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1

[Search for antidiabetic constituents of medicinal food].  

PubMed

Many foods are known to have not only nutritive and taste values but also medicinal effects. In Chinese traditional medicine, the treatment using medicinal foods has been recommended highly. Recently, we examined the effects of the extract and constituents of several medicinal foods on experimental models of diabetes. In this paper, we focus on the bioactive constituents of four medicinal foods, namely the antidiabetic constituents from 1) the roots, stems and leaves of Salacia plants, 2) the male flowers of Borassus flabellifer, 3) the flower buds of Camellia sinensis, 4) the processed leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii (Hydrangeae Dulcis Folium). PMID:21628977

Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

2011-01-01

2

Antioxidant activity of food constituents: an overview.  

PubMed

Recently, there has been growing interest in research into the role of plant-derived antioxidants in food and human health. The beneficial influence of many foodstuffs and beverages including fruits, vegetables, tea, coffee, and cacao on human health has been recently recognized to originate from their antioxidant activity. For this purpose, the most commonly methods used in vitro determination of antioxidant capacity of food constituents are reviewed and presented. Also, the general chemistry underlying the assays in the present paper was clarified. Hence, this overview provides a basis and rationale for developing standardized antioxidant capacity methods for the food, nutraceutical, and dietary supplement industries. In addition, the most important advantages and shortcomings of each method were detected and highlighted. The chemical principles of these methods are outlined and critically discussed. The chemical principles of methods of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) radical (ABTS(·+)) scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(·)) radical scavenging, Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) transformation assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, cupric ions (Cu(2+)) reducing power assay (Cuprac), Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (FCR assay), peroxyl radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical (O (2) (·-)) scavenging, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) scavenging, hydroxyl radical (OH(·)) scavenging, singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) quenching assay and nitric oxide radical (NO(·)) scavenging assay are outlined and critically discussed. Also, the general antioxidant aspects of main food components were discussed by a number of methods which are currently used for detection of antioxidant properties food components. This review consists of two main sections. The first section is devoted to main components in the foodstuffs and beverages. The second general section is some definitions of the main antioxidant methods commonly used for determination of antioxidant activity of components in the foodstuffs and beverages. In addition, there are given some chemical and kinetic basis and technical details of the used methods. PMID:22102161

Gülçin, ?lhami

2012-03-01

3

Isolation and analysis of bioactive constituents of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed kernel: an emerging functional food.  

PubMed

A plant-based diet reduces the risk for the development of several chronic diseases, such as ischemic heart disease or cancer due to natural compounds found in plants. Numerous cereals, berries, fruits, and vegetables, including sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), which is a favored fruit worldwide, contain biological active components. The antioxidant components of the sour cherry seed kernel have not been investigated until now. The aim of our study was to isolate and analyze the bioactive constituents of sour cherry seed kernel. We separated the oil fraction of the kernel; then the remaining solid fraction was dried, and the oil-free kernel extract was further analyzed. Our results show that sour cherry seed kernel oil contains vegetable oils including unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acids, alpha-tocopherol, tocotrienols, and tocopherol-like components. The components of the solid fraction include various bioactive structures such as polyphenols, flavonoids, vegetable acids, and pro- and anthocyanidins, which could have useful therapeutic effects in the prevention of various vascular diseases. PMID:20482278

Bak, Istvan; Lekli, Istvan; Juhasz, Bela; Varga, Edit; Varga, Balazs; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Szendrei, Levente; Tosaki, Arpad

2010-08-01

4

Nuclear Structure Functions from Constituent Quark Model  

E-print Network

We have used the notion of the constituent quark model of nucleon, where a constituent quark carries its own internal structure, and applied it to determine nuclear structure functions ratios. It is found that the description of experimental data require the inclusion of strong shadowing effect for $x<0.01$. Using the idea of vector meson dominance model and other ingredients this effect is calculated in the context of the constituent quark model. It is rather striking that the constituent quark model, used here, gives a good account of the data for a wide range of atomic mass number from A=4 to A=204.

Firooz Arash; Shahin Atashbar-Tehrani

1999-04-07

5

Foods and food constituents that affect the brain and human behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Until recently, it was generally believed that brain function was usually independent of day-to-day metabolic changes associated with consumption of food. Although it was acknowledged that peripheral metabolic changes associated with hunger or satiety might affect brain function, other effects of foods on the brain were considered unlikely. However, in 1971, Fernstrom and Wurtman discovered that under certain conditions, the protein-to-carbohydrate ratio of a meal could affect the concentration of a particular brain neurotransmitter. That neurotransmitter, serotonin, participates in the regulation of a variety of central nervous system (CNS) functions including sleep, pain sensitivity, aggression, and patterns of nutrient selection. The activity of other neurotransmitter systems has also been shown to be, under certain conditions, affected by dietary constituents which are given either as ordinary foods or in purified form. For example, the CNS turnover of two catecholamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine, can be altered by ingestion of their amino acid precursor, tyrosine, when neurons that release these monoamines are firing frequently. Similarly, lecithin, a dietary source of choline, and choline itself have been shown to increase the synthesis of acetylcholine when cholinergic neurons are very active. It is possible that other neurotransmitters could also be affected by precursor availability or other, as yet undiscovered peripheral factors governed by food consumption. The effects of food on neurotransmitters and behavior are discussed.

Lieberman, Harris R.; Wurtman, Richard J.

1986-01-01

6

Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

7

Functional Foods for Women's Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

Lindeman, Alice K.

2002-01-01

8

Functional foods innovations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aim of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ERRC, ARS, USDA, is to improve human health and well being by developing functional food and consumer products that utilize milk and fruit and vegetable processing residues of specialty crops. Major research approaches involve: biotec...

9

[Pharmaceutical food science: search for anti-obese constituents from medicinal foods-anti-hyperlipidemic saponin constituents from the flowers of Bellis perennis].  

PubMed

Among a variety of food materials, some are being used as resources of traditional, alternative, and/or complementary medicines all over the world. These medicinal foods are known to have not only nutritive and taste values but also medicinal effects, and they are prescribed in various traditional preparations. Regarding this point, we focused on exploring bioactive constituents in these medicinal foods, which would be applicable to remedy so-called metabolic syndrome. In this review, our recent studies on anti-hyperlipidemic saponin constituents from flowers of Bellis perennis are described. PMID:20460863

Morikawa, Toshio; Muraoka, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

2010-05-01

10

Development of Functional Foods  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in intestinal microbiota research are the background for the appearance of functional foods. Lactic fermentation products are included in the functional foods and classified into 3 groups based on their mechanisms of action: probiotics, prebiotics and biogenics. Probiotics are viable microorganisms, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, that beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal bacterial balance. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients, such as oligosaccharides and dietary fiber, that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activities of beneficial intestinal bacteria in the colon and thus improve the health of the hosts. Biogenics are biologically active peptides, including immunopotentiators (biological response modifier: BRM), plant flavonoids, etc. They act directly or indirectly through modulation of intestinal microbiota on the health of the hosts. Thus, functional foods enhance bioregulation such as stresses, appetite and absorption; biodefence, such as immunity and suppression of allergies; prevent diseases, including diarrhea, constipation, cancer, cholesterolemia and diabetes; and suppress aging through immunostimulation as well as suppression of mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, oxidation processes, intestinal putrefaction, and cholesterolemia. PMID:25032085

MITSUOKA, Tomotari

2014-01-01

11

Microencapsulation and functional bioactive foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food, the essential unit of human nutrition has been both wholesome and safe through human history ensuring the continuity of the human race. Functionalized foods are the rediscovery of the need to provide all nutrients through foods without adulteration. The functional components of foods include...

12

Functional foods and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional foods are foods that, by virtue of physiologically active food components, provide health benefits beyond basic\\u000a nutrition. Many functional foods have been found to be potentially beneficial in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular\\u000a disease, the leading cause of mortality in the United States. These foods include soybeans, oats, psyllium, flaxseed, garlic,\\u000a tea, fish, grapes, nuts, and stanol- and

Clare M. Hasler; Susan Kundrat; Deborah Wool

2000-01-01

13

Phytoalexin-Enriched Functional Foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Functional foods have been a developing area of food science research for the last decade. Many foods are derived from plants that naturally contain compounds beneficial to human health and can often prevent certain diseases. Plant containing phytochemicals with potent anticancer and antioxidant a...

14

Functional Microorganisms for Functional Food Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability

M. Gobbetti; R. Di Cagno; M. De Angelis

2010-01-01

15

HUMAN NUTRITION -FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition -Functional Foods  

E-print Network

HUMAN NUTRITION - FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition - Functional Foods Poäng: 5.0 Betygskala grupparbeten. Litteratur: Garrow, J.S.; James, W.P.T.: Human nutrition and dietetics, 9th ed, Churchill Livingstone eller Whitney, E.S., Rolfes, S.R.: Understanding nutrition, 8th ed, 1999, West Publishing Company

16

Functional food science and behaviour and psychological functions.  

PubMed

The impact of ingesting various foods on psychological and behavioural functions is a topic of both interest and concern to the general public. In this article, the scientific literature concerning demonstrated cause-and-effect relationships is reviewed, beginning with methodological considerations specific to the quantification of particular behaviours and psychological events. The essential function of food is to satisfy hunger and the need for essential nutrients. The contributions of macronutrients to appetite and satiety are described, as well as their impact on metabolism and energy balance. Functional properties of macronutrient substitutes (high-intensity sweeteners, fat replacers) and flavour enhancers are examined in relation to their contribution to hunger, satiety, and energy balance. The effects of foods and individual nutrients on the performance of diverse psychomotor tasks are studied with consideration given to the various validated quantitative tools used to assess behaviour. The effects of food components on activation, sedation, and affective states such as dysphoria are also reviewed, with special attention given to brain function and neuroactive substances such as serotonin and the endorphins. The case of hyperactivity in children is given special emphasis with reference to the potential influence of sugar and food additives. Safety issues related to food constituents and additives are discussed. Finally, a set of criteria is proposed for the evaluation and elaboration of studies in the behavioural and psychological fields, along with suggestions for future research. PMID:9849358

Bellisle, F; Blundell, J E; Dye, L; Fantino, M; Fern, E; Fletcher, R J; Lambert, J; Roberfroid, M; Specter, S; Westenhöfer, J; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

1998-08-01

17

Exercise and functional foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects,

Wataru Aoi; Yuji Naito; Toshikazu Yoshikawa

2006-01-01

18

Promises and Problems of Functional Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functionalfoods are branded foods, which claim, explicitly or implicitly, to improve health or well being. We review typical functional foods and their ingredients, efficacy, and safety. We also review regulations for health claims for foods worldwide. These regulations often allow manufacturers to imply that a food promotes health without providing proper scientific evidence. At the same time, regulations may

MARTIJN B. KATAN; NICOLE M. ROOS

2004-01-01

19

Modifying Bitterness in Functional Food Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional foods sector represents a significant and growing portion of the food industry, yet formulation of these products often involves the use of ingredients that elicit less than desirable oral sensations, including bitterness. Promising new functional ingredients, including polyphenolics, may be more widely and readily employed in the creation of novel functional foods if their aversive bitter taste can

Nicole J. Gaudette; Gary J. Pickering

2011-01-01

20

The perceived healthiness of functional foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional foods presumably enable the consumer to lead a healthier life without changing eating habits. Whether consumers accept this proposition or not is potentially influenced by their perceptions of the healthiness of the processing methods, enrichment components, food-types, and health claims used in the production and marketing of functional foods. Because consumers may perceive functional enrichment as interfering with nature,

Tino Bech-Larsen; Klaus G Grunert

2003-01-01

21

Melatonin, a potent agent in antioxidative defense: Actions as a natural food constituent, gastrointestinal factor, drug and prodrug  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melatonin, originally discovered as a hormone of the pineal gland, is also produced in other organs and represents, additionally, a normal food constituent found in yeast and plant material, which can influence the level in the circulation. Compared to the pineal, the gastrointestinal tract contains several hundred times more melatonin, which can be released into the blood in response to

Rüdiger Hardeland; SR Pandi-Perumal

2005-01-01

22

European consumers' acceptance of functional foods.  

PubMed

Consumer acceptance of functional foods is analyzed from the perspective of consumer quality perception of food products. Four major dimensions of food quality are identified: taste and other sensory characteristics, healthiness, convenience, and naturalness. Functional foods provide, from the consumer perspective, synergies between healthiness and convenience, but may, in the consumer mind, lead to trade-offs between healthiness on the one side and taste and naturalness on the other side. This may explain the reluctance of European consumers to accept functional food products. PMID:20388148

Grunert, Klaus G

2010-03-01

23

Anthocyanins as Functional Food Colors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthocyanins, a proanthocyanidin-type of flavonoid, contain an abundance of functional phytochemicals and occur in fruits such as cranberry, blueberry, orange, apple and in vegetables such as tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, and radishes. Functional and essential diets have been ingested in daily life since the primitive era of history. When anthocyanins are coupled with some water-soluble sugar molecules, their color becomes red, yellow, violet, or blue. It is very intriguing that anthocyanins provide the colorful variety of pigments for pansies, petunias, plums, and other diverse flowers. Chlorophyll in various fruits and vegetables is the main green phyto-component, while anthocyanins are probably the most important visible plant pigments in the natural kingdom having specific colors. Anthocyanins have been clinically used in many folklore medicines worldwide. Anthocyanins could provide health benefits for age-related diseases as well as other diseases. Anthocyanins have higher antioxidant capacity against oxidative stress induced by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and thus the human body might be protected from oxidative injury by anthocyanins. On the basis of these facts, we review the synthesis of plant flavonoids and their ability to scavenge oxidants, inhibit or activate enzymes, and the safety of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins present in common foods.

Motohashi, Noboru; Sakagami, Hiroshi

24

Anaphylaxis to hyperallergenic functional foods  

PubMed Central

Background Food allergy can cause life threatening reactions. Currently, patients with severe food allergy are advised to avoid foods which provoke allergic reactions. This has become increasingly difficult as food proteins are being added to a broader range of consumer products. Patients and methods Here we describe our investigations into the allergenicity of a new drink when two cow's milk allergic children suffered anaphylaxis after consuming Wh2ole®. Results Our studies have shown that in comparison with cow's milk, Wh2ole® contains at least three times the concentration of ?-lactoglobulin. ?-lactoglobulin is one of the dominant allergens in bovine milk. Conclusions These studies have shown that modern technology allows the creation of "hyperallergenic" foods. These products have the potential to cause severe reactions in milk allergic persons. Avoiding inadvertent exposure is the shared responsibility of allergic consumers, regulatory authorities and the food industry. PMID:21144046

2010-01-01

25

Ginseng leaf-stem: bioactive constituents and pharmacological functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginseng root is used more often than other parts such as leaf stem although extracts from ginseng leaf-stem also contain similar active ingredients with pharmacological functions. Ginseng's leaf-stems are more readily available at a lower cost than its root. This article reviews the pharmacological effects of ginseng leaf-stem on some diseases and adverse effects due to excessive consumption. Ginseng leaf-stem

Hongwei Wang; Dacheng Peng; Jingtian Xie

2009-01-01

26

Functional Foods Containing Whey Proteins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Whey proteins, modified whey proteins, and whey components are useful as nutrients or supplements for health maintenance. Extrusion modified whey proteins can easily fit into new products such as beverages, confectionery items (e.g., candies), convenience foods, desserts, baked goods, sauces, and in...

