causes myopic vision and puts patients at risk of macular degeneration and retinal detachment. These two tissues share a common structural role as the outer wall of a pressure vessel. Also, they are made of strikingly similar constituents, primarily consisting of water, type I collagen, glycosaminoglycans and elastin. The microstructure of these tissues, however, is very different. The annulus fibrosus is representative of an anisotropic tissue. Its well-organized fibril structure was analyzed via polarization modulated second harmonic microscopy in order to characterize fibril architecture. Structurally relevant biochemical constituents were quantified with biochemical assays. Morphologically healthy annulus tended to have a more highly organized microstructure and tended to absorb more strain energy when subject to a tensile load cycle. Given the strong correlation between fibril organization and select mechanical properties, predictive models will likely benefit from a characterization of fibril continuity and orientation coherence. The sclera is representative of an isotropic tissue. Its less-organized fibril structure has evolved to sustain biaxial plane stress. In the sclera, collagen content and associated crosslinks were primary determinants of stiffness. Substantial collagen crosslink accumulation is a primary factor causing the stiffening of sclera with increased age. The influence of crosslinks dominates diffusion and permeability behavior. Exogenous crosslinking may help modulate the mechanical and fluid transport properties of the sclera and cornea. Treatment with methylglyoxal reduces the permeability and increases the stiffness of both. However, differences in the pre-treatment level of organization within the microstructure encourages asymmetric results.

  14. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, V.; Patil, A.; Phatak, A.; Chandra, N.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward the field of free radical chemistry. Free radicals reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are generated by our body by various endogenous systems, exposure to different physiochemical conditions or pathological states. A balance between free radicals and antioxidants is necessary for proper physiological function. If free radicals overwhelm the body's ability to regulate them, a condition known as oxidative stress ensues. Free radicals thus adversely alter lipids, proteins, and DNA and trigger a number of human diseases. Hence application of external source of antioxidants can assist in coping this oxidative stress. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole have recently been reported to be dangerous for human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with antioxidative activity has been intensified in recent years. The present review provides a brief overview on oxidative stress mediated cellular damages and role of dietary antioxidants as functional foods in the management of human diseases. PMID:22228951

  15. Fungal Laccases: Production, Function, and Applications in Food Processing

    PubMed Central

    Brijwani, Khushal; Rigdon, Anne; Vadlani, Praveen V.

    2010-01-01

    Laccases are increasingly being used in food industry for production of cost-effective and healthy foods. To sustain this trend widespread availability of laccase and efficient production systems have to be developed. The present paper delineate the recent developments that have taken place in understanding the role of laccase action, efforts in overexpression of laccase in heterologous systems, and various cultivation techniques that have been developed to efficiently produce laccase at the industrial scale. The role of laccase in different food industries, particularly the recent developments in laccase application for food processing, is discussed. PMID:21048859

  16. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue; Vzquez-Gutirrez, Jos Luis; Johansson, Daniel P; Landberg, Rikard; Langton, Maud

    2016-01-01

    A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE). These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications. PMID:26840533

  17. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xue; Vázquez-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Johansson, Daniel P.; Landberg, Rikard; Langton, Maud

    2016-01-01

    A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE). These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications. PMID:26840533

  18. Strawberry as a functional food: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Nguyen, Angel; Betts, Nancy M; Lyons, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Emerging research provides substantial evidence to classify strawberries as a functional food with several preventive and therapeutic health benefits. Strawberries, a rich source of phytochemicals (ellagic acid, anthocyanins, quercetin, and catechin) and vitamins (ascorbic acid and folic acid), have been highly ranked among dietary sources of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. It should however be noted that these bioactive factors can be significantly affected by differences in strawberry cultivars, agricultural practices, storage, and processing methods: freezing versus dry heat has been associated with maximum retention of strawberry bioactives in several studies. Nutritional epidemiology shows inverse association between strawberry consumption and incidence of hypertension or serum C-reactive protein; controlled feeding studies have identified the ability of strawberries to attenuate high-fat diet induced postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation, or postprandial hyperglycemia, or hyperlipidemia in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. Mechanistic studies have elucidated specific biochemical pathways that might confer these protective effects of strawberries: upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, downregulation of NF-kB activity and subsequent inflammation, or inhibitions of carbohydrate digestive enzymes. These health effects may be attributed to the synergistic effects of nutrients and phytochemicals in strawberries. Further studies are needed to define the optimal dose and duration of strawberry intake in affecting levels of biomarkers or pathways related to chronic diseases. PMID:24345049

  19. The Use of Health Functional Foods in Gastrointestinal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hwa Pyoung; Lee, Hosun; Oh, Tak Geun; Lee, Kyong Joo; Park, Soo Jung; Kim, Seung Up; Lee, Hyuk; Park, Jun Chul; Hong, Sung Pil; Park, Jun Yong; Park, Jeong Youp; Bang, Seungmin; Kim, Do Young; Cheon, Jae Hee; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Tae Il; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young

    2013-01-01

    As an adjunct to cancer treatment, the use of health functional foods (HFFs) seems to be increasing. However, little is known for the use of HFFs among cancer patients in Korea. The aims of this study were to investigate the exposure rate of HFF use among gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients and to examine the relationship of socio-demographic and disease-related characteristics with the use of HFFs. A total of 126 patients diagnosed with GI cancer participated in the study. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a questionnaire. Over a half of all the patients surveyed (n = 67; 53.2%) used HFFs. Patients who were younger, had higher income, or longer duration of disease showed a trend to use HFFs more frequently, even though the tendency was not statistically significant. The most commonly used HFF was vitamin complex (n = 20; 16%), followed by red ginseng (n = 15; 12%), and sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) (n = 11; 8.8%). About 26% of all responders expressed concerns for using HFFs. The primary concern was 'going against physician's recommendations' (36.8%). About 63% of respondents expressed a desire to consult with their physicians and follow their recommendations. More basic scientific data and educational materials regarding HFFs are required for both health-care professionals and cancer patients. A larger sample and size-controlled groups representing each cancer type will continue to be recruited for participation in this survey. PMID:23429665

  20. Response to consumer demand for reduced-fat foods; multi-functional fat replacers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The excessive dietary fat intake can result in health problems such as obesity and heart-related diseases, resulting in increased consumer demand for reduced fat foods. A number of food ingredients with fat-like functions have been developed as fat alternatives in the food industry. Especially, so...

  1. Functional food productions: release the potential of bioactive compounds through food processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiological studies of bioactive compounds from plant-based foods have consistently pointed to undisputed benefits of consumption of plant-based foods on human health particularly regarding cardiovascular diseases and cancers. However, in order to attain the dosage required from these studies, p...

  2. Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives. PMID:25473499

  3. From gene to function: metabolic traits of starter cultures for improved quality of cereal foods.

    PubMed

    Gnzle, Michael G

    2009-08-31

    Food fermentations with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are employed to produce safe and shelf stable food products with characteristic flavour and texture. Advances in genomics and physiology of lactic acid bacteria enabled to link individual genetic and metabolic traits of starter cultures to specific food quality attributes. The empirical selection of starter cultures is increasingly supported by the targeted selection of functional starter cultures to achieve an improved quality of fermented foods. This review highlights recent developments related to metabolic traits of LAB that are relevant for the quality of foods; emphasis is placed on starter cultures for use in bread production. Although the food use of antibacterial metabolites of LAB is well established, antifungal compounds were only recently shown to extend the shelf life of foods. Redox reactions catalysed by LAB alter the technological functionality of proteins and influence the (off)-flavour development through lipid oxidation pathways. LAB produce polysaccharides and oligosaccharides from sucrose through the glycansucrase activities. The exploitation of glycansucrase biodiversity enables the generation of a large variety of glucans or fructans in food fermentation. Poly- and oligosaccharides influence food texture, increase the dietary fibre content of foods and can be applied to protect bacterial during culture preparation and storage. The transformation of amino acids or peptides to aroma compounds contributes substantially to food flavour of food and particularly the conversion of glutamate by LAB enables the targeted optimisation of food flavour. PMID:19515445

  4. Development and assessment of healthy properties of meat and meat products designed as functional foods.

    PubMed

    Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoa; Jimnez-Colmenero, Francisco; Snchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2013-12-01

    This review deals with the two major aspects to be considered in the context of meat-based functional foods and human health. One involves the different strategies used to improve (increase or reduce) the presence of bioactive (healthy and unhealthy) compounds in meat and meat products in order to develop potential meat-based functional foods; these strategies are basically concerned with animal production practices, meat processing and storage, distribution and consumption conditions. Since the link between the consumption of those foods and their potentially beneficial effects (improving health and/or reducing the risk of several chronic diseases) needs to be demonstrated scientifically, the second aspect considered is related to intervention studies to examine the functional capacity of meat-based potentially functional foods in humans, discussing how the functionality of a food can be assessed in terms of its effects on health in relation to both target body functions and risk factors. PMID:23623320

  5. Food-packaging materials: migration of constituents into food contents. January 1982-December 1988 (Citations from Packaging Science and technology Abstracts data base). Report for January 1982-December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the migration of food-packaging materials into foods. Plastic, glass, cardboard, metal, and ceramic containers are discussed. Techniques for analyzing packaging contamination are included. (Contains 90 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  6. The functional human neuroanatomy of food pleasure cycles.

    PubMed

    Kringelbach, Morten L; Stein, Alan; van Hartevelt, Tim J

    2012-06-01

    Food ensures our survival and is a potential source of pleasure and general well-being. In order to survive, the human brain is required to optimize the resource allocation such that rewards are pursued when relevant. This means that food intake follows a similar cyclical time course to other rewards with phases related to expectation, consummation and satiety. Here we develop a multilevel model for the full cycle of eating behavior based on the evidence for the brain networks and mechanisms initiating, sustaining and terminating the various phases of eating. We concentrate on how the underlying reward mechanisms of wanting, liking and learning lead to how human food intake is governed by both hedonic and homeostatic principles. We describe five of the main processing principles controlling food intake: hunger and attentional signal processing; motivation-independent discriminative processing; reward representations; learning-dependent multimodal sensory representations and hedonic experience. Overall, the evidence shows that while human food intake is complex, we are making progress in understanding the underlying mechanisms and that the brain networks supporting the food pleasure cycle are remarkably similar to those underlying the processing of other rewards. PMID:22487544

  7. Worlds apart. Consumer acceptance of functional foods and beverages in Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Michael; Shi, Jing; Giusto, Alice; Hartmann, Christina

    2015-09-01

    This study examined consumers' willingness to buy functional foods. Data were collected from an Internet survey in Germany (n = 502) and China (n = 443). The results showed that consumers in China were much more willing to buy functional foods, compared with their German counterparts. A substantial segment of the German consumers indicated lower willingness to buy functional foods, compared with the same foods without additional health benefits. The findings further showed that in both countries, the participants with higher health motivation and more trust in the food industry reported higher willingness to buy functional foods than the participants with lower health motivation and less trust in the industry. Food neophobia had a negative impact on acceptance of functional foods in the Chinese sample. No such association was observed for the German sample. The results suggest that cultural factors play a significant role in the acceptance of functional foods; therefore, caution should be exercised in generalizing research findings from Western countries to others. PMID:26002279

  8. Consumption of organic and functional food. A matter of well-being and health?

    PubMed

    Goetzke, Beate; Nitzko, Sina; Spiller, Achim

    2014-06-01

    Health is an important motivation for the consumption of both organic and functional foods. The aim of this study was to clarify to what extent the consumption of organic and functional foods are characterized by a healthier lifestyle and a higher level of well-being. Moreover, the influence of social desirability on the respondents' response behavior was of interest and was also analyzed. Well-being and health was measured in a sample of 555 German consumers at two levels: the cognitive-emotional and the behavioral level. The results show that although health is an important aspect for both functional food and organic food consumption, these two forms of consumption were influenced by different understandings of health: organic food consumption is influenced by an overall holistic healthy lifestyle including a healthy diet and sport, while functional food consumption is characterized by small "adjustments" to lifestyle to enhance health and to increase psychological well-being. An overlap between the consumption of organic and functional food was also observed. This study provides information which enables a better characterization of the consumption of functional food and organic food in terms of well-being and health. PMID:24630940

  9. Functional properties of whey protein and its application in nanocomposite materials and functional foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Helen

    Whey is a byproduct of cheese making; whey proteins are globular proteins which can be modified and polymerized to add functional benefits, these benefits can be both nutritional and structural in foods. Modified proteins can be used in non-foods, being of particular interest in polymer films and coatings. Food packaging materials, including plastics, can linings, interior coatings of paper containers, and beverage cap sealing materials, are generally made of synthetic petroleum based compounds. These synthetic materials may pose a potential human health risk due to presence of certain chemicals such as Bisphenol A (BPA). They also add to environmental pollution, being difficult to degrade. Protein-based materials do not have the same issues as synthetics and so can be used as alternatives in many packaging types. As proteins are generally hydrophilic they must be modified structurally and their performance enhanced by the addition of waterproofing agents. Polymerization of whey proteins results in a network, adding both strength and flexibility. The most interesting of the food-safe waterproofing agents are the (large aspect ratio) nanoclays. Nanoclays are relatively inexpensive, widely available and have low environmental impact. The clay surface can be modified to make it organophilic and so compatible with organic polymers. The objective of this study is the use of polymerized whey protein (PWP), with reinforcing nanoclays, to produce flexible surface coatings which limit the transfer of contents while maintaining food safety. Four smectite and kaolin type clays, one treated and three natural were assessed for strengthening qualities and the potential waterproofing and plasticizing benefits of other additives were also analyzed. The nutritional benefits of whey proteins can also be used to enhance the protein content of various foodstuffs. Drinkable yogurt is a popular beverage in the US and other countries and is considered a functional food, especially when produced with probiotic bacteria. Carbonation was applied to a drinkable yogurt to enhance its benefits. This process helps reduce the oxygen levels in the foodstuff thus potentially being advantageous to the microaerophilic probiotic bacteria while simultaneously producing a product, somewhat similar to kefir, which has the potential to fill a niche in the functional foods market. Yogurt was combined with a syrup to reduce its viscosity, making it drinkable, and also to allow infusion of CO2. This dilution reduced the protein content of the drink and so whey protein concentrate was added to increase levels in the final product. High-methoxyl pectins were used to provide stability by reducing the tendency of the proteins to sediment out. The objectives of this study were to develop a manufacturing technology for drinkable carbonated symbiotic yogurts, and to evaluate their physicochemical properties. Two flavors of yogurt drink, pomegranate and vanilla, were formulated containing inulin as prebiotic, along with probiotic bacteria, producing symbiotic dairy beverages.

  10. European regulations on nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and functional foods: a framework based on safety.

    PubMed

    Coppens, Patrick; da Silva, Miguel Fernandes; Pettman, Simon

    2006-04-01

    This article describes the legislation that is relevant in the marketing of functional foods in the European Union (EU), how this legislation was developed as well as some practical consequences for manufacturers, marketers and consumers. It also addresses some concrete examples of how the EU's safety requirements for food products have impacted a range of product categories. In the late nineties, research into functional ingredients was showing promising prospects for the use of such ingredients in foodstuffs. Due mainly to safety concerns, these new scientific developments were accompanied by an urgent call for legislation. The European Commission 2000 White Paper on Food Safety announced some 80 proposals for new and improved legislation in this field. Among others, it foresaw the establishment of a General Food Law Regulation, laying down the principles of food law and the creation of an independent Food Authority endowed with the task of giving scientific advice on issues based upon scientific risk assessment with clearly separated responsibilities for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. Since then, more than 90% of the White Paper proposals have been implemented. However, there is not, as such, a regulatory framework for 'functional foods' or 'nutraceuticals' in EU Food Law. The rules to be applied are numerous and depend on the nature of the foodstuff. The rules of the general food law Regulation are applicable to all foods. In addition, legislation on dietetic foods, on food supplements or on novel foods may also be applicable to functional foods depending on the nature of the product and on their use. Finally, the two proposals on nutrition and health claims and on the addition of vitamins and minerals and other substances to foods, which are currently in the legislative process, will also be an important factor in the future marketing of 'nutraceuticals' in Europe. The cornerstone of EU legislation on food products, including functional foods and nutraceuticals is 'safety'. Decisions on the safety-basis of legislation are based on risk analysis, in which scientific risk assessment is performed by the European Food Safety Authority and risk management is performed by the European Commission, the Member States, and in case of legislation, together with the European Parliament. In the risk management phase, both the precautionary principle and other legitimate factors may be considered in choosing the best way of dealing with an issue. Due to the numerous pieces of legislation applying and to the different procedures to be followed, the process of having 'functional foods' ready for the market is certainly a costly and time-consuming task. However, it may also be clearly worth it in terms of market success and improved consumer health. PMID:16469424

  11. Oral administration of veratric acid, a constituent of vegetables and fruits, prevents cardiovascular remodelling in hypertensive rats: a functional evaluation.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, Murugesan; Raja, Boobalan; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Silambarasan, Thangarasu; Prahalathan, Pichavaram; Kumar, Subramanian; Mishra, Santosh Kumar

    2015-11-14

    In our previous studies, veratric acid (VA) shows beneficial effect on hypertension and its associated dyslipidaemia. In continuation, this study was designed to investigate the effect of VA, one of the major benzoic acid derivatives from vegetables and fruits, on cardiovascular remodelling in hypertensive rats, primarily assessed by functional studies using Langendorff isolated heart system and organ bath system. Hypertension was induced in male albino Wistar rats by oral administration of N ω -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) (40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) in drinking water for 4 weeks. VA was orally administered at a dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. l-NAME-treated rats showed impaired cardiac ventricular and vascular function, evaluated by Langendorff isolated heart system and organ bath studies, respectively; a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation products such as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides in aorta; and a significant decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and levels of GSH, vitamin C and vitamin E in aorta. Fibrotic remodelling of the aorta and heart were assessed by Masson's Trichrome staining and Van Gieson's staining, respectively. In addition, l-NAME rats showed increased heart fibronectin expression assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. VA supplementation throughout the experimental period significantly normalised cardiovascular function, oxidative stress, antioxidant status and fibrotic remodelling of tissues. These results of the present study conclude that VA acts as a protective agent against hypertension-associated cardiovascular remodelling. PMID:26346559

  12. Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptance--a review.

    PubMed

    Sir, Istvn; Kpolna, Emese; Kpolna, Beta; Lugasi, Andrea

    2008-11-01

    It was mainly the advances in understanding the relationship between nutrition and health that resulted in the development of the concept of functional foods, which means a practical and new approach to achieve optimal health status by promoting the state of well-being and possibly reducing the risk of disease. Functional foods are found virtually in all food categories, however products are not homogeneously scattered over all segments of the growing market. The development and commerce of these products is rather complex, expensive and risky, as special requirements should be answered. Besides potential technological obstacles, legislative aspects, as well as consumer demands need to be taken into consideration when developing functional food. In particular, consumer acceptance has been recognized as a key factor to successfully negotiate market opportunities. This paper offers a brief overview of the current functional food market situation in USA, Japan and some European countries completed with some comments on functional food future potential. It explores the main challenges of such product development focusing on the different factors determining the acceptance of functional food. Furthermore it discusses some prominent types of these food products currently on the market. PMID:18582508

  13. Functional foods and food supplements for athletes: from myths to benefit claims substantiation through the study of selected biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Brouns, Fred; Nieuwenhoven, Michiel van; Jeukendrup, Asker; Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter van

    2002-11-01

    The development of the sports food market and industrial involvement have led to numerous nutritional studies to define the type of nutrients that are most suited to support energy metabolism, fluid balance and muscle function. The key question in many of these studies was: 'Does the product lead to a significant product/consumer benefit that can be used as a claim on the package?' New methods and techniques have been developed, partly with sponsorship of the food industry, with the goal of measuring the effects of specific nutrients and supplements on athletic performance and metabolism. In line with this development, a wide variety of supplements and sports foods/drinks labelled with various performance or health benefit statements have been launched on the sports nutrition market. Although a variety of products have been tested clinically, there are also many products on the market with benefit claims that cannot be supported by sound nutritional and sports physiological science. The current short review highlights some of the methods and biomarkers that are used to substantiate product/consumer benefit claims for foods and drinks that are marketed as functional foods for athletes. PMID:12495460

  14. Functional food microstructures for macronutrient release and delivery.

    PubMed

    Norton, J E; Gonzalez Espinosa, Y; Watson, R L; Spyropoulos, F; Norton, I T

    2015-03-01

    There is a need to understand the role of fat, protein and carbohydrate in human health, and also how foods containing and/or structured using these macronutrients can be designed so that they can have a positive impact on health. This may include a reduction in fat, salt or sugar, the protection and targeted release of micronutrients or active ingredients from/to particular parts of the digestive system, improvement of gastrointestinal health or satiety enhancing properties. Such foods can be designed with various macro- and microstructures that will impact on macronutrient release and delivery. These include simple and double emulsions, the use of Pickering particles and shells, nanoparticles, liposomes, gelled networks, fluid gels and gel particles, foams, self-assembled structures, and encapsulated systems. In order to design foods that deliver these benefits understanding of how these structures behave in the gastrointestinal tract is also required, which should involve utilising both in vitro and in vivo studies. This review aims to draw together research in these areas, by focusing on the current state of the art, but also exciting possibilities for future research and food development. PMID:25553863

  15. Executive Cognitive Function and Food Intake in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated relations among neurocognitive skills important for behavioral regulation, and the intake of fruit, vegetables, and snack food in children. Design: Participants completed surveys at a single time point. Setting: Assessments took place during school. Participants: Participants were 107 fourth-grade children

  16. Novel value-added uses for sweet potato juice and flour in polyphenol- and protein-enriched functional food ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackcurrant, blueberry, and muscadine grape juices were efficiently sorbed, concentrated, and stabilized into dry granular ingredient matrices which combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant fruit polyphenols with sweet potato functional constituents (carotenoids, vitamins, polyphenols, fibers). T...

  17. Bioaccessibility of lipophilic micro-constituents from a lipid emulsion.

    PubMed

    Marze, Sébastien

    2015-10-01

    Digestion is an important process, the first one in the conversion of food to energy. From this angle, digestion of nutrients was extensively studied, and this process was found to be very efficient. Nevertheless, many molecules contained in food do not bring energy but are essential as they allow maintaining normal body functions. These are the micro-nutrients, including vitamins and minerals. On top of that, recent nutrition research identified many other bioactive molecules (termed micro-constituents as they only represent a small part of the food) playing a role in the health status, e.g. contributing to the prevention of chronic diseases. However, it was shown that their digestion is much less efficient, especially that of lipophilic micro-constituents (such as lipophilic vitamins, carotenoids, cholesterol and other steroids) depending on food structure and composition. Enhancing their health effects through optimal absorption and bioavailability thus requires a comprehensive knowledge of their release from food within the gastrointestinal tract. To study this step, of which the endpoint is termed bioaccessibility, in vitro digestion methods proved to be well adapted to fundamental research. This review reports the effects of the physicochemical parameters controlling the bioaccessibility of various lipophilic micro-constituents from emulsion. Notably, it appears that this bioaccessibility is related to the bioaccessibility of lipid nutrients, as their kinetics are interrelated. This knowledge will enable the formulation of food in terms of structure and composition to obtain optimal bioaccessibility. As the latter likely controls bioavailability, prevention of some metabolic disorders could be targeted in the long term. PMID:26327276

  18. Overview of the dairy and food processing research conducted at the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit, ERRC, and research to develop sustainable food processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The DFFRU is dedicated to solving critical problems in the utilization of milk and specialty crop byproducts by developing high-quality, value-added functional foods and consumer products. The presentation will give an overview of the research projects that will benefit human health and well-being. ...

  19. General aspects on the assessment of functional foods in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Palou, A; Serra, F; Pico, C

    2003-09-01

    During the last 6 y, the European Union has undergone a profound qualitative change in the focus on food safety problems. In 1997, nine new scientific committees were created, including the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) and the Scientific Steering Committee (SSC), and were put under the auspices of the Directorate General in charge of defending consumer interests and health. The process is foreseen to be completed by the incorporation in 2003 of all food safety activities of these committees into the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Among the immediate challenges in the near future are the scientific and technological developments and the regulatory measures for the so-called 'functional foods', which can positively affect the health and well-being of consumers. Functional foods are a recent phenomenon in Europe and are, as yet, not covered by any specific legislation. The two key aspects in the evaluation of functional foods are safety and efficacy. Whereas safety can be covered under different legislative umbrellas such as novel foods (NFs), foods for particular nutritional purposes, supplements, additives and others, the issue of evaluation of their efficacy is only at a very early stage since the criteria to establish the validity of 'health claims' has not been clearly addressed at a European level. PMID:12947445

  20. Effects of an educational program on intent to consume functional foods.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Suzanne; Kundrat, Susan; Hasler, Clare M

    2002-09-01

    As consumers seek alternate ways to enhance health and prevent disease, incorporating functional foods into nutrition counseling and educational programs will become increasingly important. The Functional Foods for Health Program at the University of Illinois created and distributed 142 functional food educational kits to Illinois registered dietitians (RDs). Twenty-seven RDs presented the kits to consumer groups and returned 530 utilizable program evaluation/consumption questionnaires (370 females, 160 males). The food the highest percentage of participants ate daily was tomato products (18.8%), followed by garlic, broccoli, oats, yogurt, fish, grapes, tea, and soy. The foods the highest percentage of subjects consumed less than monthly were: soy (68.9%), tea (57.8%), grape (44.8%), and yogurt (25.9%). Following the education, at least 74.9% intended to eat more tomatoes, grapes, oats, and broccoli. Our study demonstrates that age, gender, and awareness of health benefits dramatically influence intent to change dietary habits. PMID:12792631

  1. The 2nd International Conference on East-West Perspectives on Functional Foods: Science, Innovations and Claims.

    PubMed

    Florentino, Rodolfo F

    2008-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on East-West Perspective on Functional Foods held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, on November, 2007, discussed the current work on some traditional Asian foods and new technologies that offer both challenges and opportunities for functional foods. The highlight of the conference was on the current regulatory status of nutrition and health claims related to functional foods and the experiences in some countries on the substantiation of claims. Attention was also given to strategies for effective communication of functional foods to consumers. The conference concluded with recommendations to strengthen R and D efforts and harmonization of protocols and methodologies on functional foods within the region. PMID:18818176

  2. Functional responses to food diversity: the effect of seed availability on the feeding of facultative granivores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative importance and availability of different foods to animals is critical in determining how they function within food webs. We examined how the diverse communities of carabid beetles and crickets in a perennial hayfield respond to seed availability numerically and in their feeding behavior...

  3. Coevolution between human's anticancer activities and functional foods from crop origin center in the world.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ya-Wen; Du, Juan; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Jia-Zhen; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shu-Ming; Yang, Xiao-Meng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death around the world. Anticancer activities from many functional food sources have been reported in years, but correlation between cancer prevalence and types of food with anticancer activities from crop origin center in the world as well as food source with human migration are unclear. Hunger from food shortage is the cause of early human evolution from Africa to Asia and later into Eurasia. The richest functional foods are found in crop origin centers, housing about 70% in the world populations. Crop origin centers have lower cancer incidence and mortality in the world, especially Central Asia, Middle East, Southwest China, India and Ethiopia. Asia and Africa with the richest anticancer crops is not only the most important evolution base of humans and origin center of anticancer functional crop, but also is the lowest mortality and incidence of cancers in the world. Cancer prevention of early human migrations was associated with functional foods from crop origin centers, especially Asia with four centers and one subcenter of crop origin, accounting for 58% of the world population. These results reveal that coevolution between human's anticancer activities associated with functional foods for crop origin centers, especially in Asia and Africa. PMID:25824728

  4. Functional foods: a survey of health claims, pros and cons, and current legislation.

    PubMed

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Van Houwelingen-Koukaliaroglou, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Functional foods stand for a new category of remarkably promising foods bearing properties (i.e., low cholesterol, antioxidant, anti-aging, anticancer, etc.) that have already rendered them quite appealing. There are many classes offunctionalfoods (pro- and pre-biotics, dietary fiber, low fat, etc.), and their definition is occasionally confused with that of nutraceuticals and novel foods. Consumers' main skepticism regarding functional foods resides in the veracity of health claims and in the low and often inadequate control of their claimed properties. Legislation concerning this matter is progressing at an extremely low pace and currently only Japan, the U.K., U.S.A., and Scandinavian countries have managed to make notable progress. Moreover, the labeling of functional foods is far from informative, providing scanty information about nutritional value, storage, and cooking recipes. It is anticipated that technological advances in the food industry, in conjunction with extensive clinical trials and governmental control, will eventually guarantee the credibility of health claims and ensure consumers' confidence in functional foods. PMID:16130415

  5. Buckwheat as a Functional Food and Its Effects on Health.

    PubMed

    Gimnez-Bastida, Juan Antonio; Zieli?ski, Henryk

    2015-09-16

    Buckwheat (BW) is a gluten-free pseudocereal that belongs to the Polygonaceae family. BW grain is a highly nutritional food component that has been shown to provide a wide range of beneficial effects. Health benefits attributed to BW include plasma cholesterol level reduction, neuroprotection, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic effects, and improvement of hypertension conditions. In addition, BW has been reported to possess prebiotic and antioxidant activities. In vitro and animal studies suggest that BW's bioactive compounds, such as D-chiro-inositol (DCI), BW proteins (BWP), and BW flavonoids (mainly rutin and quercetin) may be partially responsible for the observed effects. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent research regarding the health benefits of BW, in vitro and in vivo, focusing on the specific role of its bioactive compounds and on the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. PMID:26270637

  6. The advantages of deep ocean water for the development of functional fermentation food.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Lin

    2015-03-01

    Deep ocean water (DOW) is obtained from 600 m below the sea surface. In recent years, DOW has been applied in the development of fermentation biotechnologies and functional foods. DOW is rich in trace minerals, comprises multiple physiological and health functions, and is able to promote microbe growth; therefore, the application of DOW directly benefits the development of the fermentation industry and functional foods. This study integrated the current health functions and applications of DOW with the latest results from studies related to fermentation biotechnology. Subsequently, the influence of applying DOW in fermented functional food development and the effects in health function improvements were summarized. According to the previous studies, the main reasons for the increased effect of fermented functional foods through the application of DOW are increased generation of functional metabolite contents in the microbes, intrinsic health functions of DOW, and the microbial use of mechanisms of converting the absorbed inorganic ions into highly bioavailable organic ions for the human body. These combined advantages not only enhance the health functions of fermentation products but also provide fermentation products with the intrinsic health functions of DOW. PMID:25661817

  7. A Review on Bioactivities of Perilla: Progress in Research on the Functions of Perilla as Medicine and Food

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Perilla is a useful pharmaceutical and food product and is empirically consumed by humans. However, its properties have not been evaluated extensively. In this review, we summarize the progress made in research, focusing on the bioactivities of perilla. There are many in vitro and animal studies on the cytostatic activity and antiallergic effects, respectively, of perilla and its constituents. However, its influence on humans remains unclear. Hence, investigating and clarifying the physiological effects of perilla and its constituents on humans are imperative in the future to adhere to the ideals of evidence-based medicine. PMID:24319488

  8. Acute effects of tea constituents L-theanine, caffeine, and epigallocatechin gallate on cognitive function and mood: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Camfield, David A; Stough, Con; Farrimond, Jonathon; Scholey, Andrew B

    2014-08-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted on 11 randomized placebo-controlled human studies of acute effects of tea constituents L-theanine and epigallocatechin gallate, administered alone or in combination with caffeine, on cognitive function and mood. The outcome measures of mood were alertness, calmness, and contentedness, derived from the Bond-Lader scales, and state anxiety, from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Cognitive measures assessed were attentional switch, intersensory attention, and rapid visual information processing. Standardized mean differences between placebo and treatment groups are presented for each study and outcome measure. Meta-analysis using a random-effects model was conducted when data were available for three or more studies. Evidence of moderate effect sizes in favor of combined caffeine and L-theanine in the first 2 hours postdose were found for outcome measures Bond-Lader alertness, attentional switching accuracy, and, to a lesser extent, some unisensory and multisensory attentional outcomes. Moderator analysis of caffeine and L-theanine doses revealed trends toward greater change in effect size for caffeine dose than for L-theanine dose, particularly during the first hour postdose. PMID:24946991

  9. Novel value-added uses for sweet potato juice and flour in polyphenol- and protein-enriched functional food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Grace, Mary H; Truong, An N; Truong, Van-Den; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2015-09-01

    Blackcurrant, blueberry, and muscadine grape juices were efficiently sorbed, concentrated, and stabilized into dry granular ingredient matrices which combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant fruit polyphenols with sweet potato functional constituents (carotenoids, vitamins, polyphenols, fibers). Total phenolics were highest in blackcurrant-orange sweet potato ingredient matrices (34.03 mg/g), and lowest in muscadine grape-yellow sweet potato matrices (10.56 mg/g). Similarly, anthocyanins were most concentrated in blackcurrant-fortified orange and yellow sweet potato matrices (5.40 and 6.54 mg/g, respectively). Alternatively, other protein-rich edible matrices (defatted soy flour, light roasted peanut flour, and rice protein concentrate) efficiently captured polyphenols (6.09-9.46 mg/g) and anthocyanins (0.77-1.27 mg/g) from purple-fleshed sweet potato juice, with comparable efficiency. Antioxidant activity correlated well with total phenolic content. All formulated ingredient matrices stabilized and preserved polyphenols for up to 24 weeks, even when stored at 37°C. Complexation with juice-derived polyphenols did not significantly alter protein or carbohydrate profiles of the matrices. Sensory evaluation of the ingredient matrices suggested potential uses for a wide range of functional food products. PMID:26405527

  10. Novel value-added uses for sweet potato juice and flour in polyphenol- and protein-enriched functional food ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Mary H; Truong, An N; Truong, Van-Den; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Blackcurrant, blueberry, and muscadine grape juices were efficiently sorbed, concentrated, and stabilized into dry granular ingredient matrices which combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant fruit polyphenols with sweet potato functional constituents (carotenoids, vitamins, polyphenols, fibers). Total phenolics were highest in blackcurrant-orange sweet potato ingredient matrices (34.03 mg/g), and lowest in muscadine grape-yellow sweet potato matrices (10.56 mg/g). Similarly, anthocyanins were most concentrated in blackcurrant-fortified orange and yellow sweet potato matrices (5.40 and 6.54 mg/g, respectively). Alternatively, other protein-rich edible matrices (defatted soy flour, light roasted peanut flour, and rice protein concentrate) efficiently captured polyphenols (6.09–9.46 mg/g) and anthocyanins (0.77–1.27 mg/g) from purple-fleshed sweet potato juice, with comparable efficiency. Antioxidant activity correlated well with total phenolic content. All formulated ingredient matrices stabilized and preserved polyphenols for up to 24 weeks, even when stored at 37°C. Complexation with juice-derived polyphenols did not significantly alter protein or carbohydrate profiles of the matrices. Sensory evaluation of the ingredient matrices suggested potential uses for a wide range of functional food products. PMID:26405527

  11. Relation between dairy food intake and cognitive function: The Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, G.E.; Elias, M.F.; Dore, G.A.; Robbins, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Diet modification to alter the course of age-related cognitive decline is becoming increasingly important. Few observational findings suggest that dairy food intake may be positively related to cognitive function, but research in this novel area is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dairy food intake is associated with cognitive function, before and after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. To do this, a cross-sectional analyses of a subset of the community-based Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS) sample (N = 972) was undertaken. It was determined that participants who consumed dairy products at least once per day had significantly higher scores on multiple domains of cognitive function compared with those who never or rarely consumed dairy foods, adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle and dietary factors. Frequent dairy food intake is associated with better cognitive performance but underlying causal mechanisms are still to be determined. PMID:24453407

  12. Suitability of polystyrene as a functional barrier layer in coloured food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Genualdi, Susan; Addo Ntim, Susana; Begley, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Functional barriers in food contact materials (FCMs) are used to prevent or reduce migration from inner layers in multilayer structures to food. The effectiveness of functional barrier layers was investigated in coloured polystyrene (PS) bowls due to their intended condition of use with hot liquids such as soups or stew. Migration experiments were performed over a 10-day period using USFDA-recommended food simulants (10% ethanol, 50% ethanol, corn oil and Miglyol) along with several other food oils. At the end of the 10 days, solvent dyes had migrated from the PS bowls at 12, 1 and 31,000 ng cm(-)(2) into coconut oil, palm kernel oil and Miglyol respectively, and in coconut oil and Miglyol the colour change was visible to the human eye. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed that the functional barrier was no longer intact for the bowls exposed to coconut oil, palm kernel oil, Miglyol, 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol and goat's milk. Additional tests showed that 1-dodecanol, a lauryl alcohol derived from palm kernel oil and coconut oil, was present in the PS bowls at an average concentration of 11 mg kg(-1). This compound is likely to have been used as a dispersing agent for the solvent dye and aided the migration of the solvent dye from the PS bowl into the food simulant. The solvent dye was not found in the 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol and goat's milk food simulants above their respective limits of detection, which is likely to be due to its insolubility in aqueous solutions. A disrupted barrier layer is of concern because if there are unregulated materials in the inner layers of the laminate, they may migrate to food, and therefore be considered unapproved food additives resulting in the food being deemed adulterated under the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act. PMID:25569333

  13. Understanding heterogeneity among elderly consumers: an evaluation of segmentation approaches in the functional food market.

    PubMed

    van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-06-01

    It is beneficial for both the public health community and the food industry to meet nutritional needs of elderly consumers through product formats that they want. The heterogeneity of the elderly market poses a challenge, however, and calls for market segmentation. Although many researchers have proposed ways to segment the elderly consumer population, the elderly food market has received surprisingly little attention in this respect. Therefore, the present paper reviewed eight potential segmentation bases on their appropriateness in the context of functional foods aimed at the elderly: cognitive age, life course, time perspective, demographics, general food beliefs, food choice motives, product attributes and benefits sought, and past purchase. Each of the segmentation bases had strengths as well as weaknesses regarding seven evaluation criteria. Given that both product design and communication are useful tools to increase the appeal of functional foods, we argue that elderly consumers in this market may best be segmented using a preference-based segmentation base that is predictive of behaviour (for example, attributes and benefits sought), combined with a characteristics-based segmentation base that describes consumer characteristics (for example, demographics). In the end, the effectiveness of (combinations of) segmentation bases for elderly consumers in the functional food market remains an empirical matter. We hope that the present review stimulates further empirical research that substantiates the ideas presented in this paper. PMID:24924413

  14. Knowledge, perceptions and preferences of elderly regarding protein-enriched functional food.

    PubMed

    van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, Ren A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-09-01

    Promoting protein consumption in the elderly population may contribute to improving the quality of their later years in life. Our study aimed to explore knowledge, perceptions and preferences of elderly consumers regarding protein-enriched food. We conducted three focus groups with independently living (ID) elderly (N?=?24, Mage?=?67?years) and three with elderly living in a residential home (RH) (N?=?18, Mage?=?83?years). Both the ID and RH elderly were predominantly sceptical about functional food in general. Confusion, distrust and a perceived lack of personal relevance were main perceived barriers to purchasing and consuming these products, although a majority of the participants did report occasionally consuming at least one type of functional food. For the ID elderly, medical advice was an important facilitator that could overcome barriers to purchasing and consuming protein-enriched food, indicating the importance of personal relevance for this group. For the RH elderly, in contrast, sensory appeal of protein-enriched foods was a facilitator. Carrier preferences were similar for the two groups; the elderly preferred protein-enriched foods based on healthy products that they consumed frequently. Future studies should explore ways to deal with the confusion and distrust regarding functional food within the heterogeneous population of elderly. PMID:24798761

  15. Hedonic ratings and perceived healthiness in experimental functional food choices.

    PubMed

    Urala, Nina; Lhteenmki, Liisa

    2006-11-01

    The associations of liking and perceived healthiness ratings between repeated food choices were studied in two experiments. Participants' snack bar (n=41, Experiment I) and beverage (n=60, Experiment II) choices among six product alternatives were monitored for 4 and 3 weeks, respectively. In Experiment I, participants were allowed to familiarise themselves with snack bar alternatives ("familiar assortment") prior to making choices. In Experiment II, the participants started making their beverage choices without familiarising themselves ("unfamiliar assortment"). In both experiments, the participants were divided into three groups according to their choice behaviour for each alternative: non-interested (0 choices), experimenters (1 choice) and potential frequent users (2 or more choices). In Experiment I, the overall difference between non-interested and potential frequent users of a product was 1.3 points in expected liking and 2.6 points in actual liking on a 7-point scale (ANOVA, p<0.001). In Experiment II, the overall differences in blind hedonic ratings between non-interested participants and potential frequent users of a product were within a range of 0.9 points (p<0.001). The difference was wider for expected liking ratings, 1.3 points (p<0.001). Neither the perceived healthiness of the samples nor the background attitudes could be consistently associated with the choices (Pearson's correlation coefficient). PMID:16859808

  16. Aloe vera as a functional ingredient in foods.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez Rodrguez, Elena; Darias Martn, Jacinto; Daz Romero, Carlos

    2010-04-01

    The main scientific discoveries on Aloe vera published mainly in the last three decades are presented in this work. After describing Aloe from a botanical point of view, the papers related with the chemical composition of different parts of the leaf of Aloe, particularly those in which the gel is described and are presented in a synthetic manner. The chemical analyses reveal that Aloe gel contains mannose polymers with some glucose and other sugars, among which the most important is Acemannan. Besides these, other components such as glycoproteins, enzymes, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals are described. Different factors also affecting the chemical composition of the gel, such as species and variety, climatic and soil conditions, cultivation methods, processing and preservation, are enumerated and discussed. On the other hand, the main therapeutic applications have been revised and the possible damaging effects of Aloe are also commented upon. A special emphasis is placed on the biologically active compounds or groups of compounds responsible for the therapeutic applications and which are their action mechanisms. The paper concludes that more research is needed to confirm the therapeutic and beneficial effects and to definitively clarify the myth surrounding Aloe vera. A general view on the problem of the commercialization and establishment of the quality and safety of Aloe products in the food industry has been offered here. The main points and European regulations that need to be considered regarding the quality control of prepared Aloe products are presented in this paper. PMID:20301017

  17. Ecological-network models link diversity, structure and function in the plankton food-web

    PubMed Central

    D’Alelio, Domenico; Libralato, Simone; Wyatt, Timothy; Ribera d’Alcalà, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    A planktonic food-web model including sixty-three functional nodes (representing auto- mixo- and heterotrophs) was developed to integrate most trophic diversity present in the plankton. The model was implemented in two variants - which we named ‘green’ and ‘blue’ - characterized by opposite amounts of phytoplankton biomass and representing, respectively, bloom and non-bloom states of the system. Taxonomically disaggregated food-webs described herein allowed to shed light on how components of the plankton community changed their trophic behavior in the two different conditions, and modified the overall functioning of the plankton food web. The green and blue food-webs showed distinct organizations in terms of trophic roles of the nodes and carbon fluxes between them. Such re-organization stemmed from switches in selective grazing by both metazoan and protozoan consumers. Switches in food-web structure resulted in relatively small differences in the efficiency of material transfer towards higher trophic levels. For instance, from green to blue states, a seven-fold decrease in phytoplankton biomass translated into only a two-fold decrease in potential planktivorous fish biomass. By linking diversity, structure and function in the plankton food-web, we discuss the role of internal mechanisms, relying on species-specific functionalities, in driving the ‘adaptive’ responses of plankton communities to perturbations. PMID:26883643

  18. Ecological-network models link diversity, structure and function in the plankton food-web.

    PubMed

    D'Alelio, Domenico; Libralato, Simone; Wyatt, Timothy; Ribera d'Alcalà, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    A planktonic food-web model including sixty-three functional nodes (representing auto- mixo- and heterotrophs) was developed to integrate most trophic diversity present in the plankton. The model was implemented in two variants - which we named 'green' and 'blue' - characterized by opposite amounts of phytoplankton biomass and representing, respectively, bloom and non-bloom states of the system. Taxonomically disaggregated food-webs described herein allowed to shed light on how components of the plankton community changed their trophic behavior in the two different conditions, and modified the overall functioning of the plankton food web. The green and blue food-webs showed distinct organizations in terms of trophic roles of the nodes and carbon fluxes between them. Such re-organization stemmed from switches in selective grazing by both metazoan and protozoan consumers. Switches in food-web structure resulted in relatively small differences in the efficiency of material transfer towards higher trophic levels. For instance, from green to blue states, a seven-fold decrease in phytoplankton biomass translated into only a two-fold decrease in potential planktivorous fish biomass. By linking diversity, structure and function in the plankton food-web, we discuss the role of internal mechanisms, relying on species-specific functionalities, in driving the 'adaptive' responses of plankton communities to perturbations. PMID:26883643

  19. [Introduction of Functional Foods--Types, Manufacturing Methods and Quality Assurance].

