These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

[Search for antidiabetic constituents of medicinal food].  

PubMed

Many foods are known to have not only nutritive and taste values but also medicinal effects. In Chinese traditional medicine, the treatment using medicinal foods has been recommended highly. Recently, we examined the effects of the extract and constituents of several medicinal foods on experimental models of diabetes. In this paper, we focus on the bioactive constituents of four medicinal foods, namely the antidiabetic constituents from 1) the roots, stems and leaves of Salacia plants, 2) the male flowers of Borassus flabellifer, 3) the flower buds of Camellia sinensis, 4) the processed leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii (Hydrangeae Dulcis Folium). PMID:21628977

Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

2011-01-01

2

Food and Food Constituents, Acute Effects on Human Behavior.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scientific and popular interest in the effects of nutrients, food constituents, and nutritional supplements on the brain and behavior has been growing dramatically. The use of products sold as dietary supplements in the United States has become a multibil...

H. R. Lieberman

2002-01-01

3

Isolation and analysis of bioactive constituents of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed kernel: an emerging functional food.  

PubMed

A plant-based diet reduces the risk for the development of several chronic diseases, such as ischemic heart disease or cancer due to natural compounds found in plants. Numerous cereals, berries, fruits, and vegetables, including sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), which is a favored fruit worldwide, contain biological active components. The antioxidant components of the sour cherry seed kernel have not been investigated until now. The aim of our study was to isolate and analyze the bioactive constituents of sour cherry seed kernel. We separated the oil fraction of the kernel; then the remaining solid fraction was dried, and the oil-free kernel extract was further analyzed. Our results show that sour cherry seed kernel oil contains vegetable oils including unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acids, alpha-tocopherol, tocotrienols, and tocopherol-like components. The components of the solid fraction include various bioactive structures such as polyphenols, flavonoids, vegetable acids, and pro- and anthocyanidins, which could have useful therapeutic effects in the prevention of various vascular diseases. PMID:20482278

Bak, Istvan; Lekli, Istvan; Juhasz, Bela; Varga, Edit; Varga, Balazs; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Szendrei, Levente; Tosaki, Arpad

2010-08-01

4

Foods and food constituents that affect the brain and human behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Until recently, it was generally believed that brain function was usually independent of day-to-day metabolic changes associated with consumption of food. Although it was acknowledged that peripheral metabolic changes associated with hunger or satiety might affect brain function, other effects of foods on the brain were considered unlikely. However, in 1971, Fernstrom and Wurtman discovered that under certain conditions, the protein-to-carbohydrate ratio of a meal could affect the concentration of a particular brain neurotransmitter. That neurotransmitter, serotonin, participates in the regulation of a variety of central nervous system (CNS) functions including sleep, pain sensitivity, aggression, and patterns of nutrient selection. The activity of other neurotransmitter systems has also been shown to be, under certain conditions, affected by dietary constituents which are given either as ordinary foods or in purified form. For example, the CNS turnover of two catecholamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine, can be altered by ingestion of their amino acid precursor, tyrosine, when neurons that release these monoamines are firing frequently. Similarly, lecithin, a dietary source of choline, and choline itself have been shown to increase the synthesis of acetylcholine when cholinergic neurons are very active. It is possible that other neurotransmitters could also be affected by precursor availability or other, as yet undiscovered peripheral factors governed by food consumption. The effects of food on neurotransmitters and behavior are discussed.

Lieberman, Harris R.; Wurtman, Richard J.

1986-01-01

5

Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

6

Functional Foods for Women's Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

Lindeman, Alice K.

2002-01-01

7

Virtual food components: functional food effects expressed as food components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The ability to communicate food benefits is essential for the successful development of functional foods and their role in improving public health. However, the functional efficacy of foods often cannot be represented by food composition. The concept of virtual food components (VFCs)—food data that express health-related effects, properties or functions of foods in the format of food components—is therefore

J A Monro

2004-01-01

8

Bioactive natural constituents from food sources-potential use in hypertension prevention and treatment.  

PubMed

Prevention and management of hypertension are the major public health challenges worldwide. Uncontrolled high blood pressure may lead to a shortened life expectancy and a higher morbidity due to a high risk of cardiovascular complications such as coronary heart disease (which leads to heart attack) and stroke, congestive heart failure, heart rhythm irregularities, and kidney failure etc. In recent years, it has been recognized that many dietary constituents may contribute to human cardiovascular health. There has been an increased focus on identifying these natural components of foods, describing their physiological activities and mechanisms of actions. Grain, vegetables, fruits, milk, cheese, meat, chicken, egg, fish, soybean, tea, wine, mushrooms, and lactic acid bacteria are various food sources with potential antihypertensive effects. Their main bioactive constituents include angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides, vitamins C and E, flavonoids, flavanols, cathecins, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, polyphenols, tannins, resveratrol, polysaccharides, fiber, saponin, sterols, as well as K, Ca, and P. They may reduce blood pressure by different mechanisms, such as ACE inhibition effect, antioxidant, vasodilatory, opiate-like, Ca(2+) channel blocking, and chymase inhibitory activities. These functional foods may provide new therapeutic applications for hypertension prevention and treatment, and contribute to a healthy cardiovascular population. The present review summarizes the antihypertensive food sources and their bioactive constituents, as well as physiological mechanisms of dietary products, especially focusing on ACE inhibitory activity. PMID:23627503

Huang, Wu-Yang; Davidge, Sandra T; Wu, Jianping

2013-01-01

9

Development of functional foods.  

PubMed

Recent advances in intestinal microbiota research are the background for the appearance of functional foods. Lactic fermentation products are included in the functional foods and classified into 3 groups based on their mechanisms of action: probiotics, prebiotics and biogenics. Probiotics are viable microorganisms, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, that beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal bacterial balance. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients, such as oligosaccharides and dietary fiber, that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activities of beneficial intestinal bacteria in the colon and thus improve the health of the hosts. Biogenics are biologically active peptides, including immunopotentiators (biological response modifier: BRM), plant flavonoids, etc. They act directly or indirectly through modulation of intestinal microbiota on the health of the hosts. Thus, functional foods enhance bioregulation such as stresses, appetite and absorption; biodefence, such as immunity and suppression of allergies; prevent diseases, including diarrhea, constipation, cancer, cholesterolemia and diabetes; and suppress aging through immunostimulation as well as suppression of mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, oxidation processes, intestinal putrefaction, and cholesterolemia. PMID:25032085

Mitsuoka, Tomotari

2014-01-01

10

Functional foods and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional foods are foods that, by virtue of physiologically active food components, provide health benefits beyond basic\\u000a nutrition. Many functional foods have been found to be potentially beneficial in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular\\u000a disease, the leading cause of mortality in the United States. These foods include soybeans, oats, psyllium, flaxseed, garlic,\\u000a tea, fish, grapes, nuts, and stanol- and

Clare M. Hasler; Susan Kundrat; Deborah Wool

2000-01-01

11

Functional Microorganisms for Functional Food Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability

M. Gobbetti; R. Di Cagno; M. De Angelis

2010-01-01

12

HUMAN NUTRITION -FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition -Functional Foods  

E-print Network

HUMAN NUTRITION - FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition - Functional Foods Poäng: 5.0 Betygskala grupparbeten. Litteratur: Garrow, J.S.; James, W.P.T.: Human nutrition and dietetics, 9th ed, Churchill Livingstone eller Whitney, E.S., Rolfes, S.R.: Understanding nutrition, 8th ed, 1999, West Publishing Company

13

Biosynthesis of Food Constituents: Vitamins. 2. Water-Soluble Vitamins: Part 2 - a Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velíšek J., Cejpek K. (2007): Biosynthesis of food constituents: Vitamins. 2. Water-soluble vitamins: Part 2 - a Review . Czech J. Food Sci., 25: 101-118. This review article gives a survey of the biosynthetic pathways that lead to water-soluble vitamins in microorganisms, plants and some animals. The biosynthetic pathways leading to some the B-group vitamins (biotin, folacin, cobalamins) and to

14

Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.  

PubMed

Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability for probiotic effect, two major options are currently pursued for improving it--to enhance bacterial stress response and to use alternative products for incorporating probiotics (e.g., ice cream, cheeses, cereals, fruit juices, vegetables, and soy beans). Further, it seems that quorum sensing signal molecules released by probiotics may interact with human epithelial cells from intestine thus modulating several physiological functions. Under optimal processing conditions, functional microorganisms contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. Overproduction of free amino acids and vitamins are two classical examples. Besides, bioactive compounds (e.g., peptides, ?-amino butyric acid, and conjugated linoleic acid) may be released during food processing above the physiological threshold and they may exert various in vivo health benefits. Functional microorganisms are even more used in novel strategies for decreasing phenomenon of food intolerance (e.g., gluten intolerance) and allergy. By a critical approach, this review will aim at showing the potential of functional microorganisms for the quality of functional foods. PMID:20830633

Gobbetti, M; Cagno, R Di; De Angelis, M

2010-09-01

15

From detrimental to beneficial constituents in foods: tracking the publication trends in JAFC.  

PubMed

A large part of the research focus on food constituents in the 20th century was toward health-detrimental contaminants-pathogens, toxins, chemical residues, and some food additives. This is reflected in the publications in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry and other journals. This era witnessed the formation of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the rise and fall of DDT and other synthetic chemicals, as well as a number of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, and coloring/flavoring agents that attracted consumer and government attention. During the past 25 years or so, the emphasis in food chemistry and biochemistry has trended more toward health-beneficial chemicals in foods, as their examination yields information on naturally occurring components-polyphenolic antioxidants, unsaturated fatty acids, soluble fibers, and many other classes of constituents that may ward off chronic diseases. This perspective addresses the changes in emphases in published research to the present and trends that indicate the directions that food chemistry/biochemistry and related sciences might follow in the future. PMID:22449169

Seiber, James N; Kleinschmidt, Loreen

2012-07-11

16

Functional properties of milk constituents: Application for microencapsulation of oils  

E-print Network

the targeted delivery of bioactives within the gastrointestinal tract. Food-grade cores and encapsulant matrices are desired for designing encapsulated ingredients that are intended for incorporation into food Preventative Health Flagship Food and Nutritional Sciences, Sneydes Road, Werribee, VIC 3030, Australia

Boyer, Edmond

17

Modifying Bitterness in Functional Food Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional foods sector represents a significant and growing portion of the food industry, yet formulation of these products often involves the use of ingredients that elicit less than desirable oral sensations, including bitterness. Promising new functional ingredients, including polyphenolics, may be more widely and readily employed in the creation of novel functional foods if their aversive bitter taste can

Nicole J. Gaudette; Gary J. Pickering

2011-01-01

18

[Analysis of constituents of ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives].  

PubMed

The differences in the constituents of ten ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives in Japan (urushi wax, carnauba wax, candelilla wax, rice bran wax, shellac wax, jojoba wax, bees wax, Japan wax, montan wax, and lanolin) were investigated. Several kinds of gum bases showed characteristic TLC patterns of lipids. In addition, compositions of fatty acid and alcohol moieties of esters in the gum bases were analyzed by GC/MS after methanolysis and hydrolysis, respectively. The results indicated that the varieties of fatty acids and alcohols and their compositions were characteristic for each gum base. These results will be useful for identification and discrimination of the ester-type gum bases. PMID:18203503

Tada, Atsuko; Masuda, Aino; Sugimoto, Naoki; Yamagata, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

2007-12-01

19

[Search for biofunctional constituents from medicinal foods-elucidation of constituents with anti-proliferation effects and the target molecule from Citrullus colocynthis].  

PubMed

Many foods are known to have not only nutritive and taste values but also medicinal effects. In Egypt, many medicinal foods have been used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases since ancient. However, in most cases, their effective constituents as well as the mechanism of action remained uncharacterized. In the course of our characterization studies on Egyptian medicinal foods and plants, cucurbitane-type triterpene and related compounds such as cucurbitacin E from the fruit of Citrullus colocynthis and the roots of Bryonia cretica were found to show anti-proliferation effects. We therefore synthesized a biotin-linked cucurbitacin E to isolate target proteins based on affinity for the molecule. As a result, cofilin, which regulates the depolymerization of actin, was isolated and suggested to be a target. PMID:23023425

Nakamura, Seikou

2012-01-01

20

Probiotics and functional foods in gastrointestinal disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that benefit the host animal by improving intestinal microbial balance. When\\u000a they are fed in yogurts, they can fall into the category of functional foods. Functional foods include these probiotics, prebiotics,\\u000a and, to a certain extent, dietary fiber. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients or supplements that alter the intestinal\\u000a flora and stimulate the

Martin H. Floch; JoAnn Hong-Curtiss

2002-01-01

21

Probiotics and functional foods in gastrointestinal disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that benefit the host animal by improving intestinal microbial balance. When\\u000a they are fed in yogurts, they can fall into the category of functional foods. Functional foods include these probiotics, prebiotics,\\u000a and, to a certain extent, dietary fiber. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients or supplements that alter the intestinal\\u000a flora and stimulate the growth

Martin H. Floch; JoAnn Hong-Curtiss

2001-01-01

22

Anthocyanins as Functional Food Colors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthocyanins, a proanthocyanidin-type of flavonoid, contain an abundance of functional phytochemicals and occur in fruits such as cranberry, blueberry, orange, apple and in vegetables such as tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, and radishes. Functional and essential diets have been ingested in daily life since the primitive era of history. When anthocyanins are coupled with some water-soluble sugar molecules, their color becomes red, yellow, violet, or blue. It is very intriguing that anthocyanins provide the colorful variety of pigments for pansies, petunias, plums, and other diverse flowers. Chlorophyll in various fruits and vegetables is the main green phyto-component, while anthocyanins are probably the most important visible plant pigments in the natural kingdom having specific colors. Anthocyanins have been clinically used in many folklore medicines worldwide. Anthocyanins could provide health benefits for age-related diseases as well as other diseases. Anthocyanins have higher antioxidant capacity against oxidative stress induced by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and thus the human body might be protected from oxidative injury by anthocyanins. On the basis of these facts, we review the synthesis of plant flavonoids and their ability to scavenge oxidants, inhibit or activate enzymes, and the safety of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins present in common foods.

Motohashi, Noboru; Sakagami, Hiroshi

23

Anaphylaxis to hyperallergenic functional foods  

PubMed Central

Background Food allergy can cause life threatening reactions. Currently, patients with severe food allergy are advised to avoid foods which provoke allergic reactions. This has become increasingly difficult as food proteins are being added to a broader range of consumer products. Patients and methods Here we describe our investigations into the allergenicity of a new drink when two cow's milk allergic children suffered anaphylaxis after consuming Wh2ole®. Results Our studies have shown that in comparison with cow's milk, Wh2ole® contains at least three times the concentration of ?-lactoglobulin. ?-lactoglobulin is one of the dominant allergens in bovine milk. Conclusions These studies have shown that modern technology allows the creation of "hyperallergenic" foods. These products have the potential to cause severe reactions in milk allergic persons. Avoiding inadvertent exposure is the shared responsibility of allergic consumers, regulatory authorities and the food industry. PMID:21144046

2010-01-01

24

Functions of emulsifiers in food systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

and Summary  The function of food grade emulsifiers in various food products (emulsions, starch based food, yeast raised bakery products,\\u000a etc.) are reviewed. The stability of emulsions against coalescence of dispersed droplets is among other factors dependent\\u000a on monoor multimolecular interfacial films with viscoelastic properties formed by adsorbed emulsifier molecules. Agglomeration\\u000a of fat globules in whippable emulsion is needed to obtain

N. Krog; Edwin Rahrs Vej

1977-01-01

25

Functional foods. Part 2: the impact on current regulatory terminology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to introduce the category of functional foods into the present regulatory system, it is necessary to review the relationships between functional foods and other existing legal or commercial terms, with the internationally agreed definitions. Functional foods may be distinguishable from medical foods and dietary supplements, whereas they overlap foods for special dietary uses and fortified foods. They are

No-Seong Kwak; David John Jukes

2001-01-01

26

Food protective effects of the active constituent isolated from Ostericum praeteritum against the stored food mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae.  

PubMed

The acaricidal effects of the active constituent isolated from Ostericum praeteritum oil and its derivatives were compared with that of benzyl benzoate using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against Tyrophagus putrescentiae mites. The active compound of O. praeteritum was isolated by various chromatographic techniques and was identified as 3-methylphenol (C7H8O). On the basis of 50 % lethal dose values, 3-methylphenol (1.42 ?g/cm(2)) was determined to be 9.18 times more effective than benzyl benzoate (13.04 ?g/cm(2)), followed by 6-fluoro-3-methylphenol (2.18 ?g/cm(2)), 4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol (2.53 ?g/ cm(2)), and 6-chloro-3-methylphenol (4.03 ?g/cm(2)), against Tyrophagus putrescentiae mites in the fumigant bioassay. In the contact toxicity bioassay, 3-methylphenol (1.03 ?g/cm(2)) was the most-toxic compound against T. putrescentiae mites, followed by 6-fluoro-3-methylphenol (2.09 ?g/cm(2)), 4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol (2.11 ?g/cm(2)), 6-chloro-3-methylphenol (3.78 ?g/cm(2)), and benzyl benzoate (10.33 ?g/cm(2)). These results indicate that the introduction of chloro, isopropyl, and fluoro functional groups to the 3-methylphenol skeleton increased the acaricidal activity. Therefore, 3-methylphenol and its derivatives could potentially be used as natural acaricides against T. purescentiae. PMID:24215692

Kim, Min-Gi; Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

2013-11-01

27

Functional foods and the biomedicalisation of everyday life: a case of germinated brown rice.  

PubMed

Germinated brown rice (GBR) is a functional food, whose benefits for chronic diseases have been demonstrated by scientific research on a single constituent of GBR, gamma aminobutyric acid. This article examines the processes through which the emphasis on biomedical rationality made during the production and consumption of functional foods is embedded in the complicated social contexts of the post-1990s. In the case of GBR, the Korean government, food scientists, mass media and consumers have added cultural accounts to the biomedical understanding of foods. In particular, consumers have transformed their households and online communities into a place for surveillance medicine. Functional foods are embedded in multiple actors' perspectives on what healthy foods mean and how and where the risks of chronic diseases should be managed. PMID:23116161

Kim, Hyomin

2013-07-01

28

Infrared and Fluorescence Spectroscopic Techniques for the Determination of Nutritional Constituents in Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate food and nutrient information is important on several levels, from improving individual health to enabling manufacturers to comply with regulations governing food production and retailing. This information is obtained by means of many analytical methodologies, which have been developed to measure most of important food nutrients. The overwhelming majority of the analytical techniques currently utilized in food nutrient study

A. A. Kulmyrzaev; R. Karoui; J. De Baerdemaeker; E. Dufour

2007-01-01

29

Anthocyanins as Functional Food Colors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthocyanins, a proanthocyanidin-type of flavonoid, contain an abundance of functional phytochemicals\\u000a and occur in fruits such as cranberry, blueberry, orange, apple and in vegetables such as tomato, sweet\\u000a pepper, spinach, and radishes. Functional and essential diets have been ingested in daily life since the\\u000a primitive era of history. When anthocyanins are coupled with some water-soluble sugar molecules, their\\u000a color becomes

Noboru Motohashi; Hiroshi Sakagami

2009-01-01

30

Biosensors for functional food safety and analysis.  

PubMed

The importance of safety and functionality analysis of foodstuffs and raw materials is supported by national legislations and European Union (EU) directives concerning not only the amount of residues of pollutants and pathogens but also the activity and content of food additives and the health claims stated on their labels. In addition, consumers' awareness of the impact of functional foods' on their well-being and their desire for daily healthcare without the intake pharmaceuticals has immensely in recent years. Within this picture, the availability of fast, reliable, low cost control systems to measure the content and the quality of food additives and nutrients with health claims becomes mandatory, to be used by producers, consumers and the governmental bodies in charge of the legal supervision of such matters. This review aims at describing the most important methods and tools used for food analysis, starting with the classical methods (e.g., gas-chromatography GC, high performance liquid chromatography HPLC) and moving to the use of biosensors-novel biological material-based equipments. Four types of bio-sensors, among others, the novel photosynthetic proteins-based devices which are more promising and common in food analysis applications, are reviewed. A particular highlight on biosensors for the emerging market of functional foods is given and the most widely applied functional components are reviewed with a comprehensive analysis of papers published in the last three years; this report discusses recent trends for sensitive, fast, repeatable and cheap measurements, focused on the detection of vitamins, folate (folic acid), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), fatty acids (in particular Omega 3), phytosterols and phytochemicals. A final market overview emphasizes some practical aspects ofbiosensor applications. PMID:21520718

Lavecchia, Teresa; Tibuzzi, Arianna; Giardi, Maria Teresa

2010-01-01

31

Gas chromatographic detection of D-amino acids as common constituents of fermented foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant amounts of free D-amino acids (D-AA) have been found in fermented foods. Amino acids (AA) were extracted from sour milk, Emmentaler cheese, lactic acid fermented juices of carrots and celery, beer, wine, fermented black beans and a commercial liquid spice obtained by acidic hydrolysis of certain proteinaceous plants. The absolute amounts of free AA in foods were determined by

H. Brückner; M. Hausch

1989-01-01

32

Analysis of the constituents in jojoba wax used as a food additive by LC/MS/MS.  

PubMed

Jojoba wax is a natural gum base used as a food additive in Japan, and is obtained from jojoba oil with a characteristically high melting point. Although the constituents of jojoba oil have been reported, the quality of jojoba wax used as a food additive has not yet been clarified. In order to evaluate its quality as a food additive and to obtain basic information useful for setting official standards, we investigated the constituents and their concentrations in jojoba wax. LC/MS analysis of the jojoba wax showed six peaks with [M+H]+ ions in the range from m/z 533.6 to 673.7 at intervals of m/z 28. After isolation of the components of the four main peaks by preparative LC/MS, the fatty acid and long chain alcohol moieties of the wax esters were analyzed by methanolysis and hydrolysis, followed by GC/MS. The results indicated that the main constituents in jojoba wax were various kinds of wax esters, namely eicosenyl octadecenoate (C20:1-C18:1) (1), eicosenyl eicosenoate (C20:1-C20:1) (II), docosenyl eicosenoate (C22:1-C20:1) (III), eicosenyl docosenoate (C20:1-C22:1) (IV) and tetracosenyl eiosenoate (C24:1-C20:1) (V). To confirm and quantify the wax esters in jojoba wax directly, LC/MS/MS analysis was performed. The product ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the wax esters were observed, and by using the product ions derived from the protonated molecular ions of wax esters the fatty acid moieties were identified by MRM analysis. The concentrations of the wax esters I, II and III, in jojoba wax were 5.5, 21.4 and 37.8%, respectively. In summary, we clarified the main constituents of jojoba wax and quantified the molecular species of the wax esters without hydrolysis by monitoring their product ions, using a LC/MS/MS system. PMID:16305174

Tada, Atsuko; Jin, Zhe-Long; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

2005-10-01

33

Functional Food Product Development Jim Smith and Edward Charter  

E-print Network

Functional Food Product Development Edited by Jim Smith and Edward Charter Prince Edward Island Food Technology Centre Charlottetown, Canada A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication #12;#12;Functional Food Product Development #12;A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication Functional Food Science

Haddadi, Hamed

34

Tackling metabolic syndrome by functional foods.  

PubMed

The metabolic syndrome is one of the most vibrant and widely prevailing health concerns worldwide. It is characterized by several metabolic abnormalities, which involve obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, enhanced oxidative stress; hypertension and increased pro-inflammatory state that ultimate contribute towards poor health. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Pakistan according to different definitions is reported to be from 18 % to 46 %. Fifty percent of Pakistani population is at high risk of metabolic syndrome as being hypertensive. In studying dyslipidemia in Pakistan, hypertriglyceridemia is found in 27-54 % of the population, whereas 68-81 % has low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Population likes to eat healthier diet without changing their fundamental dietary pattern. Nutrition science has moved on from the classical concepts of avoiding nutrient deficiencies and basic nutritional adequacy to the concept of positive or optimal nutrition. Many traditional food products including fruits, vegetables, flaxseed, oat, barley, whole grains, soy and milk have been found to contain component with potential health benefits. Nowadays, functional foods are used in the prevention and amelioration of several chronic diseases, such as the metabolic syndrome. The relation of the consumption of certain functional foods and the improvement in health status is regulated through health claims. This review focuses on the different features of the metabolic syndrome and the influence of functional foods on these aspects, involving dyslipidemia, improvement of insulin sensitivity, serum lipid profile, antioxidant status, anti-inflammatory status and weight management of humans. PMID:24057596

Khan, Muhammad Issa; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Sohaib, Muhammad; Sameen, Aysha

2013-09-01

35

Functional characteristics of cowpea flours in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functionality of legume flours as food ingredients is influenced by genetic and agronomic factors, storage, composition and\\u000a processing. The processing of flour from dry cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) is a simpler technology than that utilized for oilseed flour production. A defatting step is not required because the crude\\u000a fat content of cowpeas is low (?1–2%); however, decortication (seed coat removal) is

K. H. McWatters

1990-01-01

36

Membrane applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional foods and nutraceuticals market is growing at a rapid pace. Membrane processing offers several advantages over conventional methods for separation, fractionation and recovery of those bioactive components. In this review, membrane applications of lipid-, carbohydrate-, and protein-based nutraceuticals and some minor bioactive components have been critically evaluated. Both non-porous and porous membranes were employed for lipid-based nutraceuticals separations.

Oguz Akin; Feral Temelli; Sefa Koseoglu

2011-01-01

37

Membrane Applications in Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional foods and nutraceuticals market is growing at a rapid pace. Membrane processing offers several advantages over conventional methods for separation, fractionation, and recovery of those bioactive components. In this review, membrane applications of lipid-, carbohydrate-, and protein-based nutraceuticals and some minor bioactive components have been critically evaluated. Both non-porous and porous membranes were employed for lipid-based nutraceuticals separations.

O?uz Akin; Feral Temelli; Sefa Köseo?lu

2012-01-01

38

Acaricidal activities of major constituents of essential oil of Juniperus chinensis leaves against house dust and stored food mites.  

PubMed

The acaricidal activities of major constituents from the oil of Juniperus chinensis (var. globosa) leaves were compared with those of DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) by using impregnated fabric disk bioassay against Dermatophagoides spp. and Tyrophagus putrescentiae. Toxicity varied with doses as well as chemical composition. The 50% lethal doses (LD50) of J. chinensis oil against Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and T. putrescentiae were 21.60, 19.89, and 38.10 microg/cm2, respectively. The active constituent was purified using silica gel chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The acaricidal component was identified as bomyl acetate through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR, 1H-13C shift correlation spectrum-NMR, and distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer-NMR. The LD50 of bornyl acetate (2.94 microg/cm2) against D. farinae was significantly lower than those of DEET (37.13 microg/cm2) and alpha-eudesmol (29.72 microg/cm2). Similar results were observed when bomyl acetate and alpha-eudesmol were tested against D. pteronyssinus and T. putrescentiae. The lower LD50 of bornyl acetate indicates that it may be responsible for the major acaricidal activity against house dust and stored food mites, even though it constitutes only 19.5% of J. chinensis oil. Overall, these findings indicated that bornyl acetate and c-eudesmol have potential for use as control agents against house dust and stored food mites. PMID:19722401

Lee, Chi-Hoon; Park, Joon-Moh; Song, Ha-Yun; Jeong, Eun-Young; Lee, Hoi-Seon

2009-08-01

39

Lectin-Like Constituents of Foods Which React with Components of Serum, Saliva, and Streptococcus mutans  

PubMed Central

Hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared from 22 commonly ingested fruits, vegetables, and seeds. When tested by agar diffusion, extracts from 13 and 10 of the foods formed precipitin bands with samples of normal rabbit serum and human saliva, respectively; extracts from four of the foods also reacted with antigen extracts of strains of Streptococcus mutans. When added to rabbit antiserum, extracts from 18 of 21 foods tested inhibited reactivity with antigen extracts derived from S. mutans MT3. Extracts from 16 foods agglutinated whole S. mutans cells, whereas those from 10 foods agglutinated human erythrocytes of blood types A and B. The lectin-like activities of extracts which reacted with human saliva were studied further. Pretreatment of saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (S-HA) beads with extracts of bananas, coconuts, carrots, alfalfa, and sunflower seeds markedly reduced the subsequent adsorption of S. mutans MT3. Pretreatment of S-HA with banana extract also strongly inhibited adsorption of S. mutans H12 and S. sanguis C1, but it had little effect on attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii L13 or A. viscosus LY7. Absorption experiments indicated that the component(s) in banana extract responsible for inhibiting streptococcal adsorption to S-HA was identical to that which bound to human erythrocytes. The banana hemagglutinin exhibited highest activity between pH 7 and 8, and it was inhibited by high concentrations of glucosamine, galactosamine, and, to a lesser extent, mannosamine. Other sugars tested had no effect. The selective bacterial adsorption-inhibiting effect noted for banana extract was also observed in studies with purified lectins. Thus, pretreating S-HA with wheat germ agglutinin and concanavalin A inhibited adsorption of S. mutans MT3 cells, whereas peanut agglutinin, Ulex agglutinin, Dolichos agglutinin, and soybean agglutinin had little effect; none of these lectins affected attachment of A. viscosus LY7. Collectively, the observations suggest that many foods contain lectins which can interact with components of human saliva and S. mutans cells. Because of their potential to influence host-parasite interactions in the mouth and elsewhere in the gastrointestinal canal, these reactions warrant further study. Images PMID:6786220

Gibbons, R. J.; Dankers, I.

1981-01-01

40

Food Safety Microbiology, Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens, and Food Antimicrobials Functionalization of Food Antimicrobials by Nano-encapsulation  

E-print Network

Food Safety Microbiology, Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens, and Food Antimicrobials Functionalization A&M University's Food Safety Laboratory seek to overcome limi- tations to the use of these compounds quality and safety of many food products, including processed and fermented dairy and fruit- and vegetable

41

Analysis of Functional Constituents in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Twigs by Different Cultivars, Producing Areas, and Heat Processings  

PubMed Central

Four functional constituents, oxyresveratrol 3?-O-?-D-glucoside (ORTG), oxyresveratrol (ORT), t-resveratrol (RT), and moracin (MC) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs by a series of isolation procedures, including solvent fractionation, and silica-gel, ODS-A, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their chemical structures were identified by NMR and FABMS spectral analysis. Quantitative changes of four phytochemicals in mulberry twigs were determined by HPLC according to cultivar, producing area, and heat processing. ORTG was a major abundant compound in the mulberry twigs, and its levels ranged from 23.7 to 105.5 mg% in six different mulberry cultivars. Three other compounds were present in trace amounts (<1 mg/100 g) or were not detected. Among mulberry cultivars examined, “Yongcheon” showed the highest level of ORTG, whereas “Somok” had the least ORTG content. Levels of four phytochemicals in the mulberry twigs harvested in early September were higher than those harvested in early July. Levels of ORTG and ORT in the “Cheongil” mulberry twigs produced in the Uljin area were higher than those produced in other areas. Generally, levels of ORTG and ORT in mulberry twigs decreased with heat processing, such as steaming, and microwaving except roasting, whereas those of RT and MC did not considerably vary according to heat processing. These results suggest that the roasted mulberry twigs may be useful as potential sources of functional ingredients and foods. PMID:24551827

Choi, Sang Won; Jang, Yeon Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin; Leem, Hyun Hee; Kim, Eun Ok

2013-01-01

42

Identification and quantitative determination of the polar constituents in Helichrysum italicum flowers and derived food supplements.  

PubMed

Helichrysum italicum is widely used in traditional medicine, in cosmetic, in food and pharmaceutical field. In spite of this, very little is known about the chemical composition of its polar extracts. Therefore this study was addressed to the determination of the metabolite profile of the methanol extract of H. italicum flowers, by using LC-ESI(IT)MSMS. This approach oriented the isolation of 14 compounds, whose structures were unambiguously elucidated by NMR as belonging to flavonoid, phenylpropanoid and acylbenzofuran classes. In addition, one novel drimane sesquiterpene was identified. The quantitative determination of the main compounds occurring in the methanol extract of H. italicum flowers was carried out and their content was compared with that of three selected commercial food supplements based on H. italicum, by using LC-ESI(QqQ)MS. In conclusion the wide occurrence, in high amounts, of quinic acid derivatives in all the analyzed samples was highlighted, showing these compounds as chemical markers of the species for standardization procedures. PMID:24786189

Mari, Angela; Napolitano, Assunta; Masullo, Milena; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

2014-08-01

43

Positioning functional foods in an ecological approach to the prevention of overweight and obesity: Positioning functional foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To contribute to the social debate about the role of functional foods in the prevention of overweight and obesity using an ecological model to study the positioning of functional foods and their social implications. Positioning was conceptualized as the relative attention given to functional foods within the range of preventive strategies, and the way in which they address specific

N. F. Wieringa; H. J. Van Der Windt; R. R. M. Zuiker; L. Dijkhuizen; M. A. Verkerk; R. J. Vonk; J. A. A. Swart

2008-01-01

44

Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to constant health awareness and readily available information on usefulness of different diet and their direct link with\\u000a health, the demand of functional food is increasing day by day. The concept of functional foods includes foods or food ingredients\\u000a that exert a beneficial effect on host health and\\/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions.\\u000a Increasing

Arpita Das; Utpal Raychaudhuri; Runu Chakraborty

45

Melatonin, a potent agent in antioxidative defense: Actions as a natural food constituent, gastrointestinal factor, drug and prodrug  

PubMed Central

Melatonin, originally discovered as a hormone of the pineal gland, is also produced in other organs and represents, additionally, a normal food constituent found in yeast and plant material, which can influence the level in the circulation. Compared to the pineal, the gastrointestinal tract contains several hundred times more melatonin, which can be released into the blood in response to food intake and stimuli by nutrients, especially tryptophan. Apart from its use as a commercial food additive, supraphysiological doses have been applied in medical trials and pure preparations are well tolerated by patients. Owing to its amphiphilicity, melatonin can enter any body fluid, cell or cell compartment. Its properties as an antioxidant agent are based on several, highly diverse effects. Apart from direct radical scavenging, it plays a role in upregulation of antioxidant and downregulation of prooxidant enzymes, and damage by free radicals can be reduced by its antiexcitatory actions, and presumably by contributions to appropriate internal circadian phasing, and by its improvement of mitochondrial metabolism, in terms of avoiding electron leakage and enhancing complex I and complex IV activities. Melatonin was shown to potentiate effects of other antioxidants, such as ascorbate and Trolox. Under physiological conditions, direct radical scavenging may only contribute to a minor extent to overall radical detoxification, although melatonin can eliminate several of them in scavenger cascades and potentiates the efficacy of antioxidant vitamins. Melatonin oxidation seems rather important for the production of other biologically active metabolites such as N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) and N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK), which have been shown to also dispose of protective properties. Thus, melatonin may be regarded as a prodrug, too. AMK interacts with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, conveys protection to mitochondria, inhibits and downregulates cyclooxygenase 2. PMID:16153306

Hardeland, Rudiger; Pandi-Perumal, SR

2005-01-01

46

Nutritional claims for functional foods and supplements.  

PubMed

Food labels are an important educational tool to assist consumers in making healthy food choices. In addition to mandatory nutritional labeling information, manufacturers have a variety of options on the food/supplement packages to communicate the nutrition/health benefits of their products. This paper describes the different types of claims that can be made for foods and supplements. PMID:16466840

Agarwal, Sanjiv; Hordvik, Stein; Morar, Sandra

2006-04-01

47

A heteroallelic Drosophila insulin-like receptor mutant and its use in validating physiological activities of food constituents.  

PubMed

Here we report an additional Drosophila transheterozygote InR(GS15311)/InR(GS50346) carrying two different P-element-inducible alleles of insulin-like receptor gene (InR). InR(GS15311)/InR(GS50346) flies exhibit the following phenotypes previously reported in InR and insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway-related gene mutants: small bodies, developmental delay, shortened lifespan, and increased fasting resistance. All of these characteristics are shared among flies carrying mutated genes implicated in the pathway. This heteroallelic combination exhibited fertility but resulted in male semilethality, while females were viable and grew into adults. Furthermore, an experimental model employing the InR(GS15311)/InR(GS50346) strain confirmed negligible involvement of royal jelly in IIS. Thus, the heteroallelic InR mutant, discovered in this study, will serve as a good model for multiple purposes: investigating the IIS mechanisms; identifying and validating the ingredients that prevent type II diabetes; and screening of food constituents associated with IIS. PMID:23541587

Kayashima, Yasunari; Sato, Ayaka; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Yamakawa-Kobayashi, Kimiko

2013-05-01

48

The role of rabbit meat as functional food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functional food ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functional foods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview

Antonella Dalle Zotte; Zsolt Szendr?

2011-01-01

49

Dietary fiber from coconut flour: A functional food  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effectiveness of dietary fiber present in coconut flour as a functional food, the following studies were conducted: (a) Dietary Fiber Composition and Fermentability of Coconut Flour; (b) The Effect of Coconut Flour on Mineral Availability from Coconut Flour Supplemented Foods; (c) Glycemic Index of Coconut Flour Supplemented Foods in Normal and Diabetic Subjects; and (d) The Cholesterol

Trinidad P. Trinidad; Aida C. Mallillin; Divinagracia H. Valdez; Anacleta S. Loyola; Faridah C. Askali-Mercado; Joan C. Castillo; Rosario R. Encabo; Dina B. Masa; Angelica S. Maglaya; Modesto T. Chua

2006-01-01

50

Gaining New Insights into Food Reward with Functional Neuroimaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion that eating is intimately related to feelings of pleasure is not new. Indeed, in an environment characterised by many varied and palatable foods, hedonistic drives are likely to play a greater role in modulating food intake than homeostatic ones. Until recently however, a neurobiological account of the rewarding properties of food was lacking. The ability to reveal functional

Marianne T. Neary; Rachel L. Batterham

2010-01-01

51

Cholesterol-Lowering Foods Tasty, functional foods help you lower cholesterol naturally.  

E-print Network

Cholesterol-Lowering Foods Tasty, functional foods help you lower cholesterol naturally. By R. Morgan Griffin Reviewed by Brunilda Nazario, MD WebMD Feature Do you want a diet to lower cholesterol? We all know that butter, ice cream, and fatty meats raise cholesterol, but do you know which foods make

52

[Fiber, Food Intolerances, FODMAPs, Gluten and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders - Update 2014].  

PubMed

The controversial effects of dietary fiber on symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders are summarized. Studies concerning adverse reaction to foods are mentioned and the possible role of food allergy and food intolerances, especially pseudoallergic reactions to biogenes amines, in symptom provocation is discussed. The known effects of lactose deficiency and fructose malabsorption are reviewed. The FODMAP concept (fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols) is presented in more detail and recent studies on pathophysiological effects of FODMAP constituents and of therapeutic effects of a low FODMAP diet on symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome are discussed. Finally, studies on the new disorder non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) are summarized and the state of the discussion whether wheat intolerance is due to gluten or the grains is given. PMID:25390215

Leiß, O

2014-11-01

53

Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent: a review.  

PubMed

Due to constant health awareness and readily available information on usefulness of different diet and their direct link with health, the demand of functional food is increasing day by day. The concept of functional foods includes foods or food ingredients that exert a beneficial effect on host health and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions. Increasing awareness of consumer health and interest in functional foods to achieve a healthy lifestyle has resulted in the need for food products with versatile health-benefiting properties. Cereal- and cereal component-based food products offer opportunities to include probiotics, prebiotics, and fibers in the human diet. Various growth studies using probiotic Lactic acid bacteria on cereal-based substrates and utilization of whole grain or components as high-fiber foods in developing novel food products lend support to the idea that cereal-based media may well be good probiotic carriers. It is essential that science and traditional knowledge should go together to find mutually beneficial results. In the Indian subcontinent, making use of fermented food and beverages using local food crops and other biological resources are very common. But the nature of the products and the base material vary from region to region. PMID:24293685

Das, Arpita; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

2012-12-01

54

The effects of bioactive compounds from plant foods on mitochondrial function: a focus on apoptotic mechanisms.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are essential organelles for cellular integrity and functionality maintenance and their imparement is implicated in the development of a wide range of diseases, including metabolic, cardiovascular, degenerative and hyperproliferative pathologies. The identification of different compounds able to interact with mitochondria for therapeutic purposes is currently becoming of primary importance. Indeed, it is well known that foods, particularly those of vegetable origin, present several constituents with beneficial effects on health. This review summarizes and updates the most recent findings concerning the mechanisms through which different dietary compounds from plant foods affect mitochondria functionality in healthy and pathological in vitro and in vivo models, paying particular attention to the pathways involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and apoptosis. PMID:24680691

Forbes-Hernández, Tamara Y; Giampieri, Francesca; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Mazzoni, Luca; Quiles, José L; Alvarez-Suarez, José M; Battino, Maurizio

2014-06-01

55

Comparison of the Immunoregulatory Function of Different Constituents in Radix Astragali and Radix Hedysari  

PubMed Central

Radix Astragali (RA), known as “Huangqi” in China, is one of the most popular herbal medicines known worldwide to reinforce “Qi”. RA is traditionally prepared from the dried roots of Astragalus membranaceus (MJHQ) and A. membranaceus var. mongholicus (MGHQ). Radix Hedysari is named “Hongqi” (HQ), which is similar to RA. We assessed and compared the chemical constituents and bioactivity of RA and HQ. Different constituents were extracted into five major parts and were analyzed using different methods. Comparison of the immunological effects of extracts was done by using two immunological models. Results showed that flavonoids and saponins present in RA and HQ were not only structurally significantly different but also different in their immunological effect. Amino acids extract (AE) in MGHQ shows immunological effect while AE in MJHQ and HQ did not. Polysaccharides comprised the major constituents in RA and HQ. All polysaccharides extract (PE) of the three herbs showed similar levels of immunological effect in both immunological assays. PMID:20224658

Liu, Jing; Hu, Xuguang; Yang, Quan; Yu, Zhiling; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Yi, Tao; Chen, Hubiao

2010-01-01

56

Regulations on health/functional foods in Korea.  

PubMed

The term "health/functional food" (HFF) refers to food supplements containing nutrients or other substances (in a concentrated form) that have a nutritional or physiological effect whose purpose is to supplement the normal diet. The Korean Health/Functional Food Act that came into effect in 2004 requires these products to be marketed in measured doses, such as in pills, tablets, capsules, and liquids. HFFs are of two types: generic and product-specific. There are 37 ingredients listed in the act for generic HFFs, and if an HFF contains a new active ingredient that is not included in the generic 37 products, it is considered a product-specific HFF. The standardization, safety, and efficacy of a new active ingredient are reviewed by the Korean Food and Drug Administration in order to receive approval as a product-specific HFF. Conforming with international standards and protecting public health requires constant upgrading of the Health/Functional Food Act. PMID:16481090

Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Dai Byung; Lee, Hyong Joo

2006-04-01

57

Functional role of the structural constituents of the particles of magnetic abrasive powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the result of comparison of the service properties of cast magnetic abrasive powders with the same type of structure but different physicochemical properties of the constituents an evaluation was made of the abrasive properties of the latter in polishing of various materials. It was shown that by changing practically only the composition of the solid solution or of the

V. E. Oliker; A. F. Zhornyak; T. Ya. Gridasova; K. N. Chebotareva

1985-01-01

58

Applications and functions of food-grade phosphates.  