27

Food Safety Microbiology, Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens, and Food Antimicrobials Functionalization of Food Antimicrobials by Nano-encapsulation  

E-print Network

Food Safety Microbiology, Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens, and Food Antimicrobials Functionalization of Food Antimicrobials by Nano-encapsulation Thisresearcheffortfocusesonthecompletionoffundamentalandappliedmicrobiolog- ical research to improve the utility of differing naturally occurring food antimicrobials

28

Functional foods and the biomedicalisation of everyday life: a case of germinated brown rice.  

PubMed

Germinated brown rice (GBR) is a functional food, whose benefits for chronic diseases have been demonstrated by scientific research on a single constituent of GBR, gamma aminobutyric acid. This article examines the processes through which the emphasis on biomedical rationality made during the production and consumption of functional foods is embedded in the complicated social contexts of the post-1990s. In the case of GBR, the Korean government, food scientists, mass media and consumers have added cultural accounts to the biomedical understanding of foods. In particular, consumers have transformed their households and online communities into a place for surveillance medicine. Functional foods are embedded in multiple actors' perspectives on what healthy foods mean and how and where the risks of chronic diseases should be managed. PMID:23116161

Kim, Hyomin

2013-07-01

29

Modulation of Immune Functions by Foods  

PubMed Central

Evidence is rapidly accumulating as to the beneficial effects of foods. However, it is not always clear whether the information is based on data evaluated impartially in a scientific fashion. Human research into whether foods modulate immune functions in either intervention studies or randomized controlled trials can be classified into three categories according to the physical state of subjects enrolled for investigation: (i) studies examining the effect of foods in healthy individuals; (ii) studies analyzing the effect of foods on patients with hypersensitivity; and (iii) studies checking the effect of foods on immunocompromized subjects, including patients who had undergone surgical resection of cancer and newborns. The systematization of reported studies has made it reasonable to conclude that foods are able to modulate immune functions manifesting as either innate immunity (phagocytic activity, NK cell activity) or acquired immunity (T cell response, antibody production). Moreover, improvement of immune functions by foods can normalize the physical state of allergic patients or cancer patients, and may reduce the risk of diseases in healthy individuals. Therefore, it is valuable to assess the immune-modulating abilities of foods by measuring at least one parameter of either innate or acquired immunity. PMID:15841257

2004-01-01

30

[Review: functional foods and ingredients derived from milk].  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to review the main research works related to functional foods and ingredients derived from milk. Research in functional foods has increased during last twelve years with the intention of increasing life expectancy and improving human health conditions. Probiotics, prebiotics, bioactive peptides or proteins, dietetic fibers and fatty acids, as well as the addition of fitochemical compounds in dairy products and a record of some allergic compounds are also discussed. The demand of this kind of products is increasing due to intense advertising campaigns posted in many countries. Basically, these campaigns promise better health and/or the prevention of certain illnesses. Milk contains diverse constituents with physiological functionality, which might change the traditional view point that we have about drugs. The topic of functional foods in general, and specifically that from milk and dairy products, has still not been completely exploited, and in the future it will be found that the best work has not been carried out in this area. PMID:15125074

Silva Hernández, Eryck R; Verdalet Guzmán, Ińigo

2003-12-01

31

[Functional food--a new risk?].  

PubMed

Functional food, i.e. foods that promise the consumer not just a full stomach but also some "added benefit", have recently developed into a multi-billion market with high growth rates. However, this important market segment is not without its risks. Insurers count functional food, products on the borderline between nutrition and pharmaceuticals, among the category of "emerging risks". With a view to averting future claims, it is important for the insurer to keep abreast of this issue and be aware of its claims potential. PMID:16180535

Fraenk, W

2005-09-01

32

Characterization of typical household food wastes from disposers: Fractionation of constituents and implications for resource recovery at wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Food wastes with typical US food composition were analyzed to characterize different constituents in both particulate and soluble phases i.e., solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P). Relationships between various pollutants were also investigated using 50 samples. One gram of dry food waste generated 1.21g COD, 0.58g BOD5, 0.36g Total SS, 0.025g Total N, and 0.013g Total P. Distribution of constituents between particulate and aqueous phases indicated that 40% of COD and 30% of nitrogen were present in soluble form. Relative mass ratios of COD and nitrogen to solids were three to five times higher in particulates than in aqueous phase. However, COD/N ratios were higher in aqueous form than particulates at 63:1 versus 42:1. Detailed relationships between parameters showed that COD, nitrogen, and phosphorus in particulates are 200%, 3.6%, and 3.5% of the volatile suspended solids. PMID:25723128

Kim, M; Chowdhury, M M I; Nakhla, G; Keleman, M

2015-05-01

33

On the transformation between current and constituent quarks and consequences for polarised electroproduction structure functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transformation of Buccella et al. and of Melosh is a rotation in spin space, so spin-dependent matrix elements are sensitive to this transformation, while spin-averaged quantities are not. This is explicitly shown by applying this transformation to the nucleon constituent space SU(6) wave function and the generated current space wave function is seen to be simply a spin rotation

F. E. Close

1974-01-01

34

Food protein functionality: A comprehensive approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food protein functionality has classically been viewed from the perspective of how single molecules or protein ingredients function in solutions and form simple colloidal structures. Based on this approach, tests on protein solutions are used to produce values for solubility, thermal stability, gelation, emulsifying, foaming, fat binding and water binding to name a few. While this approach is beneficial in

E. Allen Foegeding; Jack P. Davis

2011-01-01

35

Anthocyanins as Functional Food Colors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthocyanins, a proanthocyanidin-type of flavonoid, contain an abundance of functional phytochemicals\\u000a and occur in fruits such as cranberry, blueberry, orange, apple and in vegetables such as tomato, sweet\\u000a pepper, spinach, and radishes. Functional and essential diets have been ingested in daily life since the\\u000a primitive era of history. When anthocyanins are coupled with some water-soluble sugar molecules, their\\u000a color becomes

Noboru Motohashi; Hiroshi Sakagami

2009-01-01

36

Functional metagenomics to decipher food-microbe-host crosstalk.  

PubMed

The recent developments of metagenomics permit an extremely high-resolution molecular scan of the intestinal microbiota giving new insights and opening perspectives for clinical applications. Beyond the unprecedented vision of the intestinal microbiota given by large-scale quantitative metagenomics studies, such as the EU MetaHIT project, functional metagenomics tools allow the exploration of fine interactions between food constituents, microbiota and host, leading to the identification of signals and intimate mechanisms of crosstalk, especially between bacteria and human cells. Cloning of large genome fragments, either from complex intestinal communities or from selected bacteria, allows the screening of these biological resources for bioactivity towards complex plant polymers or functional food such as prebiotics. This permitted identification of novel carbohydrate-active enzyme families involved in dietary fibre and host glycan breakdown, and highlighted unsuspected bacterial players at the top of the intestinal microbial food chain. Similarly, exposure of fractions from genomic and metagenomic clones onto human cells engineered with reporter systems to track modulation of immune response, cell proliferation or cell metabolism has allowed the identification of bioactive clones modulating key cell signalling pathways or the induction of specific genes. This opens the possibility to decipher mechanisms by which commensal bacteria or candidate probiotics can modulate the activity of cells in the intestinal epithelium or even in distal organs such as the liver, adipose tissue or the brain. Hence, in spite of our inability to culture many of the dominant microbes of the human intestine, functional metagenomics open a new window for the exploration of food-microbe-host crosstalk. PMID:25417646

Larraufie, Pierre; de Wouters, Tomas; Potocki-Veronese, Gabrielle; Blottičre, Hervé M; Doré, Joël

2015-02-01

37

Carbohydrate-rich foods: glycaemic indices and the effect of constituent macronutrients.  

PubMed

The glycaemic index (GI) ranks foods according to their acute glycaemic impact and is used in planning meals for patients invoking glycaemic control through diet. Kurakkan (Eleusine coracana) flour roti, rice flour roti, atta flour roti, boiled breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis/Artocarpus communis) and boiled legumes (mungbean, cowpea and chickpea) were categorized as low-GI foods (relative to white bread; Prima Crust Top), and the corresponding GI (+/- standard error of the mean) values were 70+/-8, 69+/-7, 67+/-9, 64+/-7, 57+/-6, 49+/-8 and 29+/-5, respectively. Kurakkan flour pittu and wheat flour roti were classified as medium-GI foods with GI values of 85+/-6 and 72+/-6. Hoppers, rice flour pittu, wheat flour pittu and Olu-milk rice (seeds of Nymphaea lotus) were categorized as high-GI foods, and the corresponding GI (+/- standard error of the mean) values were 120+/-8, 103+/-7, 101+/-8 and 91+/-8, respectively. The GI values significantly (P<0.01) and negatively correlated with the insoluble dietary fibre (rho = - 0.780), soluble dietary fibre (rho = - 0.712) and protein (rho = - 0.738) contents in grams per 100 g digestible starch containing foods. PMID:19418327

Widanagamage, Rahal D; Ekanayake, Sagarika; Welihinda, Jayantha

2009-01-01

38

Whey Proteins as Functional Food Ingredients?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Putative anti-cancer activity of whey proteins has been investigated in an animal model to evaluate their potential role in disease prevention, and to contribute to a basis for their inclusion as ingredients in functional foods. Animal feeding trials have compared the efficacy of dietary whey proteins in retarding chemically induced colon cancer in a rat model of the disease. Dairy

Graeme H. McIntosh; Peter J. Royle; Richard K. Le Leu; Geoffrey O. Regester; Melissa A. Johnson; Ross L. Grinsted; Rachel S. Kenward; Geoffrey W. Smithers

1998-01-01

39

Functional Food Product Development Jim Smith and Edward Charter  

E-print Network

Functional Food Product Development Edited by Jim Smith and Edward Charter Prince Edward Island Food Technology Centre Charlottetown, Canada A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication #12;#12;Functional Food Product Development #12;A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication Functional Food Science

Haddadi, Hamed

40

Method of determining the optimal dilution ratio for fluorescence fingerprint of food constituents.  

PubMed

Quantitative determination by fluorescence spectroscopy is possible because of the linear relationship between the intensity of emitted fluorescence and the fluorophore concentration. However, concentration quenching may cause the relationship to become nonlinear, and thus, the optimal dilution ratio has to be determined. In the case of fluorescence fingerprint (FF) measurement, fluorescence is measured under multiple wavelength conditions and a method of determining the optimal dilution ratio for multivariate data such as FFs has not been reported. In this study, the FFs of mixed solutions of tryptophan and epicatechin of different concentrations and composition ratios were measured. Principal component analysis was applied, and the resulting loading plots were found to contain useful information about each constituent. The optimal concentration ranges could be determined by identifying the linear region of the PC score plotted against total concentration. PMID:25485961

Trivittayasil, Vipavee; Tsuta, Mizuki; Kokawa, Mito; Yoshimura, Masatoshi; Sugiyama, Junichi; Fujita, Kaori; Shibata, Mario

2014-12-01

41

Impact of functional foods on prevention of cardiovascular disease and diabetes.  

PubMed

A healthy dietary pattern is a cornerstone for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Compelling scientific evidence has shown many health effects of individual foods (including herbs and spices), beverages, and their constituent nutrients and bioactive components on risk of chronic disease and associated risk factors. The focus of functional foods research that is reviewed herein has been on assessing the health effects and underlying mechanisms of action of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, dairy products including fermented products, legumes, nuts, green tea, spices, olive oil, seafood, red wine, herbs, and spices. The unique health benefits of these functional foods have been the basis for recommending their inclusion in a healthy dietary pattern. A better understanding of strategies for optimally including functional foods in a healthy dietary pattern will confer greater benefits on the prevention and treatment of CVD and T2DM. PMID:25899657

Sikand, Geeta; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Boulos, Nancy Mariam

2015-06-01

42

Chemical constituents of peppers (Piper spp.) and application to food preservation: naturally occurring antioxidative compounds.  