    PubMed

    Budai, Kinga Anna; Hank, Balzs; AntalL, Istvn; Zelk, Romna

    2015-01-01

    Because of the beneficial effects to health functional foods are important elements of health promotion. The positive effect of the functional components should be based on scientific evidence-based. In addition to the traditional food processing technology new technologies have appeared, e.g. microencapsulation, edible coatings and orodispersible films, nano-technology, vacuum impregnation. In the present study, probiotics and the structure, the production and the impact of prebiotic functional cereals are discussed in more detail. In addition to their numerous advantages in connection with the safe application, several questions arise because of inadequate quality control measures prior to coming onto the market. PMID:26642648

  20. Loss-of-function variants of the filaggrin gene are associated with clinical reactivity to foods.

    PubMed

    van Ginkel, C D; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J; Kollen, B J; Kukler, J; Koppelman, G H; Dubois, A E J

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the genetic association of Filaggrin loss-of-function (FLG LOF) genetic variants with food allergy, and to investigate the added value of this test in diagnosing food allergy. Clinical reactivity to foods was diagnosed by the gold standard, the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Of 155 children, 33 (21.3%) children had at least one FLG LOF variant, and of these, 29 (87.9%) were clinically reactive to at least one food, compared to 73 of 122 children (59.8%) carrying wild-type alleles. The odds ratio for having at least one FLG LOF variant and clinical reactivity to at least one food was 4.9 (CI = 1.6-14.7, P = 0.005), corresponding to a relative risk of 1.5, compared to carriers of wild-type alleles. Prediction of food allergy improved when FLG LOF variants were included in the model. Therefore, genetic markers may be useful as an addition to clinical assessment in the diagnosis of food allergy. PMID:25620092

  1. Industry and Consumers Awareness for Effective Management of Functional Animal-based Foods in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wi, Seo-Hyun; Park, Jung-Min; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jae-Woo; Kim, Jin-Man

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, manufacturers of animal-based foods with health claims have encountered difficulties in the labeling of their products because of a lack of regulation on defining the functionality of animal-based foods. Therefore, this study was conducted to establish the basic requirements for the development of a definition for functional animal-based foods by investigating consumer and industry awareness. Survey data were collected from 114 industry representatives and 1,100 consumers. The questions of the survey included items on production status and future production plans, functionality labeling, promotion plans, establishment of definition, the role of the government, consumer perception, and selection of products. The results show that both industry representatives and consumers believe that legislation and the provision of scientific evidence should be improved for the development of a functional animal-based foods market. The results obtained from this study will contribute to consumer trust by supplying correct information and can be utilized in the industry as basic data for the development of functional animal-based food products. PMID:24551825

  2. Functional foods and nutraceuticals in the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Alissa, Eman M; Ferns, Gordon A

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Dietary factors are important in the pathogenesis of CVD and may to a large degree determine CVD risk, but have been less extensively investigated. Functional foods are those that are thought to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond their basic nutritional functions. The food industry has started to market products labelled as "functional foods." Although many review articles have focused on individual dietary variables as determinants of CVD that can be modified to reduce the risk of CVD, the aim of this current paper was to examine the impact of functional foods in relation to the development and progression of CVD. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the association between certain dietary patterns and cardiovascular health. Research into the cardio-protective potential of their dietary components might support the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This paper will also compare the effect of individual bioactive dietary compounds with the effect of some dietary patterns in terms of their cardiovascular protection. PMID:22570771

  3. Influence of nutritional knowledge on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastn; Gimnez, Ana; Gmbaro, Adriana

    2008-11-01

    In order to assess the influence of nutritional knowledge on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods, 104 consumers filled out a Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire and answered a conjoint task. Participants had to evaluate 16 concepts consisting of combinations of carrier products (yogurt, milk desserts, pan bread and mayonnaise) and nutritional modifications (regular product, low-fat, enriched with antioxidants, and enriched with fibre). Three groups of consumers were identified with different level of nutritional knowledge. Highly significant differences were found in the healthiness evaluations of the clusters, which mainly depended on nutritional knowledge related to the links of diet and diseases. Highly significant differences in willingness to try functional foods were also found between the clusters. Whereas consumers with the lowest nutritional knowledge were not interested in consuming functional foods, the addition of fibre or antioxidants to healthy products increased the willingness of consumers with the highest level of nutritional knowledge to try the evaluated functional foods. These results suggested that lack of nutritional knowledge might limit the acceptance of functional foods and thus the use of health claims might be necessary to assure that consumers are aware of their health benefits. PMID:18582509

  4. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Alissa, Eman M.; Ferns, Gordon A.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Dietary factors are important in the pathogenesis of CVD and may to a large degree determine CVD risk, but have been less extensively investigated. Functional foods are those that are thought to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond their basic nutritional functions. The food industry has started to market products labelled as “functional foods.” Although many review articles have focused on individual dietary variables as determinants of CVD that can be modified to reduce the risk of CVD, the aim of this current paper was to examine the impact of functional foods in relation to the development and progression of CVD. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the association between certain dietary patterns and cardiovascular health. Research into the cardio-protective potential of their dietary components might support the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This paper will also compare the effect of individual bioactive dietary compounds with the effect of some dietary patterns in terms of their cardiovascular protection. PMID:22570771

  5. Resistance of functional Lactobacillus plantarum strains against food stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Vernica; Quiberoni, Andrea; Reinhemer, Jorge; Surez, Viviana

    2015-06-01

    The survival of three Lactobacillus plantarum strains (Lp 790, Lp 813 and Lp 998) with functional properties was studied taking into account their resistance to thermal, osmotic and oxidative stress factors. Stress treatments applied were: 52C-15min (Phosphate Buffer pH 7, thermal shock), H2O2 0.1% (p/v) - 30min (oxidative shock) and NaCl aqueous solution at 17, 25 and 30% (p/v) (room temperature - 1h, osmotic shock). The osmotic stress was also evaluated on cell growth in MRS broth added of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% (p/v) of NaCl, during 20h at 30C. The cell thermal adaptation was performed in MRS broth, selecting 45C for 30min as final conditions for all strains. Two strains (Lp 813 and Lp 998) showed, in general, similar behaviour against the three stress factors, being clearly more resistant than Lp 790. An evident difference in growth kinetics in presence of NaCl was observed between Lp 998 and Lp 813, Lp998 showing a higher optical density (OD570nm) than Lp 813 at the end of the assay. Selected thermal adaptation improved by 2 log orders the thermal resistance of both strains, but cell growth in presence of NaCl was enhanced only in Lp 813. Oxidative resistance was not affected with this thermal pre-treatment. These results demonstrate the relevance of cell technological resistance when selecting presumptive "probiotic" cultures, since different stress factors might considerably affect viability or/and performance of the strains. The incidence of stress conditions on functional properties of the strains used in this work are currently under research in our group. PMID:25790993

  6. Obesity, orbitofrontal structure and function are associated with food choice: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jessica I; Yates, Kathy F; Duong, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Obesity is on the rise in the US and is linked to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Emerging evidence over the last decade suggests that obesity may also adversely affect executive function and brain structure. Although a great deal of research focuses on how diet affects the brain and cognitive performance, no study focuses on how food choice may be associated with brain integrity. Here we investigated how lean and overweight/obese (o/o) adults differed in their food choices and how brain structure and cognition may be associated with those choices. Design As part of an ongoing study on diabetes and the brain, participants had routine blood work and a research MRI, received a battery of neurocognitive tests, and were instructed to keep a 3-day food diary. Results and conclusions The lean group ate more high quality foods and less low quality foods compared to the o/o group. In the o/o group, high quality food choices were associated with orbitofrontal cortex volume. The lean group performed better than the o/o group on neurocognitive measures of executive function, such as the Stroop Interference Test, the Wisconsin Card Sort Test and the Trail Making Test B-A, and on attention and concentration tasks such as the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Taken together, these preliminary data suggest that in obesity poor food choices may be associated with frontal cognitive impairments that may be the result of, or contribute to, decreases in orbitofrontal cortex volume. Therefore, longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate a causal link between food choice and executive functioning. PMID:22021878

  7. Functional effects of food components and the gastrointestinal system: chicory fructooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Roberfroid, M B

    1996-11-01

    Functional food science, as recently proposed by ILSI Europe, opens new perspectives in nutrition and food sciences. The systematic investigation of the interactions between food components or food ingredients and genomic, biochemical, cellular, or physiological functions is a unique way to improve both our knowledge and the role of nutrition in maintaining good health and in preventing disease. However, such basic knowledge is insufficient to justify claims, unless it is confirmed through relevant nutrition studies aimed at demonstrating the same effect and its positive consequences in humans. In the first stage, this demonstration will in most cases justify functional (physiological) claims (e.g., bifidogenic effect for fructooligosaccharides, bulking effect for nondigestible carbohydrates, protection against oxidative stress for antioxidants) with no reference to any health benefit. A true health claim will require, in most cases, additional studies involving large populations and long-term trials. It is anticipated that the better we understand the mechanism of interactions between food components and specific biological functions, the more we will be able to demonstrate functional effects, and the easier it will be to accumulate convincing evidence in favor of health promotion or disease prevention. Because of both its direct contact with eaten foods and the diversity of its functions, the GI system is a potential target for many functional effects. Until now, only a limited number of these effects have been investigated so as to justify functional claims. Improvement of glucose absorption (leading to physiological glycemia and insulinemia), modulation of GI transit time, fecal bulking, acidification of colonic content, and control of cholesterol bioavailability are all recognized effects of dietary fiber. Balanced colonic microflora and immunostimulation are attributed to the consumption of probiotics. Prebiotics selectively modify the colonic microbiota and modulate hepatic lipogenesis. According to the ILSI Europe strategy for the development of functional foods, all these effects are of interest. Their support by sound scientific arguments will be a necessary condition for their implementation in food science and nutrition for the benefit of human health. PMID:9110574

  8. [The analysis of international legislation in the field of regulation of functional foods claims].

    PubMed

    Bagriantseva, O V; Mazo, V K; Shatrov, G N

    2012-01-01

    It is known that manufacturers quite often put into foodstuff marking or advertisement the information about its beneficial action into the consumers health, i.e. about its functional qualities. However in Russian Federation the rules are regulated using of term "functional foods" doesn't established. In the review of legislation acts which are regulated of using claims in the foodstuff marking or advertisement in the different countries have been shown that claims concerning of energy and nutritional values of foods (beneficial nutrition claims) should be used in compliance with established rules without additional investigations. Food health claims referring to the reduction of disease risk and (or) functional foods claims for children must maintain in compliance with established procedure. Only claims that have scientific evidence about its beneficial for health could be recommended for approval. Thereupon insistent necessity in development, discussion and approval regulation in the field of using Claims concerning the functional qualities of foods (described rules of using beneficial nutrition claims and claims referring to the reduction of disease risk and to children's development and growth) in Russian Federation and United Customs Union (EurAsEU) are obvious. PMID:23156044

  9. Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger.

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, Lisette; van der Laan, Laura N; Viergever, Max A; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI) studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low). Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (pre)cuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject's low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food's biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance. PMID:26167916

  10. Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger

    PubMed Central

    Charbonnier, Lisette; van der Laan, Laura N.; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A. M.

    2015-01-01

    We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI) studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low). Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (pre)cuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject’s low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food’s biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance. PMID:26167916

  11. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California

  12. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  13. Advances in Microalgae-Derived Phytosterols for Functional Food and Pharmaceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xuan; Su, Peng; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae contain a variety of bioactive lipids with potential applications in aquaculture feed, biofuel, food and pharmaceutical industries. While microalgae-derived polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and their roles in promoting human health have been extensively studied, other lipid types from this resource, such as phytosterols, have been poorly explored. Phytosterols have been used as additives in many food products such as spread, dairy products and salad dressing. This review focuses on the recent advances in microalgae-derived phytosterols with functional bioactivities and their potential applications in functional food and pharmaceutical industries. It highlights the importance of microalgae-derived lipids other than PUFA for the development of an advanced microalgae industry. PMID:26184233

  14. HPLC and HPLC-MS as tools to monitor the quality of vegetable oils, nutraceuticals, and functional foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HPLC and HPLC-MS have become valuable tools to analyze the functional lipids in vegetable oils, nutraceuticals, functional foods, and conventional foods. These functional lipids include phytosterols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. These analytical methods have provided a means to id...

  15. Food supplementation and testosterone interact to influence reproductive behavior and immune function in Sceloporous graciosus

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Mayt; French, Susannah S.; Demas, Gregory E.; Martins, Emlia P.

    2009-01-01

    The energetic resources in an organisms environment are essential for executing a wide range of life history functions, including immunity and reproduction. Most energetic budgets, however, are limited, which can lead to trade-offs among competing functions. Increasing reproductive effort tends to decrease immunity in many cases; and increasing total energy via supplemental feedings can eliminate this effect. Testosterone (T), an important regulator of reproduction, and food availability are thus both potential factors regulating life-history processes, yet they are often tested in isolation of each other. In this study, we considered the effect of both food availability and elevated T on immune function and reproductive behavior in sagebrush lizards, Sceloporus graciosus, to assess how T and energy availability affect these trade-offs. We experimentally manipulated diet (via supplemental feedings) and T (via dermal patches) in males from a natural population. We determined innate immune response by calculating the bacterial killing capability of collected plasma exposed to E. coli ex vivo. We measured reproductive behavior by counting the number of courtship displays produced in a 20-min sampling period. We observed an interactive effect of food availability and T-patch on immune function, with food supplementation increasing immunity in T-patch lizards. Additionally, T increased courtship displays in control food lizards. Lizards with supplemental food had higher circulating T than controls. Collectively, this study shows that the energetic state of the animal plays a critical role in modulating the interactions among T, behavior and immunity in sagebrush lizards and likely other species. PMID:19800885

  16. Food supplementation and testosterone interact to influence reproductive behavior and immune function in Sceloporus graciosus.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Mayt; French, Susannah S; Demas, Gregory E; Martins, Emlia P

    2010-02-01

    The energetic resources in an organism's environment are essential for executing a wide range of life-history functions, including immunity and reproduction. Most energetic budgets, however, are limited, which can lead to trade-offs among competing functions. Increasing reproductive effort tends to decrease immunity in many cases, and increasing total energy via supplemental feedings can eliminate this effect. Testosterone (T), an important regulator of reproduction, and food availability are thus both potential factors regulating life-history processes, yet they are often tested in isolation of each other. In this study, we considered the effect of both food availability and elevated T on immune function and reproductive behavior in sagebrush lizards, Sceloporus graciosus, to assess how T and energy availability affect these trade-offs. We experimentally manipulated diet (via supplemental feedings) and T (via dermal patches) in males from a natural population. We determined innate immune response by calculating the bacterial killing capability of collected plasma exposed to Escherichia coli ex vivo. We measured reproductive behavior by counting the number of courtship displays produced in a 20-min sampling period. We observed an interactive effect of food availability and T-patch on immune function, with food supplementation increasing immunity in T-patch lizards. Additionally, T increased courtship displays in control food lizards. Lizards with supplemental food had higher circulating T than controls. Collectively, this study shows that the energetic state of the animal plays a critical role in modulating the interactions among T, behavior and immunity in sagebrush lizards and likely other species. PMID:19800885

  17. Child and parent perceived food-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is unknown whether children with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders identify specific foods that exacerbate their GI symptoms. The objectives of this study were to determine the perceived role of food on GI symptoms and to determine the impact of food-induced symptoms on quality of life (...

  18. Glycemic responses and sensory characteristics of whole yellow pea flour added to novel functional foods.

    PubMed

    Marinangeli, Christopher P F; Kassis, Amira N; Jones, Peter J H

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental understanding regarding postprandial glycemic responses to foods containing whole yellow-pea flour (WYPF) remains unknown. This, alongside concerns that WYPF possesses unfavorable sensory characteristics has limited the incorporation of WYPF into new functional food products as a healthy novel ingredient. The objective of this study was to evaluate how WYPF modulates postprandial glycemic responses as well as sensory characteristics in novel foods. In a single-blind crossover trial, the present study assessed postprandial glycemic responses of banana bread, biscotti, and spaghetti containing either WYPF or whole wheat flour (WWF). Boiled yellow peas (BYP) and white bread (WB) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. On day 1, subjects evaluated appearance, taste, texture, smell as well as overall acceptance of each WYPF and WWF food on a 5-point hedonic scale. WYPF banana bread (97.9 +/- 17.8 mmol x min/L) and biscotti (83 +/- 13 mmol x min/L), as well as BYP (112.3 +/- 19.9 mmol x min/L), reduced (P < 0.05) glycemic responses compared to WB (218.1 +/- 29.5 mmol x min/L). The glycemic response of WYPF pasta (160.7 +/- 19.4 mmol x min/L) was comparable to WB. WYPF biscotti produced a lower (P = 0.019) postprandial glycemic response compared to WWF biscotti (117.2 +/- 13.1 mmol x min/L). Hedonic responses between corresponding foods were similar except for the WYPF pasta (2.9 +/- 0.9) which possessed a lower sensory score (P = 0.02) for smell compared to WWF pasta (3.6 +/- 1). WYPF can be used to produce low-glycemic functional foods possessing sensory attributes that are comparable to identical food products containing WWF. PMID:20492127

  19. Rubus fruticosus L.: constituents, biological activities and health related uses.

    PubMed

    Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Moga, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food. PMID:25072202

  20. Functional foods for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases: cholesterol and beyond.

    PubMed

    Rudkowska, Iwona; Jones, Peter J H

    2007-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of death and disability in many developed countries. The purpose of this literature review is to establish a recommendation for the intake of functional food ingredients in a healthy diet--such as plant sterols (PSs) in low-fat and functional matrices, fatty acid composition and other nutrients of tree nuts and flavonoids in dark chocolate--for the prevention and treatment of CVD. These three specific functional foods are explored in this review, since there is a higher potential for their increased consumption by the population to prevent CVD. First, PS have been added to various nontraditional matrices, such as low-fat products and functional oils, which have shown cholesterol-lowering effects in most clinical trials. Secondly, a growing number of clinical studies indicate that the beneficial effect of tree nuts may not only be due to their fatty acid composition but to other key nutrients, which may provide supplementary health benefits, such as endothelial cell function, as well as decreasing total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Lastly, flavonoids in dark chocolate may protect LDL-C particles from undergoing oxidative modification. However, some gaps in our knowledge need to be filled before firm recommendations can be made for habitual dark chocolate consumption. Overall, these functional foods should be considered as an addition to current lipid-lowering recommendations for improving CVD risk. PMID:17489672

  1. Notothenioid fish, krill and phytoplankton from Antarctica contain a vitamin E constituent (alpha-tocomonoenol) functionally associated with cold-water adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Walter C; Fujisawa, Akio; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Moylan, Thomas J; Sidell, Bruce D

    2002-11-01

    The vitamin E (VE) content of tissues from the Antarctic notothenioid fish, Chaenocephalus aceratus, Champsocephalus gunnari and Gobionotothen gibberifrons, and extracts of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba and phytoplankton collected from the Antarctic Peninsula was examined. Included in the VE composition was a newly described 'marine-derived' tocopherol (MDT), an unsaturated-isoprenoid derivative of alpha-tocopherol, that is attributed to enhancing antioxidant protection of cellular lipids at low temperature. MDT was found to co-exist with alpha-tocopherol in all Antarctic samples, ranging from 2.8 to 22.3% of the total VE composition. The highest level of VE was found in the liver of G. gibberifrons (VE=416.7 pmol/mg wet tissue) although this tissue had a low MDT composition (7.7%), whereas the greatest MDT composition was measured in the liver of C. gunnari (MDT=22.3%). In notothenioids, the pectoral adductor muscle, which has a high density of mitochondria, contained higher levels of VE than white myotomal muscle, but differences in MDT composition were small. Phytoplankton and krill also contained MDT, which supports the contention that MDT is obtained directly from the primary food chain. Our finding of MDT in Antarctic organisms is consistent with its putatively adaptive function to enhance antioxidant protection in coldwater metabolism. PMID:12431397

  2. A flood of health functional foods: what is to be recommended?

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Sil

    2015-04-01

    Health functional food is referred to a food prepared or processed from specific components or ingredients for functionality beneficial to the body through extraction, concentration, purification, blending and other methods. The demand for health functional foods is steadily increasing, and red ginseng is the most demanded food among women in the 50s, followed by multivitamin, omega-3, glucosamine and aloe. To date, there is insufficient evidence on the effect of red ginseng on exercise capacity, somatic symptom and cognitive performance in healthy individuals. Moreover, evidence is insufficient that a nutritional dose of vitamin or mineral reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease and cancer, or mortality rate. A steady intake of oily fish is recommended to prevent the incidence of cardiovascular disease for postmenopausal women. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids is expected to prevent cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women with almost no intake of oily fish and those not taking statins. It still remains controversial whether glucosamine is effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Hence, physicians should fully inform patients with all controversial information about the effectiveness of glucosamine when prescribing glucosamine for patients with osteoarthritis. PMID:26046032

  3. A Flood of Health Functional Foods: What Is to Be Recommended?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Health functional food is referred to a food prepared or processed from specific components or ingredients for functionality beneficial to the body through extraction, concentration, purification, blending and other methods. The demand for health functional foods is steadily increasing, and red ginseng is the most demanded food among women in the 50s, followed by multivitamin, omega-3, glucosamine and aloe. To date, there is insufficient evidence on the effect of red ginseng on exercise capacity, somatic symptom and cognitive performance in healthy individuals. Moreover, evidence is insufficient that a nutritional dose of vitamin or mineral reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease and cancer, or mortality rate. A steady intake of oily fish is recommended to prevent the incidence of cardiovascular disease for postmenopausal women. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids is expected to prevent cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women with almost no intake of oily fish and those not taking statins. It still remains controversial whether glucosamine is effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Hence, physicians should fully inform patients with all controversial information about the effectiveness of glucosamine when prescribing glucosamine for patients with osteoarthritis. PMID:26046032

  4. Functional foods, herbs and nutraceuticals: towards biochemical mechanisms of healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Carlos K B

    2004-01-01

    Aging is associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions, which trigger membrane leakage, release of reactive species from oxygen and nitrogen and subsequent induction of peroxidative reactions that result in biomolecules' damaging and releasing of metals with amplification of free radicals discharge. Free radicals induce neuronal cell death increasing tissue loss, which could be associated with memory detriment. These pathological events are involved in cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and carcinogenic processes. Dietary bioactive compounds from different functional foods, herbs and nutraceuticals (ginseng, ginkgo, nuts, grains, tomato, soy phytoestrogens, curcumin, melatonin, polyphenols, antioxidant vitamins, carnitine, carnosine, ubiquinone, etc.) can ameliorate or even prevent diseases. Protection from chronic diseases of aging involves antioxidant activities, mitochondrial stabilizing functions, metal chelating activities, inhibition of apoptosis of vital cells, and induction of cancer cell apoptosis. Functional foods and nutraceuticals constitute a great promise to improve health and prevent aging-related chronic diseases. PMID:15547316

  5. Preventive and Prophylactic Mechanisms of Action of Pomegranate Bioactive Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Viladomiu, Monica; Hontecillas, Raquel; Lu, Pinyi; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit presents strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiobesity, and antitumoral properties, thus leading to an increased popularity as a functional food and nutraceutical source since ancient times. It can be divided into three parts: seeds, peel, and juice, all of which seem to have medicinal benefits. Several studies investigate its bioactive components as a means to associate them with a specific beneficial effect and develop future products and therapeutic applications. Many beneficial effects are related to the presence of ellagic acid, ellagitannins (including punicalagins), punicic acid and other fatty acids, flavonoids, anthocyanidins, anthocyanins, estrogenic flavonols, and flavones, which seem to be its most therapeutically beneficial components. However, the synergistic action of the pomegranate constituents appears to be superior when compared to individual constituents. Promising results have been obtained for the treatment of certain diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, intestinal inflammation, and cancer. Although moderate consumption of pomegranate does not result in adverse effects, future studies are needed to assess safety and potential interactions with drugs that may alter the bioavailability of bioactive constituents of pomegranate as well as drugs. The aim of this review is to summarize the health effects and mechanisms of action of pomegranate extracts in chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:23737845

  6. Preventive and prophylactic mechanisms of action of pomegranate bioactive constituents.

    PubMed

    Viladomiu, Monica; Hontecillas, Raquel; Lu, Pinyi; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit presents strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiobesity, and antitumoral properties, thus leading to an increased popularity as a functional food and nutraceutical source since ancient times. It can be divided into three parts: seeds, peel, and juice, all of which seem to have medicinal benefits. Several studies investigate its bioactive components as a means to associate them with a specific beneficial effect and develop future products and therapeutic applications. Many beneficial effects are related to the presence of ellagic acid, ellagitannins (including punicalagins), punicic acid and other fatty acids, flavonoids, anthocyanidins, anthocyanins, estrogenic flavonols, and flavones, which seem to be its most therapeutically beneficial components. However, the synergistic action of the pomegranate constituents appears to be superior when compared to individual constituents. Promising results have been obtained for the treatment of certain diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, intestinal inflammation, and cancer. Although moderate consumption of pomegranate does not result in adverse effects, future studies are needed to assess safety and potential interactions with drugs that may alter the bioavailability of bioactive constituents of pomegranate as well as drugs. The aim of this review is to summarize the health effects and mechanisms of action of pomegranate extracts in chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:23737845

  7. Surface-to-food pesticide transfer as a function of moisture and fat content.

    PubMed

    Vonderheide, Anne P; Bernard, Craig E; Hieber, Thomas E; Kauffman, Peter E; Morgan, Jeffrey N; Melnyk, Lisa Jo

    2009-01-01

    Transfer of pesticides from household surfaces to foods may result in excess dietary exposure in children (i.e., beyond that inherent in foods due to agricultural application). In this study, transfer was evaluated as a function of the moisture and fat content of various foods. Surfaces chosen for investigation were those commonly found in homes and included Formica, ceramic tile, plastic, carpet, and upholstery fabric. Each surface type was sprayed with an aqueous emulsion of organophosphates, fipronil, and synthetic pyrethroids. In the first phase of the study, multiple foods (apples, watermelon, wheat crackers, graham crackers, white bread, flour tortillas, bologna, fat-free bologna, sugar cookies, ham, Fruit Roll-ups, pancakes, and processed American cheese) were categorized with respect to moisture and fat content. All were evaluated for potential removal of applied pesticides from a Formica surface. In the second phase of the study, representative foods from each classification were investigated for their potential for pesticide transfer with an additional four surfaces: ceramic tile, plastic, upholstery, and carpet. Moisture content, not fat, was found to be a determining factor in most transfers. For nearly all surfaces, more efficient transfer occurred with increased hardness (Formica and ceramic tile). Comparatively, the polymer composition of the plastic delivered overall lower transfer efficiencies, presumably due to an attraction between it and the organic pesticides of interest. PMID:18414514

  8. Biotechnological applications of functional metagenomics in the food and pharmaceutical industries

    PubMed Central

    Coughlan, Laura M.; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are found throughout nature, thriving in a vast range of environmental conditions. The majority of them are unculturable or difficult to culture by traditional methods. Metagenomics enables the study of all microorganisms, regardless of whether they can be cultured or not, through the analysis of genomic data obtained directly from an environmental sample, providing knowledge of the species present, and allowing the extraction of information regarding the functionality of microbial communities in their natural habitat. Function-based screenings, following the cloning and expression of metagenomic DNA in a heterologous host, can be applied to the discovery of novel proteins of industrial interest encoded by the genes of previously inaccessible microorganisms. Functional metagenomics has considerable potential in the food and pharmaceutical industries, where it can, for instance, aid (i) the identification of enzymes with desirable technological properties, capable of catalyzing novel reactions or replacing existing chemically synthesized catalysts which may be difficult or expensive to produce, and able to work under a wide range of environmental conditions encountered in food and pharmaceutical processing cycles including extreme conditions of temperature, pH, osmolarity, etc; (ii) the discovery of novel bioactives including antimicrobials active against microorganisms of concern both in food and medical settings; (iii) the investigation of industrial and societal issues such as antibiotic resistance development. This review article summarizes the state-of-the-art functional metagenomic methods available and discusses the potential of functional metagenomic approaches to mine as yet unexplored environments to discover novel genes with biotechnological application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26175729

  9. Biotechnological applications of functional metagenomics in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Laura M; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Alvarez-Ordez, Avelino

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are found throughout nature, thriving in a vast range of environmental conditions. The majority of them are unculturable or difficult to culture by traditional methods. Metagenomics enables the study of all microorganisms, regardless of whether they can be cultured or not, through the analysis of genomic data obtained directly from an environmental sample, providing knowledge of the species present, and allowing the extraction of information regarding the functionality of microbial communities in their natural habitat. Function-based screenings, following the cloning and expression of metagenomic DNA in a heterologous host, can be applied to the discovery of novel proteins of industrial interest encoded by the genes of previously inaccessible microorganisms. Functional metagenomics has considerable potential in the food and pharmaceutical industries, where it can, for instance, aid (i) the identification of enzymes with desirable technological properties, capable of catalyzing novel reactions or replacing existing chemically synthesized catalysts which may be difficult or expensive to produce, and able to work under a wide range of environmental conditions encountered in food and pharmaceutical processing cycles including extreme conditions of temperature, pH, osmolarity, etc; (ii) the discovery of novel bioactives including antimicrobials active against microorganisms of concern both in food and medical settings; (iii) the investigation of industrial and societal issues such as antibiotic resistance development. This review article summarizes the state-of-the-art functional metagenomic methods available and discusses the potential of functional metagenomic approaches to mine as yet unexplored environments to discover novel genes with biotechnological application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26175729

  10. Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Ishihara, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases. PMID:25114554

  11. The joint moderating effect of health consciousness and healthy lifestyle on consumers' willingness to use functional foods in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Fang

    2011-08-01

    Functional foods marketed as promoting health or reducing the risk of disease open a promising avenue for consumers to pursue a healthier life. Despite the stable growth in functional foods in Taiwan, at present little is known about whether or not consumers with varying degrees of health consciousness and different healthy lifestyles will have dissimilar attitudes toward functional foods and will vary in their willingness to use them. Regression analysis of this empirical study verifies that consumers' attitudes toward functional foods do have an impact on their willingness to use such foods. Moreover, moderated regression analysis (MRA) reveals that the joint moderator of health consciousness and healthy lifestyle indeed exerts an impact on consumers' willingness to consume functional foods. Finally, one-way ANOVA tests show that there are some differences between the consumers of the "Healthy Life Attentive" group and those of the "Healthy Life Inattentive" one both in attitudes toward and in willingness to consume functional foods. The empirical results and findings from this study would be valuable for the marketers in the functional food industry to formulate marketing communication strategies and facilitate this industry's development. PMID:21609743

  12. Evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Ajioka, Reiko

    We have been studying the useful life-support system in closed bio-ecosystem for space agriculture. We have already proposed the several species as food material, such as Nostoc sp. HK-01 and Prunnus sp., cyanobacterium and Japanese cherry tree, respectively. The cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp Hk-01, has high tolerances to several space environment. Furthermore, the woody plant materials have useful utilization elements in our habitation environment. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. We have already found that they can produce the important functional substances for human. Here, we will show the evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials under the possible conditions for space agriculture after cooking.

  13. Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lordan, Sinéad; Ross, R. Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:21747748

  14. Development of baked and extruded functional foods from metabolic syndrome specific ingredient mix.

    PubMed

    Miglani, Neetu; Bains, Kiran; Kaur, Harpreet

    2015-09-01

    The study was aimed to develop baked and extruded functional foods from Metabolic Syndrome (MS) specific designed ingredient mixes with optimum amino acid makeup using key food ingredients with functional properties such as whole cereals, legumes, skimmed milk powder, along with flaxseeds and fenugreek seeds. Two cereals viz. barley and oats and four pulses viz. mung bean, cowpea, bengal gram and soybean were blended in different proportions in order to balance the limiting amino acid lysine in the wheat flour. Three products namely bread, extruded snack and noodles prepared from twenty five ingredient mixes. Six ingredient mixes of breads and four ingredient mixes each of extruded snack and noodles specifically designed for MS patients were organoleptically at par with control wheat flour products. The acceptable products had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher lysine, crude protein, ash and fibre and low carbohydrates in compare control whole wheat flour products, hence appropriate for MS patients. PMID:26345000

  15. Difructose dianhydrides (DFAs) and DFA-enriched products as functional foods.

    PubMed

    Mellet, Carmen Ortiz; García Fernández, José M

    2010-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the current status of the chemistry and biology of di-D-fructose dianhydrides (DFAs) with a focus on their potential as functional foods. The history of this family of cyclic ketodisaccharides has expanded for almost 100 years and offers a paradigmatic example of artificial synthetic molecules that were identified as natural products later on and finally encountered in our own table. Issued from fundamental investigations on the reactivity of carbohydrates in strongly acidic media, DFAs remained laboratory curiosities for decades. Early reports on their isolation from plants raised doubts, until the formation of some DFA representatives by the action of microorganisms on fructans was reported in the middle 1980s. Since then, research on DFAs has run in parallel in the areas of microbiology and carbohydrate chemistry. Evidence of the potential of these compounds as functional food was accumulated from both sides, with the development of biotechnological processes for mass production of selected candidates and of chemical methodologies to prepare DFA-enriched products from sucrose or inulin. In 1994 a decisive discovery in the field took place in the laboratory of Jacques Defaye in Grenoble, France: the presence of DFAs in a commercial sucrose caramel was evidenced in a quite significant 18% mass proportion! The development of an efficient analytical protocol for DFAs and the stereoselective synthesis of individual standards allowed one to demonstrate that DFAs and their glycosylated derivatives (glycosyl-DFAs) are universally formed during caramelization reactions. They are not potential food products; they have actually always been in our daily food. Most important, they seem to exert beneficial effects: they are acariogenic, low-caloric, and promote the growth of beneficial microflora in the gut. Most recent evidence indicates that DFAs can even protect the intestinal tract against agressive agents favor the assimilation of antioxidants, and act as a drug-like food for the treatment of colon ailments such as inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn disease). The development of efficient methodologies for the preparation of DFA-enriched caramels, compatible with the food and agricultural industry regulations, may lead to new natural functional foods and nutraceuticals based on DFAs in the near future. PMID:21626748

  16. Development and Provision of Functional Foods to Promote Health on Long-Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bermudez-Aguirre, D.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    During long-duration NASA space missions, such as proposed missions to Mars, astronauts may experience negative physiological effects such as bone loss. Functional foods such as high-lycopene, high-flavonoids and high-omega-3 products and fruits and vegetables may mitigate the negative effects of spaceflight on physiological factors including the bone health of crewmembers. Previous studies showed that current ISS provisions provide high-lycopene and high-omega-3 food items but the variety is limited, which could promote menu fatigue. Bioactive compounds can degrade like other chemical compounds and lose functionality. The native concentrations and stability of bioactive compounds have never been determined in spaceflight foods, and adequate information is not available for commercial products for the storage durations required for space exploration (5 years). The purpose of this task is to develop new spaceflight foods that are high in omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, or flavonoids, identify commercial products with these bioactive compounds that meet spaceflight requirements, and define the stability of these nutrients in storage to enable purposeful functional food incorporation into the space food system. The impact of storage temperature on the stability of lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene, omega-3 fatty acids, phenolics, anthocyanins and sterols is being studied in 12 ISS menu items stored at three different temperatures (4, 21, 35 degree C) over 2 years. Additionally, nutrient and quality stability are being assessed on a larger food set stored at 21 degree C over 2 years that contains twelve newly developed foods, 10 commercial products repackaged to spaceflight requirements, and another 5 current ISS menu items expected to be good sources of omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, or flavonoids. All items were shipped overnight to the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University (Corvalis, OR) after processing and 1-year of storage and analyzed for bioactive compound concentrations. Sensory evaluation was conducted on the newly developed functional foods and commercial products with untrained panelists (n is greater than or equal to 25) using a 9-point Hedonic scale to test sensory attributes and overall acceptability after processing and 1-year of storage (21 degree C). Repeat nutritional and sensory analyses will be conducted in the same foods after the 2-year storage period is completed. The stability of bioactive compounds in the selected foods was dependent on storage temperature and food matrix. Omega-3 showed excellent stability in the analyzed products after 1-year of storage, regardless of the storage temperature; phenolic compounds also showed good stability. Lycopene was more stable in oil-based products rather than water-based products because of the protection that lipids offer to lycopene molecules. Also, lycopene was more stable in freeze-dried products than in high moisture foods. The 12 newly developed functional foods showed good overall acceptability in sensory attributes after processing (average score 7.2 out of 9.0) and maintained sensory quality through 1-year (21 degree C); the overall acceptability was on average 7.1 after storage. Similar behavior was observed for the 10 commercial products after 1 year. The developed products are good sources of omega-3 (both plant and marine), vegetables (7 vegetable-based products), and good sources of carotenoids, such as the Curry Pumpkin Soup and the Sweet and Savory Kale. Nine of the new products, such as Mango Salad, Pickled Beets, and Braised Red Cabbage, are rich in phenolic compounds. Stability of most of the studied nutrients seems to be adequate after 1-year of storage in most of the tested foods. However, storage temperature of the food must be considered during long-duration space missions to achieve stability of all nutrients. Likewise, more information is needed regarding nutrient retention after 2-years of storage to identify nutritional gaps that may be expected over the 5-year shelf life required for a Mars mission. New developed products will be filling a gap in the current space food system to minimize menu fatigue, provide specific nutrients to reduce the negative effects of long-duration space missions and maintain crew members' health. Information about bioactive compounds in developed products after 1-year and 2-year of storage will provide the knowledge base for further product development.

  17. Consumer understanding and use of health claims: the case of functional foods.

    PubMed

    Annunziata, Azzurra; Mariani, Angela; Vecchio, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    As widely acknowledged functional foods (FFs) may contribute to improve human health due to the presence of specific components useful for their protective action against several diseases. However it is essential that consumers are able to comprehend and assess the properties of FFs health claims play a central role in helping consumers to select among food alternatives, beyond providing protection against unsupported or misleading statements about foods properties. At the same time health claims are the main marketing tool that the food industry could use to differentiate FFs from other products. Clearly, massive investments in research and development are necessary to enter the FF market segment, together with the possibility to protect innovation through patents. Current paper aims to examine factors influencing consumer understanding and use of food health claims on FFs, as well as providing several indications for developers, marketers and policy makers. After a brief review of the literature the results of a quantitative survey conducted online on 650 Italian consumers are presented. Results show that consumer use and understanding of health claims on FFs depend on different variables such as socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge and confidence with nutrition information but also wording and variables related specifically to the product. Furthermore, different segments with a diverse degree of use and understanding of health claims have been identified. Therefore, to boost market growth, more efforts are needed by policy makers and marketers to provide better information on nutrition and health aspects of FF using an approach capable to ensure truthful, significant and clear information. Finally some recent patents related to the FFs market with specific regard to components and/or functionality investigated in the current paper are reviewed. PMID:25693912

  18. Thermodynamic aspects of biopolymer functionality in biological systems, foods, and beverages.

    PubMed

    Tolstoguzov, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    Molecular mimicry and molecular symbiosis are proposed to be the main factors controlling thermodynamic activity and phase behavior of macromolecular compounds in foods, beverages, and chyme. Molecular mimicry implies a chemical resemblance of hydrophilic surfaces of globular proteins with their chemical information hidden in the hydrophobic interior and low excluded volume of the globules. The molecular mimicry contributes to the efficiency of enzymes. Molecular symbiosis means that interactions attraction or repulsion) between biopolymer molecules greatly differing in conformation (globular and rod-like) favor the biological efficiency of one of them at least. The symbiosis is based on excluded volume effects of macromolecules in mixed solutions. Association-dissociation of rod-like macromolecules can dictate thermodynamic activity of an enzyme in the mixed solution. Thermodynamic incompatibility is typical of food macromolecules, whose denaturation, association, complexing, and chemical modification reduce their mimicry and co-solubility. Foods are normally phase-separated systems with highly volume-occupied phases. The phase-separated nature of the gel-like chyme is important to the efficiency of digestion of mixed diets. Phase separation of biopolymer mixtures, presumably, underlies mechanisms of nonspecific immune defense. The phase behavior-functionality relationships is presented through concrete examples of some foods (such as milk products, low-fat spreads, ice cream, wheat and rye doughs, thermoplastic extrudates, etc.), beverages (tea and coffee), and chyme. PMID:12135168

  19. Functional Screening of Antibiotic Resistance Genes from a Representative Metagenomic Library of Food Fermenting Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Devirgiliis, Chiara; Barile, Simona; Perozzi, Giuditta

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) represent the predominant microbiota in fermented foods. Foodborne LAB have received increasing attention as potential reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR) determinants, which may be horizontally transferred to opportunistic pathogens. We have previously reported isolation of AR LAB from the raw ingredients of a fermented cheese, while AR genes could be detected in the final, marketed product only by PCR amplification, thus pointing at the need for more sensitive microbial isolation techniques. We turned therefore to construction of a metagenomic library containing microbial DNA extracted directly from the food matrix. To maximize yield and purity and to ensure that genomic complexity of the library was representative of the original bacterial population, we defined a suitable protocol for total DNA extraction from cheese which can also be applied to other lipid-rich foods. Functional library screening on different antibiotics allowed recovery of ampicillin and kanamycin resistant clones originating from Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus genomes. We report molecular characterization of the cloned inserts, which were fully sequenced and shown to confer AR phenotype to recipient bacteria. We also show that metagenomics can be applied to food microbiota to identify underrepresented species carrying specific genes of interest. PMID:25243126

  20. Function and Food Webs of Springs Near Treeline in the Swiss National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, C. T.; Schmid, D.; Svoboda, M.

    2005-05-01

    We investigated ecosystem function and food web structure of high elevation springs in the Swiss National Park. Functional characteristics were derived from measures of ecosystem metabolism, sediment respiration, and nutrient uptake experiments in 4 springs. Food webs were assessed using stable isotope analysis (C, N) of different ecosystem compartments from 20 springs encompassing 6 different spring types. Gross primary production (GPP) ranged from 2.4 to 4.3 g O2 m-2 d-1 and ecosystem respiration (ER) from 3.6 to 6.7 g O2 m-2 d-1, suggesting springs were net-heterotrophic (P/R<0.75). One iron-oxide rich spring had GPP = 65 and ER = 96 g O2 m-2 d-1. Bacterial abundances (DAPI) ranged from 2-3×108 cells/ml, and benthic sediments were mostly anaerobic. Uptake lengths of both N and P were <50 m, with uptake rates of P at 0.3-3.1 mg m-2 h-1 and N at 57-178 mg m-2 h-1, suggesting springs were important nutrient sinks. Food webs were simple (<8 taxa) and primarily detritus based. The dominate stonefly predator relied on instream production of invertebrates. Terrestrial predators (lycosid spiders) near springs fed on a terrestrial diet. These data suggest these springs derive most of their energy from allochthonous sources and are net-heterotrophic ecosystems.

  1. The construction of web database server-client system for functional food factors.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Xing-Gang; Watanabe, Shaw

    2004-01-01

    In food, other than known nutrients, such as lipid, carbohydrate, protein, vitamins, and minerals, many substances with physiological function and medicinal action exist, and it is contributing to healthy improvement and/or prevention of illness. Although carotenoid, flavonoid and polyphenol, terpenoid, volatile substance and sulfur compounds, peptide, etc. have the function of illness prevention, and research of those non-nutrient functional food factors (FFF) became globally active, the research of this field is not yet done systematically. We evaluate function of FFF and reappraise known knowledge, and this knowledge is standardized and accumulated, aimed at building a web database server-client system which is easy to use for the people and nutritional research. We also collected related data such as chemical characters of FFF from literatures and other source, and formatted them into the database. We constructed the web database server-client system with MySQL database server and Apache web server based on Linux, and used Tomcat JSP engine for data connecting since they were reliable in stability and speed. We are opening the database at http://www.life-science.jp/FFF for test now. PMID:15630306

  2. Suppression of Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia by Turtle Jelly, A Traditional Chinese Functional Food, in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian-Hong; Wang, Qing-Hua; Li, Fan; Shu, Yuan-Lan; Chan, Chi-On; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah; Chan, Shun-Wan

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of functional foods for lowering serum cholesterol has globally gained acceptance by the general public. Turtle jelly (TJ), also called gui-ling-gao, is a popular traditional functional food in southern China. The hypocholesterolemic effect of consuming TJ was investigated in rats fed with normal diet, high-cholesterol diet or high-cholesterol diet supplemented with simvastatin (3?mg/kg bw per day, p.o.) or TJ (3.3 or 10?mL/kg bw per day, p.o.) for 30 days. TJ markedly reversed the increased serum total cholesterol, increased high-density lipoprotein, and decreased high-density lipoprotein induced by hypercholesterolemic diet with a dose-dependent improvement on the atherogenic index. It also demonstrated good hepatoprotective function by reducing fat depositions and overall lipid contents in the liver and increasing the activities of hepatic antioxidative enzymes. The blunted nitric oxide/endothelium-mediated aortic relaxation in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was partially restored after TJ consumption. It is postulated that the hypocholesterolemic effect is the primary beneficial effect given by TJ; it then leads to secondary beneficial effects such as vasoprotective and hepatoprotective functions. The results revealed that TJ could block the downregulation of LDLR and PEPCK and upregulation of PPAR? mRNA and protein expressions in the livers of rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet. PMID:23243438

  3. Seaweeds as Preventive Agents for Cardiovascular Diseases: From Nutrients to Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Susana M.; Pereira, Olívia R.; Seca, Ana M. L.; Pinto, Diana C. G. A.; Silva, Artur M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Being naturally enriched in key nutrients and in various health-promoting compounds, seaweeds represent promising candidates for the design of functional foods. Soluble dietary fibers, peptides, phlorotannins, lipids and minerals are macroalgae’s major compounds that can hold potential in high-value food products derived from macroalgae, including those directed to the cardiovascular-health promotion. This manuscript revises available reported data focusing the role of diet supplementation of macroalgae, or extracts enriched in bioactive compounds from macroalgae origin, in targeting modifiable markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), like dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, vascular inflammation, hypertension, hypercoagulability and activation of the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin systems, among others. At last, the review also describes several products that have been formulated with the use of whole macroalgae or extracts, along with their claimed cardiovascular-associated benefits. PMID:26569268

  4. Seaweeds as Preventive Agents for Cardiovascular Diseases: From Nutrients to Functional Foods.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Susana M; Pereira, Olvia R; Seca, Ana M L; Pinto, Diana C G A; Silva, Artur M S

    2015-11-01

    Being naturally enriched in key nutrients and in various health-promoting compounds, seaweeds represent promising candidates for the design of functional foods. Soluble dietary fibers, peptides, phlorotannins, lipids and minerals are macroalgae's major compounds that can hold potential in high-value food products derived from macroalgae, including those directed to the cardiovascular-health promotion. This manuscript revises available reported data focusing the role of diet supplementation of macroalgae, or extracts enriched in bioactive compounds from macroalgae origin, in targeting modifiable markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), like dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, vascular inflammation, hypertension, hypercoagulability and activation of the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin systems, among others. At last, the review also describes several products that have been formulated with the use of whole macroalgae or extracts, along with their claimed cardiovascular-associated benefits. PMID:26569268

  5. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in a Market of Bolivian Immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P.; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M.; Ulibarri, Emilio A.; Hurrell, Julio A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas (“health-food stores”), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas. PMID:22203866

  6. Functional foods and nutraceuticals in a market of bolivian immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M; Ulibarri, Emilio A; Hurrell, Julio A

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas ("health-food stores"), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas. PMID:22203866

  7. Stable Binding of Alternative Protein-enriched Food Matrices with Concentrated Cranberry Bioflavonoids for Functional Food Applications

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Mary H.; Guzman, Ivette; Roopchand, Diana E.; Moskal, Kristin; Cheng, Diana M.; Pogrebnyak, Natasha; Raskin, Ilya; Howell, Amy; Lila, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    Defatted soy flour (DSF), soy protein isolate (SPI), hemp protein isolate (HPI), medium roast peanut flour (MPF) and pea protein isolate (PPI) stably bind and concentrate cranberry (CB) polyphenols, creating protein/polyphenol-enriched matrices. Proanthocyanidins (PAC) in the enriched matrices ranged from 20.75 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 10.68 mg/g (CB-SPI). Anthocyanins (ANC) ranged from 3.19 mg/g (CB-DSF) to 1.68 mg/g (CB-SPI), while total phenolics (TP) ranged from 37.61 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 21.29 mg/g (CB-SPI). LC-MS indicated that the enriched matrices contained all identifiable ANC, PAC and flavonols present in CB juice. Complexation with SPI stabilized and preserved the integrity of the CB polyphenolic components for at least 15 weeks at 37 °C. PAC isolated from enriched matrices demonstrated comparable anti-adhesion bioactivity to PAC isolated directly from CB juice (MIC 0.4 to 0.16 mg/mL), indicating their potential utility for maintenance of urinary tract health. Approximately 1.0 g of polyphenol-enriched matrix delivered the same amount of PAC available in one cup (300 mL) of commercial CB juice cocktail; which has been shown clinically to be the prophylactic dose for reducing recurring urinary tract infections. CB-SPI inhibited gram- positive and gram-negative bacterial growth. Nutritional and sensory analyses indicated that the targeted CB-matrix combinations have high potential for incorporation in functional food formulations. PMID:23786629

  8. Stable binding of alternative protein-enriched food matrices with concentrated cranberry bioflavonoids for functional food applications.

