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[Search for antidiabetic constituents of medicinal food].  


Many foods are known to have not only nutritive and taste values but also medicinal effects. In Chinese traditional medicine, the treatment using medicinal foods has been recommended highly. Recently, we examined the effects of the extract and constituents of several medicinal foods on experimental models of diabetes. In this paper, we focus on the bioactive constituents of four medicinal foods, namely the antidiabetic constituents from 1) the roots, stems and leaves of Salacia plants, 2) the male flowers of Borassus flabellifer, 3) the flower buds of Camellia sinensis, 4) the processed leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii (Hydrangeae Dulcis Folium). PMID:21628977

Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki



Antioxidant activity of food constituents: an overview.  


Recently, there has been growing interest in research into the role of plant-derived antioxidants in food and human health. The beneficial influence of many foodstuffs and beverages including fruits, vegetables, tea, coffee, and cacao on human health has been recently recognized to originate from their antioxidant activity. For this purpose, the most commonly methods used in vitro determination of antioxidant capacity of food constituents are reviewed and presented. Also, the general chemistry underlying the assays in the present paper was clarified. Hence, this overview provides a basis and rationale for developing standardized antioxidant capacity methods for the food, nutraceutical, and dietary supplement industries. In addition, the most important advantages and shortcomings of each method were detected and highlighted. The chemical principles of these methods are outlined and critically discussed. The chemical principles of methods of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) radical (ABTS(·+)) scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(·)) radical scavenging, Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) transformation assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, cupric ions (Cu(2+)) reducing power assay (Cuprac), Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (FCR assay), peroxyl radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical (O (2) (·-)) scavenging, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) scavenging, hydroxyl radical (OH(·)) scavenging, singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) quenching assay and nitric oxide radical (NO(·)) scavenging assay are outlined and critically discussed. Also, the general antioxidant aspects of main food components were discussed by a number of methods which are currently used for detection of antioxidant properties food components. This review consists of two main sections. The first section is devoted to main components in the foodstuffs and beverages. The second general section is some definitions of the main antioxidant methods commonly used for determination of antioxidant activity of components in the foodstuffs and beverages. In addition, there are given some chemical and kinetic basis and technical details of the used methods. PMID:22102161

Gülçin, ?lhami



Foods and food constituents that affect the brain and human behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Until recently, it was generally believed that brain function was usually independent of day-to-day metabolic changes associated with consumption of food. Although it was acknowledged that peripheral metabolic changes associated with hunger or satiety might affect brain function, other effects of foods on the brain were considered unlikely. However, in 1971, Fernstrom and Wurtman discovered that under certain conditions, the protein-to-carbohydrate ratio of a meal could affect the concentration of a particular brain neurotransmitter. That neurotransmitter, serotonin, participates in the regulation of a variety of central nervous system (CNS) functions including sleep, pain sensitivity, aggression, and patterns of nutrient selection. The activity of other neurotransmitter systems has also been shown to be, under certain conditions, affected by dietary constituents which are given either as ordinary foods or in purified form. For example, the CNS turnover of two catecholamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine, can be altered by ingestion of their amino acid precursor, tyrosine, when neurons that release these monoamines are firing frequently. Similarly, lecithin, a dietary source of choline, and choline itself have been shown to increase the synthesis of acetylcholine when cholinergic neurons are very active. It is possible that other neurotransmitters could also be affected by precursor availability or other, as yet undiscovered peripheral factors governed by food consumption. The effects of food on neurotransmitters and behavior are discussed.

Lieberman, Harris R.; Wurtman, Richard J.



Bioactive natural constituents from food sources-potential use in hypertension prevention and treatment.  


Prevention and management of hypertension are the major public health challenges worldwide. Uncontrolled high blood pressure may lead to a shortened life expectancy and a higher morbidity due to a high risk of cardiovascular complications such as coronary heart disease (which leads to heart attack) and stroke, congestive heart failure, heart rhythm irregularities, and kidney failure etc. In recent years, it has been recognized that many dietary constituents may contribute to human cardiovascular health. There has been an increased focus on identifying these natural components of foods, describing their physiological activities and mechanisms of actions. Grain, vegetables, fruits, milk, cheese, meat, chicken, egg, fish, soybean, tea, wine, mushrooms, and lactic acid bacteria are various food sources with potential antihypertensive effects. Their main bioactive constituents include angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides, vitamins C and E, flavonoids, flavanols, cathecins, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, polyphenols, tannins, resveratrol, polysaccharides, fiber, saponin, sterols, as well as K, Ca, and P. They may reduce blood pressure by different mechanisms, such as ACE inhibition effect, antioxidant, vasodilatory, opiate-like, Ca(2+) channel blocking, and chymase inhibitory activities. These functional foods may provide new therapeutic applications for hypertension prevention and treatment, and contribute to a healthy cardiovascular population. The present review summarizes the antihypertensive food sources and their bioactive constituents, as well as physiological mechanisms of dietary products, especially focusing on ACE inhibitory activity. PMID:23627503

Huang, Wu-Yang; Davidge, Sandra T; Wu, Jianping



[Pharmaceutical food science: search for anti-obese constituents from medicinal foods-anti-hyperlipidemic saponin constituents from the flowers of Bellis perennis].  


Among a variety of food materials, some are being used as resources of traditional, alternative, and/or complementary medicines all over the world. These medicinal foods are known to have not only nutritive and taste values but also medicinal effects, and they are prescribed in various traditional preparations. Regarding this point, we focused on exploring bioactive constituents in these medicinal foods, which would be applicable to remedy so-called metabolic syndrome. In this review, our recent studies on anti-hyperlipidemic saponin constituents from flowers of Bellis perennis are described. PMID:20460863

Morikawa, Toshio; Muraoka, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masayuki



Development of Functional Foods  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in intestinal microbiota research are the background for the appearance of functional foods. Lactic fermentation products are included in the functional foods and classified into 3 groups based on their mechanisms of action: probiotics, prebiotics and biogenics. Probiotics are viable microorganisms, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, that beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal bacterial balance. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients, such as oligosaccharides and dietary fiber, that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activities of beneficial intestinal bacteria in the colon and thus improve the health of the hosts. Biogenics are biologically active peptides, including immunopotentiators (biological response modifier: BRM), plant flavonoids, etc. They act directly or indirectly through modulation of intestinal microbiota on the health of the hosts. Thus, functional foods enhance bioregulation such as stresses, appetite and absorption; biodefence, such as immunity and suppression of allergies; prevent diseases, including diarrhea, constipation, cancer, cholesterolemia and diabetes; and suppress aging through immunostimulation as well as suppression of mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, oxidation processes, intestinal putrefaction, and cholesterolemia.

MITSUOKA, Tomotari



Development of functional foods.  


Recent advances in intestinal microbiota research are the background for the appearance of functional foods. Lactic fermentation products are included in the functional foods and classified into 3 groups based on their mechanisms of action: probiotics, prebiotics and biogenics. Probiotics are viable microorganisms, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, that beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal bacterial balance. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients, such as oligosaccharides and dietary fiber, that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activities of beneficial intestinal bacteria in the colon and thus improve the health of the hosts. Biogenics are biologically active peptides, including immunopotentiators (biological response modifier: BRM), plant flavonoids, etc. They act directly or indirectly through modulation of intestinal microbiota on the health of the hosts. Thus, functional foods enhance bioregulation such as stresses, appetite and absorption; biodefence, such as immunity and suppression of allergies; prevent diseases, including diarrhea, constipation, cancer, cholesterolemia and diabetes; and suppress aging through immunostimulation as well as suppression of mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, oxidation processes, intestinal putrefaction, and cholesterolemia. PMID:25032085

Mitsuoka, Tomotari



Exercise and functional foods  

PubMed Central

Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects, and some of them are considered to be useful for promoting exercise performance or for prevention of injury. However, these foods should only be used when there is clear scientific evidence and with understanding of the physiological changes caused by exercise. This article describes various "functional foods" that have been reported to be effective for improving exercise performance or health promotion, along with the relevant physiological changes that occur during exercise.

Aoi, Wataru; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu



The Constituent Ordering Process in Functional Discourse Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An essential task for the morphosyntactic level within the grammatical component of Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG) is the handling of constituent ordering. This area of grammar, which is known as positional syntax, constitutes the subject of the present paper, in which the ordering of constituents is examined within the framework of a dynamic…

Connolly, John H.



Functional Food Marketing in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health consciousness and prevention are now in the limelight of the media in Hungary. More and more consumers recognized the importance of healthy eating habits in prevention. In this paper we defined health- marketing and functional food then took a closer look at the functional food market, consumption of functional foods, product trends and the main marketing approaches. This paper

Istvan Piskoti; Nagy Szabolcs



Spices as functional foods.  


Spices and aromatic herbs have been used since antiquity as preservatives, colorants, and flavor enhancers. Spices, which have long been the basis of traditional medicine in many countries, have also been the subject of study, particularly by the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries, because of their potential use for improving health. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated how these substances act as antioxidants, digestive stimulants, and hypolipidemics and show antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancerigenic activities. These beneficial physiological effects may also have possible preventative applications in a variety of pathologies. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the potential of spices and aromatic herbs as functional foods. PMID:21229415

Viuda-Martos, M; Ruiz-Navajas, Y; Fernández-López, J; Pérez-Alvarez, J A



Effect of PEF on Enzymes and Food Constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Food quality is of key importance in food preservation, even more in the context of novel technologies. The search for alternative\\u000a methods to preserve foods is driven by the trends in consumption patterns. Consumers nowadays demand healthier, fresher, and\\u000a more natural foods, with high sensory and nutritional qualities, and at the same time with the highest degree of safety. Pulsed

Pilar Mafias; Antonio Vercet


Functional food science and substrate metabolism.  


The present review addresses the role of food constituents in the aetiology of metabolic conditions and chronic diseases, mostly related to energy metabolism and substrate regulation, such as obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Second, attention is paid to malnutrition, a major cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries, which may be a cause of concern in Europe because of the increasing number of elderly people in the population. Finally, the role of diet during exercise, a condition of enormous substrate demands, is evaluated. Based on a critical evaluation of the existing knowledge in the literature, implications for future research in relation to functional foods are discussed. PMID:9849354

Saris, W H; Asp, N G; Björck, I; Blaak, E; Bornet, F; Brouns, F; Frayn, K N; Fürst, P; Riccardi, G; Roberfroid, M; Vogel, M



Effects of Some Common Food Constituents on Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and there is considerable interest in the role of dietary constituents and supplements in the prevention and treatment of these disorders. We reviewed the major publications related to potential effects on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes of some common dietary constituents: carotenoids, flavonoid-rich cocoa, tea, red wine and grapes, coffee, omega-3 fatty acids, and garlic. Increased intake of some of these has been associated with reduced all-cause mortality or reduced incidence of myocardial infraction, stroke, and hypertension. However, although the evidence from observational studies is supportive of beneficial effects for most of these foodstuffs taken as part of the diet, potential benefits from the use of supplements derived from these natural products remain largely inconclusive.

Yang, Yaling; Chan, Sze Wa; Hu, Miao; Walden, Richard; Tomlinson, Brian



Functional Microorganisms for Functional Food Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability

M. Gobbetti; R. Di Cagno; M. De Angelis



Health aspects of functional grape seed constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional ingredients of grape seeds include several flavonoids with a phenolic nature such as monomeric flavanols (catechin and epicatechin), dimeric, trimeric and polymeric procyanidins, and phenolic acids (gallic acid and ellagic acid). These flavonoids have been reported to exhibit antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro in a number of studies. The antioxidant activity of flavonoids is closely associated with

Yusuf Yilmaz; Romeo T. Toledo



Functional food science and behaviour and psychological functions.  


The impact of ingesting various foods on psychological and behavioural functions is a topic of both interest and concern to the general public. In this article, the scientific literature concerning demonstrated cause-and-effect relationships is reviewed, beginning with methodological considerations specific to the quantification of particular behaviours and psychological events. The essential function of food is to satisfy hunger and the need for essential nutrients. The contributions of macronutrients to appetite and satiety are described, as well as their impact on metabolism and energy balance. Functional properties of macronutrient substitutes (high-intensity sweeteners, fat replacers) and flavour enhancers are examined in relation to their contribution to hunger, satiety, and energy balance. The effects of foods and individual nutrients on the performance of diverse psychomotor tasks are studied with consideration given to the various validated quantitative tools used to assess behaviour. The effects of food components on activation, sedation, and affective states such as dysphoria are also reviewed, with special attention given to brain function and neuroactive substances such as serotonin and the endorphins. The case of hyperactivity in children is given special emphasis with reference to the potential influence of sugar and food additives. Safety issues related to food constituents and additives are discussed. Finally, a set of criteria is proposed for the evaluation and elaboration of studies in the behavioural and psychological fields, along with suggestions for future research. PMID:9849358

Bellisle, F; Blundell, J E; Dye, L; Fantino, M; Fern, E; Fletcher, R J; Lambert, J; Roberfroid, M; Specter, S; Westenhöfer, J; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S



Functional Food Science in Europe.  


The goal of the Functional Food Science in Europe (FUFOSE) concerted action was to reach consensus on scientific concepts of functional foods in Europe by using the science base that supports evidence that specific nutrients positively affect physiological functions. The outcome proposes "a working definition" of functional foods: foods can be regarded as functional if they can be satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects, in a way relevant to an improved state of health and well-being and/or reduction of risk of disease. Functional foods must remain foods and they must achieve their effects in amounts normally consumed in a diet. Evidence from human studies, based on markers relating to biological response or on intermediate endpoint markers of disease, could provide a sound scientific basis for messages and claims about the functional food products. Two types of claims are proposed that relate directly to these two categories of markers: Enhanced function claims (type A) and reduced risk of disease claims (type B). A new EU Concerted Action will start with, and build upon, the principles defined within FUFOSE. This project PASSCLAIM will (i) produce a consensus on principles for the scientific substantiation of health-related claims for food and food components, (ii) select common criteria for how markers should be identified, validated and used in well-designed studies to explore the links between diet and health and (iii) to evaluate critically the existing schemes which assess the scientific substantiation of claims. PMID:11894747

Contor, L



A standardised approach towards PROving the efficacy of foods and food constituents for health CLAIMs (PROCLAIM): providing guidance.  


Diet is well known to have beneficial health properties that extend beyond traditionally accepted nutritional effects. The approach involved in elucidating these beneficial physiological effects is becoming more important, as reflected by increasing research being undertaken. With growing consumer awareness of foods and food constituents and their relationship to health, the key questions for regulators, scientists and the food industry continue to relate to: (1) how consumers could be protected and have confidence that the health claims on foods are well supported by the evidence; (2) how research on physiological effects of food (constituents) and their health benefits could be stimulated and supported; (3) how research findings could be used in the development of innovative new food products. The objectives of this paper are to provide a set of recommendations on the substantiation of health claims for foods, to develop further guidance on the choice of validated markers (or marker patterns) and what effects are considered to be beneficial to the health of the general public (or specific target groups). Finally, the case for developing a standardised approach for assessing the totality of the available scientific data and weighing the evidence is proposed. PMID:22129661

Gallagher, Alison M; Meijer, Gert W; Richardson, David P; Rondeau, Virginie; Skarp, Maria; Stasse-Wolthuis, Marianne; Tweedie, Guy C; Witkamp, Renger



Exercise and functional foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects,

Wataru Aoi; Yuji Naito; Toshikazu Yoshikawa




Microsoft Academic Search

Foods and beverages, which are beneficial to health, are referred to as functional foods. In Malaysia, the definition of functional food is still inconclusive. However, direct selling outlets throughout the nation is flooded with these food items since they are distributed under the food supplement category and not covered by the Food and Drug Act 1983. In trying to control

Fatimah Arshad


Changes in acaricidal potency by introducing functional radicals and an acaricidal constituent isolated from Schizonepeta tenuifolia.  


The acaricidal potential of an active constituent isolated from Schizonepeta tenuifolia oil and its structurally related derivatives was evaluated using filter paper and impregnated cotton fabric disk bioassays against house dust and stored food mites. The acaricidal constituent of S. tenuifolia oil was isolated by chromatographic techniques and identified as 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanone by GC-MS, (1)H-, and (13)C NMR spectra. 2-Isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanone was a potent acaricide against house dust and stored food mites, based on the LD50 values from the filter paper and impregnated cotton fabric disk bioassays, followed by 4-isopropylcyclohexanone, 2-isopropylidene-5-methylcyclohexanone, 2-methylcyclohexanone, 3-methylcyclohexanone, 4-methylcyclohexanone, and benzyl benzoate. Furthermore, 4-isopropylcyclohexanone and 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanone, which were introduced on the isopropyl (C3H7) functional radical of the cyclohexanone skeleton, had the highest acaricidal potency. These results indicate that S. tenuifolia oil and 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanone structural analogues could be effective natural acaricides for managing house dust and stored food mites. PMID:24206217

Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon



Food demand functions in mice  

PubMed Central

Male mice (mus musculus) of a mixed B6/129 background were used to establish food demand functions in a closed economy. The mice lived continuously in operant chambers and worked for 20-mg nutritionally complete food pellets. First, a series of incrementing fixed ratio (FR) costs per pellet were imposed, and the results showed that demand declined as unit price increased. The number of meals taken per day was dependent on the temporal criterion used to define a meal, but the number of meals did not change across the FR series. Next, a series of incrementing progressive ratio (PR) schedules were used, and a meal was defined by a programmed schedule reset interval. Total food intake declined slightly, and the mean meal size also decreased, across the series. Lastly, a nose poke response requirement was imposed as the procurement cost to activate a lever press device for food; under these conditions the meal number changed dramatically as the procurement cost was increased, whereas total intake declined only modestly. These data show in mice that large changes in unit price or consummatory cost have relatively small effects on demand and meal patterns, but small amounts of foraging (procurement) cost have very large effects.

Chaney, Melissa A.; Rowland, Neil E.



Complexing of Green Tea Catechins with Food Constituents and Degradation of the Complexes by Lactobacillus plantarum  

PubMed Central

Complexing of green tea catechins with food constituents and their hydrolysis by tannase-producing Lactobacillus plantarum strains, were investigated. Our observations indicated that 1) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and other catechin galloyl esters bound with food ingredients (i.e., proteins) to form a complex that is likely to be unabsorbable through the intestinal wall, whereas most catechins not esterified with gallic acid (GA) remain in free form, not complexing with food ingredients; 2) tannase activity of L. plantarum is strain dependent, possibly grouped into those with high tannase activity hydrolyzing EGCg to epigallocatechin and GA and those with the low activity; and 3) L. plantarum strains with high tannase activity are capable of hydrolyzing not only intact EGCg but also EGCg and other catechin galloyl esters complexed with dietary proteins to free non-galloyl ester catechins and GA. The evidence suggests that L. plantarum with high tannase activity, if it colonizes the human intestine, would release free non-galloyl-ester catechins and GA that are readily absorbed through the human intestinal epithelia from the complexes, thereby ensuring maximum delivery of the bioactive polyphenols of green tea to the host.

HAYASHI, Taeko; UEDA, Shuhei; TSURUTA, Hiroki; KUWAHARA, Hiroshige; OSAWA, Ro



Probiotics and functional foods in gastrointestinal disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that benefit the host animal by improving intestinal microbial balance. When\\u000a they are fed in yogurts, they can fall into the category of functional foods. Functional foods include these probiotics, prebiotics,\\u000a and, to a certain extent, dietary fiber. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients or supplements that alter the intestinal\\u000a flora and stimulate the growth

Martin H. Floch; JoAnn Hong-Curtiss



Functional foods: traditional use and European legislation.  


The concept of functional foods was born in Japan in the 1980s. They are foods that were developed specifically to promote health or reduce the risk of disease. Functional foods have not already been defined by the legislation in Europe. Generally, they are considered as those foods which are intended to be consumed as part of the normal diet and which contain biologically active components which offer the potential of enhanced health or reduced risk of disease. Attention concerning this category of foods has grown, new products have appeared in the European market and interest has turned to define the standards and guidelines for the development and promotion of this kind of foods. In the European Union, there is harmonised legislation on health claims, while compounds, ingredients, plants are still regulated only at national level. The question of traditional use and the role of European Food Safety Authority as European Authority for Food Safety will be examined. PMID:22117621

Serafini, Mauro; Stanzione, Alessandra; Foddai, Sebastiano



Anthocyanins as Functional Food Colors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthocyanins, a proanthocyanidin-type of flavonoid, contain an abundance of functional phytochemicals and occur in fruits such as cranberry, blueberry, orange, apple and in vegetables such as tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, and radishes. Functional and essential diets have been ingested in daily life since the primitive era of history. When anthocyanins are coupled with some water-soluble sugar molecules, their color becomes red, yellow, violet, or blue. It is very intriguing that anthocyanins provide the colorful variety of pigments for pansies, petunias, plums, and other diverse flowers. Chlorophyll in various fruits and vegetables is the main green phyto-component, while anthocyanins are probably the most important visible plant pigments in the natural kingdom having specific colors. Anthocyanins have been clinically used in many folklore medicines worldwide. Anthocyanins could provide health benefits for age-related diseases as well as other diseases. Anthocyanins have higher antioxidant capacity against oxidative stress induced by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and thus the human body might be protected from oxidative injury by anthocyanins. On the basis of these facts, we review the synthesis of plant flavonoids and their ability to scavenge oxidants, inhibit or activate enzymes, and the safety of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins present in common foods.

Motohashi, Noboru; Sakagami, Hiroshi


Melatonin, a potent agent in antioxidative defense: Actions as a natural food constituent, gastrointestinal factor, drug and prodrug  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melatonin, originally discovered as a hormone of the pineal gland, is also produced in other organs and represents, additionally, a normal food constituent found in yeast and plant material, which can influence the level in the circulation. Compared to the pineal, the gastrointestinal tract contains several hundred times more melatonin, which can be released into the blood in response to

Rüdiger Hardeland; SR Pandi-Perumal



Technological aspects of functional food-related carbohydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbohydrates in food occur as natural constituents or are added as ingredients or additives. The most important endogenous carbohydrates in food are starch, depolymerized starch, sucrose, lactose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol (digestible) and carbohydrates such as raffinose, stachyose, resistant starch, pectin, cellulose, hemicelluloses including pentosans, fructans, chitin, and seaweed polysaccharides (indigestible). Carbohydrates added to food are often derived from raw

Alphons G. J. Voragen



Food protective effects of the active constituent isolated from Ostericum praeteritum against the stored food mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae.  


The acaricidal effects of the active constituent isolated from Ostericum praeteritum oil and its derivatives were compared with that of benzyl benzoate using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against Tyrophagus putrescentiae mites. The active compound of O. praeteritum was isolated by various chromatographic techniques and was identified as 3-methylphenol (C7H8O). On the basis of 50 % lethal dose values, 3-methylphenol (1.42 ?g/cm(2)) was determined to be 9.18 times more effective than benzyl benzoate (13.04 ?g/cm(2)), followed by 6-fluoro-3-methylphenol (2.18 ?g/cm(2)), 4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol (2.53 ?g/ cm(2)), and 6-chloro-3-methylphenol (4.03 ?g/cm(2)), against Tyrophagus putrescentiae mites in the fumigant bioassay. In the contact toxicity bioassay, 3-methylphenol (1.03 ?g/cm(2)) was the most-toxic compound against T. putrescentiae mites, followed by 6-fluoro-3-methylphenol (2.09 ?g/cm(2)), 4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol (2.11 ?g/cm(2)), 6-chloro-3-methylphenol (3.78 ?g/cm(2)), and benzyl benzoate (10.33 ?g/cm(2)). These results indicate that the introduction of chloro, isopropyl, and fluoro functional groups to the 3-methylphenol skeleton increased the acaricidal activity. Therefore, 3-methylphenol and its derivatives could potentially be used as natural acaricides against T. purescentiae. PMID:24215692

Kim, Min-Gi; Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon



Bio-functional constituents from the stems of Liriodendron tulipifera.  


Four known compounds have been isolated from the stems of Liriodendron tulipifera, and the structures of these pure constituents were determined using spectroscopic analysis. Isolated compounds were screened for free radical scavenging ability, metal chelating power assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The anti-tyrosinase effects of L. tulipifera compounds were calculated the inhibition of hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-dopa according to an in vitro mushroom tyrosinase assay. The study also examined the bio-effects of the four compounds on the human melanoma A375.S2, and showed that liriodenine (1) and (-)-norglaucine (4) significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in the cell viability assay. Wound healing results indicated that liriodenine (1), (-)-glaucine (3) and (-)-norglaucine (4) exerted anti-migration potential. Interestingly, (-)-glaucine (3), neither liriodenine (1) nor (-)-norglaucine (4) showed promising anti-migration potential without inducing significant cytotoxicity. Furthermore, a dramatically increased level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected from (-)-glaucine (3). The cell cycle assessment demonstrated a moderate G2/M accumulation by (-)-glaucine (3). The above results revealed the anti-cancer effects of L. tulipifera compounds, especially on the anti-migration ability indicating the promising chemopreventive agents to human skin melanoma cells. PMID:22491683

Chiu, Chien-Chih; Chou, Han-Lin; Wu, Pei-Fang; Chen, Hsin-Liang; Wang, Hui-Min; Chen, Chung-Yi



Biosensors for functional food safety and analysis.  


The importance of safety and functionality analysis of foodstuffs and raw materials is supported by national legislations and European Union (EU) directives concerning not only the amount of residues of pollutants and pathogens but also the activity and content of food additives and the health claims stated on their labels. In addition, consumers' awareness of the impact of functional foods' on their well-being and their desire for daily healthcare without the intake pharmaceuticals has immensely in recent years. Within this picture, the availability of fast, reliable, low cost control systems to measure the content and the quality of food additives and nutrients with health claims becomes mandatory, to be used by producers, consumers and the governmental bodies in charge of the legal supervision of such matters. This review aims at describing the most important methods and tools used for food analysis, starting with the classical methods (e.g., gas-chromatography GC, high performance liquid chromatography HPLC) and moving to the use of biosensors-novel biological material-based equipments. Four types of bio-sensors, among others, the novel photosynthetic proteins-based devices which are more promising and common in food analysis applications, are reviewed. A particular highlight on biosensors for the emerging market of functional foods is given and the most widely applied functional components are reviewed with a comprehensive analysis of papers published in the last three years; this report discusses recent trends for sensitive, fast, repeatable and cheap measurements, focused on the detection of vitamins, folate (folic acid), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), fatty acids (in particular Omega 3), phytosterols and phytochemicals. A final market overview emphasizes some practical aspects ofbiosensor applications. PMID:21520718

Lavecchia, Teresa; Tibuzzi, Arianna; Giardi, Maria Teresa



Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: functional foods.  


It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics to recognize that although all foods provide some level of physiological function, the term functional foods is defined as whole foods along with fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods that have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis at effective levels based on significant standards of evidence. The Academy supports Food and Drug Administration-approved health claims on food labels when based on rigorous scientific substantiation. All food is essentially functional at some level as it provides energy and nutrients needed to sustain life. However, there is growing evidence that some food components, not considered nutrients in the traditional sense, may provide positive health benefits. Foods containing these food components are called functional foods. Functional food research holds many promises for improving the quality of life for consumers; however, to achieve such outcomes, scientific research must effectively establish the bioavailability and efficacy of these compounds at levels that are physiologically achievable under typical dietary patterns. This Position Paper reviews the complexities of defining functional foods; categories of foods marketed as functional; regulation of functional foods; the scientific substantiation of and advancement of functional food research; as well as a message to registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, on how to remain current in their knowledge of functional food research and the translation of this information to consumers. PMID:23885705

Crowe, Kristi M; Francis, Coni



Analysis of the constituents in jojoba wax used as a food additive by LC/MS/MS.  


Jojoba wax is a natural gum base used as a food additive in Japan, and is obtained from jojoba oil with a characteristically high melting point. Although the constituents of jojoba oil have been reported, the quality of jojoba wax used as a food additive has not yet been clarified. In order to evaluate its quality as a food additive and to obtain basic information useful for setting official standards, we investigated the constituents and their concentrations in jojoba wax. LC/MS analysis of the jojoba wax showed six peaks with [M+H]+ ions in the range from m/z 533.6 to 673.7 at intervals of m/z 28. After isolation of the components of the four main peaks by preparative LC/MS, the fatty acid and long chain alcohol moieties of the wax esters were analyzed by methanolysis and hydrolysis, followed by GC/MS. The results indicated that the main constituents in jojoba wax were various kinds of wax esters, namely eicosenyl octadecenoate (C20:1-C18:1) (1), eicosenyl eicosenoate (C20:1-C20:1) (II), docosenyl eicosenoate (C22:1-C20:1) (III), eicosenyl docosenoate (C20:1-C22:1) (IV) and tetracosenyl eiosenoate (C24:1-C20:1) (V). To confirm and quantify the wax esters in jojoba wax directly, LC/MS/MS analysis was performed. The product ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the wax esters were observed, and by using the product ions derived from the protonated molecular ions of wax esters the fatty acid moieties were identified by MRM analysis. The concentrations of the wax esters I, II and III, in jojoba wax were 5.5, 21.4 and 37.8%, respectively. In summary, we clarified the main constituents of jojoba wax and quantified the molecular species of the wax esters without hydrolysis by monitoring their product ions, using a LC/MS/MS system. PMID:16305174

Tada, Atsuko; Jin, Zhe-Long; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi



Tackling metabolic syndrome by functional foods.  


The metabolic syndrome is one of the most vibrant and widely prevailing health concerns worldwide. It is characterized by several metabolic abnormalities, which involve obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, enhanced oxidative stress; hypertension and increased pro-inflammatory state that ultimate contribute towards poor health. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Pakistan according to different definitions is reported to be from 18 % to 46 %. Fifty percent of Pakistani population is at high risk of metabolic syndrome as being hypertensive. In studying dyslipidemia in Pakistan, hypertriglyceridemia is found in 27-54 % of the population, whereas 68-81 % has low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Population likes to eat healthier diet without changing their fundamental dietary pattern. Nutrition science has moved on from the classical concepts of avoiding nutrient deficiencies and basic nutritional adequacy to the concept of positive or optimal nutrition. Many traditional food products including fruits, vegetables, flaxseed, oat, barley, whole grains, soy and milk have been found to contain component with potential health benefits. Nowadays, functional foods are used in the prevention and amelioration of several chronic diseases, such as the metabolic syndrome. The relation of the consumption of certain functional foods and the improvement in health status is regulated through health claims. This review focuses on the different features of the metabolic syndrome and the influence of functional foods on these aspects, involving dyslipidemia, improvement of insulin sensitivity, serum lipid profile, antioxidant status, anti-inflammatory status and weight management of humans. PMID:24057596

Khan, Muhammad Issa; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Sohaib, Muhammad; Sameen, Aysha



The antimicrobial activity of hydrophobic essential oil constituents acting alone or in combined processes of food preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work evaluates the antimicrobial activity of widespread hydrophobic essential oil (EO) constituents, 3 hydrocarbon monoterpenes (?-pinene, ?-pinene, and p-cymene) and 8 oxygenated monoterpenes (thymol, carvacrol, borneol, linalool, terpineol-4-ol, 1,8-cineole, ?-terpinyl acetate, and camphor), as a function of the treatment medium pH, and possible synergistic effects in combination with mild heat or pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatments. Results obtained using

Abdenour Ait-Ouazzou; Lamia Cherrat; Laura Espina; Susana Lorán; Carmen Rota; Rafael Pagán



Interactions of the bacteriocins sakacin P and nisin with food constituents.  


Bacteriocins are amphiphilic peptides susceptible to adsorption to food macromolecules and proteolytic degradation. These properties may limit their use as preservation agents. The aim of the present work has been to elucidate the fate of the bacteriocin sakacin P in food. Nisin was used in a few experiments for comparison. Recovery of bacteriocins was studied in homogenates of cold-smoked salmon, chicken cold cuts and raw chicken, with verification of the results in the corresponding food products. More than 80% of the added sakacin P and nisin were quickly adsorbed to proteins in the food matrix. In foods that had not been heat-treated, proteolytic activity caused a rapid degradation of the bacteriocins, with less than 1% of the total activity left after 1 week in cold-smoked salmon, and even less in raw chicken. In heat-treated foods, the bacteriocin activity was stable for more than 4 weeks. The high fat content in salmon compared to chicken had no adverse effect on bacteriocin recovery or activity. However, mixing of triglyceride oils and bacteriocin solutions caused a considerable loss of activity. No principal differences were observed between sakacin P and nisin, but less nisin was adsorbed to muscle proteins at low pH, and the negative effect of oils was less pronounced for nisin. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes was completely inhibited for at least 3 weeks in both chicken cold cuts and cold-smoked salmon by addition of sakacin P (3.5 microg/g), despite the proteolytic degradation in the salmon. PMID:12927705

Aasen, Inga Marie; Markussen, Sidsel; Møretrø, Trond; Katla, Tone; Axelsson, Lars; Naterstad, Kristine



Membrane applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional foods and nutraceuticals market is growing at a rapid pace. Membrane processing offers several advantages over conventional methods for separation, fractionation and recovery of those bioactive components. In this review, membrane applications of lipid-, carbohydrate-, and protein-based nutraceuticals and some minor bioactive components have been critically evaluated. Both non-porous and porous membranes were employed for lipid-based nutraceuticals separations.

Oguz Akin; Feral Temelli; Sefa Koseoglu



Health promoting functional foods fortified with herbs  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention provides a novel herbal composition, which promotes the proven pharmacological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-stress and adaptogenic activities. Composition(s) comprises of plant juices or extracts together with the conventional recipients to form paste/jelly/jam/cake/cream puff/chocolate forms fortified with plants like Mangifera indica, Evolvulus alsinoides, Withania somnifera and Asparagus racemosus Amaranthus hypochondriacus which are used as functional foods.



Functional food science and gastrointestinal physiology and function.  


The gut is an obvious target for the development of functional foods, acting as it does as the interface between diet and the metabolic events which sustain life. The key processes in digestive physiology which can be regulated by modifying diet are satiety, the rate and extent of macronutrient breakdown and absorption from the small bowel, sterol metabolism, the colonic microflora, fermentation, mucosal function and bowel habit, and the gut immune system. The intestinal microflora is the main focus of many current functional foods. Probiotics are foods which contain live bacteria which are beneficial to health whilst prebiotics, such as certain non-digestible oligosaccharides which selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria in the colon, are already on the market. Their claimed benefits are to alleviate lactose maldigestion, increase resistance to invasion by pathogenic species of bacteria in the gut, stimulate the immune system and possibly protect against cancer. There are very few reports of well-designed human intervention studies with prebiotics as yet. Certain probiotic species have been shown to shorten the duration of rotavirus diarrhoea in children but much more work is needed on the mechanism of immunomodulation and of competitive exclusion and microflora modification. The development of functional foods for the gut is in its infancy and will be successful only if more fundamental research is done on digestive physiology, the gut microflora, immune system and mucosal function. PMID:9849357

Salminen, S; Bouley, C; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Cummings, J H; Franck, A; Gibson, G R; Isolauri, E; Moreau, M C; Roberfroid, M; Rowland, I



Lectin-Like Constituents of Foods Which React with Components of Serum, Saliva, and Streptococcus mutans  

PubMed Central

Hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared from 22 commonly ingested fruits, vegetables, and seeds. When tested by agar diffusion, extracts from 13 and 10 of the foods formed precipitin bands with samples of normal rabbit serum and human saliva, respectively; extracts from four of the foods also reacted with antigen extracts of strains of Streptococcus mutans. When added to rabbit antiserum, extracts from 18 of 21 foods tested inhibited reactivity with antigen extracts derived from S. mutans MT3. Extracts from 16 foods agglutinated whole S. mutans cells, whereas those from 10 foods agglutinated human erythrocytes of blood types A and B. The lectin-like activities of extracts which reacted with human saliva were studied further. Pretreatment of saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (S-HA) beads with extracts of bananas, coconuts, carrots, alfalfa, and sunflower seeds markedly reduced the subsequent adsorption of S. mutans MT3. Pretreatment of S-HA with banana extract also strongly inhibited adsorption of S. mutans H12 and S. sanguis C1, but it had little effect on attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii L13 or A. viscosus LY7. Absorption experiments indicated that the component(s) in banana extract responsible for inhibiting streptococcal adsorption to S-HA was identical to that which bound to human erythrocytes. The banana hemagglutinin exhibited highest activity between pH 7 and 8, and it was inhibited by high concentrations of glucosamine, galactosamine, and, to a lesser extent, mannosamine. Other sugars tested had no effect. The selective bacterial adsorption-inhibiting effect noted for banana extract was also observed in studies with purified lectins. Thus, pretreating S-HA with wheat germ agglutinin and concanavalin A inhibited adsorption of S. mutans MT3 cells, whereas peanut agglutinin, Ulex agglutinin, Dolichos agglutinin, and soybean agglutinin had little effect; none of these lectins affected attachment of A. viscosus LY7. Collectively, the observations suggest that many foods contain lectins which can interact with components of human saliva and S. mutans cells. Because of their potential to influence host-parasite interactions in the mouth and elsewhere in the gastrointestinal canal, these reactions warrant further study. Images

Gibbons, R. J.; Dankers, I.



Acaricidal activities of major constituents of essential oil of Juniperus chinensis leaves against house dust and stored food mites.  


The acaricidal activities of major constituents from the oil of Juniperus chinensis (var. globosa) leaves were compared with those of DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) by using impregnated fabric disk bioassay against Dermatophagoides spp. and Tyrophagus putrescentiae. Toxicity varied with doses as well as chemical composition. The 50% lethal doses (LD50) of J. chinensis oil against Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and T. putrescentiae were 21.60, 19.89, and 38.10 microg/cm2, respectively. The active constituent was purified using silica gel chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The acaricidal component was identified as bomyl acetate through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR, 1H-13C shift correlation spectrum-NMR, and distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer-NMR. The LD50 of bornyl acetate (2.94 microg/cm2) against D. farinae was significantly lower than those of DEET (37.13 microg/cm2) and alpha-eudesmol (29.72 microg/cm2). Similar results were observed when bomyl acetate and alpha-eudesmol were tested against D. pteronyssinus and T. putrescentiae. The lower LD50 of bornyl acetate indicates that it may be responsible for the major acaricidal activity against house dust and stored food mites, even though it constitutes only 19.5% of J. chinensis oil. Overall, these findings indicated that bornyl acetate and c-eudesmol have potential for use as control agents against house dust and stored food mites. PMID:19722401

Lee, Chi-Hoon; Park, Joon-Moh; Song, Ha-Yun; Jeong, Eun-Young; Lee, Hoi-Seon



Growth, development and differentiation: a functional food science approach.  


Few other aspects of food supply and metabolism are of greater biological importance than the feeding of mothers during pregnancy and lactation, and of their infants and young children. Nutritional factors during early development not only have short-term effects on growth, body composition and body functions but also exert long-term effects on health, disease and mortality risks in adulthood, as well as development of neural functions and behaviour, a phenomenon called 'metabolic programming'. The interaction of nutrients and gene expression may form the basis of many of these programming effects and needs to be investigated in more detail. The relation between availability of food ingredients and cell and tissue differentiation and its possible uses for promoting health and development requires further exploration. The course of pregnancy, childbirth and lactation as well as human milk composition and the short- and long-term outcome of the child are influenced by the intake of foods and particularly micronutrients, e.g. polyunsaturated fatty acids, Fe, Zn and I. Folic acid supplementation from before conception through the first weeks of pregnancy can markedly reduce the occurrence of severe embryonic malformations; other potential benefits of modulating nutrient supply on maternal and child health should be further evaluated. The evaluation of dietary effects on child growth requires epidemiological and field studies as well as evaluation of specific cell and tissue growth. Novel substrates, growth factors and conditionally essential nutrients (e.g. growth factors, amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids) may be potentially useful as ingredients in functional foods and need to be assessed carefully. Intestinal growth, maturation, and adaptation as well as long-term function may be influenced by food ingredients such as oligosaccharides, gangliosides, high-molecular-mass glycoproteins, bile salt-activated lipase, pre- and probiotics. There are indications for some beneficial effects of functional foods on the developing immune response, for example induced by antioxidant vitamins, trace elements, fatty acids, arginine, nucleotides, and altered antigen contents in infant foods. Peak bone mass at the end of adolescence can be increased by dietary means, which is expected to be of long-term importance for the prevention of osteoporosis at older ages. Future studies should be directed to the combined effects of Ca and other constituents of growing bone, such as P, Mg and Zn, as well as vitamins D and K, and the trace elements F and B. Pregnancy and the first postnatal months are critical time periods for the growth and development of the human nervous system, processes for which adequate substrate supplies are essential. Early diet seems to have long-term effects on sensory and cognitive abilities as well as behaviour. The potential beneficial effects of a balanced supply of nutrients such as I, Fe, Zn and polyunsaturated fatty acids should be further evaluated. Possible long-term effects of early exposure to tastes and flavours on later food choice preferences may have a major impact on public health and need to be further elucidated. The use of biotechnology and recombinant techniques may offer the opportunity to include various bioactive substances in special dietary products, such as human milk proteins, peptides, growth factors, which may have beneficial physiological effects, particularly in infancy and early childhood. PMID:9849353

Koletzko, B; Aggett, P J; Bindels, J G; Bung, P; Ferré, P; Gil, A; Lentze, M J; Roberfroid, M; Strobel, S



Identification and quantitative determination of the polar constituents in Helichrysum italicum flowers and derived food supplements.  


Helichrysum italicum is widely used in traditional medicine, in cosmetic, in food and pharmaceutical field. In spite of this, very little is known about the chemical composition of its polar extracts. Therefore this study was addressed to the determination of the metabolite profile of the methanol extract of H. italicum flowers, by using LC-ESI(IT)MSMS. This approach oriented the isolation of 14 compounds, whose structures were unambiguously elucidated by NMR as belonging to flavonoid, phenylpropanoid and acylbenzofuran classes. In addition, one novel drimane sesquiterpene was identified. The quantitative determination of the main compounds occurring in the methanol extract of H. italicum flowers was carried out and their content was compared with that of three selected commercial food supplements based on H. italicum, by using LC-ESI(QqQ)MS. In conclusion the wide occurrence, in high amounts, of quinic acid derivatives in all the analyzed samples was highlighted, showing these compounds as chemical markers of the species for standardization procedures. PMID:24786189

Mari, Angela; Napolitano, Assunta; Masullo, Milena; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia



Analysis of Functional Constituents in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Twigs by Different Cultivars, Producing Areas, and Heat Processings.  


Four functional constituents, oxyresveratrol 3'-O-?-D-glucoside (ORTG), oxyresveratrol (ORT), t-resveratrol (RT), and moracin (MC) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs by a series of isolation procedures, including solvent fractionation, and silica-gel, ODS-A, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their chemical structures were identified by NMR and FABMS spectral analysis. Quantitative changes of four phytochemicals in mulberry twigs were determined by HPLC according to cultivar, producing area, and heat processing. ORTG was a major abundant compound in the mulberry twigs, and its levels ranged from 23.7 to 105.5 mg% in six different mulberry cultivars. Three other compounds were present in trace amounts (<1 mg/100 g) or were not detected. Among mulberry cultivars examined, "Yongcheon" showed the highest level of ORTG, whereas "Somok" had the least ORTG content. Levels of four phytochemicals in the mulberry twigs harvested in early September were higher than those harvested in early July. Levels of ORTG and ORT in the "Cheongil" mulberry twigs produced in the Uljin area were higher than those produced in other areas. Generally, levels of ORTG and ORT in mulberry twigs decreased with heat processing, such as steaming, and microwaving except roasting, whereas those of RT and MC did not considerably vary according to heat processing. These results suggest that the roasted mulberry twigs may be useful as potential sources of functional ingredients and foods. PMID:24551827

Choi, Sang Won; Jang, Yeon Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin; Leem, Hyun Hee; Kim, Eun Ok



Functional food concept and its application to prebiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A food can be regarded as functional if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects, in a way which is relevant to either the state of well-being and health or the reduction of the risk of a disease. A food can be made functional by increasing the concentration,

M. Roberfroid



Chemical constituents of fine particulate air pollution and pulmonary function in healthy adults: the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation study.  