PubMed Central

In a structure analysis of the compounds of the genus Piper (Family Piperaceae), we identified five phenolic amides from Piper nigrum, seven compounds from P. retrofractum, and two compounds from P. baccatum. All the phenolic amides possess significant antioxidant activities that are more effective than the naturally occurring antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol. One amide, feruperine, has antioxidant activity as high as the synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Naturally occurring antioxidants, therefore, may surpass BHA and BHT in their ability to inactivate mutagens in food. PMID:3757949

Nakatani, N; Inatani, R; Ohta, H; Nishioka, A

1986-01-01

43

Melatonin, a potent agent in antioxidative defense: Actions as a natural food constituent, gastrointestinal factor, drug and prodrug  

PubMed Central

Melatonin, originally discovered as a hormone of the pineal gland, is also produced in other organs and represents, additionally, a normal food constituent found in yeast and plant material, which can influence the level in the circulation. Compared to the pineal, the gastrointestinal tract contains several hundred times more melatonin, which can be released into the blood in response to food intake and stimuli by nutrients, especially tryptophan. Apart from its use as a commercial food additive, supraphysiological doses have been applied in medical trials and pure preparations are well tolerated by patients. Owing to its amphiphilicity, melatonin can enter any body fluid, cell or cell compartment. Its properties as an antioxidant agent are based on several, highly diverse effects. Apart from direct radical scavenging, it plays a role in upregulation of antioxidant and downregulation of prooxidant enzymes, and damage by free radicals can be reduced by its antiexcitatory actions, and presumably by contributions to appropriate internal circadian phasing, and by its improvement of mitochondrial metabolism, in terms of avoiding electron leakage and enhancing complex I and complex IV activities. Melatonin was shown to potentiate effects of other antioxidants, such as ascorbate and Trolox. Under physiological conditions, direct radical scavenging may only contribute to a minor extent to overall radical detoxification, although melatonin can eliminate several of them in scavenger cascades and potentiates the efficacy of antioxidant vitamins. Melatonin oxidation seems rather important for the production of other biologically active metabolites such as N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) and N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK), which have been shown to also dispose of protective properties. Thus, melatonin may be regarded as a prodrug, too. AMK interacts with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, conveys protection to mitochondria, inhibits and downregulates cyclooxygenase 2. PMID:16153306

Hardeland, Rüdiger; Pandi-Perumal, SR

2005-01-01

44

Potential functional foods in the traditional Maori diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Maori people were early New Zealand settlers of Polynesian descent. The incidence of non-infectious diseases appears to have been low in these people, perhaps in part due to the presence of protective chemical constituents within their food plant supply. Three of the tropical crops they introduced are still eaten here today: the sweet potato or kumara (Ipomoea batatas), the

Richard C Cambie; Lynnette R Ferguson

2003-01-01

45

Analysis of Functional Constituents in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Twigs by Different Cultivars, Producing Areas, and Heat Processings  

PubMed Central

Four functional constituents, oxyresveratrol 3?-O-?-D-glucoside (ORTG), oxyresveratrol (ORT), t-resveratrol (RT), and moracin (MC) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs by a series of isolation procedures, including solvent fractionation, and silica-gel, ODS-A, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their chemical structures were identified by NMR and FABMS spectral analysis. Quantitative changes of four phytochemicals in mulberry twigs were determined by HPLC according to cultivar, producing area, and heat processing. ORTG was a major abundant compound in the mulberry twigs, and its levels ranged from 23.7 to 105.5 mg% in six different mulberry cultivars. Three other compounds were present in trace amounts (<1 mg/100 g) or were not detected. Among mulberry cultivars examined, “Yongcheon” showed the highest level of ORTG, whereas “Somok” had the least ORTG content. Levels of four phytochemicals in the mulberry twigs harvested in early September were higher than those harvested in early July. Levels of ORTG and ORT in the “Cheongil” mulberry twigs produced in the Uljin area were higher than those produced in other areas. Generally, levels of ORTG and ORT in mulberry twigs decreased with heat processing, such as steaming, and microwaving except roasting, whereas those of RT and MC did not considerably vary according to heat processing. These results suggest that the roasted mulberry twigs may be useful as potential sources of functional ingredients and foods. PMID:24551827

Choi, Sang Won; Jang, Yeon Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin; Leem, Hyun Hee; Kim, Eun Ok

2013-01-01

46

Next-to-Leading Order Constituent Quark Structure and Hadronic Structure Functions  

E-print Network

We calculate the partonic structure of a constituent quark in the Next-to-Leading Order framework. The structure of any hadron can be obtained thereafter using a convolution method. Such a procedure is used to generate the structure function of proton and pion in NLO, neglecting certain corrections to $\\Lambda_{QCD}$. It is shown that while the constituent quark structure is generated purely perturbatively and accounts for the most part of the hadronic structure, there is a few percent contributions coming from the nonperturbative sector in the hadronic structure. This contribution plays the key role in explaining the SU(2) symmetry breaking of the nucleon sea and the observed violation of Gottfried sum rule. These effects are calculated. We obtained an Excellent agreement with the experimental data in a wide range of $x=[10^{-6}, 1]$ and $Q^{2}=[0.5, 5000]$ $GeV^{2}$ for the proton structure function. We have also calculated Pion structure and compared it with the existing data. Again, the model calculations agree rather well with the data from experiment.

F. Arash; A. N. Khorramian

2003-03-05

47

Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius): a functional food.  

PubMed

Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is an Andean tuberous root that is regarded as a functional food given that it contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS), inulin and phenolic compounds. The consumption of FOS and inulin improves the growth of bifidobacteria in the colon, enhances mineral absorption and gastrointestinal metabolism and plays a role in the regulation of serum cholesterol. Furthermore, the literature reports that the consumption of these prebiotics promotes a positive modulation of the immune system, improving resistance to infections and allergic reactions. Certain studies have demonstrated the potential of yacon as an alternative food source for those patients with conditions that require dietary changes. This review intends to describe the potential of yacon as a prebiotic and its cultivation and industrial processing for human consumption. PMID:23709016

Delgado, Grethel Teresa Choque; Tamashiro, Wirla Maria da Silva Cunha; Maróstica Junior, Mário Roberto; Pastore, Glaucia Maria

2013-09-01

48

Chemical constituents of fine particulate air pollution and pulmonary function in healthy adults: the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation study.  

PubMed

The study examined the associations of 32 chemical constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ?2.5 ?m (PM?.?) with pulmonary function in a panel of 21 college students. Study subjects relocated from a suburban area to an urban area with changing ambient air pollution levels and contents in Beijing, China, and provided daily morning/evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV??) measurements over 6 months in three study periods. There were significant reductions in evening PEF and morning/evening FEV?? associated with various air pollutants and PM?.? constituents. Four PM?.? constituents (copper, cadmium, arsenic and stannum) were found to be most consistently associated with the reductions in these pulmonary function measures. These findings provide clues for the respiratory effects of specific particulate chemical constituents in the context of urban air pollution. PMID:23747477

Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Hao, Yu; Shima, Masayuki; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling; Huang, Jing; Qin, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao

2013-09-15

49

Positioning functional foods in an ecological approach to the prevention of overweight and obesity: Positioning functional foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To contribute to the social debate about the role of functional foods in the prevention of overweight and obesity using an ecological model to study the positioning of functional foods and their social implications. Positioning was conceptualized as the relative attention given to functional foods within the range of preventive strategies, and the way in which they address specific

N. F. Wieringa; H. J. Van Der Windt; R. R. M. Zuiker; L. Dijkhuizen; M. A. Verkerk; R. J. Vonk; J. A. A. Swart

2008-01-01

50

Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to constant health awareness and readily available information on usefulness of different diet and their direct link with\\u000a health, the demand of functional food is increasing day by day. The concept of functional foods includes foods or food ingredients\\u000a that exert a beneficial effect on host health and\\/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions.\\u000a Increasing

Arpita Das; Utpal Raychaudhuri; Runu Chakraborty

51

A heteroallelic Drosophila insulin-like receptor mutant and its use in validating physiological activities of food constituents.  

PubMed

Here we report an additional Drosophila transheterozygote InR(GS15311)/InR(GS50346) carrying two different P-element-inducible alleles of insulin-like receptor gene (InR). InR(GS15311)/InR(GS50346) flies exhibit the following phenotypes previously reported in InR and insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway-related gene mutants: small bodies, developmental delay, shortened lifespan, and increased fasting resistance. All of these characteristics are shared among flies carrying mutated genes implicated in the pathway. This heteroallelic combination exhibited fertility but resulted in male semilethality, while females were viable and grew into adults. Furthermore, an experimental model employing the InR(GS15311)/InR(GS50346) strain confirmed negligible involvement of royal jelly in IIS. Thus, the heteroallelic InR mutant, discovered in this study, will serve as a good model for multiple purposes: investigating the IIS mechanisms; identifying and validating the ingredients that prevent type II diabetes; and screening of food constituents associated with IIS. PMID:23541587

Kayashima, Yasunari; Sato, Ayaka; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Yamakawa-Kobayashi, Kimiko

2013-05-01

52

NEW FUNCTIONAL FOOD INGREDIENTS FOR IMPROVING THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF ASIAN FOODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to utilize new functional food ingredients containing soluble beta-glucan fiber that could be used to improve the health qualities of Asian foods. These functional food fibers were studied as replacements for coconut milk, butter, or saturated fat shortenings that are ...

53

NEW FUNCTIONAL FOOD INGREDIENTS FOR IMPROVING THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF ASIAN FOODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to utilize new functional food ingredients containing soluble betaglucan fiber that could be used to improve the heatlh qualities of Asian foods. These functional food fibers were studied as replacements for coconut milk, butter, or saturated fat shortenings that are w...

54

Nutritional and Functional Characteristics of Whey Proteins in Food Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whey proteins are well known for their high nutri- tional value and versatile functional properties in food products. Estimates of the worldwide production of whey indicate that about 700,000 tonnes of true whey proteins are available as valuable food ingre- dients. Nutritional and functional characteristics of whey proteins are related to the structure and biologi- cal functions of these proteins.

J. N. de Wit

1998-01-01

55

Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 P...

56

[Fiber, food intolerances, FODMAPs, gluten and functional gastrointestinal disorders--update 2014].  

PubMed

The controversial effects of dietary fiber on symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders are summarized. Studies concerning adverse reaction to foods are mentioned and the possible role of food allergy and food intolerances, especially pseudoallergic reactions to biogenes amines, in symptom provocation is discussed. The known effects of lactose deficiency and fructose malabsorption are reviewed. The FODMAP concept (fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols) is presented in more detail and recent studies on pathophysiological effects of FODMAP constituents and of therapeutic effects of a low FODMAP diet on symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome are discussed. Finally, studies on the new disorder non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) are summarized and the state of the discussion whether wheat intolerance is due to gluten or the grains is given. PMID:25390215

Leiß, O

2014-11-01

57

Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent: a review.  

PubMed

Due to constant health awareness and readily available information on usefulness of different diet and their direct link with health, the demand of functional food is increasing day by day. The concept of functional foods includes foods or food ingredients that exert a beneficial effect on host health and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions. Increasing awareness of consumer health and interest in functional foods to achieve a healthy lifestyle has resulted in the need for food products with versatile health-benefiting properties. Cereal- and cereal component-based food products offer opportunities to include probiotics, prebiotics, and fibers in the human diet. Various growth studies using probiotic Lactic acid bacteria on cereal-based substrates and utilization of whole grain or components as high-fiber foods in developing novel food products lend support to the idea that cereal-based media may well be good probiotic carriers. It is essential that science and traditional knowledge should go together to find mutually beneficial results. In the Indian subcontinent, making use of fermented food and beverages using local food crops and other biological resources are very common. But the nature of the products and the base material vary from region to region. PMID:24293685

Das, Arpita; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

2012-12-01

58

Investigating constituent order change with elicited pantomime: a functional account of SVO emergence.  

PubMed

One of the most basic functions of human language is to convey who did what to whom. In the world's languages, the order of these three constituents (subject [S], verb [V], and object [O]) is uneven, with SOV and SVO being most common. Recent experiments using experimentally elicited pantomime provide a possible explanation of the prevalence of SOV, but extant explanations for the prevalence of SVO could benefit from further empirical support. Here, we test whether SVO might emerge because (a) SOV is not well suited for describing reversible events (a woman pushing a boy) and (b) pressures to be efficient and mention subjects before objects conspire to rule out many other alternatives. We tested this by asking participants to describe reversible and non-reversible events in pantomime, and we instructed some participants to be consistent in the form of their gestures and to teach them to the experimenter. These manipulations led to the emergence of SVO in speakers of both English (SVO) and Turkish (SOV). PMID:24641486

Hall, Matthew L; Ferreira, Victor S; Mayberry, Rachel I

2014-06-01

59

Utilization of functional food components from pulses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dry beans, peas, and lentils (pulses) are a principle source of protein in many parts of the world and have long been known to be healthy foods. Their use in traditional ethnic foods is well established; however, unlike grains, meat, dairy products, and other vegetables, they are not universally pre...

60

Comparison of the Immunoregulatory Function of Different Constituents in Radix Astragali and Radix Hedysari  

PubMed Central

Radix Astragali (RA), known as “Huangqi” in China, is one of the most popular herbal medicines known worldwide to reinforce “Qi”. RA is traditionally prepared from the dried roots of Astragalus membranaceus (MJHQ) and A. membranaceus var. mongholicus (MGHQ). Radix Hedysari is named “Hongqi” (HQ), which is similar to RA. We assessed and compared the chemical constituents and bioactivity of RA and HQ. Different constituents were extracted into five major parts and were analyzed using different methods. Comparison of the immunological effects of extracts was done by using two immunological models. Results showed that flavonoids and saponins present in RA and HQ were not only structurally significantly different but also different in their immunological effect. Amino acids extract (AE) in MGHQ shows immunological effect while AE in MJHQ and HQ did not. Polysaccharides comprised the major constituents in RA and HQ. All polysaccharides extract (PE) of the three herbs showed similar levels of immunological effect in both immunological assays. PMID:20224658

Liu, Jing; Hu, Xuguang; Yang, Quan; Yu, Zhiling; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Yi, Tao; Chen, Hubiao

2010-01-01

61

Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults123  

PubMed Central

Background: Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 Puerto Ricans aged 45–75 y living in Massachusetts in relation to cognitive function performances. Design: Food security was assessed with the US Household Food Security Scale. Cognitive function was measured to capture general cognition with a battery of 7 tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning (verbal memory), digit span (attention), clock drawing and figure copying (visual-spatial ability), and Stroop and verbal fluency tests (fluency executive functioning). Results: The overall prevalence of food insecurity during the past 12 mo was 12.1%; 6.1% of the subjects reported very low food security. Food insecurity was inversely associated with global cognitive performance, as assessed by the MMSE score. The adjusted difference in the MMSE score was ?0.90 (95% CI: ?1.6, ?0.19; P for trend = 0.003) for a comparison of participants with very low food security with those who were food secure, after adjustment for age, smoking, education, poverty status, income, acculturation, plasma homocysteine, alcohol, diabetes, and hypertension. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower scores for word-list learning, percentage retention, letter fluency, and digit span backward tests. Conclusions: Very low food security was prevalent among the study subjects and was associated with lower cognitive performance. Further studies, both observational and experimental, are warranted to clarify the direction of causality in this association. PMID:19225117

Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Falcon, Luis M; Wilde, Parke E; Tucker, Katherine L

2009-01-01

62

Regulations on health/functional foods in Korea.  

PubMed

The term "health/functional food" (HFF) refers to food supplements containing nutrients or other substances (in a concentrated form) that have a nutritional or physiological effect whose purpose is to supplement the normal diet. The Korean Health/Functional Food Act that came into effect in 2004 requires these products to be marketed in measured doses, such as in pills, tablets, capsules, and liquids. HFFs are of two types: generic and product-specific. There are 37 ingredients listed in the act for generic HFFs, and if an HFF contains a new active ingredient that is not included in the generic 37 products, it is considered a product-specific HFF. The standardization, safety, and efficacy of a new active ingredient are reviewed by the Korean Food and Drug Administration in order to receive approval as a product-specific HFF. Conforming with international standards and protecting public health requires constant upgrading of the Health/Functional Food Act. PMID:16481090

Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Dai Byung; Lee, Hyong Joo

2006-04-01

63

Ionization frequencies for major thermospheric constituents as a function of solar cycle 21  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increases in the solar ultraviolet flux (lambda<1250A) over the past five years of rising solar activity have been larger than anticipated. This increase in UV flux dramatically affects the production of ionization of the various constituents in the thermosphere. In this paper we use measurements of the solar UV flux by the Atmosphere Explorer satellites to determine ionization frequencies for

Marsha R. Torr; D. G. Torr; R. A. Ong; H. E. Hinteregger

1979-01-01

64

Buildup factor studies of HCO-materials as a function of weight fraction of constituent elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fractional abundance of constituent elements have been investigated on the energy absorption buildup factors of HCO-materials for some incident photon energies at a fixed penetration depth of 20 mfp. At low incident photon energies, a change in buildup factor is seen whereas buildup factor values of HCO-materials are independent of fractional abundances of H, C and O

G. S. Brar; G. S. Sidhu; Parjit S. Singh; Gurmel S. Mudahar

1999-01-01

65

VARIATION IN SURFACE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF COTTON FIBER AS A FUNCTION OF MATURITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

MODERN COTTON YARN PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY HAS MADE IT IMPERATIVE THAT NEW PREDICTORS OF YARN SPINNING EFFICIENCY BE DETERMINED. SURFACE FRICTIONAL FORCES PLAY A LARGE ROLE IN SPINNING EFFICIENCY, YET LITTLE IS KNOWN ABOUT THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS COMPRISING THE COTTON FIBER SURFACE OR THEIR RESPEC...