    PubMed

    Grace, Mary H; Guzman, Ivette; Roopchand, Diana E; Moskal, Kristin; Cheng, Diana M; Pogrebnyak, Natasha; Raskin, Ilya; Howell, Amy; Lila, Mary Ann

    2013-07-17

    Defatted soy flour (DSF), soy protein isolate (SPI), hemp protein isolate (HPI), medium-roast peanut flour (MPF), and pea protein isolate (PPI) stably bind and concentrate cranberry (CB) polyphenols, creating protein/polyphenol-enriched matrices. Proanthocyanidins (PAC) in the enriched matrices ranged from 20.75 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 10.68 mg/g (CB-SPI). Anthocyanins (ANC) ranged from 3.19 mg/g (CB-DSF) to 1.68 mg/g (CB-SPI), whereas total phenolics (TP) ranged from 37.61 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 21.29 mg/g (CB-SPI). LC-MS indicated that the enriched matrices contained all identifiable ANC, PAC, and flavonols present in CB juice. Complexation with SPI stabilized and preserved the integrity of the CB polyphenolic components for at least 15 weeks at 37 °C. PAC isolated from enriched matrices demonstrated comparable antiadhesion bioactivity to PAC isolated directly from CB juice (MIC 0.4-0.16 mg/mL), indicating their potential utility for maintenance of urinary tract health. Approximately 1.0 g of polyphenol-enriched matrix delivered the same amount of PAC available in 1 cup (300 mL) of commercial CB juice cocktail, which has been shown clinically to be the prophylactic dose for reducing recurring urinary tract infections. CB-SPI inhibited Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial growth. Nutritional and sensory analyses indicated that the targeted CB-matrix combinations have high potential for incorporation in functional food formulations. PMID:23786629

  9. Development of the dietary fiber functional food and studies on its toxicological and physiologic properties.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yan; Zi-Jun, Wang; Jian, Xiong; Ying-jie, Dai; Fang, Ma

    2012-09-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) obtained from wheat bran by microbial fermentation was used as a food additive to cookies. The cookies were evaluated sensorally through an orthogonal test to gain the optimized production conditions as follows: the suitable DF content 8%, leavening agent 1.5%, standing time 5 min, and baking time of the cookies is 8 min. A series of toxicological and physiological functions of the cookies were studied using KM mice as the experimental animal in this paper. No deaths or abnormal behaviors of mice occurred either in acute toxicity tests or in short-term feeding tests. Besides, the weight gains, food utilization ratios, blood and serum biochemical parameters, organ coefficients and the results of organ histopathology tests of all doses groups exhibited no significant differences with the control group. This reveals that the dietary fiber functional cookies made by this formula have no acute or sub-chronic toxicity. In terms of physiological function, compared with the control group, the total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were 17.0-21.7% and 18.7-35.0% lower in mice serum of all DF cookie doses groups, respectively, but this difference was not significant (P>0.05). Compared with positive control group, the Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) excretion ratios of DF group were 27.4% and 25.2% higher, respectively. Thus, a conclusion has been drawn that dietary fiber functional cookies made by this formula have no toxic or harmful actions on animals or humans, and the DF food was able to decrease TC and TG concentrations to some extent in serum and increase excretion of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) in Feces. PMID:22609425

  10. Difructose Dianhydrides (DFAs) and DFA-Enriched Products as Functional Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellet, Carmen Ortiz; Fernández, José M. García

    This review provides an overview of the current status of the chemistry and biology of di-d-fructose dianhydrides (DFAs) with a focus on their potential as functional foods. The history of this family of cyclic ketodisaccharides has expanded for almost 100 years and offers a paradigmatic example of artificial synthetic molecules that were identified as natural products later on and finally encountered in our own table. Issued from fundamental investigations on the reactivity of carbohydrates in strongly acidic media, DFAs remained laboratory curiosities for decades. Early reports on their isolation from plants raised doubts, until the formation of some DFA representatives by the action of microorganisms on fructans was reported in the middle 1980s. Since then, research on DFAs has run in parallel in the areas of microbiology and carbohydrate chemistry. Evidence of the potential of these compounds as functional food was accumulated from both sides, with the development of biotechnological processes for mass production of selected candidates and of chemical methodologies to prepare DFA-enriched products from sucrose or inulin. In 1994 a decisive discovery in the field took place in the laboratory of Jacques Defaye in Grenoble, France: the presence of DFAs in a commercial sucrose caramel was evidenced in a quite significant 18% mass proportion! The development of an efficient analytical protocol for DFAs and the stereoselective synthesis of individual standards allowed one to demonstrate that DFAs and their glycosylated derivatives (glycosyl-DFAs) are universally formed during caramelization reactions. They are not potential food products; they have actually always been in our daily food. Most important, they seem to exert beneficial effects: they are acariogenic, low-caloric, and promote the growth of beneficial microflora in the gut.

  11. Sex and Cultural Differences in the Acceptance of Functional Foods: A Comparison of American, Canadian, and French College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolodinsky, Jane; Labrecque, JoAnne; Doyon, Maurice; Reynolds, Travis; Oble, Frederic; Bellavance, Francois; Marquis, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Objective: "Functional foods" (FF)--foods containing nutritional supplements in addition to natural nutrients--have an increasing presence in the marketplace. Expanding on previous research, the authors investigated college students' acceptance of FF. Participants: In September-March 2004, 811 undergraduates in Canada, the United States, and…

  12. Sex and Cultural Differences in the Acceptance of Functional Foods: A Comparison of American, Canadian, and French College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolodinsky, Jane; Labrecque, JoAnne; Doyon, Maurice; Reynolds, Travis; Oble, Frederic; Bellavance, Francois; Marquis, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Objective: "Functional foods" (FF)--foods containing nutritional supplements in addition to natural nutrients--have an increasing presence in the marketplace. Expanding on previous research, the authors investigated college students' acceptance of FF. Participants: In September-March 2004, 811 undergraduates in Canada, the United States, and

  13. Merging traditional Chinese medicine with modern drug discovery technologies to find novel drugs and functional foods.

    PubMed

    Graziose, Rocky; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2010-03-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) are rapidly gaining attention in the West as sources of new drugs, dietary supplements and functional foods. However, lack of consistent manufacturing practices and quality standards, fear of adulteration, and perceived deficiencies in scientific validation of efficacy and safety impede worldwide acceptance of TCM. In addition, Western pharmaceutical industries and regulatory agencies are partial toward single ingredient drugs based on synthetic molecules, and skeptical of natural product mixtures. This review concentrates on three examples of TCM-derived pharmaceuticals and functional foods that have, despite these usual obstacles, risen to wide acceptance in the West based on their remarkable performance in recent scientific investigations. They are: Sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua), the source of artemisinin, which is the currently preferred single compound anti-malarial drug widely used in combination therapies and recently approved by US FDA; Thunder god vine (Tripterygium wilfordii) which is being developed as a botanical drug for rheumatoid arthritis; and green tea (Camellia sinensis) which is used as a functional beverage and a component of dietary supplements. PMID:20156139

  14. Merging Traditional Chinese Medicine with Modern Drug Discovery Technologies to Find Novel Drugs and Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Graziose, Rocky; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) are rapidly gaining attention in the West as sources of new drugs, dietary supplements and functional foods. However, lack of consistent manufacturing practices and quality standards, fear of adulteration, and perceived deficiencies in scientific validation of efficacy and safety impede worldwide acceptance of TCM. In addition, Western pharmaceutical industries and regulatory agencies are partial toward single ingredient drugs based on synthetic molecules, and skeptical of natural product mixtures. This review concentrates on three examples of TCM-derived pharmaceuticals and functional foods that have, despite these usual obstacles, risen to wide acceptance in the West based on their remarkable performance in recent scientific investigations. They are: Sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua), the source of artemisinin, which is the currently preferred single compound anti-malarial drug widely used in combination therapies and recently approved by US FDA; Thunder god vine (Tripterygium wilfordii) which is being developed as a botanical drug for rheumatoid arthritis; and green tea (Camellia sinensis) which is used as a functional beverage and a component of dietary supplements. PMID:20156139

  15. Abnormal intragastric distribution of food during gastric emptying in functional dyspepsia patients.

    PubMed Central

    Troncon, L E; Bennett, R J; Ahluwalia, N K; Thompson, D G

    1994-01-01

    Although delayed gastric emptying is found in some patients with functional dyspepsia, there seems to be little relation between rate of emptying and symptoms. This study examined the hypothesis that food maldistribution rather than gastric stasis may equate to symptoms in such patients and used scintigraphic techniques to quantify the partition of gastric contents between proximal and distal stomach during gastric emptying. Eleven patients with functional dyspepsia characterised by chronic severe postprandial bloating without organic abnormality, and 12 healthy volunteers, ingested a standard meal labelled with technetium-99M (99mTc). Serial images of the gastric area in anterior and posterior projections were taken for 90 minutes, regions of interest for proximal, distal, and total stomach were defined, and activity time curves were derived from the geometric means of anterior and posterior counts. Total emptying in patients (median: 46 minutes; range: 30-76) was not significantly different from controls (45 minutes; 28-58) and only three showed delayed gastric emptying. In controls, food remained predominantly in the proximal half of the stomach after ingestion and then redistributed to the distal half. In the patients, however, initial activity in the proximal half after ingestion (48%; 40-65) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in controls (60%; 39-73) and distributed more fully to the distal half of the stomach with a peak distal activity (56%; 34-58), which was consistently higher than in controls (36%; 33-42) (p < 0.05). It is concluded that this subgroup of functional dyspepsia patients show abnormal intragastric distribution of food, independent of gastric emptying rate. Images Figure 1 PMID:8150341

  16. Functional and safety aspects of Enterococci isolated from different Spanish foods.

    PubMed

    Ben Omar, Nabil; Castro, Araceli; Lucas, Rosario; Abriouel, Hikmate; Yousif, Nuha M K; Franz, Charles M A P; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Prez-Pulido, Rubn; Martnez-Caamero, Magdalena; Glvez, Antonio

    2004-02-01

    The incidence and diversity of enterococci in retail food samples of meat, dairy and vegetable origin was investigated. Enterococci were present, at concentrations of 10(1) to 10(4) CFU/g. Fifty selected isolates from food samples grouped in two separate clusters by RAPD analysis. Cluster G1 (72% of the isolates) contained the E. faecium CECT 410T type strain, and also showed a high degree of genetic diversity. Cluster G2 (28% of the isolates) contained the E. faecalis CECT 481T type strain and was genetically more homogeneous. Virulence traits (haemolysin, gelatinase or DNAse activities, or the presence of structural genes cylL, ace, asal and esp) were not detected. All isolates were sensitive to the antibiotics ampicillin, penicillin, gentamicin, streptomycin and chloramphenicol. A high pecentage of isolates were resistant to erythromycin and rifampicin. Many isolates showed intermediate sensitivity to several antibiotics (tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, or quinupristin/dalfopristin). Vancomycin and teicoplanin resistance was detected in one strain, but vanA, vanB, vanC1, vanC2 or vanC3 genes were not detected. Many of the isolates showed functional properties of food or health relevance. Production of antimicrobial substances was detected in 17 of the isolates, and 14 of them carried structural genes for enterocins A, B and/or P. PMID:15053328

  17. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix G: Ground support system analysis. Appendix H: Galley functional details analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The capabilities for preflight feeding of flight personnel and the supply and control of the space shuttle flight food system were investigated to determine ground support requirements; and the functional details of an onboard food system galley are shown in photographic mockups. The elements which were identified as necessary to the efficient accomplishment of ground support functions include the following: (1) administration; (2) dietetics; (3) analytical laboratories; (4) flight food warehouse; (5) stowage module assembly area; (6) launch site module storage area; (7) alert crew restaurant and disperse crew galleys; (8) ground food warehouse; (9) manufacturing facilities; (10) transport; and (11) computer support. Each element is discussed according to the design criteria of minimum cost, maximum flexibility, reliability, and efficiency consistent with space shuttle requirements. The galley mockup overview illustrates the initial operation configuration, food stowage locations, meal assembly and serving trays, meal preparation configuration, serving, trash management, and the logistics of handling and cleanup equipment.

  18. You eat what you are: modern health worries and the acceptance of natural and synthetic additives in functional foods.

    PubMed

    Devcich, Daniel A; Pedersen, Irene K; Petrie, Keith J

    2007-05-01

    There is an increasing array of functional foods available that are designed to confer health benefits. However, individuals' worries about new technology and modernity may influence the acceptance of these products. In this study, we investigated how modern health worries influence attitudes and decisions about functional foods. We asked participants (n=390) to rate pictures of products with either added vitamins or added scientific compounds. Each product shown purported to have one of three possible targeted effects: to reduce the likelihood of a disease, to reduce a risk factor associated with a disease, or to improve personal appearance. We found levels of modern health worries to be significantly associated with participants' reports of organic food consumption and presence of food allergies. Modern health worries were also significantly related to a preference for foods with natural as opposed to synthetic additives. Participants with higher levels of modern health worries had a greater acceptance of functional foods designed to reduce the likelihood of disease compared to participants with low modern health worries. Overall, the results suggested that modern health worries are an important psychological factor to consider with regards to attitudes toward functional foods. PMID:17137678

  19. GCLAS: a graphical constituent loading analysis system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKallip, T.E.; Koltun, G.F.; Gray, J.R.; Glysson, G.D.

    2001-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has developed a program called GCLAS (Graphical Constituent Loading Analysis System) to aid in the computation of daily constituent loads transported in stream flow. Due to the relative paucity with which most water-quality data are collected, computation of daily constituent loads is moderately to highly dependent on human interpretation of the relation between stream hydraulics and constituent transport. GCLAS provides a visual environment for evaluating the relation between hydraulic and other covariate time series and the constituent chemograph. GCLAS replaces the computer program Sedcalc, which is the most recent USGS sanctioned tool for constructing sediment chemographs and computing suspended-sediment loads. Written in a portable language, GCLAS has an interactive graphical interface that permits easy entry of estimated values and provides new tools to aid in making those estimates. The use of a portable language for program development imparts a degree of computer platform independence that was difficult to obtain in the past, making implementation more straightforward within the USGS' s diverse computing environment. Some of the improvements introduced in GCLAS include (1) the ability to directly handle periods of zero or reverse flow, (2) the ability to analyze and apply coefficient adjustments to concentrations as a function of time, streamflow, or both, (3) the ability to compute discharges of constituents other than suspended sediment, (4) the ability to easily view data related to the chemograph at different levels of detail, and (5) the ability to readily display covariate time series data to provide enhanced visual cues for drawing the constituent chemograph.

  20. Role of Bioactive Food Components in Diabetes Prevention: Effects on Beta-Cell Function and Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yoon Sin; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive compounds found in fruits and vegetables can have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic effects and can be protective against various diseases and metabolic disorders. These beneficial effects make them good candidates for the development of new functional foods with potential protective and preventive properties for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the most relevant results concerning the effects of various bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, vitamins, and carotenoids on several aspects of beta-cell functionality. Studies using animal models with induced diabetes and diabetic patients support the hypothesis that bioactive compounds could ameliorate diabetic phenotypes. Published data suggest that there might be direct effects of bioactive compounds on enhancing insulin secretion and preventing beta-cell apoptosis, and some compounds might modulate beta-cell proliferation. Further research is needed to establish any clinical effects of these compounds. PMID:25092987

  1. The guard cell metabolome: functions in stomatal movement and global food security

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Biswapriya B.; Acharya, Biswa R.; Granot, David; Assmann, Sarah M.; Chen, Sixue

    2015-01-01

    Guard cells represent a unique single cell-type system for the study of cellular responses to abiotic and biotic perturbations that affect stomatal movement. Decades of effort through both classical physiological and functional genomics approaches have generated an enormous amount of information on the roles of individual metabolites in stomatal guard cell function and physiology. Recent application of metabolomics methods has produced a substantial amount of new information on metabolome control of stomatal movement. In conjunction with other “omics” approaches, the knowledge-base is growing to reach a systems-level description of this single cell-type. Here we summarize current knowledge of the guard cell metabolome and highlight critical metabolites that bear significant impact on future engineering and breeding efforts to generate plants/crops that are resistant to environmental challenges and produce high yield and quality products for food and energy security. PMID:26042131

  2. Conjugated linoleic acids as functional food: an insight into their health benefits

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Sailas; Spener, Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    This review evaluates the health benefits of the functional food, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) - a heterogeneous group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid predominantly found in milk, milk products, meat and meat products of ruminants. During the past couple of decades, hundreds of reports - principally based on in vitro, microbial, animal, and of late clinical trials on humans - have been accumulating with varying biological activities of CLA isomers. These studies highlight that CLA, apart form the classical nuclear transcription factors-mediated mechanism of action, appear to exhibit a number of inter-dependent molecular signalling pathways accounting for their reported health benefits. Such benefits relate to anti-obesitic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetagenic, immunomodulatory, apoptotic and osteosynthetic effects. On the other hand, negative effects of CLA have been reported such as fatty liver and spleen, induction of colon carcinogenesis and hyperproinsulinaemia. As far as human consumption is concerned, a definite conclusion for CLA safety has not been reached yet. Parameters such as administration of the type of CLA isomer and/or their combination with other polyunsaturated fatty acids, mode of administration (eg., as free fatty acid or its triglyceride form, liquid or solid), daily dose and duration of consumption, gender, age, or ethnic and geographical backgrounds remain to be determined. Yet, it appears from trials so far conducted that CLA are functional food having prevailing beneficial health effects for humans. PMID:19761624

  3. Selenium Accumulating Leafy Vegetables Are a Potential Source of Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Mabeyo, Petro E.; Manoko, Mkabwa L. K.; Gruhonjic, Amra; Fitzpatrick, Paul A.; Landberg, Göran; Erdélyi, Máté; Nyandoro, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    Selenium deficiency in humans has been associated with various diseases, the risks of which can be reduced through dietary supplementation. Selenium accumulating plants may provide a beneficial nutrient for avoiding such illnesses. Thus, leafy vegetables such as Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus sp., Cucurbita maxima, Ipomoea batatas, Solanum villosum, Solanum scabrum, and Vigna unguiculata were explored for their capabilities to accumulate selenium when grown on selenium enriched soil and for use as a potential source of selenium enriched functional foods. Their selenium contents were determined by spectrophotometry using the complex of 3,3′-diaminobenzidine hydrochloride (DABH) as a chromogen. The mean concentrations in the leaves were found to range from 7.90 ± 0.40 to 1.95 ± 0.12 μg/g dry weight (DW), with C. maxima accumulating the most selenium. In stems, the accumulated selenium content ranged from 1.12 ± 0.10 μg/g in Amaranthus sp. to 5.35 ± 0.78 μg/g DW in C. maxima and was hence significantly different (P < 0.01). The cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was used in cytotoxicity assays to determine the anticancer potential of these extracts. With exception of S. scabrum and S. villosum, no cytotoxicity was detected for the selenium enriched vegetable extracts up to 100 μg/mL concentration. Hence, following careful evaluation the studied vegetables may be considered as selenium enriched functional foods. PMID:26955635

  4. Functional food and nutraceutical registration processes in Japan and China: a diffusion of innovation perspective.

    PubMed

    Patel, Darshika; Dufour, Yvon; Domigan, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - This paper looks into the functional food and nutraceutical registration processes in Japan and China. The Japanese have developed the Foods for Specified Health Use (FOSHU) registration process whereas the Chinese have put into place the Health Food (HF) registration process. The aim of this paper is to compare the regulation processes between the two countries in search for answers to three core empirical questions: (1) how have the registration processes developed and changed? (2) What are the similarities and differences between the processes of registration in the two countries investigated? (3) Why are the registration processes similar/different? Method - The study was conducted using secondary sources. The literature surveyed covered academic journals, trade journals, magazine and newspaper articles, market reports, proceedings, books and web pages of relevant regulatory authorities and regulatory consultants. Information from the more recently published sources was used preferentially over older sources. As well as using the most recent sources, information was selected on the basis of which source it was from. Official regulations and SFDA and MHLW websites would contain accurate and up to date information and information from here would be taken as true over other sources of information. Results - The two diagrams of the registration processes respectively in Japan and China clearly show that there are similarities and differences. There are six categories under which these can be found: (1) the scientific evidence required; (2) the application process; (3) the evaluation process; (4) the law and the categories of products; (5) the labels and the types of claims; and finally (6) the cost and the time involved. Conclusions -The data analysis suggests that the process of diffusion of innovation played a role in the development of the regulations. Further it was found that while Japan was at the outset a pioneer innovator in nutraceutical registration processes, there are indications that in more recent years it too imitated other countries. NOVELTY STATEMENT: The assortment of regulatory regimes creates much uncertainty for the firms and the lack of familiarity and poor knowledge of the regulatory situation increases the risk of failure. The research presented in this paper provides highly valuable information to any biotech/pharmaceutical/nutraceutical companies developing their market entry strategy in Japan and China. There are few national and international studies of drug registration application processes but even fewer comparative studies of functional food and neutraceutical registration application processes such as this one and none using a diffusion of innovation perspective. PMID:19183509

  5. Chemical Effects during Storage of Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powrie, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)

  6. Nutritional approach for designing meat-based functional food products with nuts.

    PubMed

    Olmedilla-Alonso, B; Granado-Lorencio, F; Herrero-Barbudo, C; Blanco-Navarro, I

    2006-01-01

    Meat and meat products are essential components of diets in developed countries and despite the convincing evidence that relate them to an increased risk for CVD, a growing consumption of meat products is foreseen. Epidemiological studies show that regular consumption of nuts, in general, and walnuts in particular, correlates inversely with myocardial infarction and ischaemic vascular disease. We assess the nutritional basis for and technological approach to the development of functional meat-based products potentially relevant in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction. Using the available strategies in the meat industry (reformulation processes) and a food-based approach, we address the design and development of restructured beef steak with added walnuts, potentially functional for CVD risk reduction. Its adequacy as a vehicle for active nutrients is confirmed by a pharmacokinetic pilot study in humans using gamma-tocopherol as an exposure biomarker in chylomicrons during the post-prandial state. Effect and potential "functionality" is being assessed by a dietary intervention study in subjects at risk and markers and indicators related to CVD are being evaluated. Within the conceptual framework of evidence-based medicine, development of meat-based functional products may become a useful approach for specific applications, with a potential market and health benefits of great importance at a population level. PMID:16954062

  7. Programme on the recyclability of food-packaging materials with respect to food safety considerations: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), paper and board, and plastics covered by functional barriers.

    PubMed

    Franz, R

    2002-01-01

    Stimulated by new ecology-driven European and national regulations, news routes of recycling waste appear on the market. Since food packages represent a large percentage of the plastics consumption and since they have a short lifetime, an important approach consists in making new packages from post-consumer used packages. On the other hand, food-packaging regulations in Europe require that packaging materials must be safe. Therefore, potential mass transfer (migration) of harmful recycling-related substances to the food must be excluded and test methods to ensure the safety-in-use of recycled materials for food packaging are needled. As a consequence of this situation, a European research project FAIR-CT98-4318, with the acronym 'Recyclability', was initiated. The project consists of three sections each focusing on a different class of recycled materials: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), paper and board, and plastics covered by functional barriers. The project consortium consists of 28 project members from 11 EU countries. In addition, the project is during its lifetime in discussion with the US Food and Drug Administrations (FDA) to consider also US FDA regulatory viewpoints and to aim, as a consequence, to harmonizable conclusions and recommendations. The paper introduces the project and presents an overview of the project work progress. PMID:11962719

  8. Delivery of Functionality in Complex Food Systems: Physically Inspired Approaches from Nanoscale to Microscale, Wageningen 1821 October 2009

    PubMed Central

    Ubbink, Job; Duchateau, Guus

    2010-01-01

    The Wageningen Delivery of Functionality symposium covered all aspects involved with food structural design to arrive at high-quality foods which meet demanding customer expectations and regulatory requirements. The symposium integrated aspects from the structural organization of foods at molecular and supramolecular scales to dedicated techniques required to describe and visualize such structures, the gastro-intestinal events and how to model these in a laboratory setting, and finally the impact those food structures and ingredients have on the consumers physiology and on the human perception. As an interdisciplinary platform, bringing together more than 160 researchers from academia and industry, the symposium meanwhile fulfills an important role in the food science community. PMID:21125000

  9. Spray-drying microencapsulation of synergistic antioxidant mushroom extracts and their use as functional food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Andreia; Ruphuy, Gabriela; Lopes, José Carlos; Dias, Madalena Maria; Barros, Lillian; Barreiro, Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-12-01

    In this work, hydroalcoholic extracts of two mushrooms species, Suillus luteus (L.: Fries) (Sl) and Coprinopsis atramentaria (Bull.) (Ca), were studied for their synergistic antioxidant effect and their viability as functional food ingredients tested by incorporation into a food matrix (cottage cheese). In a first step, the individual extracts and a combination of both, showing synergistic effects (Sl:Ca, 1:1), were microencapsulated by spray-drying using maltodextrin as the encapsulating material. The incorporation of free extracts resulted in products with a higher initial antioxidant activity (t0) but declining after 7 days (t7), which was associated with their degradation. However, the cottage cheese enriched with the microencapsulated extracts, that have revealed a lower activity at the initial time, showed an increase at t7. This improvement can be explained by an effective protection provided by the microspheres together with a sustained release. Analyses performed on the studied cottage cheese samples showed the maintenance of the nutritional properties and no colour modifications were noticed. PMID:26041238

  10. High-value components and bioactives from sea cucumbers for functional foods--a review.

    PubMed

    Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:22072996

  11. Evaluation of coriander spice as a functional food by using in vitro bioassays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan-Rui; Dissanayake, Amila A; Kevsero?lu, Kudret; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2015-01-15

    Coriander leaves and seeds are widely used as a condiment and spice. The use of roasted coriander seeds in food and beverage is very common. In this study, we investigated raw and roasted coriander seeds for their functional food quality using antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and human tumour cell proliferation inhibitory assays. The hexane and methanolic extracts of raw and roasted coriander seeds showed identical chromatographic and bioassay profiles. Chromatographic purification of the roasted seed extracts afforded tripetroselinin as the predominant component. Other isolates were petroselinic acid, 1,3-dipetroselinin, 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol, 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-O-?-d-glucopyranoside and linalool. Hexane and methanolic extracts of both raw and roasted seeds and pure isolates from them showed comparable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities to the positive controls used in the assays, and inhibited the growth of human tumour cells AGS (gastric carcinoma), DU-145 and LNCaP (prostate carcinoma), HCT-116 (colon carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma) and NCI-H460 (lung carcinoma) by 4-34%, respectively. PMID:25148954

  12. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides: production and implementation of functional food.

    PubMed

    De Leo, F; Panarese, S; Gallerani, R; Ceci, L R

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades, the most successful strategy for controlling blood pressure has been inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). ACE inhibitors of chemical synthesis (captopril, enalapril, ramipril and trandolapril) have been widely used clinically to reduce mortality in patients with heart failure, and in patients with recent myocardial infarction and heart failure or marked left ventricular dysfunction. In addition to preventive and therapeutic drugs, increased attention has been paid to identifying dietary compounds that may contribute to cardiovascular treatment and prevention. ACE inhibitory peptides, derived from a multitude of plant and animal proteins such as milk, soy or fish, represent sources of health-enhancing components. These ACE inhibitory peptides can be enzymatically released from precursor proteins in vitro and in vivo, respectively during food processing and gastrointestinal digestion. They have shown the ability to lower blood pressure by limiting the vasoconstrictory effects of Angiotensin II and potentiating the vasodilatory effects of Bradykinin. By using specific procedures they may be generated in or incorporated into functional foods for the development of 'natural' beneficial health products. Several products containing peptides with ACE inhibitory properties are currently on the market or in development. This review focuses on the use, application and future perspective of bioactive peptides with properties relevant to cardiovascular health. PMID:19925416

  13. How Tactile and Function Information Affect Young Children's Ability to Understand the Nature of Food-Appearing, Deceptive Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Christina Miles

    2008-01-01

    Preschool children's (N = 64) ability to use tactile information and function cues on less-realistic and more-realistic food-appearing, deceptive objects was examined before and after training on the function of deceptive objects. They also responded to appearance and reality questions about deceptive objects. Half of the children (F-S:

  14. Preparation and storage stability of flaxseed chutney powder, a functional food adjunct.

    PubMed

    Rao, Pamidighantam Prabhakara; Rao, Galla Narsing; Mala, Kripanand Sathiya; Balaswamy, Karakala; Satyanarayana, Akula

    2013-02-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) chutney powder (FSCP), a palatable functional food adjunct was prepared by mixing roasted and powdered flaxseeds with other selected spice ingredients. The protein content of these powders was 24.2% and 23.4% in flaxseed powder (FSP) and FSCP respectively. Total polyphenol content of FSP and FSCP was 439 and 522 mg/100 g respectively. The free fatty acid content of FSCP increased from 0.38 to 1.03 after 6 months storage. The critical moisture content for FSP and FSCP was 10.2 and 13.5%, which were equilibrated at 82 and 68% RH respectively and the ERH studies indicated both the powders are non-hygroscopic in nature. Overall sensory quality of FSCP served with cooked rice scored 'good' (7.4) even after 6 months of storage. PMID:24425897

  15. Predator-dependent functional response in wolves: from food limitation to surplus killing.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Barbara; Sand, Hkan; Wabakken, Petter; Liberg, Olof; Andreassen, Harry Peter

    2015-01-01

    The functional response of a predator describes the change in per capita kill rate to changes in prey density. This response can be influenced by predator densities, giving a predator-dependent functional response. In social carnivores which defend a territory, kill rates also depend on the individual energetic requirements of group members and their contribution to the kill rate. This study aims to provide empirical data for the functional response of wolves Canis lupus to the highly managed moose Alces alces population in Scandinavia. We explored prey and predator dependence, and how the functional response relates to the energetic requirements of wolf packs. Winter kill rates of GPS-collared wolves and densities of cervids were estimated for a total of 22 study periods in 15 wolf territories. The adult wolves were identified as the individuals responsible for providing kills to the wolf pack, while pups could be described as inept hunters. The predator-dependent, asymptotic functional response models (i.e. Hassell-Varley type II and Crowley-Martin) performed best among a set of 23 competing linear, asymptotic and sigmoid models. Small wolf packs acquired >3 times as much moose biomass as required to sustain their field metabolic rate (FMR), even at relatively low moose abundances. Large packs (6-9 wolves) acquired less biomass than required in territories with low moose abundance. We suggest the surplus killing by small packs is a result of an optimal foraging strategy to consume only the most nutritious parts of easy accessible prey while avoiding the risk of being detected by humans. Food limitation may have a stabilizing effect on pack size in wolves, as supported by the observed negative relationship between body weight of pups and pack size. PMID:25109601

  16. Evolution of the human diet: linking our ancestral diet to modern functional foods as a means of chronic disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Jew, Stephanie; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Jones, Peter J H

    2009-10-01

    The evolution of the human diet over the past 10,000 years from a Paleolithic diet to our current modern pattern of intake has resulted in profound changes in feeding behavior. Shifts have occurred from diets high in fruits, vegetables, lean meats, and seafood to processed foods high in sodium and hydrogenated fats and low in fiber. These dietary changes have adversely affected dietary parameters known to be related to health, resulting in an increase in obesity and chronic disease, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and cancer. Some intervention trials using Paleolithic dietary patterns have shown promising results with favorable changes in CVD and diabetes risk factors. However, such benefits may be offset by disadvantages of the Paleolithic diet, which is low in vitamin D and calcium and high in fish potentially containing environmental toxins. More advantageous would be promotion of foods and food ingredients from our ancestral era that have been shown to possess health benefits in the form of functional foods. Many studies have investigated the health benefits of various functional food ingredients, including omega-3 fatty acids, polyphenols, fiber, and plant sterols. These bioactive compounds may help to prevent and reduce incidence of chronic diseases, which in turn could lead to health cost savings ranging from $2 to $3 billion per year as estimated by case studies using omega-3 and plant sterols as examples. Thus, public health benefits should result from promotion of the positive components of Paleolithic diets as functional foods. PMID:19857053

  17. Potential herbs and herbal nutraceuticals: food applications and their interactions with food components.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Panjagari, Narender Raju; Singh, R R B; Patil, G R

    2015-01-01

    Since ancient times, herbs have been used as natural remedies for curing many physiological disorders. Traditional medicinal literature appreciated their value as nature's gift to mankind for the healing of illnesses. Some of the herbs have also been used for culinary purposes, and few of them have been used in cheese manufacture both as coagulating agents and flavor ingredients. Scientific investigations regarding biological activity and toxicity of chemical moieties present in many herbs have been carried out over a period of time. Consequently, literature related to the use of herbs or their functional ingredients in foods and their interaction with food constituents has been appearing in recent times. This article presents the information regarding some biologically active constituents occurring in commonly used herbs, viz., alkaloids, anthraquinones, bitters, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and essential oils, their physiological functionalities, and also the description of few herbs of importance, viz., Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Bacopa monniera, Pueraria tuberose, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia arjuna, and Aloe vera, in terms of their chemical composition, biological functionality, and toxicity. This article also reviews the use of herbs and their active ingredients in foods and their interactions with different food constituents. PMID:24915396

  18. Nutrition function, health and related claims on packaged Australian food products--prevalence and compliance with regulations.

    PubMed

    Williams, Peter; Yeatman, Heather; Ridges, Leisa; Houston, Annalie; Rafferty, Jillianan; Ridges, Anna; Roesler, Leisa; Sobierajski, Megan; Spratt, Bronwyn

    2006-01-01

    Australia and New Zealand are currently reviewing the regulations governing nutrition function, health and related claims on foods. Health claims currently are not permitted on food labels, with one exception. The aim of this study was to describe the use of such claims on packaged food for sale in Australia (excluding nutrient content claims) prior to any changes to the regulations, and measure compliance with existing regulations. A survey was conducted of the labelling of 7850 products (including multiple pack sizes of individual foods) in 47 different food categories on sale in New South Wales in 2003. A total of 2098 nutrition function, health or related claims and 12 therapeutic claims were recorded. Fourteen percent of products carried some sort of claim. If nutrient function and general health maintenance claims are excluded, 8.1% of products carried a health or related claim. Using the claims categorisation proposed by Food Standards Australia New Zealand for a new standard on claims, general-level claims were found on 9.8% of products and high-level and therapeutic claims (illegal at the time) on 1.2%. The food categories with the highest proportion of products carrying claims were sports drinks (92%), energy drinks (84%), sports bars (57%) and breakfast cereals (54%). 118 high-level and therapeutic claims did not conform to current food standards and there were many general-level claims for ingredient benefits that were unlikely to be able to be scientifically substantiated. The results of this survey suggest that more than 5% of claims were not complying with the current regulations and that the standards were not being fully enforced. To be effective, the new standard will need to be accompanied by clear guidelines for manufacturers on requirements for substantiating claims. Comprehensive education and enforcement frameworks also will be needed, to reduce the number of illegal or apparently unsubstantiated claims. PMID:16500873

  19. Curcumin loaded self assembled lipid-biopolymer nanoparticles for functional food applications.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Lokesh; Kanwal, Abhinav; Agrawal, Yadvendra

    2015-10-01

    The supramolecular nano-assemblies formed by electrostatic interactions of two oppositely charged lipid and polymer have been made and used as nanocarriers for curcumin to address its bioavailability and solubility issues. These curcumin encapsulated nano-supramolecular assemblies were characterized with respect to their size (dynamic light scattering), morphology (TEM, SEM), zeta potential (Laser Doppler Velocimetry), encapsulation efficiency (EE), curcumin loading (CL) etc. Stability of the nano-assemblies was assessed at different storage times as a function of varying pH and temperature. The physicochemical characterization of nano-assemblies was performed using Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The in-vitro antioxidant lipid peroxidation (TBARS), radical scavenging (DPPH, NO, H2O2, reducing power) activity assays of powdered curcumin and nano-encapsulated curcumin were performed. It was found that nano-encapsulated curcumin were roughly spherical in shape, presented high positive zeta potential (>30mV), monodisperse (polydispersity index <0.3), amorphous in nature, stable in the pH range of 2-6 and have enhanced antioxidant potency in comparison to crystalline curcumin in aqueous media. In conclusion, the curcumin encapsulated nanocarriers system has great potential as functional food ingredient of natural origin. PMID:26396362

  20. Cryptic biodiversity effects: importance of functional redundancy revealed through addition of food web complexity.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Stacy M; Pardee, Gabriella L; Gonthier, David J

    2012-05-01

    Interactions between predators and the degree of functional redundancy among multiple predator species may determine whether herbivores experience increased or decreased predation risk. Specialist parasites can modify predator behavior, yet rarely have cascading effects on multiple predator species and prey been evaluated. We examined influences of specialist phorid parasites (Pseudacteon spp.) on three predatory ant species and herbivores in a coffee agroecosystem. Specifically, we examined whether changes in ant richness affected fruit damage by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and whether phorids altered multi-predator effects. Each ant species reduced borer damage, and without phorids, increasing predator richness did not further decrease borer damage. However, with phorids, activity of one ant species was reduced, indicating that the presence of multiple ant species was necessary to limit borer damage. In addition, phorid presence revealed synergistic effects of multiple ant species, not observed without the presence of this parasite. Thus, a trait-mediated cascade resulting from a parasite-induced predator behavioral change revealed the importance of functional redundancy, predator diversity, and food web complexity for control of this important pest. PMID:22764486

  1. Functional properties of edible agar-based and starch-based films for food quality preservation.

    PubMed

    Phan, The D; Debeaufort, F; Luu, D; Voilley, A

    2005-02-23

    Edible films made of agar (AG), cassava starch (CAS), normal rice starch (NRS), and waxy (glutinous) rice starch (WRS) were elaborated and tested for a potential use as edible packaging or coating. Their water vapor permeabilities (WVP) were comparable with those of most of the polysaccharide-based films and with some protein-based films. Depending on the environmental moisture pressure, the WVP of the films varies and remains constant when the relative humidity (RH) is >84%. Equilibrium sorption isotherms of these films have been measured; the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model was used to describe the sorption isotherm and contributed to a better knowledge of hydration properties. Surface hydrophobicity and wettability of these films were also investigated using the sessile drop contact angle method. The results obtained suggested the migration of the lipid fraction toward evaporation surface during film drying. Among these polysaccharide-based films, AG-based film and CAS-based film displayed more interesting mechanical properties: they are transparent, clear, homogeneous, flexible, and easily handled. NRS- and WRS-based films were relatively brittle and have a low tension resistance. Microstructure of film cross section was observed by environmental scanning electron microscopy to better understand the effect of the structure on the functional properties. The results suggest that AG-based film and CAS-based films, which show better functional properties, are promising systems to be used as food packaging or coating instead of NRS- and WRS-based films. PMID:15713008

  2. Influence of harvest season on antioxidant activity and constituents of rabbiteye blueberry ( Vaccinium ashei ) leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liancai; Liu, Xi; Tan, Jun; Wang, Bochu

    2013-11-27

    To select rabbiteye blueberry leaves from an appropriate harvest season to develop functional foods, this paper studied the bioactive secondary metabolites and the antioxidant capacity of rabbiteye blueberry leaves from May, September, and November. The results showed the leaves from May had the highest content of total flavonoids (114.21 mg/g) and the leaves from November had the highest content of total polyphenols and proanthocyanidins (425.24 and 243.29 mg/g, respectively). It was further found that blueberry leaves from different seasons have similar bioactive constituents, but their contents are obviously different by HPLC. The rabbiteye blueberry leaves from November had the highest antioxidant capacity, which was well correlated with their highest proanthocyanidin content. The results clarify that the blueberry leaves from different seasons have different contents of bioactive secondary metabolites and different antioxidant activities, which implied that leaves from November should be selected first for utilization in functional foods. PMID:24175648

  3. The importance of GRAS to the functional food and nutraceutical industries.

    PubMed

    Burdock, George A; Carabin, Ioana G; Griffiths, James C

    2006-04-01

    At a time when 150 million Americans spend over $20.5 billion on functional foods, nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is doing little to ensure that all the safe and efficacious products that could come to the market are allowed to do so. FDA has only responded slowly and reluctantly to Congressional action and to mandates from the Courts to implement the law. Additionally, FDA had set the bar too high for Health Claims and was forced by the Courts to implement a more reasonable standard, but the response, Qualified Health Claims, has failed to gain the confidence of the public because of the confusing wording of the claims demanded by FDA. Congressional efforts to assure consumer access to dietary supplements have been met with similar resistance from FDA. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) was the product of a compromise with a lower threshold for demonstration of safety (reasonable expectation of no harm) that would be met by consumer self-policing and assumption of some risk. FDA has thwarted this effort by raising the bar for New Dietary Ingredient Notifications (NDIN) to what appears to be the higher threshold for the safety of food ingredients (reasonable certainty of no harm)--FDA apparently sees these two safety thresholds as a distinction without a difference. As a result, increasing numbers of dietary supplement manufacturers, unwilling to gamble the future of their products to a system that provides little hope for the FDA's response of "no objection", have committed the additional resources necessary to obtain Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) status for their supplements. The pressure on FDA and Congress for change is again building with increased dissatisfaction among consumers as the result of confusing labels. A second force for change will be a need to uncouple the FDA mandated substance-disease relationship and return to the substance-claim relationship to allow for progress in nutrigenomics and metabolomics, which will result in an increasing number of substance-biomarker claims. PMID:16483705

  4. [The biological function of L-carnitine and its content in the particular food examples].