PubMed

Food-grade phosphates are used in the production of foods to function as buffers, sequestrants, acidulants, bases, flavors, cryoprotectants, gel accelerants, dispersants, nutrients, precipitants, and as free-flow (anticaking) or ion-exchange agents. The actions of phosphates affect the chemical leavening of cakes, cookies, pancakes, muffins, and doughnuts; the even melt of processed cheese; the structure of a frankfurter; the bind and hydration of delicatessen meats; the fluidity of evaporated milk; the distinctive flavor of cola beverages; the free flow of spice blends; the mineral content of isotonic beverages; and the light color of par-fried potato strips. In the United States, food-grade phosphates are generally recognized as safe, but use levels have been defined for some foods by the Code of Federal Regulations, specifically Titles 9 and 21 for foods regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), respectively. Standards for food purity are defined nationally and internationally in sources such as the Food Chemicals Codex and the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives. PMID:24033359

Lampila, Lucina E

2013-10-01

59

Functional herbal food ingredients used in type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

From many reports it is clear that diabetes will be one of the major diseases in the coming years. As a result there is a rapidly increasing interest in searching new medicines, or even better searching prophylactic methods. Based on a large number of chemical and pharmacological research work, numerous bioactive compounds have been found in functional herbal food ingredients for diabetes. The present paper reviews functional herbal food ingredients with regards to their anti-diabetic active principles and pharmacological test results, which are commonly used in Asian culinary system and medical system and have demonstrated clinical or/and experimental anti-diabetic effectiveness. Our idea of reviewing this article is to give more attention to these functional food ingredients as targets medicinal foods in order to prevent or slow down the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22654403

Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Li, Yunman

2012-01-01

60

Food webs: reconciling the structure and function of biodiversity.  

PubMed

The global biodiversity crisis concerns not only unprecedented loss of species within communities, but also related consequences for ecosystem function. Community ecology focuses on patterns of species richness and community composition, whereas ecosystem ecology focuses on fluxes of energy and materials. Food webs provide a quantitative framework to combine these approaches and unify the study of biodiversity and ecosystem function. We summarise the progression of food-web ecology and the challenges in using the food-web approach. We identify five areas of research where these advances can continue, and be applied to global challenges. Finally, we describe what data are needed in the next generation of food-web studies to reconcile the structure and function of biodiversity. PMID:22959162

Thompson, Ross M; Brose, Ulrich; Dunne, Jennifer A; Hall, Robert O; Hladyz, Sally; Kitching, Roger L; Martinez, Neo D; Rantala, Heidi; Romanuk, Tamara N; Stouffer, Daniel B; Tylianakis, Jason M

2012-12-01

61

“Functional foods compensate for an unhealthy lifestyle”. Some Swedish consumers’ impressions and perceived need of functional foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to explore some Swedish consumers’ impressions of and perceived need of functional foods. Data were collected through 10 focus groups. A total of 46 individuals participated (31 females, 18–75 years, and 16 males, 18–78 years). The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed by the use of content analysis. Uncertainties—e.g., if functional foods are

Eva Landström; Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti; Maria Magnusson

2009-01-01

62

Functional foods as carriers for SYNBIO®, a probiotic bacteria combination.  

PubMed

The popularity of functional foods continues to increase as consumers desire flavorful foods that will fulfil their health needs. Among these foods, probiotics may exert positive effects on the composition of gut microbiota and overall health. However, in order to be beneficial, the bacterial cultures have to remain live and active at the time of consumption. The aim of this study was to develop new probiotic food products, such as seasoned cheeses, salami, chocolate and ice-cream with a final probiotic concentration of approximately 10?CFU/daily dose of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® mixed 1:1 (SYNBIO®). The survival and viability of probiotics were determined during the foods shelf-life. The values of viable probiotic bacteria of all dairy and non-dairy foods were between 10? and 10?CFU/g of food at the end of the shelf-life and for some of them the values were maintained even after the expiry date. Based on the results of the current study, all the dairy ("Caciotta" cheese, "Pecorino" cheese, "Büscion" Swiss cheese and "Fiordilatte" ice-cream) and non-dairy ("Ciauscolo" salami, Larded salami, Swiss small salami, milk chocolate, dark chocolate, organic jam and chocolate mousse) food products studied would be excellent vehicles to deliver the probiotic health effects because of the high viability of probiotics during the shelf-life of foods and in some cases even after their expiry date. PMID:22727086

Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cecchini, Cinzia; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

2012-07-16

63

[Analysis and identification of illegal constituents in health food products implicitly advertizing tonic or slimming effect in the National Institute of Health Sciences in Japan].  

PubMed

With the prefectural governments' aid of the purchase, the Division of Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Narcotics, National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS) successively has surveyed illegal constituents in health food products implicitly advertizing tonic or slimming effect since the fiscal year of 2002 (slimming type) or 2003 (tonic type). The average numbers of the analyzed products per year are about 100 (slimming type) and 150 (tonic type), respectively. We also continuously distribute standards of authentic samples of several illegal components such as N-nitrosofenfluramine (NFF) and sildenafil (SIL) to prefectural institutes and the average gross number per year is about 140. In the case of slimming type, the fact that the products containing NFF were widely sold in Japanese markets in 2002 is well known. In addition, phenolphthalein, fenfluramine, sibtramine, desdimethylsibtramine, orlistat, mazindol, Rhubarb, Senna Leaf, etc. have been found as illegal constituents. In the tonic type products, we have identified more than 20 synthetic compounds relating to the erectile dysfunction (ED) treatment drugs, SIL, vardenafil and tadalafil (TDF). Since 2005, their synthetic intermediates and the patented but non-approved PDE5 inhibitors also have been found. It should be noted that TDF was found in the shells of capsule in 2009 and that mutaprodenafil was found as pro-drug type illegal component in 2010. In this report identification method of these illegal constituents is briefly described and then analytical trend in this decade is reviewed. PMID:24492223

Goda, Yukihiro

2014-01-01

64

Consumer response to functional foods produced by conventional, organic, or genetic manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agro-food industry is developing a “second generation” of genetically modified (GM) foods that can offer functional health benefits to consumers. Many consumers, however, are turning to organic foods in order to avoid GM foods. This report attempts to differentiate consumer valuation of functional health properties in conventional, organic, and GM foods. A representative sample of 1,008 Canadian household food

Bruno Larue; Gale E. West; Carole Gendron; Rémy Lambert

2004-01-01

65

Application of cereals and cereal components in functional foods: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food industry is directing new product development towards the area of functional foods and functional food ingredients due to consumers' demand for healthier foods. In this respect, probiotic dairy foods containing human-derived Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species and prebiotic food formulations containing ingredients that cannot be digested by the human host in the upper gastrointestinal tract and can selectively stimulate

D Charalampopoulos; R Wang; S. S Pandiella; C Webb

2002-01-01

66

Consumer issues and expectations for functional foods.  

PubMed

Preliminary consumer data have indicated that about 50% of American adults, especially in the older age groups, not only have read or heard about natural substances in foods that may help prevent chronic diseases, but they also believe that these substances really do work. The readiness of the marketplace for disease-preventing products, such as those that could deliver enhanced levels of antioxidants, raises many marketing and regulatory issues, but also some consumer issues as well. The following discussion frames the consumer issues that are important for the scientific, regulatory, and business community to understand and address so that substances with disease-preventing capabilities reach those who will truly benefit the most. PMID:7748476

Wrick, K L

1995-01-01

67

Origin and concept of medicine food homology and its application in modern functional foods.  

PubMed

The viewpoints of "medicine food homology" (MFH) conform to today's food requirements of returning to a natural and green healthy life. This paper aims to introduce the concept of MFH and its origin and evolution, and analyze the relationship between food and Chinese medicine. In this review, more than 80 MFH materials approved by China's Ministry of Health are listed and their effective ingredients are summarized in detail. Their treatment mechanism in TCM and western medicine are summarized too. Moreover, some new MFH resources that have been gradually developed are also introduced. MFH materials are a treasure house of functional factors for current functional foods. Innovative ideas for the development of MFH resources in current functional foods are prospected and discussed, such as taking advantage of Chinese diet theory, building a database for MFH varieties and developing new methods and technologies. At present, modern research for the development of MFH functional foods is still in its primary stage, there is still much work required in the popularization of the MFH concept and the development of new products. Knowledge and technological innovations in this area should be accelerated in the future to promote the modernization of MFH. PMID:24100549

Hou, Yan; Jiang, Jian-Guo

2013-12-01

68

Functional food concept and its application to prebiotics.  

PubMed

A food can be regarded as functional if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects, in a way which is relevant to either the state of wellbeing and health or the reduction of the risk of a disease. A food can be made functional by increasing the concentration, adding or improving the bioavailability of a particular component. Functional food science will serve to establish claims based either on enhanced function or disease risk reduction. Inulin and oligofructose are functional food ingredients present in miscellaneous edible plants. They are non-digestible oligosaccharides classified as dietary fibres. The target for their functional effects is the colonic microflora that ferment them and for which they serve as selective "fertilizers"; the gastrointestinal physiology; the immune functions; the bioavailability of minerals; the metabolism of lipids; and colonic carcinogenesis. The scientific data available on the nutritional effects of inulin and oligofructose provide strong evidence for a prebiotic effect (i.e., selective stimulation of growth of bifidobacteria in colonic microbiota), improvement of bowel habit (both stool frequency and stool weight) and improved calcium bioavailability. PMID:12408452

Roberfroid, M

2002-09-01

69

[Probiotics and prebiotics as a bioactive component of functional food].  

PubMed

The results of food science investigations have confirmed the relationship between the type of eaten food and health. Simultaneously, consumers are paying more and more attention to the kind of food they eat, as their awareness concerning the influence of proper food on health is increasing. On that base the conception of functional food has been created. This kind of food, besides being a source of essential macro- and micronutrients, exerts an additional positive influence on health. Probiotics and prebiotics containing products are a good example of functional food. These products provide not only essential nutrients but also microorganisms and polysaccharides, which are indigestible in the human alimentary tract, but exert a positive effect on human health. It may be a therapeutic or prophylactic effect due to specific affliction or may improve health in general. The paper - based on available literature - shows a positive influence of probiotics and prebiotics on human health, especially in the immunomodulation effect, an advantageous effect on the digestive system, antitumor activity and a possible therapeutic and prophylactic effect on cardiovascular diseases and obesity. PMID:22781886

Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Nied?wiecka, Joanna; Wojty?a, Andrzej; Kruszewski, Marcin

2012-01-01

70

The role of rabbit meat as functional food.  

PubMed

Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functional food ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functional foods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview of the studies performed on the strategies adopted to improve the functional value of rabbit meat. Dietary manipulation has been seen to be very effective in increasing the levels of essential FA, EPA, DHA, CLA, branched chain FA, vitamin E, and selenium in rabbit meat. Dietary fortification with vitamin E or natural products such as oregano essential oil, chia seed oil, and Spirulina platensis microalga seem promising in improving the oxidative stability of rabbit meat while also adding functional ingredients. PMID:21392894

Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Szendro, Zsolt

2011-07-01

71

Diabetes mellitus type 2 and functional foods of plant origin.  

PubMed

Diabetes is the common, exponentially growing, serious human health problem existing globally. Risk factors like genetic predisposition, lack of balanced diet, inappropriate and lethargic lifestyle, overweight, obesity, stress including emotional and oxidative and lack of probiotics in gut are found to be the causing factors either in isolation or in synergy predisposing Diabetes. High blood sugar is a common symptom in all types of diabetes mellitus and the physiological cause of diabetes is lack of hormone Insulin or resistance in function faced by insulin. Low levels of Insulin causes decreased utilization of glucose by body cells, increased mobilization of fats from fat storage cells and depletion of proteins in the tissues of the body, keeping the body in crisis. The functional foods help achieving optimal physiological metabolism and cellular functions helping the body to come out of these crises. The mechanism of the functional foods is envisaged to act via optimizing vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, prebiotics and probiotics. This paper reviews role of functional foods of plant origin in the regulation of blood sugar in type 2 diabetes mellitus and also discusses some vital patents in this area. The article aims at creating awareness about key food ingredients in order to prevent most acute effects of diabetes mellitus and to greatly delay the chronic effects as well. PMID:25185980

Pathak, Manju

2014-01-01

72

Cross-European and functional food related consumer segmentation for new product development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional Food emerged as a constant segment in the European food market and offer potential for product innovations which make them attractive for the food industry in nearly stagnating markets. Target group research is one key factor for successful innovative food products. The aim of this project was to develop and test a Functional Food related consumer segmentation model. For

Kai Sparke; Klaus Menrad

2006-01-01

73

Cross-European and Functional Food-Related Consumer Segmentation for New Product Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional Food emerged as a constant segment in the European food market and offers potential for product innovations that make it attractive for the food industry in nearly stagnating markets. Target group research is one key factor for successful innovative food products. The aim of this project was to develop and test a Functional Food-related consumer segmentation model. For this

Kai Sparke; Klaus Menrad

2009-01-01

74

Potential of prebiotics as functional foods – a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Optimum balance of intestinal microbiota can be modulated by such dietary means as probiotics and prebiotics. Combination of probiotics and prebiotics could improve the survivality of probiotic candidate due to availability of substrate for its fermentation and confer greater advantages to the host. The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential of prebiotics as functional foods.

S. Sarkar

2007-01-01

75

Exposure to Anacardiaceae volatile oils and their constituents induces lipid peroxidation within food-borne bacteria cells.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the volatile oils from five Anacardiaceae species and their activities against Gram positive and negative bacteria were assessed. The peroxidative damage within bacterial cell membranes was determined through the breakdown product malondialdehyde (MDA). The major constituents in Anacardium humile leaves oil were (E)-caryophyllene (31.0%) and ?-pinene (22.0%), and in Anacardium occidentale oil they were (E)-caryophyllene (15.4%) and germacrene-D (11.5%). Volatile oil from Astronium fraxinifolium leaves were dominated by (E)-?-ocimene (44.1%) and ?-terpinolene (15.2%), whilst the oil from Myracrodruon urundeuva contained an abundance of ?-3-carene (78.8%). However, Schinus terebinthifolius leaves oil collected in March and July presented different chemical compositions. The oils from all species, except the one from A. occidentale, exhibited varying levels of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Oil extracted in July from S. terebinthifolius was more active against all bacterial strains than the corresponding oil extracted in March. The high antibacterial activity of the M. urundeuva oil could be ascribed to its high ?-3-carene content. The amounts of MDA generated within bacterial cells indicate that the volatile oils induce lipid peroxidation. The results suggest that one putative mechanism of antibacterial action of these volatile oils is pro-oxidant damage within bacterial cell membrane explaining in part their preservative properties. PMID:22893019

Montanari, Ricardo M; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Demuner, Antonio J; Silva, Cleber J; Andrade, Nelio J; Ismail, Fyaz M D; Barbosa, Maria C A

2012-01-01

76

Preference for internucleotide linkages as a function of the number of constituents in a mixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phosphoimidazolide-activated ribomononucleotides (*pN; see Scheme I) are useful substrates for the nonenzymatic synthesis of oligonucleotides. In the presence of metal ions dilute neutral aqueous solutions of *pN (0.01 M) typically yield only small amounts of dimers and traces of oligomers; most of *pN hydrolyzes to yield nucleoside 5'-monophosphate (5'NMP). An earlier investigation of *pN reactions in highly concentrated aqueous solutions (up to 1.4 M) showed, as expected, that the percentage yield of the condensation products increases and the yield of the hydrolysis product correspondingly decreases with *pN concentration (Kanavarioti 1997). Here we report product distributions in reactions with one, two, or three reactive components at the same total nucleotide concentration. *pN used as substrates were the nucleoside 5'-phosphate 2-methylimidazolides, 2-MeImpN, with N = cytidine (C), uridine (U), or guanosine (G). Reactions were conducted as self-condensations, i. e., one nucleotide only, with two components in the three binary U,C, U,G, and C,G mixtures, and with three components in the ternary U,C, G mixture. The products are 5'NMP, 5',5'-pyrophosphate-, 2',5'-, 3', 5'-linked dimers, cyclic dimers, and a small percentage of longer oligomers. The surprising finding was that, under identical conditions, including the same total monomer concentration, the product distribution differs substantially from one reaction to another, most likely due to changing intermolecular interactions depending on the constituents. Even more unexpected was the observed trend according to which reactions of the U,C,G mixture produce the highest yield of internucleotide-linked dimers, whereas the self-condensations produce the least and the reactions with the binary mixtures produce yields that fall in between. What is remarkable is that the approximately two-fold increase in the percentage yield of internucleotide-linked dimers is not due to a concentration effect or a catalyst, but to the increased complexity of the system from a single to two and three components. These observations, perhaps, provide an example of how increased complexity in relatively simple chemical systems leads to organization of the material and consequently to chemical evolution. A possible link between prebiotic chemistry and the postulated RNA world is discussed.

Kanavarioti, A.

1998-01-01

77

Functional foods and urban agriculture: two responses to climate change-related food insecurity.  

PubMed

Affluent diets have negative effects on the health of the population and the environment. Moreover, the ability of industrialised agricultural ecosystems to continue to supply these diets is threatened by the anticipated consequences of climate change. By challenging the ongoing supply the diets of affluent countries, climate change provides a population and environmental health opportunity. This paper contrasts two strategies for dealing with climate change-related food insecurity. Functional foods are being positioned as one response because they are considered a hyper-efficient mechanism for supplying essential micronutrients. An alternative response is civic and urban agriculture. Rather than emphasising increased economic or nutritional efficiencies, civic agriculture presents a holistic approach to food security that is more directly connected to the economic, environmental and social factors that affect diet and health. PMID:19261211

Dixon, Jane M; Donati, Kelly J; Pike, Lucy L; Hattersley, Libby

2009-01-01

78

Germinated grains: a superior whole grain functional food?  

PubMed

Grains are global dietary staples that when consumed in whole grain form, offer considerable health benefits compared with milled grain foods, including reduced body weight gain and reduced cardiovascular and diabetes risks. Dietary patterns, functional foods, and other lifestyle factors play a fundamental role in the development and management of epidemic lifestyle diseases that share risks of developing adverse metabolic outcomes, including hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Whole grains provide energy, nutrients, fibres, and bioactive compounds that may synergistically contribute to their protective effects. Despite their benefits, the intake of grains appears to be lower than recommended in many countries. Of emerging interest is the application of germination processes, which may significantly enhance the nutritional and bioactive content of grains, as well as improve palatability. Enhancing grain foods in a natural way using germination techniques may therefore offer a practical, natural, dietary intervention to increase the health benefits and acceptability of whole grains, with potentially widespread effects across populations in attenuating adverse lifestyle disease outcomes. Continuing to build on the growing body of in-vitro studies requires substantiation with extended in-vivo trials so that we may further develop our understanding of the potential of germinated grains as a functional food. PMID:23746040

Nelson, Kristina; Stojanovska, Lily; Vasiljevic, Todor; Mathai, Michael

2013-06-01

79

Design considerations on the proof of efficacy of functional foods.  

PubMed

Functional food research encompasses several types of study designs, including observational studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Markers that can predict potential benefits or risks relating to certain health conditions are often the primary endpoints of such studies since a direct measurement of the effect of food on health and well-being and/or reduction of disease risk is often not possible. Whether RCT should be at the top of the pyramid also in nutritional research remains a controversial issue. Undoubtedly, further research is needed to redesign RCT methodology that would adequately serve the need to demonstrate the health effects of foods. We address this functional food research question by assuming that there is a known relationship between the surrogate and the true endpoint explored during the surrogacy assessment. Statistical inference on the true (unobserved) endpoint is derived on the basis of its predicted values. We illustrate this approach through a motivating example from the literature on coronary heart disease, integrated with simulated scenarios. PMID:21942855

Baldi, Ileana; Gregori, Dario

2012-03-01

80

Linkages between microbial functional potential and wastewater constituents in large-scale membrane bioreactors for municipal wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Large-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have been widely used for the municipal wastewater treatment, whose performance relies on microbial communities of activated sludge. Nevertheless, microbial functional structures in MBRs remain little understood. To gain insight into functional genes and their steering environmental factors, we adopted GeoChip, a high-throughput microarray-based tool, to examine microbial genes in four large-scale, in-operation MBRs located in Beijing, China. The results revealed substantial microbial gene heterogeneity (43.7-85.1% overlaps) among different MBRs. Mantel tests indicated that microbial nutrient cycling genes were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated to influent COD, [Formula: see text] -N, TP or sulfate, which signified the importance of microbial mediation of wastewater constituent removal. In addition, functional genes shared by all four MBRs contained a large number of genes involved in antibiotics resistance, metal resistance and organic remediation, suggesting that they were required for degradation or resistance to toxic compounds in wastewater. The linkages between microbial functional structures and environmental variables were also unveiled by the finding of hydraulic retention time, influent COD, [Formula: see text] -N, mixed liquid temperature and humic substances as major factors shaping microbial communities. Together, the results presented demonstrate the utility of GeoChip-based microarray approach in examining microbial communities of wastewater treatment plants and provide insights into the forces driving important processes of element cycling. PMID:24675272

Sun, Yanmei; Shen, Yue-xiao; Liang, Peng; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng; Huang, Xia

2014-06-01

81

Functional food and diabetes: a natural way in diabetes prevention?  

PubMed

Diabetes shows a wide range of variation in prevalence around the world and it is expected to affect 300 million by the year 2025. In a prevention framework where banning policies and educational strategies lead the interventions, functional foods (FFs) with their specific health effects could, in the future, indicate a new mode of thinking about the relationships between food and health in everyday life. Functional ingredients, such as stevioside, cinnamon, bitter melon, garlic and onion, ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre and fenugreek, have been addressed for their specific actions towards different reactions involved in diabetes development. New strategies involving the use of FF should be validated through large-scale population trials, considering validated surrogate end points to evaluate the effect of FF in prevention of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22107597

Ballali, Simonetta; Lanciai, Federico

2012-03-01

82

Design management of functional foods for quality of life improvement.  

PubMed

The paper examines the benefit of bread enriched with antioxidants on oxidative stress, and on the quantities of hydrosoluble antioxidants in a group of human subjects. The home-management of functional foods strategy seeks to improve prompt and effective basic nutrition using additional attributes that are directly positively beneficial for health and well-being. The purpose of this clinical study was to test the tolerance and benefits of multicomponent functional foods enriched with antioxidant compounds obtained from plant extracts on healthy adult volunteers. A detailed protocol was created to formalize and standardize the procedures for data collection, e.g. filling out standardized forms and functional diet questionnaires. For the research method, Group A was given the special diet enriched with multicomponent antioxidant foods and Group B (control). The data were analysed using the quantitative methods. They showed significant increase of hydrosoluble antioxidants in group A compared to control, from 220.61+/-27.92 - 313.56+/-37.09 micrograms/mL (p=0.05), compared to 280.47+/-32.1 - 238.27+/-44.93 micrograms/mL (p=0.45). Also, oxidative stress values showed a decrease in the diet group compared to control that reached statistical significance. Oxidative stress decreased in the diet group to 244 +/- 89 compared to 308+/-108 UFORT in the control group. The responses of the prevention of chronic diseases to a functional foods strategy depend on how they are absorbed and utilized in the body. An anti-oxidant diet with natural bioactive components could become an interesting solution for degenerative disorders in which oxidative stress is increased. PMID:24364445

Butnariu, Monica; Caunii, Angela

2013-01-01

83

Japanese Consumers’ Valuation of Genetically Modified Functional Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent food safety scares have increased Japanese consumers’ concerns for food safety and Genetically Modified (GM) foods as they perceive the uncertainty associated with GM foods as potential risk. However, this risk perception can be considerably reduced as the consumers observe or experience the benefits of GM foods directly. Technical advancement in GM food development and manufacturing has led to

Renee B Kim

2009-01-01

84

Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health.  

PubMed

Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria and their environmental interactions. Moreover, functional genomics approaches have been used to understand the response of lactic acid bacteria to their environment. The results have been instrumental in understanding the adaptation of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal and industrial food fermentations as well as their interactions with the human host. Collectively, this has led to a detailed analysis of genes involved in colonization, persistence, interaction and signaling towards to the human host and its health. Finally, massive parallel genome re-sequencing has provided new opportunities in applied genomics, specifically in the characterization of novel non-GMO strains that have potential to be used in the food industry. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art of these functional genomics approaches and their impact in understanding, applying and designing lactic acid bacteria for food and health. PMID:25186768

Douillard, François P; de Vos, Willem M

2014-08-29

85

Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health  

PubMed Central

Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria and their environmental interactions. Moreover, functional genomics approaches have been used to understand the response of lactic acid bacteria to their environment. The results have been instrumental in understanding the adaptation of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal and industrial food fermentations as well as their interactions with the human host. Collectively, this has led to a detailed analysis of genes involved in colonization, persistence, interaction and signaling towards to the human host and its health. Finally, massive parallel genome re-sequencing has provided new opportunities in applied genomics, specifically in the characterization of novel non-GMO strains that have potential to be used in the food industry. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art of these functional genomics approaches and their impact in understanding, applying and designing lactic acid bacteria for food and health. PMID:25186768

2014-01-01

86

Demographic and lifestyle characteristics of functional food consumers and dietary supplement users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional foods and\\/or supplements may be used in the context of a healthy lifestyle or as a means to compensate for an unhealthy lifestyle. Adverse long-term and\\/or cumulative effects of functional food or supplement intake are of public health concern; it is therefore important to identify functional food and supplement users. The present study compared Dutch functional food and supplement

Nynke de Jong; Marga C. Ocké; Hester A. C. Branderhorst; Roland Friele

2003-01-01

87

From functional food to medicinal product: Systematic approach in analysis of polyphenolics from propolis and wine  

PubMed Central

In the last decade we have been working on standardization of propolis extract and determination of active constituents of wine those are rich in polyphenolics and have nutritional as well as therapeutic value. Here we are summarizing our results and providing overview on systematic approach how to analyse natural products rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids. Chromatographic methods (thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography) were used for identification, quantification, and characterization of individual flavonoid or phenolic acid. Total content of active constituents and antioxidant activity were determined by spectrophotometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and using appropriate software. Quantitative structure-activity relationship study of antioxidant activity was conducted, as well as assessment of prolonged propolis supplementation on antioxidative status of organism. Thin layer chromatography-densitometry has been proven as quick and reliable method for standard analysis of propolis and wine; the best mobile phase being chloroform – methanol – formic acid (98–100%) in ratio 44 : 3.5 : 2.5 (v/v). Higher number of polyphenolics was determined by high performance liquid chromatography; 15 compared to 9 by thin layer chromatography. Interactions in situ with acetylsalicylic acid were detected with most of polyphenolics analysed. Plasma protein binding and blood-barrier penetration was greatest for flavone. The interactions with human serum albumin have been grater than 95% for all flavonoids analysed. The prolonged propolis consumption increased superoxide dismutase activity. The necessity of standardization of natural products and their registration as functional nutraceuticals demand easy, quick and inexpensive methods of analysis. In this work we provided overview of analytical part for polyphenolics that could be used as data for possible registration of final products either as functional food or medicinal product. This feature introduces the readers to the authors' research through a concise overview of the selected topic. Reference to important work from others in the field is included. PMID:19624827

Medic-Saric, Marica; Rastija, Vesna; Bojic, Mirza; Males, Zeljan

2009-01-01

88

Functional Foods Programs Serve as a Vehicle to Provide Nutrition Education to Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increase in consumer interest in functional foods provides an opportunity for FCS educators to use this topic in Extension programming to promote current nutrition recommendations. The Functional Foods for Life Educational Programs (FFL) are a curriculum of six evidence-based mini-seminars that highlight specific functional foods that have the…

Cirignano, Sherri M.

2011-01-01

89

Consumers' willingness to buy functional foods. The influence of carrier, benefit and trust.  

PubMed

The goal of the present study was to examine factors that influence willingness to buy functional foods. Data were collected from a representative mail survey in Switzerland (n=249). Results suggest that consumers are more inclined to buy functional foods with physiological health claims compared with psychological health claims. Health claims were most positively evaluated when attached to a product with a positive health image. Results further show that participants who have trust in the food industry are more likely to buy functional foods compared with participants who do not have trust in the food industry. Older consumers were more interested in functional foods than younger consumers. PMID:18479781

Siegrist, Michael; Stampfli, Nathalie; Kastenholz, Hans

2008-11-01

90

EFFECT OF OIL COMBUSTION PARTICLE BIOAVAILABLE CONSTITUENTS ON EX VIVO VASCULAR FUNCTION OF AORTAS RECOVERED FROM NORMAL AND TYPE 2 DIABETIC RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Effect of Oil Combustion Particle Bioavailable Constituents on Ex Vivo Vascular Function of Aortae Recovered from Healthy and Early Type 2 Diabetic Rats KL Dreher1, SE Kelly2, SD Proctor2, and JC Russell2. 1National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, US EPA, RTP, NC;...

91

The multiple functions of the endocannabinoid system: a focus on the regulation of food intake  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabis sativa (also known as marijuana) has been cultivated by man for more than 5,000 years. However, there was a rise in its use in the 20th century for recreational, religious or spiritual, and medicinal purposes. The main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, whose structure was identified in the 1960's, is ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol. On the other hand, the discovery of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous agonists took place only very recently. In fact, the first cannabinoid receptor (CB1) was cloned in 1990, followed 3 years later by the characterization of a second cannabinoid receptor (CB2). Since the 19th century, the use of cannabis has been reported to stimulate appetite and increase the consumption of sweet and tasty food, sometimes resulting in significant weight gain. The recent description of the endocannabinoid system, not only in the central nervous system but also in peripheral tissues, points to its involvement in the regulation of appetite, food intake and energy metabolism. Consequently, the pharmacological modulation of the over-activity of this system could be useful in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The endocannabinoid system has important physiological functions not only in the central nervous system but also in peripheral tissues. The activation of central CB1 receptors, particularly in hypothalamic nuclei and in the limbic system, is involved in the regulation of feeding behavior, and especially in the control of the intake of palatable food. In the periphery, cannabinoid receptors are present in adipocytes, skeletal muscle, gastrointestinal tract and liver, modulating energy metabolism. PMID:20180990

2010-01-01

92

Effects of soy foods on ovarian function in premenopausal women.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that the high intake of soy foods among Asians may partly explain their lower rates of breast cancer, perhaps by lowering endogenous oestrogen levels, although this has been inadequately studied. Twenty healthy cycling premenopausal women (ten Asians and ten non-Asians) participated in a 7-month soy intervention study which was designed to investigate the effect of supplementation on ovarian function. Asian soy foods (tofu, soymilk, green soybean peas) in the amount of approximately 32 mg of isoflavones per day were added to the women's diets for three menstrual cycles. The women's baseline (two cycles) serum hormone levels were compared to levels during soy intervention (three cycles) and levels after intervention (two cycles). During the entire study period, subjects provided almost daily overnight urine samples and blood specimens during specified days of their menstrual cycles. The day of urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) peak was used as a marker for the day of ovulation. Knowledge of day of ovulation allowed comparison of hormone measurements at baseline to those obtained during intervention and recovery cycles with standardization of day of cycle. Soy intervention was associated with a statistically significant reduction in serum luteal oestradiol level (-9.3%, P < 0.05), but there were no significant changes in follicular phase oestradiol, follicular or luteal phase progesterone, sex hormone-binding globulin or menstrual cycle length. This significant reduction in luteal phase oestradiol was, however, observed only among Asian (-17.4%) but not among non-Asian (-1.2%) participants; urinary excretion of isoflavones was higher among Asians than non-Asians (29.2 vs 17.1 micromol day(-1), P= 0.16) during the intervention period. Thus, supplementation using traditional soy foods reduced serum oestradiol levels among Asian participants in this study. Differences in the type of soy products (i.e. traditional soy foods versus soy protein products), amount of isoflavones, and race/ethnicity of participants may have contributed to the divergent results. Larger soy intervention studies designed specifically to include participants of different race/ethnicities and using both traditional soy foods and soy protein products providing comparable doses of isoflavones are needed to definitively determine the effect of soy on ovarian function. PMID:10839307

Wu, A H; Stanczyk, F Z; Hendrich, S; Murphy, P A; Zhang, C; Wan, P; Pike, M C

2000-06-01

93

Consumer-food systems: why type I functional responses are exclusive to filter feeders  

E-print Network

a negligibly small handling time (i.e. the time needed for capturing and eating a food item), or it must be able to search for and to capture food while handling other food. Second, the satiation conditionConsumer-food systems: why type I functional responses are exclusive to filter feeders Jonathan M

Hermisson, Joachim

94

A proposal for the establishment of scientific criteria for health claims for functional foods.  

PubMed

Functional foods are defined and used differently in different nations. Health claims for these foods influence consumer behavior and potentially affect public health. In an increasingly global economy, health claims for functional foods should meet internationally agreed upon scientific criteria. The concept of health claims as it exists internationally is discussed, and suggestions to assist consumers, government, industry, and academia in deciding on a scientific and ethical basis for international agreement on health claims for functional foods are offered. PMID:9433097

Clydesdale, F M

1997-12-01

95

Functional Foods: A Survey of Health Claims, Pros and Cons, and Current Legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional foods stand for a new category of remarkably promising foods bearing properties (i.e., low cholesterol, antioxidant, anti-aging, anticancer, etc.) that have already rendered them quite appealing. There are many classes of functional foods (pro- and pre-biotics, dietary fiber, low fat, etc.), and their definition is occasionally confused with that of nutraceuticals and novel foods. Consumers' main skepticism regarding functional

Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis; Maria Van Houwelingen-Koukaliaroglou

2005-01-01

96

RECREATIONAL CONSTITUENTS  

E-print Network

.S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Fisheries Service NOAA-F/SPO-141 March 2014 U.S. Department of Commerce Penny Pritzker, Secretary of Commerce National OceanicRECREATIONAL FISHERIES CONSTITUENTS ECONOMICS WORKSHOP Photo credit: Will Satterthwaite U

97

Executive function and food approach behavior in middle childhood  

PubMed Central

Executive function (EF) has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating “hot” affective and “cool” cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation of eating behavior. So far, however, the links between EF and eating behavior have rarely been investigated in children and non-clinical populations. First, we examined whether EF can be divided into hot and cool factors or whether they actually correspond to a unitary construct in middle childhood. Second, we examined how hot and cool EF are associated with different eating styles that put children at risk of becoming overweight during development. Hot and cool EF were assessed experimentally in a non-clinical population of 1657 elementary-school children (aged 6–11 years). The “food approach” behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires. Findings indicate that hot EF is distinguishable from cool EF. However, only cool EF seems to represent a coherent functional entity, whereas hot EF does not seem to be a homogenous construct. This was true for a younger and an older subgroup of children. Furthermore, different EF components were correlated with eating styles, such as responsiveness to food, desire to drink, and restrained eating in girls but not in boys. This shows that lower levels of EF are not only seen in clinical populations of obese patients but are already associated with food approach styles in a normal population of elementary school-aged girls. Although the direction of effect still has to be clarified, results point to the possibility that EF constitutes a risk factor for eating styles contributing to the development of overweight in the long-term. PMID:24904466

Groppe, Karoline; Elsner, Birgit

2014-01-01

98

Introduce Freshness Estimate Function into Cooling System of Foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cooling system controlled by the freshness estimate function to freshly store foods,was examined. To drive the freshness estimate expression,an experiment on storage of tuna was made and the following results were obtained. 1) Ratio of weight to initial weight,yield,was greatly influenced by conditions of humidity and velocity of air. 2) K value was not influenced by conditions of air velocity under 95-75% humidity and 0 -1m/s air velocity. 3) Change of color was influenced by conditions of humidity and velocity of air. So using weight of evaporated water in tuna as a function,relative expression of humidity and velocity of air for saving weight loss of tuna was induced.

Ishikawa, Makiko; Matsuoka, Fumio; Sugimoto, Takeshi

99

CONSUMER UNDERSTANDING AND USE OF HEALTH INFORMATION ON PRODUCT LABELS: MARKETING IMPLICATIONS FOR FUNCTIONAL FOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the numbers of functional foods being developed and subjected to scientific evaluation have increased substantially. The main characteristic of functional foods that distinguishes them from conventional foods is the potential health benefit, which can be considered to be a credence attribute of product quality. Because this characteristic cannot be easily assessed even after consumption, an asymmetric information

Ratapol P. Teratanavat; Neal H. Hooker; Curtis P. Haugtvedt; Derek D. Rucker

2004-01-01

100

Selected Functional Foods for Potential in Diseases Treatment and their Regulatory Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant association between diet and human health broaden the consumer concept to look at food not only for its basic nutrition but also for allied health benefits. Nevertheless, a large segment of population is still reluctant to buy functional foods due to ambiguities related to their health claims. This review highlighted the role of functional foods against various physiological

Masood Sadiq Butt; M. Tauseef Sultan

2011-01-01

101

Addressing the food crisis: governance, market functioning, and investment in public goods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2007–08 food price crisis has not only increased food insecurity around the globe, but also exposed long-term failures\\u000a in the functioning of the world food system. Establishing a global governance architecture for governing food, nutrition,\\u000a and agriculture as well as improving market functioning and increasing investment in public goods will be critical for the\\u000a way forward. Three high-priority policy

Joachim von Braun

2009-01-01

102

Potential application of pectinase in developing functional foods.  

PubMed

The understanding that enzymatic degradation of fruit pectin can clarify juices and improve juice yields resulted in the search for microbial pectinases and application in vegetable- and fruit-processing industries. Identified enzymes were classified on the basis of their catalytic activity to pectin or its derivatives and in terms of industrial use. Discovery of gene sequences that coded the enzymes, protein engineering, and molecular biology tools resulted in defined microbial strains that over-produced the enzymes for cost-effective technologies. Recent perspectives on the use of pectin and its derivatives as dietary fibers suggest enzymatic synthesis of the right oligomers from pectin for use in human nutrition. While summarizing the activities of pectin-degrading enzymes, their industrial applications, and gene sources, this review projects another application for pectinases, which is the use of enzymatically derived pectin moieties in functional food preparation. PMID:23190142

Khan, Mahejibin; Nakkeeran, Ekambaram; Umesh-Kumar, Sukumaran

2013-01-01

103

Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health  

PubMed Central

In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward the field of free radical chemistry. Free radicals reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are generated by our body by various endogenous systems, exposure to different physiochemical conditions or pathological states. A balance between free radicals and antioxidants is necessary for proper physiological function. If free radicals overwhelm the body's ability to regulate them, a condition known as oxidative stress ensues. Free radicals thus adversely alter lipids, proteins, and DNA and trigger a number of human diseases. Hence application of external source of antioxidants can assist in coping this oxidative stress. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole have recently been reported to be dangerous for human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with antioxidative activity has been intensified in recent years. The present review provides a brief overview on oxidative stress mediated cellular damages and role of dietary antioxidants as functional foods in the management of human diseases. PMID:22228951

Lobo, V.; Patil, A.; Phatak, A.; Chandra, N.

2010-01-01

104

Phenolic Antioxidant Biosynthesis in Plants for Functional Food Application: Integration of Systems Biology and Biotechnological Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are applying a dynamic systems biology approach to the development of several phenolic phytochemicals in food-grade plants as ingredients for functional food applications. Phenolic antioxidant phytochemicals from food-grade plants will be an important part of a healthy diet in a global population that is projected to reach 9 billion in the next 50 years. Such phytochemicals are being targeted

Kalidas Shetty; Patrick McCue

2003-01-01

105

Stability of plant sterols in ingredients used in functional foods.  

PubMed

The content of plant sterol (PS) and their oxidation products (POPs) in eight ingredients used to enrich functional foods was studied. A gas chromatographic (GC) technique with mass-spectrometric detection was used for identification, while GC with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was used for quantification. ?-Sitosterol was the most abundant phytosterol, and the main POPs found were derived from this compound (7?/?-hydroxysitosterol, 7-ketositosterol, and sitostanetriol). The total amount of POPs found in the ingredients ranged from 29.03 to 110.02 ?g/100 g PS. The ?-sitosterol oxidation rates ranged from 10 to 50 ?g ?-sitosterol oxides/100 g of ?-sitosterol. In view of this low rate of oxidation in the ingredients tested, it can be concluded that the PS remain stable in these ingredients. Significant correlations (p < 0.01) were found between total oxysitosterols versus ?-sitosterol contents (R(2) = 86.5%) and between total POPs and total PS (R(2) = 81.6%). PMID:21395311

González-Larena, Marina; García-Llatas, Guadalupe; Vidal, M Carmen; Sánchez-Siles, Luis Manuel; Barberá, Reyes; Lagarda, María Jesús

2011-04-27

106

The Use of Health Functional Foods in Gastrointestinal Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

As an adjunct to cancer treatment, the use of health functional foods (HFFs) seems to be increasing. However, little is known for the use of HFFs among cancer patients in Korea. The aims of this study were to investigate the exposure rate of HFF use among gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients and to examine the relationship of socio-demographic and disease-related characteristics with the use of HFFs. A total of 126 patients diagnosed with GI cancer participated in the study. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a questionnaire. Over a half of all the patients surveyed (n = 67; 53.2%) used HFFs. Patients who were younger, had higher income, or longer duration of disease showed a trend to use HFFs more frequently, even though the tendency was not statistically significant. The most commonly used HFF was vitamin complex (n = 20; 16%), followed by red ginseng (n = 15; 12%), and sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) (n = 11; 8.8%). About 26% of all responders expressed concerns for using HFFs. The primary concern was 'going against physician's recommendations' (36.8%). About 63% of respondents expressed a desire to consult with their physicians and follow their recommendations. More basic scientific data and educational materials regarding HFFs are required for both health-care professionals and cancer patients. A larger sample and size-controlled groups representing each cancer type will continue to be recruited for participation in this survey. PMID:23429665

Kang, Hwa Pyoung; Lee, Hosun; Oh, Tak Geun; Lee, Kyong Joo; Park, Soo Jung; Kim, Seung Up; Lee, Hyuk; Park, Jun Chul; Hong, Sung Pil; Park, Jun Yong; Park, Jeong Youp; Bang, Seungmin; Kim, Do Young; Cheon, Jae Hee; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Tae Il; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young

2013-01-01

107

Consumer attitudes toward GM food with hypothetical functional characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since their introduction in the early 1990s, genetically modified organisms in agriculture tended to emphasize improved yield. Europeans, perceiving unacceptable risk and too little benefit, resoundingly disapproved of GMO use in agro-food processes. More recently, research has turned to developing products that use GMO components that better match consumer interest, including nutritionally enhanced foods, environmentally friendly crops, and other areas.

Floriana Marin; Sandra Notaro

2007-01-01

108

Sorghum Functionality as a Superhealthfood NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCE  

E-print Network

-inflammatory responses in human cell lines. Gluten Intolerance · Sorghum is a popular food choice among those with celiac disease, as an inexpen- sive healthy ingredient for a wide variety of foods enjoyed by gluten@tamu.edu Antioxidant levels in sorghum and wheat bran compared to fruits Different kinds of sorghum Gluten-free sorghum

109

Firm, market, and regulatory factors influencing innovation and commercialization in Canada's functional food and nutraceutical sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors influencing the development and commercialization of functional food and nutraceutical (FFN) products are explored. Count data models are developed to relate firm, market, and regulatory covariates to the number of FFN product lines firms have under development, on the market, and in total. Canadian firm-level innovation data were taken from Statistics Canada (2003) Functional Food and Nutraceutical Survey. Firms

Deepananda Herath; John Cranfield; Spencer Henson; David Sparling

2008-01-01

110

Structural Design Principles for Delivery of Bioactive Components in Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been major advances in the design and fabrication of structured delivery systems for the encapsulation of nutraceutical and functional food components. A wide variety of delivery systems is now available, each with its own advantages and disadvantages for particular applications. This review begins by discussing some of the major nutraceutical and functional food components that need to be

David Julian McClements; Eric Andrew Decker; Jochen Weiss

2009-01-01

111

European regulations on nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and functional foods: a framework based on safety.  