66

MODIFIED SOY PROTEIN AS A NOVEL FUNCTIONAL FOOD INGREDIENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since the market of food ingredients is very competitive, the functionality of soy protein must be improved or redesigned for specific food applications by either physical or chemical modification. Unlike modified starch, soy protein does not naturally impart instantaneous and significant stability ...

67

Hydrogels from biopolymer hybrid for biomedical, food, and functional food applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hybrid hydrogels from biopolymers have been applied for various indications across a wide range of biomedical, pharmaceutical, and functional food industries. In particular, hybrid hydrogels synthesized from two biopolymers have attracted increasing attention. The inclusion of a second biopolymer st...

68

Applications and functions of food-grade phosphates.  

PubMed

Food-grade phosphates are used in the production of foods to function as buffers, sequestrants, acidulants, bases, flavors, cryoprotectants, gel accelerants, dispersants, nutrients, precipitants, and as free-flow (anticaking) or ion-exchange agents. The actions of phosphates affect the chemical leavening of cakes, cookies, pancakes, muffins, and doughnuts; the even melt of processed cheese; the structure of a frankfurter; the bind and hydration of delicatessen meats; the fluidity of evaporated milk; the distinctive flavor of cola beverages; the free flow of spice blends; the mineral content of isotonic beverages; and the light color of par-fried potato strips. In the United States, food-grade phosphates are generally recognized as safe, but use levels have been defined for some foods by the Code of Federal Regulations, specifically Titles 9 and 21 for foods regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), respectively. Standards for food purity are defined nationally and internationally in sources such as the Food Chemicals Codex and the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives. PMID:24033359

Lampila, Lucina E

2013-10-01

69

Variation in surface chemical constituents of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber as a function of maturity.  

PubMed

Modern cotton yarn production technology has made it imperative that new predictors of yarn spinning efficiency be determined. Surface frictional forces play a large role in spinning efficiency, yet little is known about the chemical constituents comprising the cotton fiber surface or their respective roles in inter-fiber frictional behavior. Major cotton fiber surface chemical components including pectin, wax, soluble salts, and sugars were quantified, and their respective relationships to cotton fiber maturity, as measured by micronaire, determined for 87 cotton samples exhibiting large variations in age, micronaire, genetics, and growing region. In the case of pectin and wax, inverse relationships with micronaire were found, whereas salts and sugars exhibit linear relationships with micronaire. Using these mathematical relationships, it will be possible to develop predictive models of whether spinning performance of different cottons is affected by deviations of the chemical constituents from the determined relationships. PMID:14690385

Gamble, Gary R

2003-12-31

70

Mechanisms of Probiosis and Prebiosis: Considerations for Enhanced Functional Foods  

PubMed Central

The technologies of metagenomics and metabolomics are broadening our knowledge of the roles the human gut microbiota play in health and disease. For many years now, probiotics and prebiotics have been included in foods for their health benefits, however we have only recently begun to understand their modes of action. This review highlights recent advances in deciphering the mechanisms of probiosis and prebiosis, and describes how this knowledge could be transferred to select for enhancing functional foods targeting different populations. A special focus will be given to the addition of prebiotics and probiotics in functional foods for infants and seniors. PMID:19243931

Saulnier, Delphine M. A.; Spinler, Jennifer K.; Gibson, Glenn R.; Versalovic, James

2009-01-01

71

Functional components and medicinal properties of food: a review.  

PubMed

Research has proved a relationship between functional components of food, health and well-being. Thus, functional components of food can be effectively applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. They act simultaneously at different or identical target sites with the potential to impart physiological benefits and promotion of wellbeing including reducing the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, inflammation, type II diabetes, and other chronic degenerative diseases, lowering of blood cholesterol, neutralization of reactive oxygen species and charged radicals, anticarcinogenic effect, low-glycaemic response, etc. Previously, it was thought that functional ingredients such as non-starchy carbohydrates including soluble and insoluble dietary fibres, fucoidan; antioxidants including polyphenols, carotenoids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols, isoflavones, organosulphur compounds; plant sterols and soy phytoestrogens occur only in plant foods (whole grains, fruits, and vegetables) as phytochemicals. However, probiotics, prebiotics, conjugated linolenic acid, long-chain omega-3, -6 and -9-polyunsaturated fatty acids, and bioactive peptides have proved that functional components are equally available in animal products such as milk, fermented milk products and cold-water fish. The way a food is processed affects its functional components. Many processing techniques have been found to lower the concentration of functional components in food. Conversely, other techniques were found to increase them. Hence, in a time when the role of a healthy diet in preventing non-communicable diseases is well accepted, the borderline between food and medicine is becoming very thin. PMID:25892752

Abuajah, Christian Izuchukwu; Ogbonna, Augustine Chima; Osuji, Chijioke Maduka

2015-05-01

72

Consumer response to functional foods produced by conventional, organic, or genetic manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agro-food industry is developing a “second generation” of genetically modified (GM) foods that can offer functional health benefits to consumers. Many consumers, however, are turning to organic foods in order to avoid GM foods. This report attempts to differentiate consumer valuation of functional health properties in conventional, organic, and GM foods. A representative sample of 1,008 Canadian household food

Bruno Larue; Gale E. West; Carole Gendron; Rémy Lambert

2004-01-01

73

Ionization frequencies for major thermospheric constituents as a function of solar cycle 21  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increases in the solar ultraviolet flux (wavelengths shorter than 1250A) over the past five years of rising solar activity have been larger than anticipated. This increase in UV flux dramatically affects the production of ionization of the various constituents in the thermosphere. Measurements of the solar UV flux by the Atmosphere Explorer satellites are used to determine ionization frequencies for the major thermospheric species for various dates exhibiting notably different levels of solar activity. For the convenience of users of such data, a reduced set of cross-section and flux data is presented for the wavelength range below 1027A, consisting of 37 wavelength intervals

Torr, M. R.; Torr, D. G.; Ong, R. A.; Hinteregger, H. E.

1979-01-01

74

Flax and flaxseed oil: an ancient medicine & modern functional food.  

PubMed

Flaxseed is emerging as an important functional food ingredient because of its rich contents of ?-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3 fatty acid), lignans, and fiber. Flaxseed oil, fibers and flax lignans have potential health benefits such as in reduction of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, autoimmune and neurological disorders. Flax protein helps in the prevention and treatment of heart disease and in supporting the immune system. As a functional food ingredient, flax or flaxseed oil has been incorporated into baked foods, juices, milk and dairy products, muffins, dry pasta products, macaroni and meat products. The present review focuses on the evidences of the potential health benefits of flaxseed through human and animals' recent studies and commercial use in various food products. PMID:25190822

Goyal, Ankit; Sharma, Vivek; Upadhyay, Neelam; Gill, Sandeep; Sihag, Manvesh

2014-09-01

75

Suppressive effects of Okinawan food items on free radical generation from stimulated leukocytes and identification of some active constituents: implications for the prevention of inflammation-associated carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Okinawa prefecture in Japan is a distinct area characterized by unique traditional food habits and longevity. Prolonged exposure to activated leukocytes, playing pivotal roles in chronic inflammation-associated carcinogenesis, is known to lead to oxidative and nitrosative damage to macromolecules in the body since they are primary sources of free radicals, such as superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) and nitric oxide (NO). In this study, we estimated anti-oxidative and anti-nitrosative activities of Okinawan food items by employing two cellular experimental systems: (1) phorbol ester-induced O(2)(-) generation from differentiated HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells; and (2) lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO generation in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. A total of 138 food items, consisting of 42 samples unique to Okinawa and 96 common in the Japanese main island, were purchased at local markets in Okinawa and extracted with chloroform. When tested at a concentration of 100 microg/ml, 38% (16/42) of the former showed 70% or more inhibition of O(2)(-) generation while 21% (20/96) of the latter did so. In parallel, 64% (27/42) of the former showed significant NO generation suppression in contrast to 48% (46/96) of the latter . Twenty-one active species were further tested at a concentration of 20 mug/ml, and eleven species, including sugar cane, wild turmeric, and zedoary, were indicated to be most promising items with anti-oxidative and anti-nitrosative properties. In addition, some of the active constituents (chebulagic acid, a resveratrol derivative, and sesquiterpenoids) were identified. Our results suggest that food items typical in the Okinawa area have higher cancer preventive potential than those common in Japan. PMID:16435988

Murakami, Akira; Ishida, Hisashi; Kobo, Kimie; Furukawa, Ikuyo; Ikeda, Yasutaka; Yonaha, Megumi; Aniya, Yohko; Ohigashi, Hajime

2005-01-01

76

Strategies of functional food for cancer prevention in human beings.  

PubMed

Functional food for prevention of chronic diseases is one of this century's key global challenges. Cancer is not only the first or second leading cause of death in China and other countries across the world, but also has diet as one of the most important modifiable risk factors. Major dietary factors now known to promote cancer development are polished grain foods and low intake of fresh vegetables, with general importance for an unhealthy lifestyle and obesity. The strategies of cancer prevention in human being are increased consumption of functional foods like whole grains (brown rice, barley, and buckwheat) and by-products, as well some vegetables (bitter melon, garlic, onions, broccoli, and cabbage) and mushrooms (boletes and Tricholoma matsutake). In addition some beverages (green tea and coffee) may be protective. Southwest China (especially Yunnan Province) is a geographical area where functional crop production is closely related to the origins of human evolution with implications for anticancer influence. PMID:23679240

Zeng, Ya-Wen; Yang, Jia-Zheng; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Du, Juan; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shu-Ming; Zhu, Wei-Hua

2013-01-01

77

Consumer demand for personalized nutrition and functional food.  

PubMed

New developments in nutrigenetic research and the European regulation 1924/2006 on health claims have spurred interest in developing and marketing functional food designed for personalized nutrition. Personalized nutrition uses genetic information regarding a person's health risk profile. Specifically adapted nutrition recommendations are claimed to help reducing disease risk. An internet survey was conducted in December 2007 using a sample of 452 randomly selected adults in Germany. The survey instrument assesses if consumers would be willing to participate in genetic risk profiling, if they are interested in personalized nutrition advice and if they desire functional food products adapted to their individual nutrigenetic profile. In addition, we estimate the acceptance of functional food products designed to reduce the risk of cardio-vascular diseases. Consumers have a positive attitude towards the testing of their genetic profile to be used in nutrient advice. About 45 % of the sample would agree to such a test and like to obtain a personalized advice on nutrition. Similarly, more than 40 % of the sample showed a positive willingness to buy the proposed functional food products. Given these results, the concept of personalized nutrition seems promising. However, several challenges remain regarding targeted nutrition advice and food marketing. PMID:19685435

Roosen, Jutta; Bruhn, Maike; Mecking, Rebecca-Ariane; Drescher, Larissa S

2008-12-01

78

Concepts in Functional Foods: The Case of Inulin and Oligofructose1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in biosciences support the hypothesis that diet modulates various body functions. Diet may maintain well-being and reduce the risk of some diseases. Such discoveries have led to the concept of ''functional food'' and the development of the new discipline, i.e., ''functional food science.'' A practical and simple definition of a ''functional food'' is a food for which a

Marcel B. Roberfroid

79

Studies on chemical constituents and bioactivity of Rosa micrantha: an alternative antioxidants source for food, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic applications.  

PubMed

Rose species have long been used for food and medicinal purposes. Rosa micrantha is one of the rose species that grow feral in the northeastern Portuguese region so-called Nordeste Transmontano. For the first time, chemical composition and bioactivity of their petals, fertilized flowers, unripe, ripening, and overripe hips were evaluated in order to valorize them as sources of important phytochemicals. Chemical characterization included determination of proteins, fats, ash, and carbohydrates, particularly sugars, by HPLC-RI, fatty acids by GC-FID, tocopherols by HPLC-fluorescence, and phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid by spectrophotometric techniques. Bioactivity was evaluated through screening of antioxidant properties: radical scavenging effects, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Ripening and overripe hips showed high nutritional value including proteins, carbohydrates, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, energy, sugars, particularly the reducing sugars fructose and glucose, and ascorbic acid (>693 mg/100 g). Fertilized flowers and petals revealed the highest antioxidant activity (EC(50) > 152 microg/mL) and phenolics, flavonoids, and tocopherols contents (>35 mg/100 g). Furthermore, petals, ripening, and overripe hips are important sources of carotenoid pigments (>64 mg/100 g). Because of the diversity and abundance of antioxidants found in this species, some food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications could be explored. PMID:20426454

Guimarăes, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2010-05-26

80

Dairy and functional foods research in the Agricultural Research Service  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit is the only group in the Agricultural Research Service that is dedicated to solving critical problems in milk utilization and fruit and vegetable byproducts from specialty crops. The many areas of investigation include development of specialty cheese, c...

81

Making claims: functional foods for managing appetite and weight.  

PubMed

Functional food products promote claims such as 'freedom from hunger' and 'feel fuller for longer'. A legislative framework has been established by the European Food Safety Authority to evaluate the validity of such claims: a claim must be substantiated by scientific evidence and should be clearly understood by consumers. Since consumed foods influence appetite by means of a system of physiological satiety signals, functional foods could in principle act by increasing the potency and/or duration of these signals. Importantly, what constitutes a useful action: a reduction in hunger, an increase in fullness, a change in food intake at a meal, an adjustment in daily energy balance or a reduction in body weight? Any claim should not go beyond the scientific evidence of an effect, and methods exist to scientifically evaluate claims. The wording of a claim is, therefore, critical. The difference between a proof of concept and a guarantee of success is an important point that needs to be conveyed to the consumer. PMID:20010971

Blundell, John

2010-01-01

82

Wounded Constituents  

E-print Network

The concept of the "wounded" hadronic constituents is formulated. Preliminary estimates indicate that it may help to understand the transverse mass dependence of particle production in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions.