The study examined the associations of 32 chemical constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ?2.5 ?m (PM?.?) with pulmonary function in a panel of 21 college students. Study subjects relocated from a suburban area to an urban area with changing ambient air pollution levels and contents in Beijing, China, and provided daily morning/evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV??) measurements over 6 months in three study periods. There were significant reductions in evening PEF and morning/evening FEV?? associated with various air pollutants and PM?.? constituents. Four PM?.? constituents (copper, cadmium, arsenic and stannum) were found to be most consistently associated with the reductions in these pulmonary function measures. These findings provide clues for the respiratory effects of specific particulate chemical constituents in the context of urban air pollution. PMID:23747477

Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Hao, Yu; Shima, Masayuki; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling; Huang, Jing; Qin, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao



Pregnane X receptor-mediated transcriptional activation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 by natural constituents from foods and herbs.  


The induction of drug-metabolising enzymes is being increasingly recognised for its clinical importance in drug research and development. In the present study, we used a pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated reporter gene assay to evaluate the activating effects of various food, herb, and horticultural plant constituents on the PXR and a UGT1A1 reporter gene DNA construct. The results showed that of 102 naturally occurring constituents tested, 50 activated the PXR signaling pathway and induced expression of the UGT1A1-reporter gene DNA construct. Eleven constituents strongly induced gene expression (a response of >70% compared to that associated with rifampicin), and were further evaluated in in vitro experiments to confirm the induction of UGT1A1 mRNA and protein expression. The results suggest that foods and herbs containing these constituents should be consumed with caution to avoid undesirable drug-drug interactions with co-administered drugs that are substrates for UGT1A1. PMID:24996308

Wang, Junyan; Huang, Minmin; Hu, Haihong; Yu, Lushan; Zeng, Su



Functional food science in Japan: state of the art.  


In 1984, a new science related to functional food was initiated by a National Project team under the auspices of the Japan Ministry of Education and Science. It was followed by a great many academic and industrial studies to occupy a central position in the field of food and nutritional sciences. In 1993, the Ministry of Health and Welfare established a policy of "Foods for Specified Health Uses" (FOSHU) by which health claims of some selected functional foods are legally permitted. Up to now (November 22. 1999), 167 FOSHU products have been born. Since the time (1984) when the concept of functional food" was proposed, it seems that the science in Japan has been progressing along, among others, a unique path of development. The uniqueness is seen in the development of functional foods by minimizing undesirable as well as maximizing desirable food factors. Hypoallergenic foods, developed from their materials by removing allergens, offer a good example. Another characteristic may be found in the field of sensory science which aims at elucidating a molecular logic of the senses of taste and smell in reference to their effects on physiological systems in the body. The paper discusses some characteristics of functional food science in Japan, with special emphasis on these topics. PMID:11216474

Arai, S



Concepts and strategy of functional food science: the European perspective.  


Recent knowledge supports the hypothesis that, beyond meeting nutrition needs, diet may modulate various functions in the body and play detrimental or beneficial roles in some diseases. Concepts in nutrition are expanding from emphasis on survival, hunger satisfaction, and preventing adverse effects to emphasizing the use of foods to promote a state of well-being and better health and to help reduce the risk of disease. In many countries, especially Japan and the United States, research on functional foods is addressing the physiologic effects and health benefits of foods and food components, with the aim of authorizing specific health claims. The positive effects of a functional food can be either maintaining a state of well-being and health or reducing the risk of pathologic consequences. Among the most promising targets for functional food science are gastrointestinal functions, redox and antioxidant systems, and metabolism of macronutrients. Ongoing research into functional foods will allow the establishment of health claims that can be translated into messages for consumers that will refer to either enhanced function or reduction of disease risk. Only a rigorous scientific approach that produces highly significant results will guarantee the success of this new discipline of nutrition. This presents a challenge for the scientific community, health authorities, and the food industry. PMID:10837311

Roberfroid, M B



The Role of Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, and Food Supplements in Intestinal Health  

PubMed Central

New eating habits, actual trends in production and consumption have a health, environmental and social impact. The European Union is fighting diseases characteristic of a modern age, such as obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, allergies and dental problems. Developed countries are also faced with problems relating to aging populations, high energy foods, and unbalanced diets. The potential of nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements in mitigating health problems, especially in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is discussed. Certain members of gut microflora (e.g., probiotic/protective strains) play a role in the host health due to its involvement in nutritional, immunologic and physiological functions. The potential mechanisms by which nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements may alter a host’s health are also highlighted in this paper. The establishment of novel functional cell models of the GI and analytical tools that allow tests in controlled experiments are highly desired for gut research.

Cencic, Avrelija; Chingwaru, Walter



Functional food science and defence against reactive oxidative species.  


This paper assesses critically the science base that underpins the argument that oxidative damage is a significant causative factor in the development of human diseases and that antioxidants are capable of preventing or ameliorating these disease processes. The assessment has been carried out under a number of headings, and some recommendations for future research are made based on the present day knowledge base. The knowledge database (1) Consideration of the basic science that underlies understanding of the role of free radicals in causing cellular pathologies, and the role of antioxidants in preventing this, shows that an imbalance of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defence systems may lead to chemical modifications of biologically relevant macromolecules. This imbalance provides a logical pathobiochemical mechanism for the initiation and development of several disease states. Experimental data obtained in vivo provide evidence that antioxidants function in systems that scavenge reactive oxygen species and that these are relevant to what occurs in vivo. The relevance in vivo of these observations depends inter alia on knowledge of the uptake and distribution of the antioxidant within the human body, and on what tissue levels of the antioxidant may be expected in relation to dietary levels. (2) There is some way to go until validated precise methods are available for measuring biomarkers of oxidative damage in human subjects in vivo under minimally invasive conditions. With respect to oxidative damage in DNa, HPLC and GC-mass spectrophotometry methods have both merits and limitations. Lipid oxidation products in plasma are best measured as isoprostanes or as lipid hydroperoxides using specific HPLC techniques. Development of isoprostane measurement will advance specificity and precision. The measurement of oxidative damage to proteins has some potential but such methods have not been effectively exploited. (3) Epidemiological studies support the hypothesis that the major antioxidant nutrients vitamin E and vitamin C, and beta-carotene (which may or may not be acting as an antioxidant in vivo), may play a beneficial role in prevention of several chronic disorders. More research is needed on the impact of other non-nutrient compounds, such as other carotenoids and flavonoids, on human health. In general, human intervention studies using hard end-points are the gold standard. Trials are restricted mainly to the major antioxidants and do not allow firm conclusions because of inconsistent findings, an insufficient number of studies and the use of varying doses. There is evidence that large doses of beta-carotene may be deleterious to the health of certain subgroups of the population such as heavy habitual smokers. (4) With respect to the safety of administration of supplementary vitamins, vitamin C is safe at levels of supplementation up to 600 mg/d, and higher levels, up to 2000 mg/d, are without risk. Vitamin E has a very low human toxicity and an intake of 1000 mg/d is without risk; 3200 mg/d has been shown to be without any consistent risk. Large intakes of beta-carotene must be viewed with caution because they have been shown to confer detriment to a population at high risk of lung cancer when administered after many years of high risk (smoking) behaviour. Until further work clarifies the situation in heavy smokers with respect to taking supplements, larger doses should be avoided by such individuals. There is little reliable information about the human toxicology of flavonoids and related non-nutrient antioxidant constituents of the diet. (5) The food industry has long experience in the control of oxidative damage in foods and this experience can be used to advantage for the protection of food antioxidants which are beneficial. Some of these, such as vitamins C and E and beta-carotene, are well known, and strategies for their protection in foods are already exploited by food technologies. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:9849355

Diplock, A T; Charleux, J L; Crozier-Willi, G; Kok, F J; Rice-Evans, C; Roberfroid, M; Stahl, W; Viña-Ribes, J



Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults123  

PubMed Central

Background: Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 Puerto Ricans aged 45–75 y living in Massachusetts in relation to cognitive function performances. Design: Food security was assessed with the US Household Food Security Scale. Cognitive function was measured to capture general cognition with a battery of 7 tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning (verbal memory), digit span (attention), clock drawing and figure copying (visual-spatial ability), and Stroop and verbal fluency tests (fluency executive functioning). Results: The overall prevalence of food insecurity during the past 12 mo was 12.1%; 6.1% of the subjects reported very low food security. Food insecurity was inversely associated with global cognitive performance, as assessed by the MMSE score. The adjusted difference in the MMSE score was ?0.90 (95% CI: ?1.6, ?0.19; P for trend = 0.003) for a comparison of participants with very low food security with those who were food secure, after adjustment for age, smoking, education, poverty status, income, acculturation, plasma homocysteine, alcohol, diabetes, and hypertension. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower scores for word-list learning, percentage retention, letter fluency, and digit span backward tests. Conclusions: Very low food security was prevalent among the study subjects and was associated with lower cognitive performance. Further studies, both observational and experimental, are warranted to clarify the direction of causality in this association.

Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Falcon, Luis M; Wilde, Parke E; Tucker, Katherine L



Regulations on health/functional foods in Korea.  


The term "health/functional food" (HFF) refers to food supplements containing nutrients or other substances (in a concentrated form) that have a nutritional or physiological effect whose purpose is to supplement the normal diet. The Korean Health/Functional Food Act that came into effect in 2004 requires these products to be marketed in measured doses, such as in pills, tablets, capsules, and liquids. HFFs are of two types: generic and product-specific. There are 37 ingredients listed in the act for generic HFFs, and if an HFF contains a new active ingredient that is not included in the generic 37 products, it is considered a product-specific HFF. The standardization, safety, and efficacy of a new active ingredient are reviewed by the Korean Food and Drug Administration in order to receive approval as a product-specific HFF. Conforming with international standards and protecting public health requires constant upgrading of the Health/Functional Food Act. PMID:16481090

Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Dai Byung; Lee, Hyong Joo



Mechanisms of Probiosis and Prebiosis: Considerations for Enhanced Functional Foods  

PubMed Central

The technologies of metagenomics and metabolomics are broadening our knowledge of the roles the human gut microbiota play in health and disease. For many years now, probiotics and prebiotics have been included in foods for their health benefits, however we have only recently begun to understand their modes of action. This review highlights recent advances in deciphering the mechanisms of probiosis and prebiosis, and describes how this knowledge could be transferred to select for enhancing functional foods targeting different populations. A special focus will be given to the addition of prebiotics and probiotics in functional foods for infants and seniors.

Saulnier, Delphine M. A.; Spinler, Jennifer K.; Gibson, Glenn R.; Versalovic, James



Functional foods as carriers for SYNBIO®, a probiotic bacteria combination.  


The popularity of functional foods continues to increase as consumers desire flavorful foods that will fulfil their health needs. Among these foods, probiotics may exert positive effects on the composition of gut microbiota and overall health. However, in order to be beneficial, the bacterial cultures have to remain live and active at the time of consumption. The aim of this study was to develop new probiotic food products, such as seasoned cheeses, salami, chocolate and ice-cream with a final probiotic concentration of approximately 10?CFU/daily dose of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® mixed 1:1 (SYNBIO®). The survival and viability of probiotics were determined during the foods shelf-life. The values of viable probiotic bacteria of all dairy and non-dairy foods were between 10? and 10?CFU/g of food at the end of the shelf-life and for some of them the values were maintained even after the expiry date. Based on the results of the current study, all the dairy ("Caciotta" cheese, "Pecorino" cheese, "Büscion" Swiss cheese and "Fiordilatte" ice-cream) and non-dairy ("Ciauscolo" salami, Larded salami, Swiss small salami, milk chocolate, dark chocolate, organic jam and chocolate mousse) food products studied would be excellent vehicles to deliver the probiotic health effects because of the high viability of probiotics during the shelf-life of foods and in some cases even after their expiry date. PMID:22727086

Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cecchini, Cinzia; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto



Functional herbal food ingredients used in type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

From many reports it is clear that diabetes will be one of the major diseases in the coming years. As a result there is a rapidly increasing interest in searching new medicines, or even better searching prophylactic methods. Based on a large number of chemical and pharmacological research work, numerous bioactive compounds have been found in functional herbal food ingredients for diabetes. The present paper reviews functional herbal food ingredients with regards to their anti-diabetic active principles and pharmacological test results, which are commonly used in Asian culinary system and medical system and have demonstrated clinical or/and experimental anti-diabetic effectiveness. Our idea of reviewing this article is to give more attention to these functional food ingredients as targets medicinal foods in order to prevent or slow down the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Li, Yunman



Food webs: reconciling the structure and function of biodiversity.  


The global biodiversity crisis concerns not only unprecedented loss of species within communities, but also related consequences for ecosystem function. Community ecology focuses on patterns of species richness and community composition, whereas ecosystem ecology focuses on fluxes of energy and materials. Food webs provide a quantitative framework to combine these approaches and unify the study of biodiversity and ecosystem function. We summarise the progression of food-web ecology and the challenges in using the food-web approach. We identify five areas of research where these advances can continue, and be applied to global challenges. Finally, we describe what data are needed in the next generation of food-web studies to reconcile the structure and function of biodiversity. PMID:22959162

Thompson, Ross M; Brose, Ulrich; Dunne, Jennifer A; Hall, Robert O; Hladyz, Sally; Kitching, Roger L; Martinez, Neo D; Rantala, Heidi; Romanuk, Tamara N; Stouffer, Daniel B; Tylianakis, Jason M



[Analysis and identification of illegal constituents in health food products implicitly advertizing tonic or slimming effect in the National Institute of Health Sciences in Japan].  


With the prefectural governments' aid of the purchase, the Division of Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Narcotics, National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS) successively has surveyed illegal constituents in health food products implicitly advertizing tonic or slimming effect since the fiscal year of 2002 (slimming type) or 2003 (tonic type). The average numbers of the analyzed products per year are about 100 (slimming type) and 150 (tonic type), respectively. We also continuously distribute standards of authentic samples of several illegal components such as N-nitrosofenfluramine (NFF) and sildenafil (SIL) to prefectural institutes and the average gross number per year is about 140. In the case of slimming type, the fact that the products containing NFF were widely sold in Japanese markets in 2002 is well known. In addition, phenolphthalein, fenfluramine, sibtramine, desdimethylsibtramine, orlistat, mazindol, Rhubarb, Senna Leaf, etc. have been found as illegal constituents. In the tonic type products, we have identified more than 20 synthetic compounds relating to the erectile dysfunction (ED) treatment drugs, SIL, vardenafil and tadalafil (TDF). Since 2005, their synthetic intermediates and the patented but non-approved PDE5 inhibitors also have been found. It should be noted that TDF was found in the shells of capsule in 2009 and that mutaprodenafil was found as pro-drug type illegal component in 2010. In this report identification method of these illegal constituents is briefly described and then analytical trend in this decade is reviewed. PMID:24492223

Goda, Yukihiro



Consumer demand for personalized nutrition and functional food.  


New developments in nutrigenetic research and the European regulation 1924/2006 on health claims have spurred interest in developing and marketing functional food designed for personalized nutrition. Personalized nutrition uses genetic information regarding a person's health risk profile. Specifically adapted nutrition recommendations are claimed to help reducing disease risk. An internet survey was conducted in December 2007 using a sample of 452 randomly selected adults in Germany. The survey instrument assesses if consumers would be willing to participate in genetic risk profiling, if they are interested in personalized nutrition advice and if they desire functional food products adapted to their individual nutrigenetic profile. In addition, we estimate the acceptance of functional food products designed to reduce the risk of cardio-vascular diseases. Consumers have a positive attitude towards the testing of their genetic profile to be used in nutrient advice. About 45 % of the sample would agree to such a test and like to obtain a personalized advice on nutrition. Similarly, more than 40 % of the sample showed a positive willingness to buy the proposed functional food products. Given these results, the concept of personalized nutrition seems promising. However, several challenges remain regarding targeted nutrition advice and food marketing. PMID:19685435

Roosen, Jutta; Bruhn, Maike; Mecking, Rebecca-Ariane; Drescher, Larissa S



Strategies of functional food for cancer prevention in human beings.  


Functional food for prevention of chronic diseases is one of this century's key global challenges. Cancer is not only the first or second leading cause of death in China and other countries across the world, but also has diet as one of the most important modifiable risk factors. Major dietary factors now known to promote cancer development are polished grain foods and low intake of fresh vegetables, with general importance for an unhealthy lifestyle and obesity. The strategies of cancer prevention in human being are increased consumption of functional foods like whole grains (brown rice, barley, and buckwheat) and by-products, as well some vegetables (bitter melon, garlic, onions, broccoli, and cabbage) and mushrooms (boletes and Tricholoma matsutake). In addition some beverages (green tea and coffee) may be protective. Southwest China (especially Yunnan Province) is a geographical area where functional crop production is closely related to the origins of human evolution with implications for anticancer influence. PMID:23679240

Zeng, Ya-Wen; Yang, Jia-Zheng; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Du, Juan; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shu-Ming; Zhu, Wei-Hua



Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (?60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (n?=?200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Results Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p?=?0.045). Conclusions Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers.



The role of rabbit meat as functional food.  


Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functional food ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functional foods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview of the studies performed on the strategies adopted to improve the functional value of rabbit meat. Dietary manipulation has been seen to be very effective in increasing the levels of essential FA, EPA, DHA, CLA, branched chain FA, vitamin E, and selenium in rabbit meat. Dietary fortification with vitamin E or natural products such as oregano essential oil, chia seed oil, and Spirulina platensis microalga seem promising in improving the oxidative stability of rabbit meat while also adding functional ingredients. PMID:21392894

Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Szendro, Zsolt



Microbial inactivation by pulsed electric fields in a batch treatment chamber: effects of some electrical parameters and food constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inactivation of Escherichia coli by high voltage pulsed electric fields in a batch treatment chamber was studied in liquid, solid and semisolid foods or model systems. Treatment heterogeneity was demonstrated and found to be due to the presence of an air bubble trapped inside the chamber. Agitation of the inoculated liquid samples (16 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7,

Pilar Mañas; Laura Barsotti; J. Claude Cheftel



Potential of prebiotics as functional foods – a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Optimum balance of intestinal microbiota can be modulated by such dietary means as probiotics and prebiotics. Combination of probiotics and prebiotics could improve the survivality of probiotic candidate due to availability of substrate for its fermentation and confer greater advantages to the host. The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential of prebiotics as functional foods.

S. Sarkar



Functional food science and the cardiovascular system.  


Cardiovascular disease has a multifactorial aetiology, as is illustrated by the existence of numerous risk indicators, many of which can be influenced by dietary means. It should be recalled, however, that only after a cause-and-effect relationship has been established between the disease and a given risk indicator (called a risk factor in that case), can modifying this factor be expected to affect disease morbidity and mortality. In this paper, effects of diet on cardiovascular risk are reviewed, with special emphasis on modification of the plasma lipoprotein profile and of hypertension. In addition, dietary influences on arterial thrombotic processes, immunological interactions, insulin resistance and hyperhomocysteinaemia are discussed. Dietary lipids are able to affect lipoprotein metabolism in a significant way, thereby modifying the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, more research is required concerning the possible interactions between the various dietary fatty acids, and between fatty acids and dietary cholesterol. In addition, more studies are needed with respect to the possible importance of the postprandial state. Although in the aetiology of hypertension the genetic component is definitely stronger than environmental factors, some benefit in terms of the development and coronary complications of atherosclerosis in hypertensive patients can be expected from fatty acids such as alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. This particularly holds for those subjects where the hypertensive mechanism involves the formation of thromboxane A2 and/or alpha 1-adrenergic activities. However, large-scale trials are required to test this contention. Certain aspects of blood platelet function, blood coagulability, and fibrinolytic activity are associated with cardiovascular risk, but causality has been insufficiently proven. Nonetheless, well-designed intervention studies should be initiated to further evaluate such promising dietary components as the various n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and their combination, antioxidants, fibre, etc. for their effect on processes participating in arterial thrombus formation. Long-chain polyenes of the n-3 family and antioxidants can modify the activity of immunocompetent cells, but we are at an early stage of examining the role of immune function on the development of atherosclerotic plaques. Actually, there is little, if any, evidence that dietary modulation of immune system responses of cells participating in atherogenesis exerts beneficial effects. Although it seems feasible to modulate insulin sensitivity and subsequent cardiovascular risk factors by decreasing the total amount of dietary fat and increasing the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, additional studies on the efficacy of specific fatty acids, dietary fibre, and low-energy diets, as well as on the mechanisms involved are required to understand the real function of these dietary components. Finally, dietary supplements containing folate and vitamins B6 and/or B12 should be tested for their potential to reduce cardiovascular risk by lowering the plasma level of homocysteine. PMID:9849356

Hornstra, G; Barth, C A; Galli, C; Mensink, R P; Mutanen, M; Riemersma, R A; Roberfroid, M; Salminen, K; Vansant, G; Verschuren, P M



Low Q2 proton structure function, using gluon and pseudoscalar meson clouds in the constituent quark framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of the meson cloud approach in the chiral quark model has been extended to include a gluon cloud in order to model the parton densities in the nucleon, based on the constituent quark framework. The splitting functions of a quark to quark-meson and quark-gluon at low Q2 values are used to obtain parton densities in the constituent quark approach. The phenomenological constituent model is employed to extract the parton distributions in the proton. Since we have access to the parton densities at low Q2, we are able to obtain the F2(x, Q2) structure function at low Q2 values. The result is in good agreement with the available experimental data and some theoretical models. To confirm the validity of our calculations, the fraction of the total momentum of the proton which is carried by gluons at high Q2 and the Gottfried sum rule are computed. The results are in good agreement with those expected.

Mirjalili, A.; Yazdanpanah, M. M.; Taghavi-Shahri, F.; Ghorbani, K.



Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function  

PubMed Central

It has long been suspected that the relative abundance of specific nutrients can affect cognitive processes and emotions. Newly described influences of dietary factors on neuronal function and synaptic plasticity have revealed some of the vital mechanisms that are responsible for the action of diet on brain health and mental function. Several gut hormones that can enter the brain, or that are produced in the brain itself, influence cognitive ability. In addition, well-established regulators of synaptic plasticity, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, can function as metabolic modulators, responding to peripheral signals such as food intake. Understanding the molecular basis of the effects of food on cognition will help us to determine how best to manipulate diet in order to increase the resistance of neurons to insults and promote mental fitness.

Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando



Exposure to Anacardiaceae volatile oils and their constituents induces lipid peroxidation within food-borne bacteria cells.  


The chemical composition of the volatile oils from five Anacardiaceae species and their activities against Gram positive and negative bacteria were assessed. The peroxidative damage within bacterial cell membranes was determined through the breakdown product malondialdehyde (MDA). The major constituents in Anacardium humile leaves oil were (E)-caryophyllene (31.0%) and ?-pinene (22.0%), and in Anacardium occidentale oil they were (E)-caryophyllene (15.4%) and germacrene-D (11.5%). Volatile oil from Astronium fraxinifolium leaves were dominated by (E)-?-ocimene (44.1%) and ?-terpinolene (15.2%), whilst the oil from Myracrodruon urundeuva contained an abundance of ?-3-carene (78.8%). However, Schinus terebinthifolius leaves oil collected in March and July presented different chemical compositions. The oils from all species, except the one from A. occidentale, exhibited varying levels of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Oil extracted in July from S. terebinthifolius was more active against all bacterial strains than the corresponding oil extracted in March. The high antibacterial activity of the M. urundeuva oil could be ascribed to its high ?-3-carene content. The amounts of MDA generated within bacterial cells indicate that the volatile oils induce lipid peroxidation. The results suggest that one putative mechanism of antibacterial action of these volatile oils is pro-oxidant damage within bacterial cell membrane explaining in part their preservative properties. PMID:22893019

Montanari, Ricardo M; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Demuner, Antonio J; Silva, Cleber J; Andrade, Nelio J; Ismail, Fyaz M D; Barbosa, Maria C A



Design considerations on the proof of efficacy of functional foods.  


Functional food research encompasses several types of study designs, including observational studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Markers that can predict potential benefits or risks relating to certain health conditions are often the primary endpoints of such studies since a direct measurement of the effect of food on health and well-being and/or reduction of disease risk is often not possible. Whether RCT should be at the top of the pyramid also in nutritional research remains a controversial issue. Undoubtedly, further research is needed to redesign RCT methodology that would adequately serve the need to demonstrate the health effects of foods. We address this functional food research question by assuming that there is a known relationship between the surrogate and the true endpoint explored during the surrogacy assessment. Statistical inference on the true (unobserved) endpoint is derived on the basis of its predicted values. We illustrate this approach through a motivating example from the literature on coronary heart disease, integrated with simulated scenarios. PMID:21942855

Baldi, Ileana; Gregori, Dario



Studies on chemical constituents and bioactivity of Rosa micrantha: an alternative antioxidants source for food, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic applications.  


Rose species have long been used for food and medicinal purposes. Rosa micrantha is one of the rose species that grow feral in the northeastern Portuguese region so-called Nordeste Transmontano. For the first time, chemical composition and bioactivity of their petals, fertilized flowers, unripe, ripening, and overripe hips were evaluated in order to valorize them as sources of important phytochemicals. Chemical characterization included determination of proteins, fats, ash, and carbohydrates, particularly sugars, by HPLC-RI, fatty acids by GC-FID, tocopherols by HPLC-fluorescence, and phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid by spectrophotometric techniques. Bioactivity was evaluated through screening of antioxidant properties: radical scavenging effects, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Ripening and overripe hips showed high nutritional value including proteins, carbohydrates, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, energy, sugars, particularly the reducing sugars fructose and glucose, and ascorbic acid (>693 mg/100 g). Fertilized flowers and petals revealed the highest antioxidant activity (EC(50) > 152 microg/mL) and phenolics, flavonoids, and tocopherols contents (>35 mg/100 g). Furthermore, petals, ripening, and overripe hips are important sources of carotenoid pigments (>64 mg/100 g). Because of the diversity and abundance of antioxidants found in this species, some food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications could be explored. PMID:20426454

Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R



[Inulin and derivates as key ingredients in functional foods].  


Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate that is contained in many vegetables, fruits and cereals. It is industrially produced from the chicory's root (Cichorium intybus) and it is widely used as ingredient in functional foods. Inulin and its derivate compounds (oligofructose, fructooligosaccharides) are usually called fructans, as they are basically based on linear fructose chains. This review presents a description of inulin and its most common derivate compounds: chemical structure, natural sources, physic-chemical properties, technological functionality, industrial manufacturing, analytical method for determination and health benefits: prebiotic, dietary fiber, low caloric value, hypoglycemic action, enhancement of calcium and magnesium bioavailability. Potential benefits: lipid parameters regulation, reduction of colon cancer risk and others, improvement of immune response, intestinal disorders protection. From technological point of view, these compounds exhibit a variety of properties: thickener, emulsifier, gel forming, sugar and fat substitute, humectant, freezing point depression. Inulin and derivates are been used in pharmaceutical, chemical and processing industry as technological additives and excipients. They are also been used for animal feeding. They are been considered as "bioactive" compounds to be proposed as future packaging material. Fructans are proposed to be classified as "functional fiber", according to recent concepts based on physiological effects on individuals. This review of inulin and its derivates was useful to show the broad boundaries of these compounds in the food industry and why they may be considered as key ingredients in the expanding functional food market. PMID:18524324

Madrigal, Lorena; Sangronis, Elba



The role and functionality of Veterinary Services in food safety throughout the food chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Both national Veterinary Services and international standard-setting organisations have now embraced risk assessment as an essential tool for achieving their goals. Veterinarians have key roles in all aspects of the control of food-borne hazards of animal origin, but additional specialist skills are necessary for assessing, managing and communicating risk. Further, the deployment of Veterinary Services must reflect the multi-functional

A. I. McKenzie; S. C. Hathaway


Functional food and diabetes: a natural way in diabetes prevention?  


Diabetes shows a wide range of variation in prevalence around the world and it is expected to affect 300 million by the year 2025. In a prevention framework where banning policies and educational strategies lead the interventions, functional foods (FFs) with their specific health effects could, in the future, indicate a new mode of thinking about the relationships between food and health in everyday life. Functional ingredients, such as stevioside, cinnamon, bitter melon, garlic and onion, ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre and fenugreek, have been addressed for their specific actions towards different reactions involved in diabetes development. New strategies involving the use of FF should be validated through large-scale population trials, considering validated surrogate end points to evaluate the effect of FF in prevention of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22107597

Ballali, Simonetta; Lanciai, Federico



Recent trends in functional food science and the industry in Japan.  


International recognition of functional foods has resulted in the recent global development of this field, which originated in Japan. The national policy on functional foods, in terms of "foods for specified health use", also has been developing and has motivated the food industry to produce a variety of new food items. In Japan as well as in many other countries, academic and industrial scientists have been working in collaboration for the analysis and practical applications of functional food science. Emphasis has been placed on the study of antioxidant and anticarcinogenic food factors as well as pre- and probiotics. This review pinpoints recent trends in the science and industry in this field. PMID:12450110

Arai, Soichi; Morinaga, Yasushi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Ichiishi, Eiichiro; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Morotomi, Masami; Shimizu, Makoto; Kuwata, Tamotsu; Kaminogawa, Shuichi



Dopamine Genetics and Function in Food and Substance Abuse  

PubMed Central

Having entered the genomics era with confidence in the future of medicine, including psychiatry, identifying the role of DNA and polymorphic associations with brain reward circuitry has led to a new understanding of all addictive behaviors. It is noteworthy that this strategy may provide treatment for the millions who are the victims of “Reward Deficiency Syndrome” (RDS) a genetic disorder of brain reward circuitry. This article will focus on drugs and food being mutuality addictive, and the role of dopamine genetics and function in addictions, including the interaction of the dopamine transporter, and sodium food. We will briefly review our concept that concerns the genetic antecedents of multiple–addictions (RDS). Studies have also shown that evaluating a panel of established reward genes and polymorphisms enables the stratification of genetic risk to RDS. The panel is called the “Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS)”, and is a tool for the diagnosis of a genetic predisposition for RDS. The use of this test, as pointed out by others, would benefit the medical community by identifying at risk individuals at a very early age. We encourage, in depth work in both animal and human models of addiction. We encourage further exploration of the neurogenetic correlates of the commonalities between food and drug addiction and endorse forward thinking hypotheses like “The Salted Food Addiction Hypothesis”.

Blum, K; Oscar-Berman, M; Barh, D; Giordano, J; Gold, MS



Biguanide related compounds in traditional antidiabetic functional foods.  


Biguanides such as metformin are widely used worldwide for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The identification of guanidine and related compounds in French lilac plant (Galega officinalis L.) led to the development of biguanides. Despite of their plant origin, biguanides have not been reported in plants. The objective of this study was to quantify biguanide related compounds (BRCs) in experimentally or clinically substantiated antidiabetic functional plant foods and potatoes. The corrected results of the Voges-Proskauer (V-P) assay suggest that the highest amounts of BRCs are present in green curry leaves (Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel) followed by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), green bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Descourt.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Whereas, garlic (Allium sativum L.), and sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.) contain negligible amounts of BRCs. In addition, the possible biosynthetic routes of biguanide in these plant foods are discussed. PMID:23411283

Perla, Venu; Jayanty, Sastry S



From functional food to medicinal product: Systematic approach in analysis of polyphenolics from propolis and wine  

PubMed Central

In the last decade we have been working on standardization of propolis extract and determination of active constituents of wine those are rich in polyphenolics and have nutritional as well as therapeutic value. Here we are summarizing our results and providing overview on systematic approach how to analyse natural products rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids. Chromatographic methods (thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography) were used for identification, quantification, and characterization of individual flavonoid or phenolic acid. Total content of active constituents and antioxidant activity were determined by spectrophotometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and using appropriate software. Quantitative structure-activity relationship study of antioxidant activity was conducted, as well as assessment of prolonged propolis supplementation on antioxidative status of organism. Thin layer chromatography-densitometry has been proven as quick and reliable method for standard analysis of propolis and wine; the best mobile phase being chloroform – methanol – formic acid (98–100%) in ratio 44 : 3.5 : 2.5 (v/v). Higher number of polyphenolics was determined by high performance liquid chromatography; 15 compared to 9 by thin layer chromatography. Interactions in situ with acetylsalicylic acid were detected with most of polyphenolics analysed. Plasma protein binding and blood-barrier penetration was greatest for flavone. The interactions with human serum albumin have been grater than 95% for all flavonoids analysed. The prolonged propolis consumption increased superoxide dismutase activity. The necessity of standardization of natural products and their registration as functional nutraceuticals demand easy, quick and inexpensive methods of analysis. In this work we provided overview of analytical part for polyphenolics that could be used as data for possible registration of final products either as functional food or medicinal product. This feature introduces the readers to the authors' research through a concise overview of the selected topic. Reference to important work from others in the field is included.

Medic-Saric, Marica; Rastija, Vesna; Bojic, Mirza; Males, Zeljan



Functional and nutritional evaluation of supplementary food formulations.  


Two type of ready to eat supplementary food formulations were developed by roller drying based on wheat, soy protein concentrate, whey protein concentrate, and green gram flour and were fortified with vitamins and minerals to meet the one third of the Recommended daily allowance (RDA). The supplementary food formulations contained 20-21% protein, 370-390 kcal of energy and 2,300 ?g of ?-carotene per 100 g serving. The physico-chemical, functional and nutritional characteristics were evaluated. The chemical score indicated that sulphur containing amino acids were the first limiting in both the formulations. The calculated nutritional indices, essential amino acid index, biological value, nutritional index and C-PER were higher for formula II. Rat bioassay showed higher PER (2.3) for formula II compared to formula I (2.1). The bioaccessibility of iron was 23%. Sensory studies indicated that the products were acceptable with a shelf life of 1 year under normal storage condition. However, the formulations were nutritionally better than only cereal based supplementary food formulations available commercially. The product could be served in the form of porridge with water/milk or in the form of small laddu. PMID:24425921

Khanam, Anjum; Chikkegowda, Rashmi Kumkum; Swamylingappa, Bhagya



Selected Functional Foods for Potential in Diseases Treatment and their Regulatory Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant association between diet and human health broaden the consumer concept to look at food not only for its basic nutrition but also for allied health benefits. Nevertheless, a large segment of population is still reluctant to buy functional foods due to ambiguities related to their health claims. This review highlighted the role of functional foods against various physiological

Masood Sadiq Butt; M. Tauseef Sultan



Executive function and food approach behavior in middle childhood.  


Executive function (EF) has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating "hot" affective and "cool" cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation of eating behavior. So far, however, the links between EF and eating behavior have rarely been investigated in children and non-clinical populations. First, we examined whether EF can be divided into hot and cool factors or whether they actually correspond to a unitary construct in middle childhood. Second, we examined how hot and cool EF are associated with different eating styles that put children at risk of becoming overweight during development. Hot and cool EF were assessed experimentally in a non-clinical population of 1657 elementary-school children (aged 6-11 years). The "food approach" behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires. Findings indicate that hot EF is distinguishable from cool EF. However, only cool EF seems to represent a coherent functional entity, whereas hot EF does not seem to be a homogenous construct. This was true for a younger and an older subgroup of children. Furthermore, different EF components were correlated with eating styles, such as responsiveness to food, desire to drink, and restrained eating in girls but not in boys. This shows that lower levels of EF are not only seen in clinical populations of obese patients but are already associated with food approach styles in a normal population of elementary school-aged girls. Although the direction of effect still has to be clarified, results point to the possibility that EF constitutes a risk factor for eating styles contributing to the development of overweight in the long-term. PMID:24904466

Groppe, Karoline; Elsner, Birgit



Executive function and food approach behavior in middle childhood  

PubMed Central

Executive function (EF) has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating “hot” affective and “cool” cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation of eating behavior. So far, however, the links between EF and eating behavior have rarely been investigated in children and non-clinical populations. First, we examined whether EF can be divided into hot and cool factors or whether they actually correspond to a unitary construct in middle childhood. Second, we examined how hot and cool EF are associated with different eating styles that put children at risk of becoming overweight during development. Hot and cool EF were assessed experimentally in a non-clinical population of 1657 elementary-school children (aged 6–11 years). The “food approach” behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires. Findings indicate that hot EF is distinguishable from cool EF. However, only cool EF seems to represent a coherent functional entity, whereas hot EF does not seem to be a homogenous construct. This was true for a younger and an older subgroup of children. Furthermore, different EF components were correlated with eating styles, such as responsiveness to food, desire to drink, and restrained eating in girls but not in boys. This shows that lower levels of EF are not only seen in clinical populations of obese patients but are already associated with food approach styles in a normal population of elementary school-aged girls. Although the direction of effect still has to be clarified, results point to the possibility that EF constitutes a risk factor for eating styles contributing to the development of overweight in the long-term.

Groppe, Karoline; Elsner, Birgit



Linkages between microbial functional potential and wastewater constituents in large-scale membrane bioreactors for municipal wastewater treatment.  


Large-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have been widely used for the municipal wastewater treatment, whose performance relies on microbial communities of activated sludge. Nevertheless, microbial functional structures in MBRs remain little understood. To gain insight into functional genes and their steering environmental factors, we adopted GeoChip, a high-throughput microarray-based tool, to examine microbial genes in four large-scale, in-operation MBRs located in Beijing, China. The results revealed substantial microbial gene heterogeneity (43.7-85.1% overlaps) among different MBRs. Mantel tests indicated that microbial nutrient cycling genes were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated to influent COD, [Formula: see text] -N, TP or sulfate, which signified the importance of microbial mediation of wastewater constituent removal. In addition, functional genes shared by all four MBRs contained a large number of genes involved in antibiotics resistance, metal resistance and organic remediation, suggesting that they were required for degradation or resistance to toxic compounds in wastewater. The linkages between microbial functional structures and environmental variables were also unveiled by the finding of hydraulic retention time, influent COD, [Formula: see text] -N, mixed liquid temperature and humic substances as major factors shaping microbial communities. Together, the results presented demonstrate the utility of GeoChip-based microarray approach in examining microbial communities of wastewater treatment plants and provide insights into the forces driving important processes of element cycling. PMID:24675272

Sun, Yanmei; Shen, Yue-xiao; Liang, Peng; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng; Huang, Xia



Development of a locally sustainable functional food based on mutandabota, a traditional food in southern Africa.  


A probiotic dairy product was developed on the basis of a traditional dish called mutandabota to enable resource-poor populations in southern Africa to benefit from a functional food. Mutandabota is widely consumed in rural southern Africa, making it an ideal food matrix to carry probiotics. First, a process to produce probiotic mutandabota was designed. Raw cow milk was boiled and subsequently cooled to ambient temperature (25°C). Next, dry pulp from the fruit of the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L.) was added to the milk at a concentration of 4% (wt/vol). This mixture was inoculated with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba and left to ferment for 24h, while the growth of the bacterial culture was monitored. Final ingredients were then added to produce probiotic mutandabota that had 14% (wt/vol) baobab fruit pulp and 7% (wt/vol) sugar in cow milk. The pH of probiotic mutandabota was pH 3.5, which ensures that the product is microbiologically safe. The viable plate count of L. rhamnosus yoba increased from 5.8±0.3 log cfu/mL at the point of inoculation to 8.8±0.4 log cfu/mL at the moment of consumption, thereby meeting the criterion to have a viable count of the probiotic bacterium in excess of 6 log cfu/mL of a product. Baobab fruit pulp at 4% promoted growth of L. rhamnosus yoba with a maximal specific growth rate (?max) of 0.6±0.2/h at 30°C. The developed technology, though specific for this particular product, has potential to be applied for the delivery of probiotics through a variety of indigenous foods in different regions of the world. Upon consumption, probiotic mutandabota is expected to improve the population's intestinal health, which is especially relevant for vulnerable target groups such as children and elderly people. PMID:24630646

Mpofu, Augustine; Linnemann, Anita R; Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco; Nout, M J R; Smid, Eddy J



Dietary constituents are able to play a beneficial role in canine epidermal barrier function.  


Epidermal barrier function is a critical attribute of mammalian skin. The barrier is responsible for preventing skin-associated pathologies through controlling egress of water and preventing ingress of environmental agents. Maintaining the quality and integrity of the epidermal barrier is therefore of considerable importance. Structurally, the barrier is composed of two main parts, the corneocytes and the intercellular lamellar lipid. The epidermal lamellar lipid comprises mainly ceramides, sterols and fatty acids. Twenty-seven nutritional components were screened for their ability to upregulate epidermal lipid synthesis. Seven of the 27 nutritional components (pantothenate, choline, nicotinamide, histidine, proline, pyridoxine and inositol) were subsequently retested using an in vitro transepidermal diffusion experimental model, providing a functional assessment of barrier properties. Ultimately, the best performing five nutrients were fed to dogs at supplemented concentrations in a 12-week feeding study. Barrier function was measured using transepidermal water loss (TEWL). It was found that a combination of pantothenate, choline, nicotinamide, histidine and inositol, when fed at supplemented concentrations, was able to significantly reduce TEWL in dogs after 9 weeks. PMID:16364034

Watson, Adrian L; Fray, Tim R; Bailey, Julie; Baker, Claire B; Beyer, Sally A; Markwell, Peter J



The Vitamin B Complex and its constituents in functional digestive disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a A high percentage of patients with functional digestive disturbances are improved by the administration of a Vitamin B complex\\u000a concentrate in large doses. 2. That these patients are deficient in the Vitamin B complex is suggested not only by the results\\u000a of therapy, but, also by the demonstration of an abnormlly low excretion of one of the B

Paris F. Chesley; Jean Dunbar; Lathan A. Crandall



Advances in the development of functional foods from buckwheat.  


Buckwheat originated in North or East Asia and is widely adapted in North America. It has been grown since at least 1000 BC in China. It has very strong adaptability to adverse environments with a very short growing span. Many varieties are growing around the world, but mainly in the north hemisphere. Currently the most common buckwheat spice is Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (common buckwheat or sweet buckwheat), while Fagopyrum tartaricum is also available in some mountainous regions. Many nutraceutical compounds exist in buckwheat seeds and other tissues. Buckwheat has been used and will be better used as an important raw material for functional food production. In this review we focus on works related to the development of functional foods from common buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. A lot of research has be conducted in the functionalities and properties of buckwheat proteins, flavonoids, flavones, phytosterols, thiamin-binding proteins, and other rare compounds in buckwheat seeds. Buckwheat proteins have unique amino acid composition with special biological activities of cholesterol-lowering effects, antihypertensition effects, and improving the constipation and obisity conditions by acting similar as to dietary fiber and interrupting the in vivo metabolisms. The trypsin inhibitors isolated from buckwheat seeds are heat stable and can cause poor digestion if they are not suitably cooked before consumption. The allergenic proteins existing in the buckwheat seeds and their derivatives were reviewed with respect to their chemical and biochemical characteristics as well as the physiological reactions after digestion. Some possible mechanisms involved in these effects are discussed in this review. Experiments, both with animal models and with human beings, revealed that buckwheat flour can improve diabetes, obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and constipation. Methods to exploit buckwheat seeds and flour to produce highly effective nutraceuticals are also reviewed. PMID:11592684

Li, S Q; Zhang, Q H



Taurine as a constituent of mitochondrial tRNAs: new insights into the functions of taurine and human mitochondrial diseases  

PubMed Central

Taurine (2-aminoethanesulphonic acid), a naturally occurring, sulfur-containing amino acid, is found at high concentrations in mammalian plasma and tissues. Although taurine is involved in a variety of processes in humans, it has never been found as a component of a protein or a nucleic acid, and its precise biochemical functions are not fully understood. Here, we report the identification of two novel taurine-containing modified uridines (5-taurinomethyluridine and 5-taurinomethyl-2-thiouridine) in human and bovine mitochondrial tRNAs. Our work further revealed that these nucleosides are synthesized by the direct incorporation of taurine supplied to the medium. This is the first reported evidence that taurine is a constituent of biological macromolecules, unveiling the prospect of obtaining new insights into the functions and subcellular localization of this abundant amino acid. Since modification of these taurine-containing uridines has been found to be lacking in mutant mitochondrial tRNAs for Leu(UUR) and Lys from pathogenic cells of the mitochondrial encephalomyopathies MELAS and MERRF, respectively, our findings will considerably deepen our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of mitochondrial encephalomyopathic diseases.