    PubMed

    Rospond, Bart?omiej; Ch?opicka, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide information about L-carnitine, its physiological role in the human body and its content in some foods. This chemical compound is mainly synthesized in the liver, kidney and brain and is composed of two aminoacids, lyzine and metionine. L-carnitine regulates the level of acylo-CoA and CoA in the mitochondium and cytozolum, and it provides acetyl moieties for the biosythesis of acetocholine. L-carnitine plays a vital function in the metabolism of lipids and it carries long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for beta-oxidation. An increase of the amount of L-carnitine in the human body may lead to reduction and inhibition of production of fatty tissue. Despite the fact that human body can synthesise L-carnitine, about 80% of this chemical compound is delivered by food. It is crucial, especially for people who are on a slimming diet, to choose products rich in L-carnitine because this compound may potentially reduce the body weight. Animal by-products contain the highest amount of L-carnitine, and these are, e.g , kangaroo meat (637 mg), horse meat (423mg), beef (139 mg per 100 g of dry weight). The amount of L-carnitine in milk products may range from 1,4 to 42,8 mg per 100 g of dry matter. Vegetables and fruits are products which contain less than 5 mg of L-carnitine per 100 g of dry matter. Lipids are also very low in L-carnitine, e.g sunflower oil is free from this compound. It is worth mentioning that mushrooms are richer in L-carnitine than plants. The amount of L-carnitine (53 mg/100 g dry matter) in pleureotus ostreatus equals approximately 100 g of minced pork. PMID:23879010

  5. Enhanced Radio Frequency Biosensor for Food Quality Detection Using Functionalized Carbon Nanofillers.

    PubMed

    Tanguy, Nicolas R; Fiddes, Lindsey K; Yan, Ning

    2015-06-10

    This paper outlines an improved design of inexpensive, wireless and battery free biosensors for in situ monitoring of food quality. This type of device has an additional advantage of being operated remotely. To make the device, a portion of an antenna of a passive 13.56 MHz radio frequency identification (RFID) tag was altered with a sensing element composed of conductive nanofillers/particles, a binding agent, and a polymer matrix. These novel RFID tags were exposed to biogenic amine putrescine, commonly used as a marker for food spoilage, and their response was monitored over time using a general-purpose network analyzer. The effect of conductive filler properties, including conductivity and morphology, and filler functionalization was investigated by preparing sensing composites containing carbon particles (CPs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and binding agent grafted-multiwall carbon nanotubes (g-MWCNTs), respectively. During exposure to putrescine, the amount of reflected waves, frequency at resonance, and quality factor of the novel RFID tags decreased in response. The use of MWCNTs reduced tag cutoff time (i.e., faster response time) as compared with the use of CPs, which highlighted the effectiveness of the conductive nanofiller morphology, while the addition of g-MWCNTs further accelerated the sensor response time as a result of localized binding on the conductive nanofiller surface. Microstructural investigation of the film morphology indicated a better dispersion of g-MWCNTs in the sensing composite as compared to MWCNTs and CPs, as well as a smoother texture of the surface of the resulting coating. These results demonstrated that grafting of the binding agent onto the conductive particles in the sensing composite is an effective way to further enhance the detection sensitivity of the RFID tag based sensor. PMID:25993041

  6. Formulation and characterization of functional foods based on fruit and vegetable residue flour.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Mariana S L; Santos, Mônica C P; Moro, Thaísa M A; Basto, Gabriela J; Andrade, Roberta M S; Gonçalves, Édira C B A

    2015-02-01

    Fruits and vegetables are extensively processed and the residues are often discarded. However, due to their rich composition, they could be used to minimize food waste. This study aimed to develop food products based on the solid residue generated from the manufacture of an isotonic beverage. This beverage was produced based on integral exploitation of several fruits and vegetables: orange, passion fruit, watermelon, lettuce, courgette, carrot, spinach, mint, taro, cucumber and rocket. The remaining residue was processed into flour and its functional properties were evaluated. The fruit and vegetable residue (FVR) flour was incorporated with different levels (20 to 35 %) into biscuits and cereal bars. The proximate composition, microbiological stability until 90 days and consumer acceptance were analyzed. The FVR flour presented a higher water holding capacity than oil holding capacity, respectively 7.43 and 1.91 g g(-1) of flour, probably associated with its high levels of carbohydrates (53 %) and fibres (21.5 %). Biscuits enriched with 35 % of FVR flour presented significantly higher fibre, ranging from 57 % to 118 % and mineral contents, from 25 % to 37 % than when only 20 % was added. Cereal bars presented about 75 % of fibres and variable mineral contents between 14 % and 37 %. The incorporation of FVR did not change the fat content. The microbiological examinations are within acceptable limits according to international regulation. The incorporation of FVR flour did not impair consumer acceptance, the sensory attributes averaged around 6. The chemical, microbiological and sensorial results of the designed products attested for an alternative towards applying and reducing agro-industrial wastes. PMID:25694690

  7. Acoustic cues to Nehiyawewin constituency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Clare; Muehlbauer, Jeff

    2005-04-01

    This study examines how speakers use acoustic cues, e.g., pitch and pausing, to establish syntactic and semantic constituents in Nehiyawewin, an Algonquian language. Two Nehiyawewin speakers autobiographies, which have been recorded, transcribed, and translated by H. C. Wolfart in collaboration with a native speaker of Nehiyawewin, provide natural-speech data for the study. Since it is difficult for a non-native-speaker to reliably distinguish Nehiyawewin constituents, an intermediary is needed. The transcription provides this intermediary through punctuation marks (commas, semi-colons, em-dashes, periods), which have been shown to consistently mark constituency structure [Nunberg, CSLI 1990]. The acoustic cues are thus mapped onto the punctuated constituents, and then similar constituents are compared to see what acoustic cues they share. Preliminarily, the clearest acoustic signal to a constituent boundary is a pitch drop preceding the boundary and/or a pitch reset on the syllable following the boundary. Further, constituent boundaries marked by a period consistently end on a low pitch, are followed by a pitch reset of 30-90 Hz and have an average pause of 1.9 seconds. I also discuss cross-speaker cues, and prosodic cues that do not correlate to punctuation, with implications for the transcriptional view of orthography [Marckwardt, Oxford 1942].

  8. Food-associated cues alter forebrain functional connectivity as assessed with immediate early gene and proenkephalin expression

    PubMed Central

    Schiltz, Craig A; Bremer, Quentin Z; Landry, Charles F; Kelley, Ann E

    2007-01-01

    Background Cues predictive of food availability are powerful modulators of appetite as well as food-seeking and ingestive behaviors. The neurobiological underpinnings of these conditioned responses are not well understood. Monitoring regional immediate early gene expression is a method used to assess alterations in neuronal metabolism resulting from upstream intracellular and extracellular signaling. Furthermore, assessing the expression of multiple immediate early genes offers a window onto the possible sequelae of exposure to food cues, since the function of each gene differs. We used immediate early gene and proenkephalin expression as a means of assessing food cue-elicited regional activation and alterations in functional connectivity within the forebrain. Results Contextual cues associated with palatable food elicited conditioned motor activation and corticosterone release in rats. This motivational state was associated with increased transcription of the activity-regulated genes homer1a, arc, zif268, ngfi-b and c-fos in corticolimbic, thalamic and hypothalamic areas and of proenkephalin within striatal regions. Furthermore, the functional connectivity elicited by food cues, as assessed by an inter-regional multigene-expression correlation method, differed substantially from that elicited by neutral cues. Specifically, food cues increased cortical engagement of the striatum, and within the nucleus accumbens, shifted correlations away from the shell towards the core. Exposure to the food-associated context also induced correlated gene expression between corticostriatal networks and the basolateral amygdala, an area critical for learning and responding to the incentive value of sensory stimuli. This increased corticostriatal-amygdalar functional connectivity was absent in the control group exposed to innocuous cues. Conclusion The results implicate correlated activity between the cortex and the striatum, especially the nucleus accumbens core and the basolateral amygdala, in the generation of a conditioned motivated state that may promote excessive food intake. The upregulation of a number of genes in unique patterns within corticostriatal, thalamic, and hypothalamic networks suggests that food cues are capable of powerfully altering neuronal processing in areas mediating the integration of emotion, cognition, arousal, and the regulation of energy balance. As many of these genes play a role in plasticity, their upregulation within these circuits may also indicate the neuroanatomic and transcriptional correlates of extinction learning. PMID:17462082

  9. Linking food web functioning and habitat diversity for an ecosystem based management: a Mediterranean lagoon case-study.

    PubMed

    Brigolin, D; Facca, C; Franco, A; Franzoi, P; Pastres, R; Sfriso, A; Sigovini, M; Soldatini, C; Tagliapietra, D; Torricelli, P; Zucchetta, M; Pranovi, F

    2014-06-01

    We propose a modelling approach relating the functioning of a transitional ecosystem with the spatial extension of its habitats. A test case is presented for the lagoon of Venice, discussing the results in the context of the application of current EU directives. The effects on food web functioning due to changes related to manageable and unmanageable drivers were investigated. The modelling procedure involved the use of steady-state food web models and network analysis, respectively applied to estimate the fluxes of energy associated with trophic interactions, and to compute indices of food web functioning. On the long term (hundred years) temporal scale, the model indicated that the expected loss of salt marshes will produce further changes at the system level, with a lagoon showing a decrease in the energy processing efficiency. On the short term scale, simulation results indicated that fishery management accompanied by seagrass restoration measures would produce a slight transition towards a more healthy system, with higher energy cycling, and maintaining a good balance between processing efficiency and resilience. Scenarios presented suggest that the effectiveness of short term management strategies can be better evaluated when contextualized in the long term trends of evolution of a system. We also remark the need for further studying the relationship between habitat diversity and indicators of food web functioning. PMID:24656573

  10. Functional foods effective for hepatitis C: Identification of oligomeric proanthocyanidin and its action mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Yo-ichi; Takeshita, Masahiko; Kataoka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis and currently infects approximately 170 million people worldwide. An infection by HCV causes high rates of chronic hepatitis (> 75%) and progresses to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma ultimately. HCV can be eliminated by a combination of pegylated α-interferon and the broad-spectrum antiviral drug ribavirin; however, this treatment is still associated with poor efficacy and tolerability and is often accompanied by serious side-effects. While some novel direct-acting antivirals against HCV have been developed recently, high medical costs limit the access to the therapy in cost-sensitive countries. To search for new natural anti-HCV agents, we screened local agricultural products for their suppressive activities against HCV replication using the HCV replicon cell system in vitro. We found a potent inhibitor of HCV RNA expression in the extracts of blueberry leaves and then identified oligomeric proanthocyanidin as the active ingredient. Further investigations into the action mechanism of oligomeric proanthocyanidin suggested that it is an inhibitor of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) such as hnRNP A2/B1. In this review, we presented an overview of functional foods and ingredients efficient for HCV infection, the chemical structural characteristics of oligomeric proanthocyanidin, and its action mechanism. PMID:25544874

  11. Lead and cadmium in functional health foods and Korean herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooseok; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in functional health foods (FHF) and Korean herbal medicines (KHM) were analysed by the standard addition method with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A total of 672 samples were collected from 2347 people (1015 adults, 557 students and 775 infants and children) who lived in Korea. Pb and Cd concentrations were analysed in the samples (FHF, n = 535; KHM, n = 50). Method validation was carried out using standard reference material (SRM), recovery rate and limits of detection and quantification. Recovery rates for Pb and Cd using three SRMs were 94.9%-101.6% and 96.7%-115.2%, respectively. Mean Pb values in FHF and KHM were 0.146 and 0.349 mg kg?, respectively. Mean Cd levels in FHF and KHM were 0.035 and 0.056 mg kg?, respectively. Mean values in Spirulina and yeast products were the highest in the FHF samples (0.940 mg kg? for Pb in Spirulina products and 0.115 mg kg? for Cd in yeast products). PMID:24779882

  12. Scientific basis of biomarkers and benefits of functional foods for reduction of disease risk: cancer.

    PubMed

    Rafter, Joseph J

    2002-11-01

    One of the most promising areas for the development of functional foods lies in modification of the activity of the gastrointestinal tract by use of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. While a myriad of healthful effects have been attributed to the probiotic lactic acid bacteria, perhaps the most controversial remains that of anticancer activity. However, it must be emphasised that, to date, there is no direct experimental evidence for cancer suppression in man as a result of consumption of lactic cultures in fermented or unfermented dairy products, although there is a wealth of indirect evidence, based largely on laboratory studies. Presently, there are a large number of biomarkers available for assessing colon cancer risk in dietary intervention studies, which are validated to varying degrees. These include colonic mucosal markers, faecal water markers and immunological markers. Overwhelming evidence from epidemiological, in vivo, in vitro and clinical trial data indicates that a plant-based diet can reduce the risk of chronic disease, particularly cancer. It is now clear that there are components in a plant-based diet other than traditional nutrients that can reduce cancer risk. More than a dozen classes of these biologically active plant chemicals, now known as 'phytochemicals', have been identified. Although the vast number of naturally occurring health-enhancing substances appear to be of plant origin, there are a number of physiologically active components in animal products (such as the probiotics referred to above) that deserve attention for their potential role in cancer prevention. PMID:12495463

  13. Strain screening, fermentation, separation, and encapsulation for production of nattokinase functional food.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xuetuan; Luo, Mingfang; Xie, Yuchun; Yang, Liangrong; Li, Haojian; Xu, Lin; Liu, Huizhou

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a novel and integrated preparation technology for nattokinase functional food, including strain screening, fermentation, separation, and encapsulation. To rapidly screen a nattokinase-productive strain, PCR-based screening method was combined with fibrinolytic activity-based method, and a high productive strain, Bacillus subtilis LSSE-22, was isolated from Chinese soybean paste. Reduction of poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA) concentration may contribute to separation of nattokinase and reduction of late-onset anaphylaxis risk. Chickpeas were confirmed as the favorable substrate for enhancement of nattokinase production and reduction of ?-PGA yield. Using cracked chickpeas, the nattokinase activity reached 356.25??17.18 FU/g (dry weight), which is much higher than previous reports. To further reduce ?-PGA concentration, ethanol fractional extraction and precipitation were applied for separation of nattokinase. By extraction with 50 % and precipitation with 75 % ethanol solution, 4,000.58??192.98 FU/g of nattokinase powders were obtained, and the activity recovery reached 89??1 %, while ?-PGA recovery was reduced to 21??2 %. To improve the nattokinase stability at acidic pH condition, the nattokinase powders were encapsulated, and then coated with methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate copolymer. After encapsulation, the nattokinase was protected from being denatured under various acid conditions, and pH-responsible controlled release at simulated intestinal fluid was realized. PMID:22987066

  14. Intake of Phthalate-Tainted Foods Alters Thyroid Functions in Taiwanese Children

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Tsang; Wu, Chia-Fang; Chen, Bai-Hsiun; Chen, Eric K.; Chen, Yi-Ling; Shiea, Jentaie; Lee, Wei-Te; Chao, Mei-Chyn; Wu, Jiunn-Ren

    2013-01-01

    Background On April-May, 2011, two Taiwan chemical companies were found to have intentionally added phthalates, Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and/or Di-isononyl phthalate, as a substitute of emulsifier to many foodstuffs. This study aimed to investigate whether exposure to these foods altered endocrine functions in children aged ≤10 years and, if so, whether those changes could be reversed by stopping exposure. Methods One Phthalates Clinic for Children was established in southern Taiwan between May 31 and June 17, 2011. All eligible children had their exposure information, blood and/or urine specimens collected. Endocrine functions were assessed in serum. The exposure groups were categorized into three (High, >500 ppm, Low, 1–500 ppm, and No, <1 ppm of DEHP). After six months, some children were followed up for the selected endocrine hormones. Results Sixty children were eligible in this study; all were Tanner stage 1 with no pubic hair. Compared to non-exposed group, both high and low exposure groups had significantly lower serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels (P = 0.001 and 0.024). At six months follow-up, serum triiodothyronine (T3) levels was significantly changed (P = 0.034) in high exposure group (n = 13). For serum estradiol (E2), the detectable rate (≥8 pg/mL) decreased from 76.9% (10/13) to 30.8% (4/13) (P = 0.070). Conclusions This study shows that serum TSH levels can be altered when children were exposed to high concentrations of phthalate-tainted foodstuffs. Serum E2 and T3 may be partially recovered after stopping exposure. PMID:23383031

  15. Liking of health-functional foods containing lupin kernel fibre following repeated consumption in a dietary intervention setting.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ramon S; Baxter, Amynta L; Fryirs, Cathy; Johnson, Stuart K

    2010-10-01

    Liking of a particular food after repeated consumption may be reduced, limiting the effectiveness of health-functional foods requiring on-going consumption to deliver their benefits. This study examined the effect of repeated consumption of foods containing the novel ingredient, Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKFibre) on sensory acceptability in the dietary intervention setting. In a single-blind randomised crossover 4-week intervention, participants consumed both control and equivalent LKFibre-containing products daily on separate interventions separated by a 4-week period on habitual diet. Seven products: muesli, bread, muffin, chocolate brownie, chocolate milk drink, pasta and instant mashed potato were assessed twice (days 4 and 18 of intervention), by 38 participants for appearance, texture, flavour and general acceptability using a structured graphic hedonic scale. Overall the results showed there was no reduction (P=0.594) in general acceptability of LKFibre foods after repeated consumption, suggesting potential for long-term consumption. The control food products were however generally preferred (P<0.001) over the LKFibre foods; the mean difference for general acceptability between being <6% (0.82cm) of the 15cm hedonic scale used, suggesting LKF addition did not severely affect product palatability. PMID:20542068

  16. Chemical composition and potential health effects of prunes: a functional food?

    PubMed

    Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, M; Bowen, P E; Hussain, E A; Damayanti-Wood, B I; Farnsworth, N R

    2001-05-01

    Prunes are dried plums, fruits of Prunus domestica L., cultivated and propagated since ancient times. Most dried prunes are produced from cultivar d'Agen, especially in California and France, where the cultivar originated. After harvest, prune-making plums are dehydrated in hot air at 85 to 90 degrees C for 18 h, then further processed into prune juice, puree, or other prune products. This extensive literature review summarizes the current knowledge of chemical composition of prunes and their biological effects on human health. Because of their sweet flavor and well-known mild laxative effect, prunes are considered to be an epitome of functional foods, but the understanding of their mode of action is still unclear. Dried prunes contain approximately 6.1 g of dietary fiber per 100 g, while prune juice is devoid of fiber due to filtration before bottling. The laxative action of both prune and prune juice could be explained by their high sorbitol content (14.7 and 6.1 g/100 g, respectively). Prunes are good source of energy in the form of simple sugars, but do not mediate a rapid rise in blood sugar concentration, possibly because of high fiber, fructose, and sorbitol content. Prunes contain large amounts of phenolic compounds (184 mg/100 g), mainly as neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids, which may aid in the laxative action and delay glucose absorption. Phenolic compounds in prunes had been found to inhibit human LDL oxidation in vitro, and thus might serve as preventive agents against chronic diseases, such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, high potassium content of prunes (745 mg/100 g) might be beneficial for cardiovascular health. Dried prunes are an important source of boron, which is postulated to play a role in prevention of osteoporosis. A serving of prunes (100 g) fulfills the daily requirement for boron (2 to 3 mg). More research is needed to assess the levels of carotenoids and other phytochemicals present in prunes to ensure correct labeling and accuracy of food composition tables in order to support dietary recommendations or health claims. PMID:11401245

  17. Mechanical properties of foods used in experimental studies of primate masticatory function.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan H; Wright, Barth W; Truong, Van den; Daubert, Christopher R; Vinyard, Christopher J

    2005-11-01

    In vivo studies of jaw-muscle behavior have been integral factors in the development of our current understanding of the primate masticatory apparatus. However, even though it has been shown that food textures and mechanical properties influence jaw-muscle activity during mastication, very little effort has been made to quantify the relationship between the elicited masticatory responses of the subject and the mechanical properties of the foods that are eaten. Recent work on human mastication highlights the importance of two mechanical properties-toughness and elastic modulus (i.e., stiffness)-for food breakdown during mastication. Here we provide data on the toughness and elastic modulus of the majority of foods used in experimental studies of the nonhuman primate masticatory apparatus. Food toughness ranges from approximately 56.97 Jm(-2) (apple pulp) to 4355.45 Jm(-2) (prune pit). The elastic modulus of the experimental foods ranges from 0.07 MPa for gummy bears to 346 MPa for popcorn kernels. These data can help researchers studying primate mastication select among several potential foods with broadly similar mechanical properties. Moreover, they provide a framework for understanding how jaw-muscle activity varies with food mechanical properties in these studies. PMID:16287104

  18. Functional foods and their expanding applications in the improvement of human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the last few decades, various epidemiological investigations have reinforced the concept that diet plays an important role in human health. These analyses have demonstrated that the types of food consumed, the composition of those foods, and the amounts consumed can all be linked to the promo...

  19. Food Crystalization and Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food Crystalization and Eggs Deana R. Jones, Ph.D. USDA Agricultural Research Service Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit Athens, Georgia, USA Deana.Jones@ars.usda.gov Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a foo...

  20. Cortical representation of the constituent structure of sentences

    PubMed Central

    Pallier, Christophe; Devauchelle, Anne-Dominique; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2011-01-01

    Linguistic analyses suggest that sentences are not mere strings of words but possess a hierarchical structure with constituents nested inside each other. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to search for the cerebral mechanisms of this theoretical construct. We hypothesized that the neural assembly that encodes a constituent grows with its size, which can be approximately indexed by the number of words it encompasses. We therefore searched for brain regions where activation increased parametrically with the size of linguistic constituents, in response to a visual stream always comprising 12 written words or pseudowords. The results isolated a network of left-hemispheric regions that could be dissociated into two major subsets. Inferior frontal and posterior temporal regions showed constituent size effects regardless of whether actual content words were present or were replaced by pseudowords (jabberwocky stimuli). This observation suggests that these areas operate autonomously of other language areas and can extract abstract syntactic frames based on function words and morphological information alone. On the other hand, regions in the temporal pole, anterior superior temporal sulcus and temporo-parietal junction showed constituent size effect only in the presence of lexico-semantic information, suggesting that they may encode semantic constituents. In several inferior frontal and superior temporal regions, activation was delayed in response to the largest constituent structures, suggesting that nested linguistic structures take increasingly longer time to be computed and that these delays can be measured with fMRI. PMID:21224415

  1. Development of a functional food or drug against unloading-mediated muscle atrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikawa, Takeshi; Nakao, Reiko; Kagawa, Sachiko; Yamada, Chiharu; Abe, Manami; Tamura, Seiko; Kohno, Shohei; Sukeno, Akiko; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Okumura, Yuushi; Ishidoh, Kazumi

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is a primary regulator of muscle protein turnover, providing a mechanism for selective degradation of regulatory and structural proteins. This pathway is constitutively active in muscle fibers and mediates both intracellular signaling events and normal muscle protein turnover. However, conditions of decreased muscle use, so called unloading, remarkably stimulate activity of this pathway, resulting in loss of muscle protein. In fact, we previously reported that expression of several ubiquitin ligase genes, such as MuRF-1, Cbl-b, and Siah-1A, which are rate-limiting enzymes of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway, are significantly up-regulated in rat skeletal muscle during spaceflight. Moreover, we found that Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1, an important intermediates of IGF-1 signal transduction, contributes to muscle atrophy during unloading. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1 leads to prevention of muscle atrophy during unloading. In this study, we aimed to evaluate oligopeptide as an inhibitor against ubiquitination of IRS-1 by Cbl-b. We synthesized various oligopeptides that may competitively inhibit the binding of Cbl-b to IRS-1 on the basis of their structures and screened inhibitory effects of these synthesized oligopeptides on Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination of IRS-1 using in vitro ubiquitination systems. We found that two synthetic oligopeptides with specific amino acid sequences effectively inhibited interaction with Cbl-b and IRS-1, resulting in decreased ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1 (Patent pending). In contrast, we also found inhibitory activity against Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination of IRS-1 in soy protein-derived oligopeptides, whereas their inhibitory effects were weaker than those of synthetic oligopeptides. Our results suggest that specific oligopeptides may be available as a functional food against the muscle atrophy, especially through downregulation of the Cbl-b-mediated IRS-1 degradation.

  2. A randomised controlled trial of a probiotic functional food in the management of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common condition characterised by pain, distension and altered bowel habit. Evidence suggests functional foods containing probiotics improve gastrointestinal transit, however, data are limited by short follow-up periods and evaluation in selected populations. Methods A multi-centre, randomized, double blind, controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a probiotic vs non-probiotic dairy product on symptoms in IBS with a constipation element (IBS Constipation or IBS Mixed profile). Set in 13 general practices within central England. Individuals meeting the ROME III criteria for IBS, aged 1865 completed a pre-study diary. Eligible individuals were randomized to consume dairy yoghurt products which either did or did not contain active probiotics twice daily and to complete a daily diary. Primary outcome was subjective global assessment of symptom relief at week 4. Other outcomes comprised, IBS symptom scores, pain, bloating and flatulence levels, stool frequency, stool consistency, ease of bowel movement and quality of life. Results 179 were randomized (91 active, 88 placebo). 76 (43 active, 33 placebo) completed the study. No significant between group differences existed at 4 weeks (57% active vs 53% placebo, reported adequate relief (p = 0.71)). By week 8, 46% active vs 68% placebo reported adequate relief (p = 0.03). This was sustained at week 12. Conclusions Significant improvements were reported for most outcomes in all trial participants but improvement did not differ by group. This trial does not provide evidence for effectiveness of a probiotic in IBS, in variance with a body of published literature and review conclusions. Differential drop out may however cloud interpretation of data. UK Trial registration:ISRCTN78863629 PMID:23496803

  3. Neural Responses to Visual Food Cues According to Weight Status: A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pursey, Kirrilly M.; Stanwell, Peter; Callister, Robert J.; Brain, Katherine; Collins, Clare E.; Burrows, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests that specific food-related behaviors contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they used visual food cues, studied humans >18?years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies were identified that investigated the neural responses of healthy weight participants (n?=?26), healthy weight compared to obese participants (n?=?17), and weight-loss interventions (n?=?12). High-calorie food images were used in the majority of studies (n?=?36), however, image selection justification was only provided in 19 studies. Obese individuals had increased activation of reward-related brain areas including the insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to visual food cues compared to healthy weight individuals, and this was particularly evident in response to energy dense cues. Additionally, obese individuals were more responsive to food images when satiated. Meta-analysis of changes in neural activation post-weight loss revealed small areas of convergence across studies in brain areas related to emotion, memory, and learning, including the cingulate gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and precuneus. Differential activation patterns to visual food cues were observed between obese, healthy weight, and weight-loss populations. Future studies require standardization of nutrition variables and fMRI outcomes to enable more direct comparisons between studies. PMID:25988110

  4. Kiwifruit-based polyphenols and related antioxidants for functional foods: kiwifruit extract-enhanced gluten-free bread.

    PubMed

    Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Chen, Juan; Chuah, Cheryll; Wibisono, Reginald; Melton, Laurence D; Laing, William; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Skinner, Margot A

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the production of gluten-free bread enhanced with polyphenols and related antioxidants derived from a natural aqueous extract from green-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa). Puree and four aqueous extracts, produced from ripe green kiwifruit in the absence of artificial preservatives, were subjected to storage stability trials at 4 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 38 degrees C, and were chemically characterized (phenolic, vitamin C and pectic polysaccharide contents). The aqueous extract with good stability and high phenolic and vitamin C contents was used for gluten-free bread-making. The resultant kiwifruit extract-enhanced bread was acceptable to a taste panel, possessing softer and smoother texture than plain gluten-free bread. Thus, the aqueous extract of kiwifruit puree containing health-beneficial constituents can be considered a functional ingredient for gluten-free bread formulation. PMID:19548162

  5. Raman spectroscopic quantification of milk powder constituents.

    PubMed

    McGoverin, C M; Clark, A S S; Holroyd, S E; Gordon, K C

    2010-07-12

    Raman spectroscopy has significant potential for the quantification of food products. Milk powder is an important foodstuff and ingredient that is produced on large scale (over 20 million tonnes per annum). Raman spectroscopy, unlike near- and mid-infrared spectroscopies, has not been used extensively to quantify milk powder constituents. The effect of sample presentation on spectroscopic calibrations of protein and fat for 136 New Zealand milk powders was assessed using Raman spectroscopy. Prediction models were produced to quantify a protein concentration range of 32.19-37.65% w/w for skim milk powder, and a protein concentration range of 23.34-25.02% w/w and a fat concentration range of 26.26-29.68% w/w for whole milk powder (where ratios of prediction to deviation exceeded 2.6 with one exception). The resultant calibrations were not influenced by sample orientation; the sample temperature during data collection did affect the calibrations. Calcium fortification in the form of calcium carbonate was identified within a sub-set of samples, reinforcing the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy for identifying both crystalline and non-crystalline constituents within milk powder. PMID:20630174

  6. Functional foods-based diet as a novel dietary approach for management of type 2 diabetes and its complications: A review

    PubMed Central

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a complicated metabolic disorder with both short- and long-term undesirable complications. In recent years, there has been growing evidence that functional foods and their bioactive compounds, due to their biological properties, may be used as complementary treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this review, we have highlighted various functional foods as missing part of medical nutrition therapy in diabetic patients. Several in vitro, animal models and some human studies, have demonstrated that functional foods and nutraceuticals may improve postprandial hyperglycemia and adipose tissue metabolism modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Functional foods may also improve dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, and attenuate oxidative stress and inflammatory processes and subsequently could prevent the development of long-term diabetes complications including cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. In conclusion available data indicate that a functional foods-based diet may be a novel and comprehensive dietary approach for management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24936248

  7. Antimelanoma and Antityrosinase from Alpinia galangal Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Po-Len; Lin, Li-Ching; Chen, Yen-Ting; Hseu, You-Cheng; Wen, Zhi-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Two compounds, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (BHPHTO) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) they have been isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia galangal, and the structures of both pure constituents were determined using spectroscopic analyses. The study examined the bioeffectivenesses of the two compounds on the human melanoma A2058 and showed that significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in the cell viability assay. This research was also taken on the tests to B16-F10 cell line and showed minor inhibitory consequences of cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin contents. Our results revealed the anticancer effects of A. galangal compounds, and therefore, the target compounds could be potentially applied in the therapeutic application and the food industry. PMID:24027439

  8. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sales constituency. 930.16 Section 930.16 Agriculture... Definitions 930.16 Sales constituency. Sales constituency means a common marketing organization or brokerage... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  9. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sales constituency. 930.16 Section 930.16 Agriculture... Definitions 930.16 Sales constituency. Sales constituency means a common marketing organization or brokerage... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  10. Two functional serotonin polymorphisms moderate the effect of food reinforcement on BMI.

    PubMed

    Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K; Salis, Robbert J; Erbe, Richard W; Faith, Myles S; Allison, David B; Stice, Eric; Epstein, Leonard H

    2013-06-01

    Food reinforcement, or the motivation to eat, has been associated with increased energy intake, greater body weight, and prospective weight gain. Much of the previous research on the reinforcing value of food has focused on the role of dopamine, but it may be worthwhile to examine genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin and opioid systems as these neurotransmitters have been shown to be related to reinforcement processes and to influence energy intake. We examined the relationship among 44 candidate genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine, serotonin, and opioid systems, as well as food reinforcement and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 245 individuals. Polymorphisms in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-LPR) and serotonin receptor 2A genes (rs6314) moderated the effect of food reinforcement on BMI, accounting for an additional 5-10% variance and revealed a potential role of the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs6314, in the serotonin 2A receptor as a differential susceptibility factor for obesity. Differential susceptibility describes a factor that can confer either risk or protection depending on a second variable, such that rs6314 is predictive of both high and low BMI based on the level of food reinforcement, while the diathesis stress or dual-gain model only influences one end of the outcome measure. The interaction with MAOA-LPR better fits the diathesis stress model, with the 3.5R/4R allele conferring protection for individuals low in food reinforcement. These results provide new insight into genes theoretically involved in obesity, and support the hypothesis that genetics moderate the association between food reinforcement and BMI. PMID:23544600

  11. Two functional serotonin polymorphisms moderate the effect of food reinforcement on BMI

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Katelyn A.; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D.; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K.; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard; Faith, Myles; Allison, David; Stice, Eric; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2014-01-01

    Food reinforcement, or the motivation to eat, has been associated with increased energy intake, greater body weight and prospective weight gain. Much of the previous research on the reinforcing value of food has focused on the role of dopamine, but it may be worthwhile to examine genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin and opioid systems as these neurotransmitters have been shown to be related to reinforcement processes and to influence energy intake. We examined the relationship among 44 candidate genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine, serotonin and opioid systems, and food reinforcement and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 245 individuals. Polymorphisms in the Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-LPR) and serotonin receptor 2A genes (rs6314) moderated the effect of food reinforcement on BMI, accounting for an additional 5-10% variance and revealed a potential role of the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs6314 in the serotonin 2A receptor as a differential susceptibility factor for obesity. Differential susceptibility describes a factor that can confer either risk or protection depending on a second variable, such that rs6314 is predictive of both high and low BMI based on the level of food reinforcement, while the diathesis stress or dual-gain model influences only one end of the outcome measure. The interaction with MAOA-LPR better fit the dual-risk or diathesis stress model, with the 3.5R/4R allele conferring protection for individuals low in food reinforcement. These results provide new insight into genes theoretically involved in obesity and support the hypothesis that genetics moderate the association between food reinforcement on BMI. PMID:23544600

  12. Food Crystallization and Egg Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a food product can be either beneficial or detrimental and is of particular importance in candy and frozen desserts. The most common crystal in foods is sugar which affects th...

  13. Membrane Bioreactor Technology for the Development of Functional Materials from Sea-Food Processing Wastes and Their Potential Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Senevirathne, Mahinda

    2011-01-01

    Sea-food processing wastes and underutilized species of fish are a potential source of functional and bioactive compounds. A large number of bioactive substances can be produced through enzyme-mediated hydrolysis. Suitable enzymes and the appropriate bioreactor system are needed to incubate the waste materials. Membrane separation is a useful technique to extract, concentrate, separate or fractionate the compounds. The use of membrane bioreactors to integrate a reaction vessel with a membrane separation unit is emerging as a beneficial method for producing bioactive materials such as peptides, chitooligosaccharides and polyunsaturated fatty acids from diverse seafood-related wastes. These bioactive compounds from membrane bioreactor technology show diverse biological activities such as antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antitumor, anticoagulant, antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. This review discusses the application of membrane bioreactor technology for the production of value-added functional materials from sea-food processing wastes and their biological activities in relation to health benefits. PMID:24957872

  14. Functionality of liquid smoke as an all-natural antimicrobial in food preservation.

    PubMed

    Lingbeck, Jody M; Cordero, Paola; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

    2014-06-01

    The smoking of foods, especially meats, has been used as a preservation technique for centuries. Today, smoking methods often involve the use of wood smoke condensates, commonly known as liquid smoke. Liquid smoke is produced by condensing wood smoke created by the pyrolysis of sawdust or wood chips followed by removal of the carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The main products of wood pyrolysis are phenols, carbonyls and organic acids which are responsible for the flavor, color and antimicrobial properties of liquid smoke. Several common food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus have shown sensitivity to liquid smoke in vitro and in food systems. Therefore liquid smoke has potential for use as an all-natural antimicrobial in commercial applications where smoke flavor is desired. This review will cover the application and effectiveness of liquid smoke and fractions of liquid smoke as an all-natural food preservative. This review will be valuable for the industrial and research communities in the food science and technology areas. PMID:24583328

  15. Fermented milks and milk products as functional foods--a review.

    PubMed

    Shiby, V K; Mishra, H N

    2013-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages possess various nutritional and therapeutic properties. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a major role in determining the positive health effects of fermented milks and related products. The L. acidophilus and Bifidobacteria spp are known for their use in probiotic dairy foods. Cultured products sold with any claim of health benefits should meet the criteria of suggested minimum number of more than 10? cfu/g at the time of consumption. Yoghurt is redefined as a probiotic carrier food. Several food powders like yoghurt powder and curd (dahi) powder are manufactured taking into consideration the number of organisms surviving in the product after drying. Such foods, beverages and powders are highly acceptable to consumers because of their flavor and aroma and high nutritive value. Antitumor activity is associated with the cell wall of starter bacteria and so the activity remains even after drying. Other health benefits of fermented milks include prevention of gastrointestinal infections, reduction of serum cholesterol levels and antimutagenic activity. The fermented products are recommended for consumption by lactose intolerant individuals and patients suffering from atherosclerosis. The formulation of fermented dietetic preparations and special products is an expanding research area. The health benefits, the technology of production of fermented milks and the kinetics of lactic acid fermentation in dairy products are reviewed here. PMID:23391015

  16. Bioactive Foods and Ingredients for Health12

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Connie M.

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive compounds in foods have been gaining interest, and processes to consider them for public health recommendations are being discussed. However, the evidence base is difficult to assemble. It is difficult to demonstrate causality, and there often is not a single compound–single effect relation. Furthermore, health benefits may be due to metabolites produced by the host or gut microbiome rather than the food constituent per se. Properties that can be measured in a food may not translate to in vivo health effects. Compounds that are being pursued may increase gut microbial diversity, improve endothelial function, improve cognitive function, reduce bone loss, and so forth. A new type of bioactive component is emerging from epigenetic modifications by our diet, including microRNA transfer from our diet, which can regulate expression of human genes. Policy processes are needed to establish the level of evidence needed to determine dietary advice and policy recommendations and to set research agendas. PMID:24829482

  17. Promoting functional foods as acceptable alternatives to doping: potential for information-based social marketing approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Substances with performance enhancing properties appear on a continuum, ranging from prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED) through dietary supplements to functional foods (FF). Anti-doping messages designed to dissuade athletes from using PEDs have been typically based on moralising sport competition and/or employing scare campaigns with focus on the negative consequences. Campaigns offering comparable and acceptable alternatives are nonexistent, nor are athletes helped in finding these for themselves. It is timely that social marketing strategies for anti-doping prevention and intervention incorporate media messages that complement the existing approaches by promoting comparable and acceptable alternatives to doping. To facilitate this process, the aim of this study was to ascertain whether a single exposure knowledge-based information intervention led to increased knowledge and subsequently result in changes in beliefs and automatic associations regarding performance enhancements. Methods In a repeated measure design, 115 male recreational gym users were recruited and provided with a brief information pamphlet on nitrite/nitrate and erythropoietin as a comparison. Measures of knowledge, beliefs and automatic associations were taken before and after the intervention with at least 24 hours between the two assessments. The psychological tests included explicit measures of beliefs and cognitive attitudes toward FF and PED using a self-reported questionnaire and computerised assessments of automatic associations using the modified and shortened version of the Implicit Association Test. Results The information based intervention significantly increased knowledge (p < 0.001), changed explicit beliefs in specific FF (p < 0.001) and shifted the automatic association of FF with health to performance (p < 0.001). Explicitly expressed beliefs and automatic associations appear to be independent. Conclusion Evidence was found that even a single exposure to a persuasive positive message can lead to belief change and can create new or alter existing associations - but only in the specific domain. Interventions to change outcome expectations in a positive way could be a rewarding avenue for anti-doping. Effective social marketing campaigns for drug free sport should follow appropriate market segmentation and use targeted messages via promoting the natural form as opposed to the purified form of the main active ingredient. PMID:21067611

  18. Light reflectance of leaf constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown how various leaf constituents differ in reflecting light over the 370- to 1100-nm wavelength interval. The premise tested is that refractive index discontinuities in leaves, other than air-cell interfaces, contribute to the reflectance of near-infrared light.-

  19. Neural correlates of stress and favorite-food cue exposure in adolescents: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Hommer, Rebecca E; Seo, Dongju; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Chaplin, Tara M; Mayes, Linda C; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-10-01

    Adolescence is a critical period of neurodevelopment for stress and appetitive processing, as well as a time of increased vulnerability to stress and engagement in risky behaviors. This study was conducted to examine brain activation patterns during stress and favorite-food-cue experiences relative to a neutral-relaxing condition in adolescents. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed using individualized script-driven guided imagery to compare brain responses with such experiences in 43 adolescents. Main effects of condition and gender were found, without a significant gender-by-condition interaction. Stress imagery, relative to neutral, was associated with activation in the caudate, thalamus, left hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, midbrain, left superior/middle temporal gyrus, and right posterior cerebellum. Appetitive imagery of favorite food was associated with caudate, thalamus, and midbrain activation compared with the neutral-relaxing condition. To understand neural correlates of anxiety and craving, subjective (self-reported) measures of stress-induced anxiety and favorite-food-cue-induced craving were correlated with brain activity during stress and appetitive food-cue conditions, respectively. High self-reported stress-induced anxiety was associated with hypoactivity in the striatum, thalamus, hippocampus, and midbrain. Self-reported favorite-food-cue-induced craving was associated with blunted activity in cortical-striatal regions, including the right dorsal and ventral striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, motor cortex, and left anterior cingulate cortex. These findings in adolescents indicate the activation of predominantly subcortical-striatal regions in the processing of stressful and appetitive experiences and link hypoactive striatal circuits to self-reported stress-induced anxiety and cue-induced favorite-food craving. PMID:22504779

  20. Functional suitability of commercially milled rice bran in India for use in different food products.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, K S; Dhillon, S S; Singh, N; Singh, B

    1997-01-01

    The effect of blending of commercially available full fat and defatted rice brans in India from modern multistage rice mills with parboiling/stabilizing facilities in different food products in comparison to those obtained from laboratory milling of rice is reported. Bread volume and cookie spread decreased but muffin volume increased with the addition of different types of bran to wheat flour, however, the cookie spread factor was not affected by addition of full fat rice bran. The yields of the extrudate were increased by the blending of full fat rice bran but were decreased by the addition of defatted rice bran. Rice brans could be added to different food products to the extent of 5-10%. However, the full fat rice bran could not be used for production of extruded snack food. PMID:9201747

  1. The Importance of Take-Out Food Packaging Attributes: Conjoint Analysis and Quality Function Deployment Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari Widaningrum, Dyah

    2014-03-01

    This research aims to investigate the importance of take-out food packaging attributes, using conjoint analysis and QFD approach among consumers of take-out food products in Jakarta, Indonesia. The conjoint results indicate that perception about packaging material (such as paper, plastic, and polystyrene foam) plays the most important role overall in consumer perception. The clustering results that there is strong segmentation in which take-out food packaging material consumer consider most important. Some consumers are mostly oriented toward the colour of packaging, while another segment of customers concerns on packaging shape and packaging information. Segmentation variables based on packaging response can provide very useful information to maximize image of products through the package's impact. The results of House of Quality development described that Conjoint Analysis - QFD is a useful combination of the two methodologies in product development, market segmentation, and the trade off between customers' requirements in the early stages of HOQ process

  2. Composition and functional properties of unprocessed and locally processed seeds from three underutilized food sources in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Giami, S Y; Wachuku, O C

    1997-01-01

    Chemical and functional properties of unprocessed (raw) and locally processed seeds of Brachystegia eurycoma, Detarium microcarpum and Mucuna sloanei that affect their utilization as sources of human food were investigated. The seeds, which are underutilized food sources in Nigeria, were subjected to local processing methods which included roasting, boiling, dehulling/shelling, soaking and the changes in composition and functional properties were estimated. Chemical analyses showed that the crude protein contents of the raw seeds ranged from 12.2 to 23.2%; fat varied from 4.9 to 12.0%. The level of phytic acid in the raw seeds (192.4-215 mg/100 g) was observed to be lower than the levels found in some commonly consumed pulses in Nigeria. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between crude protein contents and the least gelation concentrations of the raw and processed samples, but processing (roasting, boiling, dehulling and soaking) significantly (p = 0.011) improved in vitro protein digestibility, water and fat absorption capacity and decreased the bulk density, nitrogen solubility and the phytic acid and polyphenol contents of the samples. Processed samples had high water (3.4-3.8 g/g) and fat (1.8-2.1 g/g) absorption capacities and hence may be useful as functional agents in fabricated foods such as bakery products and ground meat formulations. PMID:9198112

  3. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI cannot always be ingested as a single dose on an empty stomach with impunity. PMID:277126

  4. Pavlovian conditioning to food reward as a function of eating disorder risk.

    PubMed

    Astur, Robert S; Palmisano, Alexandra N; Hudd, Ellie C; Carew, Andrew W; Deaton, Bonnie E; Kuhney, Franchesca S; Niezrecki, Rachel N; Santos, Melissa

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the extent to which eating disorder risk affects the strength of food-reward conditioning. Eighty food-restricted undergraduates were placed into a VR environment consisting of two visually distinct rooms. Participants underwent multiple pairing sessions in which they were confined into one of the two rooms and explored a VR environment. Room A was paired with real-life M&Ms for three sessions, and Room B was paired with no food for three sessions. After a short delay, a test session was administered, and participants were given free access to the entire VR environment for 5 min. Participants also completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; [11]), which is a standard screening tool of eating disorder risk. Participants displayed a significant conditioned place preference for the VR room previously paired with food, and they displayed a significant explicit preference for the M&M-paired room in a forced-choice test. There was a significant positive correlation between place preference strength and scores on the dieting subscale of the EAT-26. Additionally, ratings of the no-food room were significantly lower as dieting scores increased. This suggests that components of eating disorder risk can influence basic conditioning strength to places associated with food reward. For both males and females, additional correlations between eating disorder risk subscales and conditioning variables are discussed, and implications for future research are proposed in hopes of understanding how conditioning paradigms can provide insight into treating and preventing eating disorders. PMID:26003943

  5. Maintenance of a fully functional digestive system during hibernation in the European hamster, a food-storing hibernator.