A. Bialas

2012-02-21

83

Preference for internucleotide linkages as a function of the number of constituents in a mixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phosphoimidazolide-activated ribomononucleotides (*pN; see Scheme I) are useful substrates for the nonenzymatic synthesis of oligonucleotides. In the presence of metal ions dilute neutral aqueous solutions of *pN (0.01 M) typically yield only small amounts of dimers and traces of oligomers; most of *pN hydrolyzes to yield nucleoside 5'-monophosphate (5'NMP). An earlier investigation of *pN reactions in highly concentrated aqueous solutions (up to 1.4 M) showed, as expected, that the percentage yield of the condensation products increases and the yield of the hydrolysis product correspondingly decreases with *pN concentration (Kanavarioti 1997). Here we report product distributions in reactions with one, two, or three reactive components at the same total nucleotide concentration. *pN used as substrates were the nucleoside 5'-phosphate 2-methylimidazolides, 2-MeImpN, with N = cytidine (C), uridine (U), or guanosine (G). Reactions were conducted as self-condensations, i. e., one nucleotide only, with two components in the three binary U,C, U,G, and C,G mixtures, and with three components in the ternary U,C, G mixture. The products are 5'NMP, 5',5'-pyrophosphate-, 2',5'-, 3', 5'-linked dimers, cyclic dimers, and a small percentage of longer oligomers. The surprising finding was that, under identical conditions, including the same total monomer concentration, the product distribution differs substantially from one reaction to another, most likely due to changing intermolecular interactions depending on the constituents. Even more unexpected was the observed trend according to which reactions of the U,C,G mixture produce the highest yield of internucleotide-linked dimers, whereas the self-condensations produce the least and the reactions with the binary mixtures produce yields that fall in between. What is remarkable is that the approximately two-fold increase in the percentage yield of internucleotide-linked dimers is not due to a concentration effect or a catalyst, but to the increased complexity of the system from a single to two and three components. These observations, perhaps, provide an example of how increased complexity in relatively simple chemical systems leads to organization of the material and consequently to chemical evolution. A possible link between prebiotic chemistry and the postulated RNA world is discussed.

Kanavarioti, A.

1998-01-01

84

Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function  

PubMed Central

It has long been suspected that the relative abundance of specific nutrients can affect cognitive processes and emotions. Newly described influences of dietary factors on neuronal function and synaptic plasticity have revealed some of the vital mechanisms that are responsible for the action of diet on brain health and mental function. Several gut hormones that can enter the brain, or that are produced in the brain itself, influence cognitive ability. In addition, well-established regulators of synaptic plasticity, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, can function as metabolic modulators, responding to peripheral signals such as food intake. Understanding the molecular basis of the effects of food on cognition will help us to determine how best to manipulate diet in order to increase the resistance of neurons to insults and promote mental fitness. PMID:18568016

Gómez-Pinilla, Fernando

2009-01-01

85

Linkages between microbial functional potential and wastewater constituents in large-scale membrane bioreactors for municipal wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Large-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have been widely used for the municipal wastewater treatment, whose performance relies on microbial communities of activated sludge. Nevertheless, microbial functional structures in MBRs remain little understood. To gain insight into functional genes and their steering environmental factors, we adopted GeoChip, a high-throughput microarray-based tool, to examine microbial genes in four large-scale, in-operation MBRs located in Beijing, China. The results revealed substantial microbial gene heterogeneity (43.7-85.1% overlaps) among different MBRs. Mantel tests indicated that microbial nutrient cycling genes were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated to influent COD, [Formula: see text] -N, TP or sulfate, which signified the importance of microbial mediation of wastewater constituent removal. In addition, functional genes shared by all four MBRs contained a large number of genes involved in antibiotics resistance, metal resistance and organic remediation, suggesting that they were required for degradation or resistance to toxic compounds in wastewater. The linkages between microbial functional structures and environmental variables were also unveiled by the finding of hydraulic retention time, influent COD, [Formula: see text] -N, mixed liquid temperature and humic substances as major factors shaping microbial communities. Together, the results presented demonstrate the utility of GeoChip-based microarray approach in examining microbial communities of wastewater treatment plants and provide insights into the forces driving important processes of element cycling. PMID:24675272

Sun, Yanmei; Shen, Yue-xiao; Liang, Peng; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng; Huang, Xia

2014-06-01

86

Food Derived Bioactive Peptides and Intestinal Barrier Function  

PubMed Central

A wide range of food-derived bioactive peptides have been shown to exert health-promoting actions and are therefore considered functional foods or nutraceuticals. Some of these actions are related to the maintenance, reinforcement or repairment of the intestinal barrier function (IBF) whose role is to selectively allow the absorption of water, nutrients and ions while preventing the influx of microorganisms from the intestinal lumen. Alterations in the IBF have been related to many disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease or metabolic syndrome. Components of IBF are the intestinal epithelium, the mucus layer, secretory immunoglobulin A and cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here we review the effects of food derived bioactive peptides on these IBF components. In vitro and in vivo effects, both in healthy and disease states, have been reviewed. Although limited, the available information indicates a potential for food-derived peptides to modify IBF and to contribute to disease treatment, but further research is needed to better isolate responsible peptides, and to help define their mode of action. PMID:25501338

Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Rivero-Gutiérrez, Belén; Mascaraque, Cristina; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín

2014-01-01

87

Functional food and diabetes: a natural way in diabetes prevention?  

PubMed

Diabetes shows a wide range of variation in prevalence around the world and it is expected to affect 300 million by the year 2025. In a prevention framework where banning policies and educational strategies lead the interventions, functional foods (FFs) with their specific health effects could, in the future, indicate a new mode of thinking about the relationships between food and health in everyday life. Functional ingredients, such as stevioside, cinnamon, bitter melon, garlic and onion, ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre and fenugreek, have been addressed for their specific actions towards different reactions involved in diabetes development. New strategies involving the use of FF should be validated through large-scale population trials, considering validated surrogate end points to evaluate the effect of FF in prevention of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22107597

Ballali, Simonetta; Lanciai, Federico

2012-03-01

88

Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health.  

PubMed

Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria and their environmental interactions. Moreover, functional genomics approaches have been used to understand the response of lactic acid bacteria to their environment. The results have been instrumental in understanding the adaptation of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal and industrial food fermentations as well as their interactions with the human host. Collectively, this has led to a detailed analysis of genes involved in colonization, persistence, interaction and signaling towards to the human host and its health. Finally, massive parallel genome re-sequencing has provided new opportunities in applied genomics, specifically in the characterization of novel non-GMO strains that have potential to be used in the food industry. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art of these functional genomics approaches and their impact in understanding, applying and designing lactic acid bacteria for food and health. PMID:25186768

Douillard, François P; de Vos, Willem M

2014-08-29

89

Functional Foods Programs Serve as a Vehicle to Provide Nutrition Education to Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increase in consumer interest in functional foods provides an opportunity for FCS educators to use this topic in Extension programming to promote current nutrition recommendations. The Functional Foods for Life Educational Programs (FFL) are a curriculum of six evidence-based mini-seminars that highlight specific functional foods that have the…

Cirignano, Sherri M.

2011-01-01

90

From functional food to medicinal product: Systematic approach in analysis of polyphenolics from propolis and wine  

PubMed Central

In the last decade we have been working on standardization of propolis extract and determination of active constituents of wine those are rich in polyphenolics and have nutritional as well as therapeutic value. Here we are summarizing our results and providing overview on systematic approach how to analyse natural products rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids. Chromatographic methods (thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography) were used for identification, quantification, and characterization of individual flavonoid or phenolic acid. Total content of active constituents and antioxidant activity were determined by spectrophotometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and using appropriate software. Quantitative structure-activity relationship study of antioxidant activity was conducted, as well as assessment of prolonged propolis supplementation on antioxidative status of organism. Thin layer chromatography-densitometry has been proven as quick and reliable method for standard analysis of propolis and wine; the best mobile phase being chloroform – methanol – formic acid (98–100%) in ratio 44 : 3.5 : 2.5 (v/v). Higher number of polyphenolics was determined by high performance liquid chromatography; 15 compared to 9 by thin layer chromatography. Interactions in situ with acetylsalicylic acid were detected with most of polyphenolics analysed. Plasma protein binding and blood-barrier penetration was greatest for flavone. The interactions with human serum albumin have been grater than 95% for all flavonoids analysed. The prolonged propolis consumption increased superoxide dismutase activity. The necessity of standardization of natural products and their registration as functional nutraceuticals demand easy, quick and inexpensive methods of analysis. In this work we provided overview of analytical part for polyphenolics that could be used as data for possible registration of final products either as functional food or medicinal product. This feature introduces the readers to the authors' research through a concise overview of the selected topic. Reference to important work from others in the field is included. PMID:19624827

Medi?-Šari?, Marica; Rastija, Vesna; Boji?, Mirza; Maleš, Željan

2009-01-01

91

Biguanide related compounds in traditional antidiabetic functional foods.  

PubMed

Biguanides such as metformin are widely used worldwide for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The identification of guanidine and related compounds in French lilac plant (Galega officinalis L.) led to the development of biguanides. Despite of their plant origin, biguanides have not been reported in plants. The objective of this study was to quantify biguanide related compounds (BRCs) in experimentally or clinically substantiated antidiabetic functional plant foods and potatoes. The corrected results of the Voges-Proskauer (V-P) assay suggest that the highest amounts of BRCs are present in green curry leaves (Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel) followed by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), green bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Descourt.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Whereas, garlic (Allium sativum L.), and sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.) contain negligible amounts of BRCs. In addition, the possible biosynthetic routes of biguanide in these plant foods are discussed. PMID:23411283

Perla, Venu; Jayanty, Sastry S

2013-06-01

92

Pomegranate as a functional food and nutraceutical source.  

PubMed

Pomegranate, a fruit native to the Middle East, has gained widespread popularity as a functional food and nutraceutical source. The health effects of the whole fruit, as well as its juices and extracts, have been studied in relation to a variety of chronic diseases. Promising results against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and prostate cancer have been reported from human clinical trials. The in vitro antioxidant activity of pomegranate has been attributed to its high polyphenolic content, specifically punicalagins, punicalins, gallagic acid, and ellagic acid. These compounds are metabolized during digestion to ellagic acid and urolithins, suggesting that the bioactive compounds that provide in vivo antioxidant activity may not be the same as those present in the whole food. Anthocyanins and the unique fatty acid profile of the seed oil may also play a role in pomegranate's health effects. A more complete characterization of pomegranate components and their physiological fate may provide mechanistic insight into the potential health benefits observed in clinical trials. PMID:22129380

Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Harris, G Keith

2011-01-01

93

High-resolution screening combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for identification of potential health-promoting constituents in sea aster and searocket--new Nordic food ingredients.  

PubMed

Sea aster (Aster tripolium L.) and searocket (Cakile maritima Scop.), potential ingredients in the New Nordic Diet, were analyzed by high-resolution radical scavenging and high-resolution ?-glucosidase inhibition assays. Results from the two bioactivity profiles were used to guide subsequent structural analysis toward constituents with potential health-promoting effects. Structural analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction and automated tube transfer nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, that is, HPLC-HRMS-SPE-ttNMR. High-resolution mass spectrometry together with detailed analysis of one- and two-dimensional proton detected NMR experiments enabled unambiguous assignment of the targeted analytes. This revealed a series of caffeoyl esters (1, 2, 5), flavonoid glycosides (3, 4, 6, 11-15), flavonoids (7-9), sinapate esters (10, 16, 17), and sinapinic acid (18) associated with radical scavenging and/or ?-glucosidase inhibition. In vitro assays implemented in this study showed that sea aster holds potential as a future functional food ingredient for lowering postprandial blood glucose level for diabetics, but further investigations are needed to prove the effect in vivo. PMID:23962163

Wubshet, Sileshi G; Schmidt, Jeppe S; Wiese, Stefanie; Staerk, Dan

2013-09-11

94

Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (?60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (n?=?200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Results Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p?=?0.045). Conclusions Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers. PMID:24886306

2014-01-01

95

EFFECT OF OIL COMBUSTION PARTICLE BIOAVAILABLE CONSTITUENTS ON EX VIVO VASCULAR FUNCTION OF AORTAS RECOVERED FROM NORMAL AND TYPE 2 DIABETIC RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Effect of Oil Combustion Particle Bioavailable Constituents on Ex Vivo Vascular Function of Aortae Recovered from Healthy and Early Type 2 Diabetic Rats KL Dreher1, SE Kelly2, SD Proctor2, and JC Russell2. 1National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, US EPA, RTP, NC;...

96

Food-derived carbohydrates--structural complexity and functional diversity.  