Suzuki, Takeo; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Wada, Takeshi; Saigo, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Kimitsuna



Novel functional foods from vegetable matrices impregnated with biologically active compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional foods affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects, to either improve stage of health and well-being and\\/or reduce the risk of disease. Lastly, the range of functional foods has grown tremendously. One of the main objectives of the multinational collaborative project entitled “Emerging preservation techniques for foods of concern in Ibero-America” (CYTED

Stella M. Alzamora; Daniela Salvatori; María S. Tapia; Aurelio López-Malo; Jorge Welti-Chanes; Pedro Fito




EPA Science Inventory

Effect of Oil Combustion Particle Bioavailable Constituents on Ex Vivo Vascular Function of Aortae Recovered from Healthy and Early Type 2 Diabetic Rats KL Dreher1, SE Kelly2, SD Proctor2, and JC Russell2. 1National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, US EPA, RTP, NC;...


Function and importance of glutamate for savory foods.  


Flavoring systems are of vital importance in savory food manufacturing. Many industrially prepared foods are particularly attractive to potential consumers primarily because of their typical flavors. Therefore, it is no surprise that the food industry dealing with these product segments shows great interest in the use of food or food ingredients carrying the typical umami taste and flavor enhancement systems. Figures are provided showing the importance of glutamate in traditional cuisines and also in meals prepared by industrial manufacturing. It is also interesting to see how food intake patterns of glutamate differ from one cultural group to another. The ever-growing importance of balanced food formulations (carbohydrates, fats, proteins and minerals) brings special challenges to the use of different ingredients, requiring development of appropriate flavor delivery systems. Again flavor enhancement is of great importance. Questions about the addition of glutamate or the total glutamate content of foods are of little importance, from a scientific point of view. However, in a given legal framework, important business opportunities can be realized. One of the main concerns of manufacturers of savory food is how to provide the consumer with tasty foods while complying with increasingly severe local legal constraints concerning the use of many potent flavoring systems. PMID:10736352

Loliger, J



Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health  

PubMed Central

In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward the field of free radical chemistry. Free radicals reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are generated by our body by various endogenous systems, exposure to different physiochemical conditions or pathological states. A balance between free radicals and antioxidants is necessary for proper physiological function. If free radicals overwhelm the body's ability to regulate them, a condition known as oxidative stress ensues. Free radicals thus adversely alter lipids, proteins, and DNA and trigger a number of human diseases. Hence application of external source of antioxidants can assist in coping this oxidative stress. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole have recently been reported to be dangerous for human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with antioxidative activity has been intensified in recent years. The present review provides a brief overview on oxidative stress mediated cellular damages and role of dietary antioxidants as functional foods in the management of human diseases.

Lobo, V.; Patil, A.; Phatak, A.; Chandra, N.



Food, feed or medicine: The multiple functions of edible wild plants in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the edible wild plants that are included in local food baskets have both therapeutic and dietary functions. Such medicinal\\u000a foods have been part of Eastern medicinal theories since ancient times and have recently received attention in the USA and\\u000a Europe within the fields of functional foods, neutraceuticals and phyto-nutrients.\\u000a \\u000a This paper provides an example from Vietnam of the

Britta M. Ogle; Ho Thi Tuyet; Hoang Nghia Duyet; Nguyen Nhut Xuan Dung



European regulations on nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and functional foods: a framework based on safety.  


This article describes the legislation that is relevant in the marketing of functional foods in the European Union (EU), how this legislation was developed as well as some practical consequences for manufacturers, marketers and consumers. It also addresses some concrete examples of how the EU's safety requirements for food products have impacted a range of product categories. In the late nineties, research into functional ingredients was showing promising prospects for the use of such ingredients in foodstuffs. Due mainly to safety concerns, these new scientific developments were accompanied by an urgent call for legislation. The European Commission 2000 White Paper on Food Safety announced some 80 proposals for new and improved legislation in this field. Among others, it foresaw the establishment of a General Food Law Regulation, laying down the principles of food law and the creation of an independent Food Authority endowed with the task of giving scientific advice on issues based upon scientific risk assessment with clearly separated responsibilities for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. Since then, more than 90% of the White Paper proposals have been implemented. However, there is not, as such, a regulatory framework for 'functional foods' or 'nutraceuticals' in EU Food Law. The rules to be applied are numerous and depend on the nature of the foodstuff. The rules of the general food law Regulation are applicable to all foods. In addition, legislation on dietetic foods, on food supplements or on novel foods may also be applicable to functional foods depending on the nature of the product and on their use. Finally, the two proposals on nutrition and health claims and on the addition of vitamins and minerals and other substances to foods, which are currently in the legislative process, will also be an important factor in the future marketing of 'nutraceuticals' in Europe. The cornerstone of EU legislation on food products, including functional foods and nutraceuticals is 'safety'. Decisions on the safety-basis of legislation are based on risk analysis, in which scientific risk assessment is performed by the European Food Safety Authority and risk management is performed by the European Commission, the Member States, and in case of legislation, together with the European Parliament. In the risk management phase, both the precautionary principle and other legitimate factors may be considered in choosing the best way of dealing with an issue. Due to the numerous pieces of legislation applying and to the different procedures to be followed, the process of having 'functional foods' ready for the market is certainly a costly and time-consuming task. However, it may also be clearly worth it in terms of market success and improved consumer health. PMID:16469424

Coppens, Patrick; da Silva, Miguel Fernandes; Pettman, Simon



The Use of Health Functional Foods in Gastrointestinal Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

As an adjunct to cancer treatment, the use of health functional foods (HFFs) seems to be increasing. However, little is known for the use of HFFs among cancer patients in Korea. The aims of this study were to investigate the exposure rate of HFF use among gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients and to examine the relationship of socio-demographic and disease-related characteristics with the use of HFFs. A total of 126 patients diagnosed with GI cancer participated in the study. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a questionnaire. Over a half of all the patients surveyed (n = 67; 53.2%) used HFFs. Patients who were younger, had higher income, or longer duration of disease showed a trend to use HFFs more frequently, even though the tendency was not statistically significant. The most commonly used HFF was vitamin complex (n = 20; 16%), followed by red ginseng (n = 15; 12%), and sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) (n = 11; 8.8%). About 26% of all responders expressed concerns for using HFFs. The primary concern was 'going against physician's recommendations' (36.8%). About 63% of respondents expressed a desire to consult with their physicians and follow their recommendations. More basic scientific data and educational materials regarding HFFs are required for both health-care professionals and cancer patients. A larger sample and size-controlled groups representing each cancer type will continue to be recruited for participation in this survey.

Kang, Hwa Pyoung; Lee, Hosun; Oh, Tak Geun; Lee, Kyong Joo; Park, Soo Jung; Kim, Seung Up; Lee, Hyuk; Park, Jun Chul; Hong, Sung Pil; Park, Jun Yong; Park, Jeong Youp; Bang, Seungmin; Kim, Do Young; Cheon, Jae Hee; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Tae Il; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young



Consumption of organic and functional food. A matter of well-being and health?  


Health is an important motivation for the consumption of both organic and functional foods. The aim of this study was to clarify to what extent the consumption of organic and functional foods are characterized by a healthier lifestyle and a higher level of well-being. Moreover, the influence of social desirability on the respondents' response behavior was of interest and was also analyzed. Well-being and health was measured in a sample of 555 German consumers at two levels: the cognitive-emotional and the behavioral level. The results show that although health is an important aspect for both functional food and organic food consumption, these two forms of consumption were influenced by different understandings of health: organic food consumption is influenced by an overall holistic healthy lifestyle including a healthy diet and sport, while functional food consumption is characterized by small "adjustments" to lifestyle to enhance health and to increase psychological well-being. An overlap between the consumption of organic and functional food was also observed. This study provides information which enables a better characterization of the consumption of functional food and organic food in terms of well-being and health. PMID:24630940

Goetzke, Beate; Nitzko, Sina; Spiller, Achim



Structural Design Principles for Delivery of Bioactive Components in Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been major advances in the design and fabrication of structured delivery systems for the encapsulation of nutraceutical and functional food components. A wide variety of delivery systems is now available, each with its own advantages and disadvantages for particular applications. This review begins by discussing some of the major nutraceutical and functional food components that need to be

David Julian McClements; Eric Andrew Decker; Jochen Weiss



Food Sources

Understanding what foods contribute to energy, nutrient, and food group intake enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and gives context for dietary guidance. Examining the top sources of dietary constituents that should be reduced is especially helpful for identifying targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment.


Relation of Reward from Food Intake and Anticipated Food Intake to Obesity: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that obese individuals experience greater reward from food consumption (consummatory food reward) and anticipated consumption (anticipatory food reward) than lean individuals using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 33 adolescent girls (M age = 15.7 SD = 0.9). Obese relative to lean adolescent girls showed greater activation bilaterally in the gustatory cortex (anterior and mid insula, frontal operculum) and in somatosensory regions (parietal operculum and Rolandic operculum) in response to anticipated intake of chocolate milkshake (versus a tasteless solution) and to actual consumption of milkshake (versus a tasteless solution); these brain regions encode the sensory and hedonic aspects of food. However, obese relative to lean adolescent girls also showed decreased activation in the caudate nucleus in response to consumption of milkshake versus a tasteless solution, potentially because they have reduced dopamine receptor availability. Results suggest that individuals who show greater activation in the gustatory cortex and somatosensory regions in response to anticipation and consumption of food, but who show weaker activation in the striatum during food intake, may be at risk for overeating and consequent weight gain.

Stice, Eric; Spoor, Sonja; Bohon, Cara; Veldhuizen, Marga; Small, Dana



A study of consumers' perceptions and prediction of consumption patterns for generic health functional foods.  


The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) revised the Health Functional Food Act in 2008 and extended the form of health functional foods to general food types. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate consumers' perceptions of the expanded form of health functional food and to predict consumption patterns. For this study, 1,006 male and female adults aged 19 years and older were selected nationwide by multi-stage stratified random sampling and were surveyed in 1:1 interviews. The questionnaire survey was conducted by Korea Gallup. The subjects consisted of 497 (49.4%) males and 509 (50.6%) females. About 57.9% of the subjects recognized the KFDA's permission procedures for health functional foods. Regarding the health functional foods that the subjects had consumed, red ginseng products were the highest (45.3%), followed by nutritional supplements (34.9%), ginseng products (27.9%), lactobacillus-containing products (21.0%), aloe products (20.3%), and Japanese apricot extract products (18.4%). Opinions on expanding the form of health functional foods to general food types scored 4.7 points on a 7-point scale, showing positive responses. In terms of the effects of medicine-type health functional foods versus generic health functional foods, the highest response was 'same effects if the same ingredients are contained' at a rate of 34.7%. For intake frequency by food type, the response of 'daily consistent intake' was 31.7% for capsules, tablets, and pills, and 21.7% for extracts. For general food types, 'daily consistent intake' was 44.5% for rice and 22.8% for beverages, which were higher rates than those for medicine types. From the above results, consumers had positive opinions of the expansion of health functional foods to generic forms but are not expected to maintain accurate intake frequencies or amounts. Thus, continuous promotion and education are needed for proper intake of generic health functional foods. PMID:21994526

Kang, Nam E; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Yeon Kyoung; Lee, Hye Young; Kim, Woo Kyoung



Functional foods and food supplements for athletes: from myths to benefit claims substantiation through the study of selected biomarkers.  


The development of the sports food market and industrial involvement have led to numerous nutritional studies to define the type of nutrients that are most suited to support energy metabolism, fluid balance and muscle function. The key question in many of these studies was: 'Does the product lead to a significant product/consumer benefit that can be used as a claim on the package?' New methods and techniques have been developed, partly with sponsorship of the food industry, with the goal of measuring the effects of specific nutrients and supplements on athletic performance and metabolism. In line with this development, a wide variety of supplements and sports foods/drinks labelled with various performance or health benefit statements have been launched on the sports nutrition market. Although a variety of products have been tested clinically, there are also many products on the market with benefit claims that cannot be supported by sound nutritional and sports physiological science. The current short review highlights some of the methods and biomarkers that are used to substantiate product/consumer benefit claims for foods and drinks that are marketed as functional foods for athletes. PMID:12495460

Brouns, Fred; Nieuwenhoven, Michiel van; Jeukendrup, Asker; Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter van



Factors Associated With Food Insecurity Among U.S. Elderly Persons: Importance of Functional Impairments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The authors examined factors associated with the food insecurity of elderly persons in the United States and particularly how functional impairments were associated with food insecurity. Methods. Data were from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-94) and the Nutri- tion Survey of the Elderly in New York State (1994). The authors used multiple logistic regression and

Jung Sun Lee; Edward A. Frongillo


Biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and food webs in fresh waters: assembling the jigsaw puzzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Dramatic advances have been made recently in the study of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (B-EF) relations and food web ecology. These fields are now starting to converge, and this fusion has the potential to improve our understanding of how environmental stressors modulate ecosystem processes and the supply of 'goods and services'. 2. Food web structure and dynamics can exert particularly




Biomarkers of bone health appropriate for evaluating functional foods designed to reduce risk of osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is a growing global problem. The health care costs and decreased productivity and quality of life are staggering. Much research is invested in life-style approaches to build peak bone mass during growth to prevent osteoporosis as well as to treat the disease in later life. Functional foods have enjoyed a niche in bone health. Foods fortified with Ca are

Connie M. Weaver; Michael Liebman



Functional properties of anthocyanins and betalains in plants, food, and in human nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthocyanins and betalains play important roles both in plant physiology, visual attraction for pollinators and seed dispersers, but also in food mainly defining its aesthetic value. Since anthocyanin and betalain structures allow to predict only part of their appearance, additional chemical and anatomical functions are required to modulate the appearance of plants and coloured food. Physiological effects that the same

Florian C Stintzing; Reinhold Carle



Executive Cognitive Function and Food Intake in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The current study investigated relations among neurocognitive skills important for behavioral regulation, and the intake of fruit, vegetables, and snack food in children. Design: Participants completed surveys at a single time point. Setting: Assessments took place during school. Participants: Participants were 107 fourth-grade children…

Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann



Development of nutraceutical carriers for functional food applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Nutraceuticals which have nutritional and therapeutic properties cannot be consumed directly due to their off flavor hence, a carrier in the form of microcapsules may be a better option for their application in foods. The purpose of this paper is to describe the preparation of nutraceutical barriers as microcapsulels. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Nutraceutical concentrates were isolated using methanol from

Nasirullah; Pravin Kumar; Rizwan Shariff



Function of Lipophilic Acids as Antimicrobial Food Additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most antimicrobial food additives are lipophilic acids which prevent growth by inhibiting the transport of substrate molecules into cells. The inhibition of transport was also observed in membrane vesicles, even when they were derived from organisms for which growth and transport are not affected by the larger inhibitors.

Ernst Freese; Chingju W. Sheu; Enid Galliers



A mainstay of functional food science in Japan--history, present status, and future outlook.  


The development of food science in the near future probably depends on the advance in functional food science, the concept of which was proposed first in Japan nearly 15 years ago. The new science has been internationally distributed and accepted as conceptually being beyond nutrition. In Japan, however, it traced a unique path of progress in the form of a product-driven rather than concept-driven science. Actually, a number of substances and products with potential for disease risk reduction rather than simply for health maintenance have been investigated for their body-modulating functions. Some of them have been applied in practice to the industrialization of functional foods in terms of "foods for specified health uses" legally defined by new legislation. A variety of sophisticated methods have been introduced as well, including the so-called "XYZ" evaluation system, database construction for assessment of the function, and even the DNA microarray technique. The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries (MAFF) and the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW) also commenced their scientific as well as political activity, with its spread to industries which almost simultaneously began to vigorously investigate functional food products for enlargement of the food market. With all of this as a background, the Japan Liaison of the International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST) hold a function food science symposium on behalf of related scientific bodies including the Japan Section of the International Life Science Institute (ILSI). This paper is an overview compiled from 12 presentations made in the symposium, with the aim of internationally publicizing the activity of functional food science in Japan. PMID:11272811

Arai, S; Osawa, T; Ohigashi, H; Yoshikawa, M; Kaminogawa, S; Watanabe, M; Ogawa, T; Okubo, K; Watanabe, S; Nishino, H; Shinohara, K; Esashi, T; Hirahara, T



[Application of phytases as functional ingredient in foods].  


Various food processing and preparation methods result in a reduction in the phytate content of cereals and legumes. However, in general during these processes, phytate is not fully hydrolysed. To alleviate the aforementioned problems in the production of animal feeds, exogenous phytases (myo-inositol hexaphosphate phosphohydrolases) have been widely used. There is great potential, therefore, to use this class of enzymes in the processing and manufacturing of food for human consumption given the capacity to improve mineral bioavailability. This is seen as a way to reduce the risk of mineral deficiency in vulnerable groups including; childbearing women; strict vegetarians; babies consuming soy-based infant formulas; and the inhabitants of developing countries. There is, however, growing evidence to demonstrate the beneficial role played by phytic acid in all human organisms. PMID:19137982

Frontela, Carmen; Ros, Gaspar; Martínez, Carmen



Seaweeds from Vietnam used for functional food, medicine and biofertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several Vietnamese seaweed species have economic importance as food for humans, as industrial materials, as ingredients in\\u000a traditional medicine, and as biofertilizers. The nutritional values of nine representative Vietnamese seaweed species were\\u000a analyzed. In this report, all of the species studied are rich in proteins, lipids (especially polyunsaturated fatty acids),\\u000a vitamins, pigments, and macro- and micro-elements. The effect of the

D. D. Hong; H. M. Hien; P. N. Son



Understanding heterogeneity among elderly consumers: an evaluation of segmentation approaches in the functional food market.  


It is beneficial for both the public health community and the food industry to meet nutritional needs of elderly consumers through product formats that they want. The heterogeneity of the elderly market poses a challenge, however, and calls for market segmentation. Although many researchers have proposed ways to segment the elderly consumer population, the elderly food market has received surprisingly little attention in this respect. Therefore, the present paper reviewed eight potential segmentation bases on their appropriateness in the context of functional foods aimed at the elderly: cognitive age, life course, time perspective, demographics, general food beliefs, food choice motives, product attributes and benefits sought, and past purchase. Each of the segmentation bases had strengths as well as weaknesses regarding seven evaluation criteria. Given that both product design and communication are useful tools to increase the appeal of functional foods, we argue that elderly consumers in this market may best be segmented using a preference-based segmentation base that is predictive of behaviour (for example, attributes and benefits sought), combined with a characteristics-based segmentation base that describes consumer characteristics (for example, demographics). In the end, the effectiveness of (combinations of) segmentation bases for elderly consumers in the functional food market remains an empirical matter. We hope that the present review stimulates further empirical research that substantiates the ideas presented in this paper. PMID:24924413

van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M



Knowledge, perceptions and preferences of elderly regarding protein-enriched functional food.  


Promoting protein consumption in the elderly population may contribute to improving the quality of their later years in life. Our study aimed to explore knowledge, perceptions and preferences of elderly consumers regarding protein-enriched food. We conducted three focus groups with independently living (ID) elderly (N?=?24, Mage?=?67?years) and three with elderly living in a residential home (RH) (N?=?18, Mage?=?83?years). Both the ID and RH elderly were predominantly sceptical about functional food in general. Confusion, distrust and a perceived lack of personal relevance were main perceived barriers to purchasing and consuming these products, although a majority of the participants did report occasionally consuming at least one type of functional food. For the ID elderly, medical advice was an important facilitator that could overcome barriers to purchasing and consuming protein-enriched food, indicating the importance of personal relevance for this group. For the RH elderly, in contrast, sensory appeal of protein-enriched foods was a facilitator. Carrier preferences were similar for the two groups; the elderly preferred protein-enriched foods based on healthy products that they consumed frequently. Future studies should explore ways to deal with the confusion and distrust regarding functional food within the heterogeneous population of elderly. PMID:24798761

van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M



Innovative analytical tools to characterize prebiotic carbohydrates of functional food interest.  


Functional foods are one of the most interesting areas of research and innovation in the food industry. A functional food or functional ingredient is considered to be any food or food component that provides health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Recently, consumers have shown interest in natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in the diet owing to their various beneficial effects for health. Water-soluble fibers and nondigestible oligosaccharides and polysaccharides can be defined as functional food ingredients. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin are resistant to direct metabolism by the host and reach the caecocolon, where they are used by selected groups of beneficial bacteria. Furthermore, they are able to improve physical and structural properties of food, such as hydration, oil-holding capacity, viscosity, texture, sensory characteristics, and shelf-life. This article reviews major innovative analytical developments to screen and identify FOS, inulins, and the most employed nonstarch carbohydrates added or naturally present in functional food formulations. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection (HPAEC-PED) is one of the most employed analytical techniques for the characterization of those molecules. Mass spectrometry is also of great help, in particularly matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), which is able to provide extensive information regarding the molecular weight and length profiles of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Moreover, MALDI-TOF-MS in combination with HPAEC-PED has been shown to be of great value for the complementary information it can provide. Some other techniques, such as NMR spectroscopy, are also discussed, with relevant examples of recent applications. A number of articles have appeared in the literature in recent years regarding the analysis of inulin, FOS, and other carbohydrates of interest in the field and they are critically reviewed. PMID:23420135

Corradini, Claudio; Lantano, Claudia; Cavazza, Antonella



Diet, nutrition intake, and metabolism in populations at high and low risk for colon cancer Determinationof fiber and fiber constituents in food and stools?3  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is described for the determination of total neutral detergent fiber in composite food and stool samples. This procedure also determines hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and cutin + silica in these samples. The quantitation ofpectins which involves a separate independent procedure is also described. The present modified neutral detergent fiber procedure yielded values that were significantly higher than the crude

P Aichutha; N Jayakumari Kurup; M Indira; G Muraleedhara Kurup; Thomas Vargheese; PVG Menon


Structure-function relationships in soft tissue mechanics: Examining how the micro-scale architecture of biochemical constituents effects health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Countless debilitating pathologies exhibit symptoms that result from altered mechanical behavior of soft tissue. Therefore, it is of clinical and economic importance to mechanically evaluate soft tissues and attribute degenerative changes to alterations in structural constituents. The studies presented here focus on the annulus fibrosus and the sclera. Failure in these tissues is common and catastrophic. The annulus fibrosus may fail, resulting in herniation and nerve impingement, or the disc may degenerate over time, resulting in reduced mobility and pain. Similarly, the sclera may degenerate over time with intraocular pressure spurring creep behavior that distends the eye beyond its ideal shape. This causes myopic vision and puts patients at risk of macular degeneration and retinal detachment. These two tissues share a common structural role as the outer wall of a pressure vessel. Also, they are made of strikingly similar constituents, primarily consisting of water, type I collagen, glycosaminoglycans and elastin. The microstructure of these tissues, however, is very different. The annulus fibrosus is representative of an anisotropic tissue. Its well-organized fibril structure was analyzed via polarization modulated second harmonic microscopy in order to characterize fibril architecture. Structurally relevant biochemical constituents were quantified with biochemical assays. Morphologically healthy annulus tended to have a more highly organized microstructure and tended to absorb more strain energy when subject to a tensile load cycle. Given the strong correlation between fibril organization and select mechanical properties, predictive models will likely benefit from a characterization of fibril continuity and orientation coherence. The sclera is representative of an isotropic tissue. Its less-organized fibril structure has evolved to sustain biaxial plane stress. In the sclera, collagen content and associated crosslinks were primary determinants of stiffness. Substantial collagen crosslink accumulation is a primary factor causing the stiffening of sclera with increased age. The influence of crosslinks dominates diffusion and permeability behavior. Exogenous crosslinking may help modulate the mechanical and fluid transport properties of the sclera and cornea. Treatment with methylglyoxal reduces the permeability and increases the stiffness of both. However, differences in the pre-treatment level of organization within the microstructure encourages asymmetric results.

Schultz, David Sheldon


Comparative functionality of soy proteins used in commercial meat food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of soy isolates, concentrates, and texturized flours in meat food products is discussed. Functional characteristics\\u000a of soy products in relation to their market application are reviewed. Soy isolates find more limited usage in meat food systems\\u000a (2%) than the concentrates and textured soy flours (8–12%). In weak meat systems containing large amounts of fat (30–45%),\\u000a the concentrate emulsifier

R. N. Terrell; W. P. Staniec



Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been suspected that the relative abundance of specific nutrients can affect cognitive processes and emotions. Newly described influences of dietary factors on neuronal function and synaptic plasticity have revealed some of the vital mechanisms that are responsible for the action of diet on brain health and mental function. Several gut hormones that can enter the brain, or

Fernando Gómez-Pinilla



Food choice as a key management strategy for functional gastrointestinal symptoms.  


Recognition of food components that induce functional gut symptoms in patient's functional bowel disorders (FBD) has been challenging. Food directly or indirectly provides considerable afferent input into the enteric nervous system. There is an altered relationship between the afferent input and perception/efferent response in FBD. Defining the nature of food-related stimuli may provide a means of minimizing such an input and gut symptoms. Using this premise, reducing the intake of FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di-, and mono-saccharides and polyols)--poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates that, by virtue of their small molecular size and rapid fermentability, will distend the intestinal lumen with liquid and gas--improves symptoms in the majority of patients. Well-developed methodologies to deliver the diet via dietician-led education are available. Another abundant source of afferent input is natural and added food chemicals (such as salicylates, amines, and glutamates). Studies are needed to assess the efficacy of the low food chemical dietary approach. A recent placebo-controlled trial of FODMAP-poor gluten provided the first valid evidence that non-celiac gluten intolerance might actually exist, but its prevalence and underlying mechanisms require elucidation. Food choice via the low FODMAP and potentially other dietary strategies is now a realistic and efficacious therapeutic approach for functional gut symptoms. PMID:22488077

Gibson, Peter R; Shepherd, Susan J



An Overview of Probiotics, Prebiotics and Synbiotics in the Functional Food Concept: Perspectives and Future Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional food concept has, in recent years, moved progressively towards the development of dietary supplementation that may affect gut microbial composition and activities. The rationale behind this derives from a realisation that the human colon contains pathogenic, benign and possibly health promoting species. This microbiota functions in such a manner that the colon is the most metabolically active organ

Cherie J. Ziemer; Glenn R. Gibson



Industry and Consumers Awareness for Effective Management of Functional Animal-based Foods in South Korea.  


In recent years, manufacturers of animal-based foods with health claims have encountered difficulties in the labeling of their products because of a lack of regulation on defining the functionality of animal-based foods. Therefore, this study was conducted to establish the basic requirements for the development of a definition for functional animal-based foods by investigating consumer and industry awareness. Survey data were collected from 114 industry representatives and 1,100 consumers. The questions of the survey included items on production status and future production plans, functionality labeling, promotion plans, establishment of definition, the role of the government, consumer perception, and selection of products. The results show that both industry representatives and consumers believe that legislation and the provision of scientific evidence should be improved for the development of a functional animal-based foods market. The results obtained from this study will contribute to consumer trust by supplying correct information and can be utilized in the industry as basic data for the development of functional animal-based food products. PMID:24551825

Wi, Seo-Hyun; Park, Jung-Min; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jae-Woo; Kim, Jin-Man



Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Dietary factors are important in the pathogenesis of CVD and may to a large degree determine CVD risk, but have been less extensively investigated. Functional foods are those that are thought to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond their basic nutritional functions. The food industry has started to market products labelled as “functional foods.” Although many review articles have focused on individual dietary variables as determinants of CVD that can be modified to reduce the risk of CVD, the aim of this current paper was to examine the impact of functional foods in relation to the development and progression of CVD. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the association between certain dietary patterns and cardiovascular health. Research into the cardio-protective potential of their dietary components might support the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This paper will also compare the effect of individual bioactive dietary compounds with the effect of some dietary patterns in terms of their cardiovascular protection.

Alissa, Eman M.; Ferns, Gordon A.



Fine oil combustion particle bioavailable constituents induce molecular profiles of oxidative stress, altered function, and cellular injury in cardiomyocytes.  


Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between exposure to air particulate matter (PM) pollution and adverse cardiovascular health effects in susceptible subpopulations such as those with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. The mechanism(s) through which pulmonary deposited PM, particularly fine PM2.5, PM with mass median aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microm, affects the cardiovascular system is currently not known and remains a major focus of investigation. In the present study, the transcriptosome and transcription factor proteome were examined in rat neonatal cardiomyocyte (RCM) cultures, following an acute exposure to bioavailable constituents of PM2.5 oil combustion particles designated residual oil fly ash leachate (ROFA-L). Out of 3924 genes examined, 38 genes were suppressed and 44 genes were induced following a 1-h exposure to 3.5 microg/ml of a particle-free leachate of ROFA (ROFA-L). Genomic alterations in pathways related to IGF-1, VEGF, IL-2, PI3/AKT, cardiovascular disease, and free radical scavenging, among others, were detected 1 h postexposure to ROFA-L. Global gene expression was altered in a manner consistent with cardiac myocyte electrophysiological remodeling, cellular oxidative stress, and apoptosis. ROFA-L altered the transcription factor proteome by suppressing activity of 24 and activating 40 transcription factors out of a total of 149. Genomic alterations were found to correlate with changes in transcription factor proteome. These acute changes indicate pathological molecular alterations, which may lead to possible chronic alterations to the cardiac myocyte. These data also potentially relate underlying cardiovascular effects from occupational exposure to ROFA and identify how particles from specific emission sources may mediate ambient PM cardiac effects. PMID:17934955

Knuckles, Travis L; Dreher, Kevin L



Functional network connectivity underlying food processing: disturbed salience and visual processing in overweight and obese adults.  


In order to adequately explore the neurobiological basis of eating behavior of humans and their changes with body weight, interactions between brain areas or networks need to be investigated. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined the modulating effects of stimulus category (food vs. nonfood), caloric content of food, and body weight on the time course and functional connectivity of 5 brain networks by means of independent component analysis in healthy lean and overweight/obese adults. These functional networks included motor sensory, default-mode, extrastriate visual, temporal visual association, and salience networks. We found an extensive modulation elicited by food stimuli in the 2 visual and salience networks, with a dissociable pattern in the time course and functional connectivity between lean and overweight/obese subjects. Specifically, only in lean subjects, the temporal visual association network was modulated by the stimulus category and the salience network by caloric content, whereas overweight and obese subjects showed a generalized augmented response in the salience network. Furthermore, overweight/obese subjects showed changes in functional connectivity in networks important for object recognition, motivational salience, and executive control. These alterations could potentially lead to top-down deficiencies driving the overconsumption of food in the obese population. PMID:22586138

Kullmann, Stephanie; Pape, Anna-Antonia; Heni, Martin; Ketterer, Caroline; Schick, Fritz; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert; Veit, Ralf



Food supplementation and testosterone interact to influence reproductive behavior and immune function in Sceloporous graciosus  

PubMed Central

The energetic resources in an organism’s environment are essential for executing a wide range of life history functions, including immunity and reproduction. Most energetic budgets, however, are limited, which can lead to trade-offs among competing functions. Increasing reproductive effort tends to decrease immunity in many cases; and increasing total energy via supplemental feedings can eliminate this effect. Testosterone (T), an important regulator of reproduction, and food availability are thus both potential factors regulating life-history processes, yet they are often tested in isolation of each other. In this study, we considered the effect of both food availability and elevated T on immune function and reproductive behavior in sagebrush lizards, Sceloporus graciosus, to assess how T and energy availability affect these trade-offs. We experimentally manipulated diet (via supplemental feedings) and T (via dermal patches) in males from a natural population. We determined innate immune response by calculating the bacterial killing capability of collected plasma exposed to E. coli ex vivo. We measured reproductive behavior by counting the number of courtship displays produced in a 20-min sampling period. We observed an interactive effect of food availability and T-patch on immune function, with food supplementation increasing immunity in T-patch lizards. Additionally, T increased courtship displays in control food lizards. Lizards with supplemental food had higher circulating T than controls. Collectively, this study shows that the energetic state of the animal plays a critical role in modulating the interactions among T, behavior and immunity in sagebrush lizards and likely other species.

Ruiz, Mayte; French, Susannah S.; Demas, Gregory E.; Martins, Emilia P.



An approach for evaluating lifelong intakes of functional foods in elderly people.  


Many "functional foods" (FF), common foods with health benefits beyond their nutritive value, have antioxidant properties with the potential to mediate the degenerative changes of aging. A pilot study was conducted among 51 healthy, home-dwelling elderly people aged 70-86 y (51% male) to develop a method for evaluating relationships between lifelong diet and health. A population-based semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess the usual diet. A nonquantitative questionnaire (FF-FFQ) was developed to examine current intake patterns of 33 FF, and at ages 65, 45, 25 and 10 y. Visual and memory cues were employed to help respondents remember past intakes, and their reporting confidence was queried. The instrument was self-administered (among 35%), or administered by a dietitian-interviewer in face-to-face (39%) or telephone (25%) interviews. The FFQ was validated by four dietary recalls statistically adjusted for intraindividual and seasonal variability. The FF-FFQ reliability was assessed in a subsample (n = 20). Mean usual FFQ-derived energy intakes were 7941 +/- 2071 kJ (men) and 7033 +/- 1916 kJ (women). Reported current, regular (several times/mo) FF numbered 18 +/- 4 (men) and 20 +/- 4 (women). These means decreased almost linearly with time; at age 10 y, FF reported were 12 +/- 7 (men) and 15 +/- 4 (women). Men differed from women in their memory of food consumption, food choices and FF intakes. Instrument reliability was good, with 73% identical responses. Food-related memory appears to be linked to dietary knowledge, food preparation experience and availability of foods in the past. The FF-FFQ provides novel data on lifetime FF consumption that may help clarify relationships between diet and health, and the role of diet in aging. PMID:12840210

Shatenstein, Bryna; Payette, Hélène; Nadon, Sylvie; Gray-Donald, Katherine



Quantitative Prediction of Synthetic Food Colors by Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Radial Basis Function Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, quantitative prediction of synthetic food colors by fluorescence spectroscopy and radial basis function neural networks is introduced. Taking Amaranth as an example, for sample solution of Amaranth with different concentrations, the fluorescence spectroscopy excited by the light with the wavelength of 400 nm is measured. The peak wavelength of Amaranth solution fluorescence spectroscopy is about 640 nm,

Chen Guo-qing; Su Zhou-ping; Wu Ya-min; Wang Jun; Wei Bai-lin; Zhu Tuo



Difructose Dianhydrides (DFAs) and DFA-Enriched Products as Functional Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review provides an overview of the current status of the chemistry and biology of di-d-fructose dianhydrides (DFAs) with a focus on their potential as functional foods. The history of this family of cyclic ketodisaccharides has expanded for almost 100 years and offers a paradigmatic example of artificial synthetic molecules that were identified as natural products later on and finally

Carmen Ortiz Mellet; José M. García Fernández



Some commonly fed herbs and other functional foods in equine nutrition: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most herbs and functional foods have not been scientifically tested; this is especially true for the horse. This paper reviews some of the literature pertinent to herbal supplementation in horses and other species. Common supplements like Echinacea, garlic, ginger, ginseng, and yucca are not regulated, and few studies have investigated safe, efficacious doses. Ginseng has been found to exert an

Carey A. Williams; Emily D. Lamprecht



Lactic acid bacteria as functional starter cultures for the food fermentation industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of fermented foods is based on the use of starter cultures, for instance lactic acid bacteria that initiate rapid acidification of the raw material. Recently, new starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria with an industrially important functionality are being developed. The latter can contribute to the microbial safety or offer one or more organoleptic, technological, nutritional, or health

Frédéric Leroy; Luc De Vuyst



Alimentos funcionais em angiologia e cirurgia vascular Functional foods in angiology and vascular surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional foods are defined as products containing some biologically active substance that, when added to usual diet, triggers metabolic or physiological processes, resulting in prevention of diseases and maintenance of health. The objective of this study is to make angiologists and vascular surgeons aware of this topic. The main groups of bioactive substances and their indications are presented. Being a

Douglas Faria; Corrêa Anjo


Expansion and functional diversification of a leucyl aminopeptidase family that encodes the major protein constituents of Drosophila sperm  

PubMed Central

Background The evolutionary diversification of gene families through gene creation (and loss) is a dynamic process believed to be critical to the evolution of functional novelty. Previous identification of a closely related family of eight annotated metalloprotease genes of the M17 Merops family in the Drosophila sperm proteome (termed, Sperm-LeucylAminoPeptidases, S-LAPs 1-8) led us to hypothesize that this gene family may have experienced such a diversification during insect evolution. Results To assess putative functional activities of S-LAPs, we (i) demonstrated that all S-LAPs are specifically expressed in the testis, (ii) confirmed their presence in sperm by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, (iii) determined that they represent a major portion of the total protein in sperm and (iv) identified aminopeptidase enzymatic activity in sperm extracts using LAP-specific substrates. Functionally significant divergence at the canonical M17 active site indicates that the largest phylogenetic group of S-LAPs lost catalytic activity and likely acquired novel, as yet undetermined, functions in sperm prior to the expansion of the gene family. Conclusions Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses revealed the dramatic expansion of the S-LAP gene family during Drosophila evolution and copy number heterogeneity in the genomes of related insects. This finding, in conjunction with the loss of catalytic activity and potential neofunctionalization amongst some family members, extends empirical support for pervasive "revolving door" turnover in the evolution of reproductive gene family composition and function.



Functional foods for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases: cholesterol and beyond.  


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of death and disability in many developed countries. The purpose of this literature review is to establish a recommendation for the intake of functional food ingredients in a healthy diet--such as plant sterols (PSs) in low-fat and functional matrices, fatty acid composition and other nutrients of tree nuts and flavonoids in dark chocolate--for the prevention and treatment of CVD. These three specific functional foods are explored in this review, since there is a higher potential for their increased consumption by the population to prevent CVD. First, PS have been added to various nontraditional matrices, such as low-fat products and functional oils, which have shown cholesterol-lowering effects in most clinical trials. Secondly, a growing number of clinical studies indicate that the beneficial effect of tree nuts may not only be due to their fatty acid composition but to other key nutrients, which may provide supplementary health benefits, such as endothelial cell function, as well as decreasing total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Lastly, flavonoids in dark chocolate may protect LDL-C particles from undergoing oxidative modification. However, some gaps in our knowledge need to be filled before firm recommendations can be made for habitual dark chocolate consumption. Overall, these functional foods should be considered as an addition to current lipid-lowering recommendations for improving CVD risk. PMID:17489672

Rudkowska, Iwona; Jones, Peter J H



Functional foods, herbs and nutraceuticals: towards biochemical mechanisms of healthy aging.  


Aging is associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions, which trigger membrane leakage, release of reactive species from oxygen and nitrogen and subsequent induction of peroxidative reactions that result in biomolecules' damaging and releasing of metals with amplification of free radicals discharge. Free radicals induce neuronal cell death increasing tissue loss, which could be associated with memory detriment. These pathological events are involved in cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and carcinogenic processes. Dietary bioactive compounds from different functional foods, herbs and nutraceuticals (ginseng, ginkgo, nuts, grains, tomato, soy phytoestrogens, curcumin, melatonin, polyphenols, antioxidant vitamins, carnitine, carnosine, ubiquinone, etc.) can ameliorate or even prevent diseases. Protection from chronic diseases of aging involves antioxidant activities, mitochondrial stabilizing functions, metal chelating activities, inhibition of apoptosis of vital cells, and induction of cancer cell apoptosis. Functional foods and nutraceuticals constitute a great promise to improve health and prevent aging-related chronic diseases. PMID:15547316

Ferrari, Carlos K B



Effects of added PGX®, a novel functional fibre, on the glycaemic index of starchy foods.  


The development of lower-glycaemic index (GI) foods requires simple, palatable and healthy strategies. The objective of the present study was to determine the most effective dose of a novel viscous fibre supplement (PGX®) to be added to starchy foods to reduce their GI. Healthy subjects (n 10) consumed glucose sugar (50 g in water × 3) and six starchy foods with a range of GI values (52-72) along with 0 (inert fibre), 2.5 or 5 g granular PGX® dissolved in 250 ml water. GI testing according to ISO Standard 26,642-2010 was used to determine the reduction in GI. PGX® significantly reduced the GI of all six foods (P < 0.001), with an average reduction of 19 % for the 2.5 g dose and 30 % for the 5 g dose, equivalent to a reducing the GI by 7 and 15 units, respectively. Consuming small quantities of the novel functional fibre PGX®, mixed with water at the start of a meal, is an effective strategy to reduce the GI of common foods. PMID:22017917

Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Atkinson, Fiona S; Gahler, Roland J; Kacinik, Veronica; Lyon, Michael R; Wood, Simon



The joint moderating effect of health consciousness and healthy lifestyle on consumers' willingness to use functional foods in Taiwan.  


Functional foods marketed as promoting health or reducing the risk of disease open a promising avenue for consumers to pursue a healthier life. Despite the stable growth in functional foods in Taiwan, at present little is known about whether or not consumers with varying degrees of health consciousness and different healthy lifestyles will have dissimilar attitudes toward functional foods and will vary in their willingness to use them. Regression analysis of this empirical study verifies that consumers' attitudes toward functional foods do have an impact on their willingness to use such foods. Moreover, moderated regression analysis (MRA) reveals that the joint moderator of health consciousness and healthy lifestyle indeed exerts an impact on consumers' willingness to consume functional foods. Finally, one-way ANOVA tests show that there are some differences between the consumers of the "Healthy Life Attentive" group and those of the "Healthy Life Inattentive" one both in attitudes toward and in willingness to consume functional foods. The empirical results and findings from this study would be valuable for the marketers in the functional food industry to formulate marketing communication strategies and facilitate this industry's development. PMID:21609743

Chen, Mei-Fang



Structural design principles for delivery of bioactive components in nutraceuticals and functional foods.  


There have been major advances in the design and fabrication of structured delivery systems for the encapsulation of nutraceutical and functional food components. A wide variety of delivery systems is now available, each with its own advantages and disadvantages for particular applications. This review begins by discussing some of the major nutraceutical and functional food components that need to be delivered and highlights the main limitations to their current utilization within the food industry. It then discusses the principles underpinning the rational design of structured delivery systems: the structural characteristics of the building blocks; the nature of the forces holding these building blocks together; and, the different ways of assembling these building blocks into structured delivery systems. Finally, we review the major types of structured delivery systems that are currently available to food scientists: lipid-based (simple, multiple, multilayer, and solid lipid particle emulsions); surfactant-based (simple micelles, mixed micelles, vesicles, and microemulsions) and biopolymer-based (soluble complexes, coacervates, hydrogel droplets, and particles). For each type of delivery system we describe its preparation, properties, advantages, and limitations. PMID:19484636

McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric Andrew; Park, Yeonhwa; Weiss, Jochen



Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases  

PubMed Central

The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

Lordan, Sinead; Ross, R. Paul; Stanton, Catherine



Marine bioactives as functional food ingredients: potential to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases.  


The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:21747748

Lordan, Sinéad; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine



Difructose Dianhydrides (DFAs) and DFA-Enriched Products as Functional Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This review provides an overview of the current status of the chemistry and biology of di-d-fructose dianhydrides (DFAs) with\\u000a a focus on their potential as functional foods. The history of this family of cyclic ketodisaccharides has expanded for almost\\u000a 100 years and offers a paradigmatic example of artificial synthetic molecules that were identified as natural products later\\u000a on and finally

Carmen Ortiz Mellet; José Fernández


Chemical Effects during Storage of Frozen Foods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)

Powrie, W. D.