    PubMed

    Weitten, Mathieu; Oudart, Hugues; Habold, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Some small mammals limit energy expenditure during winter conditions through torpor bouts, which are characterized by a decrease in body temperature and metabolic rate. Individuals arise periodically from torpor to restore critical functions requiring euthermia. Although most of the species involved do not feed during hibernation and rely on body reserves to fulfil energy requirements (fat-storing species), others hoard food in a burrow (food-storing species) and can feed during interbout euthermy. Whereas fat-storing species undergo a marked atrophy of the digestive tract, food-storing species have to maintain a functional digestive system during hibernation. Our study aimed to evaluate the absorption capacities of a food-storing species, the European hamster, throughout the annual cycle. In vivo intestinal perfusions were conducted in different groups of hamsters (n=5) during the different life periods, namely before hibernation, in torpor, during interbout euthermy, and during summer rest. The triglyceride, non-esterified free fatty acid, starch, glucose and protein composition of the perfusate was evaluated before and after the 1h perfusion of a closed intestinal loop. Triglyceride, starch and protein hydrolysis rates were similar in hibernating (torpid and euthermic) and non-hibernating hamsters. Intestinal absorption of free fatty acid was also similar in all groups. However, glucose uptake rate was higher during hibernation than during the summer. In contrast with fat-storing species, the intestinal absorption capacities of food-storing species are fully maintained during hibernation to optimize nutrient assimilation during short interbout euthermy. In particular, glucose uptake rate is increased during hibernation to restore glycaemia and ensure glucose-dependent pathways. PMID:26774183

  6. The use of dry Jerusalem artichoke as a functional nutrient in developing extruded food with low glycaemic index.

    PubMed

    Radovanovic, Ana; Stojceska, Valentina; Plunkett, Andrew; Jankovic, Slobodan; Milovanovic, Dragan; Cupara, Snezana

    2015-06-15

    This study considers the use of dry Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as a functional nutrient in developing food products with enhanced nutritional characteristics and low glycaemic index (GI). Three different formulations based on buckwheat and JA were developed and processed using extrusion technology. Nutritional properties including the levels of total dietary fibre (TDF), protein, inulin, total carbohydrates and lipids were analysed. A clinical study was performed on ten healthy volunteers (aged between 21 and 56) to determine the level of GI and glycaemic load (GL). The results revealed that JA significantly (P<0.05) increased the levels of TDF and inulin whilst decreasing carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. The resulting products had a significant (P<0.05) effect on IAUC between reference food and extruded products, GI and GL. Samples containing 80% of Jerusalem artichoke were considered as a low GI food whilst samples containing 30% and 60% of Jerusalem artichoke as a medium GI food. A similar trend was seen in terms of GL. PMID:25660861

  7. Demystifying the U.S. Food and Drug Administration: I. Understanding agency structure and function.

    PubMed

    Levi, Benjamin; Lisiecki, Jeffrey; Rubin, Peter; D'Amico, Richard A; Hume, Keith M; Seward, Bill; Cederna, Paul S

    2014-06-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for oversight of the safety and efficacy of pharmaceuticals and devices, including biologics and devices that combine biologics with other materials. Within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research is specifically responsible for the evaluation and approval of biological products. This department of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has a series of mechanisms in place to aid researchers in the process of developing new biologics. This article outlines the study phases involved in developing new biologics and how the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research and investigators can work together to facilitate this process. It also discusses issues specific to biologics that have been encountered in the past and that investigators should consider when developing and obtaining approval for new biologics. The equivalent center within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for approving medical devices is the Center for Devices and Radiological Health. The equivalent process of development and approval of medical devices is similarly discussed. Finally, essential contacts for investigators within the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research and the Center for Devices and Radiological Health are provided. PMID:24867731

  8. Hepatic messenger ribonucleic acid activity profiles in experimental azotemia in the rat. Relationship to food intake and thyroid function.

    PubMed Central

    Kinlaw, W B; Schwartz, H L; Mariash, C N; Bingham, C; Carr, F E; Oppenheimer, J H

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the hepatic messenger RNA (mRNA) activity profile in chronically azotemic rats and sought to determine whether the observed changes could be mediated either by reduced food intake or diminished thyroid function at the tissue level. mRNA activity profiles were produced by two-dimensional gel electrophoretic separation of radioactively labeled products of an in vitro reticulocyte lysate system which had been programmed by hepatic RNA. Of the approximately 240 translational products identified in this system, seven sequences were consistently altered in azotemia. In pair-fed animals six of these also decreased, but the alterations in three were depressed to a significantly lesser extent in the pair-fed group. Moreover, analysis of covariance suggested that food intake could account for the differences in only one sequence. The possibility that the mRNA activity profile in azotemia could represent the effects of diminished thyroid function was minimized by the finding that the reductions in plasma thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels observed were due largely to reduced plasma protein binding, with maintenance of the mean free T4 and free T3 concentrations within the normal range. The changes in only one mRNA sequence could be related to free T3 levels alone. Our findings, therefore, indicate that although diminished food intake and reduced thyroid function may contribute to some of the observed changes in the mRNA activity profiles, the bulk of alterations in azotemia appear to be mediated by other mechanisms. The striking overlap between the sequences affected by azotemia and pair-feeding raises the speculation that altered gene expression in azotemia may reflect an impaired hepatic response at the pretranslational level to metabolic signals associated with food intake. Images PMID:6511910

  9. [Chemical constituents of Nauclea officinalis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fen-Xia; Wang, Jing-Jing; Song, Jie; Ding, Shu-Min; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-02-01

    In order to study the chemical constituents in the water extract of the stem of Nauclea officinalis, column chromatography over D101 macroporous resin and silica gel and an automatic purification system were used to isolate and purify the chemical constituents from the extract. Nine compounds were obtained. By analysis of the physicochemical properties and spectral data, their structures were identified as naucleamide G (1), 3, 4-dimethoxyphenol-beta-D-apiofuranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), kelampayoside A (3), 3alpha, 5alpha-tetrahydrodeoxycordifoline lactam (4), naucleamide A-10-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), pumiloside (6), 3-epi-pumiloside (7), strictosamide (8) and vincosamide (9), separately. Among them, compound 1 is a new compound, compound 2 was found in plants of the genus Nauclea for the first time, and compounds 3 and 4 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:23672026

  10. Infrared measurements of atmospheric constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murcray, David G.; Murcray, Frank J.; Goldman, Aaron; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Flaud, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this program is to obtain data concerning the concentration versus altitude of various constituents of interest in the photochemistry of the stratospheric ozone layer. Data pertinent to this objective are obtained using balloon-borne instruments to measure the atmospheric transmission and emission in the mid infrared. In addition to obtaining constituent profile information, the spectral data obtained are also used to identify absorption or emission features which may interfere with the retrieval of constituent data from satellite instruments using lower spectral resolution. The spectral resolution obtained with the solar spectral system is 0.0025 cm(exp -1) and represents about a factor of 5 greater resolution than any solar spectra previously obtained in this spectral region. As a result of the increase in spectral resolution, a large number of features are observed in these spectra which were not observed in previous studies. Identification and analysis of these features is in progress. The results of this analysis to date shows a number of HNO3 features which have not been observed before, and these occur where they will interfere with the retrieval of other constituents. An example of the interference is the occurrence of features in the 780.2 cm(exp -1) region which overlap the ClONO2 feature which will be used for retrieval of ClONO2 by the CLAES instrument on UARS. A number of features due to COF2 were also identified in the 1250 cm(exp -1) region which may interfere with retrieval of N2O5.

  11. Development of cereal-based functional food using cereal-mix substrate fermented with probiotic strain - Pichia kudriavzevii OG32.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, Omotade R; Agrawal, Renu; Sanni, Abiodun I

    2015-11-01

    Probiotic strains contribute to the functionality of foods during fermentation. In this present work, cereal-mix was fermented with probiotic Pichia kudriavzevii OG32. Selected fermentation parameters and functional properties of the product were determined. The growth of Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 was supported by the cereal-mix containing 1% salt and 0.2% red chili powder to counts of between 7.46 and 8.22 Log10 cfu/mL within 24 h. Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 increased the viscosity of cereal-mix with the highest inoculum size (1.84x105cfu/ml) giving the highest viscosity of 1793.6 mPa.S. An inoculum size of 1.98 × 10(4) cfu/mL gave the most acceptable product based on the sensory evaluation by the panelist. Forty volatile compounds were identified in the fermented product, while acids (32.21%) and esters (32.37%) accounted for the largest proportions. The cereal-based fermented product scavenged DPPH from 200 μmol/L methanolic solution by 55.71%. Probiotic yeast improved the sensory and some functional properties of cereal-based substrate during fermentation. This is one of the first reports on the volatile composition of cereal-based functional food produced with probiotic yeast. PMID:26788290

  12. Characterization of black raspberry functional food products for cancer prevention human clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gu, Junnan; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer H; Riedl, Kenneth M; Schwartz, Steven J; Clinton, Steven K; Vodovotz, Yael

    2014-05-01

    Our team is designing and fully characterizing black raspberry (BRB) food products suitable for long-term cancer prevention studies. The processing, scale-up, and storage effects on the consistency, quality, bioactive stability, and sensory acceptability of two BRB delivery systems of various matrices are presented. BRB dosage, pH, water activity, and texture were consistent in the scale-up production. Confections retained >90% of anthocyanins and ellagitannin after processing. Nectars had >69% of anthocyanins and >66% of ellagitannin retention, which varied with BRB dosage due to the processing difference. Texture remained unchanged during storage. BRB products consumed in a prostate cancer clinical trial were well accepted in sensory tests. Thus, this study demonstrates that two different BRB foods can be formulated to meet quality standards with a consistent bioactive pattern and successfully scaled up for a large human clinical trial focusing on cancer risk and other health outcomes. PMID:24345009

  13. Fear begets function in the 'brown' world of detrital food webs.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    Theory suggests that predators in detritus-based food webs should negatively influence plants, through direct effects on plant-facilitating detritivores. In a three-level food web of predaceous beetles, earthworms and plants, Zhao et al. (2013) report evidence to the contrary. They found that predators drove positive indirect effects on both plant-facilitating soil properties and above-ground plant biomass and that these positive effects were driven by predator-mediated vertical shifts in detritivore habitat use. Their study reinforces the importance of trait-mediated indirect interactions across both 'green' and 'brown' trophic cascades and emphasizes that understanding the spatial dimension of trophic cascade mechanisms remains a critical research priority. PMID:24758400

  14. Characterization of Black Raspberry Functional Food Products for Cancer Prevention Human Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Junnan; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer H.; Riedl, Kenneth M.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Clinton, Steven K.; Vodovotz, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Our team is designing and fully characterizing black raspberry (BRB) food products suitable for long-term cancer prevention studies. The processing, scale-up, and storage effects on the consistency, quality, bioactive stability, and sensory acceptability of two BRB delivery systems of various matrices are presented. BRB dosage, pH, water activity, and texture were consistent in the scale-up production. Confections retained >90% of anthocyanins and ellagitannin after processing. Nectars had >69% of anthocyanins and >66% of ellagitannin retention, which varied with BRB dosage due to the processing difference. Texture remained unchanged during storage. BRB products consumed in a prostate cancer clinical trial were well accepted in sensory tests. Thus, this study demonstrates that two different BRB foods can be formulated to meet quality standards with a consistent bioactive pattern and successfully scaled up for a large human clinical trial focusing on cancer risk and other health outcomes. PMID:24345009

  15. Identification of principal constituents in enzymatically hydrolyzed coix extract.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, N; Fukuda, J; Takatori, K; Yamada, T; Maitani, T

    2001-10-01

    The structural elucidation of the main constituents in enzymatically hydrolyzed coix extract, a natural food preservative, was carried out. After peracetylation, five compounds, namely peracetylated forms of glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, and maltopentaose were isolated. The structures were determined by PFG HMQC and HMBC experiments. In addition, by using HPLC with an RI detector, the main components of this coix extract were identified as a mixture of oligosaccharides having one to seven glucose units coupled through alpha-(1-->4) linkages. Since this extract showed no antimicrobial activity, its preservative effect may be caused by its covering of the food surface, thereby blocking contact with air. PMID:11775356

  16. HPLC, HPLC-MS and Lipidomics methods for the analysis of functional lipids in vegetable oils, nutraceuticals, and functional foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional lipids include triacylglycerols (some contain health-promoting omega-3 fatty acids), phytosterols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids, and related natural products. Until recently, thin layer chromatography was commonly used for their qualitative separation and gas chromatography (GC...

  17. The Effect of High Glucocorticoid Administration and Food Restriction on Rodent Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Function and Protein Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Jourdan, Marion; Klaus, Katherine A.; Walrand, Stephane; Nair, K. Sreekumaran

    2009-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoids levels are high in catabolic conditions but it is unclear how much of the catabolic effects are due to negative energy balance versus glucocorticoids and whether there are distinct effects on metabolism and functions of specific muscle proteins. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined whether 14 days of high dose methylprednisolone (MPred, 4 mg/kg/d) Vs food restriction (FR, food intake matched to MPred) in rats had different effects on muscle mitochondrial function and protein fractional synthesis rates (FSR). Lower weight loss (15%) occurred in FR than in MPred (30%) rats, while a 15% increase occurred saline-treated Controls. The per cent muscle loss was significantly greater for MPred than FR. Mitochondrial protein FSR in MPred rats was lower in soleus (51 and 43%, respectively) and plantaris (25 and 55%) than in FR, while similar decline in protein FSR of the mixed, sarcoplasmic, and myosin heavy chain occurred. Mitochondrial enzymatic activity and ATP production were unchanged in soleus while in plantaris cytochrome c oxidase activity was lower in FR than Control, and ATP production rate with pyruvate + malate in MPred plantaris was 28% lower in MPred. Branched-chain amino acid catabolic enzyme activities were higher in both FR and MPred rats indicating enhanced amino acid oxidation capacity. Conclusion/Significance MPred and FR had little impact on mitochondrial function but reduction in muscle protein synthesis occurred in MPred that could be explained on the basis of reduced food intake. A greater decline in proteolysis may explain lesser muscle loss in FR than in MPred rats. PMID:19381333

  18. Is the structural diversity of tripeptides sufficient for developing functional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Hui; Liu, Yong-Le; Ning, Jing-Heng; Yu, Jian; Li, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Fa-Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Multifunctional peptides have attracted increasing attention in the food science community because of their therapeutic potential, low toxicity and rapid intestinal absorption. However, previous study demonstrated that the limited structural variations make it difficult to optimize dipeptide molecules in a good balance between desirable and undesirable properties (F. Tian, P. Zhou, F. Lv, R. Song, Z. Li, J. Pept. Sci. 13 (2007) 549-566). In the present work, we attempt to answer whether the structural diversity is sufficient for a tripeptide to have satisfactory multiple bioactivities. Statistical test, structural examination and energetic analysis confirm that peptides of three amino acids long can bind tightly to human angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and thus exert significant antihypertensive efficacy. Further quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling and prediction of all 8000 possible tripeptides reveal that their ACE-inhibitory potency exhibits a good (positive) relationship to antioxidative activity, but has only a quite modest correlation with bitterness. This means that it is possible to find certain tripeptide entities possessing the optimal combination of strong ACE-inhibitory potency, high antioxidative activity and weak bitter taste, which are the promising candidates for developing multifunctional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities. The marked difference between dipeptide and tripeptide can be attributed to the fact that the structural diversity of peptides increases dramatically with a slight change in sequence length.

  19. Plant stanol content remains stable during storage of cholesterol-lowering functional foods.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, V; Laakso, P; Kuusisto, P; Niemelä, J; Laitinen, K

    2016-04-01

    Plant stanols reduce the absorption of both dietary and biliary cholesterol. The aim of this study was to examine the stability of plant stanols in the form of plant stanol esters in spreads and biscuits stored under typical storage conditions. The plant stanol content of two commercial margarine-type spreads, containing 35% and 60% absorbable fat, was 6.5 and 6.4 g/100 g after production and remained unaltered when stored at 6 °C for a shelf life of 18 and 22 weeks, respectively. Comparable results were obtained for plant stanol ester ingredient stored under the same conditions and for plant stanol ester-containing biscuits stored at room temperature for up to 74 weeks. Furthermore, the peroxide value and free fatty acids showed that the quality of the food products remained good. The present study demonstrated that plant stanol esters as an ingredient and when added in food products, are stable whilst stored under the appropriate conditions. PMID:26593623

  20. Aegle marmelos fruit pectin for food and pharmaceuticals: Physico-chemical, rheological and functional performance.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Manish; Kumar, Vineet; Rana, Vikas; Tiwary, A K

    2013-04-01

    Pectin is used in a number of foods as a gelling agent, thickener, texturizer, emulsifier and stabilizer. Bael fruit, obtained from Aegle marmelos, is a rich source of pectin. Bael fruit pectin (BFP) was extracted from ripe Bael fruits. The process yielded 15% (w/w) pure BFP. The swelling index decreased in the following order: water>pH 7.4>pH 6.8>pH 1.2>HCl (0.1N). Galacturonic acid content of 87.8%, degree of esterification of 47.2%, 17.3% methoxy groups, 0.29% acetyl groups and equivalent weight of 1209.5, indicate it to be a good gelling agent and easily amenable to derivatization. BFP exhibited a significant concentration-dependent prolongation of prothrombin time. The absence of hemagglutinating activity and antinutritional factors coupled with the activity to confer better emulsion capacity, stability and antimicrobial activity gives BFP a clear edge over commercial citrus pectin (CP) for exploitation as an additive in food and pharmaceuticals. PMID:23499073

  1. Application of mass spectrometry to the characterization and quantification of food-derived bioactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Contreras, María del Mar; López-Expósito, Iván; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Ramos, Mercedes; Recio, Isidra

    2008-01-01

    Biologically active peptides are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play different physiological roles, including antihypertensive, opioid, antimicrobial, and immunostimulating activities. Because these peptides are generated by protein hydrolysis or fermentation, they can represent only minor constituents in a highly complex matrix and therefore, identification of biologically active peptides in food matrixes is a challenging task in food technology. In this context, mass spectrometry (MS) has developed into a necessary tool to assess quality and safety of food and, more recently, to determine the presence and behavior of functional components such as these bioactive peptides. This review highlights the existing methods based on MS to identify, characterize, and quantify food-derived biologically active peptides, taking into account the different ionization sources used for the analysis of these high-value food components. The quantitative determination of bioactive peptides in food products or biological fluids is also discussed. PMID:18727560

  2. Application of High-Pressure Treatment to Enhancement of Functional Components in Agricultural Products and Development of Sterilized Foods.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Eri; Kawamura, Mariko; Ogino, Miyuki; Hoshino, Eri; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Hoshino, Jun; Yamazaki, Akira; Nishiumi, Tadayuki

    2015-01-01

    In 1988, the late Prof. Rikimaru Hayashi had first proposed "Use of High Pressure in Food", introducing his views, i.e., "heat and pressure are independently capable of transforming the state of a substance, and such state transforming factors are only heat and pressure in nature." Sc. D. Masaru Nakahara stated in his note that he had been impressed by the unique starting point of Prof. Hayashi's idea. Prof. Hayashi had explored some good method for food processing without using heat, so he alternatively thought of high-pressure treatment (Hayashi R (1989) Use of high pressure to food processing and preservation. In: Hayashi R (ed) Use of high pressure in food. San-Ei Publishing Co, Kyoto, pp 1-30; Nakahara M (1990) Water and ions at high pressure: their fundamental properties relevant to the pressure treatment to food. In: Hayashi R (ed) Pressure-processed food--research and development. San-Ei Publishing Co, Kyoto, pp 3-21). Since the start-up of Japanese research group of high pressure in biological field (the present "Japanese Research Group of High Pressure Bioscience and Biotechnology (JHPBB)") and "International Association of High Pressure Bioscience and Biotechnology (IAHPBB)", we have continued to research into the industrial use of high-pressure treatment over a period of 25 years to realize our dream, that is, the same as Prof. Hayashi's dream. Although heat and pressure were found to be independent factors capable of transforming the state of a substance, use of heat has been overwhelmingly more frequent in food processing up to now. However, the pressure treatment has the advantages of instantaneous transmission, uniform distribution in vessels, and ability of inducing uniform change in quality. The high-pressure treatment does not cause cleavage of the covalent bond in the substance, thereby lessening the decomposition of nutrients, the generation of offensive smell, and the production of abnormal materials when compared with the heat application. In addition, energy consumption in the high-pressure treatment is less than that in the heat treatment. For the reasons mentioned above, the high-pressure treatment has thus been regarded as suitable for future food processing, and much attention has been paid to the researches of high-pressure treatment again. Then, we reviewed the previous researches in which little interest had been taken because of imperfectness of non-heat sterilization. Surprisingly, we discovered some novel findings about the effect of high-pressure treatment, that is, pressure history on the subsequent event. Then, we decided to present two theses on the themes, "Application of High-pressure Treatment to Enhancement of Functional Components in Agricultural Products" and "Application of High-pressure Treatment to Development of Sterilized Foods". PMID:26174399

  3. A Study on Intake of Health Functional Food and Its Related Factors in Adults Living in Busan and Gyeongnam Area

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun-Jung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of "health functional food (HFF)" intake and related factors in Busan and Gyeongnam area and provide useful information for health promotion through the use of HFF. Among subjects of this study (n = 634), about 64% of the subjects reported that they are currently taking HFFs or other health foods or had HFFs in the last year. The reason of subjects taking HFF was to maintain and promote their health. They choose HFF by their own judgement or knowledge and the main place of purchasing HFF was the HFF store. Main food sources for promoting health in study subjects were nutrient fortified foods (76.8%), fruit or vegetable extracts (64.8%), HFF (64%), herbs or oriental medicines (29.6%), folk remedies or unidentified remedies (24.9%), respectively. The preference type of the products was capsule and liquid. 60.6% of consumers thought that HFF are expensive. 9.7% of consumers experienced the side effect such as stomachache and gastroenteric trouble. Using logistic regression analysis, the use of HFF was 1.9 times higher in female than male subjects indicating strong association between gender and HFF use. Additionally higher prevalence was found in female subjects for right conception of HFF and distinction of HFF. Interestingly subjects who consume less salts exhibited a higher tendency (-1.5 folds) in HFF intake than who prefer to use salt and seasonings in diets. In total study subjects 83.9% of them have known and heard about definition of the HFF. The major route of acquiring the information about HFF was mass media such as TV, internet and newspapers. Also subjects who had taken HFF exhibited high a proper conception toward the knowledge about 'distinction of HFF'. Taken together education programs considering gender, dietary habit and life style is necessary for consumers to select proper HFF. PMID:23431063

  4. A study on intake of health functional food and its related factors in adults living in busan and gyeongnam area.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Jung; Park, Eunju

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of "health functional food (HFF)" intake and related factors in Busan and Gyeongnam area and provide useful information for health promotion through the use of HFF. Among subjects of this study (n = 634), about 64% of the subjects reported that they are currently taking HFFs or other health foods or had HFFs in the last year. The reason of subjects taking HFF was to maintain and promote their health. They choose HFF by their own judgement or knowledge and the main place of purchasing HFF was the HFF store. Main food sources for promoting health in study subjects were nutrient fortified foods (76.8%), fruit or vegetable extracts (64.8%), HFF (64%), herbs or oriental medicines (29.6%), folk remedies or unidentified remedies (24.9%), respectively. The preference type of the products was capsule and liquid. 60.6% of consumers thought that HFF are expensive. 9.7% of consumers experienced the side effect such as stomachache and gastroenteric trouble. Using logistic regression analysis, the use of HFF was 1.9 times higher in female than male subjects indicating strong association between gender and HFF use. Additionally higher prevalence was found in female subjects for right conception of HFF and distinction of HFF. Interestingly subjects who consume less salts exhibited a higher tendency (-1.5 folds) in HFF intake than who prefer to use salt and seasonings in diets. In total study subjects 83.9% of them have known and heard about definition of the HFF. The major route of acquiring the information about HFF was mass media such as TV, internet and newspapers. Also subjects who had taken HFF exhibited high a proper conception toward the knowledge about 'distinction of HFF'. Taken together education programs considering gender, dietary habit and life style is necessary for consumers to select proper HFF. PMID:23431063

  5. [Chemical constituents from Hydrangea paniculata].

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Yang, Jingzhi; Li, Chuangjun; Zhang, Dongming

    2010-11-01

    In order to study the chemical constituents of the plant of Hydrangea paniculata and provide reference for the study of the bioactive substances, we isolated nine compounds from the dried branches of H. paniculata. Their structures were determined by application of spectroscopic (NMR, MS) and chemical methods. These compounds were identified as skimmin (1), isotachioside (2), 8-methoxy-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy coumarin glycoside (3), scopolin (4), 1-(alpha-L-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6) -O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy) - 3, 4, 5-trimethoxybenzene (5), apiosylskimmin (6), umbelliferone (7), scopoletin (8), 7-hydroxy-8-methoxycoumarin (9). Compounds 1 - 7 were isolated from H. paniculata for the first time. PMID:21355271

  6. Chronic nitrogen deposition alters the structure and function of detrital food webs in a northern hardwood ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gan, Huije; Zak, Donald R; Hunter, Mark D

    2013-09-01

    During the next century, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is projected to more than double, potentially slowing litter decomposition by altering microbial community composition and function. If the flow of energy though detrital food webs is diminished by the slowing of decay under higher rates of atmospheric N deposition, this agent of global change could also negatively impact the abundance and composition of soil fauna. To test this hypothesis, we studied soil faunal communities in four sugar-maple-dominated forests that comprise a long-term N deposition experiment. To examine whether changes in soil faunal communities could then feed back to influence litter decay, litterbags with 13C-enriched aspen litter were placed in the forest floor in one study site. The microbial community within the litterbags was characterized using PLFA analysis. Overall, long-term experimental N deposition reduced the abundance of microarthropods (ambient vs. experimental N deposition: 7844 vs. 4357 individuals/m2, respectively; P = 0.004). We attribute this overall decline partly to the reduced energy flow entering the detrital food web, which has been documented in previous work in our system. Although there was no difference in microarthropod species richness between N deposition treatments, there was a shift in community composition within the most abundant group (Oribatida), indicating species-specific responses to N deposition. Experimental N deposition reduced the number of microarthropods colonizing litterbags by 41% (P = 0.014). This was associated with a reduction in 13C mobilization from leaf litter into microbial biomass. Overall, this study demonstrates that chronic N deposition has a detrimental effect on the soil detritus food web, and that the negative effect may feed back to influence litter decay and ecosystem functioning. PMID:24147404

  7. Smokers and Nonsmokers Beliefs About Harmful Tobacco Constituents: Implications for FDA Communication Efforts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Legislation requires the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to release information to the public about harmful constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. To inform these efforts, we sought to better understand how smokers and nonsmokers think about tobacco constituents. Methods: In October 2012, 300U.S. adults aged 1866 years completed a cross-sectional Internet survey. The questions focused on 20 harmful tobacco constituents that the FDA has prioritized for communicating with the public. Results: Most participants had heard of 7 tobacco constituents (ammonia, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and nicotine), but few participants had heard of the others (e.g., acrolein). Few participants correctly understood that many constituents were naturally present in tobacco. Substances that companies add to cigarette tobacco discouraged people from wanting to smoke more than substances that naturally occur in cigarette smoke (p < .001). Ammonia, arsenic, carbon monoxide, and formaldehyde being in cigarettes elicited the most discouragement from smoking. Constituents elicited greater discouragement from wanting to smoke if respondents were nonsmokers (? = ?.34, p < .05), had negative images of smokers (i.e., negative smoker prototypes; ? = .19, p < .05), believed constituents are added to tobacco (? = .14, p < .05), or were older (? = .16, p < .05). Conclusions: Our study found low awareness of most tobacco constituents, with greater concern elicited by additives. Efforts to communicate health risks of tobacco constituents should consider focusing on ones that elicited the most discouragement from smoking. PMID:24151139

  8. Brazilian fruit pulps as functional foods and additives: evaluation of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Paz, Mrio; Gllon, Patricia; Barroso, M Ftima; Carvalho, Ana P; Domingues, Valentina F; Gomes, Ana M; Becker, Helena; Longhinotti, Elisane; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Eight tropical fruit pulps from Brazil were simultaneously characterised in terms of their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Antioxidant activity was screened by DPPH radical scavenging activity (126-3987 mg TE/100g DW) and ferric reduction activity power (368-20819 mg AAE/100g DW), and complemented with total phenolic content (329-12466 mg GAE/100g DW) and total flavonoid content measurements (46-672 mg EE /100g DW), whereas antimicrobial activity was tested against the most frequently found food pathogens. Acerola and aa presented the highest values for the antioxidant-related measurements. Direct correlations between these measurements could be observed for some of the fruits. Tamarind exhibited the broadest antimicrobial potential, having revealed growth inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus. Aa and tamarind extracts presented an inverse relationship between antibacterial and antioxidant activities, and therefore, the antibacterial activity cannot be attributed (only) to phenolic compounds. PMID:25442579

  9. Preparation and application of agar/alginate/collagen ternary blend functional food packaging films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long-Feng; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2015-09-01

    Ternary blend agar/alginate/collagen (A/A/C) hydrogel films with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and grapefruit seed extract (GSE) were prepared. Their performance properties, transparency, tensile strength (TS), water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (CA), water swelling ratio (SR), water solubility (WS), and antimicrobial activity were determined. The A/A/C film was highly transparent, and both AgNPs and GSE incorporated blend films (A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE)) exhibited UV-screening effect, especially, the A/A/C(GSE) film had high UV-screening effect without sacrificing the transmittance. In addition, the A/A/C blend films formed efficient hydrogel film with the water holding capacity of 23.6 times of their weight. Both A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE) composite films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The test results of fresh potatoes packaging revealed that all the A/A/C ternary blend films prevented forming of condensed water on the packaged film surface, both A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE) composite films prevented greening of potatoes during storage. The results indicate that the ternary blend hydrogel films incorporated with AgNPs or GSE can be used not only as antifogging packaging films for highly respiring fresh agriculture produce, but also as an active food packaging system utilizing their strong antimicrobial activity. PMID:26187189

  10. Holding Water in the Landscape; striking a balance between food production and healthy catchment function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Paul; Wilkinson, Mark; Stutter, Marc; Adams, Russell

    2015-04-01

    Here it is proposed that ~5 % of the rural landscape could be modified to hold water during storm events. Hence ~95% of land remains for food production, commercial forestry and amenity. This is a catchment scale commitment to sustainably reducing flood and drought risk, improving water quality, biodiversity and thereby climate proofing our catchments. The farmed landscape has intensified and as a result, runoff rates are no longer in balance with the catchment needs, which in turn contributes to floods, droughts and water pollution problems. The loss of infiltration rates, soil water holding capacity and the increase in ditches and drains through intense farming has resulted in a reduction of the overall water holding capacity of the landscape, therefore deeper soil and aquifer recharge rates are lower. However, adequate raw water supply and food production is also vital. Here we consider how ~5% of productive land could be used to physically hold water during and after storms. This is a simple philosophy for water stewardship that could be delivered by farmers and land managers themselves. In this poster we consider a 'treatment train' of mitigation in headwaters by the construction of:- Rural SuDs - by creating swales, bunds and grassy filters; Buffer Strips - (designed to hold water); The Ditch of The Future - by creating the prime location for holding water and recovering lost top soil and finally the better use of Small Headwater Floodplains - by storing flood water, creating wetlands, planting new forest, installing woody debris and new habitats. We present examples of where and how these measures have been installed and show the cost-effectiveness of temporarily holding storm runoff in several case study catchments taken from the UK.

  11. [Chemical constituents from Bidens bipinnata].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Guan-Ru; Deng, Zi-Yun; Zhao, Jie; Ge, Jin-Fang; Li, Ning; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of the whole plants of Bidens bipinnata, the separation and purification of constituents were performed by chromatography on macroporous resin, silica gel, MCI and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data as quercetin (1), quercetin-3-0-alpha-L-rhamnoside (2), keampferol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), keampferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (4), 3', 5-dyhydroxy-3, 6, 4'-trimethoxyl -7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside flavonoid (5), 7, 8, 3', 4'-tetraflavanone(6), (2S)- and (2R)-isookanin-7-O-beta-D- glucopyranoside (7a/7b), (2S)- and (2R)-3'-methoxy-isookanin-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8a/8b), 6, 7, 3', 4'-tetrahydroxyaurone(9), maritimetin (10), esculetin (11), 3-O-caffeoyl-2-methyl-d-erythrono-1, 4-lactone (12), (7S, 8R) balanophonin-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (13), eugenyl-O-beta-apiofuranosyl-( 1"-6') -O-beta-glucopyranoside (14), and (+)-syringaresinol-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (15). Compounds 8, 13, 14, and 15 were isolated from this genus for the first time. Compounds 1 and 6 were potent inhibitors against HSC-T6 cells in vitro and compounds 1, 2, 6, and 7 were capable of decreasing the inflammatory cytokine production of macrophage cells in vitro. PMID:25282892

  12. Antibacterial constituents from Melodinus suaveolens.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang-Ling; Lunga, Paul-Keilah; Zhao, Yun-Li; Qin, Xu-Jie; Yang, Xing-Wei; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the non-alkaloidal chemical constituents of the stems and leaves of Melodinus suaveolens and their antibacterial activities. Compounds were isolated and purified by repeated silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, RP18, and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by comparison with published spectroscopic data, as well as on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The antibacterial screening assays were performed by the dilution method. Fourteen compounds were isolated, and identified as lycopersene (1), betulinic aldehyde (2), 3?-acetoxy-22,23,24,25,26,27-hexanordammaran-20-one (3), 3a-acetyl-2, 3, 5-trimethyl-7a-hydroxy-5-(4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecanyl)-1,3a,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-4-oxainden-1-one (4), 3?-hydroxy-28-norlup-20(29)-ene-17?-hydroperoxide (5), 3?-hydroxy-28-norlup-20(29)-ene-17?-hydroperoxide (6), ?-sitosterol (7), 28-nor-urs-12-ene-3?, 17?-diol (8), ?-amyrin (9), ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (10), 3?-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13?-olide (11), betulin (12), obtusalin (13), and ursolic acid (14). Among the isolates, compounds 1, 2, 6, 8, 10, and 14 showed potent antibacterial activities against the four bacteria. This is the first report of the antibacterial activity of the constituents of Melodinus suaveolens. PMID:25908630

  13. Nematomorph parasites indirectly alter the food web and ecosystem function of streams through behavioural manipulation of their cricket hosts.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sato, T.; Egusa, T.; Fukushima, K.; Oda, T.; Ohte, N.; Tokuchi, Naoko; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Kanaiwa, Minoru; Murakami, Isaya; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Nematomorph parasites manipulate crickets to enter streams where the parasites reproduce. These manipulated crickets become a substantial food subsidy for stream fishes. We used a field experiment to investigate how this subsidy affects the stream community and ecosystem function. When crickets were available, predatory fish ate fewer benthic invertebrates. The resulting release of the benthic invertebrate community from fish predation indirectly decreased the biomass of benthic algae and slightly increased leaf break-down rate. This is the first experimental demonstration that host manipulation by a parasite can reorganise a community and alter ecosystem function. Nematomorphs are common, and many other parasites have dramatic effects on host phenotypes, suggesting that similar effects of parasites on ecosystems might be widespread.

  14. Bioactive compounds and nutritional significance of virgin argan oil--an edible oil with potential as a functional food.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Marfil, Roco; Gimnez, Rafael; Martnez-Augustin, Olga

    2012-05-01

    This review compiles recently published scientific reports on the bioactive compounds present in virgin argan oil along with their possible beneficial effects on human health, which could justify consideration of this oil as a new functional food. Virgin argan oil is characterized by high levels of linoleic and oleic acids, tocopherols (especially ?-tocopherol), and minor compounds such as sterols, carotenoids, and squalene. The total antioxidant capacity of virgin argan oil is higher than that of other vegetable oils. Recent studies suggest that this edible oil, as a functional food, may play a role in disease prevention. For example, some authors have found it to have hypolipidemic, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive effects as well as a possible role in cancer prevention. This review demonstrates the need for further studies in order to fully characterize argan oil from bromatological, nutritional, culinary, and technological perspectives. In particular, the scarcity of clinical data hampers relevant conclusions from being drawn regarding the therapeutic effects of virgin argan oil. PMID:22537213

  15. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers. PMID:24760975

  16. APPLICATION OF ENZYME BIOTECHNOLOGY TO THE MANUFACTURE OF CARBOHYDRATE FUNCTIONAL FOOD INGREDIENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent years have seen many developments in biotechnology which are facilitating the manufacture of functional carbohydrates. These include glycosidase-based enzymatic synthesis aproaches and controlled degradation of polysaccharides. The enzymology and reactor engineering of such systems is being...

  17. Bioavailability of Mercury to Riverine Food Webs as a Function of Flood-Event Inundation of Channel Boundary Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, M. B.; Pellachini, C.; Blum, J. D.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Donovan, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Bioavailability of sediment-adsorbed contaminants to food webs in river corridors is typically controlled by biological, chemical, and physical factors, but understanding of their respective influences is limited due to a dearth of landscape-scale investigations of these biogeochemical links. Studies that account for the dynamics and interactions of hydrology and sediment transport in affecting the reactivity of sediment-adsorbed heavy metals such as mercury (Hg) are particularly lacking. Sequences of flood events generate complex inundation histories with banks, terraces, and floodplains that have the potential to alter local redox conditions and thereby affect the oxidation of elemental Hg0 to inorganic Hg(II), and the microbial conversion of Hg(II) to methylmercury (MeHg), potentially increasing the risk of Hg uptake into aquatic food webs. However, the probability distributions of saturation/inundation frequency and duration are typically unknown for channel boundaries along sediment transport pathways, and landscape-scale characterizations of Hg reactivity are rare along contaminated rivers. This research provides the first links between the dynamics of physical processes and biochemical processing and uptake into food webs in fluvial systems beset by large-scale mining contamination. Here we present new research on Hg-contaminated legacy terraces and banks along the Yuba River anthropogenic fan, produced by 19th C. hydraulic gold mining in Northern California. To assess the changes in Hg(II) availability for methylation and MeHg bioavailability into the food web, we combine numerical modeling of streamflow with geochemical assays of total Hg and Hg reactivity to identify hot spots of toxicity within the river corridor as a function of cycles of wetting/drying. We employ a 3D hydraulic model to route historical streamflow hydrographs from major flood events through the Yuba and Feather Rivers into the Central Valley to assess the frequency and duration of saturation/inundation of channel boundary sediments. We compare these spatiotemporal modeling results to sediment total Hg and stannous chloride ';reducible' Hg(II) concentrations (the latter as a proxy for Hg(II) availability for methylation) along this ~70 km swath of river corridor. Finally, we evaluate these potential hot spots of Hg toxicity against MeHg concentrations in local aquatic biota at several trophic levels. The research will provide the basis for new models describing the evolution of toxic substances in river corridors and may prove helpful in explaining the contribution of Hg to food webs of the San Francisco Bay-Delta as an enduring legacy of California's 19th C. Gold Rush.

  18. Functional barrier in two-layer recycled PP films for food packaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarfato, P.; Di Maio, L.; Milana, M. R.; Feliciani, R.; Denaro, M.; Incarnato, L.

    2014-05-01

    A preliminary study on bi-layer virgin/contaminated polypropylene co-extruded films was performed in order to evaluate the possibility to realize an effective functional barrier in PP-based multi-layer systems. In particular, the specific migration in 10% v/v aqueous ethanol of two surrogate contaminants (phenyl-cyclohexane and benzophenone) contained in the contaminated layer across the PP functional barrier was measured at different times and the results were compared with those obtained from a contaminated mono-layer polypropylene film. Moreover, the thermal and mechanical performances of the produced films were investigated.