PubMed

Carbohydrates are biomolecules abundantly available in nature. They are found in bewildering types ranging from simple sugars through oligo- and polysaccharides to glycoconjugates and saccharide complexes, each exhibiting characteristic bio-physiological and/or nutritional functions both in in vivo and in vitro systems. For example, their presence or inclusion in food dictates the texture (body) and gives desirable customer appeal (satisfaction), or their inclusion in the diet offers beneficial effects of great therapeutic value. Thus, carbohydrates are integrally involved in a multitude of biological functions such as regulation of the immune system, cellular signaling (communication), cell malignancy, antiinfection responses, host-pathogen interactions, etc. If starch is considered the major energy storage carbohydrate, the gums/mucilages and other non-starch carbohydrates are of structural significance. The most investigated properties of starch are its gelatinization and melting behavior, especially during food processing. This has led to the development of the food polymer science approach, which has enabled a new interpretive and experimental frame work for the study of the plasticizing influence of simple molecules such as water, sugars, etc. on food systems that are kinetically constrained. Starch, although considered fully digestible, has been challenged, and starch is found to be partly indigestible in the GI tract of humans. This fraction of starch-resisting digestion in vivo is known as resistant starch (RS). The latter, due to its excellent fermentative capacity in the gut, especially yielding butyric acid is considered a new tool for the creation of fiber-rich foods, which are of nutraceutical importance. By a careful control of the processing conditions the content of RS, a man-made fiber, can be increased to as high as 30%. Arabinoxylans are the major endospermic cell wall polysaccharides of cereals. In wheat they are found complexed with ferulic acid esters, which after oxidative coupling in vivo mediated by H2O2 and peroxidases or even by photochemical means give cross linked diferuloyl derivatives. The latter confer strength and extensibility to the cell wall and offer resistance for digestibility by ruminants. They also help blocking of the ingress of pathogens. The ester bound ferulic acid after oxidation in vivo generates reactive oxygen species that contribute to the fragmentation of non-starch polysaccharides (hemicelluloses), and thereby reduces the product viscosity, a property seen during long-term storage of rice. In plant tissues, the arabinogalactans are implicated in such diverse functions as cell-cell adhesion, nutrition of growing pollen tubes, response to microbial infections, and also as markers of identity expressed in the terminal sequences of saccharide chains. PMID:11958336

Tharanathan, Rudrapatnam N

2002-01-01

97

Egg and Egg-Derived Foods: Effects on Human Health and Use as Functional Foods  

PubMed Central

Eggs are sources of protein, fats and micronutrients that play an important role in basic nutrition. However, eggs are traditionally associated with adverse factors in human health, mainly due to their cholesterol content. Nowadays, however, it is known that the response of cholesterol in human serum levels to dietary cholesterol consumption depends on several factors, such as ethnicity, genetic makeup, hormonal factors and the nutritional status of the consumer. Additionally, in recent decades, there has been an increasing demand for functional foods, which is expected to continue to increase in the future, owing to their capacity to decrease the risks of some diseases and socio-demographic factors such as the increase in life expectancy. This work offers a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of egg consumption and the potential market of functional eggs, and it explores the possibilities of the development of functional eggs by technological methods. PMID:25608941

Miranda, Jose M.; Anton, Xaquin; Redondo-Valbuena, Celia; Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Lamas, Alexandre; Franco, Carlos M.; Cepeda, Alberto

2015-01-01

98

The multiple functions of the endocannabinoid system: a focus on the regulation of food intake  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabis sativa (also known as marijuana) has been cultivated by man for more than 5,000 years. However, there was a rise in its use in the 20th century for recreational, religious or spiritual, and medicinal purposes. The main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, whose structure was identified in the 1960's, is ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol. On the other hand, the discovery of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous agonists took place only very recently. In fact, the first cannabinoid receptor (CB1) was cloned in 1990, followed 3 years later by the characterization of a second cannabinoid receptor (CB2). Since the 19th century, the use of cannabis has been reported to stimulate appetite and increase the consumption of sweet and tasty food, sometimes resulting in significant weight gain. The recent description of the endocannabinoid system, not only in the central nervous system but also in peripheral tissues, points to its involvement in the regulation of appetite, food intake and energy metabolism. Consequently, the pharmacological modulation of the over-activity of this system could be useful in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The endocannabinoid system has important physiological functions not only in the central nervous system but also in peripheral tissues. The activation of central CB1 receptors, particularly in hypothalamic nuclei and in the limbic system, is involved in the regulation of feeding behavior, and especially in the control of the intake of palatable food. In the periphery, cannabinoid receptors are present in adipocytes, skeletal muscle, gastrointestinal tract and liver, modulating energy metabolism. PMID:20180990

2010-01-01

99

Functional Foods: A Survey of Health Claims, Pros and Cons, and Current Legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional foods stand for a new category of remarkably promising foods bearing properties (i.e., low cholesterol, antioxidant, anti-aging, anticancer, etc.) that have already rendered them quite appealing. There are many classes of functional foods (pro- and pre-biotics, dietary fiber, low fat, etc.), and their definition is occasionally confused with that of nutraceuticals and novel foods. Consumers' main skepticism regarding functional

Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis; Maria Van Houwelingen-Koukaliaroglou

2005-01-01

100

Effects of soy foods on ovarian function in premenopausal women  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that the high intake of soy foods among Asians may partly explain their lower rates of breast cancer, perhaps by lowering endogenous oestrogen levels, although this has been inadequately studied. Twenty healthy cycling premenopausal women (ten Asians and ten non-Asians) participated in a 7-month soy intervention study which was designed to investigate the effect of supplementation on ovarian function. Asian soy foods (tofu, soymilk, green soybean peas) in the amount of approximately 32 mg of isoflavones per day were added to the women's diets for three menstrual cycles. The women's baseline (two cycles) serum hormone levels were compared to levels during soy intervention (three cycles) and levels after intervention (two cycles). During the entire study period, subjects provided almost daily overnight urine samples and blood specimens during specified days of their menstrual cycles. The day of urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) peak was used as a marker for the day of ovulation. Knowledge of day of ovulation allowed comparison of hormone measurements at baseline to those obtained during intervention and recovery cycles with standardization of day of cycle. Soy intervention was associated with a statistically significant reduction in serum luteal oestradiol level (–9.3%, P< 0.05), but there were no significant changes in follicular phase oestradiol, follicular or luteal phase progesterone, sex hormone-binding globulin or menstrual cycle length. This significant reduction in luteal phase oestradiol was, however, observed only among Asian (–17.4%) but not among non-Asian (–1.2%) participants; urinary excretion of isoflavones was higher among Asians than non-Asians (29.2 vs 17.1 ?mol day?1, P = 0.16) during the intervention period. Thus, supplementation using traditional soy foods reduced serum oestradiol levels among Asian participants in this study. Differences in the type of soy products (i.e. traditional soy foods versus soy protein products), amount of isoflavones, and race/ethnicity of participants may have contributed to the divergent results. Larger soy intervention studies designed specifically to include participants of different race/ethnicities and using both traditional soy foods and soy protein products providing comparable doses of isoflavones are needed to definitively determine the effect of soy on ovarian function. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10839307

Wu, A H; Stanczyk, F Z; Hendrich, S; Murphy, P A; Zhang, C; Wan, P; Pike, M C

2000-01-01

101

SIGNIFICANCE OF SAMPLE PREPARATION IN DEVELOPING ANALYTICAL METHODOLOGIES FOR ACCURATE ESTIMATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN FUNCTIONAL FOODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Functional foods are defined as foods or food components that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition (for the intended population). Increased interest in bioactive food components and phytochemicals arose from numerous epidemiological studies that suggested that certain phytochemicals can ...

102

Functional foods: health claim-food product compatibility and the impact of health claim framing on consumer evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies are reported, which aim to strengthen the scientific underpinning of strategic decisions regarding functional food development, as to (1) which health benefits to claim, (2) with which product (category), and (3) in which communication format. The first exploratory study is a secondary analysis of 10 different health claims systematically combined with 10 different food carriers to evaluate their

Ellen van Kleef; Hans C. M. van Trijp; Pieternel Luning

2005-01-01

103

Selected Functional Foods for Potential in Diseases Treatment and their Regulatory Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant association between diet and human health broaden the consumer concept to look at food not only for its basic nutrition but also for allied health benefits. Nevertheless, a large segment of population is still reluctant to buy functional foods due to ambiguities related to their health claims. This review highlighted the role of functional foods against various physiological

Masood Sadiq Butt; M. Tauseef Sultan

2011-01-01

104

Executive function and food approach behavior in middle childhood  

PubMed Central

Executive function (EF) has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating “hot” affective and “cool” cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation of eating behavior. So far, however, the links between EF and eating behavior have rarely been investigated in children and non-clinical populations. First, we examined whether EF can be divided into hot and cool factors or whether they actually correspond to a unitary construct in middle childhood. Second, we examined how hot and cool EF are associated with different eating styles that put children at risk of becoming overweight during development. Hot and cool EF were assessed experimentally in a non-clinical population of 1657 elementary-school children (aged 6–11 years). The “food approach” behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires. Findings indicate that hot EF is distinguishable from cool EF. However, only cool EF seems to represent a coherent functional entity, whereas hot EF does not seem to be a homogenous construct. This was true for a younger and an older subgroup of children. Furthermore, different EF components were correlated with eating styles, such as responsiveness to food, desire to drink, and restrained eating in girls but not in boys. This shows that lower levels of EF are not only seen in clinical populations of obese patients but are already associated with food approach styles in a normal population of elementary school-aged girls. Although the direction of effect still has to be clarified, results point to the possibility that EF constitutes a risk factor for eating styles contributing to the development of overweight in the long-term. PMID:24904466

Groppe, Karoline; Elsner, Birgit

2014-01-01

105

Introduce Freshness Estimate Function into Cooling System of Foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cooling system controlled by the freshness estimate function to freshly store foods,was examined. To drive the freshness estimate expression,an experiment on storage of tuna was made and the following results were obtained. 1) Ratio of weight to initial weight,yield,was greatly influenced by conditions of humidity and velocity of air. 2) K value was not influenced by conditions of air velocity under 95-75% humidity and 0 -1m/s air velocity. 3) Change of color was influenced by conditions of humidity and velocity of air. So using weight of evaporated water in tuna as a function,relative expression of humidity and velocity of air for saving weight loss of tuna was induced.

Ishikawa, Makiko; Matsuoka, Fumio; Sugimoto, Takeshi

106

Development of a locally sustainable functional food based on mutandabota, a traditional food in southern Africa.  

PubMed

A probiotic dairy product was developed on the basis of a traditional dish called mutandabota to enable resource-poor populations in southern Africa to benefit from a functional food. Mutandabota is widely consumed in rural southern Africa, making it an ideal food matrix to carry probiotics. First, a process to produce probiotic mutandabota was designed. Raw cow milk was boiled and subsequently cooled to ambient temperature (25°C). Next, dry pulp from the fruit of the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L.) was added to the milk at a concentration of 4% (wt/vol). This mixture was inoculated with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba and left to ferment for 24h, while the growth of the bacterial culture was monitored. Final ingredients were then added to produce probiotic mutandabota that had 14% (wt/vol) baobab fruit pulp and 7% (wt/vol) sugar in cow milk. The pH of probiotic mutandabota was pH 3.5, which ensures that the product is microbiologically safe. The viable plate count of L. rhamnosus yoba increased from 5.8 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL at the point of inoculation to 8.8 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL at the moment of consumption, thereby meeting the criterion to have a viable count of the probiotic bacterium in excess of 6 log cfu/mL of a product. Baobab fruit pulp at 4% promoted growth of L. rhamnosus yoba with a maximal specific growth rate (?max) of 0.6 ± 0.2/h at 30°C. The developed technology, though specific for this particular product, has potential to be applied for the delivery of probiotics through a variety of indigenous foods in different regions of the world. Upon consumption, probiotic mutandabota is expected to improve the population's intestinal health, which is especially relevant for vulnerable target groups such as children and elderly people. PMID:24630646

Mpofu, Augustine; Linnemann, Anita R; Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco; Nout, M J R; Smid, Eddy J

2014-05-01

107

Potential functional foods in the traditional Maori diet.  

PubMed

The Maori people were early New Zealand settlers of Polynesian descent. The incidence of non-infectious diseases appears to have been low in these people, perhaps in part due to the presence of protective chemical constituents within their food plant supply. Three of the tropical crops they introduced are still eaten here today: the sweet potato or kumara (Ipomoea batatas), the taro (Colocasia esculenta) and the cabbage tree or ti (Cordyline terminalis). Sporamins A and B, the major storage proteins of kumara tubers, act as proteinase inhibitors, and may have other anti-cancer properties. The tubers also contain the anti-coagulant coumarins, scopoletin, aesculetin, and umbelliferone. The corms of taro contain the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rhamnoside, reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Anthocyanins are also major components of a so-called "Maori potato", a variety officially known as Ureniki, which has a purple skin and flesh and was widely eaten in the early 1900s. Anthocyanins are also present in ripe berries of the ramarama (Lophomyrtus bullata) and rohutu (Neomyrtus pedunculata). Both the leaves and seeds of the introduced cabbage tree (Cordyline terminalis) and the native Cordyline spp., C. australis, C. indivisa, and C. pumilo, were eaten. The seeds of C. australis, of some Astelia spp., and of hinau (Elaeocarpus dentatus) are good sources of various essential fatty acids, generally regarded as protective against cardiovascular disease. Shoots and leaves from a wide range of native species were traditionally eaten as greens, especially "sow thistle" or puha (Sonchus spp.), reportedly high in Vitamin C and various phenolics. "New Zealand spinach" (Tetragonia tetragonioides or T. expansa) has anti-ulcerogenic activity that has been traced to two cerebrosides and anti-inflammatory activity that has been traced to novel water-soluble polysaccharides, as well as antioxidant phenylpropanoids including caffeic acid. Leaves of the "hen and chickens" fern (Asplenium bulbiferum) contain antioxidant flavonoids such as kaempferol glucosides. Native seaweeds also have useful nutritive properties. PMID:12628508

Cambie, Richard C; Ferguson, Lynnette R

2003-01-01

108

Phenolic Antioxidant Biosynthesis in Plants for Functional Food Application: Integration of Systems Biology and Biotechnological Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are applying a dynamic systems biology approach to the development of several phenolic phytochemicals in food-grade plants as ingredients for functional food applications. Phenolic antioxidant phytochemicals from food-grade plants will be an important part of a healthy diet in a global population that is projected to reach 9 billion in the next 50 years. Such phytochemicals are being targeted

Kalidas Shetty; Patrick McCue

2003-01-01

109

Response to consumer demand for reduced-fat foods; multi-functional fat replacers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The excessive dietary fat intake can result in health problems such as obesity and heart-related diseases, resulting in increased consumer demand for reduced fat foods. A number of food ingredients with fat-like functions have been developed as fat alternatives in the food industry. Especially, so...

110

Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health  

PubMed Central

In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward the field of free radical chemistry. Free radicals reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are generated by our body by various endogenous systems, exposure to different physiochemical conditions or pathological states. A balance between free radicals and antioxidants is necessary for proper physiological function. If free radicals overwhelm the body's ability to regulate them, a condition known as oxidative stress ensues. Free radicals thus adversely alter lipids, proteins, and DNA and trigger a number of human diseases. Hence application of external source of antioxidants can assist in coping this oxidative stress. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole have recently been reported to be dangerous for human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with antioxidative activity has been intensified in recent years. The present review provides a brief overview on oxidative stress mediated cellular damages and role of dietary antioxidants as functional foods in the management of human diseases. PMID:22228951

Lobo, V.; Patil, A.; Phatak, A.; Chandra, N.

2010-01-01

111

The Use of Health Functional Foods in Gastrointestinal Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

As an adjunct to cancer treatment, the use of health functional foods (HFFs) seems to be increasing. However, little is known for the use of HFFs among cancer patients in Korea. The aims of this study were to investigate the exposure rate of HFF use among gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients and to examine the relationship of socio-demographic and disease-related characteristics with the use of HFFs. A total of 126 patients diagnosed with GI cancer participated in the study. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a questionnaire. Over a half of all the patients surveyed (n = 67; 53.2%) used HFFs. Patients who were younger, had higher income, or longer duration of disease showed a trend to use HFFs more frequently, even though the tendency was not statistically significant. The most commonly used HFF was vitamin complex (n = 20; 16%), followed by red ginseng (n = 15; 12%), and sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) (n = 11; 8.8%). About 26% of all responders expressed concerns for using HFFs. The primary concern was 'going against physician's recommendations' (36.8%). About 63% of respondents expressed a desire to consult with their physicians and follow their recommendations. More basic scientific data and educational materials regarding HFFs are required for both health-care professionals and cancer patients. A larger sample and size-controlled groups representing each cancer type will continue to be recruited for participation in this survey. PMID:23429665

Kang, Hwa Pyoung; Lee, Hosun; Oh, Tak Geun; Lee, Kyong Joo; Park, Soo Jung; Kim, Seung Up; Lee, Hyuk; Park, Jun Chul; Hong, Sung Pil; Park, Jun Yong; Park, Jeong Youp; Bang, Seungmin; Kim, Do Young; Cheon, Jae Hee; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Tae Il; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young

2013-01-01

112

European regulations on nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and functional foods: a framework based on safety.  