PubMed

This article describes the legislation that is relevant in the marketing of functional foods in the European Union (EU), how this legislation was developed as well as some practical consequences for manufacturers, marketers and consumers. It also addresses some concrete examples of how the EU's safety requirements for food products have impacted a range of product categories. In the late nineties, research into functional ingredients was showing promising prospects for the use of such ingredients in foodstuffs. Due mainly to safety concerns, these new scientific developments were accompanied by an urgent call for legislation. The European Commission 2000 White Paper on Food Safety announced some 80 proposals for new and improved legislation in this field. Among others, it foresaw the establishment of a General Food Law Regulation, laying down the principles of food law and the creation of an independent Food Authority endowed with the task of giving scientific advice on issues based upon scientific risk assessment with clearly separated responsibilities for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. Since then, more than 90% of the White Paper proposals have been implemented. However, there is not, as such, a regulatory framework for 'functional foods' or 'nutraceuticals' in EU Food Law. The rules to be applied are numerous and depend on the nature of the foodstuff. The rules of the general food law Regulation are applicable to all foods. In addition, legislation on dietetic foods, on food supplements or on novel foods may also be applicable to functional foods depending on the nature of the product and on their use. Finally, the two proposals on nutrition and health claims and on the addition of vitamins and minerals and other substances to foods, which are currently in the legislative process, will also be an important factor in the future marketing of 'nutraceuticals' in Europe. The cornerstone of EU legislation on food products, including functional foods and nutraceuticals is 'safety'. Decisions on the safety-basis of legislation are based on risk analysis, in which scientific risk assessment is performed by the European Food Safety Authority and risk management is performed by the European Commission, the Member States, and in case of legislation, together with the European Parliament. In the risk management phase, both the precautionary principle and other legitimate factors may be considered in choosing the best way of dealing with an issue. Due to the numerous pieces of legislation applying and to the different procedures to be followed, the process of having 'functional foods' ready for the market is certainly a costly and time-consuming task. However, it may also be clearly worth it in terms of market success and improved consumer health. PMID:16469424

Coppens, Patrick; da Silva, Miguel Fernandes; Pettman, Simon

2006-04-01

112

Functional properties of whey protein and its application in nanocomposite materials and functional foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whey is a byproduct of cheese making; whey proteins are globular proteins which can be modified and polymerized to add functional benefits, these benefits can be both nutritional and structural in foods. Modified proteins can be used in non-foods, being of particular interest in polymer films and coatings. Food packaging materials, including plastics, can linings, interior coatings of paper containers, and beverage cap sealing materials, are generally made of synthetic petroleum based compounds. These synthetic materials may pose a potential human health risk due to presence of certain chemicals such as Bisphenol A (BPA). They also add to environmental pollution, being difficult to degrade. Protein-based materials do not have the same issues as synthetics and so can be used as alternatives in many packaging types. As proteins are generally hydrophilic they must be modified structurally and their performance enhanced by the addition of waterproofing agents. Polymerization of whey proteins results in a network, adding both strength and flexibility. The most interesting of the food-safe waterproofing agents are the (large aspect ratio) nanoclays. Nanoclays are relatively inexpensive, widely available and have low environmental impact. The clay surface can be modified to make it organophilic and so compatible with organic polymers. The objective of this study is the use of polymerized whey protein (PWP), with reinforcing nanoclays, to produce flexible surface coatings which limit the transfer of contents while maintaining food safety. Four smectite and kaolin type clays, one treated and three natural were assessed for strengthening qualities and the potential waterproofing and plasticizing benefits of other additives were also analyzed. The nutritional benefits of whey proteins can also be used to enhance the protein content of various foodstuffs. Drinkable yogurt is a popular beverage in the US and other countries and is considered a functional food, especially when produced with probiotic bacteria. Carbonation was applied to a drinkable yogurt to enhance its benefits. This process helps reduce the oxygen levels in the foodstuff thus potentially being advantageous to the microaerophilic probiotic bacteria while simultaneously producing a product, somewhat similar to kefir, which has the potential to fill a niche in the functional foods market. Yogurt was combined with a syrup to reduce its viscosity, making it drinkable, and also to allow infusion of CO2. This dilution reduced the protein content of the drink and so whey protein concentrate was added to increase levels in the final product. High-methoxyl pectins were used to provide stability by reducing the tendency of the proteins to sediment out. The objectives of this study were to develop a manufacturing technology for drinkable carbonated symbiotic yogurts, and to evaluate their physicochemical properties. Two flavors of yogurt drink, pomegranate and vanilla, were formulated containing inulin as prebiotic, along with probiotic bacteria, producing symbiotic dairy beverages.

Walsh, Helen

113

A study of consumers' perceptions and prediction of consumption patterns for generic health functional foods  

PubMed Central

The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) revised the Health Functional Food Act in 2008 and extended the form of health functional foods to general food types. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate consumers' perceptions of the expanded form of health functional food and to predict consumption patterns. For this study, 1,006 male and female adults aged 19 years and older were selected nationwide by multi-stage stratified random sampling and were surveyed in 1:1 interviews. The questionnaire survey was conducted by Korea Gallup. The subjects consisted of 497 (49.4%) males and 509 (50.6%) females. About 57.9% of the subjects recognized the KFDA's permission procedures for health functional foods. Regarding the health functional foods that the subjects had consumed, red ginseng products were the highest (45.3%), followed by nutritional supplements (34.9%), ginseng products (27.9%), lactobacillus-containing products (21.0%), aloe products (20.3%), and Japanese apricot extract products (18.4%). Opinions on expanding the form of health functional foods to general food types scored 4.7 points on a 7-point scale, showing positive responses. In terms of the effects of medicine-type health functional foods versus generic health functional foods, the highest response was 'same effects if the same ingredients are contained' at a rate of 34.7%. For intake frequency by food type, the response of 'daily consistent intake' was 31.7% for capsules, tablets, and pills, and 21.7% for extracts. For general food types, 'daily consistent intake' was 44.5% for rice and 22.8% for beverages, which were higher rates than those for medicine types. From the above results, consumers had positive opinions of the expansion of health functional foods to generic forms but are not expected to maintain accurate intake frequencies or amounts. Thus, continuous promotion and education are needed for proper intake of generic health functional foods. PMID:21994526

Kang, Nam E; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Yeon Kyoung; Lee, Hye Young

2011-01-01

114

A study of consumers' perceptions and prediction of consumption patterns for generic health functional foods.  

PubMed

The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) revised the Health Functional Food Act in 2008 and extended the form of health functional foods to general food types. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate consumers' perceptions of the expanded form of health functional food and to predict consumption patterns. For this study, 1,006 male and female adults aged 19 years and older were selected nationwide by multi-stage stratified random sampling and were surveyed in 1:1 interviews. The questionnaire survey was conducted by Korea Gallup. The subjects consisted of 497 (49.4%) males and 509 (50.6%) females. About 57.9% of the subjects recognized the KFDA's permission procedures for health functional foods. Regarding the health functional foods that the subjects had consumed, red ginseng products were the highest (45.3%), followed by nutritional supplements (34.9%), ginseng products (27.9%), lactobacillus-containing products (21.0%), aloe products (20.3%), and Japanese apricot extract products (18.4%). Opinions on expanding the form of health functional foods to general food types scored 4.7 points on a 7-point scale, showing positive responses. In terms of the effects of medicine-type health functional foods versus generic health functional foods, the highest response was 'same effects if the same ingredients are contained' at a rate of 34.7%. For intake frequency by food type, the response of 'daily consistent intake' was 31.7% for capsules, tablets, and pills, and 21.7% for extracts. For general food types, 'daily consistent intake' was 44.5% for rice and 22.8% for beverages, which were higher rates than those for medicine types. From the above results, consumers had positive opinions of the expansion of health functional foods to generic forms but are not expected to maintain accurate intake frequencies or amounts. Thus, continuous promotion and education are needed for proper intake of generic health functional foods. PMID:21994526

Kang, Nam E; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Yeon Kyoung; Lee, Hye Young; Kim, Woo Kyoung

2011-08-01

115

Structure-function relationships in soft tissue mechanics: Examining how the micro-scale architecture of biochemical constituents effects health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Countless debilitating pathologies exhibit symptoms that result from altered mechanical behavior of soft tissue. Therefore, it is of clinical and economic importance to mechanically evaluate soft tissues and attribute degenerative changes to alterations in structural constituents. The studies presented here focus on the annulus fibrosus and the sclera. Failure in these tissues is common and catastrophic. The annulus fibrosus may fail, resulting in herniation and nerve impingement, or the disc may degenerate over time, resulting in reduced mobility and pain. Similarly, the sclera may degenerate over time with intraocular pressure spurring creep behavior that distends the eye beyond its ideal shape. This causes myopic vision and puts patients at risk of macular degeneration and retinal detachment. These two tissues share a common structural role as the outer wall of a pressure vessel. Also, they are made of strikingly similar constituents, primarily consisting of water, type I collagen, glycosaminoglycans and elastin. The microstructure of these tissues, however, is very different. The annulus fibrosus is representative of an anisotropic tissue. Its well-organized fibril structure was analyzed via polarization modulated second harmonic microscopy in order to characterize fibril architecture. Structurally relevant biochemical constituents were quantified with biochemical assays. Morphologically healthy annulus tended to have a more highly organized microstructure and tended to absorb more strain energy when subject to a tensile load cycle. Given the strong correlation between fibril organization and select mechanical properties, predictive models will likely benefit from a characterization of fibril continuity and orientation coherence. The sclera is representative of an isotropic tissue. Its less-organized fibril structure has evolved to sustain biaxial plane stress. In the sclera, collagen content and associated crosslinks were primary determinants of stiffness. Substantial collagen crosslink accumulation is a primary factor causing the stiffening of sclera with increased age. The influence of crosslinks dominates diffusion and permeability behavior. Exogenous crosslinking may help modulate the mechanical and fluid transport properties of the sclera and cornea. Treatment with methylglyoxal reduces the permeability and increases the stiffness of both. However, differences in the pre-treatment level of organization within the microstructure encourages asymmetric results.

Schultz, David Sheldon

116

[Search for TNF-alpha sensitivity degradation principles from medicinal foods-hepatoprotective amide constituents from Thai natural medicine Piper chaba].  

PubMed

Eighty percent (80%) aqueous acetone extract from fruit of Piper chaba (Piperaceae) was found to have a hepatoprotective effect on D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in mice. Among the isolates, several amide constituents inhibited D-GalN/tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced death of hepatocytes, and the following structural requirements were suggested: i) the amide moiety was essential for strong activity; ii) the 1,9-decadiene structure between the benzene ring and the amide moiety tended to enhance the activity. Moreover, a principal constituent, piperine, exhibited strong in vivo hepatoprotective effect at a dose of 5 mg/kg, p.o. and its mode of action was suggested to depend on the reduced sensitivity of hepatocytes to TNF-alpha. PMID:20519856

Morikawa, Toshio

2010-06-01

117

Wholesale Markets and Food Distribution in Europe: New Strategies for Old Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This discussion paper examines the evolving functions of the wholesale institutions in Western Europe and how they adapt to their new environments. The functions of wholesale markets considered in the economics and management literature include physical functions (gathering food products in a single spot helping the distribution of flows from scattered sources, storage, grading, delivery) and economic functions (favouring stakeholders'

Jean-Joseph Cadilhon; Andrew P. Fearne; David R. Hughes; Paule Moustier

118

Food Sources  

Cancer.gov

Understanding what foods contribute to energy, nutrient, and food group intake enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and gives context for dietary guidance. Examining the top sources of dietary constituents that should be reduced is especially helpful for identifying targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment.

119

Abiotic controls on the functional structure of soil food webs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that the trophic structure of soil food webs changes as a result of the abiotic environment was examined by reviewing studies of soil biota. In dry soils with a water potential below -1.5 MPa, most bacteria, protozoans, and many species of nematodes are not active. These taxa persist in the soil in a state of anhydrobiosis. Because soil

Walter G. Whitford

1989-01-01

120

Function of Lipophilic Acids as Antimicrobial Food Additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most antimicrobial food additives are lipophilic acids which prevent growth by inhibiting the transport of substrate molecules into cells. The inhibition of transport was also observed in membrane vesicles, even when they were derived from organisms for which growth and transport are not affected by the larger inhibitors.

Ernst Freese; Chingju W. Sheu; Enid Galliers

1973-01-01

121

THE FUNCTION OF FOOD STORES IN BIRD NESTS: OBSERVATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS IN  

E-print Network

THE FUNCTION OF FOOD STORES IN BIRD NESTS: OBSERVATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS IN THE BARN OWL TYTO ALBA in the Barn Owl Tyto alba. Ardea 92(1): 69-78. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain why food- spring to eat at any time. Using Barn Owl Tyto alba nests, I examined pre- dictions of these mutually non

Alvarez, Nadir

122

Biomarkers of bone health appropriate for evaluating functional foods designed to reduce risk of osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is a growing global problem. The health care costs and decreased productivity and quality of life are staggering. Much research is invested in life-style approaches to build peak bone mass during growth to prevent osteoporosis as well as to treat the disease in later life. Functional foods have enjoyed a niche in bone health. Foods fortified with Ca are

Connie M. Weaver; Michael Liebman

2002-01-01

123

Biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and food webs in fresh waters: assembling the jigsaw puzzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Dramatic advances have been made recently in the study of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (B-EF) relations and food web ecology. These fields are now starting to converge, and this fusion has the potential to improve our understanding of how environmental stressors modulate ecosystem processes and the supply of 'goods and services'. 2. Food web structure and dynamics can exert particularly

GUY W OODWARD

2009-01-01

124

The importance of GRAS to the functional food and nutraceutical industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a time when 150 million Americans spend over $20.5 billion on functional foods, nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is doing little to ensure that all the safe and efficacious products that could come to the market are allowed to do so. FDA has only responded slowly and reluctantly to Congressional action and to mandates

George A. Burdock; Ioana G. Carabin; James C. Griffiths

2006-01-01

125

Functional properties of anthocyanins and betalains in plants, food, and in human nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthocyanins and betalains play important roles both in plant physiology, visual attraction for pollinators and seed dispersers, but also in food mainly defining its aesthetic value. Since anthocyanin and betalain structures allow to predict only part of their appearance, additional chemical and anatomical functions are required to modulate the appearance of plants and coloured food. Physiological effects that the same

Florian C Stintzing; Reinhold Carle

2004-01-01

126

Food-packaging materials: migration of constituents into food contents. January 1982-December 1988 (Citations from Packaging Science and technology Abstracts data base). Report for January 1982-December 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the migration of food-packaging materials into foods. Plastic, glass, cardboard, metal, and ceramic containers are discussed. Techniques for analyzing packaging contamination are included. (Contains 90 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-01-01

127

Functional and safety aspects of enterococci in dairy foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Enterococcus like other LAB has also been featured in dairy industry for decades due to its specific biochemical traits such as lipolysis,\\u000a proteolysis, and citrate breakdown, hence contributing typical taste and flavor to the dairy foods. Furthermore, the production\\u000a of bacteriocins by enterococci (enterocins) is well documented. These technological applications have led to propose enterococci\\u000a as adjunct starters

Arun Bhardwaj; R. K. Malik; Prashant Chauhan

2008-01-01

128

Plant food allergens—structural and functional aspects of allergenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three dominating plant food allergen groups belong to the prolamin and cupin superfamilies and to the family 10 of pathogenesis-related proteins. The prolamin superfamily comprises allergenic 2S albumins, nonspecific lipid transfer proteins and cereal alpha-amylase\\/trypsin inhibitors. These allergens have related structures and are stable to thermal processing and proteolysis. The cupin superfamily comprises the allergenic 7S and 11S globulin

Heimo Breiteneder; E. N. Clare Mills

2005-01-01

129

Immunological function of food-restricted germfree and specific pathogen-free mice.  

PubMed

The effects of food restriction on immune function was investigated in germfree (GF) and specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice. They were maintained from five weeks of age under either full-fed or food-restricted conditions to 4.5 grams per day (equivalent to approximately 80% of full-fed intake) of a commercial diet. Longest survival rate was attained in food-restricted SPF mice followed by food-restricted GF, full-fed GF, and full-fed SPF animals. Food-restricted GF mice showed shorter survival rate than their SPF counterparts. This result suggests that food restriction may be just as effective as GF status for extending life span. Immune function declined significantly with age in full-fed groups of GF and SPF mice. In both food-restricted GF and SPF mice, mitogenic response to concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide and antibody response to sheep red blood cells were lower early in life and became higher later in life as compared with full-fed mice. Hence, the maintenance of effective immunological function until old age may be the reason for food-restricted groups to live slightly longer than full-fed groups. PMID:1836189

Tazume, S; Umehara, K; Matsuzawa, H; Yoshida, T; Hashimoto, K; Sasaki, S

1991-10-01

130

Form and function: Metabolic footprints of nematodes in the soil food web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic footprints provide metrics for the magnitudes of ecosystem functions and services provided by component organisms of the soil food web. Nematodes occupy various trophic roles and perform important functions within the web. They are convenient indicators of similar functions performed by other organisms in the web and are well-documented indicators of ecosystem condition. The generally vermiform shapes of nematodes,

Howard Ferris

2010-01-01

131

Soil processes are not influenced by the functional complexity of soil decomposer food webs under disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3yr experiment, using field lysimeters with seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) growing in raw humus, was established to study how functional complexity of the soil decomposer food web affects ecosystem functioning. The functional complexity of decomposer system was manipulated by (1) allowing either microfauna (fine mesh) or microfauna+mesofauna (coarse mesh) to enter the initially defaunated systems, and (2)

Mira Liiri; Heikki Setälä; Jari Haimi; Taina Pennanen; Hannu Fritze

2002-01-01

132

Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This entire issue is devoted to the problem of producing enough food for the world population and of distributing it equitably. Areas covered include reports on the latest agricultural research, biological research concerned with more efficient photosynthesis, nutrition, and the world social structure, politics, and economics of food. (MA)

Science, 1975

1975-01-01

133

Predicting intentions to consume functional foods and supplements to offset memory loss using an adaptation of protection motivation theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread use of dietary supplements and so-called ‘functional foods’ is thought to be partially motivated by self-control of health. However, whilst consumers want foods associated with well-being or disease prevention, they are unlikely to be willing to compromise on taste or technology. This presents a dilemma for promoters of functional foods.Middle-aged consumers' intentions to consume functional foods or supplements

D. N. Cox; A. Koster; C. G. Russell

2004-01-01

134

A Review on Bioactivities of Perilla: Progress in Research on the Functions of Perilla as Medicine and Food  

PubMed Central

Perilla is a useful pharmaceutical and food product and is empirically consumed by humans. However, its properties have not been evaluated extensively. In this review, we summarize the progress made in research, focusing on the bioactivities of perilla. There are many in vitro and animal studies on the cytostatic activity and antiallergic effects, respectively, of perilla and its constituents. However, its influence on humans remains unclear. Hence, investigating and clarifying the physiological effects of perilla and its constituents on humans are imperative in the future to adhere to the ideals of evidence-based medicine. PMID:24319488

2013-01-01

135

Inhibitory activity of a green tea extract and some of its constituents on multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 functionality.  

PubMed

Green tea extracts (GTE) might modulate ABC transporter gene expression or function. This may be relevant in the treatment of cancer or in influencing intestinal drug permeability. To gain more insight on the influence of a GTE on secretory transport proteins we investigated the influence of GTE and several green tea components on the mRNA expression level of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) in human gastrointestinal epithelial LS-180 cells. Furthermore, the functional activity of MRP2, using glutathione methylfluorescein (GS-MF) or [3H]methotrexate (MTX) as substrate, was investigated in canine kidney cells stably overexpressing human MRP2 (MDCK-MRP2). GTE, at a concentration of 0.01 mg/mL, did not increase mRNA expression of P-gp or MRP2 in LS-180 cells. Functional assays in MDCK-MRP2 cells using GS-MF did not show any effect of 0.01 mg/mL GTE on MRP2 activity. In the same cell line the cellular accumulation of MTX (a specific substrate of MRP2) was significantly increased with the MRP-specific inhibitor MK-571 or with 1 mg/mL GTE, but not with 0.1 mg/mL. The green tea components (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, theanine, or caffeine, each in corresponding concentrations to the respective concentration of GTE, did not show any effect on MRP2 function. These data demonstrate that the mRNA expression patterns of P-gp and MRP2 in LS-180 cells are not altered by 0.01 mg/mL of GTE. However, MRP2 function was inhibited by 1 mg/mL GTE, whereas none of the green tea components tested were responsible for this effect. PMID:15729621

Netsch, M I; Gutmann, H; Luescher, S; Brill, S; Schmidlin, C B; Kreuter, M H; Drewe, J

2005-02-01

136

The constituent quark as a topological soliton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently it was proposed that the constituent quark is a topological soliton. I investigate this soliton, calculating its mass, radius, magnetic moment, color magnetic moment, and spin structure function. Within the approximations used, the magnetic moments and spin structure function cannot simultaneously be made to agree with the constituent quark model. Some discussion of what to expect from better approximations is included.

Keaton, Gregory L.

1994-08-01

137

Repeated administration of ghrelin to patients with functional dyspepsia: its effects on food intake and appetite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Ghrelin plays a major role in the regulation of food intake (FI), which makes it a strong candidate for the treatment of anorexia. Objective: We attempted to evaluate the clinical response to repeated ghrelin administration in patients with anorexia caused by functional disorders, such as functional dyspepsia (FD). Subjects and methods: Subjects included in this study were those who

Takashi Akamizu; Hiroshi Iwakura; Hiroyuki Ariyasu; Hiroshi Hosoda; Toshinori Murayama; Masayuki Yokode; Satoshi Teramukai; Hiroshi Seno; Tsutomu Chiba; S. Noma; Y. Nakai; M. Fukunaga; K. Kangawa

2008-01-01

138

Rank in a food competition test and humoral immune functions in male Brandt's voles ( Lasiopodomys brandtii)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social status can influence an animal's immune and reproductive functions, eventually leading to alterations in immunocompetence and reproductive success. Here, we report that rank assessed in a food competition test, considered as an index of social status, has significant influences on humoral immune functions in male Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) living in a group. Our data reveal a negative correlation

Feng-Hua Li; Wen-Qin Zhong; Zuoxin Wang; De-Hua Wang

2007-01-01

139

Optimization of Spray Drying of an Innovative Functional Food: Fermented Mixed Juice of Carrot and Watermelon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with formulation and drying of a newly developed functional food. A watermelon and carrot juice mixture in the ratio 70:30 by volume was fermented at 37°C with Lactobacillus acidophilus to produce an innovative non-dairy-based food formulation with good flavor and high nutritional value. Viable count, pH, titrable acidity, protein content, and reducing sugar were measured during fermentation.

A. P. Mestry; A. S. Mujumdar; B. N. Thorat

2011-01-01

140

Industry and Consumers Awareness for Effective Management of Functional Animal-based Foods in South Korea  

PubMed Central

In recent years, manufacturers of animal-based foods with health claims have encountered difficulties in the labeling of their products because of a lack of regulation on defining the functionality of animal-based foods. Therefore, this study was conducted to establish the basic requirements for the development of a definition for functional animal-based foods by investigating consumer and industry awareness. Survey data were collected from 114 industry representatives and 1,100 consumers. The questions of the survey included items on production status and future production plans, functionality labeling, promotion plans, establishment of definition, the role of the government, consumer perception, and selection of products. The results show that both industry representatives and consumers believe that legislation and the provision of scientific evidence should be improved for the development of a functional animal-based foods market. The results obtained from this study will contribute to consumer trust by supplying correct information and can be utilized in the industry as basic data for the development of functional animal-based food products. PMID:24551825

Wi, Seo-Hyun; Park, Jung-Min; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jae-Woo; Kim, Jin-Man

2013-01-01

141

Macroscopic and microscopic spatially-resolved analysis of food contaminants and constituents using laser-ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging.  

PubMed

Laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) does not require very flat surfaces, high-precision sample preparation, or the addition of matrix. Because of these features, LAESI-MSI may be the method of choice for spatially-resolved food analysis. In this work, LAESI time-of-flight MSI was investigated for macroscopic and microscopic imaging of pesticides, mycotoxins, and plant metabolites on rose leaves, orange and lemon fruit, ergot bodies, cherry tomatoes, and maize kernels. Accurate mass ion-map data were acquired at sampling locations with an x-y center-to-center distance of 0.2-1.0 mm and were superimposed onto co-registered optical images. The spatially-resolved ion maps of pesticides on rose leaves suggest co-application of registered and banned pesticides. Ion maps of the fungicide imazalil reveal that this compound is only localized on the peel of citrus fruit. However, according to three-dimensional LAESI-MSI the penetration depth of imazalil into the peel has significant local variation. Ion maps of different plant alkaloids on ergot bodies from rye reveal co-localization in accordance with expectations. The feasibility of using untargeted MSI for food analysis was revealed by ion maps of plant metabolites in cherry tomatoes and maize-kernel slices. For tomatoes, traveling-wave ion mobility (TWIM) was used to discriminate between different lycoperoside glycoalkaloid isomers; for maize quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) was successfully used to elucidate the structure of a localized unknown. It is envisaged that LAESI-MSI will contribute to future research in food science, agriforensics, and plant metabolomics. PMID:24961635

Nielen, Michel W F; van Beek, Teris A

2014-11-01

142

Food choice as a key management strategy for functional gastrointestinal symptoms.  

PubMed

Recognition of food components that induce functional gut symptoms in patient's functional bowel disorders (FBD) has been challenging. Food directly or indirectly provides considerable afferent input into the enteric nervous system. There is an altered relationship between the afferent input and perception/efferent response in FBD. Defining the nature of food-related stimuli may provide a means of minimizing such an input and gut symptoms. Using this premise, reducing the intake of FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di-, and mono-saccharides and polyols)--poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates that, by virtue of their small molecular size and rapid fermentability, will distend the intestinal lumen with liquid and gas--improves symptoms in the majority of patients. Well-developed methodologies to deliver the diet via dietician-led education are available. Another abundant source of afferent input is natural and added food chemicals (such as salicylates, amines, and glutamates). Studies are needed to assess the efficacy of the low food chemical dietary approach. A recent placebo-controlled trial of FODMAP-poor gluten provided the first valid evidence that non-celiac gluten intolerance might actually exist, but its prevalence and underlying mechanisms require elucidation. Food choice via the low FODMAP and potentially other dietary strategies is now a realistic and efficacious therapeutic approach for functional gut symptoms. PMID:22488077

Gibson, Peter R; Shepherd, Susan J

2012-05-01

143

[The analysis of international legislation in the field of regulation of functional foods claims].  

PubMed

It is known that manufacturers quite often put into foodstuff marking or advertisement the information about its beneficial action into the consumers health, i.e. about its functional qualities. However in Russian Federation the rules are regulated using of term "functional foods" doesn't established. In the review of legislation acts which are regulated of using claims in the foodstuff marking or advertisement in the different countries have been shown that claims concerning of energy and nutritional values of foods (beneficial nutrition claims) should be used in compliance with established rules without additional investigations. Food health claims referring to the reduction of disease risk and (or) functional foods claims for children must maintain in compliance with established procedure. Only claims that have scientific evidence about its beneficial for health could be recommended for approval. Thereupon insistent necessity in development, discussion and approval regulation in the field of using Claims concerning the functional qualities of foods (described rules of using beneficial nutrition claims and claims referring to the reduction of disease risk and to children's development and growth) in Russian Federation and United Customs Union (EurAsEU) are obvious. PMID:23156044

Bagriantseva, O V; Mazo, V K; Shatrov, G N

2012-01-01

144

Essential fatty acids as functional components of foods- a review.  

PubMed

During the recent decades, awareness towards the role of essential fatty acids in human health and disease prevention has been unremittingly increasing among people. Fish, fish oils and some vegetable oils are rich sources of essential fatty acids. Many studies have positively correlated essential fatty acids with reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, infant development, cancer prevention, optimal brain and vision functioning, arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and neurological/neuropsychiatric disorders. Beneficial effects may be mediated through several different mechanisms, including alteration in cell membrane composition, gene expression or eicosanoid production. However, the mechanisms whereby essential fatty acids affect gene expression are complex and involve multiple processes. Further understanding of the molecular aspects of essential fatty acids will be the key to devising novel approaches to the treatment and prevention of many diseases. PMID:25328170

Kaur, Narinder; Chugh, Vishal; Gupta, Anil K

2014-10-01

145

Functional network connectivity underlying food processing: disturbed salience and visual processing in overweight and obese adults.  

PubMed

In order to adequately explore the neurobiological basis of eating behavior of humans and their changes with body weight, interactions between brain areas or networks need to be investigated. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined the modulating effects of stimulus category (food vs. nonfood), caloric content of food, and body weight on the time course and functional connectivity of 5 brain networks by means of independent component analysis in healthy lean and overweight/obese adults. These functional networks included motor sensory, default-mode, extrastriate visual, temporal visual association, and salience networks. We found an extensive modulation elicited by food stimuli in the 2 visual and salience networks, with a dissociable pattern in the time course and functional connectivity between lean and overweight/obese subjects. Specifically, only in lean subjects, the temporal visual association network was modulated by the stimulus category and the salience network by caloric content, whereas overweight and obese subjects showed a generalized augmented response in the salience network. Furthermore, overweight/obese subjects showed changes in functional connectivity in networks important for object recognition, motivational salience, and executive control. These alterations could potentially lead to top-down deficiencies driving the overconsumption of food in the obese population. PMID:22586138

Kullmann, Stephanie; Pape, Anna-Antonia; Heni, Martin; Ketterer, Caroline; Schick, Fritz; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert; Veit, Ralf

2013-05-01

146

Food supplementation and testosterone interact to influence reproductive behavior and immune function in Sceloporous graciosus  

PubMed Central

The energetic resources in an organism’s environment are essential for executing a wide range of life history functions, including immunity and reproduction. Most energetic budgets, however, are limited, which can lead to trade-offs among competing functions. Increasing reproductive effort tends to decrease immunity in many cases; and increasing total energy via supplemental feedings can eliminate this effect. Testosterone (T), an important regulator of reproduction, and food availability are thus both potential factors regulating life-history processes, yet they are often tested in isolation of each other. In this study, we considered the effect of both food availability and elevated T on immune function and reproductive behavior in sagebrush lizards, Sceloporus graciosus, to assess how T and energy availability affect these trade-offs. We experimentally manipulated diet (via supplemental feedings) and T (via dermal patches) in males from a natural population. We determined innate immune response by calculating the bacterial killing capability of collected plasma exposed to E. coli ex vivo. We measured reproductive behavior by counting the number of courtship displays produced in a 20-min sampling period. We observed an interactive effect of food availability and T-patch on immune function, with food supplementation increasing immunity in T-patch lizards. Additionally, T increased courtship displays in control food lizards. Lizards with supplemental food had higher circulating T than controls. Collectively, this study shows that the energetic state of the animal plays a critical role in modulating the interactions among T, behavior and immunity in sagebrush lizards and likely other species. PMID:19800885

Ruiz, Mayte; French, Susannah S.; Demas, Gregory E.; Martins, Emilia P.

2009-01-01

147

Food supplementation and testosterone interact to influence reproductive behavior and immune function in Sceloporus graciosus.  

PubMed

The energetic resources in an organism's environment are essential for executing a wide range of life-history functions, including immunity and reproduction. Most energetic budgets, however, are limited, which can lead to trade-offs among competing functions. Increasing reproductive effort tends to decrease immunity in many cases, and increasing total energy via supplemental feedings can eliminate this effect. Testosterone (T), an important regulator of reproduction, and food availability are thus both potential factors regulating life-history processes, yet they are often tested in isolation of each other. In this study, we considered the effect of both food availability and elevated T on immune function and reproductive behavior in sagebrush lizards, Sceloporus graciosus, to assess how T and energy availability affect these trade-offs. We experimentally manipulated diet (via supplemental feedings) and T (via dermal patches) in males from a natural population. We determined innate immune response by calculating the bacterial killing capability of collected plasma exposed to Escherichia coli ex vivo. We measured reproductive behavior by counting the number of courtship displays produced in a 20-min sampling period. We observed an interactive effect of food availability and T-patch on immune function, with food supplementation increasing immunity in T-patch lizards. Additionally, T increased courtship displays in control food lizards. Lizards with supplemental food had higher circulating T than controls. Collectively, this study shows that the energetic state of the animal plays a critical role in modulating the interactions among T, behavior and immunity in sagebrush lizards and likely other species. PMID:19800885

Ruiz, Mayté; French, Susannah S; Demas, Gregory E; Martins, Emília P

2010-02-01

148

Novel intracellular functions of apolipoproteins: the ApoO protein family as constituents of the Mitofilin/MINOS complex determines cristae morphology in mitochondria.  

PubMed

Mitochondria exist in a highly dynamic network that is constantly altered by fusion and fission events depending on various factors such as cellular bioenergetic state and cell cycle. Next to this dynamic nature of the organelle, its cristae membrane also undergoes drastic morphological changes upon physiological or pathological alterations. The Mitofilin/mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system (MINOS) complex was recently reported to ensure mitochondrial architecture and crista junction integrity. Several subunits of this complex are linked to a diverse set of neurological human disorders. Recently, two apolipoproteins, ApoO (APOO) and ApoO-like (APOOL) were suggested to represent constituents of the mammalian Mitofilin/MINOS complex. APOOL was shown to bind the mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin (CL) and to interact physically with this complex. In this review we highlight the current view on the mammalian Mitofilin/MINOS complex and focus on APOOL and the role of CL in determining cristae morphology. We will discuss possible functions of the Mitofilin/MINOS complex on lipid transport, on assembly of respiratory supercomplexes, on F1FO-ATP synthase organization, on contact site formation, and on trapping CL within the cristae subcompartment. PMID:24391192

Koob, Sebastian; Reichert, Andreas S

2014-03-01

149

Structure and function Many scientists use food webs to portray ecolo-  

E-print Network

and change food-web structure and function. These include biological stoichiometry, body that there is something more complex than the genome currently under study in modern biology. Nevertheless, we propose do this yourself on the Internet at www.genome.ad. jp/kegg/). Yet more magnification, for example

Hessen, Dag Olav

150

A comparative study on functional properties of beet and citrus pectins in food systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pectin is used in a number of foods as a gelling agent, thickener, texturizer, emulsifier and stabilizer. Sugar-beet pulp, the residue left from sugar extraction, is a rich source of pectin. It was the purpose of this study to optimize the extraction of pectin from sugar-beet pulp and to improve the functional properties of this pectin for more potential uses.

Gholamreza Mesbahi; Jalal Jamalian; Asgar Farahnaky

2005-01-01

151

Combined impacts of global warming and pollution: impacts on food web structure and ecosystem function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of global species loss on ecosystem function have traditionally been extrapolated from studies which investigate the effect of random species loss or addition. Real species loss is highly patterned and clumped according to trophic position, taxonomic relatedness and interconnectedness with the remainder of the food web. Using pond microcosms, I evoked a realistic pattern of species loss using toxins

R. M. Thompson

2005-01-01

152

Alimentos funcionais em angiologia e cirurgia vascular Functional foods in angiology and vascular surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional foods are defined as products containing some biologically active substance that, when added to usual diet, triggers metabolic or physiological processes, resulting in prevention of diseases and maintenance of health. The objective of this study is to make angiologists and vascular surgeons aware of this topic. The main groups of bioactive substances and their indications are presented. Being a

Douglas Faria; Corrêa Anjo

153

Biological Evaluation of Functional Foods Toward the Development of Primary Prevention Against Lifestyle Related Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Various functional foods, potentially possessing primary preventive effects on lifestyle related diseases, were designed and developed. In vitro and in vivo biological tests are useful tools for evaluating these effects as the screening assay and\\/or research of the mechanism. In this paper, usefulness and notable subjects of the biological tests are discussed. Hydroxymatairesinol (HMR), one of the plant lignans,

Shin-ichi Katsuda; Hidetaka Sato

2004-01-01

154

Sub and supercritical fluid extraction of functional ingredients from different natural sources: Plants, food-by-products, algae and microalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing interest of consumers in functional foods has brought about a rise in demand for functional ingredients obtained using “natural” processes. In this review, new environmentally clean technologies for producing natural food ingredients are discussed. This work provides an updated overview on the principal applications of two clean processes, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction, used to isolate

Miguel Herrero; Alejandro Cifuentes; Elena Ibañez

2006-01-01

155

The joint moderating effect of health consciousness and healthy lifestyle on consumers' willingness to use functional foods in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Functional foods marketed as promoting health or reducing the risk of disease open a promising avenue for consumers to pursue a healthier life. Despite the stable growth in functional foods in Taiwan, at present little is known about whether or not consumers with varying degrees of health consciousness and different healthy lifestyles will have dissimilar attitudes toward functional foods and will vary in their willingness to use them. Regression analysis of this empirical study verifies that consumers' attitudes toward functional foods do have an impact on their willingness to use such foods. Moreover, moderated regression analysis (MRA) reveals that the joint moderator of health consciousness and healthy lifestyle indeed exerts an impact on consumers' willingness to consume functional foods. Finally, one-way ANOVA tests show that there are some differences between the consumers of the "Healthy Life Attentive" group and those of the "Healthy Life Inattentive" one both in attitudes toward and in willingness to consume functional foods. The empirical results and findings from this study would be valuable for the marketers in the functional food industry to formulate marketing communication strategies and facilitate this industry's development. PMID:21609743

Chen, Mei-Fang

2011-08-01

156

The search for compounds that stimulate thermogenesis in obesity management: from pharmaceuticals to functional food ingredients.  

PubMed

The concept of managing obesity through the stimulation of thermogenesis is currently a focus of considerable attention by the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and functional food industries. This paper first reviews the landmark discoveries that have fuelled the search for thermogenic anti-obesity products that range from single-target drugs to multi-target functional foods. It subsequently analyses the thermogenic and fat-oxidizing potentials of a wide array of bioactive food ingredients which are categorized under methylxanthines, polyphenols, capsaicinoids/capsinoids, minerals, proteins/amino acids, carbohydrates/sugars and fats/fatty acids. The main outcome of this analysis is that the compounds or combination of compounds with thermogenic and fat-oxidizing potentials are those that possess both sympathomimetic stimulatory activity and acetyl-coA carboxylase inhibitory property, and are capable of targeting both skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue. The thermogenic potentials of products so far tested in humans range from marginal to modest, i.e. 2-5% above daily energy expenditure. With an increasing number of bioactive food ingredients awaiting screening in humans, there is hope that this thermogenic potential could be safely increased to 10-15% above daily energy expenditure - which would have clinically significant impact on weight management, particularly in the prevention of obesity and in improving the long-term prognosis of post-slimming weight maintenance. PMID:21951333

Dulloo, A G

2011-10-01

157

Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods  

PubMed Central

A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases. PMID:25114554

Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Ishihara, Kohji

2012-01-01

158

Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods.  

PubMed

A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases. PMID:25114554

Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Ishihara, Kohji

2012-01-01

159

Evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials for space agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been studying the useful life-support system in closed bio-ecosystem for space agriculture. We have already proposed the several species as food material, such as Nostoc sp. HK-01 and Prunnus sp., cyanobacterium and Japanese cherry tree, respectively. The cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp Hk-01, has high tolerances to several space environment. Furthermore, the woody plant materials have useful utilization elements in our habitation environment. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. We have already found that they can produce the important functional substances for human. Here, we will show the evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials under the possible conditions for space agriculture after cooking.

Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Ajioka, Reiko

160

Obese adults have visual attention bias for food cue images: evidence for altered reward system function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:The major aim of this study was to investigate whether the motivational salience of food cues (as reflected by their attention-grabbing properties) differs between obese and normal-weight subjects in a manner consistent with altered reward system function in obesity.Methodology\\/Principal Findings:A total of 18 obese and 18 normal-weight, otherwise healthy, adult women between the ages of 18 and 35 participated in

E H Castellanos; E Charboneau; M S Dietrich; B P Bradley; K Mogg; R L Cowan

2009-01-01

161

Rubus fruticosus L.: constituents, biological activities and health related uses.  

PubMed

Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food. PMID:25072202

Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Moga, Marius

2014-01-01

162

Feast to famine: The effects of food quality and quantity on the gut structure and function of a detritivorous catfish (Teleostei: Loricariidae)  

E-print Network

starvation and low food quality by down-regulating the size of its GI tract. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rightsFeast to famine: The effects of food quality and quantity on the gut structure and function. Hence, when facing food shortages or poor food quality, an animal may reduce the size and function

Evans, David H.

163

Functional Screening of Antibiotic Resistance Genes from a Representative Metagenomic Library of Food Fermenting Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) represent the predominant microbiota in fermented foods. Foodborne LAB have received increasing attention as potential reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR) determinants, which may be horizontally transferred to opportunistic pathogens. We have previously reported isolation of AR LAB from the raw ingredients of a fermented cheese, while AR genes could be detected in the final, marketed product only by PCR amplification, thus pointing at the need for more sensitive microbial isolation techniques. We turned therefore to construction of a metagenomic library containing microbial DNA extracted directly from the food matrix. To maximize yield and purity and to ensure that genomic complexity of the library was representative of the original bacterial population, we defined a suitable protocol for total DNA extraction from cheese which can also be applied to other lipid-rich foods. Functional library screening on different antibiotics allowed recovery of ampicillin and kanamycin resistant clones originating from Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus genomes. We report molecular characterization of the cloned inserts, which were fully sequenced and shown to confer AR phenotype to recipient bacteria. We also show that metagenomics can be applied to food microbiota to identify underrepresented species carrying specific genes of interest. PMID:25243126

Devirgiliis, Chiara; Barile, Simona; Perozzi, Giuditta

2014-01-01

164

The influence of seabird nutrient enrichment and grazing on the structure and function of island soil food webs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine inputs from seabirds (in the form of guano) to terrestrial coastal communities play an important role in supporting aboveground food webs. However, little is known about the importance of seabird-derived nutrient inputs for belowground food webs and their function relative to other factors that regulate belowground communities. Here, we tested the relative importance of nutrient enrichment from seabirds and

Daniel G. Wright; René van der Wal; Sarah Wanless; Richard D. Bardgett

2010-01-01

165

Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs beneath individual plants: plant species and community effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers and providers of resources to the soil food web, are of vital importance for the composition, structure,

T. Martijn Bezemer; Michelle Fountain; José Barea; Soren Christensen; Stefan Dekker; Henk Duyts; Ralf van Hal; Jeff Harvey; Katarina Hedlund; Mark Maraun; Juha Mikola; Alexander Mladenov; Christophe Robin; Peter de Ruiter; Stefan Scheu; Heikki Setälä; Petr Šmilauer; Wim van der Putten

2010-01-01

166

Functional foods and nutraceuticals in a market of bolivian immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina).  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas ("health-food stores"), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas. PMID:22203866

Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M; Ulibarri, Emilio A; Hurrell, Julio A

2012-01-01

167

Can Suillus granulatus (L.) Roussel be classified as a functional food?  