  19. Functional food quality of Curcuma caesia, Curcuma zedoaria and Curcuma aeruginosa endemic to Northeastern India.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunbao; Roy, Subhra Saikat; Nebie, Roger H C; Zhang, Yanjun; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2013-03-01

    Curcuma spp. (Zingiberaceae) is one of the significant ingredients in food and traditional medicines. The current study was to investigate health-benefits of the rhizomes of endemic Curcuma caesia, Curcuma zedoaria and Curcuma aeruginosa using in vitro antioxidant, antiinflammatory and human tumor cell proliferation inhibitory activities. Among these, C. caesia (black turmeric) showed the best overall biological activities based on [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO), cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and -2) enzymes, and tumor cell growth inhibitory assays. The hexane and methanolic extracts of C. caesia (CCH and CCM) showed LPO inhibition by 31 and 43%, and COX-2 enzyme by 29 and 38%, respectively, at 100?g/ml. Eleven terpenoids were isolated and identified. The MTT antioxidant assay revealed that the extracts of three Curcuma spp. at 250?g/ml and isolates at 5?g/ml demonstrated activity comparable to positive controls vitamin C and t-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) at 25?g/ml. The extracts inhibited LPO by 40% at 250?g/ml whereas pure isolates 1-11 by about 20%. The extracts and isolates inhibited COX-1 and -2 enzymes between the ranges of 3-56 and 5-30%, respectively. The in vitro biological activity exhibited by the extracts and isolates of C. caesia rhizome further supported its use in traditional medicine. PMID:23359084

  20. Plant sterols: factors affecting their efficacy and safety as functional food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Berger, Alvin; Jones, Peter J H; Abumweis, Suhad S

    2004-04-01

    Plant sterols are naturally occurring molecules that humanity has evolved with. Herein, we have critically evaluated recent literature pertaining to the myriad of factors affecting efficacy and safety of plant sterols in free and esterified forms. We conclude that properly solubilized 4-desmetyl plant sterols, in ester or free form, in reasonable doses (0.8-1.0 g of equivalents per day) and in various vehicles including natural sources, and as part of a healthy diet and lifestyle, are important dietary components for lowering low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and maintaining good heart health. In addition to their cholesterol lowering properties, plant sterols possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenicity, and anti-oxidation activities, and should thus be of clinical importance, even for those individuals without elevated LDL cholesterol. The carotenoid lowering effect of plant sterols should be corrected by increasing intake of food that is rich in carotenoids. In pregnant and lactating women and children, further study is needed to verify the dose required to decrease blood cholesterol without affecting fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoid status. PMID:15070410

  1. New functionally-enhanced soy proteins as food ingredients with anti-viral activity.

    PubMed

    Turmagambetova, Aizhan Sabirzhanovna; Sokolova, Nadezhda Sergeevna; Bogoyavlenskiy, Andrey Pavlinovich; Berezin, Vladimir Eleazarovich; Lila, Mary Ann; Cheng, Diana M; Dushenkov, Vyacheslav

    2015-09-01

    Respiratory viruses are a major public health problem because of their prevalence and high morbidity rate leading to considerable social and economic implications. Cranberry has therapeutic potential attributed to a comprehensive list of phytochemicals including anthocyanins, flavonols, and unique A-type proanthocyanidins. Soy flavonoids, including isoflavones, have demonstrated anti-viral effects in vitro and in vivo. Recently, it was demonstrated that edible proteins can efficiently sorb and concentrate cranberry polyphenols, including anthocyanins and proanthocyanins, providing greatly stabilized matrices suitable for food products. The combination of cranberry and soy phytoactives may be an effective dietary anti-viral resource. Anti-viral properties of both cranberry juice-enriched and cranberry pomace polyphenol-enriched soy protein isolate (CB-SPI and CBP-SPI) were tested against influenza viruses (H7N1, H5N3, H3N2), Newcastle disease virus and Sendai virus in vitro and in ovo. In our experiments, preincubation with CB-SPI or CBP-SPI resulted in inhibition of virus adsorption to chicken red blood cells and reduction in virus nucleic acid content up to 16-fold, however, CB-SPI and CBP-SPI did not affect hemagglutination. Additionally, CB-SPI and CBP-SPI inhibited viral replication and infectivity more effectively than the commercially available anti-viral drug Amizon. Results suggest CB-SPI and CBP-SPI may have preventative and therapeutic potential against viral infections that cause diseases of the respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract. PMID:26396978

  2. Effects of Soy Phytoestrogens and New Zealand Functional Foods on Bone Health.

    PubMed

    Kruger, M C; Tousen, Y; Katsumata, S; Tadaishi, M; Kasonga, A E; Deepak, V; Coetzee, M; Ishimi, Y

    2015-01-01

    New Zealand is a rich source of food components that may have bioactivity on bone. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil has been shown to maintain bone in ovariectomised (OVX) rats. Kiwifruit, a source of fibre and carotenoids, may also affect bone via a prebiotic as well as direct cell-based mechanisms. We aimed to 1) ascertain the effects of DHA on two cell models, including interactions with soy isoflavones; 2) and investigate the specific effects of carotenoids from kiwifruit as well as whole kiwifruit in cell-based and rodent models as well as in a human study. RAW 264.7 mouse monocytes or mouse bone marrow was used to generate osteoclasts (OC). Cells were exposed to the agents between 5 and 21 d and formation and activity of OC measured, including molecular markers. DHA inhibited OC formation in both cell models, including expression of cathepsin K, NFATc1 as well as actin ring formation. Combination with isoflavones enhanced these effects. In OVX rats and mice fed with kiwifruit for 8 wk, green kiwifruit reduced the rate of bone loss after OVX, and in mice it reduced C-telopeptide of Type 1 collagen (CTX) levels and RANKL expression while in menopausal women, green kiwifruit affected blood lipids and bone markers positively. PMID:26598831

  3. Functional Food Targeting the Regulation of Obesity-Induced Inflammatory Responses and Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Shizuka; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Lin, Shan; Uemura, Taku; Yu, Rina; Kawada, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a low-grade systemic chronic inflammatory state, characterized by the abnormal production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipocytokines. It has been found that immune cells such as macrophages can infiltrate adipose tissue and are responsible for the majority of inflammatory cytokine production. Obesity-induced inflammation is considered a potential mechanism linking obesity to its related pathologies, such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes, and some immune disorders. Therefore, targeting obesity-related inflammatory components may be a useful strategy to prevent or ameliorate the development of such obesity-related diseases. It has been shown that several food components can modulate inflammatory responses in adipose tissue via various mechanisms, some of which are dependent on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), whereas others are independent on PPAR?, by attenuating signals of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and/or c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK). In this review, we introduce the beneficial effects of anti-inflammatory phytochemicals that can help prevent obesity-induced inflammatory responses and pathologies. PMID:20508825

  4. Plant sterols: factors affecting their efficacy and safety as functional food ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Alvin; Jones, Peter JH; Abumweis, Suhad S

    2004-01-01

    Plant sterols are naturally occurring molecules that humanity has evolved with. Herein, we have critically evaluated recent literature pertaining to the myriad of factors affecting efficacy and safety of plant sterols in free and esterified forms. We conclude that properly solubilized 4-desmetyl plant sterols, in ester or free form, in reasonable doses (0.8–1.0 g of equivalents per day) and in various vehicles including natural sources, and as part of a healthy diet and lifestyle, are important dietary components for lowering low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and maintaining good heart health. In addition to their cholesterol lowering properties, plant sterols possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenicity, and anti-oxidation activities, and should thus be of clinical importance, even for those individuals without elevated LDL cholesterol. The carotenoid lowering effect of plant sterols should be corrected by increasing intake of food that is rich in carotenoids. In pregnant and lactating women and children, further study is needed to verify the dose required to decrease blood cholesterol without affecting fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoid status. PMID:15070410

  5. Antimicrobial constituents of Rhus glabra.

    PubMed

    Saxena, G; McCutcheon, A R; Farmer, S; Towers, G H; Hancock, R E

    1994-04-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract and isolated constituents of Rhus glabra (Anacardiaceae), a species used in folk medicine by North American native people, was evaluated against 11 microorganisms, including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The extract was subsequently fractionated and monitored by bioassays leading to the isolation of three antibacterial compounds, the methyl ester of 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (methyl gallate) (minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) 12.5 micrograms/ml), 4-methoxy-3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (MIC 25 micrograms/ml) and gallic acid (MIC > 1000 micrograms/ml). The first two compounds are reported here for the first time from Rhus glabra. Their structures were established using spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:8072309

  6. Bioactive constituents of Thuja occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Chang, L C; Song, L L; Park, E J; Luyengi, L; Lee, K J; Farnsworth, N R; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D

    2000-09-01

    An ethyl acetate-soluble extract of the combined leaves and twigs of Thuja occidentalis was found to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in cultured mouse epidermal ME 308 cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of six active constituents (1-6), namely, (+)-7-oxo-13-epi-pimara-14,15-dien-18-oic acid (1), (+)-7-oxo-13-epi-pimara-8,15-dien-18-oic acid (2), (+)-isopimaric acid (3), (1S,2S,3R)-(+)-isopicrodeoxypodophyllotoxin (4), (-)-deoxypodophyllotoxin (5), and (-)-deoxypodorhizone (6). Compounds 1 and 4 are new natural products, and their structures and stereochemistry were determined using spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1-6 were evaluated for inhibition of the transformation of murine epidermal JB6 cells, inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase induction with murine epidermal ME 308 cells, and cytotoxic activity against KB cells. PMID:11000026

  7. Chemical constituents of Abies fabri.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Li; Gao, Yan-Xia; Jin, Hui-Zi; Shan, Lei; Chang, Wan-Lin; Yang, Xian-Wen; Zeng, Hua-Wu; Wang, Ning; Steinmetz, Andre; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Systematic phytochemical investigations on Abies fabri resulted in the isolation of 94 compounds, consisting of 68 terpenoids, six lignans, seven flavonoids, and 13 other miscellaneous chemical constituents. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, and the absolute configurations of three of these previously unknown compounds were determined by Cu-K? X-ray crystallographic analysis. Twelve previously unreported compounds, one artifact, and one potential artifact were identified, including six triterpenoids, four diterpenoids, two sesquiterpenoids, one lignan, and one phenol. 23-Hydroxy-3-oxolanosta-8,24-dien-26,23-olide showed weak cytotoxic activity against A549 and THP-1 cells with the IC50 values of 5.3 and 5.1 ?M, respectively. PMID:26083453

  8. [Effects on the lipid profile in humans of a polyphenol-rich carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) extract in a dairy matrix like a functional food; a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Martnez-Rodrguez, Rodrigo; Navarro-Alarcn, Miguel; Rodrguez-Martnez, Carlos; Fonoll-Joya, Juristo

    2013-01-01

    The design of functional foods enriched in nutrients that favorably alter the lipid profile to prevent cardiovascular diseases and stimulate bowel function is of great interest. We have assayed a non-extractable-tannates-rich carob-fiber (PF-1) in a milk matrix developed by Biosearch S.A. to discover its effects on the lipid profile and bowel function of human volunteers. A 4-week interventional study (400 mL daily consumption of this functional food, containing 20 g of PF-1/L), was conducted: blood samples were analyzed for lipid profile, glucose, transaminases, creatinine and fat-soluble vitamins. The body-mass index and bowel function of the participants in the study were also measured. A tendency for triglyceride levels to diminish was observed in all participants (P = 0.066), and in the normal-cholesterol group in particular (P = 0.078). Another tendency to total cholesterol levels fell in the hypercholesterolemic group (P = 0.061) was also found. In the normal-cholesterol group, total cholesterol (CT), HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels significantly increased with the consumption of the functional food (P < 0.05). A better bowel function was also recorded by volunteers. This preliminary study highlights the possible positive influence of this functional food on the regulation of the lipid profile and bowel function in humans. PMID:24506389

  9. Minireview: Food for thought: regulation of synaptic function by metabolic hormones.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Gemma; Malekizadeh, Yasaman; Harvey, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    The peripheral actions of the metabolic hormones, leptin and insulin, are well documented. However, the functions of these hormones are not restricted to the periphery because evidence is growing that both leptin and insulin can readily cross the blood-brain barrier and have widespread central actions. The hippocampus in particular expresses high levels of both insulin and leptin receptors as well as key components of their associated signaling cascades. Moreover, recent studies indicate that both hormones are potential cognitive enhancers. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that both leptin and insulin markedly influence key cellular events that underlie hippocampal learning and memory including activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and the trafficking of glutamate receptors to and away from hippocampal synapses. The hippocampal formation is also a prime site for the neurodegenerative processes that occur during Alzheimer's disease, and impairments in either leptin or insulin function have been linked to central nervous system-driven diseases like Alzheimer's disease. Thus, the capacity of the metabolic hormones, leptin and insulin, to regulate hippocampal synaptic function has significant implications for normal brain function and also central nervous system-driven disease. PMID:25470238

  10. Chemical constituents of fugitive dust.

    PubMed

    Van Pelt, R Scott; Zobeck, Ted M

    2007-07-01

    Wind erosion selectively winnows the fine, most chemically concentrated portions of surface soils and results in the inter-regional transport of fugitive dust containing plant nutrients, trace elements and other soil-borne contaminants. We sampled and analyzed surface soils, sediments in transport over eroding fields, and attic dust from a small area of the Southern High Plains of Texas to characterize the physical nature and chemical constituents of these materials and to investigate techniques that would allow relatively rapid, low cost techniques for estimating the chemical constituents of fugitive dust from an eroding field. From chemical analyses of actively eroding sediments, it would appear that Ca is the only chemical species that is enriched more than others during the process of fugitive dust production. We found surface soil sieved to produce a sub-sample with particle diameters in the range of 53-74 microm to be a reasonably good surrogate for fugitive dust very near the source field, that sieved sub-samples with particle diameters <10 microm have a crustal enrichment factor of approximately 6, and that this factor, multiplied by the chemical contents of source soils, may be a reasonable estimator of fugitive PM(10) chemistry from the soils of interest. We also found that dust from tractor air cleaners provided a good surrogate for dust entrained by tillage and harvesting operations if the chemical species resulting from engine wear and exhaust were removed from the data set or scaled back to the average of enrichment factors noted for chemical species with no known anthropogenic sources. Chemical analyses of dust samples collected from attics approximately 4 km from the nearest source fields indicated that anthropogenic sources of several environmentally important nutrient and trace element species are much larger contributors, by up to nearly two orders of magnitude, to atmospheric loading and subsequent deposition than fugitive dust from eroding soils. PMID:17285256

  11. Immune function and hematology of male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in response to food supplementation and methionine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.E.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined effects of supplementation of food quantity and quality (=enhanced methionine) on hematologic and immunologic parameters of wild, but enclosed, adult male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in north-central Oklahoma. Sheet metal enclosures were stocked with a high density of wild-caught cotton rats (160 animals/ha) and randomly assigned a treatment of no supplementation, mixed-ration supplementation or methionine-enhanced supplementation. Aside from small increases in counts of red blood cells and hematocrit levels, most indices of erythrocytic characteristics were not affected by supplementation with the mixed-ration or enhanced methionine. In contrast, platelet counts were highest in mixed-ration and methionine treatments and counts of total white blood cells were highest with methionine supplementation, albeit relative proportions of different leukocytes did not differ among treatments. Immunologically, neither delayed-type hypersensitivity response nor hemolytic-complement activity differed among treatments. Supplementation of food quantity and quality did not broadly affect hematologic parameters and immune function of male cotton rats, but enhanced platelet and leukocyte counts may confer advantages to overall health. Clarification of the role of such effects on population limitation or regulation requires additional research. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Nutraceutical Properties of Ovotransferrin and Its Potential Utilization as a Functional Food

    PubMed Central

    Giansanti, Francesco; Leboffe, Loris; Angelucci, Francesco; Antonini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Ovotransferrin or conalbumin belong to the transferrin protein family and is endowed with both iron-transfer and protective activities. In addition to its well-known antibacterial properties, ovotransferrin displays other protective roles similar to those already ascertained for the homologous mammalian lactoferrin. These additional functions, in many cases not directly related to iron binding, are also displayed by the peptides derived from partial hydrolysis of ovotransferrin, suggesting a direct relationship between egg consumption and human health. PMID:26556366

  13. Healthy and Adverse Effects of Plant-Derived Functional Metabolites: The Need of Revealing their Content and Bioactivity in a Complex Food Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Giardi, Maria T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, both food quality and its effect on human health have become a fundamental issue all over the world. As a consequence of this new and increased awareness, American, European, and Asian policymakers have strongly encouraged the research programs on food quality and safety thematic. Attempts to improve human health and to satisfy people's desire for healthcare without intake of pharmaceuticals, has led the food industry to focus attention on functional or nutraceutical food. For a long time, compounds with nutraceutical activity have been produced chemically, but the new demands for a sustainable life have gradually led the food industry to move towards natural compounds, mainly those derived from plants. Many phytochemicals are known to promote good health, but, sometimes, undesirable effects are also reported. Furthermore, several products present on the market show few benefits and sometimes even the reverse – unhealthy effects; the evidence of efficacy is often unconvincing and epidemiological studies are necessary to prove the truth of their claims. Therefore, there is a need for reliable analytical control systems to measure the bioactivity, content, and quality of these additives in the complex food matrix. This review describes the most widespread nutraceutics and an analytical control of the same using recently developed biosensors which are promising candidates for routine control of functional foods. PMID:23072533

  14. Functional alterations induced by the food contaminant furazolidone on the human tumoral intestinal cell line Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Vincentini, O; De Angelis, I; Stammati, A; Zucco, F

    1993-07-01

    Caco-2 cells, which are derived from a human colon carcinoma and are able to differentiate in culture, have been used to study the effect of furazolidone (FZ), a chemical belonging to the nitrofuran family which is frequently used for the prevention of animal infections. Its potentially toxic residues could remain in some food products of animal origin and affect human health. Toxicity has been measured by different parameters, either in undifferentiated cells (day 7 of culture), or on differentiated cells (day 21 of culture). Our results indicate that FZ may seriously affect the proliferating portion of the intestinal mucosa, while the differentiated cells appear to be more resistant. However, the slight effect recorded on the aspecific and specific functions of the differentiated cells may suggest that the specialized portion of the intestine can also be compromised by the drug. Caco 2 cells seem a good model for a deeper investigation of the mechanism involved in the toxic action of FZ. PMID:20732223

  15. Invitro evaluation of the probiotic and functional potential of Lactobacillus strains isolated from fermented food and human intestine.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dayong; Li, Chang; Qin, Yanqing; Yin, Ronglan; Du, Shouwen; Ye, Fei; Liu, Cunxia; Liu, Hongfeng; Wang, Maopeng; Li, Yi; Sun, Yang; Li, Xiao; Tian, Mingyao; Jin, Ningyi

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the functional and probiotic characteristics of eight indigenous Lactobacillus strains invitro. The selected lactobacilli include strains of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salicinius, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. All strains tolerated both pH 2 for 3h and 1% bile salt for 24h. The strains CICC 23174 and CGMCC 1.557 were the most adhesive strains producing the highest quantity of EPS. Although a wide variation in the ability of the eight strains to deplete cholesterol and nitrite, antagonize pathogens, scavenge free radical, and stimulate innate immune response were observed, the strains CICC 23174 and CGMCC 1.557 showed the widest range of these useful traits. Taken together, the strains CICC 23174 and CGMCC 1.557 exhibited the best probiotic properties with the potential for use in the production of probiotic fermented foods. PMID:25046742

  16. Canned bluefin tuna, an in vitro cardioprotective functional food potentially safer than commercial fish oil based pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Calabrese, Giorgio; Ritieni, Alberto; Campiglia, Pietro; Giannetti, Daniela; Novellino, Ettore

    2014-09-01

    Commercial canned fish species typical in the Italian market were evaluated for their lipid profile. Bluefin tuna samples showed the highest content in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) among the canned fish samples analyzed. Tests on H9C2 cardiomyocytes revealed that bluefin tuna n-3 PUFA may responsible for a significant cell protection against both physiological and doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress. Analogous tests performed by incubating cardiac cells with n-3 PUFA ethyl esters, of which most of fish oil pharmaceutical formulations (FOPF) are based, showed cytotoxicity at high doses. Our results highlighted that n-3 PUFA contents in a 50 g canned bluefin tuna portion would be almost equivalent to and potentially safer than those of 1 FOPF capsule (1000 mg)/die usually suggested for hyperlipidaemic subjects. Thus, Italian commercial canned bluefin tuna could be indicated as a functional food with potential health benefits for the prevention and care of cardiovascular disorders. PMID:24972354

  17. Effects of Light, Food Availability and Temperature Stress on the Function of Photosystem II and Photosystem I of Coral Symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Campbell, Douglas A.; Beraud, Eric; DeZeeuw, Katrina; Ferrier-Pags, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background Reef corals are heterotrophic coelenterates that achieve high productivity through their photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts. Excessive seawater temperature destabilises this symbiosis and causes corals to bleach, lowering their photosynthetic capacity. Bleaching poses a serious threat to the persistence of coral reefs on a global scale. Despite expanding research on the causes of bleaching, the mechanisms remain a subject of debate. Methodology/Principal Findings This study determined how light and food availability modulate the effects of temperature stress on photosynthesis in two reef coral species. We quantified the activities of Photosystem II, Photosystem I and whole chain electron transport under combinations of normal and stressful growth temperatures, moderate and high light levels and the presence or absence of feeding of the coral hosts. Our results show that PS1 function is comparatively robust against temperature stress in both species, whereas PS2 and whole chain electron transport are susceptible to temperature stress. In the symbiotic dinoflagellates of Stylophora pistillata the contents of chlorophyll and major photosynthetic complexes were primarily affected by food availability. In Turbinaria reniformis growth temperature was the dominant influence on the contents of the photosynthetic complexes. In both species feeding the host significantly protected photosynthetic function from high temperature stress. Conclusions/Significance Our findings support the photoinhibition model of coral bleaching and demonstrate that PS1 is not a major site for thermal damage during bleaching events. Feeding mitigates bleaching in two scleractinian corals, so that reef responses to temperature stresses will likely be influenced by the coinciding availabilities of prey for the host. PMID:22253915

  18. Apparatus and method for separating constituents

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P. (McMurray, PA); Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A centrifugal separator apparatus and method for improving the efficiency of the separation of constituents in a fluid stream. A cyclone separator includes an assembly for separately discharging both constituents through the same end of the separator housing. A rotary separator includes a rotary housing having a baffle disposed therein for minimizing the differential rotational velocities of the constituents in the housing, thereby decreasing turbulence, and increasing efficiency. The intensity of the centrifugal force and the time which the constituents reside within the housing can be independently controlled to improve efficiency of separation.

  19. Apparatus and method for separating constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Maronde, C.P.; Killmeyer, R.P. Jr.

    1990-12-31

    A centrifugal separator apparatus and method for improving the efficiency of the separation of constituents in a fluid stream. A cyclone separator includes an assembly for separately discharging both constituents through the same end of the separator housing. A rotary separator includes a rotary housing having a baffle disposed therein for minimizing the differential rotational velocities of the constituents in the housing, thereby decreasing turbulence, and increasing efficiency. The intensity of the centrifugal force and the time which the constituents reside within the housing can be independently controlled to improve efficiency of separation. 4 figs.

  20. Functionalized polycaprolactam as an active food package for antibiofilm activity and extended shelf life.

    PubMed

    Prabhawathi, Veluchamy; Boobalan, Thulasinathan; Sivakumar, Ponnurengam Malliappan; Doble, Mukesh

    2014-11-01

    Papain is covalently crosslinked on polycaprolactam and tested as a wrapper for packaging cottage cheese, against E. coli biofilm. The bacterial count on neat polycaprolactam (NP) was 50×10(6)/ml on the 5th day which dramatically increased to 300×10(6) colony forming units (CFU)/ml by the end of 30th day. The corresponding CFU/ml on papain functionalized polycaprolactam (FP) was 10×10(2) on 5th day and 20×10(2) by the end of 30th day. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis of biofilm on NP showed the presence of polysaccharide, protein, lipid and metabolites which was three times reduced on FP. FT Raman spectroscopy showed the effect of papain on functional groups such as hydroxyl, amino, carbonyl, phosphoryl and aliphatic, leading to the inhibition of the biofilm. Motility, hydrophobicity and zeta potential of E. coli on NP and FP were 10.67 and 5.65 μm/s/V/cm; 88 and 20%; 8.93±2.09 and 2.65±0.52 mV respectively, thereby decreasing the biofilm forming ability of E. coli. PMID:25306256

  1. Regulation of vascular endothelial function by procyanidin-rich foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    Caton, Paul W; Pothecary, Mark R; Lees, Delphine M; Khan, Noorafza Q; Wood, Elizabeth G; Shoji, Toshihiko; Kanda, Tomomasa; Rull, Gurvinder; Corder, Roger

    2010-04-14

    Flavonoid-rich diets are associated with a lower mortality from cardiovascular disease. This has been linked to improvements in endothelial function. However, the specific flavonoids, or biologically active metabolites, conferring these beneficial effects have yet to be fully defined. In this experimental study of the effect of flavonoids on endothelial function cultured endothelial cells have been used as a bioassay with endothelin-1 (ET-1) synthesis being measured an index of the response. Evaluation of the relative effects of extracts of cranberry juice compared to apple, cocoa, red wine, and green tea showed inhibition of ET-1 synthesis was dependent primarily on their oligomeric procyanidin content. Procyanidin-rich extracts of cranberry juice triggered morphological changes in endothelial cells with reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and increased immunostaining for phosphotyrosine residues. These actions were independent of antioxidant activity. Comparison of the effects of apple procyanidin monomers through heptamer showed a clear structure-activity relationship. Although monomer, dimer, and trimer had little effect on ET-1 synthesis, procyanidin tetramer, pentamer, hexamer, and heptamer produced concentration-dependent decreases with IC(50) values of 5.4, 1.6, 0.9, and 0.7 microM, respectively. Levels of ET-1 mRNA showed a similar pattern of decreases, which were inversely correlated with increased expression of Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), a key endothelial transcription factor with a broad range of antiatherosclerotic actions including suppression of ET-1 synthesis. Future investigations of procyanidin-rich products should assess the role KLF2 induction plays in the beneficial vascular effects of high flavonoid consumption. PMID:20108902

  2. Food Crystals: the Role of Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a food product can be beneficial or detrimental and is of particular importance in candy and frozen desserts. The most common crystal in foods is sugar which affects the quali...

  3. [Chemical constituents of Dipsacus asper].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Er-Wei; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Yi

    2013-07-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Dipsacus asper, chromatographic methods such as D101 macroporous resin, silica gel, octadecylsilyl (ODS) column chromatographic techniques and preparative HPLC were used, and five compounds were isolated from 70% (v/v) ethanol extract of the plant. By using spectroscopic techniques including 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and TOF-MS, the compounds were identified as 3beta-hydroxy-24-nor-urs-4 (23), 12-dien-28-oic acid (1), ursolic acid (2), oleanolic acid (3), 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnosyl(1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-rhamnosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (4), 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 4)] [alpha-L-rhamnosyl(1 --> 3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-rhamnosyl(1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin (5), separately. Among them, 1 is a new compound, and 2 is isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:24133979

  4. [Chemical constituents of Poria cocos].

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Chao; Wang, Hong-Qing; Li, Jia-Chun; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2014-03-01

    The chemical constituents of Poria cocos were studied by means of silica gel, ODS column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Thirteen compounds were isolated from this plant. By analysis of the ESI-MS and NMR data, the structures of these compounds were determined as tumulosic acid (1), dehydrotumulosic acid (2), 3beta, 5alpha-dihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-dien-6-one (3), 3beta, 5alpha, 9alpha-trihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-diene -6-one (4), ergosta-7, 22-diene-3-one (5), 6, 9-epoxy-ergosta-7,22-diene-3-ol (6), ergosta-4,22-diene-3-one (7), 3beta, 5alpha, 6beta-trihydroxyl-ergosta-7,22-diene (8), ergosta-5, 6-epoxy-7,22-dien-3-ol (9), beta-sitosterol (10), ribitol (11), mannitol (12), and oleanic acid 3-O-acetate (13), respectively. Compounds 3-13 were isolated from the P. cocos for the first time. PMID:24956845

  5. Sexually dimorphic functional connectivity in response to high vs. low energy-dense food cues in obese humans: An fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Atalayer, Deniz; Pantazatos, Spiro P.; Gibson, Charlisa D.; McOuatt, Haley; Puma, Lauren; Astbury, Nerys M.; Geliebter, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Sexually-dimorphic behavioral and biological aspects of human eating have been described. Using psychophysiological interactions (PPI) analysis, we investigated sex-based differences in functional connectivity with a key emotion-processing region (amygdala, AMG) and a key reward-processing area (ventral striatum, VS) in response to high vs. low energy-dense (ED) food images using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in obese persons in fasted and fed states. When fed, in response to high vs. low-ED food cues, obese men (vs. women) had greater functional connectivity with AMG in right subgenual anterior cingulate, whereas obese women had greater functional connectivity with AMG in left angular gyrus and right primary motor areas. In addition, when fed, AMG functional connectivity with pre/post-central gyrus was more associated with BMI in women (vs. men). When fasted, obese men (vs. women) had greater functional connectivity with AMG in bilateral supplementary frontal and primary motor areas, left precuneus, and right cuneus, whereas obese women had greater functional connectivity with AMG in left inferior frontal gyrus, right thalamus, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. When fed, greater functional connectivity with VS was observed in men in bilateral supplementary and primary motor areas, left postcentral gyrus, and left precuneus. These sex-based differences in functional connectivity in response to visual food cues may help partly explain differential eating behavior, pathology prevalence, and outcomes in men and women. PMID:24862077

  6. Relationship between the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio and the Improvement of Postprandial Metabolic Stress by a Functional Food.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Manafikhi, Husseen; Reggi, Raffaella; Longhitano, Yaroslava; Zanza, Christian; Palmery, Maura

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, we investigated the relationship between postprandial dysmetabolism and the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio (PLIR), a test that measures the resistance of leukocytes to exogenous oxidative stress and their functional capacity of oxidative burst upon activation. Following a blind, placebo controlled, randomized, crossover design, ten healthy subjects ingested, in two different occasions, a high fat and high carbohydrates meal with Snello cookie (HFHCM-S) or with control cookies (HFHCM-C). Snello cookie, a functional food covered by dark chocolate and containing glucomannan, inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and Bacillus coagulans strain GanedenBC30, significantly improved postprandial metabolic stress (insulin, glucose, and triglycerides) and reduced the postprandial increase of uric acid. HFHCM-S improved PLIR of lymphocytes, but not of monocytes and granulocytes. Both meals increased granulocytes' count and reduced the lipoperoxidation induced by both exogenous free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by oxidative burst. Our results suggest that the healthy status of the subjects could be a limitation of this pilot study for PLIR evaluation on cells that produce ROS by oxidative burst. In conclusion, the relationship between PLIR and postprandial dysmetabolism requires further investigations. PMID:26962396

  7. Relationship between the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio and the Improvement of Postprandial Metabolic Stress by a Functional Food

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Ilaria; Manafikhi, Husseen; Reggi, Raffaella; Longhitano, Yaroslava; Zanza, Christian; Palmery, Maura

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, we investigated the relationship between postprandial dysmetabolism and the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio (PLIR), a test that measures the resistance of leukocytes to exogenous oxidative stress and their functional capacity of oxidative burst upon activation. Following a blind, placebo controlled, randomized, crossover design, ten healthy subjects ingested, in two different occasions, a high fat and high carbohydrates meal with Snello cookie (HFHCM-S) or with control cookies (HFHCM-C). Snello cookie, a functional food covered by dark chocolate and containing glucomannan, inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and Bacillus coagulans strain GanedenBC30, significantly improved postprandial metabolic stress (insulin, glucose, and triglycerides) and reduced the postprandial increase of uric acid. HFHCM-S improved PLIR of lymphocytes, but not of monocytes and granulocytes. Both meals increased granulocytes' count and reduced the lipoperoxidation induced by both exogenous free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by oxidative burst. Our results suggest that the healthy status of the subjects could be a limitation of this pilot study for PLIR evaluation on cells that produce ROS by oxidative burst. In conclusion, the relationship between PLIR and postprandial dysmetabolism requires further investigations. PMID:26962396

  8. Large Constituent Families Help Children Parse Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krott, Andrea; Nicoladis, Elena

    2005-01-01

    The family size of the constituents of compound words, or the number of compounds sharing the constituents, has been shown to affect adults' access to compound words in the mental lexicon. The present study was designed to see if family size would affect children's segmentation of compounds. Twenty-five English-speaking children between 3;7 and

  9. Sodium benzoate, a food preservative, affects the functional and activation status of splenocytes at non cytotoxic dose.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ashish; Kumar, Arvind; Das, Mukul; Tripathi, Anurag

    2016-02-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB) is a widely used food preservative due to its bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties. The acceptable daily intake of SB is 5mg/kg-bw, however, it has been found to be used in the food commodities at relatively high levels (2119mg/kg). Earlier studies on SB have shown its immunosuppressive properties, but comprehensive immunotoxicity data is lacking. Our studies have shown that SB was non cytotoxic in splenocytes up to 1000?g/ml for 72h, however at 2500?g/ml it was found to be cytotoxic. Thus, 1000?g/ml dose of SB was chosen for the subsequent experiments. SB significantly suppresses the proliferation of Con A and LPS stimulated splenocytes at 72h, while allogenic response of T cells was significantly decreased after 96h. SB did not affect the relative expression of CD3e or CD4 molecules following 72h exposure, however, it downregulated the relative expression of CD8 co-receptor. Further, exposure of splenocytes to SB for 72h led to reduced expression of CD28 and CD95, which play a vital role in T cell activation. SB also suppresses the relative expression of CD19, CD40 and CD95 receptors on B cells after 72h. In addition to the functional responses, SB lowered the expression of IL4, IL6, IFN? and IL17 cytokines in Con A stimulated splenocytes; and IL6, IFN? and TNF? in LPS stimulated splenocytes following 48h of exposure. Taken together, the present study is suggestive of the immunomodulatory potential of SB. PMID:26706697

  10. Nonequilibrium hadronization and constituent quark number scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Zschocke, Sven; Horvat, Szabolcs; Mishustin, Igor N.; Csernai, Laszlo P.

    2011-04-15

    The constituent quark number scaling of elliptic flow is studied in a nonequilibrium hadronization and freeze-out model with rapid dynamical transition from ideal, deconfined, and chirally symmetric quark-gluon plasma, to final noninteracting hadrons. In this transition a bag model of constituent quarks is considered, where the quarks gain constituent quark mass while the background bag field breaks up and vanishes. The constituent quarks then recombine into simplified hadron states, while chemical, thermal, and flow equilibrium break down one after the other. In this scenario the resulting temperatures and flow velocities of baryons and mesons are different. Using a simplified few source model of the elliptic flow, we are able to reproduce the constituent quark number scaling, with assumptions on the details of the nonequilibrium processes.

  11. Acrylamide in snack foods.

    PubMed

    Das, Amit Baran; Srivastav, Prem Prakas

    2012-04-01

    Research on acrylamide has been going on for the last four decades. However, its presence in carbohydrate-rich and high temperature processed foods was confirmed in 2002, after which a significant progress in this field has been made. A number of studies were conducted to explore the mechanism of its formation in carbohydrate-rich foods. Carbohydrate, protein, and fat are the main constituents of food, which are mainly responsible for the formation of acrylamide, and thus, a number of investigations were carried out to reduce its quantity in food. Moreover, various studies regarding carcinogenic and neurotoxic effects of acrylamide on animal models suggested that acrylamide can produce tumor in the thyroid gland, testes, mammary gland, lungs, clitoral gland, brain, and also enhance mutation, a step to cancer. Therefore, this review addresses the studies conducted since recently on the toxicological effects, formation mechanism and reduction of the formation of acrylamide in snack foods. PMID:22023505

  12. Comparison of Marketed Cosmetic Products Constituents with the Antigens Included in Cosmetic-related Patch Test

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Seung Hyun; Choi, You Won; Myung, Ki Bum

    2010-01-01

    Background Currently, cosmetic series (Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden) is the most widely used cosmetic-related patch test in Korea. However, no studies have been conducted on how accurately it reflects the constituents of the cosmetics in Korea. Objective We surveyed the constituents of various cosmetics and compare with the cosmetic series, to investigate whether it is accurate in determining allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics sold in Korea. Methods Cosmetics were classified into 11 categories and the survey was conducted on the constituents of 55 cosmetics, with 5 cosmetics in each category. The surveyed constituents were classified by chemical function and compared with the antigens of cosmetic series. Results 155 constituents were found in 55 cosmetics, and 74 (47.7%) of constituents were included as antigen. Among them, only 20 constituents (27.0%) were included in cosmetic series. A significant number of constituents, such as fragrance, vehicle and surfactant were not included. Only 41.7% of antigens in cosmetic series were found to be in the cosmetics sampled. Conclusion The constituents not included in the patch test but possess antigenicity are widely used in cosmetics. Therefore, the patch test should be modified to reflect ingredients in the marketed products that may stimulate allergies. PMID:20711261

  13. From fundamental fields to constituent quarks and nucleon form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Coester, F.

    1990-01-01

    Constituent-quark models formulated in the frame work of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics have been successful in accounting for the mass spectra of mesons and baryons. Applications to elastic electron scattering require relativistic dynamics. Relativistic quantum mechanics of constituent quarks can be formulated by constructing a suitable unitary representation of the Poincare group on the three-quark Hilbert space. The mass and spin operators of this representation specify the relativistic model dynamics. The dynamics of fundamental quark fields, on the other hand, is specified by a Euclidean functional integral. In this paper I show how the dynamics of the fundamental fields can be related in principle to the Hamiltonian dynamics of quark particles through the properties of the Wightman functions. 14 refs.

  14. Analysis of the Functional Morphology of Mouthparts of the Beetle Priacma serrata, and a Discussion of Possible Food Sources

    PubMed Central

    Hrnschemeyer, Thomas; Bond, Jake; Young, Philippe G.

    2013-01-01

    With the help of scanning electron microscopy, high resolution X-ray tomography (CT), and finite element analysis, the mechanical and functional properties of the mandibles and associated muscles of the beetle Priacma serrata (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Archostemata) were studied. The combination of these techniques allowed for studying mechanical properties of the headmandible- system without using living animals. The CT analysis delivered precise volumetric data of the geometry of the system to be studied. Dimensions of the cuticle of the parts involved could be readily deduced from the CT-data. Thus, an exact representation of the specimen without significant artifacts like deformations and misalignments, usually resulting from histological sectioning, could be reconstructed. A virtual 3D model built from these data allowed for investigating different stress scenarios with finite element analysis. Combining these methods showed that P. serrata most likely uses its robustly-built mandibles for cutting hard material. In combination with available information on its habitat, possible food sources are discussed. PMID:24786670

  15. DNA chip analysis of comprehensive food function: inhibition of angiogenesis and telomerase activity with unsaturated vitamin E, tocotrienol.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Eitsuka, Takahiro; Inokuchi, Hitoshi; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2004-01-01

    Inhibition of angiogenesis and telomerase activity with vitamin E compounds, especially for tocotrienol (T3), has been investigated. Nutrigenomic tools have been used for elucidating the bioactive mechanisms of T3. In the cell culture experiments, T3 reduced the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Among T3 isomers, delta-T3 appeared the highest activity. The T3 inhibited the new blood vessels formation on the growing chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay for an in vivo model of angiogenesis). In contrast, tocopherol did not. The findings suggested that the T3 has potential use for reducing angiogenic disorder. DNA chip analysis revealed that T3 specifically down-regulates the expression of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) in endothelial cells. It is well-known that VEGF regulates angiogenesis by binding to VEGFR. Therefore, T3 could block the intracellular signaling of VEGF via down-regulation of VEGFR, which resulted in the inhibition of angiogenesis. On the other hand, DNA chip analysis also revealed that T3 down-regulates the expression of protein kinase C (PKC) in the cultured HUVEC. Since PKC is involved with the control of telomerase activity, T3 has potential to act as anti-telomerase inhibitor via PKC inhibition. In this manner, DNA chip technology provides efficient access to genetic information regarding food function and its mechanism. PMID:15630161

  16. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.): a potential source of high-value components for functional foods and nutraceuticals--a review.

    PubMed

    Sahib, Najla Gooda; Anwar, Farooq; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid; Alkharfy, Khalid M

    2013-10-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), a herbal plant, belonging to the family Apiceae, is valued for its culinary and medicinal uses. All parts of this herb are in use as flavoring agent and/or as traditional remedies for the treatment of different disorders in the folk medicine systems of different civilizations. The plant is a potential source of lipids (rich in petroselinic acid) and an essential oil (high in linalool) isolated from the seeds and the aerial parts. Due to the presence of a multitude of bioactives, a wide array of pharmacological activities have been ascribed to different parts of this herb, which include anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anxiolytic, anti-epileptic, anti-depressant, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-dyslipidemic, anti-hypertensive, neuro-protective and diuretic. Interestingly, coriander also possessed lead-detoxifying potential. This review focuses on the medicinal uses, detailed phytochemistry, and the biological activities of this valuable herb to explore its potential uses as a functional food for the nutraceutical industry. PMID:23281145

  17. Novel fiber-rich lentil flours as snack-type functional foods: an extrusion cooking effect on bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Morales, P; Berrios, J De J; Varela, A; Burbano, C; Cuadrado, C; Muzquiz, M; Pedrosa, M M

    2015-09-01

    Novel snack-type functional foods based on extruded lentil flours could convey the related health benefit of their bioactive compounds, provide a gluten-free alternative to consumers, and potentially increase the consumption of pulses. Extrusion treatment promoted an increase in galactopinitol, ciceritol, raffinose, stachyose and total α-galactoside content, in most lentil flours. As α-galactosides may act as prebiotics, they could convey beneficial effects to human and monogastric animals. Conversely, extrusion significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the inositol hexaphosphate content to less phosphorylated phytates (inositol pentaphosphate and inositol tetraphosphate), which provide health effects. The gluten-free formulation (control formulation #3) presented the highest significant (p < 0.05) drop in the inositol hexaphosphate of 14.7-fold decrease, but had a large increase in inositol pentaphosphate, due to extrusion processing. These two results are desirable in the finished product. Extrusion also caused a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the trypsin content and completely inactivated lectin, in all processed samples. PMID:26221783

  18. Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) in foods: a comprehensive review on consumption, functionality, safety, and regulatory matters.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Melanie A; Weil, Jorge; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2010-04-01

    Caffeine ranks as one of the top most commonly consumed dietary ingredients throughout the world. It is naturally found in coffee beans, cacao beans, kola nuts, guarana berries, and tea leaves including yerba mate. The total daily intake, as well as the major source of caffeine varies globally; however, coffee and tea are the 2 most prominent sources. Soft drinks are also a common source of caffeine as well as energy drinks, a category of functional beverages. Moderate caffeine consumption is considered safe and its use as a food ingredient has been approved, within certain limits, by numerous regulatory agencies around the world. Performance benefits attributed to caffeine include physical endurance, reduction of fatigue, and enhancing mental alertness and concentration. Caffeine has also been recently linked to weight loss and consequent reduction of the overall risks for developing the metabolic syndrome. However, the caloric contribution of caffeine-sweetened beverages needs to be considered in the overall energy balance. Despite all these benefits the potential negative effects of excessive caffeine intake should also be considered, particularly in children and pregnant women. PMID:20492310

  19. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  20. Filtered molasses concentrate from sugar cane: natural functional ingredient effective in lowering the glycaemic index and insulin response of high carbohydrate foods.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alison G; Ellis, Timothy P; Ilag, Leodevico L

    2014-12-01

    An aqueous filtered molasses concentrate (FMC) sourced from sugar cane was used as a functional ingredient in a range of carbohydrate-containing foods to reduce glycaemic response. When compared to untreated controls, postprandial glucose responses in the test products were reduced 5-20%, assessed by accredited glycaemic index (GI) testing. The reduction in glucose response in the test foods was dose-dependent and directly proportional to the ratio of FMC added to the amount of available carbohydrate in the test products. The insulin response to the foods was also reduced with FMC addition as compared to untreated controls. Inclusion of FMC in test foods did not replace any formulation ingredients; it was incorporated as an additional ingredient to existing formulations. Filtered molasses concentrate, made by a proprietary and patented process, contains many naturally occurring compounds. Some of the identified compounds are known to influence carbohydrate metabolism, and include phenolic compounds, minerals and organic acids. FMC, sourced from a by-product of sugar cane processing, shows potential as a natural functional ingredient capable of modifying carbohydrate metabolism and contributing to GI reduction of processed foods and beverages. PMID:25373842

  1. A Prospective Cohort Study of the Effects of Adjuvant Breast Cancer Chemotherapy on Taste Function, Food Liking, Appetite and Associated Nutritional Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Boltong, Anna; Aranda, Sanchia; Keast, Russell; Wynne, Rochelle; Francis, Prudence A.; Chirgwin, Jacqueline; Gough, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Background Taste changes are commonly reported during chemotherapy. It is unclear to what extent this relates to actual changes in taste function or to changes in appetite and food liking and how these changes affect dietary intake and nutritional status. Patients and methods This prospective, repeated measures cohort study recruited participants from three oncology clinics. Women (n?=?52) prescribed adjuvant chemotherapy underwent standardised testing of taste perception, appetite and food liking at six time points to measure change from baseline. Associations between taste and hedonic changes and nutritional outcomes were examined. Results Taste function was significantly reduced early in chemotherapy cycles (p<0.05) but showed recovery by late in the cycle. Ability to correctly identify salty, sour and umami tastants was reduced. Liking of sweet food decreased early and mid-cycle (p<0.01) but not late cycle. Liking of savory food was not significantly affected. Appetite decreased early in the cycle (p<0.001). Reduced taste function was associated with lowest kilojoule intake (r?=?0.31; p?=?0.008) as was appetite loss with reduced kilojoule (r?=?0.34; p?=?0.002) and protein intake (r?=?0.36; p?=?0.001) early in the third chemotherapy cycle. Decreased appetite early in the third and final chemotherapy cycles was associated with a decline in BMI (p?=?<0.0005) over the study period. Resolution of taste function, food liking and appetite was observed 8 weeks after chemotherapy completion. There was no association between taste change and dry mouth, oral mucositis or nausea. Conclusion The results reveal, for the first time, the cyclical yet transient effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on taste function and the link between taste and hedonic changes, dietary intake and nutritional outcomes. The results should be used to inform reliable pre-chemotherapy education. PMID:25078776

  2. Effects of dietary constituents on the metabolism of chemical carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Wattenberg, L W

    1975-11-01

    Dietary constituents of 2 types have been shown to affect the metabolism of chemical carcinogens by the microsomal mixed-function oxidase system. Naturally occurring inducers of increased activity of this system are present in plants. Cruciferous vegetables including Brussels sprouts, cabbage, and cauliflower are relatively potent in this regard. From these vegetables, three indoles with inducing activity have been identified. These are indole-3-acetonitrile, indole-3-carbinol, and 3,3'-diindolylmethane. A 2nd type of dietary constituent affecting the microsomal mixed-function oxidase system is added phenolic antioxidant, i.e., butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene. Studies of the effect of BHA on metabolism of bezo(a)-pyrene by liver microsomes have been carried out. BHA feeding results in microsomal changes. The cytochrome P-450 shows altered spectral characteristics, and the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase system of these microsomes has an increased sensitivity to inhibition by alpha-naphthoflavone. In addition, there is a decrease in binding of metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene to DNA upon incubation of these microsomes of induction of increased mixed function oxidase activity have shown that increased levels of activity protect against administration of chemical carcinogens. BHA and butylated hydroxytoluene also have been found to exert a protective effect against chemical carcinogens. Thus the constituents of the diet could be of consequence in the neoplastic response to exposure to carcinogens in the environment. PMID:1104144

  3. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  4. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  5. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  6. Consumers' salient beliefs regarding dairy products in the functional food era: a qualitative study using concepts from the theory of planned behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inadequate consumption of dairy products without appropriate dietary substitution may have deleterious health consequences. Social research reveals the factors that may impede compliance with dietary recommendations. This is particularly important given the recent introduction of functional dairy products. One of the challenges for public health professionals is to demonstrate the efficacy of nutrition education in improving attitudes toward nutrient rich foods. The aim of this study was to explore the salient beliefs of adult weight loss trial participants regarding both traditional and functional dairy products and to compare these with a control group not exposed to nutrition education. Methods Six focus groups were conducted, three with weight loss trial completers (n = 15) that had received nutrition education and three with individuals from the same region (n = 14) to act as controls. Transcribed focus groups were coded using the Theory of Planned Behaviour theoretical framework. Results Non-trial participants perceived dairy foods as weight inducing and were sceptical of functional dairy products. A lack of time/ability to decipher dairy food labels was also discussed by these individuals. In contrast trial participants discussed several health benefits related to dairy foods, practised label reading and were confident in their ability to incorporate dairy foods into their diet. Normative beliefs expressed were similar for both groups indicating that these were more static and less amenable to change through nutrition education than control and behavioural beliefs. Conclusions Nutrition education provided as a result of weight loss trial participation influenced behavioural and control beliefs relating to dairy products. This study provides a proof of concept indication that nutrition education may improve attitudes towards dairy products and may thus be an important target for public health campaigns seeking to increase intake of this food group. PMID:22047610

  7. Polyphenol-rich foods in the Mediterranean diet are associated with better cognitive function in elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Valls-Pedret, Cinta; Lamuela-Ravents, Rosa Maria; Medina-Remn, Alexander; Quintana, Melibea; Corella, Dolores; Pint, Xavier; Martnez-Gonzlez, Miguel ngel; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Brain oxidative processes play a major role in age-related cognitive decline, thus consumption of antioxidant-rich foods might help preserve cognition. Our aim was to assess whether consumption of antioxidant-rich foods in the Mediterranean diet relates to cognitive function in the elderly. In asymptomatic subjects at high cardiovascular risk (n = 447; 52% women; age 55-80 y) enrolled in the PREDIMED study, a primary prevention dietary-intervention trial, we assessed food intake and cardiovascular risk profile, determined apolipoprotein E genotype, and used neuropsychological tests to evaluate cognitive function. We also measured urinary polyphenols as an objective biomarker of intake. Associations between energy-adjusted food consumption, urinary polyphenols, and cognitive scores were assessed by multiple linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Consumption of some foods was independently related to better cognitive function. The specific associations [regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals)] were: total olive oil with immediate verbal memory [0.755 (0.151-1.358)]; virgin olive oil and coffee with delayed verbal memory [0.163 (0.010-0.316) and 0.294 (0.055-0.534), respectively]; walnuts with working memory [1.191 (0.061-2.322)]; and wine with Mini-Mental State Examination scores [0.252 (0.006-0.496)]. Urinary polyphenols were associated with better scores in immediate verbal memory [1.208 (0.236-2.180)]. Increased consumption of antioxidant-rich foods in general and of polyphenols in particular is associated with better cognitive performance in elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk. The results reinforce the notion that Mediterranean diet components might counteract age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22349682

  8. Classical relativistic constituent particles and composite states. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Marcia J.

    1985-05-01

    A classical theory of interacting relativistic constituent and composite particles is developed further. The Lorentz-invariant Lagrangian, a function of the single unmeasurable evolution parameter s, is considered for attractive and repulsive harmonic-oscillator forces acting pairwise between constituent particles. Nonrelativistic Newtonian equations of motion can be derived by letting c-->∞ in ``equal-time'' solutions, but, in general, there is a ``surplus'' of solutions which have no nonrelativistic counterpart. These solutions are used to construct classical models of strongly interacting composite particles. Asymptotic selection rules and constituent confinement are postulated and lead to space-time conservation laws for systems of scattering composite particles. Constituent four-vectors are linear combinations of ``kinematic'' terms and ``intrinsic'' normal modes. The latter are identified with internal symmetries of the composite particles, which are labeled by sets of ``intrinsic numbers'' analogous to additive quantum numbers. Formation of two- and three-body composite particles follows an exact analogy to the color quark model, in which the meson is composed of a quark and an antiquark of the same color, and the baryon is formed from three quarks of three different colors. Scattering examples are given analogous to MM-->MM, MB-->MB, and BB-->BB. The reactions take place through constituent exchange, and total intrinsic numbers are conserved. There are other similarities to quantum field theory, such as particle-antiparticle pair creation and annihilation, fixed relative values of internal angular momenta, fixed orbital angular momentum, and many-particle systems characterized by a vacuum state (lowest energy state) and the existence of virtual composite particles as well as physically observable composite particles.