PubMed

This article describes the legislation that is relevant in the marketing of functional foods in the European Union (EU), how this legislation was developed as well as some practical consequences for manufacturers, marketers and consumers. It also addresses some concrete examples of how the EU's safety requirements for food products have impacted a range of product categories. In the late nineties, research into functional ingredients was showing promising prospects for the use of such ingredients in foodstuffs. Due mainly to safety concerns, these new scientific developments were accompanied by an urgent call for legislation. The European Commission 2000 White Paper on Food Safety announced some 80 proposals for new and improved legislation in this field. Among others, it foresaw the establishment of a General Food Law Regulation, laying down the principles of food law and the creation of an independent Food Authority endowed with the task of giving scientific advice on issues based upon scientific risk assessment with clearly separated responsibilities for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. Since then, more than 90% of the White Paper proposals have been implemented. However, there is not, as such, a regulatory framework for 'functional foods' or 'nutraceuticals' in EU Food Law. The rules to be applied are numerous and depend on the nature of the foodstuff. The rules of the general food law Regulation are applicable to all foods. In addition, legislation on dietetic foods, on food supplements or on novel foods may also be applicable to functional foods depending on the nature of the product and on their use. Finally, the two proposals on nutrition and health claims and on the addition of vitamins and minerals and other substances to foods, which are currently in the legislative process, will also be an important factor in the future marketing of 'nutraceuticals' in Europe. The cornerstone of EU legislation on food products, including functional foods and nutraceuticals is 'safety'. Decisions on the safety-basis of legislation are based on risk analysis, in which scientific risk assessment is performed by the European Food Safety Authority and risk management is performed by the European Commission, the Member States, and in case of legislation, together with the European Parliament. In the risk management phase, both the precautionary principle and other legitimate factors may be considered in choosing the best way of dealing with an issue. Due to the numerous pieces of legislation applying and to the different procedures to be followed, the process of having 'functional foods' ready for the market is certainly a costly and time-consuming task. However, it may also be clearly worth it in terms of market success and improved consumer health. PMID:16469424

Coppens, Patrick; da Silva, Miguel Fernandes; Pettman, Simon

2006-04-01

113

Structural Design Principles for Delivery of Bioactive Components in Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been major advances in the design and fabrication of structured delivery systems for the encapsulation of nutraceutical and functional food components. A wide variety of delivery systems is now available, each with its own advantages and disadvantages for particular applications. This review begins by discussing some of the major nutraceutical and functional food components that need to be

David Julian McClements; Eric Andrew Decker; Jochen Weiss

2009-01-01

114

Sorghum Functionality as a Superhealthfood NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCE  

E-print Network

-inflammatory responses in human cell lines. Gluten Intolerance · Sorghum is a popular food choice among those with celiac disease, as an inexpen- sive healthy ingredient for a wide variety of foods enjoyed by gluten). · Sorghum flour and bran provide needed fiber and protein to bread and cake mixes used by celiacs

115

Fermented Milks and Milk Products as Functional Foods - A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermented foods and beverages possess various nutritional and therapeutic properties. Lactic acid bacteria play a major role in determining the positive health effects of fermented milks and related products. The L.acidophilus and Bifidobacteria spp are known for their use in probiotic dairy foods. Cultured products sold with any claim of health benefits should meet the criteria of suggested minimum number

V K SHIBY; H N MISHRA

2011-01-01

116

Complex interactions in microbial food webs: Stoichiometric and functional approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food web structure in some high mountain lakes deviates from the established tendency of high heterotrophic bacteria: phyto- plankton biomass ratios in oligotrophic ecosystems. Thus, the microbial food web in La Caldera Lake is weakly developed, and bacteria constitute a minor component of the plankton community in terms of abundance, biomass and production. Autotrophic picoplankton is absent, and heterotrophic

Presentación Carrillo; Juan Manuel Medina-Sánchez; Manuel Villar-Argaiz; José Antonio Delgado-Molina; Francisco José Bullejos

117

Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS.  

PubMed

Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives. PMID:25473499

Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

2014-07-01

118

Method for the determination of natural ester-type gum bases used as food additives via direct analysis of their constituent wax esters using high-temperature GC/MS  

PubMed Central

Natural ester-type gum bases, which are used worldwide as food additives, mainly consist of wax esters composed of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. There are many varieties of ester-type gum bases, and thus a useful method for their discrimination is needed in order to establish official specifications and manage their quality control. Herein is reported a rapid and simple method for the analysis of different ester-type gum bases used as food additives by high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). With this method, the constituent wax esters in ester-type gum bases can be detected without hydrolysis and derivatization. The method was applied to the determination of 10 types of gum bases, including beeswax, carnauba wax, lanolin, and jojoba wax, and it was demonstrated that the gum bases derived from identical origins have specific and characteristic total ion chromatogram (TIC) patterns and ester compositions. Food additive gum bases were thus distinguished from one another based on their TIC patterns and then more clearly discriminated using simultaneous monitoring of the fragment ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the individual molecular species of the wax esters. This direct high-temperature GC/MS method was shown to be very useful for the rapid and simple discrimination of varieties of ester-type gum bases used as food additives. PMID:25473499

Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

119

Food Sources  

Cancer.gov

Understanding what foods contribute to energy, nutrient, and food group intake enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and gives context for dietary guidance. Examining the top sources of dietary constituents that should be reduced is especially helpful for identifying targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment.

120

A study of consumers' perceptions and prediction of consumption patterns for generic health functional foods  

PubMed Central

The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) revised the Health Functional Food Act in 2008 and extended the form of health functional foods to general food types. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate consumers' perceptions of the expanded form of health functional food and to predict consumption patterns. For this study, 1,006 male and female adults aged 19 years and older were selected nationwide by multi-stage stratified random sampling and were surveyed in 1:1 interviews. The questionnaire survey was conducted by Korea Gallup. The subjects consisted of 497 (49.4%) males and 509 (50.6%) females. About 57.9% of the subjects recognized the KFDA's permission procedures for health functional foods. Regarding the health functional foods that the subjects had consumed, red ginseng products were the highest (45.3%), followed by nutritional supplements (34.9%), ginseng products (27.9%), lactobacillus-containing products (21.0%), aloe products (20.3%), and Japanese apricot extract products (18.4%). Opinions on expanding the form of health functional foods to general food types scored 4.7 points on a 7-point scale, showing positive responses. In terms of the effects of medicine-type health functional foods versus generic health functional foods, the highest response was 'same effects if the same ingredients are contained' at a rate of 34.7%. For intake frequency by food type, the response of 'daily consistent intake' was 31.7% for capsules, tablets, and pills, and 21.7% for extracts. For general food types, 'daily consistent intake' was 44.5% for rice and 22.8% for beverages, which were higher rates than those for medicine types. From the above results, consumers had positive opinions of the expansion of health functional foods to generic forms but are not expected to maintain accurate intake frequencies or amounts. Thus, continuous promotion and education are needed for proper intake of generic health functional foods. PMID:21994526

Kang, Nam E; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Yeon Kyoung; Lee, Hye Young

2011-01-01

121

Relation of Reward from Food Intake and Anticipated Food Intake to Obesity: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that obese individuals experience greater reward from food consumption (consummatory food reward) and anticipated consumption (anticipatory food reward) than lean individuals using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 33 adolescent girls (M age = 15.7 SD = 0.9). Obese relative to lean adolescent girls showed greater activation bilaterally in the gustatory cortex (anterior and mid insula, frontal operculum) and in somatosensory regions (parietal operculum and Rolandic operculum) in response to anticipated intake of chocolate milkshake (versus a tasteless solution) and to actual consumption of milkshake (versus a tasteless solution); these brain regions encode the sensory and hedonic aspects of food. However, obese relative to lean adolescent girls also showed decreased activation in the caudate nucleus in response to consumption of milkshake versus a tasteless solution, potentially because they have reduced dopamine receptor availability. Results suggest that individuals who show greater activation in the gustatory cortex and somatosensory regions in response to anticipation and consumption of food, but who show weaker activation in the striatum during food intake, may be at risk for overeating and consequent weight gain. PMID:19025237

Stice, Eric; Spoor, Sonja; Bohon, Cara; Veldhuizen, Marga; Small, Dana

2009-01-01

122

Functional properties of whey protein and its application in nanocomposite materials and functional foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whey is a byproduct of cheese making; whey proteins are globular proteins which can be modified and polymerized to add functional benefits, these benefits can be both nutritional and structural in foods. Modified proteins can be used in non-foods, being of particular interest in polymer films and coatings. Food packaging materials, including plastics, can linings, interior coatings of paper containers, and beverage cap sealing materials, are generally made of synthetic petroleum based compounds. These synthetic materials may pose a potential human health risk due to presence of certain chemicals such as Bisphenol A (BPA). They also add to environmental pollution, being difficult to degrade. Protein-based materials do not have the same issues as synthetics and so can be used as alternatives in many packaging types. As proteins are generally hydrophilic they must be modified structurally and their performance enhanced by the addition of waterproofing agents. Polymerization of whey proteins results in a network, adding both strength and flexibility. The most interesting of the food-safe waterproofing agents are the (large aspect ratio) nanoclays. Nanoclays are relatively inexpensive, widely available and have low environmental impact. The clay surface can be modified to make it organophilic and so compatible with organic polymers. The objective of this study is the use of polymerized whey protein (PWP), with reinforcing nanoclays, to produce flexible surface coatings which limit the transfer of contents while maintaining food safety. Four smectite and kaolin type clays, one treated and three natural were assessed for strengthening qualities and the potential waterproofing and plasticizing benefits of other additives were also analyzed. The nutritional benefits of whey proteins can also be used to enhance the protein content of various foodstuffs. Drinkable yogurt is a popular beverage in the US and other countries and is considered a functional food, especially when produced with probiotic bacteria. Carbonation was applied to a drinkable yogurt to enhance its benefits. This process helps reduce the oxygen levels in the foodstuff thus potentially being advantageous to the microaerophilic probiotic bacteria while simultaneously producing a product, somewhat similar to kefir, which has the potential to fill a niche in the functional foods market. Yogurt was combined with a syrup to reduce its viscosity, making it drinkable, and also to allow infusion of CO2. This dilution reduced the protein content of the drink and so whey protein concentrate was added to increase levels in the final product. High-methoxyl pectins were used to provide stability by reducing the tendency of the proteins to sediment out. The objectives of this study were to develop a manufacturing technology for drinkable carbonated symbiotic yogurts, and to evaluate their physicochemical properties. Two flavors of yogurt drink, pomegranate and vanilla, were formulated containing inulin as prebiotic, along with probiotic bacteria, producing symbiotic dairy beverages.

Walsh, Helen

123

Diurnal rhythmicity in biological processes involved in bioavailability of functional food factors  

PubMed Central

In the past few decades, many types of functional factors have been identified in dietary foods; for example, flavonoids are major groups widely distributed in the plant kingdom. However, the absorption rates of the functional food factors are usually low, and many of these are difficult to be absorbed in the intact forms because of metabolization by biological processes during absorption. To gain adequate beneficial effects, it is therefore mandatory to know whether functional food factors are absorbed in sufficient quantity, and then reach target organs while maintaining beneficial effects. These are the reasons why the bioavailability of functional food factors has been well investigated using rodent models. Recently, many of the biological processes have been reported to follow diurnal rhythms recurring every 24 h. Therefore, absorption and metabolism of functional food factors influenced by the biological processes may vary with time of day. Consequently, the evaluation of the bioavailability of functional food factors using rodent models should take into consideration the timing of consumption. In this review, we provide a perspective overview of the diurnal rhythm of biological processes involved in the bioavailability of functional food factors, particularly flavonoids. PMID:23704810

Tsurusaki, Takashi; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Aoshima, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Sakono, Masanobu; Shimoi, Kayoko

2013-01-01

124

Responsivity to food stimuli in obese and lean binge eaters using functional MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional neuroimaging was employed to study 10 obese and 10 lean healthy young right-handed women, divided equally into binge and non-binge eaters. Subjects were presented with visual and auditory stimuli of binge type foods, non-binge type foods, and non-food stimuli in the fMRI scanner. Brain areas activated by both the visual and auditory stimuli across all individual subjects within a

Allan Geliebter; Talya Ladell; Merranda Logan; Tzipporah Schweider; Mohammad Sharafi; Joy Hirsch

2006-01-01

125

Overview of the dairy and food processing research conducted at the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit, ERRC, and research to develop sustainable food processes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The DFFRU is dedicated to solving critical problems in the utilization of milk and specialty crop byproducts by developing high-quality, value-added functional foods and consumer products. The presentation will give an overview of the research projects that will benefit human health and well-being. ...

126

Functional and safety aspects of enterococci in dairy foods.  

PubMed

The genus Enterococcus like other LAB has also been featured in dairy industry for decades due to its specific biochemical traits such as lipolysis, proteolysis, and citrate breakdown, hence contributing typical taste and flavor to the dairy foods. Furthermore, the production of bacteriocins by enterococci (enterocins) is well documented. These technological applications have led to propose enterococci as adjunct starters or protective cultures in fermented foods. Moreover, enterococci are nowadays promoted as probiotics, which are claimed for the maintenance of normal intestinal microflora, stimulation of the immune system and improvement of nutritional value of foods. At the same time, enterococci present an emerging pool of opportunistic pathogens for humans as they cause disease, possess agents for antibiotic resistance, and are frequently armed with potential virulence factors. Because of this "dualistic" nature, the use of enterococci remains a debatable issue. However, based on a long history of safe association of particular enterococci with some traditional food fermentations, the use of such strains appears to bear no particular risk for human health. Abundance of knowledge as well as progress in molecular techniques has, however, enabled exact characterization and safety assessment of strains. Therefore, a balanced evaluation of both, beneficial and undesirable nature of enterococci is required. A clear understanding of their status may, therefore, allow their safe use as a starter, or a probiotic strain. The present review describes the broader insight of the benefits and risks of enterococci in dairy foods and their safety assessment. PMID:23100728

Bhardwaj, Arun; Malik, R K; Chauhan, Prashant

2008-09-01

127

THE FUNCTION OF FOOD STORES IN BIRD NESTS: OBSERVATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS IN  

E-print Network

THE FUNCTION OF FOOD STORES IN BIRD NESTS: OBSERVATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS IN THE BARN OWL TYTO ALBA in the Barn Owl Tyto alba. Ardea 92(1): 69-78. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain why food- spring to eat at any time. Using Barn Owl Tyto alba nests, I examined pre- dictions of these mutually non

Alvarez, Nadir

128

Biomarkers of bone health appropriate for evaluating functional foods designed to reduce risk of osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is a growing global problem. The health care costs and decreased productivity and quality of life are staggering. Much research is invested in life-style approaches to build peak bone mass during growth to prevent osteoporosis as well as to treat the disease in later life. Functional foods have enjoyed a niche in bone health. Foods fortified with Ca are

Connie M. Weaver; Michael Liebman

2002-01-01

129

Functional properties of anthocyanins and betalains in plants, food, and in human nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthocyanins and betalains play important roles both in plant physiology, visual attraction for pollinators and seed dispersers, but also in food mainly defining its aesthetic value. Since anthocyanin and betalain structures allow to predict only part of their appearance, additional chemical and anatomical functions are required to modulate the appearance of plants and coloured food. Physiological effects that the same

Florian C Stintzing; Reinhold Carle

2004-01-01

130

Functional responses to food diversity: the effect of seed availability on the feeding of facultative granivores  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The relative importance and availability of different foods to animals is critical in determining how they function within food webs. We examined how the diverse communities of carabid beetles and crickets in a perennial hayfield respond to seed availability numerically and in their feeding behavior...