The front end of innovation in an era of industry convergence: evidence from nutraceuticals and functional foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industry convergence, defined as a ‘blurring’ of boundaries between industries, induced by converging value propositions, technologies and markets, appears to be a pervasive phenomenon leading to the emergence of inter-industry segments. A current example of convergence can be witnessed in the nutraceuticals and functional foods sector, emerging at the boundary between the food and pharmaceutical industries. Not only technologies blur,

Stefanie Bröring; L. Martin Cloutier; Jens Leker



ALIMENTOS FUNCIONAIS E NUTRACÊUTICOS: DEFINIÇÕES, LEGISLAÇÃO E BENEFÍCIOS À SAÚDE. Functional foods and nutraceuticals: definition, legislation and health benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several factores affect the quality of modern life, therefore the population should be aware about the importance of foods containing substances that promote health, causing an improvement in the nutricional state. The incident of death due to cardiovascular problems, cancer, arteriosclerosos, hepatic diseases, among others, might be controlled trought good habits of feeding. Functional foods and nutraceutics have been considered

Fernanda P. Moraes; Luciane M. Colla


Dynamic modelling of time series data in nutritional metabonomics — A powerful complement to randomized clinical trials in functional food studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional foods are foods or dietary ingredients that provide a health benefit beyond basic nutrition. A new legislation, known as the Nutrition and Health Claims Regulation, defines the legal framework for such claims within the European Union. Any claim about the nutritional or physiological effects of a product must be scientifically demonstrated. In this study, we have focused on the

T. Lundstedt; M. Hedenström; D. Soeria-Atmadja; U. Hammerling; J. Gabrielsson; J. Olsson; J. Trygg



Function and Food Webs of Springs Near Treeline in the Swiss National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated ecosystem function and food web structure of high elevation springs in the Swiss National Park. Functional characteristics were derived from measures of ecosystem metabolism, sediment respiration, and nutrient uptake experiments in 4 springs. Food webs were assessed using stable isotope analysis (C, N) of different ecosystem compartments from 20 springs encompassing 6 different spring types. Gross primary production (GPP) ranged from 2.4 to 4.3 g O2 m-2 d-1 and ecosystem respiration (ER) from 3.6 to 6.7 g O2 m-2 d-1, suggesting springs were net-heterotrophic (P/R<0.75). One iron-oxide rich spring had GPP = 65 and ER = 96 g O2 m-2 d-1. Bacterial abundances (DAPI) ranged from 2-3×108 cells/ml, and benthic sediments were mostly anaerobic. Uptake lengths of both N and P were <50 m, with uptake rates of P at 0.3-3.1 mg m-2 h-1 and N at 57-178 mg m-2 h-1, suggesting springs were important nutrient sinks. Food webs were simple (<8 taxa) and primarily detritus based. The dominate stonefly predator relied on instream production of invertebrates. Terrestrial predators (lycosid spiders) near springs fed on a terrestrial diet. These data suggest these springs derive most of their energy from allochthonous sources and are net-heterotrophic ecosystems.

Robinson, C. T.; Schmid, D.; Svoboda, M.



Stable Binding of Alternative Protein-enriched Food Matrices with Concentrated Cranberry Bioflavonoids for Functional Food Applications  

PubMed Central

Defatted soy flour (DSF), soy protein isolate (SPI), hemp protein isolate (HPI), medium roast peanut flour (MPF) and pea protein isolate (PPI) stably bind and concentrate cranberry (CB) polyphenols, creating protein/polyphenol-enriched matrices. Proanthocyanidins (PAC) in the enriched matrices ranged from 20.75 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 10.68 mg/g (CB-SPI). Anthocyanins (ANC) ranged from 3.19 mg/g (CB-DSF) to 1.68 mg/g (CB-SPI), while total phenolics (TP) ranged from 37.61 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 21.29 mg/g (CB-SPI). LC-MS indicated that the enriched matrices contained all identifiable ANC, PAC and flavonols present in CB juice. Complexation with SPI stabilized and preserved the integrity of the CB polyphenolic components for at least 15 weeks at 37 °C. PAC isolated from enriched matrices demonstrated comparable anti-adhesion bioactivity to PAC isolated directly from CB juice (MIC 0.4 to 0.16 mg/mL), indicating their potential utility for maintenance of urinary tract health. Approximately 1.0 g of polyphenol-enriched matrix delivered the same amount of PAC available in one cup (300 mL) of commercial CB juice cocktail; which has been shown clinically to be the prophylactic dose for reducing recurring urinary tract infections. CB-SPI inhibited gram- positive and gram-negative bacterial growth. Nutritional and sensory analyses indicated that the targeted CB-matrix combinations have high potential for incorporation in functional food formulations.

Grace, Mary H.; Guzman, Ivette; Roopchand, Diana E.; Moskal, Kristin; Cheng, Diana M.; Pogrebnyak, Natasha; Raskin, Ilya; Howell, Amy; Lila, Mary Ann



Stable binding of alternative protein-enriched food matrices with concentrated cranberry bioflavonoids for functional food applications.  


Defatted soy flour (DSF), soy protein isolate (SPI), hemp protein isolate (HPI), medium-roast peanut flour (MPF), and pea protein isolate (PPI) stably bind and concentrate cranberry (CB) polyphenols, creating protein/polyphenol-enriched matrices. Proanthocyanidins (PAC) in the enriched matrices ranged from 20.75 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 10.68 mg/g (CB-SPI). Anthocyanins (ANC) ranged from 3.19 mg/g (CB-DSF) to 1.68 mg/g (CB-SPI), whereas total phenolics (TP) ranged from 37.61 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 21.29 mg/g (CB-SPI). LC-MS indicated that the enriched matrices contained all identifiable ANC, PAC, and flavonols present in CB juice. Complexation with SPI stabilized and preserved the integrity of the CB polyphenolic components for at least 15 weeks at 37 °C. PAC isolated from enriched matrices demonstrated comparable antiadhesion bioactivity to PAC isolated directly from CB juice (MIC 0.4-0.16 mg/mL), indicating their potential utility for maintenance of urinary tract health. Approximately 1.0 g of polyphenol-enriched matrix delivered the same amount of PAC available in 1 cup (300 mL) of commercial CB juice cocktail, which has been shown clinically to be the prophylactic dose for reducing recurring urinary tract infections. CB-SPI inhibited Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial growth. Nutritional and sensory analyses indicated that the targeted CB-matrix combinations have high potential for incorporation in functional food formulations. PMID:23786629

Grace, Mary H; Guzman, Ivette; Roopchand, Diana E; Moskal, Kristin; Cheng, Diana M; Pogrebnyak, Natasha; Raskin, Ilya; Howell, Amy; Lila, Mary Ann



Abnormal intragastric distribution of food during gastric emptying in functional dyspepsia patients.  

PubMed Central

Although delayed gastric emptying is found in some patients with functional dyspepsia, there seems to be little relation between rate of emptying and symptoms. This study examined the hypothesis that food maldistribution rather than gastric stasis may equate to symptoms in such patients and used scintigraphic techniques to quantify the partition of gastric contents between proximal and distal stomach during gastric emptying. Eleven patients with functional dyspepsia characterised by chronic severe postprandial bloating without organic abnormality, and 12 healthy volunteers, ingested a standard meal labelled with technetium-99M (99mTc). Serial images of the gastric area in anterior and posterior projections were taken for 90 minutes, regions of interest for proximal, distal, and total stomach were defined, and activity time curves were derived from the geometric means of anterior and posterior counts. Total emptying in patients (median: 46 minutes; range: 30-76) was not significantly different from controls (45 minutes; 28-58) and only three showed delayed gastric emptying. In controls, food remained predominantly in the proximal half of the stomach after ingestion and then redistributed to the distal half. In the patients, however, initial activity in the proximal half after ingestion (48%; 40-65) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in controls (60%; 39-73) and distributed more fully to the distal half of the stomach with a peak distal activity (56%; 34-58), which was consistently higher than in controls (36%; 33-42) (p < 0.05). It is concluded that this subgroup of functional dyspepsia patients show abnormal intragastric distribution of food, independent of gastric emptying rate. Images Figure 1

Troncon, L E; Bennett, R J; Ahluwalia, N K; Thompson, D G



Dietary thioproline decreases spontaneous food intake and increases survival and neurological function in mice.  


Male mice on a diet supplemented with thioproline (l-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid), a physiological metabolite of 5-hydroxytryptamine, at 2.0 g/kg of food from 28 weeks of age and for their entire life, showed a 23-29% increased median and maximal life span. These survival increases were associated with improved neurological functions. Compared to control mice, thioproline-supplemented mice had a 20% lower integral spontaneous food intake, and 10% lower body weight at 100 weeks of age. Body weight showed a statistically significant inverse relationship with survival and neurological performances. Thioproline-supplemented mice exhibited a 58-70% decrease of the age-dependent oxidative damage in brain and liver mitochondria at 52 weeks (old mice) and 78 weeks (senescent mice) of age, respectively. The age-associated decrease of brain mitochondrial enzyme activities, NADH-dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase, and mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS), in old and senescent mice were markedly prevented (51-74%) by thioproline. In vitro, thioproline neither exhibited direct antioxidant activity nor had any effect on the electron transfer or mtNOS functional activities of brain and liver mitochondria. It is surmised that thioproline induces an anorexic effect associated with improved survival and neurological function through a decreased oxidative damage and regulation that may involve hypothalamic appetite centers. PMID:17115892

Navarro, Ana; Sánchez-Pino, Maria Jesús; Gómez, Carmen; Bández, Manuel J; Cadenas, Enrique; Boveris, Alberto



Food Components and Caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many decades, sugars have been the dietary constituents receiving the most attention in relation to their effects on dental caries. Frequently, however, there is little relationship between the amount of sugar in a food and its ability to induce caries. Therefore, it is clear that constituents in the diet can influence the ability of plaque to lower the pH

W. H. Bowen



Preventive and Prophylactic Mechanisms of Action of Pomegranate Bioactive Constituents  

PubMed Central

Pomegranate fruit presents strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiobesity, and antitumoral properties, thus leading to an increased popularity as a functional food and nutraceutical source since ancient times. It can be divided into three parts: seeds, peel, and juice, all of which seem to have medicinal benefits. Several studies investigate its bioactive components as a means to associate them with a specific beneficial effect and develop future products and therapeutic applications. Many beneficial effects are related to the presence of ellagic acid, ellagitannins (including punicalagins), punicic acid and other fatty acids, flavonoids, anthocyanidins, anthocyanins, estrogenic flavonols, and flavones, which seem to be its most therapeutically beneficial components. However, the synergistic action of the pomegranate constituents appears to be superior when compared to individual constituents. Promising results have been obtained for the treatment of certain diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, intestinal inflammation, and cancer. Although moderate consumption of pomegranate does not result in adverse effects, future studies are needed to assess safety and potential interactions with drugs that may alter the bioavailability of bioactive constituents of pomegranate as well as drugs. The aim of this review is to summarize the health effects and mechanisms of action of pomegranate extracts in chronic inflammatory diseases.

Viladomiu, Monica; Hontecillas, Raquel; Lu, Pinyi; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep



Conjugated linoleic acids as functional food: an insight into their health benefits  

PubMed Central

This review evaluates the health benefits of the functional food, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) - a heterogeneous group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid predominantly found in milk, milk products, meat and meat products of ruminants. During the past couple of decades, hundreds of reports - principally based on in vitro, microbial, animal, and of late clinical trials on humans - have been accumulating with varying biological activities of CLA isomers. These studies highlight that CLA, apart form the classical nuclear transcription factors-mediated mechanism of action, appear to exhibit a number of inter-dependent molecular signalling pathways accounting for their reported health benefits. Such benefits relate to anti-obesitic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetagenic, immunomodulatory, apoptotic and osteosynthetic effects. On the other hand, negative effects of CLA have been reported such as fatty liver and spleen, induction of colon carcinogenesis and hyperproinsulinaemia. As far as human consumption is concerned, a definite conclusion for CLA safety has not been reached yet. Parameters such as administration of the type of CLA isomer and/or their combination with other polyunsaturated fatty acids, mode of administration (eg., as free fatty acid or its triglyceride form, liquid or solid), daily dose and duration of consumption, gender, age, or ethnic and geographical backgrounds remain to be determined. Yet, it appears from trials so far conducted that CLA are functional food having prevailing beneficial health effects for humans.

Benjamin, Sailas; Spener, Friedrich



Non-polyol low-digestible carbohydrates: food applications and functional benefits.  


Many LDCs currently on the market are not digested in the upper gastrointestinal tract and become fermented in the large intestine. They possess physiological benefits similar to those of dietary fibre. For some of these materials the fermentation process is highly specialised and leads to the selective stimulation and growth of beneficial gut bacteria, e.g. bifidobacteria. These materials are described as prebiotics, which are defined as nutrients fermented in the large bowel that favour the growth of desirable large bowel microflora. This activity has been demonstrated for inulin and oligofructose. Two other carbohydrates with low digestibility that offer desirable physiological properties are resistant starch (RS) and polydextrose (PD). These 'functional benefits have led to considerable interest from the food industry leading to the use of these ingredients in the development of new 'healthy' products. This paper describes the use of these materials in the development of 'healthy' products, some of their functional properties, and the benefits they confer on different food systems. PMID:11321026

Murphy, O



Liquid chromatographic determination of St. John's wort components in functional foods.  


A method was developed for determination of St. John's wort marker compounds hypericin, pseudohypericin, hyperforin, and adhyperforin in functional foods. Solid-phase extraction provided analyte extraction and significant sample cleanup prior to analysis using liquid chromatography (LC) with UV and fluorescence detection. In addition to quantification using LC-UV, confirmation was made with electrospray ionization LC mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Several commercially available tea and drink products claiming to contain St. John's wort were tested. Recoveries ranged from 51 to 98% for the liquid samples. Comparison of the concentrations in 4 St. John's wort teas showed a variation in analyte concentration (1044-10 ng/mL marker compounds in brewed tea) and composition. No marker compounds were found in the beverages, indicating possible decomposition of the marker compounds caused by low pH and/or exposure to light. A solvent extraction procedure was developed for analysis of the marker compounds from solid samples. Analytes were detected at low parts per million, with an average recovery of 75%. No St. John's wort components were found in the 2 solid functional food samples analyzed. PMID:15493659

de Jager, Lowri S; Perfetti, Gracia A; Diachenko, Gregory W



Obesity-enhanced colon cancer: functional food compounds and their mechanisms of action.  


Obesity is rapidly becoming a global phenomenon. This is more than a cosmetic issue as obesity is associated with several life-threatening diseases, including colon cancer. Insulin resistance and inflammation, underlying factors in obesity-related diseases, promote colonocyte proliferation and suppress programmed cell death, or apoptosis, by activating the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and prostaglandin pathways. These pathways converge on the Wnt pathway, which is implicated in colon carcinogenesis. Despite tremendous advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in colon carcinogenesis, mortality due to colon cancer world-wide is unacceptably high. Even though conventional therapies can prolong a patient's life-span a few years, they cause serious side effects. Thus, there is growing interest in functional foods and dietary bioactive compounds with chemopreventive properties. This search is fueled by the epidemiological studies indicating that plant-based diets are protective against several types of cancers. This review provides a brief summary of the IGF and prostaglandin pathways, which are implicated in obesity-enhanced colon cancer, and some of the functional foods/dietary compounds that target these pathways. It is essential to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in chemoprevention before providing appropriate science-based dietary recommendations to prevent colon cancer in both obese and non-obese individuals. PMID:18991570

Vanamala, Jairam; Tarver, Christopher C; Murano, Peter S



Mathematical Model of Three Species Food Chain Interaction with Mixed Functional Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study mathematical model of ecology with a tritrophic food chain composed of a classical Lotka-Volterra functional response for prey and predator, and a Holling type-III functional response for predator and super predator. There are two equilibrium points of the system. In the parameter space, there are passages from instability to stability, which are called Hopf bifurcation points. For the first equilibrium point, it is possible to find bifurcation points analytically and to prove that the system has periodic solutions around these points. Furthermore the dynamical behaviors of this model are investigated. Models for biologically reasonable parameter values, exhibits stable, unstable periodic and limit cycles. The dynamical behavior is found to be very sensitive to parameter values as well as the parameters of the practical life. Computer simulations are carried out to explain the analytical findings.

Ws, Mada Sanjaya; Mohd, Ismail Bin; Mamat, Mustafa; Salleh, Zabidin


Evolution of the human diet: linking our ancestral diet to modern functional foods as a means of chronic disease prevention.  


The evolution of the human diet over the past 10,000 years from a Paleolithic diet to our current modern pattern of intake has resulted in profound changes in feeding behavior. Shifts have occurred from diets high in fruits, vegetables, lean meats, and seafood to processed foods high in sodium and hydrogenated fats and low in fiber. These dietary changes have adversely affected dietary parameters known to be related to health, resulting in an increase in obesity and chronic disease, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and cancer. Some intervention trials using Paleolithic dietary patterns have shown promising results with favorable changes in CVD and diabetes risk factors. However, such benefits may be offset by disadvantages of the Paleolithic diet, which is low in vitamin D and calcium and high in fish potentially containing environmental toxins. More advantageous would be promotion of foods and food ingredients from our ancestral era that have been shown to possess health benefits in the form of functional foods. Many studies have investigated the health benefits of various functional food ingredients, including omega-3 fatty acids, polyphenols, fiber, and plant sterols. These bioactive compounds may help to prevent and reduce incidence of chronic diseases, which in turn could lead to health cost savings ranging from $2 to $3 billion per year as estimated by case studies using omega-3 and plant sterols as examples. Thus, public health benefits should result from promotion of the positive components of Paleolithic diets as functional foods. PMID:19857053

Jew, Stephanie; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Jones, Peter J H



How Tactile and Function Information Affect Young Children's Ability to Understand the Nature of Food-Appearing, Deceptive Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool children's (N = 64) ability to use tactile information and function cues on less-realistic and more-realistic food-appearing, deceptive objects was examined before and after training on the function of deceptive objects. They also responded to appearance and reality questions about deceptive objects. Half of the children (F-S:…

Krause, Christina Miles



Food Chains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, you will discover the way food chains function by viewing four different types of food chains and designing your favorite one. How is the flow of energy traced through a food chain? Use your cluster organizer to record information for four different food chains and what the consumers, 1st level consumers, 2nd level consumers, and 3rd level consumers are and what they eat. Begin by viewing ecosystems: Introduction to Ecosystems Now that you know what an ...

Hammond, Ms.



Can a functional food exert a cholesterol lowering effect in renal transplant patients?  


This study examined whether stanols can exert their cholesterol lowering effect in renal transplant recipients who develop hypercholesterolaemia. The rise in cholesterol is related to the use of cyclosporine. The study was a randomised parallel-group intervention study. The Intervention group (I) was given three months supply of stanol containing food products. Fasting serum lipids were measured monthly. Parameters that might influence serum cholesterol were measured on all subjects at the start of the study period and at three months. These included body weight, blood pressure and drug therapy, dietary intake, exercise, smoking and alcohol intake. 84 patients completed the study. Cholesterol was reduced in both groups. The difference between control (C) and I group reached significance at p = 0.0196. Reduction in cholesterol in subjects also using statins was greater in the I group. Functional foods appear to be effective in reducing cholesterol in this group of patients. Data collection with respect to other factors that influence CV risk suggests that an overall assessment of diet and lifestyle as well as cholesterol lowering should be undertaken. PMID:19200277

Sutton, Debbie; Davey, Trish; Venkatraman, G; Hart, Kathryn



Migration of model contaminants from PET bottles: influence of temperature, food simulant and functional barrier.  


To simulate post-consumer recycled plastics, selected model contaminants were incorporated into PET bottles using a time saving method. Migration into 3% acetic acid, a cola-type beverage and 95% ethanol was followed during 1 year of storage at 20 and 40 degrees C. Aroma compounds previously found in post-consumer PET material were used as model contaminants. Benzaldehyde was found to migrate to the highest extent. Storage at 40 degrees C affected the bottle material and this might be one reason for the high migration values of these bottles. Migration into ethanol was up to 20 times higher than into 3% acetic acid or a cola-type beverage. Bottles with a functional barrier resisted migration into food simulants even when filled with 95% ethanol and stored for 1 year at 40 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements showed that ethanol was interacting with the plastic material. This resulted in a lower glass transition temperature of bottles stored with ethanol compared with bottles stored empty or with other food simulants. PMID:15712524

Widén, H; Leufvén, A; Nielsen, T



High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods--A Review  

PubMed Central

Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals.

Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid



77 FR 20030 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Reporting Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke Under Section 904(a)(3) of the Federal...HPHCs) in tobacco products and tobacco smoke under the Federal Food, Drug, and...



Bioactive fungal polysaccharides as potential functional ingredients in food and nutraceuticals.  


Fungal bioactive polysaccharides deriving mainly from the Basidiomycetes family (and some from the Ascomycetes) and medicinal mushrooms have been well known and widely used in far Asia as part of traditional diet and medicine, and in the last decades have been the core of intense research for the understanding and the utilization of their medicinal properties in naturally produced pharmaceuticals. In fact, some of these biopolymers (mainly ?-glucans or heteropolysaccharides) have already made their way to the market as antitumor, immunostimulating or prophylactic drugs. The fact that many of these biopolymers are produced by edible mushrooms makes them also very good candidates for the formulation of novel functional foods and nutraceuticals without any serious safety concerns, in order to make use of their immunomodulating, anticancer, antimicrobial, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic and health-promoting properties. This article summarizes the most important properties and applications of bioactive fungal polysaccharides and discusses the latest developments on the utilization of these biopolymers in human nutrition. PMID:24518400

Giavasis, Ioannis



Genetic diversity of functional food species Spinacia oleracea L. by protein markers.  


Exploration of genetic diversity contributes primarily towards crop improvement. Spinaciaoleracea L. is a functional food species but unfortunately the genetic diversity of this vegetable is still unexplored. Therefore, this research was planned to explore the genetic diversity of S. oleracea by using morphological and protein markers. Protein profile of 25 accessions was generated on sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel. Total allelic variation of 27 bands was found. Out of these, 20 were polymorphic and the rest of the bands were monomorphic. Molecular weights of the bands ranged from 12.6 to 91.2 kDa. Major genetic differences were observed in accession 20541 (Peshawar) followed by 20180 (Lahore) and 19902 (AVRDC). Significant differences exist in the protein banding pattern. This variation can further be studied by advanced molecular techniques, including two-dimensional electrophoresis and DNA markers. PMID:24499432

Rashid, M; Yousaf, Z; Haider, M S; Khalid, S; Rehman, H A; Younas, A; Arif, A



Quality Assurance and other Marketing Management Elements as Key Success Factors for Entering a New Market: a Case of Functional Food Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Based on its distinctive profiles functional-food (FF) can be considered as a mixture of food and pharmaceutical items. Apparently, these different characteristics that exist beyond conventional food products contribute success of the commercialization of new innovative FFs. Therefore, assumption can be made by arguing that for the marketing a FF a distinctive marketing-strategic beyond the one usually used for

Rainer Kühl


Quality Assurance and other Marketing Management Elements as Key Success Factors for Entering a New Market: a Case Presentation of Functional Food Market in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on its distinctive profiles functional-food (FF) can be considered as a mixture of food and pharmaceutical items. Apparently, these different characteristics that exist beyond conventional food products contribute success of the commercialization of new innovative FFs. Therefore, assumption can be made by arguing that for the marketing a FF a distinctive marketing-strategic beyond the one usually used for the

Jofi Puspa; Rainer Kuhl



Challenges in discovering bioactives for the food industry.  


Nutritional interventions are associated with transient deviations of homeostasis within the human body. The role of a balanced nutrition is, firstly, to ensure an adequate intake of nutrients to efficiently enable all metabolic processes and, secondly, to contribute to sustained human health. This is a new challenge for the food industry because consumers demand taste and convenience in addition to healthy food. The attempts of the food industry to omit health-adverse compounds, and incorporate constituents with identified beneficial health effects has coined the term 'functional food', encompassing fresh or processed food with health-promoting and/or disease-preventing properties. The active ingredients of these products are known as 'nutraceuticals'. This paper outlines scientific concepts applied to the identification of novel bioactive food ingredients. PMID:18406130

Schwager, Joseph; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Fowler, Ann; Weber, Peter



Chemical constituents of Asparagus  

PubMed Central

Asparagus species (family Liliaceae) are medicinal plants of temperate Himalayas. They possess a variety of biological properties, such as being antioxidants, immunostimulants, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antioxytocic, and reproductive agents. The article briefly reviews the isolated chemical constituents and the biological activities of the plant species. The structural formula of isolated compounds and their distribution in the species studied are also given.

Negi, J. S.; Singh, P.; Joshi, G. P.; Rawat, M. S.; Bisht, V. K.



Applications and bioefficacy of the functional food supplement fermented papaya preparation.  


Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) (a product of yeast fermentation of Carica papaya Linn) is a food supplement. Studies in chronic and degenerative disease conditions (such as thalassemia, cirrhosis, diabetes and aging) and performance sports show that FPP favorably modulates immunological, hematological, inflammatory, vascular and oxidative stress damage parameters. Neuroprotective potential evaluated in an Alzheimer's disease cell model showed that the toxicity of the ?-amyloid can be significantly modulated by FPP. Oxidative stress trigger apoptotic pathways such as the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) are preferentially activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress resulting in cell differentiation and apoptosis. FPP modulated the H?O?-induced ERK, Akt and p38 activation with the reduction of p38 phosphorylation induced by H?O?. FPP reduces the extent of the H?O?-induced DNA damage, an outcome corroborated by similar effects obtained in the benzo[a]pyrene treated cells. No genotoxic effect was observed in experiments with FPP exposed to HepG2 cells nor was FPP toxic to the PC12 cells. Oxidative stress-induced cell damage and inflammation are implicated in a variety of cancers, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular dysfunctions, neurodegenerative disorders (such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease), exercise physiology (including performance sports) and aging. These conditions could potentially benefit from functional nutraceutical/food supplements (as illustrated here with fermented papaya preparation) exhibiting anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunostimulatory (at the level of the mucus membrane) and induction of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:20870007

Aruoma, Okezie I; Hayashi, Yuki; Marotta, Francesco; Mantello, Pierre; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer; Montagnier, Luc



Identification of a new analogue of sildenafil added illegally to a functional food marketed for penile erectile dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new analogue of sildenafil was discovered to have been added illegally to a functional food marketed for penile erectile dysfunction. The structure of the analogue was established by various NMR spectroscopic techniques (including DEPT, COSY, TOCSY, HMQC, HMBC). Because of the addition of a methylene group to sildenafil, the main ingredient of Viagra®, it was given the name homosildenafil,

M.-H. Shin; M.-K. Hong; W.-S. Kim; Y.-J. Lee; Y.-C. Jeoung



Effect of formulation and manufacturing parameters on process cheese food functionality--I. Trisodium citrate.  


The objective of this research was to use a Rapid Visco Analyzer to study the effect of natural cheese age, trisodium citrate (TSC) concentration, and mixing speed on process cheese food (PCF) functionality. In this study 3 replicates of natural cheese were manufactured, and a portion of each cheese was subjected to 6 different PCF manufacturing treatments at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 18 wk of ripening. These treatments were factorial combinations of 3 levels of TSC (i.e., 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0%) and 2 mixing speeds during manufacture (450 and 1,050 rpm). Functional properties of the PCF evaluated included manufacturing properties [apparent viscosity after manufacture (VAM)], unmelted textural properties (firmness), melted cheese flow properties [hot apparent viscosity (HAV)], and cheese thickening during cooling [time at 5000 cP (T5)]. All 4 parameters (VAM, firmness, HAV, and T5) were significantly affected by natural cheese age and mixing speed, whereas VAM, HAV, and T5 were also significantly influenced by the amount of TSC. The VAM and firmness decreased as cheese age increased, whereas T5 values increased as cheese age increased. Similarly, VAM, HAV, and firmness values increased because of the increased mixing speed, whereas T5 values decreased. The age x mixing speed interaction was significant for VAM and firmness. The age x concentration of the TSC interaction term was significant for VAM, whereas the age x age x TSC concentration term was significant for HAV. The results demonstrate that natural cheese age, mixing speed during manufacture, and concentration of TSC have a significant impact on process cheese functionality. PMID:16772554

Purna, S K Garimella; Pollard, A; Metzger, L E



Bioactive foods and ingredients for health.  


Bioactive compounds in foods have been gaining interest, and processes to consider them for public health recommendations are being discussed. However, the evidence base is difficult to assemble. It is difficult to demonstrate causality, and there often is not a single compound-single effect relation. Furthermore, health benefits may be due to metabolites produced by the host or gut microbiome rather than the food constituent per se. Properties that can be measured in a food may not translate to in vivo health effects. Compounds that are being pursued may increase gut microbial diversity, improve endothelial function, improve cognitive function, reduce bone loss, and so forth. A new type of bioactive component is emerging from epigenetic modifications by our diet, including microRNA transfer from our diet, which can regulate expression of human genes. Policy processes are needed to establish the level of evidence needed to determine dietary advice and policy recommendations and to set research agendas. PMID:24829482

Weaver, Connie M



From functional food to medicinal product: Systematic approach in analysis of polyphenolics from propolis and wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade we have been working on standardization of propolis extract and determination of active constituents of wine those are rich in polyphenolics and have nutritional as well as therapeutic value. Here we are summarizing our results and providing overview on systematic approach how to analyse natural products rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids. Chromatographic methods (thin layer

Marica Medi?-Šari?; Vesna Rastija; Mirza Boji?; Željan Maleš



Modification of food ingredients by ultrasound to improve functionality: A preliminary study on a model system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of high-intensity ultrasound for food processing applications is being constantly explored. Extraction of gingerol from ginger, homogenisation of milk and generation of high quality emulsions from food ingredients are some examples where ultrasonication has been found to be efficient, at least in laboratory-scale trials. These ultrasonic processes primarily rely upon the physical effects of ultrasound. However, the potential

Muthupandian Ashokkumar; Devi Sunartio; Sandra Kentish; Raymond Mawson; Lloyd Simons; Kamaljit Vilkhu



By-products of plant food processing as a source of functional compounds — recent developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a rapidly growing body of literature covering the role of plant secondary metabolites in food and their potential effects on human health. Furthermore, consumers are increasingly aware of diet related health problems, therefore demanding natural ingredients which are expected to be safe and health-promoting. By-products of plant food processing represent a major disposal problem for the industry concerned,

A Schieber; F. C Stintzing; R Carle



Pulse proteins: Processing, characterization, functional properties and applications in food and feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulses (pea, chickpea, lentil, bean) are an important source of food proteins. They contain high amounts of lysine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and arginine and provide well balanced essential amino acid profiles when consumed with cereals and other foods rich in sulphur-containing amino acids and tryptophan. The protein content of most pulse legumes fall within the range of 17–30%

Joyce Boye; Fatemeh Zare; Alison Pletch



Design and feasibility tests of multi-functional gripper for handling variable shape of food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of automation for handling of nonrigid or semirigid food products are limited due to lack of appropriate gripper. Most of the robot grippers are not easily applicable due to food products are often delicate, easily marked or bruised, adhesive and slippery. In this paper, we present an innovative approach of a gripper for handling variable size, shape and

Rosidah Sam; Samia Nefti



[Determination and identification of synthetic food colors based on fluorescence spectroscopy and radial basis function neural networks].  


Taking ponceau 4R and amaranth as an example, concentration prediction and kind identification of synthetic food colors by fluorescence spectroscopy and radial basis function neural networks are introduced. By using SP-2558 multifunctional spectral measuring system, the fluorescence spectra were measured for solution of ponceau 4R and amaranth excited respectively by the light with the wavelength of 300 and 400 nm. For each sample solution of ponceau 4R, 15 emission wavelength values were selected. The fluorescence intensity corresponding to the selected wavelength was used as the network characteristic parameters, and a radial basis function neural network for concentration prediction was trained and constructed. It was employed to predict ponceau 4R solution concentration of the three kinds of samples, and the relative errors of prediction were 1.42%, 1.44% and 3.93% respectively. In addition, for solution of ponceau 4R and amaranth, the fluorescence intensity corresponding to the fluorescence wavelength was used as the network characteristic parameters, and a radial basis function neural network for kind identification was trained and constructed. It was employed to identify the kind of food colors, and the accuracy is 100%. These results show that the method is convenient, fast, and highly accurate, and can be used for the detection of synthetic food color in food safety supervision and management. PMID:20496692

Chen, Guo-Qing; Wu, Ya-Min; Liu, Hui-Juan; Gao, Shu-Mei; Kong, Yan; Wei, Bai-Lin; Zhu, Tuo



Lead and cadmium in functional health foods and Korean herbal medicines.  


Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in functional health foods (FHF) and Korean herbal medicines (KHM) were analysed by the standard addition method with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A total of 672 samples were collected from 2347 people (1015 adults, 557 students and 775 infants and children) who lived in Korea. Pb and Cd concentrations were analysed in the samples (FHF, n = 535; KHM, n = 50). Method validation was carried out using standard reference material (SRM), recovery rate and limits of detection and quantification. Recovery rates for Pb and Cd using three SRMs were 94.9%-101.6% and 96.7%-115.2%, respectively. Mean Pb values in FHF and KHM were 0.146 and 0.349 mg kg(-1), respectively. Mean Cd levels in FHF and KHM were 0.035 and 0.056 mg kg(-1), respectively. Mean values in Spirulina and yeast products were the highest in the FHF samples (0.940 mg kg(-1) for Pb in Spirulina products and 0.115 mg kg(-1) for Cd in yeast products). PMID:24779882

Kim, Wooseok; Lee, Kwang-Geun



Some commonly fed herbs and other functional foods in equine nutrition: a review.  


Most herbs and functional foods have not been scientifically tested; this is especially true for the horse. This paper reviews some of the literature pertinent to herbal supplementation in horses and other species. Common supplements like Echinacea, garlic, ginger, ginseng, and yucca are not regulated, and few studies have investigated safe, efficacious doses. Ginseng has been found to exert an inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Equine studies have tested the anti-inflammatory effects of a single dose of ginger, post-exercise. Echinacea has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Yucca contains steroid-like saponins, which produce anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-spasmodic effects. However, some herbs have drug-like actions that interact with dietary components and may contain prohibited substances like salicylates, digitalis, heroin, cocaine and marijuana. Horses fed garlic at >0.2g/kg per day developed Heinz body anaemia. Drug-herb interactions are common and caution needs to be taken when implementing 'natural product' usage. PMID:17689992

Williams, Carey A; Lamprecht, Emily D



Invited review: Caseins and the casein micelle: their biological functions, structures, and behavior in foods.  


A typical casein micelle contains thousands of casein molecules, most of which form thermodynamically stable complexes with nanoclusters of amorphous calcium phosphate. Like many other unfolded proteins, caseins have an actual or potential tendency to assemble into toxic amyloid fibrils, particularly at the high concentrations found in milk. Fibrils do not form in milk because an alternative aggregation pathway is followed that results in formation of the casein micelle. As a result of forming micelles, nutritious milk can be secreted and stored without causing either pathological calcification or amyloidosis of the mother's mammary tissue. The ability to sequester nanoclusters of amorphous calcium phosphate in a stable complex is not unique to caseins. It has been demonstrated using a number of noncasein secreted phosphoproteins and may be of general physiological importance in preventing calcification of other biofluids and soft tissues. Thus, competent noncasein phosphoproteins have similar patterns of phosphorylation and the same type of flexible, unfolded conformation as caseins. The ability to suppress amyloid fibril formation by forming an alternative amorphous aggregate is also not unique to caseins and underlies the action of molecular chaperones such as the small heat-shock proteins. The open structure of the protein matrix of casein micelles is fragile and easily perturbed by changes in its environment. Perturbations can cause the polypeptide chains to segregate into regions of greater and lesser density. As a result, the reliable determination of the native structure of casein micelles continues to be extremely challenging. The biological functions of caseins, such as their chaperone activity, are determined by their composition and flexible conformation and by how the casein polypeptide chains interact with each other. These same properties determine how caseins behave in the manufacture of many dairy products and how they can be used as functional ingredients in other foods. PMID:23958008

Holt, C; Carver, J A; Ecroyd, H; Thorn, D C



Intake of Phthalate-Tainted Foods Alters Thyroid Functions in Taiwanese Children  

PubMed Central

Background On April-May, 2011, two Taiwan chemical companies were found to have intentionally added phthalates, Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and/or Di-isononyl phthalate, as a substitute of emulsifier to many foodstuffs. This study aimed to investigate whether exposure to these foods altered endocrine functions in children aged ?10 years and, if so, whether those changes could be reversed by stopping exposure. Methods One Phthalates Clinic for Children was established in southern Taiwan between May 31 and June 17, 2011. All eligible children had their exposure information, blood and/or urine specimens collected. Endocrine functions were assessed in serum. The exposure groups were categorized into three (High, >500 ppm, Low, 1–500 ppm, and No, <1 ppm of DEHP). After six months, some children were followed up for the selected endocrine hormones. Results Sixty children were eligible in this study; all were Tanner stage 1 with no pubic hair. Compared to non-exposed group, both high and low exposure groups had significantly lower serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels (P?=?0.001 and 0.024). At six months follow-up, serum triiodothyronine (T3) levels was significantly changed (P?=?0.034) in high exposure group (n?=?13). For serum estradiol (E2), the detectable rate (?8 pg/mL) decreased from 76.9% (10/13) to 30.8% (4/13) (P?=?0.070). Conclusions This study shows that serum TSH levels can be altered when children were exposed to high concentrations of phthalate-tainted foodstuffs. Serum E2 and T3 may be partially recovered after stopping exposure.

Wu, Ming-Tsang; Wu, Chia-Fang; Chen, Bai-Hsiun; Chen, Eric K.; Chen, Yi-Ling; Shiea, Jentaie; Lee, Wei-Te; Chao, Mei-Chyn; Wu, Jiunn-Ren



Functional foods-based diet as a novel dietary approach for management of type 2 diabetes and its complications: A review.  


Type 2 diabetes is a complicated metabolic disorder with both short- and long-term undesirable complications. In recent years, there has been growing evidence that functional foods and their bioactive compounds, due to their biological properties, may be used as complementary treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this review, we have highlighted various functional foods as missing part of medical nutrition therapy in diabetic patients. Several in vitro, animal models and some human studies, have demonstrated that functional foods and nutraceuticals may improve postprandial hyperglycemia and adipose tissue metabolism modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Functional foods may also improve dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, and attenuate oxidative stress and inflammatory processes and subsequently could prevent the development of long-term diabetes complications including cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. In conclusion available data indicate that a functional foods-based diet may be a novel and comprehensive dietary approach for management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24936248

Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Azizi, Fereidoun



Functional foods-based diet as a novel dietary approach for management of type 2 diabetes and its complications: A review  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes is a complicated metabolic disorder with both short- and long-term undesirable complications. In recent years, there has been growing evidence that functional foods and their bioactive compounds, due to their biological properties, may be used as complementary treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this review, we have highlighted various functional foods as missing part of medical nutrition therapy in diabetic patients. Several in vitro, animal models and some human studies, have demonstrated that functional foods and nutraceuticals may improve postprandial hyperglycemia and adipose tissue metabolism modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Functional foods may also improve dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, and attenuate oxidative stress and inflammatory processes and subsequently could prevent the development of long-term diabetes complications including cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. In conclusion available data indicate that a functional foods-based diet may be a novel and comprehensive dietary approach for management of type 2 diabetes.

Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Azizi, Fereidoun



Influence of harvest season on antioxidant activity and constituents of rabbiteye blueberry ( Vaccinium ashei ) leaves.  


To select rabbiteye blueberry leaves from an appropriate harvest season to develop functional foods, this paper studied the bioactive secondary metabolites and the antioxidant capacity of rabbiteye blueberry leaves from May, September, and November. The results showed the leaves from May had the highest content of total flavonoids (114.21 mg/g) and the leaves from November had the highest content of total polyphenols and proanthocyanidins (425.24 and 243.29 mg/g, respectively). It was further found that blueberry leaves from different seasons have similar bioactive constituents, but their contents are obviously different by HPLC. The rabbiteye blueberry leaves from November had the highest antioxidant capacity, which was well correlated with their highest proanthocyanidin content. The results clarify that the blueberry leaves from different seasons have different contents of bioactive secondary metabolites and different antioxidant activities, which implied that leaves from November should be selected first for utilization in functional foods. PMID:24175648

Zhu, Liancai; Liu, Xi; Tan, Jun; Wang, Bochu



Phytoestrogens in the Food Supply.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Endogenous estrogens are thought to have a role in the etiology of breast cancer. Several components of plant foods have estrogenic activity or are metabolized to active compounds by mammalian systems (phytoestrogens). The impact of these constituents on ...

G. R. Beecher



Histamine and Tyramine in Food.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Histamine and tyramine are normal constituents of many foods and have been found in cheese; sauerkraut; wine; fish; and putrid, aged or fermented meats. These low molecular weight organic bases do not represent any hazard to individuals unless large quant...

T. L. Baucom



The multiple functions of the endocannabinoid system: a focus on the regulation of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cannabis sativa (also known as marijuana) has been cultivated by man for more than 5,000 years. However, there was a rise in its use in the 20th century for recreational, religious or spiritual, and medicinal purposes. The main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, whose structure was identified in the 1960's, is ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol. On the other hand, the discovery of cannabinoid

Eduardo Tibiriça



A randomised controlled trial of a probiotic 'functional food' in the management of irritable bowel syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common condition characterised by pain, distension and altered bowel habit. Evidence suggests functional foods containing probiotics improve gastrointestinal transit, however, data are limited by short follow-up periods and evaluation in selected populations. Methods A multi-centre, randomized, double blind, controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a probiotic vs non-probiotic dairy product on symptoms in IBS with a constipation element (IBS – Constipation or IBS – Mixed profile). Set in 13 general practices within central England. Individuals meeting the ROME III criteria for IBS, aged 18–65 completed a pre-study diary. Eligible individuals were randomized to consume dairy ‘yoghurt’ products which either did or did not contain active probiotics twice daily and to complete a daily diary. Primary outcome was subjective global assessment of symptom relief at week 4. Other outcomes comprised, IBS symptom scores, pain, bloating and flatulence levels, stool frequency, stool consistency, ease of bowel movement and quality of life. Results 179 were randomized (91 active, 88 placebo). 76 (43 active, 33 placebo) completed the study. No significant between group differences existed at 4 weeks (57% active vs 53% placebo, reported adequate relief (p = 0.71)). By week 8, 46% active vs 68% placebo reported adequate relief (p = 0.03). This was sustained at week 12. Conclusions Significant improvements were reported for most outcomes in all trial participants but improvement did not differ by group. This trial does not provide evidence for effectiveness of a probiotic in IBS, in variance with a body of published literature and review conclusions. Differential drop out may however cloud interpretation of data. UK Trial registration:ISRCTN78863629



Retrieval of atmospheric constituents in the uv-visible: a new quasi-analytical approach for the calculation of weighting functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel mathematical procedures for the efficient calculation of weighting functions inside finite differencing radiative transfer models are presented. Linearization of the radiative transfer equation allows to compute the weighting functions directly without the use of numerical perturbation schemes. The methods developed have been implemented in the finite-differencing model GOMETRAN. Validation of the quasi-analytical computations of the weighting functions has been

V. V. Rozanov; T. Kurosu; J. P. Burrows



Membrane Bioreactor Technology for the Development of Functional Materials from Sea-Food Processing Wastes and Their Potential Health Benefits  

PubMed Central

Sea-food processing wastes and underutilized species of fish are a potential source of functional and bioactive compounds. A large number of bioactive substances can be produced through enzyme-mediated hydrolysis. Suitable enzymes and the appropriate bioreactor system are needed to incubate the waste materials. Membrane separation is a useful technique to extract, concentrate, separate or fractionate the compounds. The use of membrane bioreactors to integrate a reaction vessel with a membrane separation unit is emerging as a beneficial method for producing bioactive materials such as peptides, chitooligosaccharides and polyunsaturated fatty acids from diverse seafood-related wastes. These bioactive compounds from membrane bioreactor technology show diverse biological activities such as antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antitumor, anticoagulant, antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. This review discusses the application of membrane bioreactor technology for the production of value-added functional materials from sea-food processing wastes and their biological activities in relation to health benefits.