PubMed

The present work outlines a detailed chemical characterization of Suillus granulatus species, besides presenting the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of their methanolic extracts. The study was carried out with samples drawn from Portugal and Serbia in order to prove that though mushrooms are strongly influenced by the environment in which they develop, they have a specific chemical profile that can be typical of their genus/species. The studied species proved to be healthy foods, low in fat and rich in protein and carbohydrates, with mannitol and trehalose being the main free sugars detected. They also proved to be a source of organic and phenolic acids, as well as mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids and tocopherols. The Serbian samples revealed higher antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Accordingly, we find that the S. granulatus species can be considered to be a functional food, since it is a source of nutraceutical and biologically active compounds. PMID:25231126

Reis, Filipa S; Stojkovi?, Dejan; Barros, Lillian; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Ciri?, Ana; Sokovi?, Marina; Martins, Anabela; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2014-10-22

168

Suppression of Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia by Turtle Jelly, A Traditional Chinese Functional Food, in Rats  

PubMed Central

Consumption of functional foods for lowering serum cholesterol has globally gained acceptance by the general public. Turtle jelly (TJ), also called gui-ling-gao, is a popular traditional functional food in southern China. The hypocholesterolemic effect of consuming TJ was investigated in rats fed with normal diet, high-cholesterol diet or high-cholesterol diet supplemented with simvastatin (3?mg/kg bw per day, p.o.) or TJ (3.3 or 10?mL/kg bw per day, p.o.) for 30 days. TJ markedly reversed the increased serum total cholesterol, increased high-density lipoprotein, and decreased high-density lipoprotein induced by hypercholesterolemic diet with a dose-dependent improvement on the atherogenic index. It also demonstrated good hepatoprotective function by reducing fat depositions and overall lipid contents in the liver and increasing the activities of hepatic antioxidative enzymes. The blunted nitric oxide/endothelium-mediated aortic relaxation in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was partially restored after TJ consumption. It is postulated that the hypocholesterolemic effect is the primary beneficial effect given by TJ; it then leads to secondary beneficial effects such as vasoprotective and hepatoprotective functions. The results revealed that TJ could block the downregulation of LDLR and PEPCK and upregulation of PPAR? mRNA and protein expressions in the livers of rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet. PMID:23243438

Wu, Jian-Hong; Wang, Qing-Hua; Li, Fan; Shu, Yuan-Lan; Chan, Chi-On; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah; Chan, Shun-Wan

2012-01-01

169

Stable Binding of Alternative Protein-enriched Food Matrices with Concentrated Cranberry Bioflavonoids for Functional Food Applications  

PubMed Central

Defatted soy flour (DSF), soy protein isolate (SPI), hemp protein isolate (HPI), medium roast peanut flour (MPF) and pea protein isolate (PPI) stably bind and concentrate cranberry (CB) polyphenols, creating protein/polyphenol-enriched matrices. Proanthocyanidins (PAC) in the enriched matrices ranged from 20.75 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 10.68 mg/g (CB-SPI). Anthocyanins (ANC) ranged from 3.19 mg/g (CB-DSF) to 1.68 mg/g (CB-SPI), while total phenolics (TP) ranged from 37.61 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 21.29 mg/g (CB-SPI). LC-MS indicated that the enriched matrices contained all identifiable ANC, PAC and flavonols present in CB juice. Complexation with SPI stabilized and preserved the integrity of the CB polyphenolic components for at least 15 weeks at 37 °C. PAC isolated from enriched matrices demonstrated comparable anti-adhesion bioactivity to PAC isolated directly from CB juice (MIC 0.4 to 0.16 mg/mL), indicating their potential utility for maintenance of urinary tract health. Approximately 1.0 g of polyphenol-enriched matrix delivered the same amount of PAC available in one cup (300 mL) of commercial CB juice cocktail; which has been shown clinically to be the prophylactic dose for reducing recurring urinary tract infections. CB-SPI inhibited gram- positive and gram-negative bacterial growth. Nutritional and sensory analyses indicated that the targeted CB-matrix combinations have high potential for incorporation in functional food formulations. PMID:23786629

Grace, Mary H.; Guzman, Ivette; Roopchand, Diana E.; Moskal, Kristin; Cheng, Diana M.; Pogrebnyak, Natasha; Raskin, Ilya; Howell, Amy; Lila, Mary Ann

2013-01-01

170

Food Packaging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how food packages are designed and made, including the three main functions. The packaging design and materials must keep food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in food, and identify a food appealingly. Then, in the associated activity, students act as if they are packaging engineers by designing and creating their own food packages for particular food types.

Engineering K-Phd Program

171

Combined impacts of global warming and pollution: impacts on food web structure and ecosystem function.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of global species loss on ecosystem function have traditionally been extrapolated from studies which investigate the effect of random species loss or addition. Real species loss is highly patterned and clumped according to trophic position, taxonomic relatedness and interconnectedness with the remainder of the food web. Using pond microcosms, I evoked a realistic pattern of species loss using toxins and warming. Species loss was predictably highly patterned. Influences on ecosystem functions ranged from simple and linear in the case of algal productivity, through to complex and step-like in the case of bacterial decomposition. Impacts on algal productivity were mediated by effects on the rate of grazing by invertebrates. There is strong evidence from the bacterial decomposition results of an `insurance effect' whereby the presence of multiple stressors has a strong, non-additive effect on function. These results clearly show that the traditional ecotoxicological practice of studying effects of single toxins on single species may be highly misleading.

Thompson, R. M.

2005-05-01

172

Dietary thioproline decreases spontaneous food intake and increases survival and neurological function in mice.  

PubMed

Male mice on a diet supplemented with thioproline (l-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid), a physiological metabolite of 5-hydroxytryptamine, at 2.0 g/kg of food from 28 weeks of age and for their entire life, showed a 23-29% increased median and maximal life span. These survival increases were associated with improved neurological functions. Compared to control mice, thioproline-supplemented mice had a 20% lower integral spontaneous food intake, and 10% lower body weight at 100 weeks of age. Body weight showed a statistically significant inverse relationship with survival and neurological performances. Thioproline-supplemented mice exhibited a 58-70% decrease of the age-dependent oxidative damage in brain and liver mitochondria at 52 weeks (old mice) and 78 weeks (senescent mice) of age, respectively. The age-associated decrease of brain mitochondrial enzyme activities, NADH-dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase, and mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS), in old and senescent mice were markedly prevented (51-74%) by thioproline. In vitro, thioproline neither exhibited direct antioxidant activity nor had any effect on the electron transfer or mtNOS functional activities of brain and liver mitochondria. It is surmised that thioproline induces an anorexic effect associated with improved survival and neurological function through a decreased oxidative damage and regulation that may involve hypothalamic appetite centers. PMID:17115892

Navarro, Ana; Sánchez-Pino, Maria Jesús; Gómez, Carmen; Bández, Manuel J; Cadenas, Enrique; Boveris, Alberto

2007-01-01

173

Merging Traditional Chinese Medicine with Modern Drug Discovery Technologies to Find Novel Drugs and Functional Foods  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) are rapidly gaining attention in the West as sources of new drugs, dietary supplements and functional foods. However, lack of consistent manufacturing practices and quality standards, fear of adulteration, and perceived deficiencies in scientific validation of efficacy and safety impede worldwide acceptance of TCM. In addition, Western pharmaceutical industries and regulatory agencies are partial toward single ingredient drugs based on synthetic molecules, and skeptical of natural product mixtures. This review concentrates on three examples of TCM-derived pharmaceuticals and functional foods that have, despite these usual obstacles, risen to wide acceptance in the West based on their remarkable performance in recent scientific investigations. They are: Sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua), the source of artemisinin, which is the currently preferred single compound anti-malarial drug widely used in combination therapies and recently approved by US FDA; Thunder god vine (Tripterygium wilfordii) which is being developed as a botanical drug for rheumatoid arthritis; and green tea (Camellia sinensis) which is used as a functional beverage and a component of dietary supplements. PMID:20156139

Graziose, Rocky; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

2011-01-01

174

Magical food and health beliefs: a portrait of believers and functions of the beliefs.  

PubMed

The aims of the present two studies were to delineate a portrait of people who are attracted to magical beliefs about food and health and to study the self-reported functions for the beliefs. Participants were Finnish men and women ranging in age from 15 to 66 years (N=3261 in study 1 and N=189 in study 2), and they filled in either an Internet-based or a paper questionnaire. The believers were more often women than men, vegetarians than omnivores, and they relied more on alternative medicine, thought in a more intuitive way, and demonstrated more eating-disordered thinking than the nonbelievers. Additionally, the believers had experienced slightly more negative life events than the nonbelievers in study 1 but contrary to our hypothesis, they did not differ in their desire for control. The believers reported value-expressive function as the most important one served by their beliefs, followed by the control and utilitarian functions. The emotional, intuitive nature of food beliefs and their connection to values and identity are discussed. PMID:15262019

Aarnio, Kia; Lindeman, Marjaana

2004-08-01

175

Intake_epis_food(): An R Function for Fitting a Bivariate Nonlinear Measurement Error Model to Estimate Usual and Energy Intake for Episodically Consumed Foods.  

PubMed

We consider a Bayesian analysis using WinBUGS to estimate the distribution of usual intake for episodically consumed foods and energy (calories). The model uses measures of nutrition and energy intakes via a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) along with repeated 24 hour recalls and adjusting covariates. In order to estimate the usual intake of the food, we phrase usual intake in terms of person-specific random effects, along with day-to-day variability in food and energy consumption. Three levels are incorporated in the model. The first level incorporates information about whether an individual in fact reported consumption of a particular food item. The second level incorporates the amount of intake from those individuals who reported consumption of the food, and the third level incorporates the energy intake. Estimates of posterior means of parameters and distributions of usual intakes are obtained by using Markov chain Monte Carlo calculations. This R function reports to users point estimates and credible intervals for parameters in the model, samples from their posterior distribution, samples from the distribution of usual intake and usual energy intake, trace plots of parameters and summary statistics of usual intake, usual energy intake and energy adjusted usual intake. PMID:22837731

Pérez, Adriana; Zhang, Saijuan; Kipnis, Victor; Midthune, Douglas; Freedman, Laurence S; Carroll, Raymond J

2012-03-01

176

Role of proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway in biosynthesis of plant phenolics for functional food and environmental applications: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic phytochemicals from food-grade plants that are antioxidants are an important part of a healthy diet in a global population that is projected to reach 9 billion in the next 50 years. Such phytochemicals are being targeted for designing conventional foods with added health benefits and are called functional foods. These value-added foods are needed for dietary support to manage

Kalidas Shetty

2004-01-01

177

Conjugated linoleic acids as functional food: an insight into their health benefits  

PubMed Central

This review evaluates the health benefits of the functional food, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) - a heterogeneous group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid predominantly found in milk, milk products, meat and meat products of ruminants. During the past couple of decades, hundreds of reports - principally based on in vitro, microbial, animal, and of late clinical trials on humans - have been accumulating with varying biological activities of CLA isomers. These studies highlight that CLA, apart form the classical nuclear transcription factors-mediated mechanism of action, appear to exhibit a number of inter-dependent molecular signalling pathways accounting for their reported health benefits. Such benefits relate to anti-obesitic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetagenic, immunomodulatory, apoptotic and osteosynthetic effects. On the other hand, negative effects of CLA have been reported such as fatty liver and spleen, induction of colon carcinogenesis and hyperproinsulinaemia. As far as human consumption is concerned, a definite conclusion for CLA safety has not been reached yet. Parameters such as administration of the type of CLA isomer and/or their combination with other polyunsaturated fatty acids, mode of administration (eg., as free fatty acid or its triglyceride form, liquid or solid), daily dose and duration of consumption, gender, age, or ethnic and geographical backgrounds remain to be determined. Yet, it appears from trials so far conducted that CLA are functional food having prevailing beneficial health effects for humans. PMID:19761624

Benjamin, Sailas; Spener, Friedrich

2009-01-01

178

Inorganic Constituents in Coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More than one hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been found in coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates), minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of

A. Raðenoviæ

179

Functional food and nutraceutical registration processes in Japan and China: a diffusion of innovation perspective.  

PubMed

Purpose - This paper looks into the functional food and nutraceutical registration processes in Japan and China. The Japanese have developed the Foods for Specified Health Use (FOSHU) registration process whereas the Chinese have put into place the Health Food (HF) registration process. The aim of this paper is to compare the regulation processes between the two countries in search for answers to three core empirical questions: (1) how have the registration processes developed and changed? (2) What are the similarities and differences between the processes of registration in the two countries investigated? (3) Why are the registration processes similar/different? Method - The study was conducted using secondary sources. The literature surveyed covered academic journals, trade journals, magazine and newspaper articles, market reports, proceedings, books and web pages of relevant regulatory authorities and regulatory consultants. Information from the more recently published sources was used preferentially over older sources. As well as using the most recent sources, information was selected on the basis of which source it was from. Official regulations and SFDA and MHLW websites would contain accurate and up to date information and information from here would be taken as true over other sources of information. Results - The two diagrams of the registration processes respectively in Japan and China clearly show that there are similarities and differences. There are six categories under which these can be found: (1) the scientific evidence required; (2) the application process; (3) the evaluation process; (4) the law and the categories of products; (5) the labels and the types of claims; and finally (6) the cost and the time involved. Conclusions -The data analysis suggests that the process of diffusion of innovation played a role in the development of the regulations. Further it was found that while Japan was at the outset a pioneer innovator in nutraceutical registration processes, there are indications that in more recent years it too imitated other countries. NOVELTY STATEMENT: The assortment of regulatory regimes creates much uncertainty for the firms and the lack of familiarity and poor knowledge of the regulatory situation increases the risk of failure. The research presented in this paper provides highly valuable information to any biotech/pharmaceutical/nutraceutical companies developing their market entry strategy in Japan and China. There are few national and international studies of drug registration application processes but even fewer comparative studies of functional food and neutraceutical registration application processes such as this one and none using a diffusion of innovation perspective. PMID:19183509

Patel, Darshika; Dufour, Yvon; Domigan, Neil

2008-01-01

180

Programme on the recyclability of food-packaging materials with respect to food safety considerations: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), paper and board, and plastics covered by functional barriers.  

PubMed

Stimulated by new ecology-driven European and national regulations, news routes of recycling waste appear on the market. Since food packages represent a large percentage of the plastics consumption and since they have a short lifetime, an important approach consists in making new packages from post-consumer used packages. On the other hand, food-packaging regulations in Europe require that packaging materials must be safe. Therefore, potential mass transfer (migration) of harmful recycling-related substances to the food must be excluded and test methods to ensure the safety-in-use of recycled materials for food packaging are needled. As a consequence of this situation, a European research project FAIR-CT98-4318, with the acronym 'Recyclability', was initiated. The project consists of three sections each focusing on a different class of recycled materials: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), paper and board, and plastics covered by functional barriers. The project consortium consists of 28 project members from 11 EU countries. In addition, the project is during its lifetime in discussion with the US Food and Drug Administrations (FDA) to consider also US FDA regulatory viewpoints and to aim, as a consequence, to harmonizable conclusions and recommendations. The paper introduces the project and presents an overview of the project work progress. PMID:11962719

Franz, R

2002-01-01

181

Food Components and Caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many decades, sugars have been the dietary constituents receiving the most attention in relation to their effects on dental caries. Frequently, however, there is little relationship between the amount of sugar in a food and its ability to induce caries. Therefore, it is clear that constituents in the diet can influence the ability of plaque to lower the pH

W. H. Bowen

1994-01-01

182

Correlations between functional and occlusal tooth-surface areas and food texture during natural chewing sequences in humans.  

PubMed

The dental-arch surfaces preferentially used in mastication were studied by measuring functional and occlusal surface areas and comparing these to the number of chews required to swallow foods of different texture properties. The functional surface of the teeth was defined as the total area of visible wear facets on post-incisal teeth, adding to it the contacting areas of restored teeth where no facets were visible. Occlusal surface area was taken as the total area of the occluding parts of post-incisal teeth. Both surfaces were measured with computer image processing on dental-stone casts of the teeth of 31 young adults. Functional surface areas (mean 168 mm(2), four quadrants) were positively correlated with occlusal surface areas (mean 739 mm(2), four quadrants). The left:right area ratios were more variable for functional than for occlusal surfaces. Functional surface-area ratios markedly different from 1.0 might reflect functional side-preponderance of masticatory activity. Correlations between tooth surface area and the number of cycles were examined with five different food samples of known texture during side-imposed mastication. Depending on the elastic moduli of the foods, significant negative correlations were found between the left:right ratios of functional or occlusal surface areas and the left:right ratios of cycle numbers. The rheological properties of the food particles chewed were assumed to be the key factor in the correlations with either the functional or anatomical occlusal surfaces. PMID:10869481

Bourdiol, P; Mioche, L

2000-08-01

183

How Tactile and Function Information Affect Young Children's Ability to Understand the Nature of Food-Appearing, Deceptive Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool children's (N = 64) ability to use tactile information and function cues on less-realistic and more-realistic food-appearing, deceptive objects was examined before and after training on the function of deceptive objects. They also responded to appearance and reality questions about deceptive objects. Half of the children (F-S:…

Krause, Christina Miles

2008-01-01

184

Food restriction in pregnant rat-like hamsters ( Cricetulus triton) affects endocrine, immune function and odor attractiveness of male offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of intrauterine food restriction (FR) on the immune function, endocrine status and attractiveness of scents of male rat-like hamsters, Cricetulus triton. Work was conducted on field-caught parents from the North China plain and their laboratory-born progeny. Restricted pregnant dams were fed 70% of the mean daily intake of hamsters with free access to food. FR caused

Hong Liang; Jianjun Zhang; Zhibin Zhang

2004-01-01

185

Determination of Constituent Composition of Hemoglobin and Structural/Morphological Parameters of Skin Based on Approximating Functions for Radiation Fluxes Backscattered from Skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained an analytical expression approximating the dependence of the backscatter signals, detected outside the region where the skin is irradiated, on the optical and structural parameters of the skin. A method is proposed for fast determination of the optical and structural/morphological parameters of skin and also the constituent composition of hemoglobin (including oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, and sulfhemoglobin), based on measurements of the spatially resolved spectral backscatter signals and their analytical dependence on the unknown parameters. Based on numerical modeling results for the backscatter signal, we studied the effectiveness of the proposed method and have shown that it is possible to improve the diagnostic power as a result of simultaneous processing of the spectral and spatial characteristics of backscatter from skin.

Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.

2014-07-01

186

Evaluation of coriander spice as a functional food by using in vitro bioassays.  

PubMed

Coriander leaves and seeds are widely used as a condiment and spice. The use of roasted coriander seeds in food and beverage is very common. In this study, we investigated raw and roasted coriander seeds for their functional food quality using antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and human tumour cell proliferation inhibitory assays. The hexane and methanolic extracts of raw and roasted coriander seeds showed identical chromatographic and bioassay profiles. Chromatographic purification of the roasted seed extracts afforded tripetroselinin as the predominant component. Other isolates were petroselinic acid, 1,3-dipetroselinin, 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol, 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-O-?-d-glucopyranoside and linalool. Hexane and methanolic extracts of both raw and roasted seeds and pure isolates from them showed comparable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities to the positive controls used in the assays, and inhibited the growth of human tumour cells AGS (gastric carcinoma), DU-145 and LNCaP (prostate carcinoma), HCT-116 (colon carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma) and NCI-H460 (lung carcinoma) by 4-34%, respectively. PMID:25148954

Zhang, Chuan-Rui; Dissanayake, Amila A; Kevsero?lu, Kudret; Nair, Muraleedharan G

2015-01-15

187

High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods--A Review  

PubMed Central

Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:22072996

Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

2011-01-01

188

Evolution of the human diet: linking our ancestral diet to modern functional foods as a means of chronic disease prevention.  

PubMed

The evolution of the human diet over the past 10,000 years from a Paleolithic diet to our current modern pattern of intake has resulted in profound changes in feeding behavior. Shifts have occurred from diets high in fruits, vegetables, lean meats, and seafood to processed foods high in sodium and hydrogenated fats and low in fiber. These dietary changes have adversely affected dietary parameters known to be related to health, resulting in an increase in obesity and chronic disease, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and cancer. Some intervention trials using Paleolithic dietary patterns have shown promising results with favorable changes in CVD and diabetes risk factors. However, such benefits may be offset by disadvantages of the Paleolithic diet, which is low in vitamin D and calcium and high in fish potentially containing environmental toxins. More advantageous would be promotion of foods and food ingredients from our ancestral era that have been shown to possess health benefits in the form of functional foods. Many studies have investigated the health benefits of various functional food ingredients, including omega-3 fatty acids, polyphenols, fiber, and plant sterols. These bioactive compounds may help to prevent and reduce incidence of chronic diseases, which in turn could lead to health cost savings ranging from $2 to $3 billion per year as estimated by case studies using omega-3 and plant sterols as examples. Thus, public health benefits should result from promotion of the positive components of Paleolithic diets as functional foods. PMID:19857053

Jew, Stephanie; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Jones, Peter J H

2009-10-01

189

DETERMINING THE FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF FOOD CONTAINERS USED FOR FOODS IRRADIATED IN COMBINATION WITH MODEL FOOD SYSTEMS. Report No. 19 (Progress), July 25, 1959September 24, 1959  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of this work was to study the factors that affect stress-; cracking and the production of extractives in plastic packaging materials that ; are to be used with foods preserved by irradiation. Polystyrenes, polyamides, ; polyesters, and polypropylenes were tested in homogenized milk, in solutions of ; lgepal CO-630 and solutions of lactic acid, and in water slurries

Feazel

1962-01-01

190

DETERMINING THE FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF FOOD CONTAINERS USED FOR FOODS IRRADIATED IN COMBINATION WITH MODEL FOOD SYSTEMS. Report No. 19 (Progress) for July 25, 1959September 24, 1959  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented from a study of the factors that affect stress-; cracking and the production of extractives in plastic packaging materials that ; are to be used with foods preserved by irradiation. Polystyrenes, polyamides, ; polyesters, and polypropylenes were tested in homogenized milk, in solutions of ; Igepal CO-630, and solutions of lactic acid, and in water slurries of

Feazel

1960-01-01

191

Bioactive fungal polysaccharides as potential functional ingredients in food and nutraceuticals.  

PubMed

Fungal bioactive polysaccharides deriving mainly from the Basidiomycetes family (and some from the Ascomycetes) and medicinal mushrooms have been well known and widely used in far Asia as part of traditional diet and medicine, and in the last decades have been the core of intense research for the understanding and the utilization of their medicinal properties in naturally produced pharmaceuticals. In fact, some of these biopolymers (mainly ?-glucans or heteropolysaccharides) have already made their way to the market as antitumor, immunostimulating or prophylactic drugs. The fact that many of these biopolymers are produced by edible mushrooms makes them also very good candidates for the formulation of novel functional foods and nutraceuticals without any serious safety concerns, in order to make use of their immunomodulating, anticancer, antimicrobial, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic and health-promoting properties. This article summarizes the most important properties and applications of bioactive fungal polysaccharides and discusses the latest developments on the utilization of these biopolymers in human nutrition. PMID:24518400

Giavasis, Ioannis

2014-04-01

192

Preparation and storage stability of flaxseed chutney powder, a functional food adjunct.  

PubMed

Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) chutney powder (FSCP), a palatable functional food adjunct was prepared by mixing roasted and powdered flaxseeds with other selected spice ingredients. The protein content of these powders was 24.2% and 23.4% in flaxseed powder (FSP) and FSCP respectively. Total polyphenol content of FSP and FSCP was 439 and 522 mg/100 g respectively. The free fatty acid content of FSCP increased from 0.38 to 1.03 after 6 months storage. The critical moisture content for FSP and FSCP was 10.2 and 13.5%, which were equilibrated at 82 and 68% RH respectively and the ERH studies indicated both the powders are non-hygroscopic in nature. Overall sensory quality of FSCP served with cooked rice scored 'good' (7.4) even after 6 months of storage. PMID:24425897

Rao, Pamidighantam Prabhakara; Rao, Galla Narsing; Mala, Kripanand Sathiya; Balaswamy, Karakala; Satyanarayana, Akula

2013-02-01

193

Chemical constituents of Asparagus  

PubMed Central

Asparagus species (family Liliaceae) are medicinal plants of temperate Himalayas. They possess a variety of biological properties, such as being antioxidants, immunostimulants, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antioxytocic, and reproductive agents. The article briefly reviews the isolated chemical constituents and the biological activities of the plant species. The structural formula of isolated compounds and their distribution in the species studied are also given. PMID:22228964

Negi, J. S.; Singh, P.; Joshi, G. P.; Rawat, M. S.; Bisht, V. K.

2010-01-01

194

Food-associated cues alter forebrain functional connectivity as assessed with immediate early gene and proenkephalin expression  

PubMed Central

Background Cues predictive of food availability are powerful modulators of appetite as well as food-seeking and ingestive behaviors. The neurobiological underpinnings of these conditioned responses are not well understood. Monitoring regional immediate early gene expression is a method used to assess alterations in neuronal metabolism resulting from upstream intracellular and extracellular signaling. Furthermore, assessing the expression of multiple immediate early genes offers a window onto the possible sequelae of exposure to food cues, since the function of each gene differs. We used immediate early gene and proenkephalin expression as a means of assessing food cue-elicited regional activation and alterations in functional connectivity within the forebrain. Results Contextual cues associated with palatable food elicited conditioned motor activation and corticosterone release in rats. This motivational state was associated with increased transcription of the activity-regulated genes homer1a, arc, zif268, ngfi-b and c-fos in corticolimbic, thalamic and hypothalamic areas and of proenkephalin within striatal regions. Furthermore, the functional connectivity elicited by food cues, as assessed by an inter-regional multigene-expression correlation method, differed substantially from that elicited by neutral cues. Specifically, food cues increased cortical engagement of the striatum, and within the nucleus accumbens, shifted correlations away from the shell towards the core. Exposure to the food-associated context also induced correlated gene expression between corticostriatal networks and the basolateral amygdala, an area critical for learning and responding to the incentive value of sensory stimuli. This increased corticostriatal-amygdalar functional connectivity was absent in the control group exposed to innocuous cues. Conclusion The results implicate correlated activity between the cortex and the striatum, especially the nucleus accumbens core and the basolateral amygdala, in the generation of a conditioned motivated state that may promote excessive food intake. The upregulation of a number of genes in unique patterns within corticostriatal, thalamic, and hypothalamic networks suggests that food cues are capable of powerfully altering neuronal processing in areas mediating the integration of emotion, cognition, arousal, and the regulation of energy balance. As many of these genes play a role in plasticity, their upregulation within these circuits may also indicate the neuroanatomic and transcriptional correlates of extinction learning. PMID:17462082

Schiltz, Craig A; Bremer, Quentin Z; Landry, Charles F; Kelley, Ann E

2007-01-01

195

GCLAS: a graphical constituent loading analysis system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U. S. Geological Survey has developed a program called GCLAS (Graphical Constituent Loading Analysis System) to aid in the computation of daily constituent loads transported in stream flow. Due to the relative paucity with which most water-quality data are collected, computation of daily constituent loads is moderately to highly dependent on human interpretation of the relation between stream hydraulics and constituent transport. GCLAS provides a visual environment for evaluating the relation between hydraulic and other covariate time series and the constituent chemograph. GCLAS replaces the computer program Sedcalc, which is the most recent USGS sanctioned tool for constructing sediment chemographs and computing suspended-sediment loads. Written in a portable language, GCLAS has an interactive graphical interface that permits easy entry of estimated values and provides new tools to aid in making those estimates. The use of a portable language for program development imparts a degree of computer platform independence that was difficult to obtain in the past, making implementation more straightforward within the USGS' s diverse computing environment. Some of the improvements introduced in GCLAS include (1) the ability to directly handle periods of zero or reverse flow, (2) the ability to analyze and apply coefficient adjustments to concentrations as a function of time, streamflow, or both, (3) the ability to compute discharges of constituents other than suspended sediment, (4) the ability to easily view data related to the chemograph at different levels of detail, and (5) the ability to readily display covariate time series data to provide enhanced visual cues for drawing the constituent chemograph.

McKallip, T. E.; Koltun, G. F.; Gray, J. R.; Glysson, G. D.

2001-01-01

196

Radical scavenging activity of Crocus sativus L. extract and its bioactive constituents.  

PubMed

Radical scavenging activity is involved in aging processes, antiinflammatory, anticancer and wound healing activity. Hence, in the present study the DPPH radical scavenging activity of a natural product that possesses biological properties, an extract of Crocus sativus L. (saffron), grown in Crocos, Kozani (Greece), and some of its bioactive constituents (crocin, safranal) was studied. It was shown that a methanol extract of Crocus sativus exhibited high antioxidant activity, although it contains several active and inactive constituents. In trying to approximate a structure-activity relationship, two bioactive constituents of saffron extract were tested, namely crocin and safranal. Crocin showed high radical scavenging activity (50% and 65% for 500 and 1,000 ppm solution in methanol, respectively), followed by safranal (34% for 500 ppm solution). All the tested samples showed high radical scavenging activity, probably due to the ability to donate a hydrogen atom to the DPPH radical.Thus, saffron grown in Greece can be used promisingly in functional foods, drinks with antioxidant activity, in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations for their antioxidant activity and probably for their antiaging activity. Saffron can also be used internally in the form of powder or other pharmacotechnical formulae as a food supplement with antioxidant properties. PMID:16317646

Assimopoulou, A N; Sinakos, Z; Papageorgiou, V P

2005-11-01

197

The function of loud calls in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra): Food, mate, or infant defense?  

PubMed

Loud calling (i.e., howling) is the single most distinctive behavioral attribute of the social system of howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.), yet no general consensus exists regarding its main function. During a 28-month study of five groups of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) at Palenque National Park, Mexico, we examined whether howling mainly functioned in the defense of food resources, mates, or infants vulnerable to infanticide. We recorded 602 howling bouts. Howling occurred more frequently when monkeys were feeding, particularly on fruits, and less frequently when they were resting than would be expected by chance. Furthermore, howling was concentrated in areas of the home range in which major feeding sites were located. Howling did not occur more frequently when vulnerable infants or potentially fertile females were present versus absent, nor did the howling rate increase with an increasing number of vulnerable infants or potentially fertile females in the group. Howling bouts lasted on average 14.4?±?SE 0.5?min, and call duration was not influenced by the presence of vulnerable infants or potentially fertile females. The duration of spontaneous calls, however, was positively correlated to the percentage of feeding time in the vicinity of howling locations. In addition, vocal displays lasted longer when neighboring groups and extragroup males were within visual contact compared with spontaneous calls and calls in response to nearby calls in which there was no visual contact between callers. Our findings suggest that loud calls in black howler monkeys are multifunctional, but most frequently occur in the defense of major feeding sites. These calls also may function in the defense of infants and mates during encounters with extragroup males. Am. J. Primatol. 76:1196-1206, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24865565

Van Belle, Sarie; Estrada, Alejandro; Garber, Paul A

2014-12-01

198

Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs of individual plants: plant species and community effects.  

PubMed

Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers and providers of resources to the soil food web, are of vital importance for the composition, structure, and functioning of soil communities. However, whether natural soil food webs that are completely open to immigration and emigration differ underneath individual plants remains unknown. In a biodiversity restoration experiment we first compared the soil nematode communities of 228 individual plants belonging to eight herbaceous species. We included grass, leguminous, and non-leguminous species. Each individual plant grew intermingled with other species, but all plant species had a different nematode community. Moreover, nematode communities were more similar when plant individuals were growing in the same as compared to different plant communities, and these effects were most apparent for the groups of bacterivorous, carnivorous, and omnivorous nematodes. Subsequently, we analyzed the composition, structure, and functioning of the complete soil food webs of 58 individual plants, belonging to two of the plant species, Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae) and Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae). We isolated and identified more than 150 taxa/groups of soil organisms. The soil community composition and structure of the entire food webs were influenced both by the species identity of the plant individual and the surrounding plant community. Unexpectedly, plant identity had the strongest effects on decomposing soil organisms, widely believed to be generalist feeders. In contrast, quantitative food web modeling showed that the composition of the plant community influenced nitrogen mineralization under individual plants, but that plant species identity did not affect nitrogen or carbon mineralization or food web stability. Hence, the composition and structure of entire soil food webs vary at the scale of individual plants and are strongly influenced by the species identity of the plant. However, the ecosystem functions these food webs provide are determined by the identity of the entire plant community. PMID:21058562

Bezemer, T M; Fountain, M T; Barea, J M; Christensen, S; Dekker, S C; Duyts, H; van Hal, R; Harvey, J A; Hedlund, K; Maraun, M; Mikola, J; Mladenov, A G; Robin, C; de Ruiter, P C; Scheu, S; Setälä, H; Smilauer, P; van der Putten, W H

2010-10-01

199

Comparative evaluation of 11 essential oils of different origin as functional antioxidants, antiradicals and antimicrobials in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven essential oils, namely, Cananga odorata (Annonaceae), Cupressus sempervirens (Cupressaceae), Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae), Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae), Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), Pinus radiata (Pinaceae), Piper crassinervium (Piperaceae), Psidium guayava (Myrtaceae), Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae), Thymus x citriodorus (Lamiaceae) and Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), were characterized by means of GC and GC–MS and evaluated for their food functional ingredient related properties. These properties were compared

Gianni Sacchetti; Silvia Maietti; Mariavittoria Muzzoli; Martina Scaglianti; Stefano Manfredini; Matteo Radice; Renato Bruni

2005-01-01

200

Effect of Dietary Carotenoid Supplementation on Food Intake and Immune Function in a Songbird with no Carotenoid  

E-print Network

and systemically, in order to boost their immune system and hence directly advertise their health state performed signifi- cantly better than control birds in our assay of constitutive innate immunity (bacterialEffect of Dietary Carotenoid Supplementation on Food Intake and Immune Function in a Songbird

McGraw, Kevin J.

201

Food search through the eyes of a monkey: A functional substitution approach for assessing the ecology of primate color vision  

E-print Network

Food search through the eyes of a monkey: A functional substitution approach for assessing the ecology of primate color vision A.D. Melin a, , D.W. Kline b , C.M. Hickey b , L.M. Fedigan a a Department of primate trichromatic color vision. This has recently been questioned by studies of free-ranging primates

Fedigan, Linda M.

202

Food synergy: an operational concept for understanding nutrition1234  

PubMed Central

Research and practice in nutrition relate to food and its constituents, often as supplements. In food, however, the biological constituents are coordinated. We propose that “thinking food first”' results in more effective nutrition research and policy. The concept of food synergy provides the necessary theoretical underpinning. The evidence for health benefit appears stronger when put together in a synergistic dietary pattern than for individual foods or food constituents. A review of dietary supplementation suggests that although supplements may be beneficial in states of insufficiency, the safe middle ground for consumption likely is food. Also, food provides a buffer during absorption. Constituents delivered by foods taken directly from their biological environment may have different effects from those formulated through technologic processing, but either way health benefits are likely to be determined by the total diet. The concept of food synergy is based on the proposition that the interrelations between constituents in foods are significant. This significance is dependent on the balance between constituents within the food, how well the constituents survive digestion, and the extent to which they appear biologically active at the cellular level. Many examples are provided of superior effects of whole foods over their isolated constituents. The food synergy concept supports the idea of dietary variety and of selecting nutrient-rich foods. The more we understand about our own biology and that of plants and animals, the better we will be able to discern the combinations of foods, rather than supplements, which best promote health. PMID:19279083

Gross, Myron D; Tapsell, Linda C

2009-01-01

203

Food Chains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, you will discover the way food chains function by viewing four different types of food chains and designing your favorite one. How is the flow of energy traced through a food chain? Use your cluster organizer to record information for four different food chains and what the consumers, 1st level consumers, 2nd level consumers, and 3rd level consumers are and what they eat. Begin by viewing ecosystems: Introduction to Ecosystems Now that you know what an ...

Hammond, Ms.

2009-10-21

204

Strain screening, fermentation, separation, and encapsulation for production of nattokinase functional food.  

PubMed

This study presents a novel and integrated preparation technology for nattokinase functional food, including strain screening, fermentation, separation, and encapsulation. To rapidly screen a nattokinase-productive strain, PCR-based screening method was combined with fibrinolytic activity-based method, and a high productive strain, Bacillus subtilis LSSE-22, was isolated from Chinese soybean paste. Reduction of poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA) concentration may contribute to separation of nattokinase and reduction of late-onset anaphylaxis risk. Chickpeas were confirmed as the favorable substrate for enhancement of nattokinase production and reduction of ?-PGA yield. Using cracked chickpeas, the nattokinase activity reached 356.25?±?17.18 FU/g (dry weight), which is much higher than previous reports. To further reduce ?-PGA concentration, ethanol fractional extraction and precipitation were applied for separation of nattokinase. By extraction with 50 % and precipitation with 75 % ethanol solution, 4,000.58?±?192.98 FU/g of nattokinase powders were obtained, and the activity recovery reached 89?±?1 %, while ?-PGA recovery was reduced to 21?±?2 %. To improve the nattokinase stability at acidic pH condition, the nattokinase powders were encapsulated, and then coated with methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate copolymer. After encapsulation, the nattokinase was protected from being denatured under various acid conditions, and pH-responsible controlled release at simulated intestinal fluid was realized. PMID:22987066

Wei, Xuetuan; Luo, Mingfang; Xie, Yuchun; Yang, Liangrong; Li, Haojian; Xu, Lin; Liu, Huizhou

2012-12-01

205

A genetic approach for investigating vagal sensory roles in regulation of gastrointestinal function and food intake.  

PubMed

Sensory innervation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by the vagus nerve plays important roles in regulation of GI function and feeding behavior. This innervation is composed of a large number of sensory pathways, each arising from a different population of sensory receptors. Progress in understanding the functions of these pathways has been impeded by their close association with vagal efferent, sympathetic, and enteric systems, which makes it difficult to selectively label or manipulate them. We suggest that a genetic approach may overcome these barriers. To illustrate the potential value of this strategy, as well as to gain insights into its application, investigations of CNS pathways and peripheral tissues involved in energy balance that benefited from the use of gene manipulations are reviewed. Next, our studies examining the feasibility of using mutations of developmental genes for manipulating individual vagal afferent pathways are reviewed. These experiments characterized mechanoreceptor morphology, density and distribution, and feeding patterns in four viable mutant mouse strains. In each strain a single population of vagal mechanoreceptors innervating the muscle wall of the GI tract was altered, and was associated with selective effects on feeding patterns, thus supporting the feasibility of this strategy. However, two limitations of this approach must be addressed for it to achieve its full potential. First, mutation effects in tissues outside the GI tract can contribute to changes in GI function or feeding. Additionally, knockouts of developmental genes are often lethal, preventing analysis of mature innervation and ingestive behavior. To address these issues, we propose to develop conditional gene knockouts restricted to specific GI tract tissues. Two genes of interest are brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), which are essential for vagal afferent development. Creating conditional knockouts of these genes requires knowledge of their GI tract expression during development, which little is known about. Preliminary investigation revealed that during development BDNF and NT-3 are each expressed in several GI tract regions, and that their expression patterns overlap in some tissues, but are distinct in others. Importantly, GI tissues that express BDNF or NT-3 are innervated by vagal afferents, and expression of these neurotrophins occurs during the periods of axon invasion and receptor formation, consistent with roles for BDNF or NT-3 in these processes and in receptor survival. These results provide a basis for targeting BDNF or NT-3 knockouts to specific GI tract tissues, and potentially altering vagal afferent innervation only in that tissue (e.g., smooth muscle vs. mucosa). Conditional BDNF or NT-3 knockouts that are successful in selectively altering a vagal GI afferent pathway will be valuable for developing an understanding of that pathway's roles in GI function and food intake. PMID:16677865

Fox, Edward Alan

2006-06-30

206

Effects of safranal, a constituent of saffron, and vitamin E on nerve functions and histopathology following crush injury of sciatic nerve in rats.  

PubMed

Safranal is one of the major components of saffron and has many biological effects such as antioxidant property. The present study investigated the effects of safranal on sciatic nerve function after induction of crush injury. We also used of vitamin E as a reference potent antioxidant agent. In anesthetized rats, right sciatic nerve was crushed using a small haemostatic forceps. Functional recovery was assessed using sciatic functional index (SFI). Acetone spray and von Frey filament tests were used for neuropathic pain assay. Histopathological changes including severities of Wallerian degeneration of sciatic nerve and gastrocnemius muscle atrophy were investigated by light microscopy. Blood levels of malodialdehyde (MDA) were also measured. The SFI values were accelerated, cold and mechanical allodynia were suppressed, the severities of Wallerian degeneration and muscular atrophy were improved, and the increased MDA level was reversed with 10 consecutive days intraperitoneal injections of 0.2 and 0.8 mg/kg of safranal and 100 mg/kg of vitamin E. It is concluded that safranal and vitamin E produced same improving effects on crushed-injured sciatic nerve functions. Inhibition of oxidative stress pathway may be involved in improving effects of safranal and vitamin E on functions and histopathology of an injured peripheral nerve. PMID:24315349

Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Maroufi, Shirin; Kazemi-Shojaei, Sharare; Erfanparast, Amir; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Taati, Mina; Dabbaghi, Milad; Escort, Mona

2014-04-15

207

Diet, Food Intake, and Disturbed Physiology in the Pathogenesis of Symptoms in Functional Dyspepsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ut quod ali cibus estaliis fuat acre venenum“What is food to one manis bitter poison to others”Lucretius, 99 – 55 BCFunctional dyspepsia (FD) remains a relatively poorly characterized gastrointestinal disorder of unknown etiology that is frequently difficult to manage. A systematic review of the literature relating to food intake and FD is summarized here. Many patients with FD report symptoms

Christine Feinle-Bisset; Rosalie Vozzo; Michael Horowitz; Nicholas J. Talley

2004-01-01

208

Encapsulation for preservation of functionality and targeted delivery of bioactive food components  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a tremendous increase in the number of food products containing bioactive components with a health promoting or disease preventing effect. Bioactive food components can be divided into bioactive molecules and bioactive living cells (probiotics). Both bioactive molecules and bioactive living cells may benefit from encapsulation since many report low survival of bioactivity due to adverse effects of

Paul de Vos; Marijke M. Faas; Milica Spasojevic; Jan Sikkema

2010-01-01

209

Biotechnically produced carbohydrates with functional properties for use in food systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial polysaccharides with potential use in food as gelling, thickening, stabilising or encapsulating agents will be reviewed. Attention will be focussed on xanthan, gellan and the possible use of cyclosophorans as replacements for cyclodextrins. The possibility of manipulating the rheology of fermented food systems by controlling the extracellular production of polysaccharides by bacterial starter cultures will be discussed.

V. J. Morris

1990-01-01

210

Constituent Structure Sets I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We replace traditional phrase structure tree representations by a new type of set-based representations. In comparison to labeled trees in which we can potentially copy one category onto an infinite number of distinct nodes, the proposed representation system significantly restricts syntactic copying. Thus, we do not need to filter out copying possibilities by way of additional constraints. Each structure represents a set of constituents with structurally distinguished items. We provide the intended PF structures with regard to which our set based syntactic representations are sound and complete via our PF interpretation rules. The intended PF structures provide enough flexibility to accommodate word order variation across languages relative to the same syntactic structures.

Uchida, Hiroyuki; Bury, Dirk

211

Nutrition, brain function and cognitive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military interest in the effects of nutritional factors on cognitive function has stimulated considerable research on a variety of food constituents. This paper will review the research on the amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, caffeine and carbohydrate. It will focus on research that addresses the potential utility of these compounds in military applications, particularly the acute, as opposed to chronic,

Harris R Lieberman

2003-01-01

212

The multiple functions of the endocannabinoid system: a focus on the regulation of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cannabis sativa (also known as marijuana) has been cultivated by man for more than 5,000 years. However, there was a rise in its use in the 20th century for recreational, religious or spiritual, and medicinal purposes. The main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, whose structure was identified in the 1960's, is ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol. On the other hand, the discovery of cannabinoid

Eduardo Tibiriça

2010-01-01

213

Development of a functional food or drug against unloading-mediated muscle atrophy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is a primary regulator of muscle protein turnover, providing a mechanism for selective degradation of regulatory and structural proteins. This pathway is constitutively active in muscle fibers and mediates both intracellular signaling events and normal muscle protein turnover. However, conditions of decreased muscle use, so called unloading, remarkably stimulate activity of this pathway, resulting in loss of muscle protein. In fact, we previously reported that expression of several ubiquitin ligase genes, such as MuRF-1, Cbl-b, and Siah-1A, which are rate-limiting enzymes of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway, are significantly up-regulated in rat skeletal muscle during spaceflight. Moreover, we found that Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1, an important intermediates of IGF-1 signal transduction, contributes to muscle atrophy during unloading. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1 leads to prevention of muscle atrophy during unloading. In this study, we aimed to evaluate oligopeptide as an inhibitor against ubiquitination of IRS-1 by Cbl-b. We synthesized various oligopeptides that may competitively inhibit the binding of Cbl-b to IRS-1 on the basis of their structures and screened inhibitory effects of these synthesized oligopeptides on Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination of IRS-1 using in vitro ubiquitination systems. We found that two synthetic oligopeptides with specific amino acid sequences effectively inhibited interaction with Cbl-b and IRS-1, resulting in decreased ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1 (Patent pending). In contrast, we also found inhibitory activity against Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination of IRS-1 in soy protein-derived oligopeptides, whereas their inhibitory effects were weaker than those of synthetic oligopeptides. Our results suggest that specific oligopeptides may be available as a functional food against the muscle atrophy, especially through downregulation of the Cbl-b-mediated IRS-1 degradation.