  9. Safety evaluation of functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Kruger, C L; Mann, S W

    2003-06-01

    Functional ingredients are a diverse group of compounds that are intended to produce a positive effect on the health of the consumer. The term "functional" is not meant to differentiate these ingredients from other ingredients historically consumed as part of the food supply that are indeed biologically active constituents, for example, nutrients. Indeed, all foods should be considered "functional". The term functional ingredient is meant to convey the function of these new ingredients, which is to produce a positive health outcome via physiological activity in the body. Functional ingredients encompass elements of drugs, nutrients and food additives. A framework for evaluation of the safety of functional ingredients utilizes an understanding of both the current regulatory frameworks in place as well as the characteristics that define these particular ingredients. The types of studies conducted and the data generated to support safety of functional ingredients is product-specific and can include compositional analysis, structure/toxicity analysis, evaluation of historical and intended exposure, animal studies, clinical/epidemiologic studies, and evaluation of special considerations such as potential for adverse food or drug interactions. PMID:12738185

  10. Promotion of quality standard of herbal medicine by constituent removing and adding

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dan; Li, Junxian; Xiong, Yin; Zhang, Congen; Luo, Jiaoyang; Han, Yumei; Wang, Ruiling; Jin, Cheng; Qian, Hong; Li, Jiangyu; Qiu, Lingling; Peng, Cheng; Lin, Yuling; Song, Xueai; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2014-01-01

    To identify major active constituents and measure their levels in a typical medicinal herbRhizoma coptidis, we applied the concept of removing and adding, taking inspiration from functional genetic methods. As this herb has bacteriostatic properties and is used to treat bacterial diarrhea, we examined the effects of individual constituents (berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, jateorrhizine and columbamine) on the growth of Shigella dysenteriae with microcalorimetry. The removing and adding procedures revealed that berberine and coptisine were the main antibacterial constituents of R. coptidis, with bacteriostatic activities of 54.10% and 39.75%, respectively. The relative levels of berberine and coptisine in R. coptidis were 8.08%31.92% and 4.05%14.45%, respectively. On the basis of whole effect, the method of constituents removing and adding, coupled with a bioassay, is a useful strategy to identify the active constituents and measure their levels in herbal medicines, which may provide reference to other natural products. PMID:24413194

  11. Simultaneous Determination of 10 Adulterants in Antihypertensive Functional Foods Using Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes-Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction Coupled with High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Li; Li, Yongxin; Wu, Xin; Zhang, Jing; Xie, Juan; Sun, Chengjun

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of functional foods based on extracts from selected herbs to alleviate hypertension is an increasingly common practice in China. Adulteration of these foods with pharmaceuticals can significantly impact a consumer's health. To control the quality of the functional foods effectively, a method for the simultaneous determination of 10 common adulterants including chlortalidone, hydrochlorothiazide, indapamide, metoprolol, nifedipine, nimodipine, nitrendipine, reserpine, triamterene and valsartan in antihypertensive functional foods was developed. The target chemicals in samples were ultrasonically extracted with acetonitrile, and then cleaned-up with multi-walled carbon natotubes-dispersive solid-phase extraction. Finally, the analytes were separated with a C18 column using binary mobile phases consisting of acetonitrile and 0.03 mol/L KH2PO4 solutions (pH 3.0). The flow rate of the mobile phase was 0.80 mL/min, and the column temperature was 35C. The detection wavelength was set at 220 nm. The limits of detection and quantification of the method ranged from 0.014 to 0.053 and 0.047 to 0.178 ?g/mL, respectively. The recoveries of the method were in the range of 80.1-98.1% with relative standard deviations <9.53%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of the target chemicals in real samples and simulated samples, and respirine was detected in one tonic wine sample with a concentration of 56.8 1.2 mg/L. PMID:25840433

  12. Functionally Structured Genomes in Lactobacillus kunkeei Colonizing the Honey Crop and Food Products of Honeybees and Stingless Bees

    PubMed Central

    Tamarit, Daniel; Ellegaard, Kirsten M.; Wikander, Johan; Olofsson, Tobias; Vásquez, Alejandra; Andersson, Siv G.E.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus kunkeei is the most abundant bacterial species in the honey crop and food products of honeybees. The 16 S rRNA genes of strains isolated from different bee species are nearly identical in sequence and therefore inadequate as markers for studies of coevolutionary patterns. Here, we have compared the 1.5 Mb genomes of ten L. kunkeei strains isolated from all recognized Apis species and another two strains from Meliponini species. A gene flux analysis, including previously sequenced Lactobacillus species as outgroups, indicated the influence of reductive evolution. The genome architecture is unique in that vertically inherited core genes are located near the terminus of replication, whereas genes for secreted proteins and putative host-adaptive traits are located near the origin of replication. We suggest that these features have resulted from a genome-wide loss of genes, with integrations of novel genes mostly occurring in regions flanking the origin of replication. The phylogenetic analyses showed that the bacterial topology was incongruent with the host topology, and that strains of the same microcluster have recombined frequently across the host species barriers, arguing against codiversification. Multiple genotypes were recovered in the individual hosts and transfers of mobile elements could be demonstrated for strains isolated from the same host species. Unlike other bacteria with small genomes, short generation times and multiple rRNA operons suggest that L. kunkeei evolves under selection for rapid growth in its natural growth habitat. The results provide an extended framework for reductive genome evolution and functional genome organization in bacteria. PMID:25953738

  13. Non-nutritive functional agents in rattan-shoots, a food consumed by native people in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gracia Fe; Mulabagal, Vanisree; Diyabalanage, Thushara; Hurtada, Wilma A; DeWitt, David L; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2008-10-15

    The tender shoots of Calamus ornatus, one of the food items consumed by the native people, Kanawan Aytas, in the Bataan region of the Philippines, have not been studied before. A bioassay-guided investigation of its methanolic extract afforded non-nutritive functional agents (NFAs), steroidal saponins 1-3, along with its aglycone (4). The NFAs 1-4 inhibited cyclooxygenase enzymes, COX-1 and -2, by 47%, 43%, 33%, and 53% and 71%, 75%, 78%, and 73%, respectively, at 28.2, 24.2, 21.2 and 60.4?M. Treatment of breast (MCF-7), CNS (SF-268), lung (NCI-H460), colon (HCT-116) and gastric (AGS) cancer cell lines with the extract at 100?g/ml reduced cell proliferation. Similarly, the pure NFAs 2 and 3 reduced the cell viability of breast, CNS, lung, colon and gastric cancer cell lines by 37.5%, 22.4%, 53.3%, 58.2%, 40.3% and 29.8%, 21.3%, 45.6%, 37.1%, 25.0%, respectively, at 24.2 and 21.2?M. The 50% reduction in cell viability (IC50) concentrations of 2 and 3 against these cancer cell lines were 8.8, 6.1, 7.5, 23.8, 12.1 and 3.8, 7.1, 3.3, 14.3, 12.1?M, respectively. This is the first report on the isolation of steroidal saponins from C. ornatus shoots and their antiinflammatory and tumor cell proliferation inhibitory activities. Therefore, our results suggest that the Kanawan Aytas may yield health benefits from rattan-shoots in their diet. PMID:26047291

  14. Functionally Structured Genomes in Lactobacillus kunkeei Colonizing the Honey Crop and Food Products of Honeybees and Stingless Bees.

    PubMed

    Tamarit, Daniel; Ellegaard, Kirsten M; Wikander, Johan; Olofsson, Tobias; Vsquez, Alejandra; Andersson, Siv G E

    2015-06-01

    Lactobacillus kunkeei is the most abundant bacterial species in the honey crop and food products of honeybees. The 16 S rRNA genes of strains isolated from different bee species are nearly identical in sequence and therefore inadequate as markers for studies of coevolutionary patterns. Here, we have compared the 1.5 Mb genomes of ten L. kunkeei strains isolated from all recognized Apis species and another two strains from Meliponini species. A gene flux analysis, including previously sequenced Lactobacillus species as outgroups, indicated the influence of reductive evolution. The genome architecture is unique in that vertically inherited core genes are located near the terminus of replication, whereas genes for secreted proteins and putative host-adaptive traits are located near the origin of replication. We suggest that these features have resulted from a genome-wide loss of genes, with integrations of novel genes mostly occurring in regions flanking the origin of replication. The phylogenetic analyses showed that the bacterial topology was incongruent with the host topology, and that strains of the same microcluster have recombined frequently across the host species barriers, arguing against codiversification. Multiple genotypes were recovered in the individual hosts and transfers of mobile elements could be demonstrated for strains isolated from the same host species. Unlike other bacteria with small genomes, short generation times and multiple rRNA operons suggest that L. kunkeei evolves under selection for rapid growth in its natural growth habitat. The results provide an extended framework for reductive genome evolution and functional genome organization in bacteria. PMID:25953738

  15. User's manual for the Graphical Constituent Loading Analysis System (GCLAS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koltun, G.F.; Eberle, Michael; Gray, J.R.; Glysson, G.D.

    2006-01-01

    This manual describes the Graphical Constituent Loading Analysis System (GCLAS), an interactive cross-platform program for computing the mass (load) and average concentration of a constituent that is transported in stream water over a period of time. GCLAS computes loads as a function of an equal-interval streamflow time series and an equal- or unequal-interval time series of constituent concentrations. The constituent-concentration time series may be composed of measured concentrations or a combination of measured and estimated concentrations. GCLAS is not intended for use in situations where concentration data (or an appropriate surrogate) are collected infrequently or where an appreciable amount of the concentration values are censored. It is assumed that the constituent-concentration time series used by GCLAS adequately represents the true time-varying concentration. Commonly, measured constituent concentrations are collected at a frequency that is less than ideal (from a load-computation standpoint), so estimated concentrations must be inserted in the time series to better approximate the expected chemograph. GCLAS provides tools to facilitate estimation and entry of instantaneous concentrations for that purpose. Water-quality samples collected for load computation frequently are collected in a single vertical or at single point in a stream cross section. Several factors, some of which may vary as a function of time and (or) streamflow, can affect whether the sample concentrations are representative of the mean concentration in the cross section. GCLAS provides tools to aid the analyst in assessing whether concentrations in samples collected in a single vertical or at single point in a stream cross section exhibit systematic bias with respect to the mean concentrations. In cases where bias is evident, the analyst can construct coefficient relations in GCLAS to reduce or eliminate the observed bias. GCLAS can export load and concentration data in formats suitable for entry into the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System. GCLAS can also import and export data in formats that are compatible with various commonly used spreadsheet and statistics programs.

  16. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that contain ...

  17. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  18. Generalized parton distributions of hadrons with composite constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scopetta, S.

    2007-02-01

    A method is described for calculating the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) of spin 1/2 hadrons made of composite constituents, in an Impulse Approximation framework. GPDs are obtained from the convolution between the light cone non-diagonal momentum distribution of the hadron and the GPD of the constituent. DIS structure functions and electromagnetic form factors are consistently recovered with the proposed formalism. Results are presented for the nucleon and for the 3He nucleus. For a nucleon assumed to be made of composite constituent quarks, the proposed scheme permits to study the so-called Efremov-Radyushkin-Brodsky-Lepage (ERBL) region, difficult to access in model calculations. Results are presented for both helicity-independent and helicity-dependent GPDs. For 3He, the calculation has been performed by evaluating a non-diagonal spectral function within the AV18 interaction. It turns out that a measurement of GPDs for 3He could shed new light on the short-range nuclear structure at the quark level.

  19. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. ); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. ); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. ); Shah, N.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P. )

    1991-09-01

    The technical objectives of this project are: (1) To define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and to characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail. (2) To elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes (involving basic principles of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics) by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur; and (3) to develop, based on the information required in (1) and (2), a tractable process'' model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the nature and distribution of products. 26 refs., 151 figs., 51 tabs.

  20. Thermal degradation of cloudy apple juice phenolic constituents.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, D; Valkenborg, D; Coudijzer, K; Noten, B; Servaes, K; De Loose, M; Voorspoels, S; Diels, L; Van Droogenbroeck, B

    2014-11-01

    Although conventional thermal processing is still the most commonly used preservation technique in cloudy apple juice production, detailed knowledge on phenolic compound degradation during thermal treatment is still limited. To evaluate the extent of thermal degradation as a function of time and temperature, apple juice samples were isothermally treated during 7,200s over a temperature range of 80-145 C. An untargeted metabolomics approach based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry was developed and applied with the aim to find out the most heat labile phenolic constituents in cloudy apple juice. By the use of a high resolution mass spectrometer, the high degree of in-source fragmentation, the quality of deconvolution and the employed custom-made database, it was possible to achieve a high degree of structural elucidation for the thermolabile phenolic constituents. Procyanidin subclass representatives were discovered as the most heat labile phenolic compounds of cloudy apple juice. PMID:24874374

  1. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Boni, A.A. ); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. ); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. ); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P. )

    1991-12-01

    The technical objectives of this project are to: Define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and to characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail; elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes (involving basic principles of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics) by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur; and develop, based on the information required above, a tractable process'' model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the nature and distribution of products.

  2. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Helble, J.J.; Boni, A.A. ); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. ); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, A. )

    1992-04-01

    The technical objectives of this project are: To: (1) define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and (2) characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail. To elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes (involving basic principles of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics) by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur. To develop, based on the information required in a. and b. above, a tractable process'' model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the nature and distribution of products.

  3. Universality in the Spatial Variability of Atmospheric Chemical Constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, A. W.; Sparling, L. C.

    2006-05-01

    Atmospheric chemical constituents exhibit variability on many vertical and horizontal scales due to a variety of chemical and dynamical processes. High resolution aircraft, balloon and lidar data are used to generate scale- dependent statistics in order to investigate similarities in the statistical properties of spatial structure for several trace gases under a variety of source and dynamical conditions. Emphasis is on the pdf (probability distribution function) of tracer differences across a range of horizontal and vertical scales. The pdf is compared to several standard forms, including the lognormal and Weibull distributions. We show that the pdf of tracer differences, normalized by the mean deviation, has a nearly universal form near the tropopause, and has a similiar form for a wide range of atmospheric constituents and meteorological conditions.

  4. Food plant toxicants and safety Risk assessment and regulation of inherent toxicants in plant foods.

    PubMed

    Essers, A J; Alink, G M; Speijers, G J; Alexander, J; Bouwmeister, P J; van den Brandt, P A; Ciere, S; Gry, J; Herrman, J; Kuiper, H A; Mortby, E; Renwick, A G; Shrimpton, D H; Vainio, H; Vittozzi, L; Koeman, J H

    1998-05-01

    The ADI as a tool for risk management and regulation of food additives and pesticide residues is not readily applicable to inherent food plant toxicants: The margin between actual intake and potentially toxic levels is often small; application of the default uncertainty factors used to derive ADI values, particularly when extrapolating from animal data, would prohibit the utilisation of the food, which may have an overall beneficial health effect. Levels of inherent toxicants are difficult to control; their complete removal is not always wanted, due to their function for the plant or for human health. The health impact of the inherent toxicant is often modified by factors in the food, e.g. the bioavailability from the matrix and interaction with other inherent constituents. Risk-benefit analysis should be made for different consumption scenarios, without the use of uncertainty factors. Crucial in this approach is analysis of the toxicity of the whole foodstuff. The relationship between the whole foodstuff and the pure toxicant is expressed in the `product correction factor' (PCF). Investigations in humans are essential so that biomarkers of exposure and for effect can be used to analyse the difference between animals and humans and between the food and the pure toxicant. A grid of the variables characterising toxicity is proposed, showing their inter-relationships. A flow diagram for risk estimate is provided, using both toxicological and epidemiological studies. PMID:21781862

  5. [Chemical food contaminants].

    PubMed

    Schrenk, D

    2004-09-01

    Chemical food contaminants are substances which are neither present naturally in the usual raw material used for food production nor are added during the regular production process. Examples are environmental pollutants or contaminants derived from agricultural production of crops or livestock or from inadequate manufacturing of the food product itself. More difficult is the classification of those compounds formed during regular manufacturing such as products of thermal processes including flavoring substances. In these cases, it is common practice to call those compounds contaminants which are known for their adverse effects such as acrylamide, whereas constituents which add to the food-specific flavor such as Maillard products formed during roasting, baking etc. are not termed contaminants. From a toxicological viewpoint this distinction is not always clear-cut. Important groups of chemical contaminants are metals such as mercury or lead, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and related pollutants, which are regularly found in certain types of food originating from background levels of these compounds in our environment. Furthermore, natural toxins form microorganisms or plants, and compounds formed during thermal treatment of food are of major interest. In general, a scientific risk assessment has to be carried out for any known contaminant. This comprises an exposure analysis and a toxicological and epidemiological assessment. On these grounds, regulatory and/or technological measures can often improve the situation. Major conditions for a scientific risk assessment and a successful implementation of regulations are highly developed food quality control, food toxicology and nutritional epidemiology. PMID:15378171

  6. Naturally Occurring Food Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Laurie C.; Matulka, Ray A.; Burdock, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States. PMID:22069686

  7. Processing of food, body and emotional stimuli in anorexia nervosa: a systematic review and meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yikang; Hu, Xiaochen; Wang, Jijun; Chen, Jue; Guo, Qian; Li, Chunbo; Enck, Paul

    2012-11-01

    The characteristics of the cognitive processing of food, body and emotional information in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are debatable. We reviewed functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to assess whether there were consistent neural basis and networks in the studies to date. Searching PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and Google Scholar between January 1980 and May 2012, we identified 17 relevant studies. Activation likelihood estimation was used to perform a quantitative meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. For both food stimuli and body stimuli, AN patients showed increased hemodynamic response in the emotion-related regions (frontal, caudate, uncus, insula and temporal) and decreased activation in the parietal region. Although no robust brain activation has been found in response to emotional stimuli, emotion-related neural networks are involved in the processing of food and body stimuli among AN. It suggests that negative emotional arousal is related to cognitive processing bias of food and body stimuli in AN. PMID:22945872

  8. Conjunction, Ellipsis, and Other Discontinuous Constituents in the Constituent Object Parser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Douglas P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Constituent Object Parser (COP), a domain independent syntactic parser developed for use in information retrieval and similar applications. The syntactic structure of natural language entities is discussed, and the mechanisms by which COP handles the problems of conjunctions, ellipsis, and discontinuous constituents are explained.

  9. Conjunction, Ellipsis, and Other Discontinuous Constituents in the Constituent Object Parser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Douglas P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Constituent Object Parser (COP), a domain independent syntactic parser developed for use in information retrieval and similar applications. The syntactic structure of natural language entities is discussed, and the mechanisms by which COP handles the problems of conjunctions, ellipsis, and discontinuous constituents are explained.…

  10. Acoustic constituents of prosodic typology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Masahiko

    Different languages sound different, and considerable part of it derives from the typological difference of prosody. Although such difference is often referred to as lexical accent types (stress accent, pitch accent, and tone; e.g. English, Japanese, and Chinese respectively) and rhythm types (stress-, syllable-, and mora-timed rhythms; e.g. English, Spanish, and Japanese respectively), it is unclear whether these types are determined in terms of acoustic properties, The thesis intends to provide a potential basis for the description of prosody in terms of acoustics. It argues for the hypothesis that the source component of the source-filter model (acoustic features) approximately corresponds to prosody (linguistic features) through several experimental-phonetic studies. The study consists of four parts. (1) Preliminary experiment: Perceptual language identification tests were performed using English and Japanese speech samples whose frequency spectral information (i.e. non-source component) is heavily reduced. The results indicated that humans can discriminate languages with such signals. (2) Discussion on the linguistic information that the source component contains: This part constitutes the foundation of the argument of the thesis. Perception tests of consonants with the source signal indicated that the source component carries the information on broad categories of phonemes that contributes to the creation of rhythm. (3) Acoustic analysis: The speech samples of Chinese, English, Japanese, and Spanish, differing in prosodic types, were analyzed. These languages showed difference in acoustic characteristics of the source component. (4) Perceptual experiment: A language identification test for the above four languages was performed using the source signal with its acoustic features parameterized. It revealed that humans can discriminate prosodic types solely with the source features and that the discrimination is easier as acoustic information increases. The series of studies showed the correspondence of the source component to prosodic features. In linguistics, prosodic types have not been discussed purely in terms of acoustics; they are usually related to the function of prosody or phonological units such as phonemes. The present thesis focuses on acoustics and makes a contribution to establishing the crosslinguistic description system of prosody.

  11. Immunomodulatory Effects of Triphala and its Individual Constituents: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Belapurkar, Pranoti; Goyal, Pragya; Tiwari-Barua, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    The role of plant extracts and Ayurvedic polyherbal preparations in treating various ailments has been acknowledged since time immemorial. Studies based on the effect of these extracts in treatment of different diseases have also been well documented. Indian medicinal literature also emphasizes the synergistic effect of polyherbal drugs in restoring and rejuvenating immune system. This review focuses on the immunomodulatory potential of the polyherbal preparation, Triphala and its three constituents, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The role of Triphala and its extract has been emphasized in stimulating neutrophil function. Under stress condition such as noise, Triphala significantly prevents elevation of IL-4 levels as well as corrects decreased IL-2 and IFN-? levels. Under the condition of inflammatory stress its immunosuppressive activity is attributed to its inhibitory action on complement system, humoral immunity, cell mediated immunity and mitogen-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the individual constituents reportedly enhance especially the macrophage activation due to their free radical scavenging activity and the ability to neutralize reactive oxygen species. This study thus concludes the use of Triphala and its three individual constituents as potential immunostimulants and/or immunosuppressants further suggests them to be a better alternative for allopathic immunomodulators. PMID:25593379

  12. Therapeutic Implications of Black Seed and Its Constituent Thymoquinone in the Prevention of Cancer through Inactivation and Activation of Molecular Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H.; Alzohairy, Mohammad A.; Khan, Masood A.; Aly, Salah M.

    2014-01-01

    The cancer is probably the most dreaded disease in both men and women and also major health problem worldwide. Despite its high prevalence, the exact molecular mechanisms of the development and progression are not fully understood. The current chemotherapy/radiotherapy regime used to treat cancer shows adverse side effect and may alter gene functions. Natural products are generally safe, effective, and less expensive substitutes of anticancer chemotherapeutics. Based on previous studies of their potential therapeutic uses, Nigella sativa and its constituents may be proved as good therapeutic options in the prevention of cancer. Black seeds are used as staple food in the Middle Eastern Countries for thousands of years and also in the treatment of diseases. Earlier studies have shown that N. sativa and its constituent thymoquinone (TQ) have important roles in the prevention and treatment of cancer by modulating cell signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the role of N. sativa and its constituents TQ in the prevention of cancer through the activation or inactivation of molecular cell signaling pathways. PMID:24959190

  13. New parasites and predators follow the introduction of two fish species to a subarctic lake: implications for food-web structure and functioning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amundsen, Per-Arne; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Knudsen, Rune; Primicerio, Raul; Kristoffersen, Roar; Klemetsen, Anders; Kuris, Armand M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduced species can alter the topology of food webs. For instance, an introduction can aid the arrival of free-living consumers using the new species as a resource, while new parasites may also arrive with the introduced species. Food-web responses to species additions can thus be far more complex than anticipated. In a subarctic pelagic food web with free-living and parasitic species, two fish species (arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus and three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus) have known histories as deliberate introductions. The effects of these introductions on the food web were explored by comparing the current pelagic web with a heuristic reconstruction of the pre-introduction web. Extinctions caused by these introductions could not be evaluated by this approach. The introduced fish species have become important hubs in the trophic network, interacting with numerous parasites, predators and prey. In particular, five parasite species and four predatory bird species depend on the two introduced species as obligate trophic resources in the pelagic web and could therefore not have been present in the pre-introduction network. The presence of the two introduced fish species and the arrival of their associated parasites and predators increased biodiversity, mean trophic level, linkage density, and nestedness; altering both the network structure and functioning of the pelagic web. Parasites, in particular trophically transmitted species, had a prominent role in the network alterations that followed the introductions.

  14. Functional Effects of Parasites on Food Web Properties during the Spring Diatom Bloom in Lake Pavin: A Linear Inverse Modeling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Niquil, Nathalie; Jobard, Marlne; Saint-Bat, Blanche; Sime-Ngando, Tlesphore

    2011-01-01

    This study is the first assessment of the quantitative impact of parasitic chytrids on a planktonic food web. We used a carbon-based food web model of Lake Pavin (Massif Central, France) to investigate the effects of chytrids during the spring diatom bloom by developing models with and without chytrids. Linear inverse modelling procedures were employed to estimate undetermined flows in the lake. The Monte Carlo Markov chain linear inverse modelling procedure provided estimates of the ranges of model-derived fluxes. Model results support recent theories on the probable impact of parasites on food web function. In the lake, during spring, when inedible algae (unexploited by planktonic herbivores) were the dominant primary producers, the epidemic growth of chytrids significantly reduced the sedimentation loss of algal carbon to the detritus pool through the production of grazer-exploitable zoospores. We also review some theories about the potential influence of parasites on ecological network properties and argue that parasitism contributes to longer carbon path lengths, higher levels of activity and specialization, and lower recycling. Considering the structural asymmetry hypothesis as a stabilizing pattern, chytrids should contribute to the stability of aquatic food webs. PMID:21887240

  15. New parasites and predators follow the introduction of two fish species to a subarctic lake: implications for food-web structure and functioning.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Per-Arne; Lafferty, Kevin D; Knudsen, Rune; Primicerio, Raul; Kristoffersen, Roar; Klemetsen, Anders; Kuris, Armand M

    2013-04-01

    Introduced species can alter the topology of food webs. For instance, an introduction can aid the arrival of free-living consumers using the new species as a resource, while new parasites may also arrive with the introduced species. Food-web responses to species additions can thus be far more complex than anticipated. In a subarctic pelagic food web with free-living and parasitic species, two fish species (arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus and three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus) have known histories as deliberate introductions. The effects of these introductions on the food web were explored by comparing the current pelagic web with a heuristic reconstruction of the pre-introduction web. Extinctions caused by these introductions could not be evaluated by this approach. The introduced fish species have become important hubs in the trophic network, interacting with numerous parasites, predators and prey. In particular, five parasite species and four predatory bird species depend on the two introduced species as obligate trophic resources in the pelagic web and could therefore not have been present in the pre-introduction network. The presence of the two introduced fish species and the arrival of their associated parasites and predators increased biodiversity, mean trophic level, linkage density, and nestedness; altering both the network structure and functioning of the pelagic web. Parasites, in particular trophically transmitted species, had a prominent role in the network alterations that followed the introductions. PMID:23053223

  16. Expression of IL-17A concentration and effector functions of peripheral blood neutrophils in food allergy hypersensitivity patients.

    PubMed

    Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Pałgan, Krzysztof; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Kuźmiński, Andrzej; Przybyszewski, Michał; Socha, Ewa; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2016-03-01

    Lymphocytes Th17 and other types of immune system cells produce IL17. By induction of cytokines and chemokines, the IL17 cytokine is involved in mechanisms of allergic reaction with participation of neutrophil granulocytes. It affects activation, recruitment, and migration of neutrophils to the tissues, regulating inflammatory reaction intensity. Excited neutrophils secrete inter alia elastase and reactive oxygen species (ROS)--significant mediators of inflammation process responsible for tissues damage.The aim of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of serum interleukin 17A, serum neutrophil elastase, and ROS production by neutrophils in patients with food allergy.The study included 30 patients with food allergy diagnosed based on interview, clinical symptoms, positive SPT, placebo controlled double-blind oral provocation trial, and the presence of asIgE in blood serum against selected food allergens using fluoro-immuno-enzymatic method FEIA UNICap 100. The control group consisted of 10 healthy volunteers. The concentrations of IL17A were determined in all patients using ELISA method with eBioscience kits, and elastase using BenderMed Systems kits. Chemiluminescence of non-stimulated neutrophils was evaluated using luminol-dependent kinetic method for 40 min on Luminoskan (Labsystems luminometer).The results of serum IL-17A concentrations and the values of chemiluminescence obtained by non-activated neutrophils, as well as elastase concentrations, were higher in patients with food allergic hypersensitivity compared to healthy volunteers.This study demonstrates a significance of IL-17A and activated neutrophil granulocytes in the course of diseases with food allergic hypersensitivity. PMID:26684636

  17. The influence of food texture and liquid consistency modification on swallowing physiology and function: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Steele, Catriona M; Alsanei, Woroud Abdulrahman; Ayanikalath, Sona; Barbon, Carly E A; Chen, Jianshe; Cichero, Julie A Y; Coutts, Kim; Dantas, Roberto O; Duivestein, Janice; Giosa, Lidia; Hanson, Ben; Lam, Peter; Lecko, Caroline; Leigh, Chelsea; Nagy, Ahmed; Namasivayam, Ashwini M; Nascimento, Weslania V; Odendaal, Inge; Smith, Christina H; Wang, Helen

    2015-02-01

    Texture modification has become one of the most common forms of intervention for dysphagia, and is widely considered important for promoting safe and efficient swallowing. However, to date, there is no single convention with respect to the terminology used to describe levels of liquid thickening or food texture modification for clinical use. As a first step toward building a common taxonomy, a systematic review was undertaken to identify empirical evidence describing the impact of liquid consistency and food texture on swallowing behavior. A multi-engine search yielded 10,147 non-duplicate articles, which were screened for relevance. A team of ten international researchers collaborated to conduct full-text reviews for 488 of these articles, which met the study inclusion criteria. Of these, 36 articles were found to contain specific information comparing oral processing or swallowing behaviors for at least two liquid consistencies or food textures. Qualitative synthesis revealed two key trends with respect to the impact of thickening liquids on swallowing: thicker liquids reduce the risk of penetration-aspiration, but also increase the risk of post-swallow residue in the pharynx. The literature was insufficient to support the delineation of specific viscosity boundaries or other quantifiable material properties related to these clinical outcomes. With respect to food texture, the literature pointed to properties of hardness, cohesiveness, and slipperiness as being relevant both for physiological behaviors and bolus flow patterns. The literature suggests a need to classify food and fluid behavior in the context of the physiological processes involved in oral transport and flow initiation. PMID:25343878

  18. Investigating Constituent Values and School Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann; Glassman, Michael; Riegel, Lisa; Dawson, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Using a sociopolitical perspective to understand the alignment of community values and school policies, we conducted focus groups in three geographically close but economically varied neighborhood in one Midwest urban area. The article presents findings related to constituent values, social capital, and school policies, including charter school…

  19. Inorganic constituents of some Turkish lignites

    SciTech Connect

    Yaman, S.; Taptik, Y.; Yavuz, R.; Kuecuekbayrak, S.

    1996-12-31

    In this study the mineral matter contents of two different Turkish lignite samples from Cayirhan and Tuncbilek regions were isolated by means of mild oxidation of organic matrix applying H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/HCOOH treatment. The isolated minerals were analyzed by XRD and FTIR techniques and constituents of the minerals were investigated qualitatively.

  20. Investigating Constituent Values and School Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann; Glassman, Michael; Riegel, Lisa; Dawson, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Using a sociopolitical perspective to understand the alignment of community values and school policies, we conducted focus groups in three geographically close but economically varied neighborhood in one Midwest urban area. The article presents findings related to constituent values, social capital, and school policies, including charter school

  1. The Constituent Quark Model: a Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eric S. Swanson

    2002-06-07

    A brief and biased overview of the status of the constituent quark model is presented. We concentrate on open issues and goals of hadronic phenomenology, rather than specific physics conundrums in the field. Modern attempts at addressing these issues are also presented.

  2. Food Allergies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A A ... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system makes ...

  3. Food Allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  4. Earth GRAM-99 and Trace Constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Keller, Vernon W.

    2004-01-01

    Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-99) is an engineering-level model of Earth's atmosphere. It provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly- and geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0-27 km, GRAM thermodynamics and winds are based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. Above 120 km, GRAM is based on the NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model. In the intervening altitude region, GRAM is based on Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) climatology that also forms the basis of the 1986 COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). Atmospheric composition is represented in GRAM by concentrations of both major and minor species. Above 120 km, MET provides concentration values for N2, O2, Ar, O, He, and H. Below 120 km, species represented also include H2O, O3, N2O, CO, CH4, and CO2. At COSPAR 2002 a comparison was made between GRAM constituents below 120 km and those provided by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) climatology. No current need to update GRAM constituent climatology in that height range was identified. This report examines GRAM (MET) constituents between 100 and 1000 km altitudes. Discrepancies are noted between GRAM (MET) constituent number densities and mass density or molecular weight. Near 110 km altitude, there is up to about 25% discrepancy between MET number density and mass density (with mass density being valid and number densities requiring adjustment). Near 700 km altitude there is also up to about 25% discrepancy between MET number density and mean molecular weight (with molecular weight requiring adjustment). In neither case are MET mass density estimates invalidated. These discrepancies have been traced to MET subroutines SLV (which affects 90-170 km height range) and SLVH (which affects helium above 440 km altitude). With these discrepancies corrected, results are presented to illustrate GRAM (MET) constituent mole fractions in terms of height-latitude cross sections from 100 to 1000 km altitude, and latitude-longitude 'maps' at 450 km (approximate height of International Space Station). Plans are discussed for an update of MET (and GRAM) to correct these constituent inconsistencies and to incorporate several new thermospheric model features.

  5. Chemical investigation and antimicrobial properties of mastic water and its major constituents.

    PubMed

    Paraschos, Sotirios; Magiatis, Prokopios; Gousia, Panagiota; Economou, Vangelis; Sakkas, Hercules; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2011-12-01

    Mastic water is a commercial flavouring obtained during the steam distillation of mastic resin (the resin of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia) for the production of mastic oil. The mastic water extracts were analysed by GC-MS. The major compounds identified were verbenone, ?-terpineol, linalool and trans-pinocarveol. Overall the composition was found to be very different from that of mastic oil. Additional GC-MS revealed the enantiomeric ratio of the chiral constituents of mastic water. The antimicrobial activity of mastic water extract, as well as that of its major constituents, was examined against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida spp. including ATCC wild clinical and food-borne strains. Linalool and ?-terpineol were found to be the most potent antimicrobial constituents. Finally the stability of mastic water at different temperatures was studied, showing no change in the GC-MS profile of the organic extract for a period of 4months at storage temperatures up to 4C. PMID:25212317

  6. ILSI Brazil International Workshop on Functional Foods: a narrative review of the scientific evidence in the area of carbohydrates, microbiome, and health

    PubMed Central

    Meheust, Agnès; Augustin, Livia; Benton, David; Berčík, Přemysl; Birkett, Anne; Eldridge, Alison L.; Faintuch, Joel; Hoffmann, Christian; Jones, Julie Miller; Kendall, Cyril; Lajolo, Franco; Perdigon, Gabriela; Prieto, Pedro Antonio; Rastall, Robert A.; Sievenpiper, John L.; Slavin, Joanne; de Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel

    2013-01-01

    To stimulate discussion around the topic of ‘carbohydrates’ and health, the Brazilian branch of the International Life Sciences Institute held the 11th International Functional Foods Workshop (1–2 December 2011) in which consolidated knowledge and recent scientific advances specific to the relationship between carbohydrates and health were presented. As part of this meeting, several key points related to dietary fiber, glycemic response, fructose, and impacts on satiety, cognition, mood, and gut microbiota were realized: 1) there is a need for global harmonization of a science-based fiber definition; 2) low-glycemic index foods can be used to modulate the postprandial glycemic response and may affect diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes; 3) carbohydrate type may influence satiety and satiation; glycemic load and glycemic index show links to memory, mood, and concentration; 4) validated biomarkers are needed to demonstrate the known prebiotic effect of carbohydrates; 5) negative effects of fructose are not evident when human data are systematically reviewed; 6) new research indicates that diet strongly influences the microbiome; and 7) there is mounting evidence that the intestinal microbiota has the ability to impact the gut–brain axis. Overall, there is much promise for development of functional foods that impact the microbiome and other factors relevant to health, including glycemic response (glycemic index/glycemic load), satiety, mood, cognition, and weight management. PMID:23399638

  7. ILSI Brazil International Workshop on Functional Foods: a narrative review of the scientific evidence in the area of carbohydrates, microbiome, and health.

    PubMed

    Latulippe, Marie E; Meheust, Agnès; Augustin, Livia; Benton, David; Berčík, Přemysl; Birkett, Anne; Eldridge, Alison L; Faintuch, Joel; Hoffmann, Christian; Jones, Julie Miller; Kendall, Cyril; Lajolo, Franco; Perdigon, Gabriela; Prieto, Pedro Antonio; Rastall, Robert A; Sievenpiper, John L; Slavin, Joanne; de Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel

    2013-01-01

    To stimulate discussion around the topic of 'carbohydrates' and health, the Brazilian branch of the International Life Sciences Institute held the 11th International Functional Foods Workshop (1-2 December 2011) in which consolidated knowledge and recent scientific advances specific to the relationship between carbohydrates and health were presented. As part of this meeting, several key points related to dietary fiber, glycemic response, fructose, and impacts on satiety, cognition, mood, and gut microbiota were realized: 1) there is a need for global harmonization of a science-based fiber definition; 2) low-glycemic index foods can be used to modulate the postprandial glycemic response and may affect diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes; 3) carbohydrate type may influence satiety and satiation; glycemic load and glycemic index show links to memory, mood, and concentration; 4) validated biomarkers are needed to demonstrate the known prebiotic effect of carbohydrates; 5) negative effects of fructose are not evident when human data are systematically reviewed; 6) new research indicates that diet strongly influences the microbiome; and 7) there is mounting evidence that the intestinal microbiota has the ability to impact the gut-brain axis. Overall, there is much promise for development of functional foods that impact the microbiome and other factors relevant to health, including glycemic response (glycemic index/glycemic load), satiety, mood, cognition, and weight management. PMID:23399638

  8. Mechanisms for Ultrafast Nonradiative Relaxation in Electronically Excited Eumelanin Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Sheng; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the relaxation dynamics of melanin model constituents including monomers, dimers, and tetramers, upon excitation, using state-of-the-art, time-dependent, density functional theory calculations. The results explain the ability of these molecules to transform photon energy into thermal energy in a remarkably short timescale of ?100 fs. We find that after electronic excitation by light absorption, ultrafast energy conversion takes place through two novel mechanisms: proton transfer on a timescale of 110 fs and state mixing upon oligomerization on a timescale of <50 fs. These results are in good agreement with available experiments and help elucidate melanin's role in photoprotection against ultraviolet radiation. PMID:18676639

  9. Comparative analysis of food webs based on flow networks: effects of nutrient supply on structure and function of coastal plankton communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Yngvar; Reinertsen, Helge; Vadstein, Olav; Andersen, Tom; Gismervik, Ingrid; Duarte, Carlos; Agusti, Susana; Stibor, Herwig; Sommer, Ulrich; Lignell, Risto; Tamminen, Timo; Lancelot, Christiane; Rousseau, Veronique; Hoell, Espen; Sanderud, Knut Arvid

    2001-12-01

    The objective of COMWEB was to develop efficient analytical, numerical and experimental methods for assessing and predicting the effects of nutrient (N, P, Si) supply on the stability and persistence of pelagic food web structure and function in coastal waters. The experimental comparative work included a geographic gradient covering Baltic, Mediterranean, and NE Atlantic waters and a NE Atlantic gradient in state of eutrophication. COMWEB has been an experimental approach to coastal eutrophication, studying effects of enhanced nutrient supply on components and flows of the entire lower pelagic food web. Flow network representations of pelagic food webs has been a framework of data reduction and flows were established by sophisticated inverse modelling. Fundamental information on physiological properties of functional key species in the pelagic food web was used to constrain flow estimations. A main conclusion derived from the flow networks was that very little energy and materials were transferred from the microbial food web to the main food chain. The lower food web could therefore be described as two parallel food chains with relatively limited interaction between heterotrophic groups. Short-term effects of nutrient perturbations were examined in mesocosms along the geographic gradient. The response was comparable in all systems, with a stronger effect on the activity and biomass of autotrophic groups than those of heterotrophic ones. Mediterranean waters showed much lower autotrophic biomass response than Baltic and NE Atlantic waters, which responded almost equally. The response of primary production was, however, more comparable. High phytoplankton lysis rate explained this low accumulation of biomass in Mediterranean waters. The study of Atlantic coastal waters of different eutrophic states revealed that the ecological response was higher in the closed nutrient perturbed mesocosms than in open systems exposed for >4 summer months (summer/autumn season). The Atlantic lagoon evolved gradually from the natural oligotrophic situation towards the more eutrophicated North Sea during fertilisation. The responses observed on seasonal and long-term scale (>10 years) may therefore be equal. The differences between short-term (weeks) and intermediate-term (seasonal) responses is most likely a result of the different time scales of perturbation and observation and the variable exchange rates with surrounding waters (water dilution rate). The analysis of pelagic flow networks provided a framework of diagnostic criteria for state and quality assessment of coastal waters. The nutrient loading rates related better to estimates of biotic fluxes than to concentrations of biotic compartments and total nutrients. On the contrary, the concentration of biotic compartments, or the biomasses, related better to total nutrient concentrations. Primary production, mesozooplankton grazing and growth, fraction of primary production consumed by grazers, bacterial production relative to primary production, cycling indices, and path lengths were all well related to nutrient loading rate. Autotrophic biomass, ratio of autotrophic to heterotrophic biomass, and fraction of pico-cyanobacteria of total autotrophic biomass were all related to total nutrients. Some of these variables, which responded equally in all systems, have the potential of becoming unified response functions in a management model for European coastal waters. COMWEB has provided further insight into the mechanisms behind coastal eutrophication. A main achievement is the conceptual framework for unified response functions, important components of management models for nutrient emission to coastal waters.

  10. Determination of total iron in food samples after flow injection preconcentration on polyurethane foam functionalized with N,N-bis(salicylidene)-1,3-propanediamine.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Azeem, S M; Bader, N R; Kuss, H M; El-Shahat, M F

    2013-06-01

    A highly selective flow injection sorption system was developed for the fast determination of total iron in food samples. Iron (III) was reduced to iron (II) by ascorbic acid and preconcentrated on a mini-column packed with polyurethane foam (PUF) functionalized with N,N-bis(salicylidene)-1,3-propanediamine (SPDA). The retained Fe (II) was eluted with hydrochloric acid and subsequently reacted to 2,4,6-tri(2'-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPTZ) then measured at 593 nm. The procedure has resulted preconcentration factor 36, sample frequency 20 h(-1) and detection limit 18 ?g L(-1). The precision (RSD) was found to be 5.7% and 3.1% at concentration levels 0.1 and 5.0 ?g mL(-1) iron (II), respectively. Finally, the method was successfully applied to determination of total iron in reference material and food samples. PMID:23411293

  11. Gui-ling-gao, a traditional Chinese functional food, prevents oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Wu, Jian-Hong; Wang, Qing-Hua; Shu, Yuan-Lan; Wan, Chun-Wai; Chan, Chi-On; Kam-Wah Mok, Daniel; Chan, Shun-Wan

    2013-04-30

    Functional foods have become an increasingly popular alternative to prevent diseases and maintain body health status. Gui-ling-gao (GLG, also known as turtle jelly) is a well-known traditional functional food popular in Southern China and Hong Kong. This study aimed to investigate the antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects of GLG, a traditional Chinese functional food, on preventing oxidative stress-induced injury in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. In this study, the antioxidative capacities of GLG were measured by using both a cell-free assay [2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl assay] and biological methods [2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)-induced haemolysis assay and H(2)O(2)-induced cell damage on H9c2 cardiomyocytes]. Additionally, the total phenolic content was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Furthermore, the anti-apoptotic effect of GLG was evaluated by nuclear staining and a DNA fragmentation assay. GLG was found to have good antioxidant activities and high total phenolic content. In H(2)O(2)-induced cell damage on H9c2 cells, GLG was demonstrated to ameliorate the apoptotic effects, such as nuclear condensations, increased intracellular caspase-3 activity and inter-nucleosomal DNA cleavage, induced by H(2)O(2). The present study demonstrated for the first time that GLG possesses anti-apoptotic potential in vitro and this effect may be mediated, in part, by its antioxidative function. Additionally, the antioxidative capacities of GLG were proved both chemically and biologically. This study provides scientific evidence to prove the anecdotal health-beneficial claim that the consumption of GLG could help the body to handle endogenous toxicants such as free radicals. PMID:23467630

  12. Warming shifts top-down and bottom-up control of pond food web structure and function.

    PubMed

    Shurin, Jonathan B; Clasen, Jessica L; Greig, Hamish S; Kratina, Pavel; Thompson, Patrick L

    2012-11-01

    The effects of global and local environmental changes are transmitted through networks of interacting organisms to shape the structure of communities and the dynamics of ecosystems. We tested the impact of elevated temperature on the top-down and bottom-up forces structuring experimental freshwater pond food webs in western Canada over 16 months. Experimental warming was crossed with treatments manipulating the presence of planktivorous fish and eutrophication through enhanced nutrient supply. We found that higher temperatures produced top-heavy food webs with lower biomass of benthic and pelagic producers, equivalent biomass of zooplankton, zoobenthos and pelagic bacteria, and more pelagic viruses. Eutrophication increased the biomass of all organisms studied, while fish had cascading positive effects on periphyton, phytoplankton and bacteria, and reduced biomass of invertebrates. Surprisingly, virus biomass was reduced in the presence of fish, suggesting the possibility for complex mechanisms of top-down control of the lytic cycle. Warming reduced the effects of eutrophication on periphyton, and magnified the already strong effects of fish on phytoplankton and bacteria. Warming, fish and nutrients all increased whole-system rates of net production despite their distinct impacts on the distribution of biomass between producers and consumers, plankton and benthos, and microbes and macrobes. Our results indicate that warming exerts a host of indirect effects on aquatic food webs mediated through shifts in the magnitudes of top-down and bottom-up forcing. PMID:23007089

  13. Warming shifts top-down and bottom-up control of pond food web structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Shurin, Jonathan B.; Clasen, Jessica L.; Greig, Hamish S.; Kratina, Pavel; Thompson, Patrick L.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of global and local environmental changes are transmitted through networks of interacting organisms to shape the structure of communities and the dynamics of ecosystems. We tested the impact of elevated temperature on the top-down and bottom-up forces structuring experimental freshwater pond food webs in western Canada over 16 months. Experimental warming was crossed with treatments manipulating the presence of planktivorous fish and eutrophication through enhanced nutrient supply. We found that higher temperatures produced top-heavy food webs with lower biomass of benthic and pelagic producers, equivalent biomass of zooplankton, zoobenthos and pelagic bacteria, and more pelagic viruses. Eutrophication increased the biomass of all organisms studied, while fish had cascading positive effects on periphyton, phytoplankton and bacteria, and reduced biomass of invertebrates. Surprisingly, virus biomass was reduced in the presence of fish, suggesting the possibility for complex mechanisms of top-down control of the lytic cycle. Warming reduced the effects of eutrophication on periphyton, and magnified the already strong effects of fish on phytoplankton and bacteria. Warming, fish and nutrients all increased whole-system rates of net production despite their distinct impacts on the distribution of biomass between producers and consumers, plankton and benthos, and microbes and macrobes. Our results indicate that warming exerts a host of indirect effects on aquatic food webs mediated through shifts in the magnitudes of top-down and bottom-up forcing. PMID:23007089

  14. Pharmacological differentiation of opioid receptor antagonists by molecular and functional imaging of target occupancy and food reward-related brain activation in humans.