Kim, Se-Kwon; Senevirathne, Mahinda



Membrane bioreactor technology for the development of functional materials from sea-food processing wastes and their potential health benefits.  


Sea-food processing wastes and underutilized species of fish are a potential source of functional and bioactive compounds. A large number of bioactive substances can be produced through enzyme-mediated hydrolysis. Suitable enzymes and the appropriate bioreactor system are needed to incubate the waste materials. Membrane separation is a useful technique to extract, concentrate, separate or fractionate the compounds. The use of membrane bioreactors to integrate a reaction vessel with a membrane separation unit is emerging as a beneficial method for producing bioactive materials such as peptides, chitooligosaccharides and polyunsaturated fatty acids from diverse seafood-related wastes. These bioactive compounds from membrane bioreactor technology show diverse biological activities such as antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antitumor, anticoagulant, antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. This review discusses the application of membrane bioreactor technology for the production of value-added functional materials from sea-food processing wastes and their biological activities in relation to health benefits. PMID:24957872

Kim, Se-Kwon; Senevirathne, Mahinda



Low dose anandamide affects food intake, cognitive function, neurotransmitter and corticosterone levels in diet-restricted mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation reports the possible role of the endocannabinoid anandamide on modulating the behavioral and neurochemical consequences of semi-starvation. We studied the effect of very low dose anandamide (0.001 mg\\/kg) administration on food intake, cognitive function and catecholaminergic and serotonergic pathways in two murine brain areas concerned with appetite (hypothalamus) and learning (hippocampus), and the peripheral corticosterone response to the

Shuzhen Hao; Yosefa Avraham; Raphael Mechoulam; Elliot M Berry



Two functional serotonin polymorphisms moderate the effect of food reinforcement on BMI  

PubMed Central

Food reinforcement, or the motivation to eat, has been associated with increased energy intake, greater body weight and prospective weight gain. Much of the previous research on the reinforcing value of food has focused on the role of dopamine, but it may be worthwhile to examine genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin and opioid systems as these neurotransmitters have been shown to be related to reinforcement processes and to influence energy intake. We examined the relationship among 44 candidate genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine, serotonin and opioid systems, and food reinforcement and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 245 individuals. Polymorphisms in the Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-LPR) and serotonin receptor 2A genes (rs6314) moderated the effect of food reinforcement on BMI, accounting for an additional 5-10% variance and revealed a potential role of the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs6314 in the serotonin 2A receptor as a differential susceptibility factor for obesity. Differential susceptibility describes a factor that can confer either risk or protection depending on a second variable, such that rs6314 is predictive of both high and low BMI based on the level of food reinforcement, while the diathesis stress or dual-gain model influences only one end of the outcome measure. The interaction with MAOA-LPR better fit the dual-risk or diathesis stress model, with the 3.5R/4R allele conferring protection for individuals low in food reinforcement. These results provide new insight into genes theoretically involved in obesity and support the hypothesis that genetics moderate the association between food reinforcement on BMI.

Carr, Katelyn A.; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D.; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K.; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard; Faith, Myles; Allison, David; Stice, Eric; Epstein, Leonard H.



Cactus Pear: A Fruit of Nutraceutical and Functional Importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constantly increasing demand for nutraceuticals is paralleled by a more pronounced request for natural ingredients and health-promoting foods. The multiple functional properties of cactus pear fit well this trend. Recent data revealed the high content of some chemical constituents, which can give added value to this fruit on a nutritional and technological functionality basis. High levels of betalains, taurine,

Antonio Piga



Consumer-oriented functional food development: how well do functional disciplines reflect the ‘voice of the consumer’?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food innovation can have its source in either superior understanding of consumer demand (pull) or in superiority at the supply side (science and technology push). However, in either case market success depends on the degree to which the new product reflects unmet consumer needs. The present study provides a framework, which allows to obtain relevant consumer and expert input in

Ellen van Kleef; Hans C. M van Trijp; Pieternel Luning; Wim M. F Jongen



Consumer-oriented functional food development: how well do functional disciplines reflect the 'voice of the consumer'?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food innovation can have its source in either superior understanding of consumer demand (pull) or in superiority at the supply side (science and technology push). However, in either case market success depends on the degree to which the new product reflects unmet consumer needs. The present study provides a framework, which allows to obtain relevant consumer and expert input in

Kleef van P. W; Trijp van J. C. M; P. A. Luning; W. M. F. Jongen



Functionality of liquid smoke as an all-natural antimicrobial in food preservation.  


The smoking of foods, especially meats, has been used as a preservation technique for centuries. Today, smoking methods often involve the use of wood smoke condensates, commonly known as liquid smoke. Liquid smoke is produced by condensing wood smoke created by the pyrolysis of sawdust or wood chips followed by removal of the carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The main products of wood pyrolysis are phenols, carbonyls and organic acids which are responsible for the flavor, color and antimicrobial properties of liquid smoke. Several common food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus have shown sensitivity to liquid smoke in vitro and in food systems. Therefore liquid smoke has potential for use as an all-natural antimicrobial in commercial applications where smoke flavor is desired. This review will cover the application and effectiveness of liquid smoke and fractions of liquid smoke as an all-natural food preservative. This review will be valuable for the industrial and research communities in the food science and technology areas. PMID:24583328

Lingbeck, Jody M; Cordero, Paola; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G



The Importance of Take-Out Food Packaging Attributes: Conjoint Analysis and Quality Function Deployment Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research aims to investigate the importance of take-out food packaging attributes, using conjoint analysis and QFD approach among consumers of take-out food products in Jakarta, Indonesia. The conjoint results indicate that perception about packaging material (such as paper, plastic, and polystyrene foam) plays the most important role overall in consumer perception. The clustering results that there is strong segmentation in which take-out food packaging material consumer consider most important. Some consumers are mostly oriented toward the colour of packaging, while another segment of customers concerns on packaging shape and packaging information. Segmentation variables based on packaging response can provide very useful information to maximize image of products through the package's impact. The results of House of Quality development described that Conjoint Analysis - QFD is a useful combination of the two methodologies in product development, market segmentation, and the trade off between customers' requirements in the early stages of HOQ process

Lestari Widaningrum, Dyah



Promoting functional foods as acceptable alternatives to doping: potential for information-based social marketing approach  

PubMed Central

Background Substances with performance enhancing properties appear on a continuum, ranging from prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED) through dietary supplements to functional foods (FF). Anti-doping messages designed to dissuade athletes from using PEDs have been typically based on moralising sport competition and/or employing scare campaigns with focus on the negative consequences. Campaigns offering comparable and acceptable alternatives are nonexistent, nor are athletes helped in finding these for themselves. It is timely that social marketing strategies for anti-doping prevention and intervention incorporate media messages that complement the existing approaches by promoting comparable and acceptable alternatives to doping. To facilitate this process, the aim of this study was to ascertain whether a single exposure knowledge-based information intervention led to increased knowledge and subsequently result in changes in beliefs and automatic associations regarding performance enhancements. Methods In a repeated measure design, 115 male recreational gym users were recruited and provided with a brief information pamphlet on nitrite/nitrate and erythropoietin as a comparison. Measures of knowledge, beliefs and automatic associations were taken before and after the intervention with at least 24 hours between the two assessments. The psychological tests included explicit measures of beliefs and cognitive attitudes toward FF and PED using a self-reported questionnaire and computerised assessments of automatic associations using the modified and shortened version of the Implicit Association Test. Results The information based intervention significantly increased knowledge (p < 0.001), changed explicit beliefs in specific FF (p < 0.001) and shifted the automatic association of FF with health to performance (p < 0.001). Explicitly expressed beliefs and automatic associations appear to be independent. Conclusion Evidence was found that even a single exposure to a persuasive positive message can lead to belief change and can create new or alter existing associations - but only in the specific domain. Interventions to change outcome expectations in a positive way could be a rewarding avenue for anti-doping. Effective social marketing campaigns for drug free sport should follow appropriate market segmentation and use targeted messages via promoting the natural form as opposed to the purified form of the main active ingredient.



Functional Barriers in PET Recycled Bottles. Part I. Détermination of Diffusion Coefficients in Bioriented PET with and Without Contact with Food Simulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major outcome for recycled plastics con- sists of making food packaging materials. However, any contamination of collected plastics with chemicals may then be of concern for public health. A solution to mind migration is to use a layer of virgin polymer, named functional barrier, intercalated between thé recycled layer and thé food. This article aims to provide expérimental values

P. Y. Pennarun; P. Dole; A. Feigenbaum




Microsoft Academic Search

The peels of rambutan, durian, santol, longan, longong, Kaeo mango, and Chok Anan mango were evaluated for their potential to be used as dietary fiber (DF) for food enrichment. All DF samples prepared from selected fruit peels showed high content of total dietary fiber (52–84 g\\/100 g dry matter) and also exhibited the significant difference in DF quality. All DF

Sorada Wanlapa; Kulaphat Wachirasiri; Damrongchai Sithisam-ang; Thitichaya Suwannatup



Chemical Composition and Potential Health Effects of Prunes: A Functional Food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referee: Paul La Chance, Dept. of Food Science, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ Supported in part by an educational grant from California Dried Plum Board. Prunes are dried plums, fruits of Prunus domestica L., cultivated and propagated since ancient times. Most dried prunes are produced from cultivar d'Agen, especially in California and France, where the cultivar originated. After harvest, prune-making

Maria Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis; Phyllis E. Bowen; Erum A. Hussain; Bernadette I. Damayanti-Wood; Norman R. Farnsworth



Bioactive biomolecules of mushrooms: Food function and medicinal effect of mushroom fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of the several thousand species of mushrooms (Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes) on earth, 1500 species are found in Japan. Many of these species are valuable as gene pool sources which can be utilized by biotechnology to develop new foods and new medicines. Many edible mushrooms are now being studied for their nutritional and flavor properties. To utilize the full potential

Takashi Mizuno



Functional bowel symptoms, fibromyalgia and fatigue: A food-induced triad?  

PubMed Central

Objective. Patients with perceived food hypersensitivity typically present with multiple health complaints. We aimed to assess the severity of their intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms. Materials and methods. In a prospective study, 84 patients referred to our outpatient clinic for investigation of perceived food hypersensitivity were enrolled consecutively. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was diagnosed according to the Rome III criteria. Severity and impact of bowel symptoms, fatigue and musculoskeletal pain were evaluated by using the following questionnaires: The IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS), the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS), the FibroFatigue Scale (FFS), and visual analogue scales (VAS) for scoring of musculoskeletal pain. Results. All but one patient were diagnosed with IBS, 58% with severe symptoms. Extra-intestinal symptoms suggestive of chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia were demonstrated in 85% and 71%, respectively. Neither IgE-mediated food allergy nor organic pathology could explain the patients' symptoms. Nevertheless, malabsorption of fat was demonstrated in 10 of 38 subjects. Conclusions. Perceived food hypersensitivity may be associated with severe, debilitating illness. The comorbid triad of IBS, chronic fatigue, and musculoskeletal pain is striking and may point to a common underlying cause.

Undseth, Ragnhild; Lind, Ragna; Valeur, J?rgen



A Food-Grade Approach for Functional Analysis and Modification of Native Plasmids in Lactococcus lactis  

PubMed Central

While plasmids from lactic acid bacteria possess many traits that are of industrial value, their exploitation is often frustrated by an inability to conduct food-grade engineering of native plasmids or to readily screen for their transfer. Here we describe a system that uses a RepA+ temperature-sensitive helper plasmid and a RepA? cloning vector to overcome these problems while maintaining the food-grade status of the native plasmid. This strategy was used to precisely delete ltnA1 alone, or in conjunction with ltnA2 (encoding the structural proteins of the lantibiotic lacticin 3147), from the native 60.2-kb plasmid pMRC01 and to select for the transfer of pMRC01 between Lactococcus lactis strains.

Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R. Paul



Food proteins: a review on their emulsifying properties using a structure-function approach.  


Proteins are of great interest due to their amphiphilic nature, which allows them to reduce the interfacial tension at the oil-water interface. The incorporation of proteins at the oil-water interface has allowed scientists to utilise them to form emulsions (O/W or W/O), which may be used in food formulations, drug and nutrient delivery. The systematic study of the proteins at the interface and the factors that affect their stability (i.e., conformation, pH, solvent conditions, and thermal treatment) has allowed for a broader use of these emulsions tailored for various applications. In this review, the factors affecting the stability of emulsions using food proteins will be discussed. The use of polysaccharides to complex with proteins will also be explored in relation to enhancing emulsion stability. PMID:23790876

Lam, Ricky S H; Nickerson, Michael T



The Biochemical and Functional Food Properties of the Bowman-Birk Inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) is a small water-soluble protein present in soybean and almost all monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds. The molecular size of BBI ranges from 1,513 Da to about 20,000 Da. BBI is to seeds what ?1-antitrypsin is to humans. Soy-based food products rich in BBI include soybean grits, soymilk, oilcake, soybean isolate, and soybean protein concentrate. BBI is

Jack N. Losso




Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates evidence of non-compensatory preferences by incorporating attribute cutoffs into the modeling of consumer choices in the context of food with health-related attributes (omega-3 content) that may be associated with fortification or may result from genetic modification (GM). Data for this study were collected through a nation-wide internet-based survey drawn from a representative panel of Canadian households maintained

Yulian Ding; Michele M. Veeman; Wiktor L. Adamowicz



Demand for food on fixed-ratio schedules as a function of the quality of concurrently available reinforcement1  

PubMed Central

Six rats lever pressed for food on concurrent fixed-ratio schedules, in a two-compartment chamber. In one compartment, mixed diet pellets were delivered on fixed-ratio schedules of 1, 6, 11, and 16; in the other, either no food was delivered, or sucrose or mixed diet pellets were delivered on fixed-ratio 8. The number of pellets obtained in the first compartment declined as a function of fixed-ratio size in that compartment in all three conditions, but the decline was greatest overall with mixed diet pellets concurrently available in the other compartment, and least with no food concurrently available. The result is discussed in terms of economic demand theory, and is consistent with the prediction that elasticity of demand for a commodity (defined in operant terms as the ratio of the proportionate change in number of reinforcements per session to the proportionate change in fixed-ratio size) is greater the more substitutable for that commodity are any concurrently available commodities.

Lea, S. E. G.; Roper, T. J.



Identification of epicatechin as one of the key bioactive constituents of polyphenol-enriched extracts that demonstrate an anti-allergic effect in a murine model of food allergy.  


Polyphenols are naturally derived bioactive compounds with numerous reported health benefits. We have previously reported on the beneficial effect of a polyphenol-enriched apple extract in a murine model of food allergy. The objectives of the present study were to elucidate the class of bioactive polyphenols that exhibit a beneficial anti-allergic effect and to assess whether the protective effect matches the in vivo bioavailable metabolite concentrations. Female BALB/c mice were sensitised to ovalbumin (OVA) following the protocol of a well-established murine model of food allergy. They were fed diets containing polyphenol-enriched extracts or purified epicatechin for 8 d after the last sensitisation. The sensitised mice were orally challenged with OVA after the intervention. The allergy symptoms, in addition to allergen-specific serum Ig concentrations and gene expression profiles in the intestine, of the control and treated mice were compared. Plasma samples were collected to compare the concentrations of bioavailable epicatechin metabolites in the treatment groups. Polyphenol-enriched fruit extracts containing epicatechin exhibited a significant anti-allergic effect in vivo. This effect was unambiguously attributed to epicatechin, as oral administration of this purified polyphenol to sensitised mice by inclusion in their diet modulated allergy symptoms in a dose-dependent manner. Immune parameters were also affected by the administration of epicatechin. Bioavailability measurements in plasma indicated that the attenuation of allergy symptoms could be due to the higher concentrations of bioavailable epicatechin metabolites. In conclusion, epicatechin is a key bioactive polyphenol that has the ability to modulate allergy outcomes in sensitised mice. PMID:24854295

Singh, Anurag; Demont, Audrey; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Holvoet, Sébastien; Lévêques, Antoine; Lepage, Melissa; Nutten, Sophie; Mercenier, Annick



A Study on Intake of Health Functional Food and Its Related Factors in Adults Living in Busan and Gyeongnam Area  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of "health functional food (HFF)" intake and related factors in Busan and Gyeongnam area and provide useful information for health promotion through the use of HFF. Among subjects of this study (n = 634), about 64% of the subjects reported that they are currently taking HFFs or other health foods or had HFFs in the last year. The reason of subjects taking HFF was to maintain and promote their health. They choose HFF by their own judgement or knowledge and the main place of purchasing HFF was the HFF store. Main food sources for promoting health in study subjects were nutrient fortified foods (76.8%), fruit or vegetable extracts (64.8%), HFF (64%), herbs or oriental medicines (29.6%), folk remedies or unidentified remedies (24.9%), respectively. The preference type of the products was capsule and liquid. 60.6% of consumers thought that HFF are expensive. 9.7% of consumers experienced the side effect such as stomachache and gastroenteric trouble. Using logistic regression analysis, the use of HFF was 1.9 times higher in female than male subjects indicating strong association between gender and HFF use. Additionally higher prevalence was found in female subjects for right conception of HFF and distinction of HFF. Interestingly subjects who consume less salts exhibited a higher tendency (-1.5 folds) in HFF intake than who prefer to use salt and seasonings in diets. In total study subjects 83.9% of them have known and heard about definition of the HFF. The major route of acquiring the information about HFF was mass media such as TV, internet and newspapers. Also subjects who had taken HFF exhibited high a proper conception toward the knowledge about 'distinction of HFF'. Taken together education programs considering gender, dietary habit and life style is necessary for consumers to select proper HFF.

Park, Hyun-Jung



Combined food and micronutrient supplements during pregnancy have limited impact on child blood pressure and kidney function in rural Bangladesh.  


Observational evidence suggests nutritional exposures during in utero development may have long-lasting consequences for health; data from interventions are scarce. Here, we present a trial follow-up study to assess the association between prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation and childhood blood pressure and kidney function. During the MINIMat Trial in rural Bangladesh, women were randomly assigned early in pregnancy to receive an early or later invitation to attend a food supplementation program and additionally to receive either iron and folate or multiple micronutrient tablets daily. The 3267 singleton birth individuals with measured anthropometry born during the trial were eligible for a follow-up study at 4.5 y old. A total of 77% of eligible individuals were recruited and blood pressure, kidney size by ultrasound, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR; calculated from plasma cystatin c) were assessed. In adjusted analysis, early invitation to food supplementation was associated with a 0.72-mm Hg [(95% CI: 0.16, 1.28); P = 0.01] lower childhood diastolic blood pressure and maternal MMS supplementation was associated with a marginally higher [0.87 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.18, 1.56); P = 0.01] childhood diastolic blood pressure. There was also some evidence that a supplement higher in iron was associated with a higher offspring GFR. No other effects of the food or micronutrient interventions were observed and there was no interaction between the interventions on the outcomes studied. These marginal associations and small effect sizes suggest limited public health importance in early childhood. PMID:23514767

Hawkesworth, Sophie; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Kahn, Ashraf I; Hawlader, Mohammad D H; Fulford, Anthony J C; Arifeen, Shams-El; Persson, Lars-Åke; Moore, Sophie E



ProSAAS-Derived Peptides are Colocalized with Neuropeptide Y and Function as Neuropeptides in the Regulation of Food Intake  

PubMed Central

ProSAAS is the precursor of a number of peptides that have been proposed to function as neuropeptides. Because proSAAS mRNA is highly expressed in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, we examined the cellular localization of several proSAAS-derived peptides in the mouse hypothalamus and found that they generally colocalized with neuropeptide Y (NPY), but not ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone. However, unlike proNPY mRNA, which is upregulated by food deprivation in the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither proSAAS mRNA nor proSAAS-derived peptides were significantly altered by 1–2 days of food deprivation in wild-type mice. Furthermore, while proSAAS mRNA levels in the mediobasal hypothalamus were significantly lower in Cpefat/fat mice as compared to wild-type littermates, proNPY mRNA levels in the mediobasal hypothalamus and in other subregions of the hypothalamus were not significantly different between wild-type and Cpefat/fat mice. Intracerebroventricular injections of antibodies to two proSAAS-derived peptides (big LEN and PEN) significantly reduced food intake in fasted mice, while injections of antibodies to two other proSAAS-derived peptides (little LEN and little SAAS) did not. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of parvocellular neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, a target of arcuate NPY projections, showed that big LEN produced a rapid and reversible inhibition of synaptic glutamate release that was spike independent and abolished by blocking postsynaptic G protein activity, suggesting the involvement of a postsynaptic G protein-coupled receptor and the release of a retrograde synaptic messenger. Taken together with previous studies, these findings support a role for proSAAS-derived peptides such as big LEN as neuropeptides regulating food intake.

Wardman, Jonathan H.; Berezniuk, Iryna; Di, Shi; Tasker, Jeffrey G.; Fricker, Lloyd D.



Rat mammary gland fatty acid synthase: localization of the constituent domains and two functional polyadenylation/termination signals in the cDNA.  

PubMed Central

The rat fatty acid synthase (FAS) is active only as a dimer, although the eight component functions are contained in a single polypeptide chain. Using mRNA from lactating rat mammary glands a cDNA expression library was established. With the overlapping immunologically positive clones we have an 8.9kb cDNA sequence for rat FAS. In the 3'-nontranslated region of the rat FAS cDNA we find a prototype polyadenylation/termination signal and 779 nucleotides upstream, a mutated one. Both of these polyadenylation/termination signals are used and give rise to two equally abundant mRNA species which are coordinately regulated. In the derived amino acid sequence we could locate six of the eight component functions; their order is NH2- beta-ketoacyl synthase - acetyl/malonyl transferases -enoyl reductase - acyl carrier protein - thioesterase -COOH. Comparison of FAS from different sources shows that the primary sequence is conserved only for the active residues and the amino acids in their immediate vicinity. Images

Schweizer, M; Takabayashi, K; Laux, T; Beck, K F; Schreglmann, R



Alterations in hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase system during different levels of food restriction in adult male and female rats.  


Wistar strain adult male and female rats were given 25, 50 and 75% less food than an ad libitum-fed group of rats for 45 d and the effects of food restriction on hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes, microsomal electron transport components, NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase activities were studied. Compared to ad libitum-fed controls, the cytochrome P-450 levels were higher in food restricted male rats, while they were lower in food restricted females. The activities of NADPH cytochrome c reductase were lower in food restricted females than in ad libitum-fed controls. The activities of drug metabolizing enzymes, aminopyrine N-demethylase and acetanilide hydroxylase were higher in food restricted males, whereas in food restricted females these activities were lower than in respective groups fed ad libitum. Microsomal, NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation was higher in 25 and 50% food restricted females while in 50 and 75% food restricted males it was lower than in ad libitum controls of the same sex. The cytosolic glutathione-S-transferase activities were lower in food restricted rats of both the sexes than in the same sexed controls. Another group of male and female rats were given 75% less food than the ad libitum-fed rats and refed for 3 d prior to killing. Here also, the effects of restriction were different between sexes. It is concluded that hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase system (MFOS) is altered due to feed restriction and food restriction followed by refeeding, in a sex-related manner. PMID:3958812

Hashmi, R S; Siddiqui, A M; Kachole, M S; Pawar, S S



Acoustic cues to Nehiyawewin constituency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines how speakers use acoustic cues, e.g., pitch and pausing, to establish syntactic and semantic constituents in Nehiyawewin, an Algonquian language. Two Nehiyawewin speakers autobiographies, which have been recorded, transcribed, and translated by H. C. Wolfart in collaboration with a native speaker of Nehiyawewin, provide natural-speech data for the study. Since it is difficult for a non-native-speaker to reliably distinguish Nehiyawewin constituents, an intermediary is needed. The transcription provides this intermediary through punctuation marks (commas, semi-colons, em-dashes, periods), which have been shown to consistently mark constituency structure [Nunberg, CSLI 1990]. The acoustic cues are thus mapped onto the punctuated constituents, and then similar constituents are compared to see what acoustic cues they share. Preliminarily, the clearest acoustic signal to a constituent boundary is a pitch drop preceding the boundary and/or a pitch reset on the syllable following the boundary. Further, constituent boundaries marked by a period consistently end on a low pitch, are followed by a pitch reset of 30-90 Hz and have an average pause of 1.9 seconds. I also discuss cross-speaker cues, and prosodic cues that do not correlate to punctuation, with implications for the transcriptional view of orthography [Marckwardt, Oxford 1942].

Cook, Clare; Muehlbauer, Jeff



Chronic nitrogen deposition alters the structure and function of detrital food webs in a northern hardwood ecosystem.  


During the next century, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is projected to more than double, potentially slowing litter decomposition by altering microbial community composition and function. If the flow of energy though detrital food webs is diminished by the slowing of decay under higher rates of atmospheric N deposition, this agent of global change could also negatively impact the abundance and composition of soil fauna. To test this hypothesis, we studied soil faunal communities in four sugar-maple-dominated forests that comprise a long-term N deposition experiment. To examine whether changes in soil faunal communities could then feed back to influence litter decay, litterbags with 13C-enriched aspen litter were placed in the forest floor in one study site. The microbial community within the litterbags was characterized using PLFA analysis. Overall, long-term experimental N deposition reduced the abundance of microarthropods (ambient vs. experimental N deposition: 7844 vs. 4357 individuals/m2, respectively; P = 0.004). We attribute this overall decline partly to the reduced energy flow entering the detrital food web, which has been documented in previous work in our system. Although there was no difference in microarthropod species richness between N deposition treatments, there was a shift in community composition within the most abundant group (Oribatida), indicating species-specific responses to N deposition. Experimental N deposition reduced the number of microarthropods colonizing litterbags by 41% (P = 0.014). This was associated with a reduction in 13C mobilization from leaf litter into microbial biomass. Overall, this study demonstrates that chronic N deposition has a detrimental effect on the soil detritus food web, and that the negative effect may feed back to influence litter decay and ecosystem functioning. PMID:24147404

Gan, Huije; Zak, Donald R; Hunter, Mark D



Pharmacology in health foods: improvement of vascular endothelial function by French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol).  


Flavangenol is the French maritime pine bark extract (PBE). It consists of a concentrate of pine bark constituents such as catechin, taxifolin, and proanthocyanidins. Recent studies have shown that PBE has a strong antioxidant effect and exerts ameliorative effects on cardiovascular, skin, cognitive, and menstrual disorders, as well as in the context of other diseases and disease processes such as diabetes and inflammation. We have also obtained evidence that Flavangenol suppresses nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation and the subsequent various NF-?B-induced gene expressions such as those of adhesion molecules and endothelin-1 in cultured vascular endothelial cells and that the antihypertensive effect of Flavangenol on deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats is attributable to both its antioxidative property-related protective effects against endothelial dysfunction and the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant effect, which is mediated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation. Furthermore, Flavangenol showed a renoprotective effect on ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury in rats. These findings suggest that Flavangenol supplementation may be a promising candidate for the improvement of endothelial dysfunction and the prophylactic treatment of vascular diseases. PMID:21436602

Ohkita, Mamoru; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Matsumura, Yasuo



Food consumption by young children: a function of parental feeding goals and practices.  


Staggering health implications are associated with poor child diet. Given the importance of parents in impacting children's eating outcomes, the current study examined a theoretical framework in which both parental feeding goals and practices impact specific healthy and unhealthy child eating behaviors. Participants were 171 mothers of 3-6year old children who were diverse both socioeconomically and with regard to BMI. Mothers completed questionnaires via Mechanical Turk, an online workforce through Structural Equation Modeling showed an adequate model fit in which Negative Feeding Practices (e.g., using food as a reward) mediated the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals (i.e., feeding children with health-oriented goals in mind) and Negative Eating Behaviors (e.g., consumption of candy and snacks). However, Negative Feeding Practices did not mediate the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals and Positive Eating Behaviors (i.e., fruits and vegetables). These findings suggest the important role of habitual food parenting practices in children's eating and have implications for parental health education programs. PMID:24275668

Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison E; Hoffmann, Debra A; Meers, Molly R; Koball, Afton M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R



Is the structural diversity of tripeptides sufficient for developing functional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multifunctional peptides have attracted increasing attention in the food science community because of their therapeutic potential, low toxicity and rapid intestinal absorption. However, previous study demonstrated that the limited structural variations make it difficult to optimize dipeptide molecules in a good balance between desirable and undesirable properties (F. Tian, P. Zhou, F. Lv, R. Song, Z. Li, J. Pept. Sci. 13 (2007) 549-566). In the present work, we attempt to answer whether the structural diversity is sufficient for a tripeptide to have satisfactory multiple bioactivities. Statistical test, structural examination and energetic analysis confirm that peptides of three amino acids long can bind tightly to human angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and thus exert significant antihypertensive efficacy. Further quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling and prediction of all 8000 possible tripeptides reveal that their ACE-inhibitory potency exhibits a good (positive) relationship to antioxidative activity, but has only a quite modest correlation with bitterness. This means that it is possible to find certain tripeptide entities possessing the optimal combination of strong ACE-inhibitory potency, high antioxidative activity and weak bitter taste, which are the promising candidates for developing multifunctional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities. The marked difference between dipeptide and tripeptide can be attributed to the fact that the structural diversity of peptides increases dramatically with a slight change in sequence length.

Wang, Jian-Hui; Liu, Yong-Le; Ning, Jing-Heng; Yu, Jian; Li, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Fa-Xiang



Bringing a probiotic-containing functional food to the market: microbiological, product, regulatory and labeling issues.  


Properly formulated probiotic-containing foods offer consumers a low risk, low cost dietary component that has the potential to promote health in a variety of ways. Several such products are available commercially, although markets in Japan and Europe are more developed than in the USA. Once healthful attributes of a probiotic product have been identified, there remain microbiological, product, regulatory and labeling issues to be addressed prior to marketing. Microbiological and product issues include safety, effective scale-up for manufacturing, definition of probiotic activity, probiotic stability in the product over the course of product manufacture, shelf-life and consumption, definition of effective dose and target population(s), and development of quality assurance approaches. Examples of probiotic-containing foods are given. Regulatory and labeling issues are complicated because they differ for each country, but are likewise critical because they provide the means for communication of the product benefits to the consumer. The regulatory climate worldwide appears to be one of caution about overstating the benefits of such products but at the same time not preventing corporate commitment to marketing. PMID:10532385

Sanders, M E; Huis in't Veld, J



Bioactive compounds and nutritional significance of virgin argan oil--an edible oil with potential as a functional food.  


This review compiles recently published scientific reports on the bioactive compounds present in virgin argan oil along with their possible beneficial effects on human health, which could justify consideration of this oil as a new functional food. Virgin argan oil is characterized by high levels of linoleic and oleic acids, tocopherols (especially ?-tocopherol), and minor compounds such as sterols, carotenoids, and squalene. The total antioxidant capacity of virgin argan oil is higher than that of other vegetable oils. Recent studies suggest that this edible oil, as a functional food, may play a role in disease prevention. For example, some authors have found it to have hypolipidemic, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive effects as well as a possible role in cancer prevention. This review demonstrates the need for further studies in order to fully characterize argan oil from bromatological, nutritional, culinary, and technological perspectives. In particular, the scarcity of clinical data hampers relevant conclusions from being drawn regarding the therapeutic effects of virgin argan oil. PMID:22537213

Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Marfil, Rocío; Giménez, Rafael; Martínez-Augustin, Olga



A GC-EI-MS-MS method for simultaneous determination of seven adulterants in slimming functional foods.  


A gas chromatography-electron impact-tandem mass spectrometric method was established for the simultaneous determination of seven adulterants, including fenfluramine (FEN), norpseudoephedrine (NPE), pseudoephedrine (PSE), ephedrine (EPH), amfepramone (AMF), sibutramine (SIB) and strychnine (STR) in slimming functional foods. The target chemicals were extracted with 2% formic acid solution and then cleaned-up with solid-phase extraction using a strong cation exchange cartridge from tablet, liquid, mixed plant powder and capsule formulations. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a VF-5MS column within 23 min. Leucomalachite green was employed as an internal standard. The recoveries of seven target chemicals in two formulations ranged from 80.1 to 106%. Limits of detection of the method were from 7.5 to 375 µg/kg with relative standard deviations of 1.6 to 13.9%. The linearity of the method ranged from 90 to 1500 ng/mL for NPE, 150 to 1500 ng/mL for STR, 10 to 500 ng/mL for AMF, 5.0 to 500 ng/mL for PSE and EPH and 3.0 to 500 ng/mL for FEN and SIB. This method was applied to the determination of six brands of slimming functional foods. SIB was detected in five of the samples with the contents in the range of 10.3 - 8.55 × 10(5) ?g/kg. PMID:22732254

Li, Yang; Zhang, Hong; Hu, Jiangtao; Xue, Feng; Li, Yongxin; Sun, Chengjun



Nematomorph parasites indirectly alter the food web and ecosystem function of streams through behavioural manipulation of their cricket hosts.  


Nematomorph parasites manipulate crickets to enter streams where the parasites reproduce. These manipulated crickets become a substantial food subsidy for stream fishes. We used a field experiment to investigate how this subsidy affects the stream community and ecosystem function. When crickets were available, predatory fish ate fewer benthic invertebrates. The resulting release of the benthic invertebrate community from fish predation indirectly decreased the biomass of benthic algae and slightly increased leaf break-down rate. This is the first experimental demonstration that host manipulation by a parasite can reorganise a community and alter ecosystem function. Nematomorphs are common, and many other parasites have dramatic effects on host phenotypes, suggesting that similar effects of parasites on ecosystems might be widespread. PMID:22583960

Sato, Takuya; Egusa, Tomohiro; Fukushima, Keitaro; Oda, Tomoki; Ohte, Nobuhito; Tokuchi, Naoko; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Kanaiwa, Minoru; Murakami, Isaya; Lafferty, Kevin D



Alien Constituents in Experimental Atmospheres.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite increased emphasis on inhalation toxicology in recent years it has not seemed standard practice to monitor experimental atmospheres for unexpected or unintended constituents. However, composition of atmospheres for animal exposure studies, even in...

K. I. Campbell W. L. Crider M. J. Knott M. Malanchuk



Consuming functional foods enriched with plant sterol or stanol esters for 85 weeks does not affect neurocognitive functioning or mood in statin-treated hypercholesterolemic individuals.  


Recent animal and human studies have shown that plant sterols and stanols, which are used as functional food ingredients to lower increased LDL cholesterol concentrations, pass the blood-brain barrier. Whether this affects neurocognitive functioning and mental well-being in humans has, to our knowledge, never been investigated. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the effects of long-term plant sterol or stanol consumption on neurocognitive functioning and mood in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dietary intervention trial. To this end, hypercholesterolemic individuals, aged 43-69 y, receiving stable statin treatment were randomly assigned to an 85-wk supplementation with margarines enriched with plant sterol esters (2.5 g/d), plant stanol esters (2.5 g/d), or placebo. At baseline and at the end of the intervention period, all participants underwent a cognitive assessment. In addition, subjective cognitive functioning and mood were assessed by means of questionnaires (Cognitive Failure Questionnaire and depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90, respectively). Long-term supplementation with plant sterol or stanol esters did not affect cognitive performance (memory, simple information processing speed, complex information processing speed, Letter-Digit Substitution test performance), subjective cognitive functioning, or mood. In conclusion, the present results indicate that long-term use of plant sterols or stanols at recommended intakes of 2.5 g/d does not affect neurocognitive functioning or mood in hypercholesterolemic individuals receiving statin treatment. PMID:19458031

Schiepers, Olga J G; de Groot, Renate H M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Jolles, Jelle; de Jong, Ariënne; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum; Mensink, Ronald P



Healthy and Adverse Effects of Plant-Derived Functional Metabolites: The Need of Revealing their Content and Bioactivity in a Complex Food Matrix  

PubMed Central

In recent years, both food quality and its effect on human health have become a fundamental issue all over the world. As a consequence of this new and increased awareness, American, European, and Asian policymakers have strongly encouraged the research programs on food quality and safety thematic. Attempts to improve human health and to satisfy people's desire for healthcare without intake of pharmaceuticals, has led the food industry to focus attention on functional or nutraceutical food. For a long time, compounds with nutraceutical activity have been produced chemically, but the new demands for a sustainable life have gradually led the food industry to move towards natural compounds, mainly those derived from plants. Many phytochemicals are known to promote good health, but, sometimes, undesirable effects are also reported. Furthermore, several products present on the market show few benefits and sometimes even the reverse – unhealthy effects; the evidence of efficacy is often unconvincing and epidemiological studies are necessary to prove the truth of their claims. Therefore, there is a need for reliable analytical control systems to measure the bioactivity, content, and quality of these additives in the complex food matrix. This review describes the most widespread nutraceutics and an analytical control of the same using recently developed biosensors which are promising candidates for routine control of functional foods.

Lavecchia, Teresa; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Giardi, Maria T.



Plant sterols and stanols as cholesterol-lowering ingredients in functional foods.  


This article reviews developments related to the use of plant sterols and stanols as cholesterol-lowering ingredients in foods and nutraceuticals preparations. Plant sterols and stanols are extracted from the deodorizer distillates of vegetable oil refining and from tall oil, a by-product of paper pulping industry. Plant sterols/stanols inhibit cholesterol absorption possibly by competitively inhibiting its incorporation into the mixed micelles in the small intestine although other mechanisms can not be excluded. Daily consumption of 1-2 grams of plant sterols or stanols was shown to cause 10-20% reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL cholesterol). Combinations of plant sterols/stanols with certain lipid-lowering ingredients were shown to potentate their cholesterol-lowering effects and, in some cases, add triacylglycerol-lowering effects. In this article, patents based information is also discussed. PMID:20653521

Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Moazzami, Ali



Applied nutritional investigation Effects of food fortification on nutritional and functional status in frail elderly nursing home residents at risk of malnutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Malnutrition is a frequent problem in the elderly and is associated with an impaired functional status and higher morbidity and mortality. In this study we evaluated the effect of a 12-wk nutritional intervention with fortified food on nutritional and functional status in nursing home residents at risk of malnutrition. Methods: Nutritional status was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment.

Christine Smoliner; Kristina Norman; Ramona Scheufele; Wolfgang Hartig; Matthias Pirlich; Herbert Lochs


Will Isomalto-Oligosaccharides, a Well-Established Functional Food in Asia, Break through the European and American Market? The Status of Knowledge on these Prebiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This critical review article presents the current state of knowledge on isomalto-oligosaccharides, some well known functional oligosaccharides in Asia, to evaluate their potential as emergent prebiotics in the American and European functional food market. It includes first a unique inventory of the different families of compounds which have been considered as IMOs and their specific structure. A description has been

Dorothee Goffin; Nathalie Delzenne; Christophe Blecker; Emilien Hanon; Claude Deroanne; Michel Paquot



Effect of a mixture of micronutrients, but not of bovine colostrum concentrate, on immune function parameters in healthy volunteers: a randomized placebo-controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Supplementation of nutritional deficiencies helps to improve immune function and resistance to infections in malnourished subjects. However, the suggested benefits of dietary supplementation for immune function in healthy well nourished subjects is less clear. Among the food constituents frequently associated with beneficial effects on immune function are micronutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, ?-carotene and zinc, and colostrum.

Danielle AW Wolvers; Margot HGM Logman; Reggy PJ van der Wielen; Ruud Albers



Immune function and hematology of male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in response to food supplementation and methionine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined effects of supplementation of food quantity and quality (=enhanced methionine) on hematologic and immunologic parameters of wild, but enclosed, adult male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in north-central Oklahoma. Sheet metal enclosures were stocked with a high density of wild-caught cotton rats (160 animals/ha) and randomly assigned a treatment of no supplementation, mixed-ration supplementation or methionine-enhanced supplementation. Aside from small increases in counts of red blood cells and hematocrit levels, most indices of erythrocytic characteristics were not affected by supplementation with the mixed-ration or enhanced methionine. In contrast, platelet counts were highest in mixed-ration and methionine treatments and counts of total white blood cells were highest with methionine supplementation, albeit relative proportions of different leukocytes did not differ among treatments. Immunologically, neither delayed-type hypersensitivity response nor hemolytic-complement activity differed among treatments. Supplementation of food quantity and quality did not broadly affect hematologic parameters and immune function of male cotton rats, but enhanced platelet and leukocyte counts may confer advantages to overall health. Clarification of the role of such effects on population limitation or regulation requires additional research. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Webb, R. E.; Leslie, Jr. , D. M.; Lochmiller, R. L.; Masters, R. E.



Immune function and hematology of male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in response to food supplementation and methionine.  


We examined effects of supplementation of food quantity and quality (=enhanced methionine) on hematologic and immunologic parameters of wild, but enclosed, adult male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in north-central Oklahoma. Sheet metal enclosures were stocked with a high density of wild-caught cotton rats (160 animals/ha) and randomly assigned a treatment of no supplementation, mixed-ration supplementation or methionine-enhanced supplementation. Aside from small increases in counts of red blood cells and hematocrit levels, most indices of erythrocytic characteristics were not affected by supplementation with the mixed-ration or enhanced methionine. In contrast, platelet counts were highest in mixed-ration and methionine treatments and counts of total white blood cells were highest with methionine supplementation, albeit relative proportions of different leukocytes did not differ among treatments. Immunologically, neither delayed-type hypersensitivity response nor hemolytic-complement activity differed among treatments. Supplementation of food quantity and quality did not broadly affect hematologic parameters and immune function of male cotton rats, but enhanced platelet and leukocyte counts may confer advantages to overall health. Clarification of the role of such effects on population limitation or regulation requires additional research. PMID:14613786

Webb, R Eric; Leslie, David M; Lochmiller, Robert L; Masters, Ronald E



Food analysis and consumer protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspects of food safety and quality control are described, with a focus on consumer protection. On the assumption that there can be no ‘zero-risk’, not only in life generally but even in food, appropriate food control is required in order to assess compliance with labelling (e.g. in the case of functional food) and to ensure the safety of food. People

Elke Anklam; Reto Battaglia



Collaborative Research and Support Program on Food Intake and Human Function: Mexico Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Mexico Collaborative Research and Support Program on Nutrition and Function (Mexico CRSP) was a joint effort of researchers from the Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran (INN), Division de Nutricion de Comunidad in Mexico City and the U...

L. H. Allen G. H. Pelto A. Chavez



Plant sterols: factors affecting their efficacy and safety as functional food ingredients  

PubMed Central

Plant sterols are naturally occurring molecules that humanity has evolved with. Herein, we have critically evaluated recent literature pertaining to the myriad of factors affecting efficacy and safety of plant sterols in free and esterified forms. We conclude that properly solubilized 4-desmetyl plant sterols, in ester or free form, in reasonable doses (0.8–1.0 g of equivalents per day) and in various vehicles including natural sources, and as part of a healthy diet and lifestyle, are important dietary components for lowering low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and maintaining good heart health. In addition to their cholesterol lowering properties, plant sterols possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenicity, and anti-oxidation activities, and should thus be of clinical importance, even for those individuals without elevated LDL cholesterol. The carotenoid lowering effect of plant sterols should be corrected by increasing intake of food that is rich in carotenoids. In pregnant and lactating women and children, further study is needed to verify the dose required to decrease blood cholesterol without affecting fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoid status.

Berger, Alvin; Jones, Peter JH; Abumweis, Suhad S



Tannic acid functionalized N-doped graphene modified glassy carbon electrode for the determination of bisphenol A in food package.  


A rapid, environmental friendly, and sensitive sensor for the detection of bisphenol A (BPA) was developed at glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with Tannic acid functionalized N-doped graphene (TA/N-G) immobilized by Nafion. Compared with other sensors, the proposed sensor greatly enhanced the response signal of BPA due to the active surface area of N-G and high absorption efficiency of TA. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation current increased linearly with increasing the concentration of BPA in the range of 0.05-13 µM with the detection limit of 4.0 nM. The fabricated electrode showed good reproducibility, stability and anti-interference. The developed electrochemical sensor was successfully applied to determine BPA in food package. PMID:24720975

Jiao, Shoufeng; Jin, Jing; Wang, Lun



A novel strategy with standardized reference extract qualification and single compound quantitative evaluation for quality control of Panax notoginseng used as a functional food.  