Nikawa, Takeshi; Nakao, Reiko; Kagawa, Sachiko; Yamada, Chiharu; Abe, Manami; Tamura, Seiko; Kohno, Shohei; Sukeno, Akiko; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Okumura, Yuushi; Ishidoh, Kazumi

214

Neural correlates of stress and favorite-food cue exposure in adolescents: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a critical period of neurodevelopment for stress and appetitive processing, as well as a time of increased vulnerability to stress and engagement in risky behaviors. This study was conducted to examine brain activation patterns during stress and favorite-food-cue experiences relative to a neutral-relaxing condition in adolescents. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed using individualized script-driven guided imagery to compare brain responses with such experiences in 43 adolescents. Main effects of condition and gender were found, without a significant gender-by-condition interaction. Stress imagery, relative to neutral, was associated with activation in the caudate, thalamus, left hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, midbrain, left superior/middle temporal gyrus, and right posterior cerebellum. Appetitive imagery of favorite food was associated with caudate, thalamus, and midbrain activation compared with the neutral-relaxing condition. To understand neural correlates of anxiety and craving, subjective (self-reported) measures of stress-induced anxiety and favorite-food-cue-induced craving were correlated with brain activity during stress and appetitive food-cue conditions, respectively. High self-reported stress-induced anxiety was associated with hypoactivity in the striatum, thalamus, hippocampus, and midbrain. Self-reported favorite-food-cue-induced craving was associated with blunted activity in cortical-striatal regions, including the right dorsal and ventral striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, motor cortex, and left anterior cingulate cortex. These findings in adolescents indicate the activation of predominantly subcortical-striatal regions in the processing of stressful and appetitive experiences and link hypoactive striatal circuits to self-reported stress-induced anxiety and cue-induced favorite-food craving. PMID:22504779

Hommer, Rebecca E; Seo, Dongju; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Chaplin, Tara M; Mayes, Linda C; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N

2013-10-01

215

Neural Correlates of Stress and Favorite-Food Cue Exposure in Adolescents: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Adolescence is a critical period of neurodevelopment for stress and appetitive processing, as well as a time of increased vulnerability to stress and engagement in risky behaviors. The current study was conducted to examine brain activation patterns during stress and favorite-food-cue experiences relative to a neutral-relaxing condition in adolescents. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed using individualized script-driven guided imagery to compare brain responses to such experiences in 43 adolescents. Main effects of condition and gender were found, without a significant gender-by-condition interaction. Stress imagery, relative to neutral, was associated with activation in the caudate, thalamus, left hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, midbrain, left superior/middle temporal gyrus, and right posterior cerebellum. Appetitive imagery of favorite food was associated with caudate, thalamus, and midbrain activation compared to the neutral-relaxing condition. To understand neural correlates of anxiety and craving, subjective (self-reported) measures of stress-induced anxiety and favorite-food-cue-induced craving were correlated with brain activity during stress and appetitive food-cue conditions, respectively. High self-reported stress-induced anxiety was associated with hypoactivity in the striatum, thalamus, hippocampus and midbrain. Self-reported favorite-food-cue-induced craving was associated with blunted activity in cortical-striatal regions, including the right dorsal and ventral striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, motor cortex, and left anterior cingulate cortex. The current findings in adolescents indicate the activation of predominantly subcortical-striatal regions in the processing of stressful and appetitive experiences and link hypoactive striatal circuits to self-reported stress-induced anxiety and cue-induced favorite-food craving. PMID:22504779

Hommer, Rebecca E.; Seo, Dongju; Lacadie, Cheryl M.; Chaplin, Tara M.; Mayes, Linda C.; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N.

2012-01-01

216

Occurrence of toxigenic fungi and determination of mycotoxins by HPLC-FLD in functional foods and spices in China markets.  

PubMed

Twenty-four samples including 14 functional foods and 10 spices obtained from Chinese markets were examined for their mould profile. The mycotoxin contamination levels were also determined by an optimized HPLC-FLD method. 124 fungal isolates belonging to four different genera were recovered with Aspergillus and Penicillium as predominant fungi, with an incidence of 66.1% and 15.3%, respectively. In functional foods Aspergillus niger section (57.1%) was isolated more frequently, followed by Aspergillus flavi section (50.0%) and Aspergillus ochraceus section (21.4%), with the most contaminated samples being Coix seeds. Similar fungal presence and frequency were encountered in spice with A. niger section group (60.0%) and A. flavi section (40.0%) as main fungi. Cumin and Pricklyash peel samples showed the highest fungal contamination. Four functional foods and three spices were found to be positive at low levels for mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 (up to 0.26?g/kg) and ochratoxin A (OTA) (5.0?g/kg). The more frequently detected mycotoxin was AFB1 (16.7%). PMID:24176349

Kong, Weijun; Wei, Riwei; Logrieco, Antonio F; Wei, Jianhe; Wen, Jing; Xiao, Xiaohe; Yang, Meihua

2014-03-01

217

Functionality of liquid smoke as an all-natural antimicrobial in food preservation.  

PubMed

The smoking of foods, especially meats, has been used as a preservation technique for centuries. Today, smoking methods often involve the use of wood smoke condensates, commonly known as liquid smoke. Liquid smoke is produced by condensing wood smoke created by the pyrolysis of sawdust or wood chips followed by removal of the carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The main products of wood pyrolysis are phenols, carbonyls and organic acids which are responsible for the flavor, color and antimicrobial properties of liquid smoke. Several common food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus have shown sensitivity to liquid smoke in vitro and in food systems. Therefore liquid smoke has potential for use as an all-natural antimicrobial in commercial applications where smoke flavor is desired. This review will cover the application and effectiveness of liquid smoke and fractions of liquid smoke as an all-natural food preservative. This review will be valuable for the industrial and research communities in the food science and technology areas. PMID:24583328

Lingbeck, Jody M; Cordero, Paola; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

2014-06-01

218

Promoting functional foods as acceptable alternatives to doping: potential for information-based social marketing approach  

PubMed Central

Background Substances with performance enhancing properties appear on a continuum, ranging from prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED) through dietary supplements to functional foods (FF). Anti-doping messages designed to dissuade athletes from using PEDs have been typically based on moralising sport competition and/or employing scare campaigns with focus on the negative consequences. Campaigns offering comparable and acceptable alternatives are nonexistent, nor are athletes helped in finding these for themselves. It is timely that social marketing strategies for anti-doping prevention and intervention incorporate media messages that complement the existing approaches by promoting comparable and acceptable alternatives to doping. To facilitate this process, the aim of this study was to ascertain whether a single exposure knowledge-based information intervention led to increased knowledge and subsequently result in changes in beliefs and automatic associations regarding performance enhancements. Methods In a repeated measure design, 115 male recreational gym users were recruited and provided with a brief information pamphlet on nitrite/nitrate and erythropoietin as a comparison. Measures of knowledge, beliefs and automatic associations were taken before and after the intervention with at least 24 hours between the two assessments. The psychological tests included explicit measures of beliefs and cognitive attitudes toward FF and PED using a self-reported questionnaire and computerised assessments of automatic associations using the modified and shortened version of the Implicit Association Test. Results The information based intervention significantly increased knowledge (p < 0.001), changed explicit beliefs in specific FF (p < 0.001) and shifted the automatic association of FF with health to performance (p < 0.001). Explicitly expressed beliefs and automatic associations appear to be independent. Conclusion Evidence was found that even a single exposure to a persuasive positive message can lead to belief change and can create new or alter existing associations - but only in the specific domain. Interventions to change outcome expectations in a positive way could be a rewarding avenue for anti-doping. Effective social marketing campaigns for drug free sport should follow appropriate market segmentation and use targeted messages via promoting the natural form as opposed to the purified form of the main active ingredient. PMID:21067611

2010-01-01

219

The Importance of Take-Out Food Packaging Attributes: Conjoint Analysis and Quality Function Deployment Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research aims to investigate the importance of take-out food packaging attributes, using conjoint analysis and QFD approach among consumers of take-out food products in Jakarta, Indonesia. The conjoint results indicate that perception about packaging material (such as paper, plastic, and polystyrene foam) plays the most important role overall in consumer perception. The clustering results that there is strong segmentation in which take-out food packaging material consumer consider most important. Some consumers are mostly oriented toward the colour of packaging, while another segment of customers concerns on packaging shape and packaging information. Segmentation variables based on packaging response can provide very useful information to maximize image of products through the package's impact. The results of House of Quality development described that Conjoint Analysis - QFD is a useful combination of the two methodologies in product development, market segmentation, and the trade off between customers' requirements in the early stages of HOQ process

Lestari Widaningrum, Dyah

2014-03-01

220

Food Chain & Food Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the differences and similarities between food chain and food web? Print (2) Garden Gate Print (1) Venn Diagram Garden Gate Venn Diagram Let's learn about the food chain and food web.Read the notes.Food Chain 4 Also, view more notes on food chain and food web. Go to the 7th title Food Chain which is before the Habitats and food chain title of the webpage.Food Chain Power Point Presentation Record what you learn ...

B, Ms.

2011-10-27

221

Functional Evaluation of THIQ, a Melanocortin 4 Receptor Agonist, in Models of Food Intake and Inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central melanocortinergic system plays an important role in regulating different aspects of energy homeostasis and the immunomodulatory response. In the present study, we evaluated the in vivo activities of food intake suppression and anti-inflammatory activity of THIQ, which has been proposed to possess high and selective melanocortin-4 receptor agonistic activity in vitro . The results showed that THIQ (0.1,

Ruta Muceniece; Liga Zvejniece; Reinis Vilskersts; Edgars Liepinsh; Larisa Baumane; Ivars Kalvinsh; Jarl E. Wikberg; Maija Dambrova

2007-01-01

222

Mesolimbic dopaminergic system activity as a function of food reward: A microdialysis study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mesolimbic dopaminergic system (MDS) has been shown to be implicated in feeding behaviors. The present experiment was conducted to examine the effects of the sensory properties of food ingested on MDS activity. Microdialysis coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was employed to measure the extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and its main metabolites (DOPAC and HVA) in

Patricia Martel; Marc Fantino

1996-01-01

223

Structural and functional succession in the nematode fauna of a soil food web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil microplots were amended with organic materials of varying nature and complexity but providing similar amounts of carbon. Materials were either placed on the soil surface or incorporated. Unamended and mineral fertilizer control plots were established. Plots were maintained vegetation-free so that the food web activity was fueled by resident soil organic matter and the input material. Enrichment-opportunist bacterivore nematodes

H. Ferris; M. M. Matute

2003-01-01

224

Food proteins as a source of bioactive peptides with diverse functions.  

PubMed

In addition to supplying essential nutrients, some food proteins can confer additional health benefits beyond nutrition. The presence of bioactive proteins and peptides in different foods is a factor not currently taken into consideration when assessing the dietary quality of food proteins. The range of described physiological benefits attributed to bioactive proteins and peptides is diverse. Multiple factors can potentially impact on the ability of a bioactive peptide or protein to elicit an effect. Although some food proteins act directly in their intact form to elicit their effects, generally it is peptides derived from digestion, hydrolysis or fermentation that are of most interest. The levels of bioactive peptides generated must be sufficient to elicit a response, but should not be so high as to be unsafe, thus causing negative effects. In addition, some peptides cause systemic effects and therefore must be absorbed, again in sufficient amounts to elicit their action. Many studies to date have been carried out in vitro; therefore it is important that further trials are conducted in vivo to assess efficacy, dose response and safety of the peptides, particularly if health related claims are to be made. Therefore, methods must be developed and standardised that enable the measurement of health benefits and also the level of bioactive peptides which are absorbed into the bloodstream. Once standardised, such methods may provide a new perspective and an additional mechanism for analysing protein quality which is currently not encompassed by the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). PMID:23107526

Rutherfurd-Markwick, Kay J

2012-08-01

225

POTENTIAL OF SELECTED TROPICAL FRUIT PEELS AS DIETARY FIBER IN FUNCTIONAL FOODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peels of rambutan, durian, santol, longan, longong, Kaeo mango, and Chok Anan mango were evaluated for their potential to be used as dietary fiber (DF) for food enrichment. All DF samples prepared from selected fruit peels showed high content of total dietary fiber (52–84 g\\/100 g dry matter) and also exhibited the significant difference in DF quality. All DF

Sorada Wanlapa; Kulaphat Wachirasiri; Damrongchai Sithisam-ang; Thitichaya Suwannatup

2011-01-01

226

Food and water intake as functions of resource consumption costs in a closed economy.  

PubMed Central

In two experiments, rats living in a closed economy were offered continuous, concurrent access to four resources: food, water, a nest, and a running wheel. Costs of consuming food and water were imposed with bar-press requirements, and the price of either one or both resources was raised. As the consumption cost increased, less was consumed in each bout of resource use. Bout frequency increased, but not sufficiently to compensate for the fall in bout size, and total intake fell. Food and water tended to be complementary resources, in that as intake of one fell with its price, intake of the other also decreased. This interaction was accounted for by the defense of the ratio of body water to lean body mass. As amount consumed decreased, increases in feed efficiency (weight gain per unit of food ingested) and the use of stored calories compensated for the reduced energy intake. There was evidence of competition between feeding and drinking at the higher costs: When both commodities were expensive, the decline in the intake of each one was greater than when only one commodity was expensive. Although the time spent nesting, running, and in unmonitored activity was adjusted when feeding or drinking took more of the rat's day, there was no particular activity that was sacrificed. PMID:8636661

Mathis, C E; Johnson, D F; Collier, G

1996-01-01

227

Chemical Composition and Potential Health Effects of Prunes: A Functional Food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referee: Paul La Chance, Dept. of Food Science, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ Supported in part by an educational grant from California Dried Plum Board. Prunes are dried plums, fruits of Prunus domestica L., cultivated and propagated since ancient times. Most dried prunes are produced from cultivar d'Agen, especially in California and France, where the cultivar originated. After harvest, prune-making

Maria Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis; Phyllis E. Bowen; Erum A. Hussain; Bernadette I. Damayanti-Wood; Norman R. Farnsworth

2001-01-01

228

Bioactive biomolecules of mushrooms: Food function and medicinal effect of mushroom fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of the several thousand species of mushrooms (Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes) on earth, 1500 species are found in Japan. Many of these species are valuable as gene pool sources which can be utilized by biotechnology to develop new foods and new medicines. Many edible mushrooms are now being studied for their nutritional and flavor properties. To utilize the full potential

Takashi Mizuno

1995-01-01

229

Cortical representation of the constituent structure of sentences.  

PubMed

Linguistic analyses suggest that sentences are not mere strings of words but possess a hierarchical structure with constituents nested inside each other. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to search for the cerebral mechanisms of this theoretical construct. We hypothesized that the neural assembly that encodes a constituent grows with its size, which can be approximately indexed by the number of words it encompasses. We therefore searched for brain regions where activation increased parametrically with the size of linguistic constituents, in response to a visual stream always comprising 12 written words or pseudowords. The results isolated a network of left-hemispheric regions that could be dissociated into two major subsets. Inferior frontal and posterior temporal regions showed constituent size effects regardless of whether actual content words were present or were replaced by pseudowords (jabberwocky stimuli). This observation suggests that these areas operate autonomously of other language areas and can extract abstract syntactic frames based on function words and morphological information alone. On the other hand, regions in the temporal pole, anterior superior temporal sulcus and temporo-parietal junction showed constituent size effect only in the presence of lexico-semantic information, suggesting that they may encode semantic constituents. In several inferior frontal and superior temporal regions, activation was delayed in response to the largest constituent structures, suggesting that nested linguistic structures take increasingly longer time to be computed and that these delays can be measured with fMRI. PMID:21224415

Pallier, Christophe; Devauchelle, Anne-Dominique; Dehaene, Stanislas

2011-02-01

230

Cortical representation of the constituent structure of sentences  

PubMed Central

Linguistic analyses suggest that sentences are not mere strings of words but possess a hierarchical structure with constituents nested inside each other. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to search for the cerebral mechanisms of this theoretical construct. We hypothesized that the neural assembly that encodes a constituent grows with its size, which can be approximately indexed by the number of words it encompasses. We therefore searched for brain regions where activation increased parametrically with the size of linguistic constituents, in response to a visual stream always comprising 12 written words or pseudowords. The results isolated a network of left-hemispheric regions that could be dissociated into two major subsets. Inferior frontal and posterior temporal regions showed constituent size effects regardless of whether actual content words were present or were replaced by pseudowords (jabberwocky stimuli). This observation suggests that these areas operate autonomously of other language areas and can extract abstract syntactic frames based on function words and morphological information alone. On the other hand, regions in the temporal pole, anterior superior temporal sulcus and temporo-parietal junction showed constituent size effect only in the presence of lexico-semantic information, suggesting that they may encode semantic constituents. In several inferior frontal and superior temporal regions, activation was delayed in response to the largest constituent structures, suggesting that nested linguistic structures take increasingly longer time to be computed and that these delays can be measured with fMRI. PMID:21224415

Pallier, Christophe; Devauchelle, Anne-Dominique; Dehaene, Stanislas

2011-01-01

231

Fear begets function in the 'brown' world of detrital food webs.  

PubMed

Theory suggests that predators in detritus-based food webs should negatively influence plants, through direct effects on plant-facilitating detritivores. In a three-level food web of predaceous beetles, earthworms and plants, Zhao et al. (2013) report evidence to the contrary. They found that predators drove positive indirect effects on both plant-facilitating soil properties and above-ground plant biomass and that these positive effects were driven by predator-mediated vertical shifts in detritivore habitat use. Their study reinforces the importance of trait-mediated indirect interactions across both 'green' and 'brown' trophic cascades and emphasizes that understanding the spatial dimension of trophic cascade mechanisms remains a critical research priority. PMID:24758400

Nichols, Elizabeth

2013-07-01

232

The Biochemical and Functional Food Properties of the Bowman-Birk Inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) is a small water-soluble protein present in soybean and almost all monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds. The molecular size of BBI ranges from 1,513 Da to about 20,000 Da. BBI is to seeds what ?1-antitrypsin is to humans. Soy-based food products rich in BBI include soybean grits, soymilk, oilcake, soybean isolate, and soybean protein concentrate. BBI is

Jack N. Losso

2008-01-01

233

The Antioxidant Functions of Tocopherol and Tocotrienol Homologues in Oils, Fats, and Food Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review paper is focused on the relative antioxidant activities of tocopherols and tocotrienols in oils and fats and certain\\u000a food systems. ?-Tocopherol generally showed better antioxidant activity than ?-tocopherol in fats and oils, but at higher\\u000a concentrations ?-tocopherol was found to be a more active antioxidant. The results of studies on the optimum antioxidant concentrations\\u000a of tocopherols in oils

Christine M. SeppanenQinghua Song; Qinghua Song; A. Saari Csallany

2010-01-01

234

Demand for food on fixed-ratio schedules as a function of the quality of concurrently available reinforcement1  

PubMed Central

Six rats lever pressed for food on concurrent fixed-ratio schedules, in a two-compartment chamber. In one compartment, mixed diet pellets were delivered on fixed-ratio schedules of 1, 6, 11, and 16; in the other, either no food was delivered, or sucrose or mixed diet pellets were delivered on fixed-ratio 8. The number of pellets obtained in the first compartment declined as a function of fixed-ratio size in that compartment in all three conditions, but the decline was greatest overall with mixed diet pellets concurrently available in the other compartment, and least with no food concurrently available. The result is discussed in terms of economic demand theory, and is consistent with the prediction that elasticity of demand for a commodity (defined in operant terms as the ratio of the proportionate change in number of reinforcements per session to the proportionate change in fixed-ratio size) is greater the more substitutable for that commodity are any concurrently available commodities. PMID:16811999

Lea, S. E. G.; Roper, T. J.

1977-01-01

235

Endothelial function after high-sugar food ingestion is improved by endurance exercise performed on the previous day  

PubMed Central

Background Endothelial function deteriorates after glucose ingestion. This may be attributed to hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. Acute endurance exercise might improve postprandial endothelial function by enhancing glucoregulation and reducing postprandial hyperglycemia. Objective To determine if endurance exercise performed 17h prior to high-sugar food ingestion attenuates postprandial impairment in endothelial function. Design Healthy men and women (n=13; age: 48±17y) were studied on 2 occasions: after ?48h with no exercise (CON) and 17h after a 60-min bout of endurance exercise (EX). During each trial, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was used to assess endothelial function before and after the ingestion of a candy bar and soft drink. Glucose, insulin, and thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARS), as a marker of oxidative stress, were measured in blood obtained during each FMD measurement. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was calculated from the glucose and insulin data. Results FMD decreased significantly after food ingestion in both trials. However, prior exercise shifted the entire FMD curve upward (main treatment effect: p=0.0002), resulting in a greater area under the curve for FMD (774±122 vs. 607±122 % · min, p=0.01). Prior exercise shifted the glucose and insulin curves downward (main treatment effects: p=0.05 and p=0.0007, respectively) and increased ISI (10.8±0.7 vs. 9.2±0.7, p=0.01). TBARS did not differ between trials. Conclusion Postprandial endothelial function was improved by endurance exercise performed ~17 hours earlier. This effect was accompanied by exercise-induced improvements in insulin action and reductions in glycemia but did not correspond with reductions in oxidative stress, as assessed by TBARS. PMID:18614723

Weiss, Edward P.; Arif, Hassan; Villareal, Dennis T.; Marzetti, Emanuele; Holloszy, John O.

2008-01-01

236

Effect of a mixture of micronutrients, but not of bovine colostrum concentrate, on immune function parameters in healthy volunteers: a randomized placebo-controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Supplementation of nutritional deficiencies helps to improve immune function and resistance to infections in malnourished subjects. However, the suggested benefits of dietary supplementation for immune function in healthy well nourished subjects is less clear. Among the food constituents frequently associated with beneficial effects on immune function are micronutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, ?-carotene and zinc, and colostrum.

Danielle AW Wolvers; Margot HGM Logman; Reggy PJ van der Wielen; Ruud Albers

2006-01-01

237

Food consumption by young children: a function of parental feeding goals and practices.  

PubMed

Staggering health implications are associated with poor child diet. Given the importance of parents in impacting children's eating outcomes, the current study examined a theoretical framework in which both parental feeding goals and practices impact specific healthy and unhealthy child eating behaviors. Participants were 171 mothers of 3-6year old children who were diverse both socioeconomically and with regard to BMI. Mothers completed questionnaires via Mechanical Turk, an online workforce through Amazon.com. Structural Equation Modeling showed an adequate model fit in which Negative Feeding Practices (e.g., using food as a reward) mediated the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals (i.e., feeding children with health-oriented goals in mind) and Negative Eating Behaviors (e.g., consumption of candy and snacks). However, Negative Feeding Practices did not mediate the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals and Positive Eating Behaviors (i.e., fruits and vegetables). These findings suggest the important role of habitual food parenting practices in children's eating and have implications for parental health education programs. PMID:24275668

Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison E; Hoffmann, Debra A; Meers, Molly R; Koball, Afton M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

2014-03-01

238

Chronic nitrogen deposition alters the structure and function of detrital food webs in a northern hardwood ecosystem.  

PubMed

During the next century, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is projected to more than double, potentially slowing litter decomposition by altering microbial community composition and function. If the flow of energy though detrital food webs is diminished by the slowing of decay under higher rates of atmospheric N deposition, this agent of global change could also negatively impact the abundance and composition of soil fauna. To test this hypothesis, we studied soil faunal communities in four sugar-maple-dominated forests that comprise a long-term N deposition experiment. To examine whether changes in soil faunal communities could then feed back to influence litter decay, litterbags with 13C-enriched aspen litter were placed in the forest floor in one study site. The microbial community within the litterbags was characterized using PLFA analysis. Overall, long-term experimental N deposition reduced the abundance of microarthropods (ambient vs. experimental N deposition: 7844 vs. 4357 individuals/m2, respectively; P = 0.004). We attribute this overall decline partly to the reduced energy flow entering the detrital food web, which has been documented in previous work in our system. Although there was no difference in microarthropod species richness between N deposition treatments, there was a shift in community composition within the most abundant group (Oribatida), indicating species-specific responses to N deposition. Experimental N deposition reduced the number of microarthropods colonizing litterbags by 41% (P = 0.014). This was associated with a reduction in 13C mobilization from leaf litter into microbial biomass. Overall, this study demonstrates that chronic N deposition has a detrimental effect on the soil detritus food web, and that the negative effect may feed back to influence litter decay and ecosystem functioning. PMID:24147404

Gan, Huije; Zak, Donald R; Hunter, Mark D

2013-09-01

239

[Chemical constituents from Parthenocissus quinquefolia].  

PubMed

The chemical constituents of Parthenocissus quinque were investigated. The chemical constituents were isolated by column chromatography on silical gel and sephadex LH-20. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis and of comparison of physical constant. Nine compounds were isolated from this plant and the structures of them were identified as 3,4,5-trihydroxy- benzoic acid (1), piceatannol (2), resveratrol (3), resveratrol trans-dehydrodimer (4), cyphoste mmin B (5), pallidol (6), cyphostemmin A (7), quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (8), myricetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (9), respectively. Compounds 1, 4-9 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:20815210

Yang, Jianbo; Wang, Aiguo; Ji, Tengfei; Su, Yalun

2010-06-01

240

A genetic approach for investigating vagal sensory roles in regulation of gastrointestinal function and food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory innervation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by the vagus nerve plays important roles in regulation of GI function and feeding behavior. This innervation is composed of a large number of sensory pathways, each arising from a different population of sensory receptors. Progress in understanding the functions of these pathways has been impeded by their close association with vagal efferent,

Edward Alan Fox

2006-01-01

241

Food supplementation and testosterone interact to influence reproductive behavior and immune function in Sceloporus graciosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energetic resources in an organism's environment are essential for executing a wide range of life-history functions, including immunity and reproduction. Most energetic budgets, however, are limited, which can lead to trade-offs among competing functions. Increasing reproductive effort tends to decrease immunity in many cases, and increasing total energy via supplemental feedings can eliminate this effect. Testosterone (T), an important

Mayté Ruiz; Susannah S. French; Gregory E. Demas; Emília P. Martins

2010-01-01

242

Multicultural Leadership for Restructured Constituencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conceptual model is developed that presents leadership as process and participation by followers in urban schools in which decentralization efforts are underway. The model advances the work of urban school administrators as they deal with constituencies from diverse perspectives and predilections. Applications of the model involve behaviors that…

Strodl, Peter; Johnson, Burke

243

A simple mixture theory for ? Newtonian and generalized Newtonian constituents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the development of mathematical models based on conservation laws for a saturated mixture of ? homogeneous, isotropic, and incompressible constituents for isothermal flows. The constituents and the mixture are assumed to be Newtonian or generalized Newtonian fluids. Power law and Carreau-Yasuda models are considered for generalized Newtonian shear thinning fluids. The mathematical model is derived for a ? constituent mixture with volume fractions using principles of continuum mechanics: conservation of mass, balance of momenta, first and second laws of thermodynamics, and principles of mixture theory yielding continuity equations, momentum equations, energy equation, and constitutive theories for mechanical pressures and deviatoric Cauchy stress tensors in terms of the dependent variables related to the constituents. It is shown that for Newtonian fluids with constant transport properties, the mathematical models for constituents are decoupled. In this case, one could use individual constituent models to obtain constituent deformation fields, and then use mixture theory to obtain the deformation field for the mixture. In the case of generalized Newtonian fluids, the dependence of viscosities on deformation field does not permit decoupling. Numerical studies are also presented to demonstrate this aspect. Using fully developed flow of Newtonian and generalized Newtonian fluids between parallel plates as a model problem, it is shown that partial pressures p ? of the constituents must be expressed in terms of the mixture pressure p. In this work, we propose and which implies which obviously holds. This rule for partial pressure is shown to be valid for a mixture of Newtonian and generalized Newtonian constituents yielding Newtonian and generalized Newtonian mixture. Modifications of the currently used constitutive theories for deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor are proposed. These modifications are demonstrated to be essential in order for the mixture theory for ? constituents to yield a valid mathematical model when the constituents are the same. Dimensionless form of the mathematical models is derived and used to present numerical studies for boundary value problems using finite element processes based on a residual functional, that is, least squares finite element processes in which local approximations are considered in scalar product spaces. Fully developed flow between parallel plates and 1:2 asymmetric backward facing step is used as model problems for a mixture of two constituents.

Surana, K. S.; Powell, M.; Reddy, J. N.

2014-01-01

244

Will Isomalto-Oligosaccharides, a Well-Established Functional Food in Asia, Break through the European and American Market? The Status of Knowledge on these Prebiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This critical review article presents the current state of knowledge on isomalto-oligosaccharides, some well known functional oligosaccharides in Asia, to evaluate their potential as emergent prebiotics in the American and European functional food market. It includes first a unique inventory of the different families of compounds which have been considered as IMOs and their specific structure. A description has been

Dorothee Goffin; Nathalie Delzenne; Christophe Blecker; Emilien Hanon; Claude Deroanne; Michel Paquot

2011-01-01

245

Applied nutritional investigation Effects of food fortification on nutritional and functional status in frail elderly nursing home residents at risk of malnutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Malnutrition is a frequent problem in the elderly and is associated with an impaired functional status and higher morbidity and mortality. In this study we evaluated the effect of a 12-wk nutritional intervention with fortified food on nutritional and functional status in nursing home residents at risk of malnutrition. Methods: Nutritional status was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment.

Christine Smoliner; Kristina Norman; Ramona Scheufele; Wolfgang Hartig; Matthias Pirlich; Herbert Lochs

246

Healthy and adverse effects of plant-derived functional metabolites: the need of revealing their content and bioactivity in a complex food matrix.  

PubMed

In recent years, both food quality and its effect on human health have become a fundamental issue all over the world. As a consequence of this new and increased awareness, American, European, and Asian policymakers have strongly encouraged the research programs on food quality and safety thematic. Attempts to improve human health and to satisfy people's desire for healthcare without intake of pharmaceuticals, has led the food industry to focus attention on functional or nutraceutical food. For a long time, compounds with nutraceutical activity have been produced chemically, but the new demands for a sustainable life have gradually led the food industry to move towards natural compounds, mainly those derived from plants. Many phytochemicals are known to promote good health, but, sometimes, undesirable effects are also reported. Furthermore, several products present on the market show few benefits and sometimes even the reverse - unhealthy effects; the evidence of efficacy is often unconvincing and epidemiological studies are necessary to prove the truth of their claims. Therefore, there is a need for reliable analytical control systems to measure the bioactivity, content, and quality of these additives in the complex food matrix. This review describes the most widespread nutraceutics and an analytical control of the same using recently developed biosensors which are promising candidates for routine control of functional foods. PMID:23072533

Lavecchia, Teresa; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Giardi, Maria T

2013-01-01

247

An antioxidant bearberry ( Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) extract modulates surface hydrophobicity of a wide range of food-related bacteria: implications for functional food safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant extracts intended for use in foods may also have biological effects on bacteria. The influence of an antioxidant ethanolic bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) leaf extract on the surface hydrophobicities of 25 food-related bacteria was determined by the bacterial attachment to hydrocarbon assay. The presence of the extract caused a significant increase (p<0.05) in hydrophobicity of 14, a significant decrease (p<0.05)

Gary A Dykes; Ryszard Amarowicz; Ronald B Pegg

2003-01-01

248

Functional food quality of Curcuma caesia, Curcuma zedoaria and Curcuma aeruginosa endemic to Northeastern India.  

PubMed

Curcuma spp. (Zingiberaceae) is one of the significant ingredients in food and traditional medicines. The current study was to investigate health-benefits of the rhizomes of endemic Curcuma caesia, Curcuma zedoaria and Curcuma aeruginosa using in vitro antioxidant, antiinflammatory and human tumor cell proliferation inhibitory activities. Among these, C. caesia (black turmeric) showed the best overall biological activities based on [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO), cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and -2) enzymes, and tumor cell growth inhibitory assays. The hexane and methanolic extracts of C. caesia (CCH and CCM) showed LPO inhibition by 31 and 43 %, and COX-2 enzyme by 29 and 38 %, respectively, at 100 ?g/ml. Eleven terpenoids were isolated and identified. The MTT antioxidant assay revealed that the extracts of three Curcuma spp. at 250 ?g/ml and isolates at 5 ?g/ml demonstrated activity comparable to positive controls vitamin C and t-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) at 25 ?g/ml. The extracts inhibited LPO by 40 % at 250 ?g/ml whereas pure isolates 1-11 by about 20 %. The extracts and isolates inhibited COX-1 and -2 enzymes between the ranges of 3-56 and 5-30 %, respectively. The in vitro biological activity exhibited by the extracts and isolates of C. caesia rhizome further supported its use in traditional medicine. PMID:23359084

Liu, Yunbao; Roy, Subhra Saikat; Nebie, Roger H C; Zhang, Yanjun; Nair, Muraleedharan G

2013-03-01

249

Plant sterols: factors affecting their efficacy and safety as functional food ingredients  

PubMed Central

Plant sterols are naturally occurring molecules that humanity has evolved with. Herein, we have critically evaluated recent literature pertaining to the myriad of factors affecting efficacy and safety of plant sterols in free and esterified forms. We conclude that properly solubilized 4-desmetyl plant sterols, in ester or free form, in reasonable doses (0.8–1.0 g of equivalents per day) and in various vehicles including natural sources, and as part of a healthy diet and lifestyle, are important dietary components for lowering low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and maintaining good heart health. In addition to their cholesterol lowering properties, plant sterols possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenicity, and anti-oxidation activities, and should thus be of clinical importance, even for those individuals without elevated LDL cholesterol. The carotenoid lowering effect of plant sterols should be corrected by increasing intake of food that is rich in carotenoids. In pregnant and lactating women and children, further study is needed to verify the dose required to decrease blood cholesterol without affecting fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoid status. PMID:15070410

Berger, Alvin; Jones, Peter JH; Abumweis, Suhad S

2004-01-01

250

[Effects of a series of food substances on motor and emptying function of the gastric stump and diverting intestinal loop after stomach resection and truncal vagotomy].  

PubMed

Altogether 253 patients operated on for peptic ulcer were examined for the action of 30 foods on motor and evacuatory function of the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop. 213 patients were subjected to gastric resection after Hofmeister-Finsterer and 40 patients to antrum resection and truncal vagotomy. Proceeding from the action on motor function of the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop the foods were distributed into three groups: with a stimulation, inhibitory of weak effects on the function. The first group included beef and fish broths, boiled meat, rye bread, cabbage, tomato, apple, cherry and black currant juices, rhubarb infusion, fresh kefir, carrot and pumpkin purees. The group of foods producing an inhibitory action comprised milk and milk whey, cottage cheese, sugar, butter, sunflower oil, lard, rice and oat decoctions, mashed potatoes and potato juice, buckwheat porridge and semolina, wheat bread, raw eggs, and honey. The action of the same foods was found to be different as regards the effect on the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop, on tonic and contractile functions of the organs. The dietetic management of patients undergoing gastric operations should be carried out on a strictly individualized basis with allowance made for the functions of the gastric stump and intestinal loop and for the action of foods on the organs. PMID:3962263

Loranskaia, T I; Khoromski?, L N; Benedikt, V V

1986-01-01

251

Functional barrier in two-layer recycled PP films for food packaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary study on bi-layer virgin/contaminated polypropylene co-extruded films was performed in order to evaluate the possibility to realize an effective functional barrier in PP-based multi-layer systems. In particular, the specific migration in 10% v/v aqueous ethanol of two surrogate contaminants (phenyl-cyclohexane and benzophenone) contained in the contaminated layer across the PP functional barrier was measured at different times and the results were compared with those obtained from a contaminated mono-layer polypropylene film. Moreover, the thermal and mechanical performances of the produced films were investigated.

Scarfato, P.; Di Maio, L.; Milana, M. R.; Feliciani, R.; Denaro, M.; Incarnato, L.

2014-05-01

252

Understanding consumer needs and preferences in new product development: the case of functional food innovations  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the majority of new products fail it is important to focus on the needs and preferences of the consumers in new product development. Consumers are increasingly recognised as important co-developers of innovations, often developing new functions for technologies, solving unforeseen problems and demanding innovative solutions. The central research question of the paper is: How to understand consumer needs and

Ellen H. M. Moors; Rogier Donders

2009-01-01

253

Asymmetrical food web responses in trophic-level richness, biomass, and function following lake acidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested for disproportional changes in annual and seasonal species richness and biomass among five trophic levels (phytoplankton,\\u000a herbivorous, omnivorous, and carnivorous zooplankton, and fish) as well as altered trophic structure and ecosystem function\\u000a following the 5-year experimental acidification of Little Rock Lake (Wisconsin, USA) from pH 6.1 to 4.7. Abiotic and biotic\\u000a controls of trophic level response during acidification

Kristy L. Hogsden; Marguerite A. Xenopoulos; James A. Rusak

2009-01-01

254

Supplementation of food with Enterococcus faecium (SF68) stimulates immune functions in young dogs.  

PubMed

The gut microflora play a crucial role in several physiologic functions of the host, including maturation of the gut-associated lymphoid tissues during the first months of life. Oral administration of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) modulates the immune system of humans and some laboratory animals. This effect has never been examined in dogs; therefore, our aim was to study the capacity of a probiotic LAB to stimulate immune functions in young dogs. Puppies were allotted to two groups receiving either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 5 x 10(8) colony forming units (cfu)/d of probiotic Enterococcus faecium (SF68) from weaning to 1 y of age. Fecal and blood samples were collected from the dogs at different time points for the measurement of fecal immunoglobulin (Ig)A, circulating IgG and IgA, and the proportions of lymphoid cell subsets. Fecal IgA and canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine-specific circulating IgG and IgA were higher in the group receiving the probiotic than in controls. There were no differences in the percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells between the groups, but the proportion of mature B cells [CD21(+)/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II(+)] was greater in those fed the probiotic. These data show for the first time that a dietary probiotic LAB enhance specific immune functions in young dogs, thus offering new opportunities for the utilization of probiotics in canine nutrition. PMID:12672936

Benyacoub, Jalil; Czarnecki-Maulden, Gail L; Cavadini, Christoph; Sauthier, Thérèse; Anderson, Rachel E; Schiffrin, Eduardo J; von der Weid, Thierry

2003-04-01

255

Functional equivalence of grasping cerci and nuptial food gifts in promoting ejaculate transfer in katydids.  

PubMed

The function of nuptial gifts has generated longstanding debate. Nuptial gifts consumed during ejaculate transfer may allow males to transfer more ejaculate than is optimal for females. However, gifts may simultaneously represent male investment in offspring. Evolutionary loss of nuptial gifts can help elucidate pressures driving their evolution. In most katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae), males transfer a spermatophore comprising two parts: the ejaculate-containing ampulla and the spermatophylax-a gelatinous gift that females eat during ejaculate transfer. Many species, however, have reduced or no spermatophylaces and many have prolonged copulation. Across 44 katydid species, we tested whether spermatophylaces and prolonged copulation following spermatophore transfer are alternative adaptations to protect the ejaculate. We also tested whether prolonged copulation was associated with (i) male cercal adaptations, helping prevent female disengagement, and (ii) female resistance behavior. As predicted, prolonged copulation following (but not before) spermatophore transfer was associated with reduced nuptial gifts, differences in the functional morphology of male cerci, and behavioral resistance by females during copulation. Furthermore, longer copulation following spermatophore transfer was associated with larger ejaculates, across species with reduced nuptial gifts. Our results demonstrate that nuptial gifts and the use of grasping cerci to prolong ejaculate transfer are functionally equivalent. PMID:24724547

Vahed, Karim; Gilbert, James D J; Weissman, David B; Barrientos-Lozano, Ludivina

2014-07-01

256

Chemical constituents of Thai propolis.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation on the constituents of Thai propolis led the isolation of a new phenylallylflavanone, (7?S)-8-[1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-yl]-(2S)-pinocembrin (1) and (E)-cinnamyl-(E)-cinnamylidenate (2) from methanolic extract of Thai propolis. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis. In addition to this, 19 compounds (3-21) belonging to flavonoids and phenolic esters were isolated and identified. PMID:23660244

Athikomkulchai, Sirivan; Awale, Suresh; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kadota, Shigetoshi

2013-07-01

257

Sexually dimorphic functional connectivity in response to high vs. low energy-dense food cues in obese humans: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

Sexually-dimorphic behavioral and biological aspects of human eating have been described. Using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis, we investigated sex-based differences in functional connectivity with a key emotion-processing region (amygdala, AMG) and a key reward-processing area (ventral striatum, VS) in response to high vs. low energy-dense (ED) food images using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in obese persons in fasted and fed states. When fed, in response to high vs. low-ED food cues, obese men (vs. women) had greater functional connectivity with AMG in right subgenual anterior cingulate, whereas obese women had greater functional connectivity with AMG in left angular gyrus and right primary motor areas. In addition, when fed, AMG functional connectivity with pre/post-central gyrus was more associated with BMI in women (vs. men). When fasted, obese men (vs. women) had greater functional connectivity with AMG in bilateral supplementary frontal and primary motor areas, left precuneus, and right cuneus, whereas obese women had greater functional connectivity with AMG in left inferior frontal gyrus, right thalamus, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. When fed, greater functional connectivity with VS was observed in men in bilateral supplementary and primary motor areas, left postcentral gyrus, and left precuneus. These sex-based differences in functional connectivity in response to visual food cues may help partly explain differential eating behavior, pathology prevalence, and outcomes in men and women. PMID:24862077

Atalayer, Deniz; Pantazatos, Spiro P; Gibson, Charlisa D; McOuatt, Haley; Puma, Lauren; Astbury, Nerys M; Geliebter, Allan

2014-10-15

258

Leukocyte numbers and function in subjects eating n-3 enriched foods: selective depression of natural killer cell levels  

PubMed Central

Introduction While consumption of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) has been recommended for those at risk of inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, the mechanism of their anti-inflammatory effect remains to be clearly defined, particularly in relation to the dose and type of n-3 LCPUFA. The objective of this study was to determine whether varying the levels of n-3 LCPUFA in erythrocyte membrane lipids, following dietary supplementation, is associated with altered numbers and function of circulating leukocytes conducive to protection against inflammation. Methods In a double-blind and placebo-controlled study, 44 healthy subjects aged 23 to 63 years consumed either standard or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched versions of typical processed foods, the latter allowing a target daily consumption of 1 gram n-3 LCPUFA. After six months, peripheral blood leukocyte and subpopulation proportions and numbers were assessed by flow cytometry. Leukocytes were also examined for lymphoproliferation and cytokine production, neutrophil chemotaxis, chemokinesis, bactericidal, adherence and iodination activity. Erythrocytes were analyzed for fatty-acid content. Results Erythrocyte n-3 LCPUFA levels were higher and absolute leukocyte and lymphocyte numbers were lower in subjects consuming n-3 enriched foods than in controls. There were no changes in the number of neutrophils, monocytes, T cells (CD3+), T-cell subsets (CD4+, CD8+) and B cells (CD19+). However, natural killer (NK) (CD3-CD16+CD56+) cell numbers were lower in n-3 supplemented subjects than in controls and were inversely related to the amount of eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid in erythrocytes. No significant correlations were found with respect to lymphocyte lymphoproliferation and production of IFN-? and IL-2, but lymphotoxin production was higher with greater n-3 LCPUFA membrane content. Similarly, neutrophil chemotaxis, chemokinesis, bactericidal activity and adherence did not vary with changes in erythrocyte n-3 LCPUFA levels, but the iodination reaction was reduced with higher n-3 LCPUFA content. Conclusion The data show that regular long-term consumption of n-3 enriched foods leads to lower numbers of NK cells and neutrophil iodination activity but higher lymphotoxin production by lymphocytes. These changes are consistent with decreased inflammatory reaction and tissue damage seen in patients with inflammatory disorders receiving n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. PMID:18477409

Mukaro, Violet R; Costabile, Maurizio; Murphy, Karen J; Hii, Charles S; Howe, Peter R; Ferrante, Antonio

2008-01-01

259

Monosaccharides and Polyols in Foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monosaccharides and polyol monosaccharides are, generally, naturally occurring materials. They appear both in simple food products and in complex manufactured food systems. Their structures and functions are reviewed here, and their roles in food systems are discussed.