    PubMed

    Rabiner, E A; Beaver, J; Makwana, A; Searle, G; Long, C; Nathan, P J; Newbould, R D; Howard, J; Miller, S R; Bush, M A; Hill, S; Reiley, R; Passchier, J; Gunn, R N; Matthews, P M; Bullmore, E T

    2011-08-01

    Opioid neurotransmission has a key role in mediating reward-related behaviours. Opioid receptor (OR) antagonists, such as naltrexone (NTX), can attenuate the behaviour-reinforcing effects of primary (food) and secondary rewards. GSK1521498 is a novel OR ligand, which behaves as an inverse agonist at the ?-OR sub-type. In a sample of healthy volunteers, we used [(11)C]-carfentanil positron emission tomography to measure the OR occupancy and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure activation of brain reward centres by palatable food stimuli before and after single oral doses of GSK1521498 (range, 0.4-100 mg) or NTX (range, 2-50 mg). GSK1521498 had high affinity for human brain ORs (GSK1521498 effective concentration 50 = 7.10 ng ml(-1)) and there was a direct relationship between receptor occupancy (RO) and plasma concentrations of GSK1521498. However, for both NTX and its principal active metabolite in humans, 6-?-NTX, this relationship was indirect. GSK1521498, but not NTX, significantly attenuated the fMRI activation of the amygdala by a palatable food stimulus. We thus have shown how the pharmacological properties of OR antagonists can be characterised directly in humans by a novel integration of molecular and functional neuroimaging techniques. GSK1521498 was differentiated from NTX in terms of its pharmacokinetics, target affinity, plasma concentration-RO relationships and pharmacodynamic effects on food reward processing in the brain. Pharmacological differentiation of these molecules suggests that they may have different therapeutic profiles for treatment of overeating and other disorders of compulsive consumption. PMID:21502953

  15. Do specific dietary constituents and supplements affect mental energy? Review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Gorby, Heather E; Brownawell, Amy M; Falk, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    The numbers of marketing claims and food, beverage, and drug products claiming to increase mental energy have risen rapidly, thus increasing the need for scientific specificity in marketing and food label claims. Mental energy is a three-dimensional construct consisting of mood (transient feelings about the presence of fatigue or energy), motivation (determination and enthusiasm), and cognition (sustained attention and vigilance). The present review focuses on four dietary constituents/supplements (Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, glucose, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) to illustrate the current state of the literature on dietary constituents and mental energy. The strongest evidence suggests effects of Ginkgo biloba on certain aspects of mood and on attention in healthy subjects, as well as associations between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and reduced risk of age-related cognitive decline. Limitations of the current data and challenges for future research are discussed. PMID:21091914

  16. Constituent quarks, chiral symmetry, and chiral point of the constituent quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Simula, Silvano

    2006-09-01

    We construct the full axial current of the constituent quarks by a summation of the infinite number of diagrams describing constituent quark soft interactions. By requiring that the conservation of this current is violated only by terms of order O(M{sub {pi}}{sup 2}), where M{sub {pi}} is the mass of the lowest pseudoscalar QQ bound state, we derive important constraints on (i) the axial coupling g{sub A} of the constituent quark and (ii) the QQ potential at large distances. We define the chiral point of the constituent quark model as those values of the parameters, such as the masses of the constituent quarks and the couplings in the QQ potential, for which M{sub {pi}} vanishes. At the chiral point the main signatures of the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry are shown to be present, namely: the axial current of the constituent quarks is conserved, the leptonic decay constants of the excited pseudoscalar bound states vanish, and the pion decay constant has a nonzero value.

  17. A simple mixture theory for ν Newtonian and generalized Newtonian constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surana, K. S.; Powell, M.; Reddy, J. N.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the development of mathematical models based on conservation laws for a saturated mixture of ν homogeneous, isotropic, and incompressible constituents for isothermal flows. The constituents and the mixture are assumed to be Newtonian or generalized Newtonian fluids. Power law and Carreau-Yasuda models are considered for generalized Newtonian shear thinning fluids. The mathematical model is derived for a ν constituent mixture with volume fractions using principles of continuum mechanics: conservation of mass, balance of momenta, first and second laws of thermodynamics, and principles of mixture theory yielding continuity equations, momentum equations, energy equation, and constitutive theories for mechanical pressures and deviatoric Cauchy stress tensors in terms of the dependent variables related to the constituents. It is shown that for Newtonian fluids with constant transport properties, the mathematical models for constituents are decoupled. In this case, one could use individual constituent models to obtain constituent deformation fields, and then use mixture theory to obtain the deformation field for the mixture. In the case of generalized Newtonian fluids, the dependence of viscosities on deformation field does not permit decoupling. Numerical studies are also presented to demonstrate this aspect. Using fully developed flow of Newtonian and generalized Newtonian fluids between parallel plates as a model problem, it is shown that partial pressures p α of the constituents must be expressed in terms of the mixture pressure p. In this work, we propose and which implies which obviously holds. This rule for partial pressure is shown to be valid for a mixture of Newtonian and generalized Newtonian constituents yielding Newtonian and generalized Newtonian mixture. Modifications of the currently used constitutive theories for deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor are proposed. These modifications are demonstrated to be essential in order for the mixture theory for ν constituents to yield a valid mathematical model when the constituents are the same. Dimensionless form of the mathematical models is derived and used to present numerical studies for boundary value problems using finite element processes based on a residual functional, that is, least squares finite element processes in which local approximations are considered in scalar product spaces. Fully developed flow between parallel plates and 1:2 asymmetric backward facing step is used as model problems for a mixture of two constituents.

  18. Finite-difference modelling of wavefield constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertsson, Johan O. A.; van Manen, Dirk-Jan; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Van Renterghem, Cederic; Amundsen, Lasse

    2015-11-01

    The finite-difference method is among the most popular methods for modelling seismic wave propagation. Although the method has enjoyed huge success for its ability to produce full wavefield seismograms in complex models, it has one major limitation which is of critical importance for many modelling applications; to naturally output up- and downgoing and P- and S-wave constituents of synthesized seismograms. In this paper, we show how such wavefield constituents can be isolated in finite-difference-computed synthetics in complex models with high numerical precision by means of a simple algorithm. The description focuses on up- and downgoing and P- and S-wave separation of data generated using an isotropic elastic finite-difference modelling method. However, the same principles can also be applied to acoustic, electromagnetic and other wave equations.

  19. The chemistry and biotransformation of tea constituents.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Sang S; Lambert JD; Ho CT; Yang CS

    2011-08-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. The three major types of tea, green tea, oolong tea, and black tea, differ in terms of the manufacture and chemical composition. There are numerous studies in humans, animal models, and cell lines to suggest potential health benefits from the consumption of tea, including prevention of cancer and heart diseases. Many of the health benefits have been attributed to the polyphenolic constituents in tea. Catechins and their dimers (theaflavins) and polymers (thearubigins) have been identified as the major components in tea. Methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation, and ring-fission metabolism represent the major metabolic pathways for tea catechins. The present review summarizes the data concerning the chemistry and biotransformation of tea constituents.

  20. Constituents and tissue affinities in herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Tillotson, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Western-trained researchers and clinicians can better understand herbal medicine if they master at least a basic set of essential concepts used by herbal practitioners to describe how herbs work. Constituents, such as carotenoids and flavonoids, can all be used to develop a basis for imputed herb actions. Tissue affinity is also an important concept shared by all herb traditions, which can enhance clinical results and illuminate traditional herbal use. PMID:22432461

  1. Baryon Spectroscopy and the Constituent Quark Model

    SciTech Connect

    A.W. Thomas; R.D. Young

    2005-07-26

    We explore further the idea that the lattice QCD data for hadron properties in the region m[^2][_pi] > 0.2GeV^2 can be described by the constituent quark model. This leads to a natural explanation of the fact that nucleon excited states are generally stable for pion masses greater than their physical excitation energies. Finally, we apply these same ideas to the problem of how pentaquarks might behave in lattice QCD, with interesting conclusions.

  2. Constituent Particle Clustering and Pitting Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, D. Gary

    2012-08-01

    Corrosion is a primary degradation mechanism that affects the durability and integrity of structures made of aluminum alloys, and it is a concern for commercial transport and military aircraft. In aluminum alloys, corrosion results from local galvanic coupling between constituent particles and the metal matrix. Due to variability in particle sizes, spatial location, and chemical composition, to name a few critical variables, corrosion is a complex stochastic process. Severe pitting is caused by particle clusters that are located near the material surface, which, in turn, serve as nucleation sites for subsequent corrosion fatigue crack growth. These evolution processes are highly dependent on the spatial statistics of particles. The localized corrosion growth rate is primarily dependent on the galvanic process perpetuated by particle-to-particle interactions and electrochemical potentials. Frequently, severe pits are millimeters in length, and these pits have a dominant impact on the structural prognosis. To accommodate large sizes, a model for three-dimensional (3-D) constituent particle microstructure is proposed. To describe the constituent particle microstructure in three dimensions, the model employs a fusion of classic stereological techniques, spatial point pattern analyses, and qualitative observations. The methodology can be carried out using standard optical microscopy and image analysis techniques.

  3. Rapid identification of synthetic colorants in food samples by using indium oxide nanoparticle-functionalized porous polymer monolith coupled with HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ruifang; Zhou, Xiao; Li, Xiqian; Ma, Jiutong; Lu, Chunmei; Mu, Jun; Zhang, Xuguang; Jia, Qiong

    2014-12-01

    A synthetic protocol for the preparation of an indium oxide nanoparticle-functionalized poly(methacrylic acid-glycidyl methacrylate-ethylene dimethacrylate-ethanediamine) monolithic column is reported. Various techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetric analysis were employed to characterize the synthesized monolith. The modified monolithic column was coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for determining synthetic colorants in various food samples. Under optimized conditions, good linearity was obtained for all the targets with squared regression coefficients greater than 0.9982. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) for 12 synthetic colorants were in the range of 0.012-2.97 μg kg(-1). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations, ranging from 2.7% to 8.5%, were within the acceptable range. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of synthetic colorants in food samples (candy, milk, jelly, jam, canned food, juice, and carbonated drink). Target recoveries at different spiked levels ranged from 73.5% to 112.1% with relative standard deviations of less than 10.3%. PMID:25313528

  4. Sunset yellow FCF, a permitted food dye, alters functional responses of splenocytes at non-cytotoxic dose.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ashish; Kumar, Arvind; Tripathi, Anurag; Das, Mukul

    2013-03-13

    Sunset yellow FCF (SY), a permitted food color, is extensively used in various food preparations and quite often exceeds the permissible levels (100-200 mg/kg). Several toxicity studies on SY are reported, however immunomodulatory properties have not been explored yet. To investigate the immunotoxic properties of SY, splenocytes were isolated, cultured and subjected to mitogen stimulated proliferation assay (lipopolysaccharide, LPS or concanavalin A, Con A), mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assay, immunophenotypic analysis of cell surface receptor expression and assay for cytokines release in the culture supernatants were performed in the presence of SY. Since SY did not exhibit any cytotoxicity up to 250 ?g/ml, this dose was used for further studies. It was observed that SY (250 ?g/ml) significantly (p<0.05) suppressed the mitogen induced proliferation of splenocytes and MLR response. Further, immunophenotypic analysis revealed that SY alters the relative expression of CD3e/CD4/CD8 in T cells and CD19 in B-cells. Consistent with the suppression of T-cell and B-cell responses and altered surface receptor expression, SY also lowered the expression of IL2, IL4, IL6, IL-17, IFN-? and TNF-? cytokines. These results suggest that non-cytotoxic dose of SY may have immunomodulatory effects. PMID:23287708

  5. Evaluation of Safety of Iron-Fortified Soybean Sprouts, a Potential Component of Functional Food, in Rat.

    PubMed

    Kujawska, Ma?gorzata; Ewertowska, Ma?gorzata; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Adamska, Teresa; Szaefer, Hanna; Zieli?ska-Dawidziak, Magdalena; Piasecka-Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga

    2016-03-01

    Ferritin-iron is currently considered as one of the most promising iron forms to prevent iron deficiency anaemia. We found that the cultivation of soybean seeds in a solution of ferrous sulfate results in material with extremely high iron content - 560.6mg Fe/100g of dry matter, while ferritin iron content was 420.5mg/100g dry matter. To assess the potential adverse effects of a preparation containing such a high concentration of iron, male and female Wistar rats were exposed via diet to 10, 30, 60g soybean sprouts powder/kg feed for 90days. There were no differences in final body weight and mean food consumption between controls and rats administered sprouts. No statistically significant differences in haematology and clinical chemistry parameters were found between controls and treated rats. Microscopic examination of 22 tissues did not reveal any pathology due to soybean sprouts intake. Long term administration of the test material did not cause oxidative damage to DNA and protein in the liver as evidenced by the unchanged basal levels of DNA damage as well as carbonyl groups content. Lipid peroxidation was slightly increased only in females. The activity of several antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase was increased, which substantially enhanced the antioxidant status in the liver from the rats treated with soybean sprouts. Hence, the material tested can be recommended as a component of food supplements for individuals with iron deficiency anaemia and inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:26880214

  6. Combined Food and Micronutrient Supplements during Pregnancy Have Limited Impact on Child Blood Pressure and Kidney Function in Rural Bangladesh1234

    PubMed Central

    Hawkesworth, Sophie; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Kahn, Ashraf I.; Hawlader, Mohammad D. H.; Fulford, Anthony J. C.; Arifeen, Shams-El; Persson, Lars-ke; Moore, Sophie E.

    2013-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests nutritional exposures during in utero development may have long-lasting consequences for health; data from interventions are scarce. Here, we present a trial follow-up study to assess the association between prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation and childhood blood pressure and kidney function. During the MINIMat Trial in rural Bangladesh, women were randomly assigned early in pregnancy to receive an early or later invitation to attend a food supplementation program and additionally to receive either iron and folate or multiple micronutrient tablets daily. The 3267 singleton birth individuals with measured anthropometry born during the trial were eligible for a follow-up study at 4.5 y old. A total of 77% of eligible individuals were recruited and blood pressure, kidney size by ultrasound, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR; calculated from plasma cystatin c) were assessed. In adjusted analysis, early invitation to food supplementation was associated with a 0.72-mm Hg [(95% CI: 0.16, 1.28); P = 0.01] lower childhood diastolic blood pressure and maternal MMS supplementation was associated with a marginally higher [0.87 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.18, 1.56); P = 0.01] childhood diastolic blood pressure. There was also some evidence that a supplement higher in iron was associated with a higher offspring GFR. No other effects of the food or micronutrient interventions were observed and there was no interaction between the interventions on the outcomes studied. These marginal associations and small effect sizes suggest limited public health importance in early childhood. PMID:23514767

  7. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  8. CHEMICAL SPECIATION OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE CONSTITUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project addresses the problem of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge disposal to land. Specifically, the chemical species of FGD sludge constituents are thermodynamically modeled using the equilibrium constant approach, in an attempt to predict the constituent concentratio...

  9. [Progress in study of chemical constituents and anti-tumor activities of Cnidium monnieri].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ze-wei; Liu, Pei-xun

    2005-09-01

    The main pharmacological constituents of Chinese traditional medicine herb Cnidium monnieri are coumarin compounds and volatile oil. In addition, it contains monoterpene polyols, glucides, as well as recently discovered sesquiterpene components. In recent years, rather active investigations of its anti-tumor were performed at home and abroad. C. monnieri possesses multi-aspect and comprehensive anti-tumor functions, involving directly tumor-inhibitory activity, anti-mutagenicity, reversing multi-drug tolerance of tumor, as well as improving immune functions and so on. In this review, chemical constituents, anti-tumor activities and relevant investigations of Fructus Cnidii were summarized recent decade. PMID:16323535

  10. Food Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Children / Preschoolers Food Safety Print Share Preschoolers' immune systems are still developing. ...

  11. Food allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    Allergy to food ... that contain gluten ( celiac disease ) A true food allergy is much less common. The immune system normally ... a problem. In a person with a food allergy, the immune response is oversensitive. When it recognizes ...

  12. Involvement of extracellular matrix constituents in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lochter, Andre; Bissell, Mina J

    1995-06-01

    It has recently been established that the extracellular matrix is required for normal functional differentiation of mammary epithelia not only in culture, but also in vivo. The mechanisms by which extracellular matrix affects differentiation, as well as the nature of extracellular matrix constituents which have major impacts on mammary gland function, have only now begun to be dissected. The intricate variety of extracellular matrix-mediated events and the remarkable degree of plasticity of extracellular matrix structure and composition at virtually all times during ontogeny, make such studies difficult. Similarly, during carcinogenesis, the extracellular matrix undergoes gross alterations, the consequences of which are not yet precisely understood. Nevertheless, an increasing amount of data suggests that the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-receptors might participate in the control of most, if not all, of the successive stages of breast tumors, from appearance to progression and metastasis.

  13. Ambient methods and apparatus for rapid laser trace constituent analysis

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Stuart C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jeffery, Charles L. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring trace amounts of constituents in samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence under ambient conditions. The laser induced fluorescence is performed at a selected wavelength corresponding to an absorption state of a selected trace constituent. The intensity value of the emission decay signal which is generated by the trace constituent is compared to calibrated emission intensity decay values to determine the amount of trace constituent present.

  14. Animal source foods improve dietary quality, micronutrient status, growth and cognitive function in Kenyan school children: background, study design and baseline findings.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Charlotte G; Bwibo, Nimrod O; Murphy, Suzanne P; Sigman, Marian; Whaley, Shannon; Allen, Lindsay H; Guthrie, Donald; Weiss, Robert E; Demment, Montague W

    2003-11-01

    A previous longitudinal three-country study in Egypt, Kenya and Mexico found significant positive associations between intake of animal source foods (ASF) and growth, cognitive development and physical activity. To test for a causal relationship, a controlled school feeding intervention study was designed to test the hypotheses that ASF would improve micronutrient status, growth and cognitive function in Kenyan primary school children. Twelve rural Kenyan schools with 554 children were randomized to four feeding interventions using a local vegetable stew as the vehicle. The groups were designated as Meat, Milk, Energy and Control, who received no feedings. Feeding was carried out on school days for seven terms during 21 mo. Preintervention baseline measures included nutritional status, home food intake, anthropometry, biochemical measures of micronutrient status, malaria, intestinal parasites, health status and cognitive and behavioral measures. The measurements of each child were repeated at intervals over 2 y. Baseline data revealed stunting and underweight in approximately 30% of children and widespread inadequate intakes and/or biochemical evidence of micronutrient deficiencies, particularly of iron, zinc, vitamins A and B-12, riboflavin and calcium. Little or no ASF were eaten and fat intake was low. Malaria was present in 31% of children, and hookworm, amebiasis and giardia were widely prevalent. The outcomes measured were rates of change or increase during the intervention in cognitive function, growth, physical activity and behavior and micronutrient status. Hierarchical linear random effects modeling was used for analysis of outcomes. PMID:14672294

  15. Vital Voices: Building Constituencies for Public School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirota, Janice M.; Jacobs, Lauren E.

    This report explores the insights and experiences of activists who build strong constituencies to reform public schools. It presents data from a 2-year study involving the seven primary constituency and coalition building grantees of the Ford Foundation's Constituency Building for Public School Reform Initiative. Data were collected from 14

  16. Atmospheric constituent measurements using commercial 747 airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, P. J.; Reck, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    NASA is implementing a Global Atmospheric Monitoring Program to measure the temporal and spatial distribution of particulate and gaseous constituents related to aircraft engine emissions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (6 to 12 Km). Several 747 aircraft operated by different airlines flying routes selected for maximum world coverage will be instrumented. An instrumentation system is being assembled and tested and is scheduled for operation in airline service in late 1974. Specialized instrumentation and an electronic control unit are required for automatic unattended operation on commercial airliners. An ambient air sampling system was developed to provide undisturbed outside air to the instruments in the pressurized aircraft cabin.

  17. [Study on chemical constituents of Cyclocarya paliurus].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Lu, Yuan-yuan; Li, Fu; Zhang, Yan-jun; Huang, Xi-shan; Su, Xiao-jian

    2006-05-01

    Phytochemical investigation of chemical constituents of the CHCl3 fraction of 75% alcohol extract from the leaves of Cyclocarya paliurus has resulted in the isolation of five compounds, alpha-boswellic (I), beta-boswellic (II), Oleanolic acid (III), 4-hydroxyl-3-methoxyl-benzoic acid (IV) and 3,6,3',5'-tetramenthox-5,7,4'-trihydroxy-flavonol (V). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, especially NMR. Compunds I, II, IV and V were obtained from this plant for the first time. PMID:16981452

  18. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Boni, A.A.; Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G. ); Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. ); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L. ); Huffman, G.P.; Huggins, F.E. )

    1990-11-01

    Objectives of this project are: (1) define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and (2) characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail; elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur; and develop, based on the information required in a. and b. above, a tractable process'' model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the nature and distribution of products. The work discussed highlights recent accomplishments in modeling synthetic char particle combustion times and temperatures with allowance for oxygen dissociation in the char boundary layer; in developing a continuum model for residual ash information and char fragmentation, permitting a more detailed time-resolved study of ash coalescence within a burning char particle; and in continuing development of the engineering model for ash particle formation. 40 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Qualitative analysis of trace constituents by ion mobility increment spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Buryakov, I A

    2003-11-01

    Ion mobility increment spectrometry (IMIS) is a high sensitive selective ionization technology for detection and identification of ultra-trace constituents, including toxic compounds, CW-agents, drugs and explosives in ambient air or liquid sample. Like an ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), this technology rests on sampling air containing a mixture of trace constituents, its ionization, spatial separation of produced ions and separated ions detection. Unlike IMS, ions of different types in IMIS are separated by ion mobility increment, alpha. Value alpha, is a function of the parameters: electric field strength and form, atmospheric pressure. To exclude the influence of these parameters on an alpha, the method of explosives identification by a standard compound was suggested. As a standard compound iodine was used. The relationship among the mobility coefficient increments equal to the relationship among the compensation voltage alpha(i)/alpha(iodine)=U(i)/U(iodine) is determined, where i are ions of 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, p-mononitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene This relationship is practically independent of the above mentioned parameters in the range 25

  20. Biosorption of multifold toxic heavy metal ions from aqueous water onto food residue eggshell membrane functionalized with ammonium thioglycolate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sha; Wei, Minghong; Huang, Yuming

    2013-05-29

    A new biosorbent material from eggshell membrane was synthesized through thiol functionalization, which is based on the reduction of disulfide bonds in eggshell membrane by ammonium thioglycolate. The thiol-functionalized eggshell membrane was characterized, and its application as an adsorbent for removal of Cr(VI), Hg(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ag(I) from aqueous water has been investigated. The experimental results revealed that the adsorption abilities of the thiol-functionalized eggshell membrane toward Cr(VI), Hg(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ag(I) improved 1.6-, 5.5-, 7.7-, 12.4-, 12.7-, and 21.1-fold, respectively, compared with that of the eggshell membrane control. The adsorption mechanism and adsorption performance, including the adsorption capacity and the kinetics of the thiol-functionalized eggshell membrane for the target heavy metals, were investigated. The effects of solution pH, coexisting substances, and natural water matrices were studied. The thiol-functionalized eggshell membrane can be used as column packing to fabricate a column for real wastewater purification. PMID:23663117

  1. Acquisition and maintenance of autoshaped key pecking as a function of food stimulus and key stimulus similarity.

    PubMed Central

    Steinhauer, G D

    1982-01-01

    The results of a number of recent studies suggest that acquisitions of autoshaped key pecking in pigeons is affected by the similarity of the grain-hopper stimulus and response-key stimulus. In Experiment 1 this hypothesis was tested by training independent groups of pigeons to key peck under six different hopper-stimulus and key-stimulus similarity conditions, and three procedures containing either immediate reinforcement, variable delay of reinforcement, or omission of reinforcement for key pecking. Number of trials to acquisition was found to be related to the similarity variable. Maintained responding was affected by the response-reinforcer contingency. This effect was found both within and between subjects. Under two of the contingencies (automaintenance and omission), maintained responding continued to be affected by the similarity of the hopper stimulus and key stimulus. In Experiment 2 pigeons were given omission training with a hopper light on or off. Both acquisition and maintenance of key pecking were facilitated by the presence of the hopper light. The present findings suggest that much of the responding reported in various automatic shaping and training procedures may reflect the effects of key stimulus/food stimulus similarity. PMID:7175429

  2. Harnessing functional food strategies for the health challenges of space travel—Fermented soy for astronaut nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Nicole D.; Champagne, Claude P.; Masotti, Adriana I.; Wagar, Lisa E.; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Green-Johnson, Julia M.

    2011-04-01

    Astronauts face numerous health challenges during long-duration space missions, including diminished immunity, bone loss and increased risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Changes in the intestinal flora of astronauts may contribute to these problems. Soy-based fermented food products could provide a nutritional strategy to help alleviate these challenges by incorporating beneficial lactic acid bacteria, while reaping the benefits of soy isoflavones. We carried out strain selection for the development of soy ferments, selecting strains of lactic acid bacteria showing the most effective growth and fermentation ability in soy milk ( Streptococcus thermophilus ST5, Bifidobacterium longum R0175 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052). Immunomodulatory bioactivity of selected ferments was assessed using an in vitro challenge system with human intestinal epithelial and macrophage cell lines, and selected ferments show the ability to down-regulate production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 following challenge with tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The impact of fermentation on vitamin B1 and B6 levels and on isoflavone biotransformation to agluconic forms was also assessed, with strain variation-dependent biotransformation ability detected. Overall this suggests that probiotic bacteria can be successfully utilized to develop soy-based fermented products targeted against health problems associated with long-term space travel.

  3. Expansion and functional properties of extruded snacks enriched with nutrition sources from food processing by-products.

    PubMed

    Korkerd, Sopida; Wanlapa, Sorada; Puttanlek, Chureerat; Uttapap, Dudsadee; Rungsardthong, Vilai

    2016-01-01

    Rich sources of protein and dietary fiber from food processing by-products, defatted soybean meal, germinated brown rice meal, and mango peel fiber, were added to corn grit at 20 % (w/w) to produce fortified extruded snacks. Increase of total dietary fiber from 4.82 % (wb) to 5.92-17.80 % (wb) and protein from 5.03 % (wb) to 5.46-13.34 % were observed. The product indicated high expansion and good acceptance tested by sensory panels. There were 22.33-33.53 and 5.30-11.53 fold increase in the phenolics and antioxidant activity in the enriched snack products. The effects of feed moisture content, screw speed, and barrel temperature on expansion and nutritional properties of the extruded products were investigated by using response surface methodology. Regression equations describing the effect of each variable on the product responses were obtained. The snacks extruded with feed moisture 13-15 % (wb) and extrusion temperature at 160-180 °C indicated the products with high preference in terms of expansion ratio between insoluble dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber balance. The results showed that the by-products could be successfully used for nutritional supplemented expanded snacks. PMID:26787975

  4. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) starch, a side product in functional food production, as a potential source of retrograded starch.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinfeng; Kreft, Ivan; Chao, Guimei; Wang, Ying; Liu, Xiaojin; Wang, Li; Wang, Pengke; Gao, Xiaoli; Feng, Baili

    2016-01-01

    A starch rich fraction is a side product in Tartary buckwheat processing. This study investigated the fractions that are of technological and nutritional interest. Tartary buckwheat starch granules had a diameter of 3-14 ?m, and presented a typical type "A" X-ray diffraction pattern. They contained nearly 39.0% amylose. The solubility of Tartary buckwheat starch was much lower at 70-90 C (ranging within 9.9-10.4% at 90 C) than that in maize (up to 49.3%) and potato (up to 85.0%) starch. The starch of one variety of Tartary buckwheat had significantly lower solubility at 70 C and 80 C than that of common buckwheat. The starch peak viscosity and breakdown were higher and pasting time was shorter in Tartary buckwheat than in that of the starch of common buckwheat. Tartary buckwheat starch had unique pasting and physicochemical properties, and is thereby capable of being exploited as a suitable raw material of retrograded starch in food processing. PMID:26213009

  5. Constituent Data Assimilation: Challenges and Limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rood, Richard B.; Stajner, I.; Winslow, N.; Douglass, A.; Pawson, S.; Straham, S.; Atlas, Robert M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The assimilation of observations of atmospheric constituents naturally divides into two major pieces. The first is the assimilation of trace gases whose variability is related to atmospheric motions. The second is the assimilation of trace gases which are sharply influenced by chemical exchange between different constituents. In order to advance beyond the initial successes of explorative investigation of assimilation techniques, tremendous challenges must be met to improve the geophysical integrity of assimilated data products. A subject of special interest is ozone near the tropopause. At the tropopause the information from both the observations and the model simulation becomes most uncertain. However a number of important geophysical parameters, e.g. stratosphere-troposphere exchange and tropospheric ozone, require the assimilation to have high accuracy at the tropopause. This talk will review the current status of the quality of assimilated data products near the tropopause, what must be done to improve the assimilation near the tropopause, and the intrinsic limitations that will require additional sources of information in order for the field to advance.

  6. Rethinking brain food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    If omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are the functional food du jour, then that "jour" must first have been the 5th day of creation (according to Genesis 1:21), when the marine fish were created and exhorted to be fruitful and multiply. The exact time when these marine species became "brain food" for peopl...

  7. What Happens to the Food We Eat? Children's Conceptions of the Structure and Function of the Digestive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Francimar Martins

    2000-01-01

    Describes children's conceptions of the structure and function of the human digestive system based on an investigation carried out with children aged 4-10 (n=45). Finds that children possess biological knowledge as an independent knowledge domain from the age of four. Discusses acquisition of and barriers to scientific concepts related to human

  8. A Functional mathematical index for predicting effects of food processing on eight sweet potato(Ipomoea batatas)cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper we apply an improved functional mathematical index (FMI), modified from those presented in previous publications, to define the influence of different cooking processes of eight sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars on composition of six bioactive phenolic compounds (flavonoids). Th...

  9. What Happens to the Food We Eat? Children's Conceptions of the Structure and Function of the Digestive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Francimar Martins

    2000-01-01

    Describes children's conceptions of the structure and function of the human digestive system based on an investigation carried out with children aged 4-10 (n=45). Finds that children possess biological knowledge as an independent knowledge domain from the age of four. Discusses acquisition of and barriers to scientific concepts related to human…

  10. Successes and failures of the constituent quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Our approach considers the model as a possible bridge between QCD and the experimental data and examines its predictions to see where these succeed and where they fail. We also attempt to improve the model by looking for additional simple assumptions which give better fits to the experimental data. But we avoid complicated models with too many ad hoc assumptions and too many free parameters; these can fit everything but teach us nothing. We define our constituent quark model by analogy with the constituent electron model of the atom and the constituent nucleon model of the nucleus. In the same way that an atom is assumed to consist only of constituent electrons and a central Coulomb field and a nucleus is assumed to consist only of constituent nucleons hadrons are assumed to consist only of their constituent valence quarks with no bag, no glue, no ocean, nor other constituents. Although these constituent models are oversimplified and neglect other constituents we push them as far as we can. Atomic physics has photons and vacuum polarization as well as constituent electrons, but the constituent model is adequate for calculating most features of the spectrum when finer details like the Lamb shift are neglected. 54 references.

  11. Food safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on to the next food item. If your hands have any cuts or sores, wear gloves suitable for handling food or avoid preparing food. Avoid cross-contaminating food items. Separate meat, poultry, and ... your hands, utensils, and cutting board after they come into ...

  12. Use of a new functional dual coating (FDC) assay to measure low toxin levels in serum and food samples following an outbreak of human botulism.

    PubMed

    Jones, Russell G A; Marks, James D

    2013-06-01

    Clostridium botulinum type A toxin is the most prevalent cause of naturally occurring outbreaks of human botulism in the world. The active dichain neurotoxin molecule is composed of a heavy chain (H-chain) of ~100 kDa with the carboxy-terminal end consisting of a receptor-binding (HC) domain, while the amino-terminal (HN) domain is linked by a critical disulfide bond to a light chain (L-chain) of ~50 kDa. Although the mouse bioassay (MBA) is traditionally used to confirm the presence of toxin in serum or food, its sensitivity is insufficient to detect low toxin levels in approximately 30 to 60 % of botulism patients. A novel FDC (functional dual coating) microtitre plate immuno-biochemical assay, which quantifies botulinum toxicity by measuring the HC domain linked with L-chain endopeptidase activity, was modified to allow human serum (lysed or unlysed) to be tested without interference from the matrix, with toxin detection down to 0.03 mouse LD50 per ml serum or 0.13 pg ml(-1) using just 100 µl of clinical samples. The assay was specific for type A toxin and could additionally be applied to whole blood and food samples. Low levels of 1 to 2 mouse LD50 per ml serum of type A toxin were quantified for the first time using the modified FDC assay in two severely intoxicated UK patients who required mechanical ventilation and antitoxin. Toxin levels in recovered food sample extracts were also detected and one MBA-negative sample was found to contain 0.32 LD50 per ml extract. The FDC assay provides a real alternative for public health laboratories to unambiguously confirm all cases of type A botulism and, due to its sensitivity, a promising new tool in toxin pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:23518650

  13. Modeling of Alkane Oxidation Using Constituents and Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Jasette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

    2010-01-01

    It is currently not possible to perform simulations of turbulent reactive flows due in particular to complex chemistry, which may contain thousands of reactions and hundreds of species. This complex chemistry results in additional differential equations, making the numerical solution of the equation set computationally prohibitive. Reducing the chemical kinetics mathematical description is one of several important goals in turbulent reactive flow modeling. A chemical kinetics reduction model is proposed for alkane oxidation in air that is based on a parallel methodology to that used in turbulence modeling in the context of the Large Eddy Simulation. The objective of kinetic modeling is to predict the heat release and temperature evolution. This kinetic mechanism is valid over a pressure range from atmospheric to 60 bar, temperatures from 600 K to 2,500 K, and equivalence ratios from 0.125 to 8. This range encompasses diesel, HCCI, and gas-turbine engines, including cold ignition. A computationally efficient kinetic reduction has been proposed for alkanes that has been illustrated for n-heptane using the LLNL heptane mechanism. This model is consistent with turbulence modeling in that scales were first categorized into either those modeled or those computed as progress variables. Species were identified as being either light or heavy. The heavy species were decomposed into defined 13 constituents, and their total molar density was shown to evolve in a quasi-steady manner. The light species behave either in a quasi-steady or unsteady manner. The modeled scales are the total constituent molar density, Nc, and the molar density of the quasi-steady light species. The progress variables are the total constituent molar density rate evolution and the molar densities of the unsteady light species. The unsteady equations for the light species contain contributions of the type gain/loss rates from the heavy species that are modeled consistent with the developed mathematical forms for the total constituent molar density rate evolution; indeed, examination of these gain/loss rates shows that they also have a good quasi-steady behavior with a functional form resembling that of the constituent rate. This finding highlights the fact that the fitting technique provides a methodology that can be repeatedly used to obtain an accurate representation of full or skeletal kinetic models. Assuming success with the modified reduced model, the advantage of the modeling approach is clear. Because this model is based on the Nc rate rather than on that of individual heavy species, even if the number of species increases with increased carbon number in the alkane group, providing that the quasi-steady rate aspect persists, then extension of this model to higher alkanes should be conceptually straightforward, although it remains to be seen if the functional fits would remain valid or would require reconstruction.

  14. [Food intolerance].

    PubMed

    Zugasti Murillo, Ana

    2009-05-01

    Adverse food reactions are common in the general population. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the structure of food allergens and of the mechanisms involved is poor. In 1995 the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology suggested a classification based on the causative pathogenic mechanism. According to this classification, non-toxic reactions can be divided into food allergies when they recognize immunological mechanisms and food intolerance when there are no immunological implications. The treatment of food intolerance is avoidance of the particular food. There are specific treatments for some food intolerance (beta-galactosidases for the management of lactose intolerance). PMID:19627745

  15. Access to Secondary School Education through the Constituency Bursary Fund in Kanduyi Constituency, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachiye, J. Herman; Nasongo, W. Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Secondary school education is very critical in any education system because of the crucial role, it plays in catalyzing national development. Consequently, maintaining a high student enrolment at this level should be a priority for all countries. The Constituency Bursary Fund (CBF) was established by the government of Kenya through an act of

  16. Dispersive solid-phase microextraction and capillary electrophoresis separation of food colorants in beverages using diamino moiety functionalized silica nanoparticles as both extractant and pseudostationary phase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng-Jie; Liu, Chuan-Ting; Li, Wei; Tang, An-Na

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a new method for the determination of food colorants in beverage samples is developed, using diamino moiety functionalized silica nanoparticles (dASNPs) as both adsorbents in dispersive solid-phase microextraction (dSPME) and pseudostationary phases (PSPs) in capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation. dASNPs were firstly used as adsorbents for the preconcentration of four colorants by the dSPME process. After that, colorants were efficiently separated by CE using 30 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) containing 2 mM ?-CD and 0.9 mg/mL dASNPs as additives. All factors influencing dSPME and CE separations were optimized in detail. The investigated analytes showed good linearities with correlation coefficients (R(2)) higher than 0.9932. The limits of detection for the four food colorants were between 0.030 and 0.36 mg/L, which are lower than those reported previously. The established method was also used to analyze four colorants in beverage samples with recoveries ranging from 82.7% to 114.6%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to use NPs both as extractants in dSPME and pseudostationary phases in CE for the analytical purpose. PMID:25476319

  17. Development of a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous analysis of intact glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in Brassicaceae seeds and functional foods.

    PubMed

    Franco, P; Spinozzi, S; Pagnotta, E; Lazzeri, L; Ugolini, L; Camborata, C; Roda, A

    2016-01-01

    A new high pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of glucosinolates, as glucoraphanin and glucoerucin, and the corresponding isothiocyanates, as sulforaphane and erucin, was developed and applied to quantify these compounds in Eruca sativa defatted seed meals and enriched functional foods. The method involved solvent extraction, separation was achieved in gradient mode using water with 0.5% formic acid and acetonitrile with 0.5% formic acid and using a reverse phase C18 column. The electrospray ion source operated in negative and positive mode for the detection of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, respectively, and the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was selected as acquisition mode. The method was validated following the ICH guidelines. Replicate experiments demonstrated a good accuracy (bias%<10%) and precision (CV%<10%). Detection limits and quantification limits are in the range of 1-400ng/mL for each analytes. Calibration curves were validated on concentration ranges from 0.05 to 50?g/mL. The method proved to be suitable for glucosinolates and isothiocyanates determination both in biomasses and in complex matrices such as food products enriched with glucosinolates, or nutraceutical bakery products. In addition, the developed method was applied to the simultaneous determination of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in bakery product enriched with glucosinolates, to evaluate their thermal stability after different industrial processes from cultivation phases to consumer processing. PMID:26363943

  18. Effect of food azo dyes tartrazine and carmoisine on biochemical parameters related to renal, hepatic function and oxidative stress biomarkers in young male rats.

    PubMed

    Amin, K A; Abdel Hameid, H; Abd Elsttar, A H

    2010-10-01

    Tartrazine and carmoisine are an organic azo dyes widely used in food products, drugs and cosmetics. The present study conducted to evaluate the toxic effect of these coloring food additives; on renal, hepatic function, lipid profile, blood glucose, body-weight gain and biomarkers of oxidative stress in tissue. Tartrazine and carmoisine were administered orally in two doses, one low and the other high dose for 30 days followed by serum and tissue sample collection for determination of ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose in serum and estimation of GSH, catalase, SOD and MDA in liver tissue in male albino rat. Our data showed a significant increase in ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine total protein and albumin in serum of rats dosed with tartrazine and carmoisine compared to control rats and these significant change were more apparent in high doses than low, GSH, SOD and Catalase were decreased and MDA increased in tissue homogenate in rats consumed high tartrazine and both doses of carmoisine. We concluded that tartrazine and carmoisine affect adversely and alter biochemical markers in vital organs e.g. liver and kidney not only at higher doses but also at low doses. PMID:20678534

  19. Cancer Stem Cells: Potential Target for Bioactive Food Components

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young S.; Farrar, William; Colburn, Nancy H.; Milner, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells often have phenotypic and functional characteristics similar to normal stem cells including the properties of self-renewal and differentiation. Recent findings suggest that uncontrolled self-renewal may explain cancer relapses and may represent a critical target for cancer prevention. It is conceivable that the loss of regulatory molecules resulting from inappropriate consumption of specific foods and their constituents may foster the aberrant self-renewal of cancer stem cells. In fact, increasing evidence points to the network delivering signals for self-renewal from extracellular compartments to the nucleus including changes in stem cell environments, inducible expression of microRNAs, hyperplastic nuclear chromatin structures, and the on/off of differentiation process as possible sites of action for bioactive food components. Diverse dietary constituents such as vitamins A and D, genistein, (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), sulforaphane, curcumin, piperine, theanine, and choline have been shown to modify self-renewal properties of cancer stem cells. The ability of these bioactive food components to influence the balance between proliferative and quiescent cells by regulating critical feedback molecules in the network including dickkopf 1 (DKK-1), secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2), B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi-1), and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) may account for their biological response. Overall, the response to food components does not appear to be tissue or organ specific, suggesting there may be common cellular mechanisms. Unquestionably, additional studies are needed to clarify the physiological role of these dietary components in preventing the resistance of tumor cells to traditional drugs and cancer recurrence. PMID:22704055

  20. Dealing with Food and Eggs in Mouthbrooding Cichlids: Structural and Functional Trade-Offs in Fitness Related Traits

    PubMed Central

    tkint, Tim; Verheyen, Erik; De Kegel, Barbara; Helsen, Philippe; Adriaens, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Background As in any vertebrate, heads of fishes are densely packed with functions. These functions often impose conflicting mechanical demands resulting in trade-offs in the species-specific phenotype. When phenotypical traits are linked to gender-specific parental behavior, we expect sexual differences in these trade-offs. This study aims to use mouthbrooding cichlids as an example to test hypotheses on evolutionary trade-offs between intricately linked traits that affect different aspects of fitness. We focused on the oral apparatus, which is not only equipped with features used to feed and breathe, but is also used for the incubation of eggs. We used this approach to study mouthbrooding as part of an integrated functional system with diverging performance requirements and to explore gender-specific selective environments within a species. Methodology/Principal Findings Because cichlids are morphologically very diverse, we hypothesize that the implications of the added constraint of mouthbrooding will primarily depend on the dominant mode of feeding of the studied species. To test this, we compared the trade-off for two maternal mouthbrooding cichlid species: a suction feeder (Haplochromis piceatus) and a biter (H. fischeri). The comparison of morphology and performance of both species revealed clear interspecific and intersex differences. Our observation that females have larger heads was interpreted as a possible consequence of the fact that in both the studied species mouthbrooding is done by females only. As hypothesized, the observed sexual dimorphism in head shape is inferred as being suboptimal for some aspects of the feeding performance in each of the studied species. Our comparison also demonstrated that the suction feeding species had smaller egg clutches and more elongated eggs. Conclusions/Significance Our findings support the hypothesis that there is a trade-off between mouthbrooding and feeding performance in the two studied haplochromine cichlids, stressing the importance of including species-specific information at the gender level when addressing interspecific functional/morphological differences. PMID:22348043