Root of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (Sanqi in Chinese) is one of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) based functional food. Saponins are the major bioactive components. The shortage of reference compounds or chemical standards is one of the main bottlenecks for quality control of TCMs. A novel strategy, i.e. standardized reference extract based qualification and single calibrated components directly quantitative estimation of multiple analytes, was proposed to easily and effectively control the quality of natural functional foods such as Sanqi. The feasibility and credibility of this methodology were also assessed with a developed fast HPLC method. Five saponins, including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rd and notoginsenoside R1 were rapidly separated using a conventional HPLC in 20 min. The quantification method was also compared with individual calibration curve method. The strategy is feasible and credible, which is easily and effectively adapted for improving the quality control of natural functional foods such as Sanqi. PMID:23910599

Li, S P; Qiao, C F; Chen, Y W; Zhao, J; Cui, X M; Zhang, Q W; Liu, X M; Hu, D J



Effects of Light, Food Availability and Temperature Stress on the Function of Photosystem II and Photosystem I of Coral Symbionts  

PubMed Central

Background Reef corals are heterotrophic coelenterates that achieve high productivity through their photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts. Excessive seawater temperature destabilises this symbiosis and causes corals to “bleach,” lowering their photosynthetic capacity. Bleaching poses a serious threat to the persistence of coral reefs on a global scale. Despite expanding research on the causes of bleaching, the mechanisms remain a subject of debate. Methodology/Principal Findings This study determined how light and food availability modulate the effects of temperature stress on photosynthesis in two reef coral species. We quantified the activities of Photosystem II, Photosystem I and whole chain electron transport under combinations of normal and stressful growth temperatures, moderate and high light levels and the presence or absence of feeding of the coral hosts. Our results show that PS1 function is comparatively robust against temperature stress in both species, whereas PS2 and whole chain electron transport are susceptible to temperature stress. In the symbiotic dinoflagellates of Stylophora pistillata the contents of chlorophyll and major photosynthetic complexes were primarily affected by food availability. In Turbinaria reniformis growth temperature was the dominant influence on the contents of the photosynthetic complexes. In both species feeding the host significantly protected photosynthetic function from high temperature stress. Conclusions/Significance Our findings support the photoinhibition model of coral bleaching and demonstrate that PS1 is not a major site for thermal damage during bleaching events. Feeding mitigates bleaching in two scleractinian corals, so that reef responses to temperature stresses will likely be influenced by the coinciding availabilities of prey for the host.

Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Campbell, Douglas A.; Beraud, Eric; DeZeeuw, Katrina; Ferrier-Pages, Christine



Functional barrier in two-layer recycled PP films for food packaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary study on bi-layer virgin/contaminated polypropylene co-extruded films was performed in order to evaluate the possibility to realize an effective functional barrier in PP-based multi-layer systems. In particular, the specific migration in 10% v/v aqueous ethanol of two surrogate contaminants (phenyl-cyclohexane and benzophenone) contained in the contaminated layer across the PP functional barrier was measured at different times and the results were compared with those obtained from a contaminated mono-layer polypropylene film. Moreover, the thermal and mechanical performances of the produced films were investigated.

Scarfato, P.; Di Maio, L.; Milana, M. R.; Feliciani, R.; Denaro, M.; Incarnato, L.



Food Allergy  


Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, your immune system ... Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Food Allergy Symptoms & Diagnosis Symptoms Allergic reactions to food normally ...


ZnO-Reinforced Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) Bionanocomposites with Antimicrobial Function for Food Packaging.  


Biodegradable nanocomposites were prepared by adding ZnO nanoparticles to bacterial polyester poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) via solution casting technique. The morphology, thermal, mechanical, antibacterial, barrier, and migration properties of the nanocomposites were analyzed. The nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed within PHBV without the aid of coupling agents, and acted effectively as nucleating agents, raising the crystallization temperature and the level of crystallinity of the matrix while decreasing its crystallite size. A gradual rise in thermal stability was found with increasing ZnO loading, since the nanofillers hinder the diffusion of volatiles generated during the decomposition process. The nanocomposites displayed superior stiffness, strength, toughness, and glass transition temperature, whereas they displayed reduced water uptake and oxygen and water vapor permeability compared to the neat biopolymer, related to the strong matrix-nanofiller interfacial adhesion attained via hydrogen bonding interactions. At an optimal concentration of 4.0 wt % ZnO, the tensile strength and Young's and storage moduli showed a maximum that coincided with the highest crystallinity and the best barrier properties. PHBV/ZnO films showed antibacterial activity against human pathogen bacteria, and the effect on Escherichia coli was stronger than on Staphylococcus aureus. The overall migration levels of the nanocomposites in both nonpolar and polar simulants dropped upon increasing nanoparticle content, and were well below the limits required by the current normative for food packaging materials. These sustainable nanomaterials with antimicrobial function are very promising to be used as containers for beverage and food products as well as for disposable applications like cutlery or overwrap films. PMID:24846876

Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Díez-Vicente, Angel L



[Analysis of constituents in Jamaica quassia extract, a natural bittering agent].  


Jamaica quassia extract, a natural bittering agent, is described as "a substance extracted from bark of Jamaica quassia (Quassia excelsa Sw.)" in the List of Existing Food Additives in Japan. The constituents in Jamaica quassia extract product were investigated as a part of an ongoing study to evaluate its quality and safety as a food additive. The main constituents of the extract were identified as quassin and two isomers of neoquassin by using LC/MS. The main constituent, quassin, was isolated and the structure was determined by spectral means. The quantification of their main constituents was performed by HPLC using quassin as a standard, and the concentrations of quassin and total of neoquassin isomers were 21.4% and 55.5%. In addition, it was confirmed that Jamaica quassia extract was different from quassia extract, which is extracted from bark of Picrasma quassioides Benn. belonging to the same family as Q. excelsa, by comparing their HPLC profiles. PMID:15038116

Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi



A simple mixture theory for ? Newtonian and generalized Newtonian constituents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the development of mathematical models based on conservation laws for a saturated mixture of ? homogeneous, isotropic, and incompressible constituents for isothermal flows. The constituents and the mixture are assumed to be Newtonian or generalized Newtonian fluids. Power law and Carreau-Yasuda models are considered for generalized Newtonian shear thinning fluids. The mathematical model is derived for a ? constituent mixture with volume fractions using principles of continuum mechanics: conservation of mass, balance of momenta, first and second laws of thermodynamics, and principles of mixture theory yielding continuity equations, momentum equations, energy equation, and constitutive theories for mechanical pressures and deviatoric Cauchy stress tensors in terms of the dependent variables related to the constituents. It is shown that for Newtonian fluids with constant transport properties, the mathematical models for constituents are decoupled. In this case, one could use individual constituent models to obtain constituent deformation fields, and then use mixture theory to obtain the deformation field for the mixture. In the case of generalized Newtonian fluids, the dependence of viscosities on deformation field does not permit decoupling. Numerical studies are also presented to demonstrate this aspect. Using fully developed flow of Newtonian and generalized Newtonian fluids between parallel plates as a model problem, it is shown that partial pressures p ? of the constituents must be expressed in terms of the mixture pressure p. In this work, we propose and which implies which obviously holds. This rule for partial pressure is shown to be valid for a mixture of Newtonian and generalized Newtonian constituents yielding Newtonian and generalized Newtonian mixture. Modifications of the currently used constitutive theories for deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor are proposed. These modifications are demonstrated to be essential in order for the mixture theory for ? constituents to yield a valid mathematical model when the constituents are the same. Dimensionless form of the mathematical models is derived and used to present numerical studies for boundary value problems using finite element processes based on a residual functional, that is, least squares finite element processes in which local approximations are considered in scalar product spaces. Fully developed flow between parallel plates and 1:2 asymmetric backward facing step is used as model problems for a mixture of two constituents.

Surana, K. S.; Powell, M.; Reddy, J. N.



Regulation of vascular endothelial function by procyanidin-rich foods and beverages.  


Flavonoid-rich diets are associated with a lower mortality from cardiovascular disease. This has been linked to improvements in endothelial function. However, the specific flavonoids, or biologically active metabolites, conferring these beneficial effects have yet to be fully defined. In this experimental study of the effect of flavonoids on endothelial function cultured endothelial cells have been used as a bioassay with endothelin-1 (ET-1) synthesis being measured an index of the response. Evaluation of the relative effects of extracts of cranberry juice compared to apple, cocoa, red wine, and green tea showed inhibition of ET-1 synthesis was dependent primarily on their oligomeric procyanidin content. Procyanidin-rich extracts of cranberry juice triggered morphological changes in endothelial cells with reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and increased immunostaining for phosphotyrosine residues. These actions were independent of antioxidant activity. Comparison of the effects of apple procyanidin monomers through heptamer showed a clear structure-activity relationship. Although monomer, dimer, and trimer had little effect on ET-1 synthesis, procyanidin tetramer, pentamer, hexamer, and heptamer produced concentration-dependent decreases with IC(50) values of 5.4, 1.6, 0.9, and 0.7 microM, respectively. Levels of ET-1 mRNA showed a similar pattern of decreases, which were inversely correlated with increased expression of Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), a key endothelial transcription factor with a broad range of antiatherosclerotic actions including suppression of ET-1 synthesis. Future investigations of procyanidin-rich products should assess the role KLF2 induction plays in the beneficial vascular effects of high flavonoid consumption. PMID:20108902

Caton, Paul W; Pothecary, Mark R; Lees, Delphine M; Khan, Noorafza Q; Wood, Elizabeth G; Shoji, Toshihiko; Kanda, Tomomasa; Rull, Gurvinder; Corder, Roger



Novel Methods for Probiotic Research. Workshop on Demonstration of the Nutritional Functionality of Probiotic Foods (2nd). Held in Cork, Ireland on October 3, 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The workshop is the second in a series of four workshops for the FAIR Demonstration project entitled Demonstration of the Nutritional Functionality of Probiotic Foods, Probdemo, FAIR CT96-1028. The aim is to substantiate the real value of probiotic produc...

M. Alander T. Kauppila T. Mattila-Sandholm



Selection and Safety Criteria of Probiotics. Workshop Demonstration of the Nutritional Functionality of Probiotic Foods (1st). Held in Helsinki, Finland on November 15, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The workshop is the first in a series of four workshops to disseminate the FAIR Demonstration project entitled Demonstration of the Nutritional Functionality of Probiotic Foods, FAIR CT96-1028. The aim is to substantiate the real value of probiotic produc...

M. Alander T. Mattila-Sandholm



Food, GI-Tract Functionality and Human Health Cluster. PROEUHEALTH: Abstracts and Posters. Workshop (2nd) Held in Taormina, Italy on March 3-5, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Food, GI-tract Functionality and Human Health Cluster brings together 64 research partners from 16 European countries in the quest to obtain greater knowledge of the role of the intestinal microbiota in human health and disease and to develop new func...

A. Kuokka M. Saarela T. Mattila-Sandholm



Comparative analysis of food webs based on flow networks: effects of nutrient supply on structure and function of coastal plankton communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of COMWEB was to develop efficient analytical, numerical and experimental methods for assessing and predicting the effects of nutrient (N, P, Si) supply on the stability and persistence of pelagic food web structure and function in coastal waters. The experimental comparative work included a geographic gradient covering Baltic, Mediterranean, and NE Atlantic waters and a NE Atlantic gradient

Yngvar Olsen; Helge Reinertsen; Olav Vadstein; Tom Andersen; Ingrid Gismervik; Carlos Duarte; Susana Agusti; Herwig Stibor; Ulrich Sommer; Risto Lignell; Timo Tamminen; Christiane Lancelot; Veronique Rousseau; Espen Hoell; Knut Arvid Sanderud



Grape seed as a functional food ingredient in bread-making.  


The objective of this study was to determine the effects of grape seed (GS) on the rheological and bread-making properties, antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of bread. Wheat flour was replaced with GS at levels of 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%. GS increased the dough development time at a level of 5.0% but did not change it at levels of 2.5% and 7.5%. The dough stability value increased from 6.4 to 12.3 min with the increase of GS content from 0% to 7.5%. Mixing tolerance index decreased from 41.1 to 6.4 Brabender Units Equivalent. Extensibility of dough containing GS was higher than that of the control dough. The antioxidant activities of the bread increased significantly with the increased GS substitution. Gallic acid and catechin content increased in the bread containing GS. It was concluded that GS could be added to the formulae to improve functionality of the bread. PMID:23113647

Meral, Raciye; Do?an, ?smail Sait



Consumers' salient beliefs regarding dairy products in the functional food era: a qualitative study using concepts from the theory of planned behaviour  

PubMed Central

Background Inadequate consumption of dairy products without appropriate dietary substitution may have deleterious health consequences. Social research reveals the factors that may impede compliance with dietary recommendations. This is particularly important given the recent introduction of functional dairy products. One of the challenges for public health professionals is to demonstrate the efficacy of nutrition education in improving attitudes toward nutrient rich foods. The aim of this study was to explore the salient beliefs of adult weight loss trial participants regarding both traditional and functional dairy products and to compare these with a control group not exposed to nutrition education. Methods Six focus groups were conducted, three with weight loss trial completers (n = 15) that had received nutrition education and three with individuals from the same region (n = 14) to act as controls. Transcribed focus groups were coded using the Theory of Planned Behaviour theoretical framework. Results Non-trial participants perceived dairy foods as weight inducing and were sceptical of functional dairy products. A lack of time/ability to decipher dairy food labels was also discussed by these individuals. In contrast trial participants discussed several health benefits related to dairy foods, practised label reading and were confident in their ability to incorporate dairy foods into their diet. Normative beliefs expressed were similar for both groups indicating that these were more static and less amenable to change through nutrition education than control and behavioural beliefs. Conclusions Nutrition education provided as a result of weight loss trial participation influenced behavioural and control beliefs relating to dairy products. This study provides a proof of concept indication that nutrition education may improve attitudes towards dairy products and may thus be an important target for public health campaigns seeking to increase intake of this food group.



Food Allergies  


... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system makes ... a serious reaction. Back Continue How Are Food Allergies Treated? There is no special medicine for food ...


Food Allergy  


Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... tree nuts, soy, and wheat. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...


A Method to Predict the Food Intake of Domestic Animals from Birth to Maturity as a Function of Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Where energy is the first limiting resource in a food it is proposed that an animal will try to eat the food at the rate that is needed to just meet its requirement for energy. An immature animal in a thermally neutral environment is assumed to need energy only for maintenance, including some level of physical activity, protein retention and

G. C. Emmans



Analysis of the Functional Morphology of Mouthparts of the Beetle Priacma serrata, and a Discussion of Possible Food Sources  

PubMed Central

With the help of scanning electron microscopy, high resolution X-ray tomography (µCT), and finite element analysis, the mechanical and functional properties of the mandibles and associated muscles of the beetle Priacma serrata (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Archostemata) were studied. The combination of these techniques allowed for studying mechanical properties of the headmandible- system without using living animals. The µCT analysis delivered precise volumetric data of the geometry of the system to be studied. Dimensions of the cuticle of the parts involved could be readily deduced from the µCT-data. Thus, an exact representation of the specimen without significant artifacts like deformations and misalignments, usually resulting from histological sectioning, could be reconstructed. A virtual 3D model built from these data allowed for investigating different stress scenarios with finite element analysis. Combining these methods showed that P. serrata most likely uses its robustly-built mandibles for cutting hard material. In combination with available information on its habitat, possible food sources are discussed.

Hornschemeyer, Thomas; Bond, Jake; Young, Philippe G.



Radiofrequency Produced Air Constituent Plasmas*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high power(1-25 kW) pulsed radiofrequency source is used to create and sustain a high-density(10^11-14 /cm^3, large volume plasmas of air constituents(N_2, O_2, Ar and air mixtures) at high gas pressures. Initial experiments at 1-30 Torr reveal that a noble gas mix improves the antenna loading and is beneficial for the breakdown of air constituents. It also leads to a lower recombination rate and reduced power requirements. Radiofrequency power is coupled through various antenna configurations including a multi-turn helical antenna and a double half-turn helix, using a capacitive matching network. Research results with the new, high power pulsed units will be presented at pressures from 30 to 760 Torr with different gas mixes. Plasma density measurements which use and 105 GHz interferometer as well as network analyzer measurements of the antenna coupling impedance and spectroscopic data will be presented. These will be used to describe the chemical and physical processes and ionic constituents as well as plasma decay processes for the different gas mixtures.

Akhtar, Kamran; Scharer, John; Paller, Eric; White, Ben; Tysk, Shane



Probing Food Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between a food’s structure and its properties\\/functionalities is of fundamental interest in food materials\\u000a science. The great expectation is to relate the functionality of a food material to the physico-chemical characteristics of\\u000a its ingredients and their geometric arrangement (i.e., structure formation). Functionalities of interest are either of chemical\\u000a (e.g., flavor release from a given matrix), physical\\/ mechanical (e.g.,

Martin Michel; Laurent Sagalowicz


Buckwheat as Functional Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content of rutin was analysed with help of the HPLC method in the individual plant parts of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) - grains, straws, leaves, flowers, tops, roots, young plants and genns. The content of rutin found in buckwhe~t.tops was about 100 tin:es .hig~er than in grains. The addition of buckwheat leaves to a model lIpid substrate showed

Vyb' alova


Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

Pelletier, Jean-Francois



Food additive for ruminants based on eugenol and cinnamaldehyde  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention concerns a composition based on a mixture of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, as food additive for feeding ruminants. The composition may be incorporated in a food additive, or a salt block. The eugenol and the cinnamaldehyde may be natural or identical natural constituents. Administering the composition or the food additive increases meat production and milk production.



Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles as a Food Ingredient: Evaluation of Nutritional, Functional and Storage Stability Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of new fiber ingredients manufactured by fermentative processes, particularly distiller's grain products, have received renewed attention as food ingredients. However, little research has been conducted on the role of these fiber ingredients in f...

F. M. Dong



[Chemical constituents of Eupatorium lindleyanum].  


To study chemical constituents of Eupatorium lindleyanum. Ethyl acetate extractive fractions were separated with silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 by column chromatography, and their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. Sixteen compounds were separated and identified as scopoletin (1), 6, 7-dimethylesculetin (2), nepetin (3), eupatrin (4), luteolin (5), isoquerecitrin (6), jaceosidin (7), quceritin (8), kaempferol (9), rutin (10), cirsiliol (11), taraxasterylacetate (12), pseudotaraxasteryl acetate (13), pseudotaraxasterol (14), butanoic acid (15) and n-hexadecanoic acid (16). Of them, compounds 1-6 and 11, 13 and 15 were separated from this plant for the first time. PMID:22792793

Wu, Shuangqing; Sun, Qun; Chu, Chunjun; Zhang, Jian



[Chemical constituents of Salvia chinensis].  


Chemical constituents were investigated on the ethyl acetate extract of Salvia chinensis. Compounds were separated and purified by various chromatograhic techniques including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and reversed-phase HPLC. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic data analysis. Eleven compounds were isolated and purified and their structures were identified as oresbiusin A(1), ethyl dihydrocaffeate (2), ethyl rosmarinate (3), rosmarinic acid (4), methyl rosmarinate (5), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (6), salvianol acid C (7), methyl salvianol acid C (8), methyl salvianolate A (9), dimethyl lithospermate B (10), and salvianolic acid A(11). Except for rosmarinic acid, the remaining compounds were isolated from S. chinensis for the first time. PMID:23947137

Gao, Jun-Feng; Ding, Ling; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Jian-Xun



Food allergy  

PubMed Central

Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy) or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy). Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

Kim, Jihyun; Ahn, Kangmo



Functional Effects of Parasites on Food Web Properties during the Spring Diatom Bloom in Lake Pavin: A Linear Inverse Modeling Analysis  

PubMed Central

This study is the first assessment of the quantitative impact of parasitic chytrids on a planktonic food web. We used a carbon-based food web model of Lake Pavin (Massif Central, France) to investigate the effects of chytrids during the spring diatom bloom by developing models with and without chytrids. Linear inverse modelling procedures were employed to estimate undetermined flows in the lake. The Monte Carlo Markov chain linear inverse modelling procedure provided estimates of the ranges of model-derived fluxes. Model results support recent theories on the probable impact of parasites on food web function. In the lake, during spring, when ‘inedible’ algae (unexploited by planktonic herbivores) were the dominant primary producers, the epidemic growth of chytrids significantly reduced the sedimentation loss of algal carbon to the detritus pool through the production of grazer-exploitable zoospores. We also review some theories about the potential influence of parasites on ecological network properties and argue that parasitism contributes to longer carbon path lengths, higher levels of activity and specialization, and lower recycling. Considering the “structural asymmetry” hypothesis as a stabilizing pattern, chytrids should contribute to the stability of aquatic food webs.

Niquil, Nathalie; Jobard, Marlene; Saint-Beat, Blanche; Sime-Ngando, Telesphore



Bactericidal activities against pathogenic bacteria by selected constituents of plant extracts in carrot broth  

Microsoft Academic Search

HPLC-DAD analysis provided evidence for the certain identification of some constituents of hydroalcoholic extracts from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Rheum palmatum, Thymus vulgaris, Lippia citriodora, and a mixture of Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia lavandulifolia and Thymus mastichina. Their inhibitory and bactericidal activities in vitro against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated either in Luria–Bertani (LB) broth or a model food system, Tyndallised

S. Vegara; L. Funes; N. Martí; D. Saura; V. Micol; M. Valero



Use of NHANES data to assign nutrient densities to food groups in a multiethnic diet history questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

In epidemiological studies of diet and chronic disease, a brief yet comprehensive diet history questionnaire must aggregate some foods into food groups. A nutrient density is assigned to each food group by averaging the densities of its constituent foods. A person's intake of a given nutrient is then estimated by multiplying the reported consumption of each food group by its

Darlene M. Dreon; Esther M. John; Yasamin DiCiccio; Alice S. Whittemore



Nutrition and food science go genomic.  


The wealth of genomic information and high-throughput profiling technologies are now being exploited by scientists in the disciplines of nutrition and food science. Diet and food components are prime environmental factors that affect the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, and this life-long interaction defines the health or disease state of an individual. For the first time the interaction of foods, and individual food constituents, with the biological systems can be defined on a molecular basis. Profiling technologies are used in basic-science applications for identifying the mode of action of foods or particular ingredients, and are similarly taken into the science-driven development of foods with a defined biofunctionality. Biomarker profiles and patterns derived from genomics applications in humans should guide nutrition and food science in developing evidence-based dietary recommendations and health-promoting foods. PMID:16488035

Rist, Manuela J; Wenzel, Uwe; Daniel, Hannelore



[Chemical constituents of Rauvolfia verticillata].  


The study on the Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill., which belongs to Apocynaceae, was carried out to look for its chemical constituents and pharmacological activity. The isolation and purification were performed by chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and ODS (octadecyl silane) open column. The structures of obtained compounds were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Three indole alkaloids and one acridone alkaloid were isolated from chloroform layer extract and identified as ajmalicine B (1), sandwicine (2), raunescine (3) and 7-hydroxynoracronycine (4) separately. Ajmalicine B (1) is a new compound belonging to indole alkaloid. Compound 4 as an acridone alkaloid was a new type compound isolated from Rauvolfia genus for the first time. We also did some biological activity research on the new type compound (4) to explore other pharmacological activities in addition to antihypertensive activity. PMID:22919724

Hong, Bo; Li, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Chun-Jie



ILSI Brazil International Workshop on Functional Foods: a narrative review of the scientific evidence in the area of carbohydrates, microbiome, and health  

PubMed Central

To stimulate discussion around the topic of ‘carbohydrates’ and health, the Brazilian branch of the International Life Sciences Institute held the 11th International Functional Foods Workshop (1–2 December 2011) in which consolidated knowledge and recent scientific advances specific to the relationship between carbohydrates and health were presented. As part of this meeting, several key points related to dietary fiber, glycemic response, fructose, and impacts on satiety, cognition, mood, and gut microbiota were realized: 1) there is a need for global harmonization of a science-based fiber definition; 2) low-glycemic index foods can be used to modulate the postprandial glycemic response and may affect diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes; 3) carbohydrate type may influence satiety and satiation; glycemic load and glycemic index show links to memory, mood, and concentration; 4) validated biomarkers are needed to demonstrate the known prebiotic effect of carbohydrates; 5) negative effects of fructose are not evident when human data are systematically reviewed; 6) new research indicates that diet strongly influences the microbiome; and 7) there is mounting evidence that the intestinal microbiota has the ability to impact the gut–brain axis. Overall, there is much promise for development of functional foods that impact the microbiome and other factors relevant to health, including glycemic response (glycemic index/glycemic load), satiety, mood, cognition, and weight management.

Meheust, Agnes; Augustin, Livia; Benton, David; Bercik, Premysl; Birkett, Anne; Eldridge, Alison L.; Faintuch, Joel; Hoffmann, Christian; Jones, Julie Miller; Kendall, Cyril; Lajolo, Franco; Perdigon, Gabriela; Prieto, Pedro Antonio; Rastall, Robert A.; Sievenpiper, John L.; Slavin, Joanne; de Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel



Genetic Screening of Functional Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria in a Fermented Pearl Millet Slurry and in the Metagenome of Fermented Starchy Foods?  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (n = 152) in African pearl millet slurries and in the metagenomes of amylaceous fermented foods were investigated by screening 33 genes involved in probiotic and nutritional functions. All isolates belonged to six species of the genera Pediococcus and Lactobacillus, and Lactobacillus fermentum was the dominant species. We screened the isolates for the abilities to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract and to synthesize folate and riboflavin. The isolates were also tested in vitro for their abilities to survive exposure to bile salts and to survive at pH 2. Because the ability to hydrolyze starch confers an ecological advantage on LAB that grow in starchy matrixes as well as improving the nutritional properties of the gruels, we screened for genes involved in starch metabolism. The results showed that genes with the potential ability to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract were widely distributed among isolates and metagenomes, whereas in vitro tests showed that only a limited set of isolates, mainly those belonging to L. fermentum, could tolerate a low pH. In contrast, the wide distribution of genes associated with bile salt tolerance, in particular bsh, is consistent with the high frequency of tolerance to bile salts observed. Genetic screening revealed a potential for folate and riboflavin synthesis in both isolates and metagenomes, as well as high variability among genes related to starch metabolism. Genetic screening of isolates and metagenomes from fermented foods is thus a promising approach for assessing the functional potential of food microbiotas.

Turpin, Williams; Humblot, Christele; Guyot, Jean-Pierre



Causes of world trade growth in agricultural and food products, 1951-2000: a demand function approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study is to analyse the causes of the growth of international agricultural and food trade in volume terms from 1951 to 2000. The results suggest that income growth has been the principal reason for this expansion, while exchange rate stability and the real price of agricultural products played only a minor role. Multilateral trade liberalization

Raúl Serrano; Vicente Pinilla



Functional and bioactive properties of rapeseed protein concentrates and sensory analysis of food application with rapeseed protein concentrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the use of rapeseed (Brassica napus) protein from oil industry waste for food applications, two rapeseed cultivars (Express, Lion) were pretreated to remove the hulls and oil. Rapeseed protein concentrates were then prepared by washing with 450ml\\/l isopropanol. A portion of each protein concentrate was steamed before undergoing isopropanol treatment to deactivate myrosinase. Deactivation of myrosinase

Yumiko Yoshie-Stark; Yoshiko Wada; Michael Schott; Andreas Wäsche



Apparatus and method for separating constituents  


A centrifugal separator apparatus and method for improving the efficiency of the separation of constituents in a fluid stream. A cyclone separator includes an assembly for separately discharging both constituents through the same end of the separator housing. A rotary separator includes a rotary housing having a baffle disposed therein for minimizing the differential rotational velocities of the constituents in the housing, thereby decreasing turbulence, and increasing efficiency. The intensity of the centrifugal force and the time which the constituents reside within the housing can be independently controlled to improve efficiency of separation.

Maronde, Carl P. (McMurray, PA); Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)



Pharmacological differentiation of opioid receptor antagonists by molecular and functional imaging of target occupancy and food reward-related brain activation in humans  

PubMed Central

Opioid neurotransmission has a key role in mediating reward-related behaviours. Opioid receptor (OR) antagonists, such as naltrexone (NTX), can attenuate the behaviour-reinforcing effects of primary (food) and secondary rewards. GSK1521498 is a novel OR ligand, which behaves as an inverse agonist at the ?-OR sub-type. In a sample of healthy volunteers, we used [11C]-carfentanil positron emission tomography to measure the OR occupancy and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure activation of brain reward centres by palatable food stimuli before and after single oral doses of GSK1521498 (range, 0.4–100?mg) or NTX (range, 2–50?mg). GSK1521498 had high affinity for human brain ORs (GSK1521498 effective concentration 50=7.10?ng?ml?1) and there was a direct relationship between receptor occupancy (RO) and plasma concentrations of GSK1521498. However, for both NTX and its principal active metabolite in humans, 6-?-NTX, this relationship was indirect. GSK1521498, but not NTX, significantly attenuated the fMRI activation of the amygdala by a palatable food stimulus. We thus have shown how the pharmacological properties of OR antagonists can be characterised directly in humans by a novel integration of molecular and functional neuroimaging techniques. GSK1521498 was differentiated from NTX in terms of its pharmacokinetics, target affinity, plasma concentration–RO relationships and pharmacodynamic effects on food reward processing in the brain. Pharmacological differentiation of these molecules suggests that they may have different therapeutic profiles for treatment of overeating and other disorders of compulsive consumption.

Rabiner, E A; Beaver, J; Makwana, A; Searle, G; Long, C; Nathan, P J; Newbould, R D; Howard, J; Miller, S R; Bush, M A; Hill, S; Reiley, R; Passchier, J; Gunn, R N; Matthews, P M; Bullmore, E T



Gui-ling-gao, a traditional Chinese functional food, prevents oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.  


Functional foods have become an increasingly popular alternative to prevent diseases and maintain body health status. Gui-ling-gao (GLG, also known as turtle jelly) is a well-known traditional functional food popular in Southern China and Hong Kong. This study aimed to investigate the antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects of GLG, a traditional Chinese functional food, on preventing oxidative stress-induced injury in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. In this study, the antioxidative capacities of GLG were measured by using both a cell-free assay [2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl assay] and biological methods [2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)-induced haemolysis assay and H(2)O(2)-induced cell damage on H9c2 cardiomyocytes]. Additionally, the total phenolic content was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Furthermore, the anti-apoptotic effect of GLG was evaluated by nuclear staining and a DNA fragmentation assay. GLG was found to have good antioxidant activities and high total phenolic content. In H(2)O(2)-induced cell damage on H9c2 cells, GLG was demonstrated to ameliorate the apoptotic effects, such as nuclear condensations, increased intracellular caspase-3 activity and inter-nucleosomal DNA cleavage, induced by H(2)O(2). The present study demonstrated for the first time that GLG possesses anti-apoptotic potential in vitro and this effect may be mediated, in part, by its antioxidative function. Additionally, the antioxidative capacities of GLG were proved both chemically and biologically. This study provides scientific evidence to prove the anecdotal health-beneficial claim that the consumption of GLG could help the body to handle endogenous toxicants such as free radicals. PMID:23467630

Li, Fan; Wu, Jian-Hong; Wang, Qing-Hua; Shu, Yuan-Lan; Wan, Chun-Wai; Chan, Chi-On; Kam-Wah Mok, Daniel; Chan, Shun-Wan



Food Justice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's food system, farm workers face difficult and hazardous conditions, low-income neighborhoods lack supermarkets but abound in fast-food restaurants and liquor stores, food products emphasize convenience rather than wholesomeness, and the international reach of American fast-food franchises has been a major contributor to an epidemic of \\

Robert Gottlieb; Anupama Joshi



Space Station Food System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.



Food allergies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food\\u000a proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies,\\u000a implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young\\u000a children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in

Paula F. G. O’Leary; Fergus Shanahan



Changes in food intake and glucosensing function of hypothalamus and hindbrain in rainbow trout subjected to hyperglycemic or hypoglycemic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the possible role of glucose in the control of food intake (FI) in fish and the involvement of glucosensing system\\u000a in that role, we have subjected rainbow trout (via intraperitoneal injections) to control, hyperglycemic (500 mg kg?1 glucose body mass) or hypoglycemic (4 mg kg?1 bovine insulin) conditions for 10 days. The experimental design was appropriate since hypoglycemia

Sergio Polakof; Jesús M. Míguez; José L. Soengas



Immune function and hematology of male cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus) in response to food supplementation and methionine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined effects of supplementation of food quantity and quality (=enhanced methionine) on hematologic and immunologic parameters of wild, but enclosed, adult male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in north-central Oklahoma. Sheet metal enclosures were stocked with a high density of wild-caught cotton rats (160 animals\\/ha) and randomly assigned a treatment of no supplementation, mixed-ration supplementation or methionine-enhanced supplementation. Aside from

R. Eric Webb; David M. Leslie; Robert L. Lochmiller; Ronald E. Masters



Antioxidative constituents from Paeonia lactiflora.  


The ethanol extract of the peony root (Paeonia Lactiflora Pall, Paeoniaceae) as well as its major active components including gallic acid and methyl gallate were evaluated for their protective effects against free radical generation and lipid peroxidation. In addition, the protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative DNA damage in a mammalian cell line were examined. The ethanol extracts of the peony root (PREs) and its active constituents, gallic acid and methyl gallate, exhibited a significant free radical scavenging effect against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine (DPPH) radical generation and had an inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation, as measured by the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. The PREs did not have any pro-oxidant effect. They strongly inhibited the hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage from NIH/3T3 fibroblasts, as assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, the oral administration of 50% PRE (50% ethanol extract of peony root), gallic acid and methyl gallate potently inhibited the formation of micronucleated reticulocytes (MNRET) in the mouse peripheral blood induced by a KBrO3 treatment in vivo. Therefore, PREs containing gallic acid and methyl gallate may be a useful antigenotoxic antioxidant by scavenging free radicals, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and protecting against oxidative DNA damage without exhibiting any pro-oxidant effect. PMID:16114491

Lee, Seung Chul; Kwon, Yong Soo; Son, Kyung Hun; Kim, Hyun Pyo; Heo, Moon Young



[Chemical constituents from Lyophyllum decastes].  


The chemical constituents from the fruiting bodies of Lyophyllum decastes (Fr.) Singer were studied in this paper. Thirteen compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatographies on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were identified by MS and NMR data analysis as adenosine (1), 2R, 3S, 4S, 8E)-2-[(2'R)-2-hydroxyheneicosanoylamino]-8-octadecene-1, 3, 4-triol (2), (2R, 3S, 4S, 8E)-2-[(2'R)-2-hydroxypentacosanoylamino]-8-octadecene-1, 3, 4-triol (3), nicotinic acid (4), (4E, 8E) -2-N-2-hydroxytetracosanoyl-1-O-beta-D-glycopyranosyl-9-methyl-4, 8-sphingadienine (5), D-mannitol (6), ergosteryl-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), tuberoside (8), (2R, 3S, 4S, 8E)-2-[(2'R)-2-hydroxybehenoylamino]-8-octadecene-1, 3, 4-triol (9),(2R, 3S, 4S, 8E)-2-[(2'R) -2-hydroxytricosanoylamino] -8-octadecene-1, 3, 4-triol (10), (22E, 24R)-ergosta-7, 22-dien-3beta, 5alpha, 6beta-triol (11), (22E, 24R)-ergosta-5, 7, 22-trien-3beta-ol (12), and 5alpha, 8alpha-epidiory-(22E, 24R)-ergosta-6, 22-dien-3beta-ol (13), respectively. All the above compounds are first obtained from the mushroom and compounds 2-10 are reported to be obtained from the Lyophyllum for the first time. PMID:24791541

Zheng, Hong-Liang; Bau, Tolgor; Bao, Hai-Ying; Lian, Jun-Wen



[Phenolic constituents from Lysimachia patungensis].  


To study the chemical constituents of Lysimachia patungensis Hand.-Mazz., silica gel column chromatography, reverse phase ODS column chromatography, MCI and Sephadex LH-20, were used to separate the 95% EtOH extract of the whole plant of Lysimachia patungensis Hand.-Mazz.. The structures of the isolated compounds have been established on the basis of chemical and NMR spectroscopic evidence as well as ESI-MS in some cases. Twelve phenolic compounds were obtained and identified as quercetin-3, 3'-di- O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (1), myricetrin (2), quercitrin (3), rutin (4), 2-hydroxynaringenin-4'-O-glucopyranoside (5), naringenin 7-O-glucopyranoside (6), liquiritin apioside (7), licochalcone B (8), tetrahydroxymethoxy chalcone (9), methyl-p-coumarate (10), 2, 4, 6-trihydroxy acetophenone-2-O-glucopyranoside (11) and vaccihein A (12). Among them, compound 1 is a new compound, and compounds 5, 11 and 12 are isolated from the genus Lysimachia L. for the first time, and the others are isolated from the plant for the first time. PMID:23724651

Zeng, Peng; Zhang, Yong; Pan, Chen; Jia, Qi; Guo, Fu-Jiang; Zhu, Wei-Liang; Li, Yi-Ming; Chen, Kai-Xian



[Chemical constituents from Commelina communis].  


To investigate the chemical constituents from Commelina communis, fifteen compounds were separated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS column chromatography, and semi-preparative HPLC. By analyses of NMR and MS data as well as their physical and chemical properties, the structures of these compounds were identified as chrysoeriol-7-O-beta-D-glucoside( 1), methyl gallate(2), p-coumaric acid(3), protocatechuic acid(4), caffeic acid(5), p-hydroxybenzoic acid(6), 2-phenethyl-beta-D-gly-cosidase(7) , rhaponticin(8) , (7S, 8R) -dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-9-O-beta-D-glucoside (9), isovitexin (10) , isofurcatain (11), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside(12) , quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (13) , isoquercitrin (14) , and 1, 2-dihydro-6, 8-dime-thoxy-7-1-(3, 5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl) -N1, N2-bis-[2-( 4-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl] -2, 3-naphthalene dicarboxamide (15). Compounds 2, 5-9, 11, 13 were obtained from the genus Commelina for the first time. PMID:24422397

Yuan, Hong-E; Zhou, Xing-Dong; Meng, Ling-Jie; Qin, Fang-Min; Zhou, Guang-Xiong



Organic constituents of carbonaceous chondrites.  


From a brief discussion of forms of meteorite carbon it is concluded that almost all the carbon in the carbonaceous chondrites is present as organic matter. Attempts to extract and identify this organic matter are then reviewed. It is shown that only 25 per cent has been extracted and only about 5 per cent chemically characterized. Of this 5 per cent, most is a complex mixture of hydroxylated aromatic acids together with various hydrocarbons of the paraffin, naphthene and aromatic series. Small amounts of amino acids, sugars and fatty acids also are present. The possible chemical nature of the major fraction is discussed. It is suggested to be a mixture of high-molecular weight aromatic and hydrocarbon polymers. Possible sources of contamination of the meteorites are described and evidence indicating a general lack of organic contaminants is presented. It is concluded, that most of the organic constituents are indigenous to the meteorites and are extra terrestrial in origin. Synthetic processes for the compounds are mentioned and it is concluded that the organic material is probably of abiogenic origin. A brief review on studies of "organized elements" contained within the meteorites is presented. Difficulties of identification are discussed and photographs of some microstructures of several carbonaceous chondrites are presented. No final conclusion about the nature of these objects is possible, but some appear to be various indigenous organic and mineral structures, while others are terrestrial contaminants. PMID:11881656

Briggs, M H; Mamikunian, G



[Antitussive constituents of Disporum cantoniense].  


The antitussive activity assay for the root extraction of Disporum cantoniense was carried out with coughing mice induced by ammonia liquor. The results showed that the ethanol and water extractions of D. cantoniense possess strong antitussive activity, and the high dose of the former was better than positive control, and then the constituents of the ethanol extraction were separated and purified by various modern chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified by physico-chemical properties and spectroscopic data. As a result, eight compounds were isolated and identified as stigmast-4-en-3-one(1), (22E, 24R)-ergosta-5, 7, 22-trien-3beta-ol(2), obtucarbamate A(3), obtucarbamate B(4), neotigogenin(5), azo-2, 2'-bis[Z-(2,3-dihydroxy-4-methyl-5-methoxy) phenyl ethylene] (6),dimethyl {[carbonylbis (azanediyl)] bis( 2-methyl-5, 1-phenylene) j dicarbamate (7) , and quercetin-3-O-pB-D-glucopyranoside(8). All compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time, and the result of bioactivity-directed isolation showed that compounds 3, 4, and 6 had obvious effect on antitussive activity, and compound 6 had the same level as positive control. PMID:24791497

Gan, Xiu-Hai; Zhao, Chao; Liang, Zhi-Yuan; Gong, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Hua-Guo; Zhou, Xin



[Chemical constituents of Poria cocos].  


The chemical constituents of Poria cocos were studied by means of silica gel, ODS column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Thirteen compounds were isolated from this plant. By analysis of the ESI-MS and NMR data, the structures of these compounds were determined as tumulosic acid (1), dehydrotumulosic acid (2), 3beta, 5alpha-dihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-dien-6-one (3), 3beta, 5alpha, 9alpha-trihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-diene -6-one (4), ergosta-7, 22-diene-3-one (5), 6, 9-epoxy-ergosta-7,22-diene-3-ol (6), ergosta-4,22-diene-3-one (7), 3beta, 5alpha, 6beta-trihydroxyl-ergosta-7,22-diene (8), ergosta-5, 6-epoxy-7,22-dien-3-ol (9), beta-sitosterol (10), ribitol (11), mannitol (12), and oleanic acid 3-O-acetate (13), respectively. Compounds 3-13 were isolated from the P. cocos for the first time. PMID:24956845

Yang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Chao; Wang, Hong-Qing; Li, Jia-Chun; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei; Chen, Ruo-Yun



Large Constituent Families Help Children Parse Compounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The family size of the constituents of compound words, or the number of compounds sharing the constituents, has been shown to affect adults' access to compound words in the mental lexicon. The present study was designed to see if family size would affect children's segmentation of compounds. Twenty-five English-speaking children between 3;7 and…

Krott, Andrea; Nicoladis, Elena



Effective QQ interactions in constituent quark models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the performance of some recent potential models suggested as effective interactions between constituent quarks. In particular, we address constituent quark models for baryons with hybrid Q-Q interactions stemming from one-gluon plus meson exchanges. Upon recalculating two of such models we find them to fail in describing the N and Delta spectra. Our calculations are based on accurate solutions

L. Ya. Glozman; Z. Papp; W. Plessas; K. Varga; R. F. Wagenbrunn



Warming shifts top-down and bottom-up control of pond food web structure and function.  