Friedman, Robert B.

260

Trace constituents in the mesosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper examines recent composition measurements, the large-scale distributions of trace constituents, and the interpretation of these global patterns in the light of the current understanding of chemistry and transport. Attention is given to results from the following space missions: the Nimbus 7 LIMS and SAMS experiments; the SMM UV spectrometer solar occultation experiment; the SME UVS and AGS experiments; and the Spacelab 1 solar occultation experiment. A brief summary of measurements and their implications is presented for three long-lived species, CO, NO, and H2O. The reactive or short-lived species OH and O3 are also examined.

Thomas, Gary E.

261

[Chemical constituents from Hydrangea paniculata].  

PubMed

In order to study the chemical constituents of the plant of Hydrangea paniculata and provide reference for the study of the bioactive substances, we isolated nine compounds from the dried branches of H. paniculata. Their structures were determined by application of spectroscopic (NMR, MS) and chemical methods. These compounds were identified as skimmin (1), isotachioside (2), 8-methoxy-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy coumarin glycoside (3), scopolin (4), 1-(alpha-L-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6) -O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy) - 3, 4, 5-trimethoxybenzene (5), apiosylskimmin (6), umbelliferone (7), scopoletin (8), 7-hydroxy-8-methoxycoumarin (9). Compounds 1 - 7 were isolated from H. paniculata for the first time. PMID:21355271

Shi, Jing; Yang, Jingzhi; Li, Chuangjun; Zhang, Dongming

2010-11-01

262

Long-term association of food and nutrient intakes with cognitive and functional1 decline: a 13-year follow-up study of elderly French women2  

E-print Network

1 Long-term association of food and nutrient intakes with cognitive and functional1 decline: a 13 The objective of this study was to determine the potential long-term impact of dietary habits36 on age, lifestyle and41 health factors were performed to evaluate associations between habitual dietary intakes and

Boyer, Edmond

263

Novel Methods for Probiotic Research. Workshop on Demonstration of the Nutritional Functionality of Probiotic Foods (2nd). Held in Cork, Ireland on October 3, 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The workshop is the second in a series of four workshops for the FAIR Demonstration project entitled Demonstration of the Nutritional Functionality of Probiotic Foods, Probdemo, FAIR CT96-1028. The aim is to substantiate the real value of probiotic produc...

M. Alander, T. Kauppila, T. Mattila-Sandholm

1997-01-01

264

Selection and Safety Criteria of Probiotics. Workshop Demonstration of the Nutritional Functionality of Probiotic Foods (1st). Held in Helsinki, Finland on November 15, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The workshop is the first in a series of four workshops to disseminate the FAIR Demonstration project entitled Demonstration of the Nutritional Functionality of Probiotic Foods, FAIR CT96-1028. The aim is to substantiate the real value of probiotic produc...

M. Alander, T. Mattila-Sandholm

1996-01-01

265

Safety Evaluation of Phytosterol Esters. Part 2. Subchronic 90Day Oral Toxicity Study on Phytosterol Esters–A Novel Functional Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytosterol esters (PE) are intended for use as a novel food ingredient, primarily in margarines and spreads as a functional component with plasma cholesterol lowering activity. Phytosterols and their esters are present naturally in vegetable oils and on average people consume 200mg\\/day, but their consumption at this level is not sufficient to lower plasma cholesterol levels. Therefore, through the incorporation

P. A. Hepburn; S. A. Horner; M. Smith

1999-01-01

266

COMMENTS Food-Dependent Cushing's Syndrome: Characterization and Functional Role of Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide Receptor in the Adrenals of Three Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the presence of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) receptors and their functional role in the adrenal cells of three patients with food-dependent Cushing's syndrome were studied. RT- PCR and in situ hybridization studies demonstrated the presence of GIP receptor in the adrenals of the three patients. The presence of this receptor was also demonstrated in two human

M. C. LEBRETHON; O. AVALLET; Y. REZNIK; F. ARCHAMBEAUD; J. COMBES; T. B. USDIN; G. NARBONI; J. MAHOUDEAU; J. M. SAEZ

2010-01-01

267

Determination of cobalt and manganese in food seasonings by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after preconcentration with 2-hydroxyacetophenone-functionalized polyurethane foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of chelating reagents impregnated or incorporated into solid sorbents has been widely employed for the preconcentration of metal species. The determination of metal concentrations in foods is very important because the diet is the main route of intake for these elements. In this work, polyurethane foam (PUF) functionalized with 2-hydroxyacetophenone through a covalent group (–NC–) was applied as

Valfredo Azevedo Lemos; Luana Novaes Santos; Marcos Almeida Bezerra

2010-01-01

268

Chemical constituents and bioactivities of Colla corii asini.  

PubMed

In China, Colla corii asini is a health-care food and traditional Chinese medicine widely used in life-nourishing and clinical hematic antanemic therapy for more than 2,000 years. In this paper we compiled the chemical constituents isolated and detected from Colla corii asini including amino acids, proteins/gelatins, polysaccharides, volatile substances, inorganic substances, etc. Meanwhile we investigated the biological activities of Colla corii asini, which have been reported over the past few decades, including, hematologic diseases inhibitory activities, anti-aging activity, antitumor activity, immunomodulatory activity, bone repair activity, anti-inflammatory activity, antifatigue activity, etc. However, few reports on the relationships between the chemical constituents and bioactivities have been found, further studies of Colla corii asini are still necessary to facilitate research and development in the future. PMID:25382554

Wang, Dongliang; Ru, Wenwen; Xu, Yunpeng; Zhang, Jianling; He, Xianxian; Fan, Guohua; Mao, Beibei; Zhou, Xiangshan; Qin, Yufeng

2014-10-01

269

No effect of an L-arginine-enriched medical food (HeartBars) on endothelial function and platelet aggregation in subjects with hypercholesterolemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Providing l-arginine as a precursor for nitric oxide has been proposed to improve endothelial function in populations at high risk for cardiovascular events. We studied the effects of dietary l-arginine supplementation with HeartBars (a medical food rich in L-arginine, Cooke Pharma, Belmont, Calif) on flow-mediated dilation and markers of endothelial function in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Methods We randomly assigned

Abdelhamed I. Abdelhamed; Steven E. Reis; David C. Sane; K. Bridget Brosnihan; Robert B. Preli; David M. Herrington

2003-01-01

270

The relation between the psychological functioning of children with Down syndrome and their urine peptide levels and levels of serum antibodies to food proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To investigate the relation between psychological functioning of subjects with Down syndrome, and their levels of urine peptide and serum antibodies to food proteins. Meth- ods: 55 children with Down syndrome in a cross-sectional study. Psychological functioning was measured by the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition, McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and Fagan's computer based test of novelty preference.

Egil Nygaard; Karl Ludvig Reichelt; Joseph F. Fagan

2001-01-01

271

Comparison of the effects of the degree of food restriction during rearing on ovarian function at the onset of lay in unselected ducks (anas platyrhynchos) and in a line selected for improved food efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Ovarian structure and function at sexual maturity in two lines of ducks (selected or not selected for juvenile food efficiency), fed ad libitum or restricted to achieve 0.50, 0.65 or 0.80 of unrestricted body weight at 24 weeks, were compared in a randomised block factorial experiment.2. Selected ducks were larger but not fatter or older at sexual maturity, had

P. M. Hocking

1990-01-01

272

[Phenolic constituents from Oplopanax horridus].  

PubMed

The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic techniques indluding silica gel, reverse phase silica gel, sephadex LH-20 and pre-HPLC and identified by their physicochemical properties and spectral data. Sixteen phenolic compounds had been isolated and n-butanol extracts which were fractionated from the ethanol extract of Oplopanax horridus roots bark. Their structures were identified as below, including 7 phenylpropanoid compounds, ferulic acid (1), 3-acetylcaffeic acid (2), caffeic acid (3), homovanillyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 3-hydroxyphenethyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), 3, 5-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), and 3-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7). Three coumarins, scopoletin (8), esculetin (9) and 3'-angeloyl-4'-acetyl-cis-knellactone (10). And 6 lignan compounds, (+)-isolaricires-inol-9'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (11), 3, 3'-dimethoxy-4, 9, 9'-trihydroxy-4', 7-epoxy-5', 8-lignan-4, 9-bis-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (12), (+)-5, 5'-dimethoxylariciresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (13), (-)-5,5'-dimethoxylariciresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (14), (-)-pinoresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (15), and (+)-5, 5'-dimethoxylariciresinol 9'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (16). All compounds were isolated and identified for the first time from this plant All the constituents except compounds 4, 6, 12 and 13 were obtained for the first time from the genus Oplopanax. PMID:25282894

Huang, Wei-Hua; Luo, Wei; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Nie, Ming-Kun; Shi, Shu-Yun; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng

2014-05-01

273

A Prospective Cohort Study of the Effects of Adjuvant Breast Cancer Chemotherapy on Taste Function, Food Liking, Appetite and Associated Nutritional Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background ‘Taste’ changes are commonly reported during chemotherapy. It is unclear to what extent this relates to actual changes in taste function or to changes in appetite and food liking and how these changes affect dietary intake and nutritional status. Patients and methods This prospective, repeated measures cohort study recruited participants from three oncology clinics. Women (n?=?52) prescribed adjuvant chemotherapy underwent standardised testing of taste perception, appetite and food liking at six time points to measure change from baseline. Associations between taste and hedonic changes and nutritional outcomes were examined. Results Taste function was significantly reduced early in chemotherapy cycles (p<0.05) but showed recovery by late in the cycle. Ability to correctly identify salty, sour and umami tastants was reduced. Liking of sweet food decreased early and mid-cycle (p<0.01) but not late cycle. Liking of savory food was not significantly affected. Appetite decreased early in the cycle (p<0.001). Reduced taste function was associated with lowest kilojoule intake (r?=?0.31; p?=?0.008) as was appetite loss with reduced kilojoule (r?=?0.34; p?=?0.002) and protein intake (r?=?0.36; p?=?0.001) early in the third chemotherapy cycle. Decreased appetite early in the third and final chemotherapy cycles was associated with a decline in BMI (p?=?<0.0005) over the study period. Resolution of taste function, food liking and appetite was observed 8 weeks after chemotherapy completion. There was no association between taste change and dry mouth, oral mucositis or nausea. Conclusion The results reveal, for the first time, the cyclical yet transient effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on taste function and the link between taste and hedonic changes, dietary intake and nutritional outcomes. The results should be used to inform reliable pre-chemotherapy education. PMID:25078776

Boltong, Anna; Aranda, Sanchia; Keast, Russell; Wynne, Rochelle; Francis, Prudence A.; Chirgwin, Jacqueline; Gough, Karla

2014-01-01

274

The relevance of biotechnology in the development of functional foods for improved nutritional and health quality in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of food and food plants can be modified and optimized to meet the nutritional and health needs of at-risk and compromised populations prevalent in most of the developing countries. High rates of malnutrition, infectious disease as well as diet-related diseases such as diabetes and hypertension are prevalent in many developing countries. These are as a result of compromised

Lorraine L. Niba

2003-01-01

275

Rover\\/sitter Drosophila melanogaster larval foraging polymorphism as a function of larval development, food-patch quality, and starvation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetically based rover\\/sitter behavioral difference in Drosophila melanogasterlarval foraging is expressed throughout most of the larval instars when larvae forage on food patches of differing food quality. The amount of locomotor behavior decreases when third-instar larvae of both rover and sitter strains are starved just prior to the behavioral test. Such strain differences in locomotor behavior are maintained despite

Susanne A. Graf; Maria B. Sokolowski

1989-01-01

276

What Are Functional Foods?  

MedlinePLUS

... Intolerances Autism Cancer Celiac Disease Diabetes Digestive Health Eating Disorders Fertility and Reproductive Health Heart and Cardiovascular HIV/ ... range of topics including careers in dietetics, healthy eating, the Academy ... benefits, media interviewing skills and the professional role of the ...

277

[Chemical constituents of Scolopendra negrocapitis].  

PubMed

The chemical constituent of Scolopendra negrocapitis Zhang et Wang were systematically analyzed and compared with S. subspinipes mutilans L. Koch. The results showed the lipid content was 18.7%, protein was 63.4% and total amino acid was 11.9%; S. negrocapitis contained the same twelve fat acids (the content of unsaturated fat acid was nearly 64% in its fat acids), twenty one amino acids and twelve trace elements as S. subspinipes mutilans had. The protein of S. negrocapitis showed forteen bands as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. S. negrocapitis and S. subspinipes mutilans have the same main chemical composition. The contents of compositions are different. S. negrocapitis is worth as the nature resources of medicinal centepede. PMID:12575073

Fang, H; Deng, F; Yan, Y; Wang, K

1999-05-01

278

Food packaging design  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Food product design - An integrated approach' deals with food product design from a technological perspective. It presents creative techniques for the innovation process and structured methodologies to translate consumer wishes into product properties based on Quality Function Deployment. Up-to-date solutions for chemical and physical changes during food processing and storage are discussed. This book explains how to apply barrier

2008-01-01

279

Apparatus and method for separating constituents  

SciTech Connect

A centrifugal separator apparatus and method for improving the efficiency of the separation of constituents in a fluid stream. A cyclone separator includes an assembly for separately discharging both constituents through the same end of the separator housing. A rotary separator includes a rotary housing having a baffle disposed therein for minimizing the differential rotational velocities of the constituents in the housing, thereby decreasing turbulence, and increasing efficiency. The intensity of the centrifugal force and the time which the constituents reside within the housing can be independently controlled to improve efficiency of separation. 4 figs.

Maronde, C.P.; Killmeyer, R.P. Jr.

1990-12-31

280

Original article Major constituents, leptin, and non-protein nitrogen  

E-print Network

modifier that plays a role in co- ordinating food intake, energy expenditure and nutrient utilization [12-protein nitrogen components (urea, a-amino nitrogen, creatinine and allantoin) were determined. The levels a further indication that mares' milk can be regarded as a functional food. mares' milk / colostrum / major

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

281

Food Chains and Food Webs - Balance within Natural Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a continued focus on the Sonoran Desert, students are introduced to the concepts of food chains and food webs through a PowerPoint® presentation. They learn the difference between producers and consumers and study how these organisms function within their communities as participants in various food chains. They further understand ecosystem differences by learning how multiple food chains link together to form intricate and balanced food webs. At lesson end, students construct food webs using endemic desert species.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

282

Comparison of Marketed Cosmetic Products Constituents with the Antigens Included in Cosmetic-related Patch Test  

PubMed Central

Background Currently, cosmetic series (Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden) is the most widely used cosmetic-related patch test in Korea. However, no studies have been conducted on how accurately it reflects the constituents of the cosmetics in Korea. Objective We surveyed the constituents of various cosmetics and compare with the cosmetic series, to investigate whether it is accurate in determining allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics sold in Korea. Methods Cosmetics were classified into 11 categories and the survey was conducted on the constituents of 55 cosmetics, with 5 cosmetics in each category. The surveyed constituents were classified by chemical function and compared with the antigens of cosmetic series. Results 155 constituents were found in 55 cosmetics, and 74 (47.7%) of constituents were included as antigen. Among them, only 20 constituents (27.0%) were included in cosmetic series. A significant number of constituents, such as fragrance, vehicle and surfactant were not included. Only 41.7% of antigens in cosmetic series were found to be in the cosmetics sampled. Conclusion The constituents not included in the patch test but possess antigenicity are widely used in cosmetics. Therefore, the patch test should be modified to reflect ingredients in the marketed products that may stimulate allergies. PMID:20711261

Cheong, Seung Hyun; Choi, You Won; Myung, Ki Bum

2010-01-01

283

Would Consumers Value New Functional Properties of GM Food? A Choice-Modeling Approach for Rapeseed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

European consumers and, in particular, German consumers are known to be very critical towards the introduction of genetically modified (GM) foods. It is analyzed here whether German consumers do reject second-generation GMO foods, too. Whereas first-generation GM crops induced producer-related benefits, second-generation GM crops are associated with consumer-oriented benefits like an improvement of nutritional quality. The determinants of demand for

Jochen Hartl; Roland Herrmann

2009-01-01

284

Correlation between Major Constituents and Antibacterial Activities of Some Plant Essential Oils against Some Pathogenic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different plant essential oils (Satureja hortensis, Thymus sipyleus ssp. rosulans, Thymus haussknechtii, Origanum rotundifolium (cultured form) and Origanum acutidens (wild and cultured form)) and their two major constituents carvacarol and thymol were evaluated for antibacterial activity against food-borne Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis) and Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus

Neslihan Dikbas; Recep Kotan; Fatih Dadasoglu; Kenan Karagöz; Ramazan Çakmakci

285

Costs and health effects of adding functional foods containing phytosterols\\/-stanols to statin therapy in the prevention of cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present modelling study aimed to evaluate if and by how much functional foods containing phytosterols\\/-stanols add to the benefits of statins in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in terms of cost-effectiveness. Long-term health effects, measured as quality-adjusted life-years gained, and costs for scenarios with additional phytosterol\\/-stanol use were compared to scenarios without extra use. Phytosterols\\/-stanols were given only to

Simone R. B. M. Eussen; Talitha L. Feenstra; Ido B. Toxopeus; Jeljer Hoekstra; Olaf H. Klungel; Hans Verhagen; Henk J. van Kranen; Cathy J. M. Rompelberg

2011-01-01

286

Functionality Enhancement of Composite Cassava Flour in the Production of Maize Tuwo (A Non-fermented Maize-Based Food Dumpling)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was focused on the evaluation of textural and sensory quality enhancing functionality of cassava flour in the production\\u000a of maize tuwo (a non-fermented maize-based food dumpling). The cassava flour was added to maize flour at the level of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%,\\u000a 25% and 30% (w\\/w), respectively. The bulk density and water holding capacity of maize\\/cassava flour mixes

Mathew Kolawole Bolade; Isaac Adebayo Adeyemi

287

Chemical constituents of Abies delavayi.  

PubMed

Systematic phytochemical investigations on Abies delavayi afforded 110 compounds, including 49 terpenoids, 13 lignans, 20 flavonoids, three coumarins, and 25 other chemical constituents. By detailed analysis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic and high-resolution mass spectrometric data, 10 previously unreported compounds were identified: they comprised three sesquiterpenoids, two diterpenoids, one triterpenoid, one monoterpenoid, one flavonoid, and two phenols. These 10 compounds and some previously known ones were subjected to two cytotoxic bioassays against three human tumor cell lines and NO production inhibition on RAW264.7 macrophages, respectively. (25R)-24,25-Dihydroabieslactone had the strongest cytotoxic activity against Colo-205 cells with an IC50 value of 19.0±3.7?g/mL. (+)-T-cadinol, 8,11,13-abietatrien-15-ol-18-yl acetate, 18-acetoxy-13-epi-manool, imperatorin, bergapten, and 5,7-O-dimethyl poriol exhibited weak inhibitory activity against LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages with IC50 values of approximately 50?g/mL. PMID:24916321

Yang, Xian-Wen; Li, Su-Mei; Li, Yong-Li; Feng, Lin; Shen, Yun-Heng; Lin, Shen; Tian, Jun-Mian; Zeng, Hua-Wu; Wang, Ning; Steinmetz, Andre; Liu, Yonghong; Zhang, Wei-Dong

2014-09-01

288

Infrared Measurements of Atmospheric Constituents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research program studies atmospheric trace gas concentrations and altitude distributions, particularly for those gases that are important in stratospheric chemistry and radiative balance. Measurements are made with infrared remote sensing instruments, either ground based or balloon-borne. Most of the ground based instruments are part of the Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC), including a very high spectral resolution solar absorption spectrometer at Mauna Loa Observatory and similar system at McMurdo Station, Antarctica (operated in collaboration with the New Zealand NIWA). Additionally, we are deriving stratospheric constituent data from the spectra obtained at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program's site in north-central Oklahoma. We have an atmospheric emission spectrometer system at the South Pole (with additional support from NSF), and an identical NSF support instrument at Eureka, NWT, Canada. Our balloon-borne instruments include a very high resolution solar absorption spectrometer system, a smaller, slightly lower resolution solar spectrometer system, a high resolution atmospheric emission spectrometer, and several medium resolution emission spectrometers (CAESRs) that are usually flown piggyback. During the past year, we participated in the MANTRA balloon flight from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, with the high resolution solar spectrometer system. Several of our instruments were extensively compared to (UARS) Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite observations, and so provide a data set with known connections to UARS. In the longer term, the data can be used to relate UARS data to (EOS) Earth Observing System and (ADEOS) Advanced Airborne Earth Observing System.

Murcray, Frank J.

1998-01-01

289

Organic constituents of carbonaceous chondrites.  

PubMed

From a brief discussion of forms of meteorite carbon it is concluded that almost all the carbon in the carbonaceous chondrites is present as organic matter. Attempts to extract and identify this organic matter are then reviewed. It is shown that only 25 per cent has been extracted and only about 5 per cent chemically characterized. Of this 5 per cent, most is a complex mixture of hydroxylated aromatic acids together with various hydrocarbons of the paraffin, naphthene and aromatic series. Small amounts of amino acids, sugars and fatty acids also are present. The possible chemical nature of the major fraction is discussed. It is suggested to be a mixture of high-molecular weight aromatic and hydrocarbon polymers. Possible sources of contamination of the meteorites are described and evidence indicating a general lack of organic contaminants is presented. It is concluded, that most of the organic constituents are indigenous to the meteorites and are extra terrestrial in origin. Synthetic processes for the compounds are mentioned and it is concluded that the organic material is probably of abiogenic origin. A brief review on studies of "organized elements" contained within the meteorites is presented. Difficulties of identification are discussed and photographs of some microstructures of several carbonaceous chondrites are presented. No final conclusion about the nature of these objects is possible, but some appear to be various indigenous organic and mineral structures, while others are terrestrial contaminants. PMID:11881656

Briggs, M H; Mamikunian, G

1964-01-01

290

Lipoxygenase inhibitory constituents from rhubarb.  

PubMed

Phytochemical study on the ethanol extract of rhubarb led to the isolation of fifteen compounds, including five anthraquinones: chrysophanol (1), physcion (2), emodin (7), chrysophanol-8-O-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (9) and emodin-8-O-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (15), and ten stilbenes: desoxyrhaponticin (3), rhaponticin (4), resveratrol (5), desoxyrhapotigenin (6), rhapontigenin (8), piceatannol-3'-O-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (10), piceid (11), epsilon-viniferin (12), ampelopsin B (13) and isorhaponticin (14). Their structures were identified by comparing the physicochemical data with those of published papers. Among the isolated compounds, stilbene derivatives (3-6, 8 and 10-14) showed remarkable inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase with IC(50) values ranging from 6.7 to 74.1 microM. The inhibition kinetics analyzed by Lineweaver-Burk plots found that they were competitive inhibitors with the linoleic acid at the active site of lipoxygenase. In addition, stilbenes exhibited significantly free radical scavenging activity against ABTS(.+) with trolox equivalent activity capacity (TEAC) values ranging from 1.16 to 4.64. Whereas, anthraquinone derivatives (1-2, 7, 9 and 15) neither inhibited lipoxygenase nor scavenged free radical ABTS(.+). These results indicated that stilbene derivatives were considerate to be mainly lipoxygenase inhibitor and free radical scavenger constituents of rhubarb. PMID:18481015

Ngoc, Tran Minh; Minh, Pham Thi Hong; Hung, Tran Manh; Thuong, Phuong Thien; Lee, IkSoo; Min, Byung-Sun; Bae, KiHwan

2008-05-01

291

[Chemical constituents of Poria cocos].  

PubMed

The chemical constituents of Poria cocos were studied by means of silica gel, ODS column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Thirteen compounds were isolated from this plant. By analysis of the ESI-MS and NMR data, the structures of these compounds were determined as tumulosic acid (1), dehydrotumulosic acid (2), 3beta, 5alpha-dihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-dien-6-one (3), 3beta, 5alpha, 9alpha-trihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-diene -6-one (4), ergosta-7, 22-diene-3-one (5), 6, 9-epoxy-ergosta-7,22-diene-3-ol (6), ergosta-4,22-diene-3-one (7), 3beta, 5alpha, 6beta-trihydroxyl-ergosta-7,22-diene (8), ergosta-5, 6-epoxy-7,22-dien-3-ol (9), beta-sitosterol (10), ribitol (11), mannitol (12), and oleanic acid 3-O-acetate (13), respectively. Compounds 3-13 were isolated from the P. cocos for the first time. PMID:24956845

Yang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Chao; Wang, Hong-Qing; Li, Jia-Chun; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei; Chen, Ruo-Yun

2014-03-01

292

[Chemical constituents of Illicium burmanicum].  

PubMed

Chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract of Illicium burmanicum were isolated and purified by various chromatographic methods,including Silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, C18 reverse-phased silica gel, Preparative TLC and Preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified by spectral analysis including NMR and MS data. Fourteen compounds were separated from I. burmanicum and their structures were identified as 7S,8R-erythro-4,7,9,9'-tetrahydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (1), 7R,8R-threo-4,7, 9,9'-tetrahydroxy-3,3 '-dimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan(2) ,polystachyol(3), (-) -massoniresinol(4), angustanoic acid F (5), trans-sobrerol(6), (3S,6R) -6,7-dihydroxy-6,7-dihydrolinalool (7), (3S, 6S) -6,7-dihydroxy-6,7-dihydrolinalool (8), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-allyl-phenol (9), 3,5-dihydroxy4-hydroxy benzaldehyde (10), 3-hydroxy4-methoxybenzaldehyde (11), methyl vanillate (12), shikimic acid ethylester (13) and beta-sitosrerol (14). Except compound 14, the rest thirteen compounds were separated from this plant for the first time. PMID:25276976

Wang, Jia-Ping; Guan, Zheng-Ye; Dong, Chuan-Fu; Gao, Li; Luo, Shi-De; Wang, Yi-Fen

2014-07-01

293

The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus and suspension cultures of Melissa officinaliscould not accumulate detectable amounts of volatile constituents typical of the intact plant when maintained under varying cultural conditions. Non-terpenoid constituents, especially furfural, hexanoic and octanoic acids, were accumulated by the callus tissues. Similar accumulation was observed for the suspended cells in addition to other minor products which were both released into the liquid

A. A. Gbolade; G. B. Lockwood

1991-01-01

294

Large Constituent Families Help Children Parse Compounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The family size of the constituents of compound words, or the number of compounds sharing the constituents, has been shown to affect adults' access to compound words in the mental lexicon. The present study was designed to see if family size would affect children's segmentation of compounds. Twenty-five English-speaking children between 3;7 and…

Krott, Andrea; Nicoladis, Elena

2005-01-01

295

Antiparasitic efficacy of a novel plant-based functional food using an Ascaris suum model in pigs.  

PubMed

Ascaris lumbricoides is the most prevalent soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection of human beings worldwide. Chemotherapy with synthetic anthelmintics such as albendazole, mebendazole, and pyrantel pamoate is the current method of treatment; however, the emergence of anthelmintic resistance could substantially decrease the efficacy of such treatments and the sustainability of STH control programs. Additionally, benzimidazoles are not recommended for pregnant women or children under age one. A blinded, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two microencapsulated, plant-based essential oil blends, TTN1013 (?-pinene, linalyl acetate, p-cymene, and thymol octanoate) and TTN1014 (?-pinene, linalyl acetate, p-cymene, and thymol acetate) as functional foods against Ascaris suum infection in pigs, an important pathogen that closely resembles human infections with A. lumbricoides. Four groups of 16 female, 21-24 day old, Yorkshire-cross pigs were treated daily with 0.5 or 1.0mg/kg TTN1013, 1.0mg/kg TTN1014, or 1.0mg/kg equivalent of empty capsules, delivered inside a cream-filled sandwich cookie for 14 weeks. Three days after the initiation of daily treatments, pigs were inoculated daily with A. suum eggs for four weeks. Pigs were weighed weekly and fecal egg counts (FEC) were conducted weekly starting five weeks after initial inoculation with A. suum eggs. Fourteen weeks after first infection with eggs, pigs were necropsied and worms were recovered, counted and separated according to sex. TTN1013 administered daily at a dose of 1.0mg/kg yielded a statistically significant reduction in total worm counts (76.8%), female worm counts (75.5%), FEC (68.6%), and worm volume (62.9%) when compared to control group. Reduction of total and female worm numbers and FEC were not significant for TTN1014 or at the 0.5mg/kg dose of TTN1013. All treatments were well-tolerated by all pigs and did not cause any adverse reactions. All pigs remained clinically normal and showed no signs of reduced intestinal health for the duration of treatment. Based on these results, TTN1013 shows promise as a daily supplement to reduce infection burdens of soil transmitted helminths in both pigs and human beings. PMID:24979686

Kaplan, R M; Storey, B E; Vidyashankar, A N; Bissinger, B W; Mitchell, S M; Howell, S B; Mason, M E; Lee, M D; Pedroso, A A; Akashe, A; Skrypec, D J

2014-11-01

296

Functional Effects of Parasites on Food Web Properties during the Spring Diatom Bloom in Lake Pavin: A Linear Inverse Modeling Analysis  

PubMed Central

This study is the first assessment of the quantitative impact of parasitic chytrids on a planktonic food web. We used a carbon-based food web model of Lake Pavin (Massif Central, France) to investigate the effects of chytrids during the spring diatom bloom by developing models with and without chytrids. Linear inverse modelling procedures were employed to estimate undetermined flows in the lake. The Monte Carlo Markov chain linear inverse modelling procedure provided estimates of the ranges of model-derived fluxes. Model results support recent theories on the probable impact of parasites on food web function. In the lake, during spring, when ‘inedible’ algae (unexploited by planktonic herbivores) were the dominant primary producers, the epidemic growth of chytrids significantly reduced the sedimentation loss of algal carbon to the detritus pool through the production of grazer-exploitable zoospores. We also review some theories about the potential influence of parasites on ecological network properties and argue that parasitism contributes to longer carbon path lengths, higher levels of activity and specialization, and lower recycling. Considering the “structural asymmetry” hypothesis as a stabilizing pattern, chytrids should contribute to the stability of aquatic food webs. PMID:21887240

Niquil, Nathalie; Jobard, Marlene; Saint-Beat, Blanche; Sime-Ngando, Telesphore

2011-01-01

297

Food safety  

MedlinePLUS

Food safety refers to the conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food to prevent contamination and ... Poor food handling and inadequate food safety can cause infection ... include stomach problems. Foodborne illness may be severe and ...

298

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... tree nuts, soy, and wheat. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

299

Food Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system makes ... a serious reaction. Back Continue How Are Food Allergies Treated? There is no special medicine for food ...

300

Food allergy  

MedlinePLUS

Allergy to food ... contain gluten (See: Celiac disease ) A true food allergy is much less common. Normally, your body's immune ... releases substances that cause the symptoms of food allergies. Any food can cause an allergic reaction, but ...

301

Food additive for ruminants based on eugenol and cinnamaldehyde  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention concerns a composition based on a mixture of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, as food additive for feeding ruminants. The composition may be incorporated in a food additive, or a salt block. The eugenol and the cinnamaldehyde may be natural or identical natural constituents. Administering the composition or the food additive increases meat production and milk production.

2013-10-08

302

OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF FOODS: MASS TRANSFER AND MODELING ASPECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological materials contain a variety of individual soluble components. When cellular biological materials are immersed in osmotic solution, multicomponent mass transfer occurs, which ultimately leads to the loss of water from the food, or osmotic dehydration. Mass transfer of food constituents during osmotic dehydration may cause changes in food quality in terms of nutritional value, texture, color, and taste. The

John Shi; Marc Le Maguer

2002-01-01

303

Promotion of quality standard of herbal medicine by constituent removing and adding  

PubMed Central

To identify major active constituents and measure their levels in a typical medicinal herb–Rhizoma coptidis, we applied the concept of removing and adding, taking inspiration from functional genetic methods. As this herb has bacteriostatic properties and is used to treat bacterial diarrhea, we examined the effects of individual constituents (berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, jateorrhizine and columbamine) on the growth of Shigella dysenteriae with microcalorimetry. The removing and adding procedures revealed that berberine and coptisine were the main antibacterial constituents of R. coptidis, with bacteriostatic activities of 54.10% and 39.75%, respectively. The relative levels of berberine and coptisine in R. coptidis were 8.08%–31.92% and 4.05%–14.45%, respectively. On the basis of whole effect, the method of constituents removing and adding, coupled with a bioassay, is a useful strategy to identify the active constituents and measure their levels in herbal medicines, which may provide reference to other natural products. PMID:24413194

Yan, Dan; Li, Junxian; Xiong, Yin; Zhang, Congen; Luo, Jiaoyang; Han, Yumei; Wang, Ruiling; Jin, Cheng; Qian, Hong; Li, Jiangyu; Qiu, Lingling; Peng, Cheng; Lin, Yuling; Song, Xueai; Xiao, Xiaohe

2014-01-01

304

Promotion of quality standard of herbal medicine by constituent removing and adding.  

PubMed

To identify major active constituents and measure their levels in a typical medicinal herb-Rhizoma coptidis, we applied the concept of removing and adding, taking inspiration from functional genetic methods. As this herb has bacteriostatic properties and is used to treat bacterial diarrhea, we examined the effects of individual constituents (berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, jateorrhizine and columbamine) on the growth of Shigella dysenteriae with microcalorimetry. The removing and adding procedures revealed that berberine and coptisine were the main antibacterial constituents of R. coptidis, with bacteriostatic activities of 54.10% and 39.75%, respectively. The relative levels of berberine and coptisine in R. coptidis were 8.08%-31.92% and 4.05%-14.45%, respectively. On the basis of whole effect, the method of constituents removing and adding, coupled with a bioassay, is a useful strategy to identify the active constituents and measure their levels in herbal medicines, which may provide reference to other natural products. PMID:24413194

Yan, Dan; Li, Junxian; Xiong, Yin; Zhang, Congen; Luo, Jiaoyang; Han, Yumei; Wang, Ruiling; Jin, Cheng; Qian, Hong; Li, Jiangyu; Qiu, Lingling; Peng, Cheng; Lin, Yuling; Song, Xueai; Xiao, Xiaohe

2014-01-01

305

Genetic Screening of Functional Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria in a Fermented Pearl Millet Slurry and in the Metagenome of Fermented Starchy Foods?  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (n = 152) in African pearl millet slurries and in the metagenomes of amylaceous fermented foods were investigated by screening 33 genes involved in probiotic and nutritional functions. All isolates belonged to six species of the genera Pediococcus and Lactobacillus, and Lactobacillus fermentum was the dominant species. We screened the isolates for the abilities to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract and to synthesize folate and riboflavin. The isolates were also tested in vitro for their abilities to survive exposure to bile salts and to survive at pH 2. Because the ability to hydrolyze starch confers an ecological advantage on LAB that grow in starchy matrixes as well as improving the nutritional properties of the gruels, we screened for genes involved in starch metabolism. The results showed that genes with the potential ability to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract were widely distributed among isolates and metagenomes, whereas in vitro tests showed that only a limited set of isolates, mainly those belonging to L. fermentum, could tolerate a low pH. In contrast, the wide distribution of genes associated with bile salt tolerance, in particular bsh, is consistent with the high frequency of tolerance to bile salts observed. Genetic screening revealed a potential for folate and riboflavin synthesis in both isolates and metagenomes, as well as high variability among genes related to starch metabolism. Genetic screening of isolates and metagenomes from fermented foods is thus a promising approach for assessing the functional potential of food microbiotas. PMID:22003019

Turpin, Williams; Humblot, Christele; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

2011-01-01

306

Pharmacology in health foods: effects of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on the age-related decline in brain and cardiovascular system function.  

PubMed

Arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are major constituents of cell membranes and play important roles in preserving physiological and psychological function. Recently, data from several studies have indicated that impairments in long-term potentiation (LTP), the process underlying plasticity in synaptic connections, are associated with a decrease in membrane ARA and DHA in aged rats; and treatment of aged rats with either of these polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reverses age-related decrease in LTP and the decrease in membrane fatty acid concentration. This review focuses on our recent findings concerning the effects of ARA and DHA on the age-related decline in the function of the brain and cardiovascular system. ARA supplementation decreased P300 latency and increased P300 amplitude of event-related potentials in healthy elderly men. Cognitive impairments in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and patients with organic brain lesions were significantly improved with ARA and DHA supplementation. ARA and DHA supplementation also increased coronary flow velocity reserve in elderly individuals; this suggests beneficial effects of PUFAs on coronary microcirculation. In conclusion, ARA and DHA may be beneficial in preventing and/or improving age-related declines in brain and cardiovascular system function. PMID:21436600

Kiso, Yoshinobu

2011-01-01

307

Benefits and limitations of food processing by high-pressure technologies: effects on functional compounds and abiotic contaminants Beneficios y limitaciones del procesamiento de alimentos por tecnologías de alta presión: efectos en componentes funcionales y contaminantes abióticos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuing and worldwide growth of pressure processing technologies to pasteurize and sterilize foods justifies the need to study the effects on functional compounds and abiotic contaminants as affected by high-pressure processing (HPP) and pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP). Substantially more research will be required to determine the complex effects of the food matrix on chemical reactions leading to losses of

Zamantha Escobedo-Avellaneda; Mirian Pateiro Moure; Nattaporn Chotyakul; J. Antonio Torres; Jorge Welti-Chanes; Concepción Pérez Lamela

2011-01-01

308

Determination of total iron in food samples after flow injection preconcentration on polyurethane foam functionalized with N,N-bis(salicylidene)-1,3-propanediamine.  

PubMed

A highly selective flow injection sorption system was developed for the fast determination of total iron in food samples. Iron (III) was reduced to iron (II) by ascorbic acid and preconcentrated on a mini-column packed with polyurethane foam (PUF) functionalized with N,N-bis(salicylidene)-1,3-propanediamine (SPDA). The retained Fe (II) was eluted with hydrochloric acid and subsequently reacted to 2,4,6-tri(2'-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPTZ) then measured at 593 nm. The procedure has resulted preconcentration factor 36, sample frequency 20 h(-1) and detection limit 18 ?g L(-1). The precision (RSD) was found to be 5.7% and 3.1% at concentration levels 0.1 and 5.0 ?g mL(-1) iron (II), respectively. Finally, the method was successfully applied to determination of total iron in reference material and food samples. PMID:23411293

Abdel-Azeem, S M; Bader, N R; Kuss, H M; El-Shahat, M F

2013-06-01

309

The potential of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) as a functional food and nutraceutical and its effects on glycemia and lipidemia.  

PubMed

Dietary fiber from fenugreek blunts glucose and cholesterol after a meal and regulates the production of cholesterol in the liver. The mechanisms for these effects have not been fully elucidated. Fenugreek seeds contain 45.4% dietary fiber (32% insoluble and 13.3% soluble), and the gum is composed of galactose and mannose. The latter compounds are associated with reduced glycemia and cholesterolemia. Fenugreek's hypoglycemic effect has been especially documented in humans and animals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, this dietary fiber has potential for widespread use in the food industry because its galactomannan composition has emulsifying and stabilizing properties. Flour supplemented with 8%-10% fenugreek dietary fiber has been used in the production of baked goods such as bread, pizza, muffins, and cakes. This application to flour allows for the production of functional foods that may be widely acceptable to consumers observing western diets. PMID:21861724

Roberts, Keisha T

2011-12-01

310

40 CFR 264.342 - Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs). 264... Incinerators § 264.342 Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs). (a) Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) in...

2010-07-01

311

Professional Schools: Research and Assessment Involving Multiple Constituencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adopting the concept of multiple constituencies as an approach to organizational effectiveness, this chapter identifies key constituents and highlights areas and circumstances in which these constituents have an impact on research and assessment of professional schools. (Contains 1 table.)

Sun, Jeffrey C.

2004-01-01

312

40 CFR 264.342 - Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs). 264... Incinerators § 264.342 Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs). (a) Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) in...

2011-07-01

313

CONSTITUENTS OF PROPOLIS Penelope WALKER Eva CRANE  

E-print Network

CONSTITUENTS OF PROPOLIS Penelope WALKER Eva CRANE Woodside House, Woodside Hill, Gerrards Cross) a complete list of compounds so far identified in propolis. Of these, (a) will be dealt with elsewhere (CRANE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

314

Therapeutic Implications of Black Seed and Its Constituent Thymoquinone in the Prevention of Cancer through Inactivation and Activation of Molecular Pathways  

PubMed Central

The cancer is probably the most dreaded disease in both men and women and also major health problem worldwide. Despite its high prevalence, the exact molecular mechanisms of the development and progression are not fully understood. The current chemotherapy/radiotherapy regime used to treat cancer shows adverse side effect and may alter gene functions. Natural products are generally safe, effective, and less expensive substitutes of anticancer chemotherapeutics. Based on previous studies of their potential therapeutic uses, Nigella sativa and its constituents may be proved as good therapeutic options in the prevention of cancer. Black seeds are used as staple food in the Middle Eastern Countries for thousands of years and also in the treatment of diseases. Earlier studies have shown that N. sativa and its constituent thymoquinone (TQ) have important roles in the prevention and treatment of cancer by modulating cell signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the role of N. sativa and its constituents TQ in the prevention of cancer through the activation or inactivation of molecular cell signaling pathways. PMID:24959190

Rahmani, Arshad H.; Alzohairy, Mohammad A.; Khan, Masood A.; Aly, Salah M.

2014-01-01

315

Sesquiterpene constituents of the liverwort Calypogeia muelleriana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipophilic constituents of the liverwort Calypogeia muelleriana were investigated. A new sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, maali-1,3-diene, and two sesquiterpene alcohols with an aromadendrane skeleton, 3-hydroxyledene and 4,5-dehydroviridiflorol, were isolated and identified. The structure elucidation was carried out mainly by NMR spectroscopic techniques (1H-, 13C-, 1H1H-COSY-, HMQC-, HMBC- and NOESY experiments). The majority of the constituents of the liverwort volatiles show a

Ute Warmers; Kolja Wihstutz; Nils Bülow; Christiane Fricke; Wilfried A König

1998-01-01

316

Optimization of continuous hydrogen fermentation of food waste as a function of solids retention time independent of hydraulic retention time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) were used for hydrogen fermentation and fed with food waste (4.4±0.2% volatile solids (VS) containing 27g carbohydrate-COD\\/L). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of solids retention time (SRT) in the range 24–160h and hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the range 24–42h. Achieving high SRT independent of HRT with internal sludge

Sang-Hyoun Kim; Sun-Kee Han; Hang-Sik Shin

2008-01-01

317

Harnessing functional food strategies for the health challenges of space travel—Fermented soy for astronaut nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astronauts face numerous health challenges during long-duration space missions, including diminished immunity, bone loss and increased risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Changes in the intestinal flora of astronauts may contribute to these problems. Soy-based fermented food products could provide a nutritional strategy to help alleviate these challenges by incorporating beneficial lactic acid bacteria, while reaping the benefits of soy isoflavones. We

Nicole D. Buckley; Claude P. Champagne; Adriana I. Masotti; Lisa E. Wagar; Thomas A. Tompkins; Julia M. Green-Johnson

2011-01-01

318

Content and Profile of Isoflavones in Soy-Based Foods as a Function of the Production Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soy has been traditionally incorporated in diet as processed foods, such as soymilk, tofu, miso, tempeh, etc., and the consumption\\u000a is commonly associated with a reduction of the development of chronic diseases due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory,\\u000a and anti-allergic properties, among others. Many of the health benefits of soy have been attributed to isoflavones. They comprise\\u000a a group of naturally

Ana Villares; Mauricio A. Rostagno; Ana García-Lafuente; Eva Guillamón; J. Alfredo Martínez

2011-01-01

319

Changes in food intake and glucosensing function of hypothalamus and hindbrain in rainbow trout subjected to hyperglycemic or hypoglycemic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the possible role of glucose in the control of food intake (FI) in fish and the involvement of glucosensing system\\u000a in that role, we have subjected rainbow trout (via intraperitoneal injections) to control, hyperglycemic (500 mg kg?1 glucose body mass) or hypoglycemic (4 mg kg?1 bovine insulin) conditions for 10 days. The experimental design was appropriate since hypoglycemia

Sergio Polakof; Jesús M. Míguez; José L. Soengas

2008-01-01

320

Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

Pelletier, Jean-Francois

1980-01-01

321

Warming shifts top-down and bottom-up control of pond food web structure and function.  

PubMed

The effects of global and local environmental changes are transmitted through networks of interacting organisms to shape the structure of communities and the dynamics of ecosystems. We tested the impact of elevated temperature on the top-down and bottom-up forces structuring experimental freshwater pond food webs in western Canada over 16 months. Experimental warming was crossed with treatments manipulating the presence of planktivorous fish and eutrophication through enhanced nutrient supply. We found that higher temperatures produced top-heavy food webs with lower biomass of benthic and pelagic producers, equivalent biomass of zooplankton, zoobenthos and pelagic bacteria, and more pelagic viruses. Eutrophication increased the biomass of all organisms studied, while fish had cascading positive effects on periphyton, phytoplankton and bacteria, and reduced biomass of invertebrates. Surprisingly, virus biomass was reduced in the presence of fish, suggesting the possibility for complex mechanisms of top-down control of the lytic cycle. Warming reduced the effects of eutrophication on periphyton, and magnified the already strong effects of fish on phytoplankton and bacteria. Warming, fish and nutrients all increased whole-system rates of net production despite their distinct impacts on the distribution of biomass between producers and consumers, plankton and benthos, and microbes and macrobes. Our results indicate that warming exerts a host of indirect effects on aquatic food webs mediated through shifts in the magnitudes of top-down and bottom-up forcing. PMID:23007089

Shurin, Jonathan B; Clasen, Jessica L; Greig, Hamish S; Kratina, Pavel; Thompson, Patrick L

2012-11-01

322

Rapid identification of synthetic colorants in food samples by using indium oxide nanoparticle-functionalized porous polymer monolith coupled with HPLC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

A synthetic protocol for the preparation of an indium oxide nanoparticle-functionalized poly(methacrylic acid-glycidyl methacrylate-ethylene dimethacrylate-ethanediamine) monolithic column is reported. Various techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetric analysis were employed to characterize the synthesized monolith. The modified monolithic column was coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for determining synthetic colorants in various food samples. Under optimized conditions, good linearity was obtained for all the targets with squared regression coefficients greater than 0.9982. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) for 12 synthetic colorants were in the range of 0.012-2.97 ?g kg(-1). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations, ranging from 2.7% to 8.5%, were within the acceptable range. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of synthetic colorants in food samples (candy, milk, jelly, jam, canned food, juice, and carbonated drink). Target recoveries at different spiked levels ranged from 73.5% to 112.1% with relative standard deviations of less than 10.3%. PMID:25313528

Qi, Ruifang; Zhou, Xiao; Li, Xiqian; Ma, Jiutong; Lu, Chunmei; Mu, Jun; Zhang, Xuguang; Jia, Qiong

2014-10-27

323

Food Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... of food, most food allergies are caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish and ... all do. People rarely outgrow allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish Other Organizations Food Allergy ...

324

Food Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... More Information Health and Nutrition Information for Preschoolers Food Safety Preschoolers' immune systems are still developing. This makes ... That's why it's important to follow the recommended food safety guidelines. Keep food safe to eat by following ...

325

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... Practice Resources My Membership About the AAAAI Food Allergy Conditions & Treatments Acute Severe Asthma Allergen Allergic Asthma ... Agammaglobulinemia (XLA) Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, your ...

326

Food Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Food Timeline was created as an independent research project on food history and period recipes. The timeline begins before 17,000 B.C. with gatherable foods (shellfish, eggs, mushrooms) and chronicles the appearance of cultivated plants, domesticated food animals, and commercial food products up to the present day. Each type of food is represented by a link to additional information on it, and there are also links to period recipes appearing in chronological order on the timeline.

Lynne Olver, Chief Librarian, Morris County Library (NJ)

327

Reelection Constituencies and the Politics of Supreme Court Confirmation Votes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on the effects of constituency preferences on senators' voting behavior on judicial confirmations has been limited to geographic conceptions of constituency. We extend this literature by considering the effects of reelection constituencies. Using exit poll data from the 1986, 1988, and 1990 general elections, we estimate the percentage of each senator's reelection constituency composed of African Americans and

L. Marvin Overby; Robert D. Brown

1997-01-01

328

Sesquiterpene constituents of the liverwort Calypogeia muelleriana.  

PubMed

The lipophilic constituents of the liverwort Calypogeia muelleriana were investigated. A new sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, maali-1,3-diene, and two sesquiterpene alcohols with an aromadendrane skeleton, 3-hydroxyledene and 4,5-dehydroviridiflorol, were isolated and identified. The structure elucidation was carried out mainly by NMR spectroscopic techniques ((1)H-, (13)C-, (1)H(1)H-COSY-, HMQC-, HMBC- and NOESY experiments). The majority of the constituents of the liverwort volatiles show a conspicuous biogenetic relationship, which becomes even more obvious in the stereochemical correlations. PMID:11711089

Warmers, Ute; Wihstutz, Kolja; Bülow, Nils; Fricke, Christiane; König, Wilfried A.

1998-11-20

329

Functional changes due to invasive species: Food web shifts at shallow Posidonia oceanica seagrass beds colonized by the alien macroalga Caulerpa racemosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple stable isotope analyses were used to examine the trophic shifts at faunal assemblages within the invading macroalga Caulerpa racemosa in comparison to established communities of Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows. Sampling of macrobenthic invertebrates and their potential food sources of algal mats and seagrass meadows in Mallorca (NW Mediterranean) showed differences in species composition of faunal and primary producers among seagrass and C. racemosa. Accordingly, changes in food web structure and trophic guilds were observed, not only at species level but also at community level. The carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures of herbivores, detritivores and deposit feeders confirmed that the seagrass provided a small contribution to the macrofaunal organisms. ? 13C at the P. oceanica seagrass and at the C. racemosa assemblages differed, ranging from -6.19 to -21.20‰ and -2.67 to -31.41‰, respectively. ? 15N at the Caulerpa mats was lower (ranging from 2.64 to 10.45‰) than that at the seagrass meadows (3.51-12. 94‰). Significant differences in isotopic signatures and trophic level among trophic guilds at P. oceanica and C. racemosa were found. N fractionation at trophic guild level considerable differed between seagrass and macroalgae mats, especially for detritivores, deposit feeders, and herbivores. Filter feeders slightly differed with a relatively lower N signal at the seagrass and CR values at community level and at trophic guild level were higher in the C. racemosa invaded habitats indicating an increase in diversity of basal resource pools. C. racemosa did seem to broaden the niche diversity of the P. oceanica meadows it colonised at the base of the food web, may be due to the establishment of a new basal resource. The extent of the effects of invasive species on ecosystem functioning is a fundamental issue in conservation ecology. The observed changes in invertebrate and macrophytic composition, stable isotope signatures of concomitant species and consequent trophic guild and niche breadth shifts at invaded Caulerpa beds increase our understanding of the seagrass systems.

Deudero, S.; Box, A.; Alós, J.; Arroyo, N. L.; Marbà, N.

2011-06-01

330

How does the resuspension of the biofilm alter the functioning of the benthos-pelagos coupled food web of a bare mudflat in Marennes-Oléron Bay (NE Atlantic)?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intertidal mudflats are ecosystems submitted to natural hydrodynamical forcings during each tide. When the offshore water flows at high tide, a proportion of the biofilm produced at low tide can be resuspended in the water column and interact with the pelagic food web. As a consequence, the resuspension creates a link between the benthos and the pelagos, modifying their properties and the stability of the meta-ecosystem they form together. The aim of this study is to describe the consequences of the microbial biofilm resuspension on the pelagic food web, and to investigate the question of the stability of the benthos-pelagos coupling resulting from the biofilm resuspension. Two food webs were considered, corresponding to different hydrodynamical conditions in summer condition: one allowing the biofilm massive resuspension, and one without resuspension, but with particle sedimentation. The Monte-Carlo Markov Chain Linear Modelling was used to estimate the unknown flows of the food web. The comparison of the Ecological Network Analysis indices for the two food webs allowed defining their respective differences of structure and functioning. The results showed that the massive resuspension of the microbial biofilm stimulates pelagic primary production and microbial food web via a higher bacterivory. The higher activity of the whole system coupled with both a drop in the specialisation of the trophic pathways and a low cycling activity demonstrated that when massive resuspension occurs, the system is disturbed. In contrast, when sedimentation occurs, the food webs show functioning features pointing out to a higher stability of the whole system.

Saint-Béat, Blanche; Dupuy, Christine; Agogué, Hélène; Carpentier, Alexandre; Chalumeau, Julien; Como, Serena; David, Valérie; De Crignis, Margot; Duchêne, Jean-Claude; Fontaine, Camille; Feunteun, Eric; Guizien, Katell; Hartmann, Hans; Lavaud, Johann; Lefebvre, Sébastien; Lefrançois, Christel; Mallet, Clarisse; Montanié, Hélène; Mouget, Jean-Luc; Orvain, Francis; Ory, Pascaline; Pascal, Pierre-Yves; Radenac, Gilles; Richard, Pierre; Vézina, Alain F.; Niquil, Nathalie

2014-09-01

331

Neuroprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neuroprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) and some of its constituents were tested by using the mouse and the rat model of focal cerebral ischemia, the rat model of global cerebral ischemia and primary cultures of neurons obtained from newborn rat hippocampi and chick embryo telencephalic hemispheres. In the models of focal ischemia, 2 days after occlusion

Josef Krieglstein; Franz Ausmeier; Hanan El-Abhar; Klaus Lippert; Matthias Welsch; Katrin Rupalla; Petra Henrich-Noack

1995-01-01

332

40 CFR 264.93 - Hazardous constituents.  

...present or potential hazard to human health or the environment...including its potential for migration; (ii) The hydrogeological...potential for health risks caused by human exposure to waste constituents...potential for health risks caused by human exposure to waste...

2014-07-01

333

40 CFR 264.93 - Hazardous constituents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...present or potential hazard to human health or the environment...including its potential for migration; (ii) The hydrogeological...potential for health risks caused by human exposure to waste constituents...potential for health risks caused by human exposure to waste...

2011-07-01

334

40 CFR 264.93 - Hazardous constituents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...present or potential hazard to human health or the environment...including its potential for migration; (ii) The hydrogeological...potential for health risks caused by human exposure to waste constituents...potential for health risks caused by human exposure to waste...

2012-07-01

335

Volatile constituents of wood-rotting basidiomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytochemical investigation of the hydrodistillation products of the basidiomycetes Fomitopsis pinicola, Piptoporus betulinus, Gloeophyllum odoratum and Trametes suaveolens led to the identification of numerous mono- and sesquiterpenes as well as many aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes and ketones and some aromatic compounds. In addition, some diterpenes were identified as constituents of Fomitopsis pinicola. The absolute configuration of some terpenes was determined.

Joachim Rösecke; Martin Pietsch; Wilfried A. König

2000-01-01

336

Constituent errors in assessing their Senators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We attempt to explain why some constitutents are well informed and others are poorly informed about the positions taken by their U.S. Senators. The acquisition of political information is modeled in a Bayesian framework. A constituent with virtually no information about a candidate assigns him an average position on a liberal\\/conservative spectrum. As more political information is acquired with more

Thomas A. Husted; Lawrence W. Kenny; Rebecca B. Morton

1995-01-01

337

The Constituent Quark Model: a Status Report  

SciTech Connect

A brief and biased overview of the status of the constituent quark model is presented. We concentrate on open issues and goals of hadronic phenomenology, rather than specific physics conundrums in the field. Modern attempts at addressing these issues are also presented.

Eric S. Swanson

2002-06-07

338

Tidal constituents from remote sensing image sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the problem of obtaining tidal constituents from a series of shoreline positions derived from time-sequential airborne imagery of the intertidal zone. A multi-sensor experiment (Bachmann et al., 2012) conducted at the Virginia Coast Reserve Long-Term Ecological Research (VCR LTER) site supplied in-situ and airborne data. Hyperspectral and infrared shoreline imagery of the VCR LTER barrier islands, shallow lagoons, and mainland coastal areas as well as topographic LiDAR data were obtained from the same air platform over a nine-day period, and LiDAR and in-situ topographic beach surveys were used to specify the beach bathymetry and derive a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) over the primary area focused on in this paper at Wreck Island, VA. The DEM and shoreline positions are used to obtain a time sequence of tidal heights; these are found to be consistent with a time series from a GPS-equipped tide gage float anchored nearby. A least-squares fit of the five largest tidal constituents (M2, N2, S2, O1, K1) to this one-week record indicates that the first three can be retrieved with only a ±15-20 % error, as determined by the one-year sea-surface height time series from a nearby NOAA Sea Surface Height (SSH) station at Wachapreague, VA. The broader question of how many images are needed to obtain tidal constituents from an annual record is also addressed. Using SSH values from a NOAA tide gage station as a surrogate for image-derived SSH values, we progressively decimate a yearlong tide record, calculating its tidal constituents at each level of decimation. We find that that only one image every ten days is needed to retrieve the five largest tidal constituents to within a 10% error. www.vcrlter.virginia.edu

Mied, Richard P.; Snow, Charlotte M.; Smith, Geoffrey B.; Bachmann, Charles M.; Korwan, Daniel R.; Fusina, Robert A.; Vermillion, Michael S.; Hagen, Rick A.

2013-01-01

339

Photoperiod, Ambient Temperature, and Food Availability Interact to Affect Reproductive and Immune Function in Adult Male Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter is often stressful. Increased energetic demands in winter and concurrent reductions in energy availability can lead to an energetic imbalance and compromise survival. To increase the odds of surviving winter, individuals of some nontropical rodent species have evolved mechanisms to enhance immune function in advance of harsh winter conditions. Short day lengths provide a proximate cue for enhancement of

Gregory E. Demas; Randy J. Nelson

1998-01-01

340

Food masquerade.  

PubMed

Radishes cut to look like roses, watermelons carved into fruit baskets, apples made into swans, cakes frosted to look like dolls—when did this game of food masquerade start and how? This essay speculates about food's on-going history of disguise, of pretending to be what it's not. From the Renaissance courtier's delight in confections disguised as beasts, birds, and other fancies to our present day fascination with Japanese bento lunch boxes, food masquerade would seem to be a fanciful part of the history of food.Food masquerade injects some levity into our growing seriousness about food, our suspicion that most supermarket food is riddled with toxins and bad karma. It proposes that eating food should be fun. Food masquerade also gets to the very heart of artistic visual representation: the magical transformation of paint, clay or wood into an image of something else. It is a synecdoche for art itself. PMID:21539044

Bermingham, Ann

2010-01-01

341

A new functionalized resin and its application in preconcentration system with multivariate optimization for nickel determination in food samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, Amberlite XAD-2 resin functionalized with 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid was synthesized, characterized and applied as a new packing material for an on-line system to nickel preconcentration. The method is based on the sorption of Ni(II) ions in a minicolumn containing the synthesized resin, posterior desorption using an acid solution and measurement of the nickel by spectrophotometry (PAR method). The

Valfredo Azevedo Lemos; Patrícia Xavier Baliza; Juracir Silva Santos; Luana Sena Nunes; Adriana Alves de Jesus; Marcelo Eça Rocha

2005-01-01

342

Food labeling  

MedlinePLUS

... foods that claim to be nondairy (such as coffee whiteners) FDA-approved color additives Sources of protein ... contain no significant amounts of any nutrients Plain coffee and tea Ready-to-eat food prepared primarily ...

343

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food Allergy Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share ... National Institutes of Health for research in food allergy. We are committed to supporting efforts to help ...

344

Food Labeling  

MedlinePLUS

... dietary proteins, vitamins, and minerals in each serving Definitions for terms such as low-fat and high-fiber Information to help you see how a food fits into an overall daily diet Food and Drug Administration

345

Protein Foods  

MedlinePLUS

... Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ? ... Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free ...

346

Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Food web reading. Build a food web and design a creature. Requires downloaded program. Download your assignment Food Web Assignment Sheet. Use the following sites and activities to answer the questions. Do not start the creature creator until Mr. Wood has seen your food web and completed assignment and allowed you to move on. Type your answers on the sheet and edit it to fit one page. When ...

Wood, Mr.

2010-10-06

347

Volatile constituents in a wood pyrolysis oil  

E-print Network

Science VOLATILE CONSTITUTENTS IN A WOOD PYROLYSIS OIL A Thesis SHIH-CHIEN LIN Appro d as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) Head of epa tmen (Member Member Nay 1978 442936 ABSTRACT Volatile Constituents in a Wood Pyrolysis Oil..., 1958]. . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Pyrolysis products of cellulose and treated cellulose at 600oC f Chin, 1973]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Pyrolysis products of lignin at 450-550 C [Allen and Nattil a, 1971] Properties of wood pyrolysis oil. 12...

Lin, Shih-Chien

2012-06-07

348

Hybrid States from Constituent Glue Model  

E-print Network

The hybrid meson is one of the most interesting new hadron specie beyond the naive quark model. It acquire a great attention both from the theoretical and experimental efforts. Many good candidates have been claimed to be observed, but there is no absolute confirmation about existence of hybrid mesons. In the present work we propose new calculations of the masses and decay widths of the hybrid mesons in the context of constituent gluon model.

F. Iddir; L. Semlala

2007-10-29

349

Baryon Spectroscopy and the Constituent Quark Model  

SciTech Connect

We explore further the idea that the lattice QCD data for hadron properties in the region m[^2][_pi] > 0.2GeV^2 can be described by the constituent quark model. This leads to a natural explanation of the fact that nucleon excited states are generally stable for pion masses greater than their physical excitation energies. Finally, we apply these same ideas to the problem of how pentaquarks might behave in lattice QCD, with interesting conclusions.

A.W. Thomas; R.D. Young

2005-07-26

350

Novel mechanism of modulating natural antioxidants in functional foods: involvement of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria NRRL B-30488.  

PubMed

The significance of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mediated increase in antioxidant potential in vegetables is yet unknown. The plant growth-promoting bacterium Bacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488 (B-30488) mediated induction of dietary antioxidant in vegetables ( Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lactuca sativa, Spinacia oleracea, and Daucus carota) and fruit ( Citrus sinensis) after minimal processing (fresh, boiled, and frozen) was tested by estimating the total phenol content, level of antioxidant enzymes, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide scavenging activities along with integral radical scavenging capacity by photochemiluminescence assay and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Minimal processing of vegetables showed that T. foenum-graecum had the highest phenol content in B-30488-treated plants followed by L. sativa, D. carota, and S. oleracea. Thermally treated vegetables T. foenum-graecum (26-114.5 GAE microg mg (-1)) had an exceptionally high total phenolic content, followed by D. carota (25.27-101.32 GAE microg mg (-1)), L. sativa (23.22-101.10 GAE microg mg (-1)), and S. oleracea (21.87-87.57 GAE microg mg (-1)). Among the vegetables and fruit used in this study for enzymatic estimation, induction of antioxidant enzymes, namely, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD), was observed in edible parts of T. foenum-graecum, L. sativa, S. oleracea, and D. carota, after inoculation with B-30488. The scavenging capacity of the vegetables treated with B-30488 against DPPH and superoxide anion radical activity was found to be significantly high as compared to nontreated control. Mild food processing had no adverse effect on radical scavenging capacity. Photochemiluminescence also ascertains the above findings. The ability of the plant extracts to protect against lipid peroxidation and its ability to prevent oxidation of reduced glutathione (GSH) was measured in rat liver homogenate, and the results suggested that the inoculated plant exhibited better activity in all of the screened plants. Significant increases in shoot length, root length, and dry weight, averaging 164, 132, and 135% in T. foenum-graecum, 174, 141, and 156% in L. sativa, 129, 141, and 59%, in S. oleracea, and 125, 146, and 42% in D. carota, respectively, over untreated controls, were attained in greenhouse trials. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of PGPR-mediated induction of antioxidant enzyme activity (PPO, APX, CAT, and SOD) along with the antioxidant activity of the extracts in both in vitro (DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide scavenging) and ex vivo conditions using the rat liver tissue (percent inhibition of lipid peroxidation and prevention of oxidation of GSH) and phenolic content. The results demonstrate the PGPR-mediated induction of antioxidant level in vegetables and fruit controls oxidative damage even after minimal processing and thus is indicative of its potential as a viable substitute of synthetic antioxidants. PMID:18491912

Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Govindarajan, Raghavan; Lavania, Meeta; Pushpangadan, Palpu

2008-06-25

351

Baryons in the Constituent-Quark Model  

E-print Network

An elementary constituent-quark (CQ) model of mesons was previously presented. In this paper, we continue research into a study of the baryons in the constituent-quark model. Mac Gregor proposed a comprehensive model of elementary particles for which both mesons and baryons shared common mass-band structure in quantized units of m = 70 MeV, B= 140 MeV and X = 420 MeV. A review of the baryon data is under taken for comparison with the CQ model. It is shown in this paper that baryons possess an isospin I related to the mass quantum m = 70 MeV and to the B = 140 MeV quantum (or the mass of the pion). In order to establish a consistency with the quark model of Gell-Mann, we identify the SU(3) baryon decuplet as a standard feature to be maintained with only slight changes to the constituent-quark masses. By insisting on the J = 3/2, P-states of the SU(3) baryon decuplet to be in the same CQ excitation states, we are lead to establish baryon cores in the P-states with J = 1/2. Core corrections to Mac Gregor's CQ model of baryons are presented. Exact shell structure is found among all the baryons regardless of isospin as evidenced in the data from the Particle Data Group listing. New baryons are predicted to exist.

David Akers

2003-03-31

352

Baryons in the Constituent-Quark Model  

E-print Network

An elementary constituent-quark (CQ) model of mesons was previously presented. In this paper, we continue research into a study of the baryons in the constituent-quark model. Mac Gregor proposed a comprehensive model of elementary particles for which both mesons and baryons shared common mass-band structure in quantized units of m = 70 MeV, B= 140 MeV and X = 420 MeV. A review of the baryon data is under taken for comparison with the CQ model. It is shown in this paper that baryons possess an isospin I related to the mass quantum m = 70 MeV and to the B = 140 MeV quantum (or the mass of the pion). In order to establish a consistency with the quark model of Gell-Mann, we identify the SU(3) baryon decuplet as a standard feature to be maintained with only slight changes to the constituent-quark masses. By insisting on the J = 3/2, P-states of the SU(3) baryon decuplet to be in the same CQ excitation states, we are lead to establish baryon cores in the P-states with J = 1/2. Core corrections to Mac Gregor's CQ mo...

Akers, D

2003-01-01

353

Constituent Particle Clustering and Pitting Corrosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion is a primary degradation mechanism that affects the durability and integrity of structures made of aluminum alloys, and it is a concern for commercial transport and military aircraft. In aluminum alloys, corrosion results from local galvanic coupling between constituent particles and the metal matrix. Due to variability in particle sizes, spatial location, and chemical composition, to name a few critical variables, corrosion is a complex stochastic process. Severe pitting is caused by particle clusters that are located near the material surface, which, in turn, serve as nucleation sites for subsequent corrosion fatigue crack growth. These evolution processes are highly dependent on the spatial statistics of particles. The localized corrosion growth rate is primarily dependent on the galvanic process perpetuated by particle-to-particle interactions and electrochemical potentials. Frequently, severe pits are millimeters in length, and these pits have a dominant impact on the structural prognosis. To accommodate large sizes, a model for three-dimensional (3-D) constituent particle microstructure is proposed. To describe the constituent particle microstructure in three dimensions, the model employs a fusion of classic stereological techniques, spatial point pattern analyses, and qualitative observations. The methodology can be carried out using standard optical microscopy and image analysis techniques.

Harlow, D. Gary

2012-08-01

354

Fried foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fried foods may taste good, but they can have terrible effects on your body if you eat too many of them. Someone who has bulimia would be likely to binge eat these fried foods. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted binge eats and then purges, or gets rid of, all of the food they just ate.

Sakurai Midori (None;)

2006-10-31

355

Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Which Germs Are to Blame? Foods from animals, raw foods, and unwashed vegetables all can contain germs that ... and vegetables well before eating them. Only eat foods that are properly cooked. If you cut into chicken and it looks pink and raw inside, tell a grown-up. Look at what ...

356

Food allergy.  

PubMed

Food allergy appears to be increasing in prevalence and is estimated to affect >2% and possibly up to 10% of the population. Food allergies are defined by an immune response triggered by food proteins. Emerging data suggest that carbohydrate moieties on food proteins, specifically mammalian meats, may also elicit allergic responses. Food is the most common trigger of anaphylaxis in the community, which can be fatal. The underlying mechanisms of food allergy usually involve food-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies, but cell-mediated disorders account for a variety of chronic or subacute skin and gastrointestinal reactions. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an emerging food-related chronic disorder. The diagnosis of food allergy is complicated by the observation that detection of food-specific immunoglobulin E (sensitization) does not necessarily indicate clinical allergy. Diagnosis requires a careful medical history, laboratory studies, and, in many cases, oral food challenges to confirm a diagnosis. Novel diagnostic methods, many of which rely upon evaluating immune responses to specific food proteins or epitopes, may improve diagnosis and prognosis in the future. Current management relies upon allergen avoidance and preparation to promptly treat severe reactions with epinephrine. Studies suggest that some children with milk or egg allergy might tolerate extensively heated forms, for example milk or egg baked into muffins, without symptoms and possibly with some immunotherapeutic benefits. Novel therapeutic strategies are under study, including oral and sublingual immunotherapy, Chinese herbal medicine, anti-immunoglobulin E antibodies, and modified vaccines. PMID:21913199

Sicherer, Scott H

2011-01-01

357

A Simple Mixture Theory for ? Newtonian and Generalized Newtonian Constituents  

E-print Network

This work presents development of mathematical models based on conservation laws for a saturated mixture of ? homogeneous, isotropic, and incompressible constituents for isothermal flows. The constituents and the mixture are assumed to be Newtonian...

Powell, Michael Joseph

2012-08-31

358

CHEMICAL SPECIATION OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE CONSTITUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This project addresses the problem of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge disposal to land. Specifically, the chemical species of FGD sludge constituents are thermodynamically modeled using the equilibrium constant approach, in an attempt to predict the constituent concentratio...

359

The composition of larval food in stingless bees: Evaluating nutritional balance by Chemosystematic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional balance of larval food supposedly plays an important role in honey bee caste formation. Whether this is similar in stingless bees was an open question. We analysed the major water-soluble constituents in the larval food of 7 species of meliponids. The data were used to evaluate the hypothesis that a balanced composition of larval food is shaped by selection.

K. Hartfelder; W. Engels

1989-01-01

360

Simultaneous Determination of Water Constituent Concentrations from Airborne Imaging Spectrometer  

E-print Network

for the joint estimation of concentrations of water constituents chlorophyll-a (CHL), total suspended matterSimultaneous Determination of Water Constituent Concentrations from Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for the simultaneous determi- nation of concentrations of water constituents chlorophyll-a (CHL), total suspended

361

Qualitative analysis of trace constituents by ion mobility increment spectrometer.  

PubMed

Ion mobility increment spectrometry (IMIS) is a high sensitive selective ionization technology for detection and identification of ultra-trace constituents, including toxic compounds, CW-agents, drugs and explosives in ambient air or liquid sample. Like an ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), this technology rests on sampling air containing a mixture of trace constituents, its ionization, spatial separation of produced ions and separated ions detection. Unlike IMS, ions of different types in IMIS are separated by ion mobility increment, alpha. Value alpha, is a function of the parameters: electric field strength and form, atmospheric pressure. To exclude the influence of these parameters on an alpha, the method of explosives identification by a standard compound was suggested. As a standard compound iodine was used. The relationship among the mobility coefficient increments equal to the relationship among the compensation voltage alpha(i)/alpha(iodine)=U(i)/U(iodine) is determined, where i are ions of 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, p-mononitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene This relationship is practically independent of the above mentioned parameters in the range 25

Buryakov, I A

2003-11-01

362

Preferences for foods with varying levels of salt and fat differ as a function of dietary restraint and exercise but not menstrual cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women commonly report increased cravings for foods high in sugar, fat, and\\/or salt premenstrually relative to other times during the menstrual cycle. To determine if elevated cravings for foods high in salt and\\/or fat were related to alterations in food preferences across the menstrual cycle, preference and sensory ratings for air-popped popcorn with varying levels of salt (0.0, 1.5, and

Robin B. Kanarek; Michelle Ryu; Jeanne Przypek

1995-01-01

363

Volatile constituents in the liverwort Tritomaria polita  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of the liverwort Tritomaria polita, collected in Ötztal\\/Tyrol (Austria), was investigated by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Several new compounds were isolated by preparative gas chromatography (GC) and their structures investigated by mass spectrometry (MS) and NMR techniques. In addition to known constituents, the sesquiterpenoids (+)-eudesma-3,11-dien-8-one, (+)-eudesma-3,7(11)-dien-8-one, (+)-6,11-epoxy-eudesmane, (-)-6,7-seco-eudesm-7(11)-en-6-al, (+)-6?-hydroxy-eudesm-11-ene, (-)-6?-hydroxy-eudesm-11-ene, (+)-6,11-epoxy-isodaucane could be identified as natural compounds

Adewale Martins Adio; Claudia Paul; Wilfried A König; Hermann Muhle

2003-01-01

364

Gastroprotective constituents of Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

The gastrointestinal activity of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of Salvia officinalis was evaluated in a model of ethanol-induced gastric lesion. HE showed excellent activity, with ID(50) 84.0 (54.8-128.9) mg/kg. The acetic acid-induced ulcer and the total acidity of the gastric secretion were also reduced by HE, and, in vitro experiments, the H(+),K(+)-ATPase activity was inhibited. Carnosol was identified as a possible active constituent for the gastroprotective effect of HE. PMID:19481590

Mayer, Bárbara; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Freitas, Cristina Setim; dos Santos, Ana Cristina; Twardowschy, André; Horst, Heros; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Heller, Melina; dos Santos, Elide Pereira; Otuki, Michel Fleith; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade

2009-10-01

365

Universal Constituent-Quark Model for Baryons  

E-print Network

We present a relativistic constituent-quark model that covers all known baryons from the nucleon up to $\\Omega_{bbb}$. The corresponding invariant mass operator includes a linear confinement and a hyperfine interaction based on effective degrees of freedom. The model provides for a unified description of practically all baryon spectra in good agreement with present phenomenology and it can tentatively be employed for the relativistic treatment of all kinds of baryon reactions. Predictions of states still missing in the phenomenological data base, especially in the lesser explored heavy-flavor sectors of charm and bottom baryons, should be important especially for future experiments in these areas.

Joseph P. Day; Willibald Plessas; Ki-Seok Choi

2012-05-31

366

Successes and failures of the constituent quark model  

SciTech Connect

Our approach considers the model as a possible bridge between QCD and the experimental data and examines its predictions to see where these succeed and where they fail. We also attempt to improve the model by looking for additional simple assumptions which give better fits to the experimental data. But we avoid complicated models with too many ad hoc assumptions and too many free parameters; these can fit everything but teach us nothing. We define our constituent quark model by analogy with the constituent electron model of the atom and the constituent nucleon model of the nucleus. In the same way that an atom is assumed to consist only of constituent electrons and a central Coulomb field and a nucleus is assumed to consist only of constituent nucleons hadrons are assumed to consist only of their constituent valence quarks with no bag, no glue, no ocean, nor other constituents. Although these constituent models are oversimplified and neglect other constituents we push them as far as we can. Atomic physics has photons and vacuum polarization as well as constituent electrons, but the constituent model is adequate for calculating most features of the spectrum when finer details like the Lamb shift are neglected. 54 references.

Lipkin, H.J.

1982-01-01

367

Modeling of Alkane Oxidation Using Constituents and Species  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is currently not possible to perform simulations of turbulent reactive flows due in particular to complex chemistry, which may contain thousands of reactions and hundreds of species. This complex chemistry results in additional differential equations, making the numerical solution of the equation set computationally prohibitive. Reducing the chemical kinetics mathematical description is one of several important goals in turbulent reactive flow modeling. A chemical kinetics reduction model is proposed for alkane oxidation in air that is based on a parallel methodology to that used in turbulence modeling in the context of the Large Eddy Simulation. The objective of kinetic modeling is to predict the heat release and temperature evolution. This kinetic mechanism is valid over a pressure range from atmospheric to 60 bar, temperatures from 600 K to 2,500 K, and equivalence ratios from 0.125 to 8. This range encompasses diesel, HCCI, and gas-turbine engines, including cold ignition. A computationally efficient kinetic reduction has been proposed for alkanes that has been illustrated for n-heptane using the LLNL heptane mechanism. This model is consistent with turbulence modeling in that scales were first categorized into either those modeled or those computed as progress variables. Species were identified as being either light or heavy. The heavy species were decomposed into defined 13 constituents, and their total molar density was shown to evolve in a quasi-steady manner. The light species behave either in a quasi-steady or unsteady manner. The modeled scales are the total constituent molar density, Nc, and the molar density of the quasi-steady light species. The progress variables are the total constituent molar density rate evolution and the molar densities of the unsteady light species. The unsteady equations for the light species contain contributions of the type gain/loss rates from the heavy species that are modeled consistent with the developed mathematical forms for the total constituent molar density rate evolution; indeed, examination of these gain/loss rates shows that they also have a good quasi-steady behavior with a functional form resembling that of the constituent rate. This finding highlights the fact that the fitting technique provides a methodology that can be repeatedly used to obtain an accurate representation of full or skeletal kinetic models. Assuming success with the modified reduced model, the advantage of the modeling approach is clear. Because this model is based on the Nc rate rather than on that of individual heavy species, even if the number of species increases with increased carbon number in the alkane group, providing that the quasi-steady rate aspect persists, then extension of this model to higher alkanes should be conceptually straightforward, although it remains to be seen if the functional fits would remain valid or would require reconstruction.

Bellan, Jasette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

2010-01-01

368

Simultaneous determination of 30 hormones illegally added to anti-ageing functional foods using UPLC-MS/MS coupled with SPE clean-up.  

PubMed

A novel analytical method employing solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 30 hormones in anti-ageing functional foods (capsules, powders and tablets). The analytes were extracted with acetic acid-acetonitrile (1-99 v/v), methanol and acetone, respectively. The extract was purified using a combined column, followed by analyte detection with electrospray ionisation in positive- or negative-ion modes. The results indicated that the 30 compounds had good linear correlations in the range of 1-1000 ?g kg(-1), and the correlation coefficients were above 0.99. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.03-2 and 0.1-5 ?g kg(-1), respectively. The average recovery of 30 compounds at the three spiked levels varied from 74.7% to 124.1%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.4-15.0%. This method was applied to the analysis of hormones in 14 real samples of which seven hormones (such as estrone, dienestrol) were detected in four samples, but the remainder of the hormones were not detected. The developed method is sensitive, efficient, reliable and applicable to real samples. PMID:25188907

He, Xiaoqin; Xi, Cunxian; Tang, Bobin; Wang, Guomin; Chen, Dongdong; Peng, Tao; Mu, Zhaode

2014-10-01

369

Naturally occurring 2-substituted (1,3)-beta-D-glucan producing Lactobacillus suebicus and Pediococcus parvulus strains with potential utility in the production of functional foods.  

PubMed

We have isolated three lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus suebicus CUPV221, Pediococcus parvulus CUPV1 and P. parvulus CUPV22) that produced high levels of 2-substituted (1,3)-beta-D-glucans which increased the viscosity of the growth media. The (1,3)-beta-D-glucan consisted of two main molecular species, with masses of approximately 10(7) and 10(4) Da, whose proportions varied among the strains. The three strains survived exposure to saliva and simulated gastric conditions at pH 5, with P. parvulus CUPV22 surviving at pH 3.1, and L. suebicus CUPV221 surviving at pH 1.8. All strains were resistant to pancreatin and bile salts. P. parvulus CUPV22 exhibited the highest adhesion (10.5%) to Caco-2 cells, which decreased to 1.2% after washing the cells. Finally, P. parvulus CUPV22 and L. suebicus CUPV221 induced the production of inflammation-related cytokines by polarized macrophages, and interestingly, L. suebicus stimulated the production of cytokine IL-10. These results indicate that the three strains have potential utility for the production of functional foods. PMID:20691585

Garai-Ibabe, Gaizka; Dueñas, María Teresa; Irastorza, Ana; Sierra-Filardi, Elena; Werning, María Laura; López, Paloma; Corbí, Angel Luis; Fernández de Palencia, Pilar

2010-12-01

370

Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread  

PubMed Central

Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT) is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF). The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread. PMID:21995616

2011-01-01

371

Importance of functional ingredients in yak milk-derived food on health of Tibetan nomads living under high-altitude stress: a review.  

PubMed

Tibetan nomads have lived since ancient times in the unique and harsh environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau with average altitudes over 4000 m. These people have been able to live and multiply healthily over numerous generations under the extreme stress of high-altitude environment, including cold, hypoxia, and strong ultraviolet radiation, and with a simple diet devoid of vegetables and fruits for most of the year. Their survival depends heavily on yak milk, and its products comprise the main portion of their daily diet. In this review, yak milk and its derived products are examined in detail and compared with milk from other ruminant species. Yak milk products seem to be particularly rich in functional and bioactive components, which may play a role in maintaining the health status of Tibetan nomads. This includes particular profiles of amino acids and fatty acids, and high levels of antioxidant vitamins, specific enzymes, and bacteria with probiotic activity (yoghurt is the main food). Based on that, it is proposed that the Tibetan nomads have developed a nutritional mechanism adapted to cope with the specific challenges posed by the environment of the world's highest plateau. Systematic studies are required to demonstrate this in a more mechanistic way. PMID:24188303

Guo, Xusheng; Long, Ruijun; Kreuzer, Michael; Ding, Luming; Shang, Zhanhuan; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Yang; Cui, Guangxin

2014-01-01

372

Monitoring of trace amounts of heavy metals in different food and water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer after preconcentration by amine-functionalized graphene nanosheet.  

PubMed

We are introducing graphene oxide modified with amine groups as a new solid phase for extraction of heavy metal ions including cadmium(II), copper(II), nickel(II), zinc(II), and lead(II). Effects of pH value, flow rates, type, concentration, and volume of the eluent, breakthrough volume, and the effect of potentially interfering ions were studied. Under optimized conditions, the extraction efficiency is >97 %, the limit of detections are 0.03, 0.05, 0.2, 0.1, and 1 ?g L(-1) for the ions of cadmium, copper, nickel, zinc, and lead, respectively, and the adsorption capacities for these ions are 178, 142, 110, 125, and 210 mg g(-1). The amino-functionalized graphene oxide was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The proposed method was successfully applied in the analysis of environmental water and food samples. Good spiked recoveries over the range of 95.8-100.0 % were obtained. This work not only proposes a useful method for sample preconcentration but also reveals the great potential of modified graphene as an excellent sorbent material in analytical processes. PMID:25023747

Behbahani, Mohammad; Tapeh, Nasim Akbari Ghareh; Mahyari, Mojtaba; Pourali, Ali Reza; Amin, Bahareh Golrokh; Shaabani, Ahmad

2014-11-01

373

Fatty Acid Composition and Volatile Constituents of Protaetia brevitarsis Larvae  

PubMed Central

A total of 48 different volatile oils were identified form P. brevitarsis larvae by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acids (48.67%) were detected as the major group in P. brevitarsis larvae comprising the largest proportion of the volatile compounds, followed by esters (19.84%), hydrocarbons (18.90%), alcohols (8.37%), miscellaneous (1.71%), aldehydes (1.35%) and terpenes (1.16%). The major volatile constituents were 9-hexadecenoic acid (16.75%), 6-octadecenoic acid (14.88%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (11.06%). The composition of fatty acid was also determined by GC analysis and 16 fatty acids were identified. The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (C18:1, 64.24%) followed by palmitic acid (C16:0, 15.89%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 10.43%) and linoleic acid (C18:2, 4.69%) constituting more than 95% of total fatty acids. The distinguished characteristic of the fatty acid profile of P. brevitarsis larvae was the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (80.54% of total fatty acids) versus saturated fatty acids (19.46% of total fatty acids). Furthermore, small but significant amounts of linoleic, linolenic and ?-linolenic acids bestow P. brevitarsis larvae with considerable nutritional value. The novel findings of the present study provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of the insect as a nutritionally promising food source and a possibility for more effective utilization. PMID:24471125

Yeo, Hyelim; Youn, Kumju; Kim, Minji; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

2013-01-01

374

Food additives  

PubMed Central

Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

Spencer, Michael

1974-01-01

375

Nutritional and Healthful Aspects of Cultured and Culture-Containing Dairy Foods1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional and therapeutic qualities of fermented dairy products are reviewed. Partial hydrolysis of milk constituents (proteins, fats, and lactose) in yogurt, cheese, and other cultured dairy foods appears to contribute to their increased digestibility. Lactase and other constituent enzymes of various culturing organisms should contribute to assimilation of lactose by lactose intolerant individuals. Several lactic cultures synthesize certain B-vitamins in

Khem M. Shahani; Ramesh C. Chandan

1979-01-01

376

Constituent Data Assimilation: Challenges and Limitations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The assimilation of observations of atmospheric constituents naturally divides into two major pieces. The first is the assimilation of trace gases whose variability is related to atmospheric motions. The second is the assimilation of trace gases which are sharply influenced by chemical exchange between different constituents. In order to advance beyond the initial successes of explorative investigation of assimilation techniques, tremendous challenges must be met to improve the geophysical integrity of assimilated data products. A subject of special interest is ozone near the tropopause. At the tropopause the information from both the observations and the model simulation becomes most uncertain. However a number of important geophysical parameters, e.g. stratosphere-troposphere exchange and tropospheric ozone, require the assimilation to have high accuracy at the tropopause. This talk will review the current status of the quality of assimilated data products near the tropopause, what must be done to improve the assimilation near the tropopause, and the intrinsic limitations that will require additional sources of information in order for the field to advance.