The effects of global and local environmental changes are transmitted through networks of interacting organisms to shape the structure of communities and the dynamics of ecosystems. We tested the impact of elevated temperature on the top-down and bottom-up forces structuring experimental freshwater pond food webs in western Canada over 16 months. Experimental warming was crossed with treatments manipulating the presence of planktivorous fish and eutrophication through enhanced nutrient supply. We found that higher temperatures produced top-heavy food webs with lower biomass of benthic and pelagic producers, equivalent biomass of zooplankton, zoobenthos and pelagic bacteria, and more pelagic viruses. Eutrophication increased the biomass of all organisms studied, while fish had cascading positive effects on periphyton, phytoplankton and bacteria, and reduced biomass of invertebrates. Surprisingly, virus biomass was reduced in the presence of fish, suggesting the possibility for complex mechanisms of top-down control of the lytic cycle. Warming reduced the effects of eutrophication on periphyton, and magnified the already strong effects of fish on phytoplankton and bacteria. Warming, fish and nutrients all increased whole-system rates of net production despite their distinct impacts on the distribution of biomass between producers and consumers, plankton and benthos, and microbes and macrobes. Our results indicate that warming exerts a host of indirect effects on aquatic food webs mediated through shifts in the magnitudes of top-down and bottom-up forcing. PMID:23007089

Shurin, Jonathan B; Clasen, Jessica L; Greig, Hamish S; Kratina, Pavel; Thompson, Patrick L



Food Allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a IgE-mediated food allergies are part of a spectrum of adverse reactions to foods including immune and nonimmune mechanisms.\\u000a Anaphylaxis is the most serious and life-threatening manifestation of food allergy. Asthma, rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and\\u000a urticaria\\/angioedema also result from IgE-mediated reactions to foods. Not only ingestion of an allergenic food, but inhalation\\u000a of food allergens may cause reactions. There are many

Oscar L. Frick


Food allergy  

PubMed Central

Food allergies affect up to 6% of young children and 3%–4% of adults. They encompass a range of disorders that may be IgE and/or non-IgE mediated, including anaphylaxis, pollen food syndrome, food-protein–induced enterocolitis syndrome, food-induced proctocolitis, eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and atopic dermatitis. Many complex host factors and properties of foods are involved in the development of food allergy. With recent advances in the understanding of how these factors interact, the development of several novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies is underway and showing promise.

Wang, Julie; Sampson, Hugh A.



[Examination of original plant of Jamaica quassia extract, a natural bittering agent, based on composition of the constituents].  


Jamaica quassia extract is a natural bittering agent used as a food additive in Japan. The main constituents of the extract have already been reported to be quassin and neoquassin. In this study, the differences in composition of the constituents among four Jamaican quassia extract products were analyzed by LC/MS. The results showed that the four products have similar compositions of their minor constituents, as well as their main constituents. We isolated four of the minor constituents that were commonly included in the four products, and identified them as 11-dihydro-12-norneoquassin, canthin-6-one, 4-methoxy-1-vinyl-beta-carboline and 4,9-dimethoxy-1-vinyl-beta-carboline. The List of Existing Food Additives in Japan mentions that Jamaica quassia (Picrasma excelsa) is the original plant from which Jamaica quassia extract is produced. However, we presume that Jamaica quassia extract may actually be made from appropriate plants other than Picrasma excelsa, since P. excelsa is listed as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. We prepared hot water extracts from two other species of plants, Quassia amara (American quassia, Surinam quassia) and P. quassioides ('Nigaki' in Japanese), and investigated their constituents by LC/MS. The results showed that the compositions of the constituents in the Jamaica quassia extract products resembled those in the extract derived from Q. amara. These findings suggest that Jamaica quassia extract products are probably made from Q. amara. PMID:19325221

Tada, Atsuko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Takumi; Asanoma, Masaharu; Yun, Young Sook; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi



Therapeutic Implications of Black Seed and Its Constituent Thymoquinone in the Prevention of Cancer through Inactivation and Activation of Molecular Pathways.  


The cancer is probably the most dreaded disease in both men and women and also major health problem worldwide. Despite its high prevalence, the exact molecular mechanisms of the development and progression are not fully understood. The current chemotherapy/radiotherapy regime used to treat cancer shows adverse side effect and may alter gene functions. Natural products are generally safe, effective, and less expensive substitutes of anticancer chemotherapeutics. Based on previous studies of their potential therapeutic uses, Nigella sativa and its constituents may be proved as good therapeutic options in the prevention of cancer. Black seeds are used as staple food in the Middle Eastern Countries for thousands of years and also in the treatment of diseases. Earlier studies have shown that N. sativa and its constituent thymoquinone (TQ) have important roles in the prevention and treatment of cancer by modulating cell signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the role of N. sativa and its constituents TQ in the prevention of cancer through the activation or inactivation of molecular cell signaling pathways. PMID:24959190

Rahmani, Arshad H; Alzohairy, Mohammad A; Khan, Masood A; Aly, Salah M



Therapeutic Implications of Black Seed and Its Constituent Thymoquinone in the Prevention of Cancer through Inactivation and Activation of Molecular Pathways  

PubMed Central

The cancer is probably the most dreaded disease in both men and women and also major health problem worldwide. Despite its high prevalence, the exact molecular mechanisms of the development and progression are not fully understood. The current chemotherapy/radiotherapy regime used to treat cancer shows adverse side effect and may alter gene functions. Natural products are generally safe, effective, and less expensive substitutes of anticancer chemotherapeutics. Based on previous studies of their potential therapeutic uses, Nigella sativa and its constituents may be proved as good therapeutic options in the prevention of cancer. Black seeds are used as staple food in the Middle Eastern Countries for thousands of years and also in the treatment of diseases. Earlier studies have shown that N. sativa and its constituent thymoquinone (TQ) have important roles in the prevention and treatment of cancer by modulating cell signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the role of N. sativa and its constituents TQ in the prevention of cancer through the activation or inactivation of molecular cell signaling pathways.

Rahmani, Arshad H.; Alzohairy, Mohammad A.; Khan, Masood A.; Aly, Salah M.



Promotion of quality standard of herbal medicine by constituent removing and adding  

PubMed Central

To identify major active constituents and measure their levels in a typical medicinal herb–Rhizoma coptidis, we applied the concept of removing and adding, taking inspiration from functional genetic methods. As this herb has bacteriostatic properties and is used to treat bacterial diarrhea, we examined the effects of individual constituents (berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, jateorrhizine and columbamine) on the growth of Shigella dysenteriae with microcalorimetry. The removing and adding procedures revealed that berberine and coptisine were the main antibacterial constituents of R. coptidis, with bacteriostatic activities of 54.10% and 39.75%, respectively. The relative levels of berberine and coptisine in R. coptidis were 8.08%–31.92% and 4.05%–14.45%, respectively. On the basis of whole effect, the method of constituents removing and adding, coupled with a bioassay, is a useful strategy to identify the active constituents and measure their levels in herbal medicines, which may provide reference to other natural products.

Yan, Dan; Li, Junxian; Xiong, Yin; Zhang, Congen; Luo, Jiaoyang; Han, Yumei; Wang, Ruiling; Jin, Cheng; Qian, Hong; Li, Jiangyu; Qiu, Lingling; Peng, Cheng; Lin, Yuling; Song, Xueai; Xiao, Xiaohe



Long-term plant stanol and sterol ester-enriched functional food consumption, serum lutein/zeaxanthin concentration and macular pigment optical density.  


Observational epidemiological studies have shown that low carotenoid intake and/or low carotenoid blood levels increase the risk of degenerative diseases like age-related macular degeneration. Functional foods enriched with plant sterol or stanol esters may lower serum concentrations of fat-soluble carotenoids. Theoretically, as a result the macular pigment optical density (MPOD), a marker for eye health, may change. We carried out a double-blind placebo-controlled human intervention trial with a duration of 18 months to evaluate the possible effects of plant stanol and sterol esters on serum lutein/zeaxanthin concentration in relation to the MPOD. Forty-seven subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups: margarine without added plant sterols or stanols, plant sterol-enriched margarine, or plant stanol-enriched margarine. Serum cholesterol and lutein/zeaxanthine concentrations and the MPOD were evaluated at baseline and at study end. Changes in lipid-adjusted serum lutein/zeaxanthine concentrations between baseline and study end differed significantly between the three groups (P = 0.001). We found no differences in the MPOD between the three treatment groups, despite the differences in both absolute and cholesterol-standardized serum lutein/zeaxanthine concentrations. This shows that the observed reduction in serum carotenoid concentrations during 18 months consumption of these functional foods does not affect MPOD. PMID:18986598

Berendschot, Tos T J M; Plat, Jogchum; de Jong, Ariënne; Mensink, Ronald P



Area-based variations in obesity are more than a function of the food and physical activity environment : area-based variations in obesity.  


This study examines the area-based variations in obesity from a community-based epidemiologic survey of Boston, MA, USA, using a geographic information system and multilevel modeling techniques. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used to assess whether a function of the food and the physical activity (PA) environment can explain the body weight of residents. First, a series of multilevel analyses was conducted after accounting for the well-established individual determinants and capturing a wide range of environmental attributes to represent a more realistic portrayal of urban typology. Second, the results of multilevel analysis were framed into the theoretical model of area-based variations in obesity to qualitatively summarize the association of contextual factors with the body weight of residents. Based on the overall correlation, the area-based variations defined by a function of the food and PA environment seem to be insufficient in explaining the body weight of residents. By testing the cross-level interactions of gender and race/ethnicity with contextual factors, the results suggest that the concept of area-based variations in obesity will have to consider how residents behave differently within a given environment. More research is needed to better understand the contextual determinants of obesity so as to put forth population-wide interventions. PMID:22700325

Oka, Masayoshi; Link, Carol L; Kawachi, Ichiro



Food Allergy  


... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food Allergy Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share ... length) }} Forward {{/if}} What's New in NIAID Food Allergy Research New Mouse Model Developed for Eosinophilic Esophagitis ...


Food additives  


... appealing Direct additives may be man-made or natural. Natural additives include: Adding herbs or spices to foods ... appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, bring out the taste ...


Space Food.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-...



[Food allergy or food intolerance?].  


Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management. PMID:24834642

Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C



Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts 4 different food webs: Antarctica, the African Grasslands, the Australia Grasslands and a Marine environment. A separate food web for scavengers and decomposers is present in the African Grasslands section. Viewers must first build the web by moving boxes with the organism's picture and name to the appropriate spot on a grid. Clues describing food requirements are given as the boxes are moved. When the boxes are correctly placed a complete food web (with arrows) is displayed.


Fried foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fried foods may taste good, but they can have terrible effects on your body if you eat too many of them. Someone who has bulimia would be likely to binge eat these fried foods. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted binge eats and then purges, or gets rid of, all of the food they just ate.

Sakurai Midori (None;)



Food Scorecard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy


40 CFR 264.342 - Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs). 264... Incinerators § 264.342 Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs). (a) Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) in...



Foams prepared from whey protein isolate and egg white protein: 2. Changes associated with angel food cake functionality.  


The effects of sucrose on the physical properties and thermal stability of foams prepared from 10% (w/v) protein solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI), egg white protein (EWP), and their combinations (WPI/EWP) were investigated in wet foams and angel food cakes. Incorporation of 12.8 (w/v) sucrose increased EWP foam stability (drainage 1/2 life) but had little effect on the stability of WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Increased stability was not due to viscosity alone. Sucrose increased interfacial elasticity (E ') of EWP and decreased E' of WPI and WPI/EWP combinations, suggesting that altered interfacial properties increased stability in EWP foams. Although 25% WPI/75% EWP cakes had similar volumes as EWP cakes, cakes containing WPI had larger air cells. Changes during heating showed that EWP foams had network formation starting at 45 degrees C, which was not observed in WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Moreover, in batters, which are foams with additional sugar and flour, a stable foam network was observed from 25 to 85 degrees C for batters made from EWP foams. Batters containing WPI or WPI/EWP mixtures showed signs of destabilization starting at 25 degrees C. These results show that sucrose greatly improved the stability of wet EWP foams and that EWP foams form network structures that remain stable during heating. In contrast, sucrose had minimal effects on stability of WPI and WPI/EWP wet foams, and batters containing these foams showed destabilization prior to heating. Therefore, destabilization processes occurring in the wet foams and during baking account for differences in angel food cake quality. PMID:19646042

Berry, Tristan K; Yang, Xin; Foegeding, E Allen



Beyond water activity: Recent advances based on an alternative approach to the assessment of food quality and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water, the most abundant constituent of natural foods, is a ubiquitous plasticizer of most natural and fabricated food ingredients and products. Many of the new concepts and developments in modern food science and technology revolve around the role of water, and its manipulation, in food manufacturing, processing, and preservation. This article reviews the, effects of water, as a near?universal solvent

Louise Slade; Harry Levine; David S. Reid



IRRAS, a new tool in food science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report illustrates that infra-red reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) is a new powerful and promising technique to obtain detailed molecular information of biomolecules at and near the air\\/water interface of complex food solutions. Here it is demonstrated that in combination with spectral simulation, this technique can provide information on local concentration, conformation and orientation of different constituents simultaneously. Furthermore, dynamics

Marcel B. J Meinders; Geertruida G. M van den Bosch; Harmen H. J de Jongh



Functional changes due to invasive species: Food web shifts at shallow Posidonia oceanica seagrass beds colonized by the alien macroalga Caulerpa racemosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple stable isotope analyses were used to examine the trophic shifts at faunal assemblages within the invading macroalga Caulerpa racemosa in comparison to established communities of Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows. Sampling of macrobenthic invertebrates and their potential food sources of algal mats and seagrass meadows in Mallorca (NW Mediterranean) showed differences in species composition of faunal and primary producers among seagrass and C. racemosa. Accordingly, changes in food web structure and trophic guilds were observed, not only at species level but also at community level. The carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures of herbivores, detritivores and deposit feeders confirmed that the seagrass provided a small contribution to the macrofaunal organisms. ? 13C at the P. oceanica seagrass and at the C. racemosa assemblages differed, ranging from -6.19 to -21.20‰ and -2.67 to -31.41‰, respectively. ? 15N at the Caulerpa mats was lower (ranging from 2.64 to 10.45‰) than that at the seagrass meadows (3.51-12. 94‰). Significant differences in isotopic signatures and trophic level among trophic guilds at P. oceanica and C. racemosa were found. N fractionation at trophic guild level considerable differed between seagrass and macroalgae mats, especially for detritivores, deposit feeders, and herbivores. Filter feeders slightly differed with a relatively lower N signal at the seagrass and CR values at community level and at trophic guild level were higher in the C. racemosa invaded habitats indicating an increase in diversity of basal resource pools. C. racemosa did seem to broaden the niche diversity of the P. oceanica meadows it colonised at the base of the food web, may be due to the establishment of a new basal resource. The extent of the effects of invasive species on ecosystem functioning is a fundamental issue in conservation ecology. The observed changes in invertebrate and macrophytic composition, stable isotope signatures of concomitant species and consequent trophic guild and niche breadth shifts at invaded Caulerpa beds increase our understanding of the seagrass systems.

Deudero, S.; Box, A.; Alós, J.; Arroyo, N. L.; Marbà, N.



Food exchange and distribution by three functional worker groups of the imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The imported fire ant,Solenopsis invicta Buren has three main functional worker groups: foragers, reserves, and nurses. By using a specially designed nest we were able to separate these functional groups by location. The ants were presented with 125 Iodine mixed with egg yolk powder, soybean oil, or 50 % honey solution for 10 minutes. The number of ants per

A. Ann Soren?en; John T. Mirenda; S. Bradleigh Vinson



Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems  

SciTech Connect

The technical objectives of this project are: (1) To define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and to characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail. (2) To elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes (involving basic principles of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics) by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur; and (3) to develop, based on the information required in (1) and (2), a tractable process'' model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the nature and distribution of products. 26 refs., 151 figs., 51 tabs.

Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)); Shah, N.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States))



Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems  

SciTech Connect

The technical objectives of this project are: To: (1) define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and (2) characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail. To elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes (involving basic principles of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics) by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur. To develop, based on the information required in a. and b. above, a tractable process'' model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the nature and distribution of products.

Helble, J.J.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States))



Thermal degradation of cloudy apple juice phenolic constituents.  


Although conventional thermal processing is still the most commonly used preservation technique in cloudy apple juice production, detailed knowledge on phenolic compound degradation during thermal treatment is still limited. To evaluate the extent of thermal degradation as a function of time and temperature, apple juice samples were isothermally treated during 7200s over a temperature range of 80-145°C. An untargeted metabolomics approach based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry was developed and applied with the aim to find out the most heat labile phenolic constituents in cloudy apple juice. By the use of a high resolution mass spectrometer, the high degree of in-source fragmentation, the quality of deconvolution and the employed custom-made database, it was possible to achieve a high degree of structural elucidation for the thermolabile phenolic constituents. Procyanidin subclass representatives were discovered as the most heat labile phenolic compounds of cloudy apple juice. PMID:24874374

De Paepe, D; Valkenborg, D; Coudijzer, K; Noten, B; Servaes, K; De Loose, M; Voorspoels, S; Diels, L; Van Droogenbroeck, B



Covariant axial form factor of the nucleon in a chiral constituent quark model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The axial form factor GA of the nucleon is investigated for the Goldstone-boson-exchange constituent quark model using the point-form approach to relativistic quantum mechanics. The results, being covariant, show large contributions from relativistic boost effects. The predictions are obtained directly from the quark-model wave functions, without any further input such as vertex or constituent-quark form factors, and fall remarkably close

L. Ya. Glozman; M. Radici; R. F. Wagenbrunn; S. Boffi; W. Klink; W. Plessas



Xanthene Food Dye, as a Modulator of Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid-beta Peptide Aggregation and the Associated Impaired Neuronal Cell Function  

PubMed Central

Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. AD is a degenerative brain disorder that causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior. It has been suggested that aggregation of amyloid-beta peptide (A?) is closely linked to the development of AD pathology. In the search for safe, effective modulators, we evaluated the modulating capabilities of erythrosine B (ER), a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved red food dye, on A? aggregation and A?-associated impaired neuronal cell function. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to evaluate the modulating ability of ER on A? aggregation, we employed transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay, and immunoassays using A?-specific antibodies. TEM images and ThT fluorescence of A? samples indicate that protofibrils are predominantly generated and persist for at least 3 days. The average length of the ER-induced protofibrils is inversely proportional to the concentration of ER above the stoichiometric concentration of A? monomers. Immunoassay results using A?-specific antibodies suggest that ER binds to the N-terminus of A? and inhibits amyloid fibril formation. In order to evaluate A?-associated toxicity we determined the reducing activity of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells treated with A? aggregates formed in the absence or in the presence of ER. As the concentration of ER increased above the stoichiometric concentration of A?, cellular reducing activity increased and A?-associated reducing activity loss was negligible at 500 µM ER. Conclusions/Significance Our findings show that ER is a novel modulator of A? aggregation and reduces A?-associated impaired cell function. Our findings also suggest that xanthene dye can be a new type of small molecule modulator of A? aggregation. With demonstrated safety profiles and blood-brain permeability, ER represents a particularly attractive aggregation modulator for amyloidogenic proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases.

Wong, H. Edward; Kwon, Inchan



Food Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate aim of activities and interventions aimed at guaranteeing food security is to arrive at a healthy and well-nourished\\u000a population that can take on, to the maximum of its capacities, the development of its own community, area or country. In these\\u000a efforts, agriculture, in its role as food producer, plays a crucial role. (Sufficient quality) food should be available

R. P. Roetter; H. VAN KEULEN



Food poisoning  


... by common bacteria such as Staphylococcus or E. coli. ... cause food poisoning, including: Campylobacter enteritis Cholera E. coli enteritis Fish poisoning Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Shigella Infants ...


Food microstructure and starch digestion.  


Microstructural characteristics of starch-based natural foods such as parenchyma or cotyledon cell shape, cell size and composition, and cell wall composition play a key role in influencing the starch digestibility during gastrointestinal digestion. The stability of cell wall components and the arrangement of starch granules in the cells may affect the free access of amylolytic enzymes during digestion. Commonly used food processing techniques such as thermal processing, extrusion cooking, and post-cooking refrigerated storage alter the physical state of starch (gelatinization, retrogradation, etc.) and its digestibility. Rheological characteristics (viscosity) of food affect the water availability during starch hydrolysis and, consequently, the absorption of digested carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract. The nonstarch ingredients and other constituents present in food matrix, such as proteins and lipids interact with starch during processing, which leads to an alteration in the overall starch digestibility and physicochemical characteristics of digesta. Starch digestibility can be controlled by critically manipulating the food microstructure, processing techniques, and food composition. PMID:23722096

Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Singh, Harjinder



Chiral QCD generates constituent quark masses  

SciTech Connect

Constituent quark masses are shown to arise naturally in an approximation to chiral QCD. The colour, 3-bar, J/sup p/ = 0+ diquark component of the nucleon is studied using a new variational technique to solve a Bethe-Salpeter equation for this qq bound state in massless QCD. The resultant diquark form factor GAMMA(q) exhibits a dramatic peaking for (Euclidean) momentum q/sup 2/ approx. = (0.2 GeV)/sup 2/ which, the authors, show, signals the generation of a constituent quark mass of approx. = 270 MeV, and which provides a significant insight into deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering results.

Praschifka, J.; Cahill, R.T. (School of Physical Sciences, The Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park, S.A. 5042 (AU)); Roberts, C.D. (School of Physics, Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3052 (AU))



[Chemical constituents of Girardinia palmata ssp ciliata].  


Thirteen constituents were identified from Girardinia palmata ssp ciliata C. J. Chen by using GC-MS, which amounted to 84.5% of the total peaks, the main constituent were linoleic acid (52.01%) and dimethyl fumarate (10.05%). The dissociated amino acids and KNO(3) in the sample amounted to 43.30 mg/100 g and 3.0%. Five compounds were isolated and elucidated as octadecane, hexadecylic acid, beta-sitosterol, p-coumaric acid and potasium nitrate. PMID:12575105

Yuan, Y; Ai, K; Chen, G



Food Trends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

Schwenk, Nancy E.



Irradiated foods  


... and reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes and for the control of insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.


Acoustic constituents of prosodic typology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different languages sound different, and considerable part of it derives from the typological difference of prosody. Although such difference is often referred to as lexical accent types (stress accent, pitch accent, and tone; e.g. English, Japanese, and Chinese respectively) and rhythm types (stress-, syllable-, and mora-timed rhythms; e.g. English, Spanish, and Japanese respectively), it is unclear whether these types are determined in terms of acoustic properties, The thesis intends to provide a potential basis for the description of prosody in terms of acoustics. It argues for the hypothesis that the source component of the source-filter model (acoustic features) approximately corresponds to prosody (linguistic features) through several experimental-phonetic studies. The study consists of four parts. (1) Preliminary experiment: Perceptual language identification tests were performed using English and Japanese speech samples whose frequency spectral information (i.e. non-source component) is heavily reduced. The results indicated that humans can discriminate languages with such signals. (2) Discussion on the linguistic information that the source component contains: This part constitutes the foundation of the argument of the thesis. Perception tests of consonants with the source signal indicated that the source component carries the information on broad categories of phonemes that contributes to the creation of rhythm. (3) Acoustic analysis: The speech samples of Chinese, English, Japanese, and Spanish, differing in prosodic types, were analyzed. These languages showed difference in acoustic characteristics of the source component. (4) Perceptual experiment: A language identification test for the above four languages was performed using the source signal with its acoustic features parameterized. It revealed that humans can discriminate prosodic types solely with the source features and that the discrimination is easier as acoustic information increases. The series of studies showed the correspondence of the source component to prosodic features. In linguistics, prosodic types have not been discussed purely in terms of acoustics; they are usually related to the function of prosody or phonological units such as phonemes. The present thesis focuses on acoustics and makes a contribution to establishing the crosslinguistic description system of prosody.

Komatsu, Masahiko


Constituent Particle Clustering and Pitting Corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion is a primary degradation mechanism that affects the durability and integrity of structures made of aluminum alloys, and it is a concern for commercial transport and military aircraft. In aluminum alloys, corrosion results from local galvanic coupling between constituent particles and the metal matrix. Due to variability in particle sizes, spatial location, and chemical composition, to name a few

D. Gary Harlow



Bioactive constituents from Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identity novel bioactive organic chemical constituents from the ethanolic extracts of the black locust tree, Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae). Screening assays demonstrated that these extracts had significant activity in the brine shrimp lethality test (BST) and human tumor cytotoxicity assays (MTIF assays); in addition, the species has had many interesting folkloric medicinal uses.

Feifei Tian



The Constituent Quark Model: a Status Report  

SciTech Connect

A brief and biased overview of the status of the constituent quark model is presented. We concentrate on open issues and goals of hadronic phenomenology, rather than specific physics conundrums in the field. Modern attempts at addressing these issues are also presented.

Eric S. Swanson



Volatile constituents of wood-rotting basidiomycetes.  


Phytochemical investigation of the hydrodistillation products of the basidiomycetes Fomitopsis pinicola, Piptoporus betulinus, Gloeophyllum odoratum and Trametes suaveolens led to the identification of numerous mono- and sesquiterpenes as well as many aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes and ketones and some aromatic compounds. In addition, some diterpenes were identified as constituents of Fomitopsis pinicola. The absolute configuration of some terpenes was determined PMID:11014259

Rösecke, J; Pietsch, M; König, W A



Constituents from the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa.  


Thirteen new phenolic glycosides were obtained by further study of constituents from the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa (MART. ex DC) Standley (Bignoniaceae). The structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, mass spectral and chemical evidence. Most of them have a glycosyl unit esterified by a benzoic acid derivative. PMID:16394542

Warashina, Tsutomu; Nagatani, Yoshimi; Noro, Tadataka



Earth GRAM-99 and trace constituents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-99) is an engineering-level model of Earth's atmosphere. It provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly- and geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0-27 km, GRAM thermodynamics and winds are based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. Above 120 km, GRAM is based on the NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model. In the intervening altitude region, GRAM is based on Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) climatology that also forms the basis of the 1986 COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). Atmospheric composition is represented in GRAM by concentrations of both major and minor species. Above 120 km, MET provides concentration values for N2, O2, Ar, O, He, and H. Below 120 km, species represented also include H2O, O3, N2O, CO, CH4, and CO2. At COSPAR 2002 a comparison was made between GRAM constituents below 120 km and those provided by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) climatology. As a result of that study, there was no need identified for updating GRAM constituent climatology is the 0-120 km height range. This report examines GRAM (MET) constituents between 100 and 1000 km altitudes. Discrepancies are noted between GRAM (MET) constituent number densities and mass density or molecular weight. Near 110 km altitude, there is up to about 25% discrepancy between MET number density and mass density (with mass density being valid and number densities requiring adjustment). Near 700 km altitude there is also up to about 25% discrepancy between MET number density and mean molecular weight (with molecular weight requiring adjustment). In neither case are MET mass density estimates invalidated. These discrepancies have been traced to MET subroutines SLV (which affects 90-170 km height range) and SLVH (which affects helium above 440 km altitude). With these discrepancies corrected, results are presented to illustrate GRAM (MET) constituent mole fractions in terms of height-latitude cross sections from 100 to 1000 km altitude, and latitude-longitude ``maps'' at 450 km (approximate height of International Space Station) and at 900 km altitude. Plans are discussed for an update of MET (and GRAM) to correct these constituent inconsistencies and to incorporate several new thermospheric model features.

Justus, C.; Duvall, A.; Keller, V.


Earth GRAM-99 and Trace Constituents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-99) is an engineering-level model of Earth's atmosphere. It provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly- and geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0-27 km, GRAM thermodynamics and winds are based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. Above 120 km, GRAM is based on the NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model. In the intervening altitude region, GRAM is based on Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) climatology that also forms the basis of the 1986 COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). Atmospheric composition is represented in GRAM by concentrations of both major and minor species. Above 120 km, MET provides concentration values for N2, O2, Ar, O, He, and H. Below 120 km, species represented also include H2O, O3, N2O, CO, CH4, and CO2. At COSPAR 2002 a comparison was made between GRAM constituents below 120 km and those provided by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) climatology. No current need to update GRAM constituent climatology in that height range was identified. This report examines GRAM (MET) constituents between 100 and 1000 km altitudes. Discrepancies are noted between GRAM (MET) constituent number densities and mass density or molecular weight. Near 110 km altitude, there is up to about 25% discrepancy between MET number density and mass density (with mass density being valid and number densities requiring adjustment). Near 700 km altitude there is also up to about 25% discrepancy between MET number density and mean molecular weight (with molecular weight requiring adjustment). In neither case are MET mass density estimates invalidated. These discrepancies have been traced to MET subroutines SLV (which affects 90-170 km height range) and SLVH (which affects helium above 440 km altitude). With these discrepancies corrected, results are presented to illustrate GRAM (MET) constituent mole fractions in terms of height-latitude cross sections from 100 to 1000 km altitude, and latitude-longitude 'maps' at 450 km (approximate height of International Space Station). Plans are discussed for an update of MET (and GRAM) to correct these constituent inconsistencies and to incorporate several new thermospheric model features.

Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Keller, Vernon W.



Food allergy  

PubMed Central

Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnostic tests, such as skin prick testing, serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) testing and, if indicated, oral food challenges. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is confirmed, strict elimination of the offending food allergen from the diet is generally necessary. For patients with significant systemic symptoms, the treatment of choice is epinephrine administered by intramuscular injection into the lateral thigh. Although most children “outgrow” allergies to milk, egg, soy and wheat, allergies to peanut, tree nuts, fish and shellfish are often lifelong. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with food allergy.



Tidal constituents from remote sensing image sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the problem of obtaining tidal constituents from a series of shoreline positions derived from time-sequential airborne imagery of the intertidal zone. A multi-sensor experiment (Bachmann et al., 2012) conducted at the Virginia Coast Reserve Long-Term Ecological Research (VCR LTER) site supplied in-situ and airborne data. Hyperspectral and infrared shoreline imagery of the VCR LTER barrier islands, shallow lagoons, and mainland coastal areas as well as topographic LiDAR data were obtained from the same air platform over a nine-day period, and LiDAR and in-situ topographic beach surveys were used to specify the beach bathymetry and derive a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) over the primary area focused on in this paper at Wreck Island, VA. The DEM and shoreline positions are used to obtain a time sequence of tidal heights; these are found to be consistent with a time series from a GPS-equipped tide gage float anchored nearby. A least-squares fit of the five largest tidal constituents (M2, N2, S2, O1, K1) to this one-week record indicates that the first three can be retrieved with only a ±15-20 % error, as determined by the one-year sea-surface height time series from a nearby NOAA Sea Surface Height (SSH) station at Wachapreague, VA. The broader question of how many images are needed to obtain tidal constituents from an annual record is also addressed. Using SSH values from a NOAA tide gage station as a surrogate for image-derived SSH values, we progressively decimate a yearlong tide record, calculating its tidal constituents at each level of decimation. We find that that only one image every ten days is needed to retrieve the five largest tidal constituents to within a 10% error.

Mied, Richard P.; Snow, Charlotte M.; Smith, Geoffrey B.; Bachmann, Charles M.; Korwan, Daniel R.; Fusina, Robert A.; Vermillion, Michael S.; Hagen, Rick A.



Food contaminants  

PubMed Central

With the increasing use of a large variety of chemicals, opportunities for contamination of food are becoming greater. Food may be involved following some accidental occurrence or from more general environmental contamination. Three examples are given: an outbreak of paralysis in Morocco involved 10,000 people who had ingested food adulterated with triorthocresyl phosphate; an epidemic of jaundice in London followed the contamination of flour with an epoxy resin hardener; organic mercury poisoning in an Arab country involved more than 6000 people who had eaten bread made from grain treated with a methyl mercury fungicide. The hazard which may arise from heavy metal accumulation in the body is discussed.

Kazantzis, G.



Food Grab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners design devices that will catch prey or gather plants. After testing their devices, learners investigate the food-gathering adaptations of animals in their activity site. Activity background information gives multiple examples of real animals and their food-grabbing mechanisms including shark jaws, rodent teeth, hawk talons, etc. Learners consider the concept of food-gathering adaptations of animals and compare them with human methods. An extension of this activity is observing various animals around the neighborhood as they capture prey and eat plants.

Science, Lawrence H.



Space Food  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.



Food Preservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, from Science NetLinks, students' attention is drawn to the issue of food spoilage and the different methods that are traditionally used to prolong the freshness of food. Using a number of online resources, they learn about how Chilean fruit and lettuce for salad are carefully harvested, treated, packaged, and transported in refrigerated vessels to maintain their freshness. Students are then introduced to the canning, drying, freezing, and vacuum-sealing processes that are commonly used by food producers and in the home.

Science Netlinks;



Preferences for foods with varying levels of salt and fat differ as a function of dietary restraint and exercise but not menstrual cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women commonly report increased cravings for foods high in sugar, fat, and\\/or salt premenstrually relative to other times during the menstrual cycle. To determine if elevated cravings for foods high in salt and\\/or fat were related to alterations in food preferences across the menstrual cycle, preference and sensory ratings for air-popped popcorn with varying levels of salt (0.0, 1.5, and

Robin B. Kanarek; Michelle Ryu; Jeanne Przypek



Food Retailers Help Teach Food Buying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kroger Food Stores conducted five training sessions for Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) aides. The series translated basic marketing principles, as they affect food prices, into axioms for thrifty food buying. (BL)

Bornmann, Priscilla G.



Food Security, Poverty, and Human Development in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to food is essential to optimal development and function in children and adults. Food security, food insecurity, and hunger have been defined and a U.S. Food Security Scale was developed and is administered annually by the Census Bureau in its Current Population Survey. The eight child-referenced items now make up a Children's Food Security Scale. This review summarizes the

John T. Cook; Deborah A. Frank



Usual dietary consumption of soy foods and its correlation with the excretion rate of isoflavonoids in overnight urine samples among Chinese women in shanghai  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soy foods and certain soy constituents, particularly isoflavones, have been suggested to have potential cancer?inhibitory effects in laboratory and epidemiological studies. Chinese women in Shanghai consume high levels of soy foods and have low incidence rates of breast and other hormone?related cancers. To assess the usual dietary consumption of soy foods and evaluate the correlation of soy food consumption with

Zhi Chen; Wei Zheng; Laurie J. Custer; Qi Dai; Fan Jin; Adrian A. Franke



Food jags  


... defiant, you may just start an unnecessary war. Children mimic adult behavior, and if another family member will not eat new foods, you cannot expect your child to experiment. Try not to label your child's eating habits. ...


Pet Food  


... dog food, or box of dog treats or snacks in your pantry. The FDA’s regulation of pet ... Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top


Food Justice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this adaptation of a video that high school students created in collaboration with the Environmental Justice League of Rhode Island, learn what's whack about our current food systems and the many actions individuals can take to address these issues.

Foundation, Wgbh E.



"Convenience Food."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines the meaning of the American expression "convenience food," quoting definitions given by dictionaries and specialized publications. Discusses the problem of finding the exact equivalent of this expression in French, and recommends some acceptable translations. (MES)

Lemieux, Colette



Food Allergies in Schools  


... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Food Allergies in Schools Food allergies are a growing food ... Guidelines FAQs [PDF - 163KB] What is a Food Allergy? A food allergy occurs when the body has ...


A Randomized, Crossover Trial of High-Carbohydrate Foods in Nursing Home Residents With Alzheimer's Disease: Associations Among Intervention Response, Body Mass Index, and Behavioral and Cognitive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Despite recognition that weight loss is a problem in elderly persons with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), increasing their food intake remains a challenge. To effectively enhance intake, interventions must work with individuals' changing needs and intake patterns. Previously, the authors reported greater food consumption at breakfast, a high-carbohydrate meal, compared with dinner, and shifts toward carbohydrate preference at dinner

Karen W. H. Young; Carol E. Greenwood; Robert van Reekum; Malcolm A. Binns


Differential functional magnetic resonance imaging response to food pictures in successful weight-loss maintainers relative to normal-weight and obese controls1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Prior research indicates that successful weight-loss maintainers (SWLs) work harder than people of normal weight to maintain their weight loss, including greater dietary restriction of fat and higher physical activity levels. However, little work to date has examined how SWLs differ biologically from normal-weight (NW) and obese controls. Objective: The objective was to compare the brain responses of SWLs to food pictures with those of NW and obese controls. Design: Blood oxygen level–dependent responses to high- and low-energy food pictures were measured in 18 NW controls, 16 obese controls, and 17 SWLs. Results: Group differences were identified in 4 regions, which indicated significant change in activation in response to the food pictures. SWLs showed greater activation in the left superior frontal region and right middle temporal region than did NW and obese controls—a pattern of results confirmed in exploratory voxel-wise analyses. Obese controls also showed greater activation in a bilateral precentral region. Conclusions: These results suggest that SWLs show greater activation in frontal regions and primary and secondary visual cortices—a pattern consistent with greater inhibitory control in response to food cues and greater visual attention to the food cues. A greater engagement of inhibitory control regions in response to food cues as well as a greater monitoring of foods may promote control of food intake and successful weight-loss maintenance.

Haley, Andreana P; Sweet, Lawrence H; Phelan, Suzanne; Raynor, Hollie A; Del Parigi, Angelo; Cohen, Ron; Wing, Rena R



Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread  

PubMed Central

Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT) is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF). The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread.



Inhibition of Carcinogenesis by Tea Constituents  

PubMed Central

The possible cancer preventive activity of tea has received much attention in recent years. The inhibitory activities of tea and tea constituents against carcinogenesis at different organ sites have been demonstrated in many animal models. The effect of tea consumption on human cancers, however, remains inconclusive. The mechanisms of action of tea polyphenols, especially EGCG, the most abundant and active catechin, have been extensively investigated. Most of the studies, however, were based on cell culture systems, and these mechanisms need to be evaluated and verified in animal models or humans in order to gain more understanding on the effect of tea consumption on human cancer. Human intervention trials are warranted to determine the possible prevention of cancer of specific sites by preparation of tea constituents.

Ju, Jihyeung; Lu, Gang; Lambert, Joshua D.; Yang, Chung S.



[Study on chemical constituents of Picrasma quassioides].  


To study the chemical constituents of Picrasma quassioides. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by chromatographic methods over Sephadex LH-20 and silica gel column, and structurally elucidated by spectral analysis, including UV, IR, MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR. Fourteen compounds were obtained and identified as trifolirhizin(1), maackiain(2), 3', 7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxylisoflavone(3), umbelliferone(4), emodin(5), nigakilactone F(6), picrasin B(7),picraqualide B (8),4-methoxy-5-hydroxycanthin-6-one(9), 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one (10),5-methoxycanthin-6-one(11), 11-hydroxycanthin-6-one(12) , 1-methoxycarbonyl-beta-carboline(13), 1-hydroxymethyl-beta-carboline(14). Compounds 1-5 are reported from the first time for the genus Pricrasma. PMID:21761728

Zhu, Chenchen; Deng, Guihua; Lin, Chaozhan



[Chemical constituents of Chinese red ginseng].  


The chemical constituents of Chinese red ginseng (Panax ginseng) were investigated. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by silca gel, ODS, and Sephedex LH-20, column chromatography, and preparative HPLC. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectra data. Fourteen compounds were isolated and identified as: notoginsenoside R2 (1), 20(S) -ginsenoside Rg3 (2), 20(R) -ginsenoside Rg3 (3), 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg2 (4), 20(R) -ginsenosideRg2 (5), 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rh1 (6), 20(R) -ginsenoside Rh1 (7), ginsenoside Rh4 (8), -Ro (9), -Rb1 (10), -Rg1 (11), Re-(12), Rf (13), maltol (14). Compounds 1, 4, 6, were obtained from red ginseng for the first time. Compounds 2 and 3, 4 and 5-7 were enantiomers respectively, enantiomers 6 and 7 were isolated as monomer for the first time. PMID:21598542

Liu, Dan; Pu, Sheban; Qian, Shihui; Zhang, Jingyan



Small black hole constituents and horizontal symmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

By exploiting the role of the horizontal symmetry , we extend the analysis and classification of two-centered extremal black hole charge configurations to the case of “small”\\u000a single-centered constituents. These latter are seen to decrease the number of independent horizontal-invariant polynomials\\u000a from four to one, depending on the rank of the charge orbit supporting each of the two centers. Within

Anna Ceresole; Sergio Ferrara; Alessio Marrani; Armen Yeranyan



Constituents of Juniperus recurva var. squamata Oil.  


The essential oil of leaves and twigs of JUNIPERUS RECURVA VAR. SQUAMATA (Cupressaceae) was investigated by GLC, MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Main constituents were monoterpene hydrocarbons (68%); in addition, about 12% of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 9% of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and 5% of oxygenated monoterpenes were identified. 4beta-Hydroxygermacra-1(10),5-diene ( 28), beta-oplopenone ( 29A), oplopanone ( 34), 8-acetoxy elemol ( 35), and manool ( 36) were found as trace components. PMID:17265267

Weyerstahl, P; Marschall-Weyerstahl, H; Manteuffel, E; Kaul, V K



Chiral Symmetry and the Constituent Quark Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

New results on baryon structure and spectrum developed in collaboration with\\u000aDan Riska [1-4] are reported. The main idea is that beyond the chiral symmetry\\u000aspontaneous breaking scale light and strange baryons should be considered as\\u000asystems of three constituent quarks with an effective confining interaction and\\u000aa chiral interaction that is mediated by the octet of Goldstone bosons\\u000a(pseudoscalar

L. Ya. Glozman; Austria Alma-Ata



Volatile Constituents of Two Wedelia Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils obtained from the leaves of Wedelia paludosa DC. and Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitch., were analyzed by GC\\/MS. ?-Pinene was the chief constituent found in all samples of both oils in a yield above 30%. W. paludosa oil was also rich in ?-pinene (10.3%), limonene (21.3%) and ?-muurolene (11.8%), while ?-phellandrene (17.4%) and limonene (16.3%) were the other

A. A. Craveiro; F. J. A. Matos; J. W. Alencar; M. I. L. Machado; A. Krush; M. G. V. Silva



Constituents and Bioactive Principles of Polygonum chinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation and characterization of the chemical constituents of Polygonum chinensis L. gave the new 25R-spirost-4-ene-3,12-dione. The known compounds stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione, stigmastane-3,6-dione, hecogenin and aurantiamide acetate were also isolated from for the first time from this species. Their anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties are described.

Pei-Ley Tsai; Jih-Pyang Wang; Chyurng-Wern Chang; Sheng-Chu Kuo; Pei-Dawn Lee Chao



Baryon Spectroscopy and the Constituent Quark Model  

SciTech Connect

We explore further the idea that the lattice QCD data for hadron properties in the region m[^2][_pi] > 0.2GeV^2 can be described by the constituent quark model. This leads to a natural explanation of the fact that nucleon excited states are generally stable for pion masses greater than their physical excitation energies. Finally, we apply these same ideas to the problem of how pentaquarks might behave in lattice QCD, with interesting conclusions.

A.W. Thomas; R.D. Young



Constituent Particle Clustering and Pitting Corrosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion is a primary degradation mechanism that affects the durability and integrity of structures made of aluminum alloys, and it is a concern for commercial transport and military aircraft. In aluminum alloys, corrosion results from local galvanic coupling between constituent particles and the metal matrix. Due to variability in particle sizes, spatial location, and chemical composition, to name a few critical variables, corrosion is a complex stochastic process. Severe pitting is caused by particle clusters that are located near the material surface, which, in turn, serve as nucleation sites for subsequent corrosion fatigue crack growth. These evolution processes are highly dependent on the spatial statistics of particles. The localized corrosion growth rate is primarily dependent on the galvanic process perpetuated by particle-to-particle interactions and electrochemical potentials. Frequently, severe pits are millimeters in length, and these pits have a dominant impact on the structural prognosis. To accommodate large sizes, a model for three-dimensional (3-D) constituent particle microstructure is proposed. To describe the constituent particle microstructure in three dimensions, the model employs a fusion of classic stereological techniques, spatial point pattern analyses, and qualitative observations. The methodology can be carried out using standard optical microscopy and image analysis techniques.

Harlow, D. Gary



Ambient methods and apparatus for rapid laser trace constituent analysis  


A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring trace amounts of constituents in samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence under ambient conditions. The laser induced fluorescence is performed at a selected wavelength corresponding to an absorption state of a selected trace constituent. The intensity value of the emission decay signal which is generated by the trace constituent is compared to calibrated emission intensity decay values to determine the amount of trace constituent present.

Snyder, Stuart C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jeffery, Charles L. (Blackfoot, ID)



Biotechnology in Food Production and Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The food processing industry is the oldest and largest industry using biotechnological processes. Further development of food products and processes based on biotechnology depends upon the improvement of existing processes, such as fermentation, immobilized biocatalyst technology, and production of additives and processing aids, as well as the development of new opportunities for food biotechnology. Improvements are needed in the characterization, safety, and quality control of food materials, in processing methods, in waste conversion and utilization processes, and in currently used food microorganism and tissue culture systems. Also needed are fundamental studies of the structure-function relationship of food materials and of the cell physiology and biochemistry of raw materials.