Rood, Richard B.; Stajner, I.; Winslow, N.; Douglass, A.; Pawson, S.; Straham, S.; Atlas, Robert M. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

377

Relationships between Mechanical Properties and Extracellular Matrix Constituents of the Cervical Stroma during Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

In normal pregnancy, the cervix maintains its shape during a period of substantial fetal and uterine growth. Hence, maintenance of biomechanical integrity is an important aspect of cervical function. It is known that cervical mechanical properties arise from the extracellular matrix. The most important constituent of the cervical extracellular matrix is fibrillar collagen – it is from collagen protein that the cervix derives its “strength.” Other matrix molecules known to affect the collagen network include water, proteoglycans, hyaluronan and elastin. The objective of this review is to discuss relationships between biochemical constituents and macroscopic mechanical properties. The individual constituents of the extracellular matrix will be discussed, especially in regard to collagen remodeling during pregnancy. In addition, the macroscopic mechanical properties of cervical tissue will be reviewed. An improved understanding of the biochemistry of cervical “strength” will shed light into how the cervix maintains its shape in normal pregnancy and shortens in preterm birth. PMID:19796726

House, Michael; Kaplan, David L.; Socrate, Simona

2009-01-01

378

Chemical constituents from Swietenia macrophylla bark and their antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Chemical constituents of the bark of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) was investigated not only to develop further bark utilization but also to understand the biochemical function of the bark in the forest environment. A new phenylpropanoid-substituted catechin, namely, swietemacrophyllanin [(2R*,3S*,7"R*)-catechin-8,7"-7,2"-epoxy-(methyl 4",5"-dihydroxyphenylpropanoate)] (1) was isolated from the bark of S. macrophylla together with two known compounds, catechin (2) and epicatechin (3). The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic data and by comparison of the NMR data with those of catiguanins A and B, phenylpropanoid-substituted epicatechins. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of the isolated compounds indicated that all of the three compounds have strong activity compared with trolox as a reference. Swietemacrophyllanin (1) had the strongest activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 56 microg mL(-1). PMID:19266907

Falah, S; Suzuki, T; Katayama, T

2008-08-15

379

Healthy and Adverse Effects of Plant-Derived Functional Metabolites the Need of Revealing Their Content and Bioactivity in a Complex Food Matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, both food quality and its effect on human health have become a fundamental issue all over the world. As a consequence of this new and increased awareness, United States, European and Asian policymakers have strongly encouraged the research programmes on food quality and safety thematic. Attempts to improve human health and to satisfy people's desire for healthcare

TERESA LAVECCHIA; GIUSEPPINA REA; AMINA ANTONACCI; MARIA T. GIARDI

2011-01-01

380

Essential Oils in Food Preservation: Mode of Action, Synergies, and Interactions with Food Matrix Components  

PubMed Central

Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defense as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds’ mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods. PMID:22291693

Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Meyer, Rikke Louise

2012-01-01

381

Functional Foods from Cereal Grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal grains and germs are good sources of various phytochemicals. The major phytochemicals present in cereal grains are: phenolic acids, flavones, phytic acid, flavanoids, coumarins, and terpenes. Cereal germs are good sources of ferulic acid, phytic acid, glutathione, and phytosterols. In addition, the cereal germ acontains the vitamins E, B1, B2, and B3, the minerals P, K, Mg, Ca, Zn,

Jiwan S. Sidhu; Yearul Kabir; Fatma G. Huffman

2007-01-01

382

Food commodities from microalgae.  

PubMed

The prospect of sustainable production of food ingredients from photoautotrophic microalgae was reviewed. Clearly, there is scope for microalgal oils to replace functions of major vegetable oils, and in addition to deliver health benefits to food products. Furthermore, with a limited production surface, a substantial portion of the European Union market could be supplied with edible oils and proteins from microalgae. Yet, before microalgal ingredients can become genuinely sustainable and cost effective alternatives for current food commodities, major breakthroughs in production technology and in biorefinery approaches are required. Moreover, before market introduction, evidence on safety of novel microalgal ingredients, is needed. In general, we conclude that microalgae have a great potential as a sustainable feedstock for food commodities. PMID:23084075

Draaisma, René B; Wijffels, René H; Slegers, P M Ellen; Brentner, Laura B; Roy, Adip; Barbosa, Maria J

2013-04-01

383

Epicurious Food Website  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Epicurious website is quite possibly one of the most information-filled sites about food on the Internet. With literally dozens of resources, anyone who has an interest in food may find their fill here. Some of the most useful functions of the site are the food and wine dictionaries, containing over 4,000 and 3,500 entries, respectively. The web site also includes very useful How-To's that range in topic from how to use certain kitchen utensils to how to prepare different kinds of specialty foods. An interesting feature of the Epicurious site is its forum area. Users can discuss or ask questions in one of the many forums. A small minority of the pages are members-only accessible, but membership is easy and free.

2006-12-15

384

Food Groups and Nutrients  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

State core objective: 3rd grade Health Standard 6 Objective 2. Students will learn the basic nutrient groups and be able to identify the functions of those nutrients. There is an interactive food pyramid for you to explore and several games that will help you learn how each nutrient is used in our bodies! Learning about nutrition is fun and useful! When you have learned all about the nutrient groups you will create your own food pyramid with your favorite foods and how they help your body. There are five basic food groups: Grains, vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy. These groups are organized into a pyramid, showing about how much of each you should eat each day. There is also a small section for sugars and fats. This pyramid will let you explore what ...

Perry, Miss

2007-11-08

385

Food Trends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

Schwenk, Nancy E.

1991-01-01

386

Irradiated foods  

MedlinePLUS

... and reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes and for the control of insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

387

Food extrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extrusion processing has become an important food process in the manufacture of pasta, ready?to?eat cereals, snacks, pet foods, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). An extruder consists of a tightly fitting screw rotating within a stationary barrel. Preground and conditioned ingredients enter the screw where they are conveyed, mixed, and heated by a variety of processes. The product exits the extruder

Judson M. Harper; J. Peter Clark

1979-01-01

388

Food safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Section 103 (d) of the Americans with Disabilities Act directs the secretary of health and human services to identify, publish, and annually review a list of pathogens transmitted via food contaminated by infected food handlers. The secretary is also directed to publish means by which diseases on the list are transmitted. The intent of the list is to protect disabled

PATRICIA OLLINGER-SNYDER; M. EILEEN MATTHEWS

1996-01-01

389

Food Labels  

MedlinePLUS

Food Allergy Fact EPINEPHRINE IS THE FIRST LINE TREATMENT FOR ANAPHYLAXIS Home About Us About FARE Leadership Executive Team Board of Directors Medical & Research Advisors History Annual Reports & Financial Statements Become a Member Corporate Partners Contact Us Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Alliance About ...

390

Food Allergy: An Overview  

MedlinePLUS

... 14 Is It Food Allergy or Food Intolerance? 17 Diagnosing Food Allergy 22 Preventing and Treating Food ... cramping abdominal pain, become worse when you eat. 17 NIAID I FOOD ALLERGY Diagnosing Food Allergy Detailed ...

391

Finding food  

PubMed Central

A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

2011-01-01

392

[Chemical constituents of Artemisia lactiflora(II)].  

PubMed

To study the chemical constituents of Artemisia lactiflora. The compounds were isolated by column chromatography with silica gel, C18 reverse-phase silica gel, semi-preparative HPLC, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis. Twelve compounds were isolated from alcohol extracts of A. lactiflora and identified as 7-hydroxycoumarin (1), 7-methoxycoumarin (2), balanophonin (3), aurantiamide (4), aurantiamide acetate (5), isovitexin (6), kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-rutinoside (7), rutin (8), caffeic acid ethyl ester (9), quercetin (10), methyl 3, 5-di-O-caffeoyl quinate (11) and methyl 3, 4-di-O-caffeoyl quinate (12), respectively. Compounds 3-12 were obtained from this plant for the first time. PMID:25276977

Lin, Fu-Di; Luo, Dang-Wei; Ye, Jing; Xiao, Mei-Tian

2014-07-01

393

[Studies on chemical constituents of Laurencia saitoi].  

PubMed

In order to search for bioactive natural products from marine algae, the chemical constituents of red alga Laurencia saitoi was separated by the combination of normal phase silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and recrystallization. Seven compounds: aplysistatin (1), 5-acetoxypalisadin B (2), palisadin B (3), palisadin A (4), pacifigorgiol (5), stigmast4-en-3alpha, 6beta-diol (6), 2, 3, 5, 6-Tetrabromoindole (7), were isolated and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS techniques. All compounds were isolated from L. saitoi for the first time. Cytotoxicities of purified compounds were evaluated by MTT method, however, all of them were found inactive (IC50 >10 mg x L(-1). PMID:19623985

Su, Hua; Yuan, Zhaohui; Li, Jing; Guo, Shuju; Han, Lijun; Zhu, Xiaobin; Shi, Dayong

2009-04-01

394

Volatile constituents of Vitex negundo leaves.  

PubMed

Volatile constituents of Vitex negundo leaves growing in Dehra Dun (India) were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and showed the presence of sixty-six compounds. Such a study has not been done earlier on the Indian oil. Thirty-five compounds, constituting 74.96% of the oil, were identified. The main compounds are viridiflorol (19.55%), beta-caryophyllene (16.59%), sabinene (12.07%), 4-terpineol (9.65%), gamma-terpinene (2.21%), caryophyllene oxide (1.75%), 1-oceten-3-ol (1.59%), and globulol (1.05%). Viridiflorol is being reported for the first time in the oil of Vitex species. PMID:17260284

Singh, V; Dayal, R; Bartley, J P

1999-08-01

395

Therapeutic constituents and actions of Rubus species.  

PubMed

Rubus species (family Rosaceae) have been cultivated for centuries for their fruits. These and other parts of the plants have been used traditionally for therapeutic purposes. This article highlights these and the potential they can offer. The constituents reported in the various species and those demonstrated to exhibit pharmacological properties have been reviewed. In the search for biologically active compounds, one of the most frequently documented species of the genus is the raspberry plant R. idaeus, the leaves of which have been used traditionally as a uterine relaxant and stimulant during confinement, for the treatment of diarrhoea and similar enteric disorders and as an astringent. Investigations of other Rubus species have been conducted in the last twenty-five years, and have shown possible application for a wide range of indications, including bacterial infections, anxiety, pain and inflammation. PMID:15180580

Patel, A V; Rojas-Vera, J; Dacke, C G

2004-06-01

396

Bioactive constituents of Cirsium japonicum var. australe.  

PubMed

Cirsium japonicum var. australe, used as a folk medicine in Taiwan, has been employed traditionally in the treatment of diabetes and inflammatory symptoms. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of its ethanolic extract, utilizing centrifugal partition chromatography monitored by DPPH-TLC analysis, led to the isolation of three new acetylenic phenylacrylic acid esters (1-3) and two new polyacetylenes (4 and 5), together with seven known compounds (6-12). The structures of 1-5 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The absolute configurations of 4 and 7 were determined utilizing Mosher's method and ECD/CD experiments. The DPPH scavenging activity of the constituents isolated from the C. japonicum var. australe ethanolic extract was evaluated. The potential antidiabetic activity of some of the isolates was evaluated using in vitro cellular glucose uptake and oil red staining assays. PMID:25025240

Lai, Wan-Chun; Wu, Yang-Chang; Dankó, Balázs; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Hsieh, Chi-Ting; Tsai, Yu-Chi; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Martins, Ana; Hohmann, Judit; Hunyadi, Attila; Chang, Fang-Rong

2014-07-25

397

Volatile constituents in the liverwort Tritomaria polita.  

PubMed

The essential oil of the liverwort Tritomaria polita, collected in Otztal/Tyrol (Austria), was investigated by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Several new compounds were isolated by preparative gas chromatography (GC) and their structures investigated by mass spectrometry (MS) and NMR techniques. In addition to known constituents, the sesquiterpenoids (+)-eudesma-3,11-dien-8-one, (+)-eudesma-3,7(11)-dien-8-one, (+)-6,11-epoxy-eudesmane, (-)-6,7-seco-eudesm-7(11)-en-6-al, (+)-6beta-hydroxy-eudesm-11-ene, (-)-6alpha-hydroxy-eudesm-11-ene, (+)-6,11-epoxy-isodaucane could be identified as natural compounds for the first time. PMID:12943788

Adio, Adewale Martins; Paul, Claudia; König, Wilfried A; Muhle, Hermann

2003-09-01

398

Interrelation of exhaust-gas constituents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of an investigation conducted to determine the interrelation of the constituents of the exhaust gases of internal-combustion engines and the effect of engine performance on these relations. Six single-cylinder, liquid-cooled tests engines and one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled engine were tested. Various types of combustion chambers were used and the engines were operated at compression ratios from 5.1 to 7.0 using spark ignition and from 13.5 to 15.6 using compression ignition. The investigation covered a range of engine speeds from 1,500 to 2,100 r.p.m. The fuels used were two grades of aviation gasoline, auto diesel fuel, and laboratory diesel fuel. Power, friction, and fuel-consumption data were obtained from the single-cylinder engines at the same time that the exhaust-gas samples were collected.

Gerrish, Harold C; Voss, Fred

1938-01-01

399

Diabetes dietary management alters responses to food pictures in brain regions associated with motivation and emotion: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  We hypothesised that living with type 2 diabetes would enhance responses to pictures of foods in brain regions known to be\\u000a involved in learnt food sensory motivation and that these stronger activations would relate to scores for dietary adherence\\u000a in diabetes and to measures of potential difficulties in adherence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We compared brain responses to food images of 11 people with

M. Chechlacz; P. Rotshtein; S. Klamer; K. Porubská; S. Higgs; D. Booth; A. Fritsche; H. Preissl; H. Abele; N. Birbaumer; A. Nouwen

2009-01-01

400

[Interaction of fluoride with milk constituents].  

PubMed

Fluoride concentrations have been studied in cow milk stemming from regions variably influenced by fluorine pollution. It was disclosed that fluoride concentration in the milk of cows grazing on areas with a high degree of environmental contamination by fluorine compounds was about three-fold higher as compared to the control group. Fluoride distribution was evaluated in milk, in which the protein sediment got separated from the whey. The said distribution was found to be equal in both of the milk constituents. Due to the decomposition of whey into the whey proteins sediment and the remaining solution, an answer was obtained to the question of which part of whey fluoride appeared in the ionized form (80%). Studying the binding of fluoride by isolating and purifying the fraction of milk proteins at various pH, it was revealed that alpha-lactalbumin bound fluoride at 3.9 pH. Because of limited caseins solubility at that pH, there was no possibility to find out whether they bound fluoride ions. At fresh milk pH, the caseins exist in the anionic form and as such they are unable to bind fluoride independently. The binding of fluoride with milk lipids was investigated and it was ascertained that about 11% of fluoride being introduced into milk were bound to lipid constituent. The study covered also the influence of fluoride ions on the magnitude of the optic polarization angle of aqueous lactose solutions in different concentrations. That angle undergoes diminution in comparison with solutions not polluted by fluoride. Fluoride concentration was defined in some milk formulas of Polish production designed for infants. They exceed, depending on the kind of formulas, 20-70 fold the average fluoride concentration evidenced in human milk. Thus, the differences in fluoride supplied to infants, fed by breast and artificially, are very great. PMID:8154621

Chlubek, D

1993-01-01

401

Masses of constituent quarks confined in open bottom hadrons  

E-print Network

We apply color-spin and flavor-spin quark-quark interactions to the meson and baryon constituent quarks, and calculate constituent quark masses, as well as the coupling constants of these interactions. The main goal of this paper was to determine constituent quark masses from light and open bottom hadron masses, using the fitting method we have developed and clustering of hadron groups. We use color-spin Fermi-Breit (FB) and flavor-spin Glozman-Riska (GR) hyperfine interaction (HFI) to determine constituent quark masses (especially $b$ quark mass). Another aim was to discern between the FB and GR HFI because our previous findings had indicated that both interactions were satisfactory. Our improved fitting procedure of constituent quark masses showed that on average color-spin (Fermi-Breit) hyperfine interaction yields better fits. The method also shows the way how the constituent quark masses and the strength of the interaction constants appear in different hadron environments.

V. Borka Jovanovi?; D. Borka; P. Jovanovi?; J. Miloševi?; S. R. Ignjatovi?

2014-05-28

402

Masses of constituent quarks confined in open bottom hadrons  

E-print Network

We apply color-spin and flavor-spin quark-quark interactions to the meson and baryon constituent quarks, and calculate constituent quark masses, as well as the coupling constants of these interactions. The main goal of this manuscript was to determine constituent quark masses from light and open bottom hadron masses, using the fitting method we have developed and clustering of hadron groups. We use color-spin Fermi-Breit (FB) and flavor-spin Glozman-Riska (GR) hyperfine interaction (HFI) to determine constituent quark masses (especially $b$ quark mass). Our improved fitting procedure of constituent quark masses showed that both interactions we studied represent satisfactory approximations in the case of heavy mesons and baryons with $b$ quark, but on average color-spin (Fermi-Breit) hyperfine interaction yields better fits. Our method also shows the way how the constituent quark masses and the strength of the interaction constants appear in different hadron environments.

Jovanovi?, V Borka; Jovanovi?, P; Miloševi?, J; Ignjatovi?, S R

2014-01-01

403

Food Craving and Food “Addiction”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although certain commonalities exist between eating and drug use (mood effects, external cue-control of appetites, reinforcement, etc.), it is argued that the vast majority of cases of (self-reported) food craving and food “addiction” should not be viewed as addictive behavior. An explanation is proposed that instead gives a prominent role to the psychological processes of ambivalence and attribution, operating together

Peter J Rogers; Hendrik J Smit

2000-01-01

404

Characterization of the interaction between two food aroma components, alpha-pinene and ethyl butyrate, and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) packaging films as a function of environmental humidity.  

PubMed

The ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOHs) are well-known high oxygen barrier materials that are being used successfully in the design of packaging structures for oxygen-sensitive food or pharmaceutical products. Recently, there has been increasing interest in using EVOH materials to provide a high barrier to organic compounds as a means to reduce food aroma scalping. However, the barrier function of this family of materials diminishes significantly in humid environments, and it is supposed that so does the organic vapor barrier. In this work, a new sorption-based method to characterize the interaction between food aroma and polymer films for packaging as a function of relative humidity is presented and is used to determine the barrier to ethyl butyrate and alpha-pinene of EVOH at 23 degrees C. The results show that although EVOH is an excellent barrier to food aroma when dry, a property that even improves at low relative humidity (RH), the solubility and diffusivity of the compounds tested increase dramatically with humidity at medium to high water activities. However, even in the worst case (100% RH), EVOH outperforms low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as a barrier to organic vapors at least 500,000-fold. PMID:16131132

López-Carballo, Gracia; Cava, David; Lagarón, Jose M; Catalá, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael

2005-09-01

405

Use of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Constituents as Markers for Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, we discuss the merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the

Judy S. LaKind; Roger A. Jenkins; Daniel Q. Naiman; Michael E. Ginevan; Carol G. Graves; Robert G. Tardiff

1999-01-01

406

Food Grab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners design devices that will catch prey or gather plants. After testing their devices, learners investigate the food-gathering adaptations of animals in their activity site. Activity background information gives multiple examples of real animals and their food-grabbing mechanisms including shark jaws, rodent teeth, hawk talons, etc. Learners consider the concept of food-gathering adaptations of animals and compare them with human methods. An extension of this activity is observing various animals around the neighborhood as they capture prey and eat plants.

Science, Lawrence H.

1979-01-01

407

Food Preservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, from Science NetLinks, students' attention is drawn to the issue of food spoilage and the different methods that are traditionally used to prolong the freshness of food. Using a number of online resources, they learn about how Chilean fruit and lettuce for salad are carefully harvested, treated, packaged, and transported in refrigerated vessels to maintain their freshness. Students are then introduced to the canning, drying, freezing, and vacuum-sealing processes that are commonly used by food producers and in the home.

Science Netlinks;

2004-04-05

408

Chemical composition, in vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and major constituents of Cymbopogon jawarancusa (Kashmir)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the hydrodistillate of aerial parts of Cymbopogon jawarancusa, a natural grass considered as major forage for animal nutrition, used in food because of the presence of sufficient concentration of minerals like calcium and potassium was analysed by capillary GC–FID, GC–MS and 13C NMR. Seventeen constituents representing 97.8% of the total oil with piperitone (58.6%) and elemol

Mohd Yousuf Dar; Wajaht A. Shah; Manzoor A. Rather; Yasrib Qurishi; Abid Hamid; M. A. Qurishi

2011-01-01

409

Food Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... foods in your cart last. For example, meat, fish, eggs, and milk should hit your cart after ... buying packaged meat, poultry (chicken or turkey), or fish, check the expiration date on the label (the ...

410

Food Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... food allergy reactions: milk eggs peanuts soy wheat tree nuts (such as walnuts and cashews) fish shellfish ( ... peanut allergy and about 10% of kids with tree nut allergy outgrow their allergy. Fish and shellfish ...

411

Modelling the role of highly unsaturated fatty acids in planktonic food web processes: Sensitivity analysis and examination of contemporary hypotheses  

E-print Network

food web models typically treat the constituent trophic levels as static elements interacting with oneModelling the role of highly unsaturated fatty acids in planktonic food web processes: Sensitivity evolutionary responses in said elements. The incorporation of organismal response in food web models holds

Arhonditsis, George B.

412

LOCAL FOOD DIGEST: Food Hub Overview  

E-print Network

LOCAL FOOD DIGEST: Food Hub Overview Greg Schweser Associate Director, Sustainable Local Foods, University of Minnesota Humphrey School of Public Affairs LOCAL FOOD MOVEMENT Food hub development has become a focus in the local food movement as an opportunity to provide scale-appropriate infrastructure to small

Netoff, Theoden

413

Food Process Engineering Food Safety and Technology  

E-print Network

Food Process Engineering Food Safety and Technology Food Safety and Technology National Center for Food Safety and Technology IIT Moffett Campus 6502 S. Archer Road Summit-Argo, IL 60501 708 Ravishankar The National Center for Food Safety and Technology (NCFST), with IIT faculty, U.S. Food and Drug

Heller, Barbara

414

Quantitation of Clostridium perfringens in Foods  

PubMed Central

A procedure is described for identifying and enumerating Clostridium perfringens in foods by means of a simplified agar plating method, followed by confirmation of black colonies in tubes of motility-nitrate medium and sporulation broth. The test is routinely completed within 48 hr. Under experimental conditions, the procedure has been used to quantitatively recover various levels of C. perfringens contamination in a variety of foods and has recovered as few as ten C. perfringens per g without interference from food constituents and associated flora. Under practical conditions of field application, the method has been used to investigate five food-poisoning outbreaks, and C. perfringens was implicated as the etiological agent in two of these outbreaks. PMID:13861594

Angelotti, Robert; Hall, Herbert E.; Foter, Milton J.; Lewis, Keith H.

1962-01-01

415

Evaluation of volatile constituents of Cochlospermum angolense.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the leaves and roots of Cochlospermum angolense (Welw) growing wild in Angola was analyzed for the first time by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The investigation led to the identification of 67 and 130 compounds from the leaves and roots, respectively. Both oils were strongly characterized by the presence of sesquiterpenoids (68.8% in the leaves and 53.2% in the roots), while monoterpenoids were present in minor percentages (9.8% in the leaves and 26.2% in the root). The main constituents of the leaves were germacrene D (9.4%), alpha-cadinol (7.4%) and 10-epi-cubenol (6.2%), while the most abundant compounds in the root essential oil were the sesquiterpenes beta-caryophyllene (19.7%) and isoborneol (6.6%). The analysis by HS-SPME of the roots, leaves, fruits and seeds were also reported for the first time. Different volatile profiles were detected. PMID:22799094

Leonardi, Michele; Giovanelli, Silvia; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Flamini, Guido; Pistelli, Luisa

2012-05-01

416

Constituents of south Indian vetiver oils.  

PubMed

The essential oils isolated from vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash.] roots collected from four locations in south India were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Eighty constituents, representing 94.5-97.8% of the oils, have been identified. The oils from Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kundapur, and Mettupalayam were rich in sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes with cedrane, bisabolane, eudesmane, eremophilane, and zizaane skeletons. The main components of the four essential oils were: eudesma-4,6-diene (delta-selinene) + beta-vetispirene (3.9-6.1%), beta-vetivenene (0.9-9.4%), 13-nor-trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-11-one + amorph-4-en-10-ol (5.0-6.4%), trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-12-ol (vetiselinenol) + (E)-opposita-4(15),7(11)-dien-12-ol (3.7-5.9%), eremophila-1 (10),11-dien-2alpha-ol (nootkatol) + ziza-6(13)-en-12-ol (khusimol) (16.1-19.2%), and eremophila-1(10),7(11)-dien-2alpha-ol (isonootkatol) + (E)-eremophila-1(10),7(11)-12-ol (isovalencenol) (5.6-6.9%). The important compounds that impart the characteristic vetiver odor are: khusimene, delta-selinene, beta-vetivenene, cyclocopacamphan-12-ol (epimers A and B), vetiselinenol, khusimol, isovalencenol, khusimone, alpha-vetivone, and beta-vetivone. The chemical profiles of the oils are comparable to Haitian vetiver oil. PMID:22474964

Mallavarapu, Gopal Rao; Syamasundar, Kodakandla V; Ramesh, S; Rao, Bhaskaruni R Rajeswara

2012-02-01

417

[Chemical constituents of leaves of Psidium guajava].  

PubMed

To study the chemical constituents of the 95% ethanol extract of Psidium guajava. Compounds were separated by using a combination of various chromatographic methods including silica gel, D101 macroporous resin, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectral data Eighteen compounds were isolated and identified as (+) -globulol (1), clovane-2beta, 9alpha-diol (2), 2beta-acetoxyclovan-9alpha-ol (3), (+) -caryolane-1 ,9beta-diol (4), ent-T-muurolol (5), clov-2-ene-9alpha-ol (6), isophytol (7), tamarixetin (8), gossypetin (9), quercetin (10), kaempferol (11), guajaverin (12), avicularin (13), chrysin 6-C-glucoside (14), 3'-O-methyl-3, 4-methylenedioxyellagic acid 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (15), p-hydroxy-benzoic acid (16), guavinoside A (17) and guavinoside B (18). Compounds 2-9 and 14-16 were isolated from this plant for the first time. The ethanol extract showed 61.3% inhibition against the proliferation of colon cancer cell line SW480. PMID:24956844

Shao, Meng; Wang, Ying; Jian, Yu-Qing; Sun, Xue-Gang; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

2014-03-01

418

2005 Nature Publishing Group The abundances of constituents of  

E-print Network

from the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS), including altitude profiles of the constituents? The Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS)3 on the Huygens probe was designed to help answer, isotopic ratios and trace species (including organic compounds). The primary constituents were confirmed

Atreya, Sushil

419

Uof MAlumniAssociation & AlumniandConstituentRelations  

E-print Network

.......... . . . . . . . . . . Uof MAlumniAssociation & AlumniandConstituentRelations 2008­09Annual;.......... 2 2008­09AnnualReport University of Memphis AlumniAssociation &Alumni and Constituent Relations high with increased alumni, friend and donor engagement. Organized by a more formal structure designed

Dasgupta, Dipankar

420

Molecular structures for the oligomeric constituents of petroleum pitch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual dimer, trimer, and tetramer constituents that comprise the higher molecular weight (mol wt), mesophase-forming fraction of M-50 petroleum pitch were characterized in terms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) backbone structure, the extent of alkylation, and the nature of the bonds connecting the monomeric “building blocks” comprising the oligomeric species. Isolation of individual oligomeric constituents for subsequent analysis and identification

Ward A. Burgess; Mark C. Thies

2011-01-01

421

Food Allergies in Schools  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Adolescent and School Health Share Compartir Food Allergies in Schools Food allergies are a growing food ... Guidelines FAQs [PDF - 163KB] What is a Food Allergy? A food allergy occurs when the body has ...

422

Multi-analyte approach for determining the extraction of tobacco constituents from pouched snus by consumers during use  

PubMed Central

Background Snus is a smokeless oral tobacco product with a significant history of use in Sweden, where it is regulated under food legislation. Users place a small porous sachet or a pinch of loose snus between the upper jaw and cheek for approximately one hour, leading to partial intake of tobacco constituents. To understand user exposure to tobacco, a multi-analyte approach based on the extraction of pouches by methanol, ethanol and water was validated and applied to the measurement of various constituents, including nicotine, four tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), propylene glycol, water, ammonium, nitrate, sodium, chloride, linalool, citronellol, linalyl acetate and geraniol, extracted from snus pouches during use by human consumers. Results After validation against established single-analyte methods, the multi-analyte approach was used to determine constituent levels in snus pouches before and after one hour of use. Although the concentrations in the snus pouches varied from nanogram (e.g. TSNAs) to milligram (e.g. nicotine, sodium and propylene glycol) quantities (25.1 ng to 35.3 mg per 1 g pouch), the mean percentage extracted varied only from 19.2% for linalyl acetate to 37.8% for the TSNA 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) among all constituents analyzed. The TSNAs, some of which are known carcinogens, showed the highest percentage extraction (range 34.6%–37.8%). Measurement variability was low for all analytes, ranging from 2.4% (total TSNAs, NAT) to 9.5% (geraniol). By contrast, inter-subject variability ranged from 6.7% (NAB) to 52.2% (linalyl acetate), and was greater than 20% for eight of the constituents analyzed. Intra-subject variability ranged from 3.4% (citronellol) to 29.7% (geraniol). Conclusions Generally, less than a third of each constituent tested was extracted during one hour of snus use, independent of constituent concentration. The variable nature of in-use extraction was shown to be driven by inter-subject variability. The results provide insight into possible mechanisms controlling constituent extraction in the mouth during snus use, and provide reference data for the development of in-vitro laboratory systems for estimating extraction of tobacco constituents from snus. PMID:23548061

2013-01-01

423

Biotechnology in Food Production and Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The food processing industry is the oldest and largest industry using biotechnological processes. Further development of food products and processes based on biotechnology depends upon the improvement of existing processes, such as fermentation, immobilized biocatalyst technology, and production of additives and processing aids, as well as the development of new opportunities for food biotechnology. Improvements are needed in the characterization, safety, and quality control of food materials, in processing methods, in waste conversion and utilization processes, and in currently used food microorganism and tissue culture systems. Also needed are fundamental studies of the structure-function relationship of food materials and of the cell physiology and biochemistry of raw materials.

Knorr, Dietrich; Sinskey, Anthony J.

1985-09-01

424

Hypoglycaemic constituents of Stachytarpheta cayennensis leaf.  

PubMed

The aqueous infusion (tea) of Stachytarpheta cayennensis leaves is used ethnomedically in Peru, Nigeria and other tropical countries for the management of diabetes. Oral administration (p. o.) of aqueous (125 mg/kg) and methanolic (2000 mg/kg) extracts of the leaves to alloxan-diabetic rats showed significant blood glucose reductions by 43 and 53%, respectively, at the end of a 4 hour period similar to the strong effect of glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, P. O.). The methanolic extract was successively partitioned into ethyl acetate, butanol and water fractions, and the same test showed that the butanol fraction (2000 mg/kg) had the highest (50%) hypoglycaemic activity at 4 hours after oral administration. It was also the most active fraction when tested in vitro [insulin release from an insulin secreting cell line (INS-1)] and was also active in normal rats and rats made hyperglycaemic by a glucose load. Its activity was comparable to that of glibenclamide (positive control) in these models. This active butanol fraction was subjected to chromatographic subfractionation; some subfractions reduced hyperglycaemia in alloxan-diabetic rats to 60 and 78% and induced insulin release from the INS-1 cells; other subfractions, however, gave hyperglycaemic activities IN VIVO and inhibition of insulin release from the INS-1 cells. Three major compounds of the butanol fraction were isolated and characterised as 6beta-hydroxyipolamide, ipolamide and isoverbascoside; they increased insulin secretion from INS-1 cells to 125, 128 and 127%, respectively, whereas glibenclamide increased insulin secretion to 157%. The results justify the ethnomedical use of the plant in the management of diabetes and suggest that the butanol fraction and some of its isolated constituents mediate their actions primarily by stimulating insulin release directly. PMID:17318784

Adebajo, A C; Olawode, E O; Omobuwajo, O R; Adesanya, S A; Begrow, F; Elkhawad, A; Akanmu, M A; Edrada, R; Proksch, P; Schmidt, T J; Klaes, M; Verspohl, E J

2007-03-01

425

[Chemical constituents from leaves of Nelumbo nucifera].  

PubMed

To study the chemical constituents, twenty-seven compounds were isolated from the 70% ethanol extract from leaves of Nelumbo nucifera by modern chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified as 10-octacosanol (1), beta-sitosterol (2), 1-undecanol (3), 1-eicosanol (4), daucosterol (5), 6'-hydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxychalcone (6), 3,7,8-trimethoxy-1-hydroxy-xanthone (7), rhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), chrysoeriol-7-O-beta-D-glucoside (9), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (10), quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (11), hyperoside (12), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (13), astragalin (14), isorhamnetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1--> 6)-[alpha-D-lyxopyranosyl-(1 --> 2) -beta-D-glucopyranoside] (15), isorhamnetin-3-O-alpha-D-lyxopyranosyl-(1 --> 2) -beta-D-glucopyranoside (16), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (17), isorhamnetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (18), quercetin (19), kaempferol (20), dehydronuciferine (21), roemerine (22), stigmast-7-en-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (23), stigmast-7-en-3beta-ol (24), and benzene-1,2-diol (25) on the basis of spectral data analysis. Compounds 1, 6, 7, 8, 24 and 25 were isolated from this plant for the first time, and compounds 15-18 were isolated from the leaves for the first time. Compounds 6, 8, 10, 11, 13 and 15 showed inhibitory activities against beta amyloid (1-42) by A-beta aggregation method with inhibition rates of (63.99 +/- 24.29)%, (79.61 +/- 4.49)%, (49.96 +/- 12.61)%, (101.19 +/- 8.19)%, (88.41+/-6.76)% and (72.48 +/- 8.97)%, respectively. PMID:23724680

Zhao, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Zhi-Min; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Jing, Wen-Guang; Liu, An

2013-03-01

426

Cardioprotective and Anti-oxidant Effects of the Terpenoid Constituents of Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb 761)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemodynamic and electron spin resonance analyses were used to assess thein vivoandin vitrocardioprotective and antioxidant effects of therapeutically relevant doses ofGinkgo bilobaextract (EGb 761) and its terpenoid constituents (ginkgolides A and B, bilobalide) in the rat. Significant anti-ischemic effects, indicating improved myocardial functional recovery, were observed after repeated (15-day) oral treatments with both EGb 761 (60 mg\\/kg\\/day) and ginkgolide A

Sylvia Pietri; Eziana Maurelli; Katy Drieu; Marcel Culcasi

1997-01-01

427

Effect of drying methods on the phenolic constituents of meadowsweet ( Filipendula ulmaria) and willow ( Salix alba)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of drying conditions on the phenolic constituents and colour of extracts of organically grown white willow and meadowsweet for incorporation into a functional beverage with potential anti-inflammatory properties. The herbs were freeze-dried, air-dried, oven or tray-dried at 30 or 70°C. The drying kinetics of the herbs was first determined. Both

Niamh Harbourne; Eunice Marete; Jean Christophe Jacquier; Dolores O'Riordan

2009-01-01

428

Effects of organic mulches on soil microfauna in the root zone of apple: implications for nutrient fluxes and functional diversity of the soil food web  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of organic materials (e.g. composts, paper recycling wastes, hay) can be used as in-row mulches in perennial horticultural cropping systems such as high density apple orchards. As organic materials with variable properties, such mulches can be expected to have variable effects on structure of the soil food web and mineralisation of N and P in the root zone.

T. A Forge; E Hogue; G Neilsen; D Neilsen

2003-01-01

429

Effects of native and exotic range-expanding plant species on taxonomic and functional composition of nematodes in the soil food web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to climate warming, many plant species shift ranges towards higher latitudes. Plants can disperse faster than most soil biota, however, little is known about how range-expanding plants in the new range will establish interactions with the resident soil food web. In this paper we examine how the soil nematode community from the new range responds to range-expanding plant species

E. Morrien; H. Duyts; W. H. Van der Putten

2012-01-01

430

Re-engineering the eastern Lake Erie littoral food web: The trophic function of non-indigenous Ponto-Caspian species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trophic roles of key Ponto-Caspian invaders (quagga mussels Dreissena bugensis, amphipods Echinogammarus ischnus and round goby Apollonia melanostomus) within the littoral food web of eastern Lake Erie were quantified using stable isotopes (?13C, ?15N). A dual stable isotope parameter search with a mass balance component was used to assess the isotopic importance of quagga mussels and amphipods as dietary

Linda M. Campbell; Robert Thacker; David Barton; Derek C. G. Muir; Dixie Greenwood; Robert E. Hecky

2009-01-01

431

Development and validation of a headspace method for determination of furan in food  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past furan had been found to form in foods during thermal processing. These findings and a recent classification of furan as a possible human carcinogen prompted us to develop a simple isotope dilution method for its determination in foods. We also investigated effects of furan volatility, sample matrix and partitioning of furan between water and fat constituents of

A Becalski; D Forsyth; V Casey; B. P.-Y Lau; K Pepper; S Seaman

2005-01-01

432

Method and apparatus for producing food grade carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is disclosed of producing food grade carbon dioxide from an impure carbon dioxide source stream containing contaminants which may include light and heavy hydrocarbons (at least C⁠to Câ) and light sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide as well as heavier sulfur constituents in the nature of mercaptans (RSH) and\\/or organic mono and disulfides (RSR

J. E. Nobles; L. K. Swenson

1984-01-01

433

The Determinants of the food Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An analysis of the determinants of the food intake is made on the basis of the personal experience of the author in attempting\\u000a to control his own food intake. Hunger and appetite are distinguished as factors serving different functions in the food intake.\\u000a Hunger is regarded as the desire to eat which impels one to seek food, try things as

Frederick Hoelzel

1951-01-01

434

Oleuropein as a bioactive constituent added in milk and yogurt.  

PubMed

Oleuropein is a bioactive natural product from olives known to display a broad variety of health beneficial properties. However its presence in most edible olives is lowered due to debittering. In this respect, we envisaged the incorporation of oleuropein into dairy products (cow's milk and yogurt) aiming to produce novel functional foods. Additionally, an analytical method for the monitoring of oleuropein in milk and yogurt was also developed and validated. Oleuropein was not affected during heat treatment of milk, while during the milk fermentation process it was not hydrolysed by the produced acids. Oleuropein was not metabolised by lactic acid bacteria, did not inhibit their growth and its stability in the final products was proven. The novel products displayed same taste, colour and texture as the conventional ones. Results herein indicate that oleuropein can be added as an active ingredient in milk and yogurt preparations to provide two novel functional dairy products. PMID:24731349

Zoidou, Evangelia; Magiatis, Prokopios; Melliou, Eleni; Constantinou, Maria; Haroutounian, Serkos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

2014-09-01

435

Food Deserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food deserts and accessibility represent a new frontier in the assault of life-threatening, dietrelated diseases, including diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Scholars represent the research literature from diverse disciplines, such as anthropology, agriculture, sociology, economics, marketing, public policy, sociology, and social epidemiology. Applied sociology has not contributed to this important conversation. Applied sociology's integration and use of theory, methods, and

Anthony Troy Adams; Monika J. Ulrich; Amanda Coleman

2010-01-01

436

Weaning Foods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described in this issue of "Children in the Tropics" are handicraft, semi-industrial, and industrial projects which produce weaning foods in developing countries. The introductory section briefly discusses the global epidemiology of malnutrition and offers guidelines for combatting malnutrition. Chapter I provides a framework for reflection on the…

Chauliac, Michel; And Others

1987-01-01

437

Food Allergies DEFINITIONS  

E-print Network

Food Allergies DEFINITIONS: Definition of a Food Allergy: Immune system response to a food creates a defense immune system response (antibodies) to fight it. Food allergy symptoms develop when are a digestive system response and are much more common than food allergies. Food Allergy vs. Food Intolerance

Maxwell, Bruce D.

438

A watershed approach to upgrade rainfed agriculture in water scarce regions through Water System Innovations: an integrated research initiative on water for food and rural livelihoods in balance with ecosystem functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenge of producing food for a rapidly increasing population in semi-arid agro-ecosystems in Southern Africa is daunting. More food necessarily means more consumptive use of so-called green water flow (vapour flow sustaining crop growth). Every increase in food production upstream in a watershed will impact on water user and using systems downstream. Intensifying agriculture has in the past often been carried out with negative side effects in terms of land and water degradation. Water legislation is increasingly incorporating the requirement to safeguard a water reserve to sustain instream ecology. To address the challenges of increasing food production, improving rural livelihoods, while safeguarding critical ecological functions, a research programme has recently been launched on “Smallholder System Innovations in Integrated Watershed Management” (SSI). The programme takes an integrated approach to agricultural water management, analysing the interactions between the adoption and participatory adaptation of water system innovations (such as water harvesting, drip irrigation, conservation farming, etc.), increased water use in agriculture and water flows to sustain ecological functions that deliver critical ecosystem services to humans. The research is carried out in the Pangani Basin in Tanzania and the Thukela Basin in South Africa. A nested scale approach is adopted, which will enable the analysis of scale interactions between water management at the farm level, and cascading hydrological impacts at watershed and basin scale. This paper describes the integrated research approach of the SSI programme, and indicates areas of potential to upgrade rainfed agriculture in water scarcity-prone agro-ecosystems while securing water for downstream use.

Rockström, J.; Folke, C.; Gordon, L.; Hatibu, N.; Jewitt, G.; Penning de Vries, F.; Rwehumbiza, F.; Sally, H.; Savenije, H.; Schulze, R.

439

FOOD AND DRINK REGULATIONS Serving hot food  

E-print Network

1 FOOD AND DRINK REGULATIONS Serving hot food Home made hot food may not be served at events conditions must be adhered to: · The caterer must have HSE Food Hygiene Certification, which is to be approved by the College Catering Manager two weeks in advance of any event. · The provider of the food

O'Mahony, Donal E.

440

Organic Foods vs Supermarket Foods: Element Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic food has been noted in various studies as having similar nutritional value as commercial foods. These studies usually look at the dry ashed concentration and are designed for the food producer. In this study the average elemental concentration in organic foods on afresh weight basis was found to be about twice that of commercial foods.

Bob L. Smith

441

Food processing: a food scientist's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Americans generally are not eating enough foods that meet dietary guidelines. More choices for consumers would be available if food processors were to manufacture more foods and ingredients that met dietary guidelines. The food industry, for the most part, has the technology to develop and sell foods that meet dietary guidelines and further has the capacity to market them in

Robert E. Smith

1999-01-01

442

MRI of plants and foods.  

PubMed

The importance and prospects for MRI as applied to intact plants and to foods are presented in view of one of humanity's most pressing concerns, the sustainable and healthy feeding of a worldwide increasing population. Intact plants and foods have in common that their functionality is determined by complex multiple length scale architectures. Intact plants have an additional level of complexity since they are living systems which critically depend on transport and signalling processes between and within tissues and organs. The combination of recent cutting-edge technical advances and integration of MRI accessible parameters has the perspective to contribute to breakthroughs in understanding complex regulatory plant performance mechanisms. In food science and technology MRI allows for quantitative multi-length scale structural assessment of food systems, non-invasive monitoring of heat and mass transport during shelf-life and processing, and for a unique view on food properties under shear. These MRI applications are powerful enablers of rationally (re)designed food formulations and processes. Limitations and bottlenecks of the present plant and food MRI methods are mainly related to short T2 values and susceptibility artefacts originating from small air spaces in tissues/materials. We envisage cross-fertilisation of solutions to overcome these hurdles in MRI applications in plants and foods. For both application areas we witness a development where MRI is moving from highly specialised equipment to mobile and downscaled versions to be used by a broad user base in the field, greenhouse, food laboratory or factory. PMID:23369439

Van As, Henk; van Duynhoven, John

2013-04-01

443

Global three-dimensional constituent fields derived from profile data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The success of three-dimensional simulations of stratospheric constituent variability depends critically on the initialization of the constituent fields within the global model. This paper describes a technique for generating global three-dimensional fields from vertical constituent proflies. The technique uses potential vorticity (q) and potential temperature (theta) to map the profiles onto the global domain. The profiles used here are obtained from a two-dimensional model calculation that reproduces the relationship between theta, q, N2O and O3 observed during the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition. The method is verified by comparison with satellite data, aircraft data, and model simulations.

Douglass, Anne R.; Rood, Richard B.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Proffitt, Michael H.; Margitan, James J.; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James R.; Strahan, Susan E.

1990-01-01

444

Scale dependencies of proton spin constituents with a nonperturbative ?s  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By introducing the contribution from dynamically generated gluon mass, we present a brand new parametrized form of QCD beta function to get an inferred limited running behavior of QCD coupling constant ?s. This parametrized form is regarded as an essential factor to determine the scale dependencies of the proton spin constituents at the very low scale. In order to compare with experimental results directly, we work within the gauge-invaria