Knorr, Dietrich; Sinskey, Anthony J.



Diabetes dietary management alters responses to food pictures in brain regions associated with motivation and emotion: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  We hypothesised that living with type 2 diabetes would enhance responses to pictures of foods in brain regions known to be\\u000a involved in learnt food sensory motivation and that these stronger activations would relate to scores for dietary adherence\\u000a in diabetes and to measures of potential difficulties in adherence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We compared brain responses to food images of 11 people with

M. Chechlacz; P. Rotshtein; S. Klamer; K. Porubská; S. Higgs; D. Booth; A. Fritsche; H. Preissl; H. Abele; N. Birbaumer; A. Nouwen



Food emulsifiers—Science and art  

Microsoft Academic Search

General classifications of food emulsifiers are presented, and their functions are discussed. Examples of many food products\\u000a are given, and recommended emulsifier usage levels are presented. Some of the food applications cited include: cakes, icings,\\u000a toppings, bread, sweet goods, frozen desserts, coffee whiteners, peanut butter, margarine and confectionery coatings.

Nat H. Nash; Lawrence M. Brickman



Taste and the taste of foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At least 12 distinct taste sensations can be elicited from different parts of the oral cavity by distinct chemical compounds. The chemicals eliciting each sensation are often common constituents of foods, thus the umami sensations arise with stimulation by monosodium glutamate and nucleotides. These sensations can often be related to different physical/chemical stimulus parameters (e.g., bitterness and hydrophobicity) and neural activity in distinct chemosensory channels.

Boudreau, James C.



Meson Clouds and Dressed Constituent Quarks in the Complete Rg-Improvement Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea quark densities in the nucleon, based on the constituent quark model are analyzed. To model the asymmetry of these densities, the meson cloud or alternatively chiral quark model (?QM) is used. Valence quark densities of the meson which are required to extract the sea quark densities in the constituent quarks are obtained using the phenomenological valon model. In addition to the standard perturbative QCD approach which uses the /lineMS scheme with a physical choice of renormalization scale, the calculations are also performed using the complete RG-improvement (CORGI) approach. To avoid a physically unacceptable Q2 behavior of the sea densities inside the constituent quarks, we assume that the free parameter which exists in the vertex function of the boson-quark splitting function, is Q2-dependent. Using the unsymmetrized sea densities of the nucleon which result from convoluting the constituent density in a nucleon with the quark density in the constituent quark, the Gottfried sum rule (GSR) is calculated using the standard perturbative and CORGI approaches. The CORGI result is closer to the reported experimental value for the GSR. The extracted sea and valence quark density in a nucleon, using ?QM and also the CORGI approach, have been compared with available experimental data and what was obtained, based on ?QM in the standard approach. This comparison confirms the anticipated better agreement of the CORGI approach with the data.

Keshavarzian, K.; Mirjalili, A.; Yazdanpanah, M. M.


Fatty Acid Composition and Volatile Constituents of Protaetia brevitarsis Larvae  

PubMed Central

A total of 48 different volatile oils were identified form P. brevitarsis larvae by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acids (48.67%) were detected as the major group in P. brevitarsis larvae comprising the largest proportion of the volatile compounds, followed by esters (19.84%), hydrocarbons (18.90%), alcohols (8.37%), miscellaneous (1.71%), aldehydes (1.35%) and terpenes (1.16%). The major volatile constituents were 9-hexadecenoic acid (16.75%), 6-octadecenoic acid (14.88%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (11.06%). The composition of fatty acid was also determined by GC analysis and 16 fatty acids were identified. The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (C18:1, 64.24%) followed by palmitic acid (C16:0, 15.89%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 10.43%) and linoleic acid (C18:2, 4.69%) constituting more than 95% of total fatty acids. The distinguished characteristic of the fatty acid profile of P. brevitarsis larvae was the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (80.54% of total fatty acids) versus saturated fatty acids (19.46% of total fatty acids). Furthermore, small but significant amounts of linoleic, linolenic and ?-linolenic acids bestow P. brevitarsis larvae with considerable nutritional value. The novel findings of the present study provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of the insect as a nutritionally promising food source and a possibility for more effective utilization.

Yeo, Hyelim; Youn, Kumju; Kim, Minji; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira



Food Anxieties: Issues for the Food Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

People have become obsessed with the harmful effects of eating (Rozin, 1999) and are experiencing ‘food anxiety’, a by-product of modern food. The aim of this research was to explore the nature of food anxiety in Ireland and the potential implications for the food sector. The research objectives were to determine the range of issues causing food anxiety in Irish

Denise Kelly



Microencapsulation in food science and biotechnology.  


Microencapsulation can represent an excellent example of microtechnologies applied to food science and biotechnology. Microencapsulation can be successfully applied to entrap natural compounds, like essential oils or vegetal extracts containing polyphenols with well known antimicrobial properties to be used in food packaging. Microencapsulation preserves lactic acid bacteria, both starters and probiotics, in food and during the passage through the gastrointestinal tract, and may contribute to the development of new functional foods. PMID:22024623

Nazzaro, Filomena; Orlando, Pierangelo; Fratianni, Florinda; Coppola, Raffaele



MRI of plants and foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance and prospects for MRI as applied to intact plants and to foods are presented in view of one of humanity's most pressing concerns, the sustainable and healthy feeding of a worldwide increasing population. Intact plants and foods have in common that their functionality is determined by complex multiple length scale architectures. Intact plants have an additional level of complexity since they are living systems which critically depend on transport and signalling processes between and within tissues and organs. The combination of recent cutting-edge technical advances and integration of MRI accessible parameters has the perspective to contribute to breakthroughs in understanding complex regulatory plant performance mechanisms. In food science and technology MRI allows for quantitative multi-length scale structural assessment of food systems, non-invasive monitoring of heat and mass transport during shelf-life and processing, and for a unique view on food properties under shear. These MRI applications are powerful enablers of rationally (re)designed food formulations and processes. Limitations and bottlenecks of the present plant and food MRI methods are mainly related to short T2 values and susceptibility artefacts originating from small air spaces in tissues/materials. We envisage cross-fertilisation of solutions to overcome these hurdles in MRI applications in plants and foods. For both application areas we witness a development where MRI is moving from highly specialised equipment to mobile and downscaled versions to be used by a broad user base in the field, greenhouse, food laboratory or factory.

Van As, Henk; van Duynhoven, John



Trace Constituents, and the Habitability of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The only organic constituent ever reported on Mars is methane gas in the atmosphere. No organics -- indigenous or extraplanetary -- have ever been positively identified in the surface. The reported ``detection'' of methane is tantalizing, but tentative [1]. If confirmed, it would have important implications for extinct or extant life on Mars. Although life as we know it produces methane -- 90-95% of the methane in Earth's atmosphere is ultimately derived from biological processes -- the presence of methane at Mars does not necessarily imply existence of life, now or in the past. A precise knowledge of related trace constituents and stable isotopes in the atmosphere and solid samples, together with the geochemical and geologic data for determining preservation potential of the environment is essential to satisfactorily address the question of habitability of Mars. In this talk, we will review the current status of methane, related trace constituents and relevant isotopes, surface and atmospheric oxidants, and provide a brief summary of specific measurements planned by the Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation [2] on Mars Science Laboratory that are anticipated to make significant contribution to an understanding of habitability of Mars. Relevant publications may be downloaded from˜atreya. References: [1] S. K. Atreya, O. Witasse, V. F. Chevrier, F. Forget, P. R. Mahaffy, B. Price, C. R. Webster, R. W. Zurek, Methane on Mars: Current Observations, Interpretation, and Future Plans. Planet. Space Science, 59, 133-136, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2010.10.008. [2] P. R. Mahaffy et al., The Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation and Instrument Suite on Mars Science Laboratory. Space Science Reviews, in press, 2012.

Atreya, Sushil K.; Mahaffy, Paul



Global Reference Atmospheric Model and Trace Constituents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-99) is an engineering-level model of the Earth's atmosphere. It provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly- and geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0-27 km, thermodynamics and winds are based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. Above 120 km, GRAM is based on the NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model. In the intervening altitude region, GRAM is based on Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) climatology that also forms the basis of the 1986 COSPAR Intemationa1 Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). MAP data in GRAM are augmented by a specially-derived longitude variation climatology. Atmospheric composition is represented in GRAM by concentrations of both major and minor species. Above 120 km, MET provides concentration values for N2, O2, Ar, O, He, and H. Below 120 km, species represented also include H2O, O3, N2O, CO, CH, and CO2. Water vapor in GRAM is based on a combination of GUACA, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL), and NASA Langley Research Center climatologies. Other constituents below 120 km are based on a combination of AFGL and h4AP/CIRA climatologies. This report presents results of comparisons between GRAM Constituent concentrations and those provided by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) climatology of Summers (NRL,/MR/7641-93-7416, 1993). GRAM and NRL concentrations were compared for seven species (CH4, CO, CO2, H2O, N2O, O2, and O3) for months January, April, July, and October, over height range 0-115 km, and latitudes -90deg to + 90deg at 10deg increments. Average GRAM-NRL correlations range from 0.878 (for CO) to 0.975 (for O3), with an average over all seven species of 0.936 (standard deviation 0.049).

Justus, C.; Johnson, D.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)



7 CFR 3700.3 - Functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...nutrition education and food assistance programs; and food safety regulation. General functions are: (1) Analyzing consumer behavior and food choices, including research regarding the socio-demographic and economic determinants of food and...



7 CFR 3700.3 - Functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...nutrition education and food assistance programs; and food safety regulation. General functions are: (1) Analyzing consumer behavior and food choices, including research regarding the socio-demographic and economic determinants of food and...



Testing Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students determine the relative amounts of oils in food. They then apply their understanding to an additional situation. The task assesses students' abilities to make simple observations, make generalized inferences from their observations, and apply their understanding to an additional situation.

Project, New Y.



Food Factory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Food production in a future automated society is going to be done in factories, not on farms as we do now. There is no reason why plants or animals have to be exposed to climate changes, to pollution, to predators or to disease. The problems we have now i...

M. Bloomfield



Food Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…

Barkman, Susan J.



Food Deserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food deserts and accessibility represent a new frontier in the assault of life-threatening, dietrelated diseases, including diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Scholars represent the research literature from diverse disciplines, such as anthropology, agriculture, sociology, economics, marketing, public policy, sociology, and social epidemiology. Applied sociology has not contributed to this important conversation. Applied sociology's integration and use of theory, methods, and

Anthony Troy Adams; Monika J. Ulrich; Amanda Coleman



The volatile constituents of Salvia leucantha.  


Salvia leucantha Cav. (Lamiaceae), native to Mexico, is found in Venezuela in parks and gardens. Hydrodistillation of the fresh leaves of this plant yielded 0.05% of essential oil. GC and GC/MS analyses permitted the identification of 30 compounds, which made up 95.9% of the oil. The most abundant constituents were bornyl acetate (24.1%), beta-gurjunene (14.8%), beta-caryophyllene (14.1%), dillapiol (11.0%) and bicyclogermacrene (8.9%). PMID:20614830

Rojas, Luis B; Visbal, Tomas; Morillo, Marielba; de Rojas, Yndra Cordero; Arzola, Juan Carmona; Usubillaga, Alfredo



Two new constituents from Erigeron breviscapus.  


Two novel constituents, named erigeronones A (1) and B (2), together with apigenin-7-O-?-galacturonide (3), quercetin-7-O-?-glucuronide (4), quercetin-3-O-?-galacturonide (5), and eriodictyol-7-O-?-glucuronide (6), were isolated from the whole grass of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant) Hand.-Mazz (Compositae). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analyses and comparison with the literature data. Both new compounds 1 and 2 possess a ?-pyrone moiety that is rare in nature. Compound 1 showed significant protective effect on H2O2-injured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. PMID:24073637

Li, Jing; Yu, De-Quan



Constituents of aromatic plants: II. Estragole.  


Estragole (ES) is a natural constituent of a number of plants (e.g. tarragon, sweet basil and sweet fennel) and their essential oils have been widely used in foodstuffs as flavouring agents. Several studies with oral, i.p. or s.c. administration to CD-1 and B6C3F1 mice have shown the carcinogenicity of ES. The 1-hydroxy metabolites are stronger hepatocarcinogens than the parent compound. Controversial results are reported for the mutagenicity of ES. However, the formation of hepatic DNA adducts in vivo and in vitro by metabolites of ES has been demonstrated. PMID:11077188

De Vincenzi, M; Silano, M; Maialetti, F; Scazzocchio, B



Glycosidic constituents from in vitro Anoectochilus formosanus.  


The glycosidic constituents of whole plants of Anoectochilus formosanus propagated by tissue culture were investigated. A new compound, 2-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxymethyl)-5-hydroxymethylfuran, along with the known compounds, 3-(R)-3-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxybutanolide (kinsenoside), 3-(R)-3-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxybutanoic acid, 1-O-isopropyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, (R)-(+)-3,4-dihydroxy-butanoic acid y-lactone, 4-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)benzyl alcohol, (6R,9S)-9-hydroxy-megastigma-4,7-dien-3-one-9-O-beta-glucopy ranoside, and corchoionoside C were isolated. PMID:11086921

Du, X M; Sun, N Y; Irino, N; Shoyama, Y



Bioactive constituents from Rollinia emarginata (Annonaceae).  


From an Argentine collection of the tropical tree Rollinia emarginata (Annonaceae), vomifoliol, dehydrovomifoliol, blumenol C, loliolide, 7-epiloliolide, vanillin, dihydroactinolide, as well as other common plant constituents were obtained, and identified by their NMR and MS features compared with authentic samples. Antifeedant and toxic actions were exerted to the polyphagous moth Spodoptera frugiperda by the ethanol extract of the plant, at 250 ppm in the larval diet. Additionally, in greenhouse studies, a 200 ppm aqueous solution of the extract produced a post-emergency herbicidal effect on the annual weed common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album). PMID:17365716

Colom, Olga Alvarez; Popich, Susana; Bardon, Alicia



Atmospheric constituent measurements using commercial 747 airliners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is implementing a Global Atmospheric Monitoring Program to measure the temporal and spatial distribution of particulate and gaseous constituents related to aircraft engine emissions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (6 to 12 Km). Several 747 aircraft operated by different airlines flying routes selected for maximum world coverage will be instrumented. An instrumentation system is being assembled and tested and is scheduled for operation in airline service in late 1974. Specialized instrumentation and an electronic control unit are required for automatic unattended operation on commercial airliners. An ambient air sampling system was developed to provide undisturbed outside air to the instruments in the pressurized aircraft cabin.

Perkins, P. J.; Reck, G. M.



Successes and failures of the constituent quark model  

SciTech Connect

Our approach considers the model as a possible bridge between QCD and the experimental data and examines its predictions to see where these succeed and where they fail. We also attempt to improve the model by looking for additional simple assumptions which give better fits to the experimental data. But we avoid complicated models with too many ad hoc assumptions and too many free parameters; these can fit everything but teach us nothing. We define our constituent quark model by analogy with the constituent electron model of the atom and the constituent nucleon model of the nucleus. In the same way that an atom is assumed to consist only of constituent electrons and a central Coulomb field and a nucleus is assumed to consist only of constituent nucleons hadrons are assumed to consist only of their constituent valence quarks with no bag, no glue, no ocean, nor other constituents. Although these constituent models are oversimplified and neglect other constituents we push them as far as we can. Atomic physics has photons and vacuum polarization as well as constituent electrons, but the constituent model is adequate for calculating most features of the spectrum when finer details like the Lamb shift are neglected. 54 references.

Lipkin, H.J.



From The Cover: Adhesion at calcium oxalate crystal surfaces and the effect of urinary constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kidney stones, aggregates of microcrystals, most commonly contain calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) as the primary constituent. The aggregation of COM microcrystals and their attachment to epithelial cells are thought to involve adhesion at COM crystal surfaces, mediated by anionic molecules or urinary macromolecules. Identification of the most important functional group-crystal face adhesive combinations is crucial to understanding the stability of

Xiaoxia Sheng; Taesung Jung; Jeffrey A. Wesson; Michael D. Ward



Modeling of Alkane Oxidation Using Constituents and Species  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is currently not possible to perform simulations of turbulent reactive flows due in particular to complex chemistry, which may contain thousands of reactions and hundreds of species. This complex chemistry results in additional differential equations, making the numerical solution of the equation set computationally prohibitive. Reducing the chemical kinetics mathematical description is one of several important goals in turbulent reactive flow modeling. A chemical kinetics reduction model is proposed for alkane oxidation in air that is based on a parallel methodology to that used in turbulence modeling in the context of the Large Eddy Simulation. The objective of kinetic modeling is to predict the heat release and temperature evolution. This kinetic mechanism is valid over a pressure range from atmospheric to 60 bar, temperatures from 600 K to 2,500 K, and equivalence ratios from 0.125 to 8. This range encompasses diesel, HCCI, and gas-turbine engines, including cold ignition. A computationally efficient kinetic reduction has been proposed for alkanes that has been illustrated for n-heptane using the LLNL heptane mechanism. This model is consistent with turbulence modeling in that scales were first categorized into either those modeled or those computed as progress variables. Species were identified as being either light or heavy. The heavy species were decomposed into defined 13 constituents, and their total molar density was shown to evolve in a quasi-steady manner. The light species behave either in a quasi-steady or unsteady manner. The modeled scales are the total constituent molar density, Nc, and the molar density of the quasi-steady light species. The progress variables are the total constituent molar density rate evolution and the molar densities of the unsteady light species. The unsteady equations for the light species contain contributions of the type gain/loss rates from the heavy species that are modeled consistent with the developed mathematical forms for the total constituent molar density rate evolution; indeed, examination of these gain/loss rates shows that they also have a good quasi-steady behavior with a functional form resembling that of the constituent rate. This finding highlights the fact that the fitting technique provides a methodology that can be repeatedly used to obtain an accurate representation of full or skeletal kinetic models. Assuming success with the modified reduced model, the advantage of the modeling approach is clear. Because this model is based on the Nc rate rather than on that of individual heavy species, even if the number of species increases with increased carbon number in the alkane group, providing that the quasi-steady rate aspect persists, then extension of this model to higher alkanes should be conceptually straightforward, although it remains to be seen if the functional fits would remain valid or would require reconstruction.

Bellan, Jasette; Harstad, Kenneth G.



Food preservative based on propolis: Bacteriostatic activity of propolis polyphenols and flavonoids upon Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propolis was tested as food preserver, due its recognized bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties. Furthermore, most propolis components are natural constituents of food and recognized as safe substances. Fifteen propolis from Santa Fe, Argentine in 20% w\\/w ethanolic extracts, were tested upon Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 by agar diffusion and plate culture methods. Considering propolis physicochemical characteristics and inhibitory effects, tested

Enzo A. Tosi; Edmundo Ré; Marta E. Ortega; Ampelio F. Cazzoli



Food Allergy Diagnosis  


... of food allergy. back to top Oral food challenge Caution Because oral food challenges can cause a severe allergic reaction, they should ... who has experience performing them. An oral food challenge is the final method healthcare professionals use to ...


Does flavor impact function? Potential consequences of polyphenol-protein interactions in delivery and bioactivity of flavan-3-ols from foods.  


Astringency is a component of the overall flavor experienced when consuming polyphenol rich foods and beverages such as tea, wine, cocoa and select fruits. Following consumption, the astringent sensation results from the well documented ability of polyphenols to bind to salivary proline rich proteins (PRP) and facilitate their precipitation in the oral cavity. In a similar fashion, polyphenols are also known to non-specifically bind food and other biological proteins. While much is known regarding the polyphenol-protein interactions leading to astringency, significantly less information is available regarding the impact of these polyphenol-protein interactions with food or other biological proteins on relevant physiological outcomes. This paper focuses on the interactions between flavan-3-ols, one of the most abundant dietary polyphenol forms, with proteins in food, salivary PRP and other physiological proteins. The physiological implications of these interactions in food and through the gut will be discussed in relation to manipulation of flavan-3-ol bioavailability, metabolism and biological activities including inhibition of digestive enzymes in the gut. PMID:22387574

Ferruzzi, Mario G; Bordenave, Nicolas; Hamaker, Bruce R



Access to Secondary School Education through the Constituency Bursary Fund in Kanduyi Constituency, Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Secondary school education is very critical in any education system because of the crucial role, it plays in catalyzing national development. Consequently, maintaining a high student enrolment at this level should be a priority for all countries. The Constituency Bursary Fund (CBF) was established by the government of Kenya through an act of…

Wachiye, J. Herman; Nasongo, W. Joseph



Assessment of estrogenic activity in some common essential oil constituents.  


Estrogenic responses have not only been associated with endocrine function, but also with cognitive function. Several studies have indicated that estrogen replacement therapy has favourable effects on cognition, and may have potential in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Thus, ligands for the estrogen receptor, that have a better efficacy and adverse-effect profile than drugs currently available, require investigation. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential estrogenic activity of a number of essential oil constituents. Initially, estrogenic activity was determined by a sensitive and specific bioassay using recombinant yeast cells expressing the human estrogen receptor. At high concentrations, estrogenic activity was detected for citral (geranial and neral), geraniol, nerol and trans-anethole, while eugenol showed anti-estrogenic activity. Molecular graphics studies were undertaken to identify the possible mechanisms for the interaction of geranial, neral, geraniol, nerol and eugenol with the ligand-binding domain of the estrogen alpha-receptor, using the computer program HyperChem. Citral, geraniol, nerol and eugenol were also able to displace [(3)H]17beta-estradiol from isolated alpha- and beta-human estrogen receptors, but none of these compounds showed estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity in the estrogen-responsive human cell line Ishikawa Var I at levels below their cytotoxic concentrations, and none showed activity in a yeast screen for androgenic and anti-androgenic activity. The potential in-vivo estrogenic effects of citral and geraniol were examined in ovariectomized mice, but neither compound showed any ability to stimulate the characteristic estrogenic responses of uterine hypertrophy or acute increase in uterine vascular permeability. These results show that very high concentrations of some commonly used essential oil constituents appear to have the potential to interact with estrogen receptors, although the biological significance of this is uncertain. PMID:12495555

Howes, M-J R; Houghton, P J; Barlow, D J; Pocock, V J; Milligan, S R



Food, Globalization and Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of international trade and global food governance. Distance in time and space between food producers and consumers is increasing and new concerns are arising. These

P. J. M. Oosterveer; D. A. Sonnenfeld



[Current issues regarding organic food].  


Destruction and pollution of soil and ground water resources is probably the most important ecological problem facing the next generation. Checkable standards which certify healthy food products are required by the regulation on organic farming of the EU and should also be applied for conventional food production. Ecological food contains at least 95% of ingredients from an organic farming environment, without interference from pesticides, herbicides, fungicides or other chemicals and it is totally different from dietary, functional, enriched, fortified, probiotic food. Ecological food is tastier and contains more essential amino-acids, vitamin C, and micro-nutriments than usual food. Two major effects generated by choosing ecological food are the environmental protection and human' health improvement. Buying an ecological product represents the effect of a certain attitude. Children's nutrition starts with the most genuine ecological product: breast milk. Every parent should give to his child healthy and tasty food, for proper development. Decreasing artificial chemicals in the diet and the environment represents the first step to a healthier life. PMID:16610189

Petrariu, F D; Gav?t, Viorica; Cozma, A G T



Costs and health effects of adding functional foods containing phytosterols/-stanols to statin therapy in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.  


The present modelling study aimed to evaluate if and by how much functional foods containing phytosterols/-stanols add to the benefits of statins in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in terms of cost-effectiveness. Long-term health effects, measured as quality-adjusted life-years gained, and costs for scenarios with additional phytosterol/-stanol use were compared to scenarios without extra use. Phytosterols/-stanols were given only to persons who were eligible for use according to their 10-year absolute risk of fatal cardiovascular disease (SCORE-risk). Intake levels and discontinuation rates as observed in daily practice were included in the model. Two situations were compared: 1) A real-life situation in which persons at high SCORE-risk were identified through clinical case-finding and, 2) A theoretical maximum situation where universal screening was implemented resulting in known SCORE-risks for the whole Dutch population aged 35-75 years (8.4 million people). Sensitivity analyses were performed for variations in the cholesterol-lowering effect and intake level of phytosterols/-stanols, indirect health care costs, time horizon and discount rates. At the model's start year, a total of 1.0 (real-life situation) to 3.3 (maximum situation) million persons qualified for phytosterol/-stanol use based on their SCORE-risk (both statin users and statin non-users). Over the model's time horizon, this resulted in a gain of 2700 to 16,300 quality-adjusted life-years, and yielded cost-effectiveness ratios that ranged between €92,000 and €203,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. This simulation study showed that the cost-effectiveness of phytosterols/-stanols as monotherapy and as add-on to statins is above thresholds for cost-effectiveness, generally ranging between €20,000 and €50,000, and is thus a non-cost-effective strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease. PMID:21816151

Eussen, Simone R B M; Feenstra, Talitha L; Toxopeus, Ido B; Hoekstra, Jeljer; Klungel, Olaf H; Verhagen, Hans; van Kranen, Henk J; Rompelberg, Cathy J M



Chemical constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston.  


The current study targets the chemical constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston and investigates the bioactivities of the isolated compounds. Fourteen known compounds were isolated using column chromatography, and structural identification was performed by physical and spectral analyses. The biological activities of the compounds were also evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 2,2-diphenlyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Emodin (6), baicalein (9), and apigenin (12) displayed antitumor activities against the MGC-803 cell line, while quercetin (2), rutin (5), baicalein (9), and epicatechin (13) showed stronger DPPH scavenging activities compared with ascorbic acid. Andrographolide (1), quercetin (2), bergenin (4), rutin (5), emodin (6), betulin (7), baicalein (9), polydatin (10), salicin (11), and apigenin (12), were obtained from C. decapetala (Roth) Alston for the first time. PMID:23340256

Wei, Xiao-Hua; Yang, Sheng-Jie; Liang, Na; Hu, De-Yu; Jin, Lin-Hong; Xue, Wei; Yang, Song



[Chemical constituents from rizomes of Homalomena occulta].  


Column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 was used to study the chemical constituents of Homalomena occulta. The chemical structures of the separated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data analyseS. Twelve compounds were obtained and identified as 5-pentylresorcinol-b-glucoside (1), protocatechuic acid (2), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), vanillic acid (4), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancarboxylic acid (5), 2-furoic acid (6), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (7), (R) -malic acid (8), (R) -dimethyl malate (9), trimethyl 1,2,3-propanetricarboxylate (10), 4-hydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-one (11) and (1S, 2S, 4S)-p-menthane-1,2, 4-triol (12). Among them, compound 1 was a new natural product, and compounds 4-12 were isolated from the genus for the first time. PMID:24199565

Xie, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Rui; Shi, Yan-Ping



Interrelation of exhaust-gas constituents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of an investigation conducted to determine the interrelation of the constituents of the exhaust gases of internal-combustion engines and the effect of engine performance on these relations. Six single-cylinder, liquid-cooled tests engines and one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled engine were tested. Various types of combustion chambers were used and the engines were operated at compression ratios from 5.1 to 7.0 using spark ignition and from 13.5 to 15.6 using compression ignition. The investigation covered a range of engine speeds from 1,500 to 2,100 r.p.m. The fuels used were two grades of aviation gasoline, auto diesel fuel, and laboratory diesel fuel. Power, friction, and fuel-consumption data were obtained from the single-cylinder engines at the same time that the exhaust-gas samples were collected.

Gerrish, Harold C; Voss, Fred



What's Cookin' in Food Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recent issue of BioMedNet's Webzine HMS Beagle (reviewed in the February 14, 1997 Scout Report) offers this intriguing introduction to food science. Although the article's tone targets the general public, many hyperlinks to academic resources make it worthwhile for researchers. The site covers the science of taste, texture, nutrition, food allergies, and "functional food," among other topics. Of particular use will be the links at the bottom of the site, which connect to a host of resources throughout academic, governmental, and nongovernmental fields.


Evidence-based food choice: the need for new measures of food effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition information panels are intended to help consumers to make healthy food choices, but often they do not achieve this goal because food composition data does not reflect functionality. This article focuses on the development of evidence-based measures of food effects to complement terms such as ‘dietary fibre’, ‘sugars’, ‘carbohydrate’, ‘complex carbohydrate’, and ‘glycaemic index’, which are not dependable guides

John A. Monro



Transport of Manure Constituents in Runoff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fecal coliforms (FC) are often used as indicators of pathogenic bacteria contamination of surface water from surface-applied manure. Manure constituents other than FC may serve as natural tracers of bacterial contamination provided the rates of release from manure and surface transport mechanisms are similar. The objective of this work was to compare fecal coliforms (FC), organic carbon (OC), and water-soluble phosphorus (P) transport from dissolving manure applied on hillslopes with different soil texture and surface cover conditions under simulated rainfall. Two-by-six meters runoff plots were set in triplicate on vegetated and bare 20% slopes with sandy loam and clay loam soils at the ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center. Fresh bovine manure was applied at the top 30-cm wide strip, and at 50 cm x 30 cm miniplots in the immediate vicinity of runoff plots. Rainfall (ca. 6 cm per hour) was simulated for 1 hour on bare plots and for 1.5 hours on vegetated plots. Runoff was collected from gutters at the edge of runoff plots and miniplots at five-min intervals. In general, the volume of runoff was less from vegetated plots than from bare plots, and was less from sandy loam plots than from clay loam plots. Partitioning of fecal coliforms between runoff and suspended sediment was quantified using the partitioning coefficient Kd. The Kd values were greater for the sandy loam plot than the clay loam soil. The value of the partitioning coefficient increased from spring to fall at all plots. Release kinetics of FC and soluble P were similar. The fast release stage of about 20 minutes was followed by aa relatively slow release stage. Both soil texture and vegetation significantly affected transport of the manure constituents. More than 70% of manure FC and OC were transported with runoff over bare plots, and less than 15% over vegetation plots. Overall, manure-borne P appears to be a promising potential tracer for assessing of manure-borne bacteria transport.

Shelton, D.; Guber, A.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Sikora, L. M.; Nemes, A.; Pachepsky, Y. A.



Will food safety jeopardize food security?  

Microsoft Academic Search

By a new definition proposed here, food safety is not just about safe food but the safe consumption of food. This draws attention to the issue of overeating as well as undernourishment. With the transition of diets and a rapid rise in obesity, worldwide, chronic illnesses join acute illness (from microbiological contamination) as health issues related to food consumption. The

Jean Kinsey



Application of Baranyi function to model the antibacterial properties of solvent extract from Irish York cabbage against food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cabbage is a rich source of a number of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, glucosinolates and their breakdown products which may have antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer properties. Outer green leaves of York cabbage were extracted with 60% methanol, ethanol or acetone. Antibacterial activities of vacuum dried crude extracts were estimated against a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative food spoilage and

Amit K. Jaiswal; S. Gupta; Nissreen Abu-Ghannam; Sabrina Cox



Re-engineering the eastern Lake Erie littoral food web: The trophic function of non-indigenous Ponto-Caspian species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trophic roles of key Ponto-Caspian invaders (quagga mussels Dreissena bugensis, amphipods Echinogammarus ischnus and round goby Apollonia melanostomus) within the littoral food web of eastern Lake Erie were quantified using stable isotopes (?13C, ?15N). A dual stable isotope parameter search with a mass balance component was used to assess the isotopic importance of quagga mussels and amphipods as dietary

Linda M. Campbell; Robert Thacker; David Barton; Derek C. G. Muir; Dixie Greenwood; Robert E. Hecky



Nigella sativa Seed Constituents and Anxiety Relief in Experimental Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated anti-anxiety effects of Nigella sativa seed constituents (aqueous extract, fixed oil, volatile oil, and major constituents of the volatile oil) using male mice and the Y-maze and hole-board tests as models for exploration-induced anxiety and the water-lick test as a model for conflict-induced anxiety. The seed constituents were injected intraperitoneal into male mice and subjected to tests

M. Raza; T. M. El-Hadiyah; O. A. Al-Shabanah




Microsoft Academic Search

Integral equations for the spin-weighted spheroidal wave functions is given . For the prolate spheroidal wave function with m = 0, there exists the integral equation whose kernel is sin x x , and the sinc function kernel sin x x is of great mathematical significance. In the paper, we also extend the similar sinc function kernel sin x x

Guihua Tian


Bioavailability of bioactive food compounds: a challenging journey to bioefficacy.  


Bioavailability is a key step in ensuring bioefficacy of bioactive food compounds or oral drugs. Bioavailability is a complex process involving several different stages: liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination phases (LADME). Bioactive food compounds, whether derived from various plant or animal sources, need to be bioavailable in order to exert any beneficial effects. Through a better understanding of the digestive fate of bioactive food compounds we can impact the promotion of health and improvement of performance. Many varying factors affect bioavailability, such as bioaccessibility, food matrix effect, transporters, molecular structures and metabolizing enzymes. Bioefficacy may be improved through enhanced bioavailability. Therefore, several technologies have been developed to improve the bioavailability of xenobiotics, including structural modifications, nanotechnology and colloidal systems. Due to the complex nature of food bioactive compounds and also to the different mechanisms of absorption of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive compounds, unravelling the bioavailability of food constituents is challenging. Among the food sources discussed during this review, coffee, tea, citrus fruit and fish oil were included as sources of food bioactive compounds (e.g. (poly)phenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)) since they are examples of important ingredients for the food industry. Although there are many studies reporting on bioavailability and bioefficacy of these bioactive food components, understanding their interactions, metabolism and mechanism of action still requires extensive work. This review focuses on some of the major factors affecting the bioavailability of the aforementioned bioactive food compounds. PMID:22897361

Rein, Maarit J; Renouf, Mathieu; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Thakkar, Sagar K; da Silva Pinto, Marcia



A watershed approach to upgrade rainfed agriculture in water scarce regions through Water System Innovations: an integrated research initiative on water for food and rural livelihoods in balance with ecosystem functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenge of producing food for a rapidly increasing population in semi-arid agro-ecosystems in Southern Africa is daunting. More food necessarily means more consumptive use of so-called green water flow (vapour flow sustaining crop growth). Every increase in food production upstream in a watershed will impact on water user and using systems downstream. Intensifying agriculture has in the past often been carried out with negative side effects in terms of land and water degradation. Water legislation is increasingly incorporating the requirement to safeguard a water reserve to sustain instream ecology. To address the challenges of increasing food production, improving rural livelihoods, while safeguarding critical ecological functions, a research programme has recently been launched on “Smallholder System Innovations in Integrated Watershed Management” (SSI). The programme takes an integrated approach to agricultural water management, analysing the interactions between the adoption and participatory adaptation of water system innovations (such as water harvesting, drip irrigation, conservation farming, etc.), increased water use in agriculture and water flows to sustain ecological functions that deliver critical ecosystem services to humans. The research is carried out in the Pangani Basin in Tanzania and the Thukela Basin in South Africa. A nested scale approach is adopted, which will enable the analysis of scale interactions between water management at the farm level, and cascading hydrological impacts at watershed and basin scale. This paper describes the integrated research approach of the SSI programme, and indicates areas of potential to upgrade rainfed agriculture in water scarcity-prone agro-ecosystems while securing water for downstream use.

Rockström, J.; Folke, C.; Gordon, L.; Hatibu, N.; Jewitt, G.; Penning de Vries, F.; Rwehumbiza, F.; Sally, H.; Savenije, H.; Schulze, R.


The Food Guide Pyramid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Food Guide Pyramid Automated Analysis System (FGPAAS) would classify foods under the appropriate categories of the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP). Further, it would provide an estimation of the serving size(s) of the food group(s) for the food being analyzed, per the FGP guidelines provided by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). In the development of this automated analysis

J. Muthukannan



[Studies on the constituents of cucurbitaceous plants].  


I have an opportunity to have co-operative studies with Chinese group of Kunming Institute of Botany. Since then, I have investigated the chemical constituents of a number of Chinese plants of Araliaceae, Umbelliferae, Labiatae, Cucurbitaceae and other families. This review describes the structural elucidation of the cucurbitane, oleanane and dammarane glycosides, and their biological activities under the joint studies on cucurbitaceous plants, Bolbostemma, Hemsleya, Siraitia and Neoalsomitra species. New oleanane glycosides having novel cyclic structure were isolated from Bolbostemma paniculatum. The potent solubilizing effect of these compounds was investigated. A number of cucurbitane glycosides were isolated from Hemsleya carnosiflora, H. panacis-scandens, Siraitia grosvenorii and S. siamensis. Some of these glycosides taste sweet, bitter or tasteless. The structure-taste relationships of the glycosides of a 3-alpha-hydroxy-cucurbit-5-ene-type triterpene have been discussed. Anti-tumor-promotion effects as well as the ecdysteroid agonist and antagonist activities of these cucurbitane glycosides were investigated. New dammarane glycosides were isolated from Neoalsomitra integrifoliola. PMID:18827460

Kasai, Ryoji



Constituents of south Indian vetiver oils.  


The essential oils isolated from vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash.] roots collected from four locations in south India were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Eighty constituents, representing 94.5-97.8% of the oils, have been identified. The oils from Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kundapur, and Mettupalayam were rich in sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes with cedrane, bisabolane, eudesmane, eremophilane, and zizaane skeletons. The main components of the four essential oils were: eudesma-4,6-diene (delta-selinene) + beta-vetispirene (3.9-6.1%), beta-vetivenene (0.9-9.4%), 13-nor-trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-11-one + amorph-4-en-10-ol (5.0-6.4%), trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-12-ol (vetiselinenol) + (E)-opposita-4(15),7(11)-dien-12-ol (3.7-5.9%), eremophila-1 (10),11-dien-2alpha-ol (nootkatol) + ziza-6(13)-en-12-ol (khusimol) (16.1-19.2%), and eremophila-1(10),7(11)-dien-2alpha-ol (isonootkatol) + (E)-eremophila-1(10),7(11)-12-ol (isovalencenol) (5.6-6.9%). The important compounds that impart the characteristic vetiver odor are: khusimene, delta-selinene, beta-vetivenene, cyclocopacamphan-12-ol (epimers A and B), vetiselinenol, khusimol, isovalencenol, khusimone, alpha-vetivone, and beta-vetivone. The chemical profiles of the oils are comparable to Haitian vetiver oil. PMID:22474964

Mallavarapu, Gopal Rao; Syamasundar, Kodakandla V; Ramesh, S; Rao, Bhaskaruni R Rajeswara



[Chemical constituents of leaves of Psidium guajava].  


To study the chemical constituents of the 95% ethanol extract of Psidium guajava. Compounds were separated by using a combination of various chromatographic methods including silica gel, D101 macroporous resin, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectral data Eighteen compounds were isolated and identified as (+) -globulol (1), clovane-2beta, 9alpha-diol (2), 2beta-acetoxyclovan-9alpha-ol (3), (+) -caryolane-1 ,9beta-diol (4), ent-T-muurolol (5), clov-2-ene-9alpha-ol (6), isophytol (7), tamarixetin (8), gossypetin (9), quercetin (10), kaempferol (11), guajaverin (12), avicularin (13), chrysin 6-C-glucoside (14), 3'-O-methyl-3, 4-methylenedioxyellagic acid 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (15), p-hydroxy-benzoic acid (16), guavinoside A (17) and guavinoside B (18). Compounds 2-9 and 14-16 were isolated from this plant for the first time. The ethanol extract showed 61.3% inhibition against the proliferation of colon cancer cell line SW480. PMID:24956844

Shao, Meng; Wang, Ying; Jian, Yu-Qing; Sun, Xue-Gang; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai



Light baryons in a constituent quark model with chiral dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown from rigorous three-body Faddeev calculations that the masses of all 14 lowest states in the N and ? spectra can be described within a constituent quark model with a Goldstone-boson-exchange interaction plus linear confinement between the constituent quarks.

L. Ya. Glozman; Z. Papp; W. Plessas



Chemical constituents and biological applications of the genus Symplocos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Symplocos has been reviewed for its chemical constituents and biological activities including traditional importance of some common species. The plants of this genus contain terpenoids, flavonoids, lignans, phenols, steroids, alkaloids, and iridoids. Terpenoids are the major constituents within the genus Symplocos and most of them exhibit antiproliferative effects. Some phenolic glycoside derivatives showed inhibitory activity against snake-venom phosphodiesterase

Ruchi Badoni; Deepak K. Semwal; Sudhir K. Kothiyal; Usha Rawat



Building a Constituency for Children: A Discussion among Child Advocates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A day and a half meeting of executive directors and staff of 11 members of the National Association of Child Advocates (NACA) was convened at the request of Kansas Action for Children to inform its efforts to build a constituency for children in Kansas. Child advocates are increasingly recognizing the need to build and mobilize constituencies for…

National Association of Child Advocates, Washington, DC.


Effects of Molluscicidal Constituents in Spices on Reproduction in Snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sublethal treatment (20% and 60% of 24 hr LC50) of young snails (Lymnaea acuminata) with the active molluscicidal constituents ferulic acid and umbelliferone from Ferula asafoetida, eugenol from Syzygium aromaticum, and limonene from Carum carvi caused a significant reduction in the fecundity, hatchability, and survival of the snails. Treatment with the constituents also increased the length of time to hatching

Pradeep Kumar; Vinay K. Singh; Chandra P. M. Tripathi; Dinesh K. Singh



A Usage-Based Account of Constituency and Reanalysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constituent structure is considered to be the very foundation of linguistic competence and often considered to be innate, yet we show here that it is derivable from the domain-general processes of chunking and categorization. Using modern and diachronic corpus data, we show that the facts support a view of constituent structure as gradient (as…

Beckner, Clay; Bybee, Joan



Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.


Food protein-based materials as nutraceutical delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporation of bioactive compounds–such as vitamins, probiotics, bioactive peptides, and antioxidants etc.–into food systems provide a simple way to develop novel functional foods that may have physiological benefits or reduce the risks of diseases. As a vital macronutrient in food, proteins possess unique functional properties including their ability to form gels and emulsions, which allow them to be an ideal

Lingyun Chen; Gabriel E. Remondetto; Muriel Subirade



Multi-analyte approach for determining the extraction of tobacco constituents from pouched snus by consumers during use  

PubMed Central

Background Snus is a smokeless oral tobacco product with a significant history of use in Sweden, where it is regulated under food legislation. Users place a small porous sachet or a pinch of loose snus between the upper jaw and cheek for approximately one hour, leading to partial intake of tobacco constituents. To understand user exposure to tobacco, a multi-analyte approach based on the extraction of pouches by methanol, ethanol and water was validated and applied to the measurement of various constituents, including nicotine, four tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), propylene glycol, water, ammonium, nitrate, sodium, chloride, linalool, citronellol, linalyl acetate and geraniol, extracted from snus pouches during use by human consumers. Results After validation against established single-analyte methods, the multi-analyte approach was used to determine constituent levels in snus pouches before and after one hour of use. Although the concentrations in the snus pouches varied from nanogram (e.g. TSNAs) to milligram (e.g. nicotine, sodium and propylene glycol) quantities (25.1 ng to 35.3 mg per 1 g pouch), the mean percentage extracted varied only from 19.2% for linalyl acetate to 37.8% for the TSNA 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) among all constituents analyzed. The TSNAs, some of which are known carcinogens, showed the highest percentage extraction (range 34.6%–37.8%). Measurement variability was low for all analytes, ranging from 2.4% (total TSNAs, NAT) to 9.5% (geraniol). By contrast, inter-subject variability ranged from 6.7% (NAB) to 52.2% (linalyl acetate), and was greater than 20% for eight of the constituents analyzed. Intra-subject variability ranged from 3.4% (citronellol) to 29.7% (geraniol). Conclusions Generally, less than a third of each constituent tested was extracted during one hour of snus use, independent of constituent concentration. The variable nature of in-use extraction was shown to be driven by inter-subject variability. The results provide insight into possible mechanisms controlling constituent extraction in the mouth during snus use, and provide reference data for the development of in-vitro laboratory systems for estimating extraction of tobacco constituents from snus.