131

SAW RFID enabled multi-functional sensors for food safety applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) RFID enabled sensors for food safety applications. The fundamental principle and applications of SAW RFID are presented. Methodology of developing SAW RFID based sensors are presented for multi-metrics identifications. Multi-sensing functions of SAW RFID enabled sensors are developed and leveraged for monitoring food environment and its logistics networks. Future work relevant to application

Kang Along; Zhang Chenrui; Zongwei Luo; Lai Xiaozheng; Han Tao

2010-01-01

132

Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This entire issue is devoted to the problem of producing enough food for the world population and of distributing it equitably. Areas covered include reports on the latest agricultural research, biological research concerned with more efficient photosynthesis, nutrition, and the world social structure, politics, and economics of food. (MA)

Science, 1975

1975-01-01

133

Food Choice of Largemouth Bass as a Function of Availability and Vulnerability of Food Items  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under experimental conditions largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) used golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas) most heavily as food. Bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) were used more heavily than green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus). Green sunfish were chosen over bullheads (Ictalurus melas) and white crappies (Pomoxis annularis). Use of crayfish (Orconectes immunis) was variable, and in some cases they were not chosen at all. Natural-colored goldfish

William M. Lewis; Gerald E. Gunning; Edward Lyles; W. Leigh Bridges

1961-01-01

134

Cholesterol-Lowering Foods Tasty, functional foods help you lower cholesterol naturally.  

E-print Network

impact on your cholesterol levels. They're also much tastier than a pill chased with a glass of water cholesterol- lowering medicines to reduce your "bad" LDL cholesterol levels. How strong is the evidence Harris, DrPH, RD, spokeswoman, American Dietetic Association. U.S. Food and Drug Administration web site

135

Red clover extract as antioxidant active and functional food ingredient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red clover is a rich source of isoflavones which are reported to have beneficial estrogenic effects and, moreover, contains significant amounts of polyphenolic substances which are known for their potential bio-active antioxidant properties and radical scavenging capacity. The concentration of total polyphenols was remarkably high in the red clover extract (153 mg\\/g) and in a red clover based food supplement

G. Th. Kroyer

2004-01-01

136

Functional food microstructures for macronutrient release and delivery.  

PubMed

There is a need to understand the role of fat, protein and carbohydrate in human health, and also how foods containing and/or structured using these macronutrients can be designed so that they can have a positive impact on health. This may include a reduction in fat, salt or sugar, the protection and targeted release of micronutrients or active ingredients from/to particular parts of the digestive system, improvement of gastrointestinal health or satiety enhancing properties. Such foods can be designed with various macro- and microstructures that will impact on macronutrient release and delivery. These include simple and double emulsions, the use of Pickering particles and shells, nanoparticles, liposomes, gelled networks, fluid gels and gel particles, foams, self-assembled structures, and encapsulated systems. In order to design foods that deliver these benefits understanding of how these structures behave in the gastrointestinal tract is also required, which should involve utilising both in vitro and in vivo studies. This review aims to draw together research in these areas, by focusing on the current state of the art, but also exciting possibilities for future research and food development. PMID:25553863

Norton, J E; Gonzalez Espinosa, Y; Watson, R L; Spyropoulos, F; Norton, I T

2015-03-11

137

Executive Cognitive Function and Food Intake in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The current study investigated relations among neurocognitive skills important for behavioral regulation, and the intake of fruit, vegetables, and snack food in children. Design: Participants completed surveys at a single time point. Setting: Assessments took place during school. Participants: Participants were 107 fourth-grade children…

Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann

2010-01-01

138

Function of Lipophilic Acids as Antimicrobial Food Additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most antimicrobial food additives are lipophilic acids which prevent growth by inhibiting the transport of substrate molecules into cells. The inhibition of transport was also observed in membrane vesicles, even when they were derived from organisms for which growth and transport are not affected by the larger inhibitors.

Ernst Freese; Chingju W. Sheu; Enid Galliers

1973-01-01

139

Food and symptom generation in functional gastrointestinal disorders: physiological aspects.  

PubMed

The response of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to ingestion of food is a complex and closely controlled process, which allows optimization of propulsion, digestion, absorption of nutrients, and removal of indigestible remnants. This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms that control the response of the GIT to food intake. During the cephalic phase, triggered by cortical food-related influences, the GIT prepares for receiving nutrients. The gastric phase is dominated by the mechanical effect of the meal volume. Accumulation of food in the stomach activates tension-sensitive mechanoreceptors, which in turn stimulate gastric accommodation and gastric acid secretion through the intrinsic and vago-vagal reflex pathways. After meal ingestion, the tightly controlled process of gastric emptying starts, with arrival of nutrients in the duodenum triggering negative feedback on emptying and stimulating secretion of digestive enzymes through the neural (mainly vago-vagal reflex, but also intrinsic) and endocrine (release of peptides from entero-endocrine cells) pathways. Several types of specialized receptors detect the presence of all main categories of nutrients. In addition, the gastrointestinal mucosa expresses receptors of the T1R and T2R families (taste receptors) and several members of the transient receptor potential channel family, all of which are putatively involved in the detection of specific tastants in the lumen. Activation of nutrient and taste sensors also activates the extrinsic and intrinsic neural, as well as entero-endocrine, pathways. During passage through the small bowel, nutrients are progressively extracted, and electrolyte-rich liquid intestinal content with non-digestible residue is delivered to the colon. The colon provides absorption of the water and electrolytes, storage of non-digestible remnants of food, aboral propulsion of contents, and finally evacuation through defecation. PMID:23458851

Farré, Ricard; Tack, Jan

2013-05-01

140

Novel value-added uses for sweet potato juice and flour in polyphenol- and protein-enriched functional food ingredients  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blackcurrant, blueberry, and muscadine grape juices were efficiently sorbed, concentrated, and stabilized into dry granular ingredient matrices which combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant fruit polyphenols with sweet potato functional constituents (carotenoids, vitamins, polyphenols, fibers). T...

141

Functional and safety aspects of enterococci in dairy foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Enterococcus like other LAB has also been featured in dairy industry for decades due to its specific biochemical traits such as lipolysis,\\u000a proteolysis, and citrate breakdown, hence contributing typical taste and flavor to the dairy foods. Furthermore, the production\\u000a of bacteriocins by enterococci (enterocins) is well documented. These technological applications have led to propose enterococci\\u000a as adjunct starters

Arun Bhardwaj; R. K. Malik; Prashant Chauhan

2008-01-01

142

Predicting intentions to consume functional foods and supplements to offset memory loss using an adaptation of protection motivation theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread use of dietary supplements and so-called ‘functional foods’ is thought to be partially motivated by self-control of health. However, whilst consumers want foods associated with well-being or disease prevention, they are unlikely to be willing to compromise on taste or technology. This presents a dilemma for promoters of functional foods.Middle-aged consumers' intentions to consume functional foods or supplements

D. N. Cox; A. Koster; C. G. Russell

2004-01-01

143

The advantages of deep ocean water for the development of functional fermentation food.  

PubMed

Deep ocean water (DOW) is obtained from 600 m below the sea surface. In recent years, DOW has been applied in the development of fermentation biotechnologies and functional foods. DOW is rich in trace minerals, comprises multiple physiological and health functions, and is able to promote microbe growth; therefore, the application of DOW directly benefits the development of the fermentation industry and functional foods. This study integrated the current health functions and applications of DOW with the latest results from studies related to fermentation biotechnology. Subsequently, the influence of applying DOW in fermented functional food development and the effects in health function improvements were summarized. According to the previous studies, the main reasons for the increased effect of fermented functional foods through the application of DOW are increased generation of functional metabolite contents in the microbes, intrinsic health functions of DOW, and the microbial use of mechanisms of converting the absorbed inorganic ions into highly bioavailable organic ions for the human body. These combined advantages not only enhance the health functions of fermentation products but also provide fermentation products with the intrinsic health functions of DOW. PMID:25661817

Lee, Chun-Lin

2015-03-01

144

Health-care professionals' perceived trust in and willingness to recommend functional foods: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate some Swedish dieticians', registered nurses' and physicians' thoughts about functional foods and their willingness to recommend such foods to patients. The health-care professionals were recruited to participate in one group interview with each profession. Participants were recruited through mailed invitations from primary care centers in Uppsala County district. The interviewed physicians and registered nurses, in contrast to the dieticians, expressed more skepticism and distrust about functional foods, their claimed effects on health and the research documenting these effects. The participating dieticians were more willing to recommend the products to patients than were the participating nurses and physicians. Differences in educational and professional background and level of proficiency in nutrition may have affected the disparate beliefs about functional foods among the interviewed groups. Confusion among patients could be a consequence but further research into these disparities is needed. PMID:17113191

Landström, Eva; Sidenvall, Birgitta; Koivisto Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa; Magnusson, Maria

2007-03-01

145

Suitability of polystyrene as a functional barrier layer in coloured food contact materials.  

PubMed

Functional barriers in food contact materials (FCMs) are used to prevent or reduce migration from inner layers in multilayer structures to food. The effectiveness of functional barrier layers was investigated in coloured polystyrene (PS) bowls due to their intended condition of use with hot liquids such as soups or stew. Migration experiments were performed over a 10-day period using USFDA-recommended food simulants (10% ethanol, 50% ethanol, corn oil and Miglyol) along with several other food oils. At the end of the 10 days, solvent dyes had migrated from the PS bowls at 12, 1 and 31 000 ng cm(-)(2) into coconut oil, palm kernel oil and Miglyol respectively, and in coconut oil and Miglyol the colour change was visible to the human eye. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed that the functional barrier was no longer intact for the bowls exposed to coconut oil, palm kernel oil, Miglyol, 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol and goat's milk. Additional tests showed that 1-dodecanol, a lauryl alcohol derived from palm kernel oil and coconut oil, was present in the PS bowls at an average concentration of 11 mg kg(-1). This compound is likely to have been used as a dispersing agent for the solvent dye and aided the migration of the solvent dye from the PS bowl into the food simulant. The solvent dye was not found in the 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol and goat's milk food simulants above their respective limits of detection, which is likely to be due to its insolubility in aqueous solutions. A disrupted barrier layer is of concern because if there are unregulated materials in the inner layers of the laminate, they may migrate to food, and therefore be considered unapproved food additives resulting in the food being deemed adulterated under the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act. PMID:25569333

Genualdi, Susan; Addo Ntim, Susana; Begley, Timothy

2015-03-01

146

A Review on Bioactivities of Perilla: Progress in Research on the Functions of Perilla as Medicine and Food  

PubMed Central

Perilla is a useful pharmaceutical and food product and is empirically consumed by humans. However, its properties have not been evaluated extensively. In this review, we summarize the progress made in research, focusing on the bioactivities of perilla. There are many in vitro and animal studies on the cytostatic activity and antiallergic effects, respectively, of perilla and its constituents. However, its influence on humans remains unclear. Hence, investigating and clarifying the physiological effects of perilla and its constituents on humans are imperative in the future to adhere to the ideals of evidence-based medicine. PMID:24319488

2013-01-01

147

Understanding heterogeneity among elderly consumers: an evaluation of segmentation approaches in the functional food market.  

PubMed

It is beneficial for both the public health community and the food industry to meet nutritional needs of elderly consumers through product formats that they want. The heterogeneity of the elderly market poses a challenge, however, and calls for market segmentation. Although many researchers have proposed ways to segment the elderly consumer population, the elderly food market has received surprisingly little attention in this respect. Therefore, the present paper reviewed eight potential segmentation bases on their appropriateness in the context of functional foods aimed at the elderly: cognitive age, life course, time perspective, demographics, general food beliefs, food choice motives, product attributes and benefits sought, and past purchase. Each of the segmentation bases had strengths as well as weaknesses regarding seven evaluation criteria. Given that both product design and communication are useful tools to increase the appeal of functional foods, we argue that elderly consumers in this market may best be segmented using a preference-based segmentation base that is predictive of behaviour (for example, attributes and benefits sought), combined with a characteristics-based segmentation base that describes consumer characteristics (for example, demographics). In the end, the effectiveness of (combinations of) segmentation bases for elderly consumers in the functional food market remains an empirical matter. We hope that the present review stimulates further empirical research that substantiates the ideas presented in this paper. PMID:24924413

van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

2014-06-01

148

Comparative functionality of plasma protein isolate in meat food products  

E-print Network

as with the comple- tion of this manuscript. Thanks are also extended to Doctors C. Vanderzant and R. Nicke?son for serving as com- mittee members. Special thanks are extended to Steven Seideman, Dr. C. W. Dill, Ronnie Morgan and Eunice Mahler for their con... of production of a plasma protein isolate (Tybor, 1975) or a serum by-product (Tybor, 1975) . However, incorporation of the plasma protein isolate into certain food items has also been studied (Dill, 1975; Satterlee, 1973; Gordon, 1971; Kuppervelt et al...

Weinblatt, Philip Jeffrey

1978-01-01

149

Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been suspected that the relative abundance of specific nutrients can affect cognitive processes and emotions. Newly described influences of dietary factors on neuronal function and synaptic plasticity have revealed some of the vital mechanisms that are responsible for the action of diet on brain health and mental function. Several gut hormones that can enter the brain, or

Fernando Gómez-Pinilla

2008-01-01

150

Loss-of-function variants of the filaggrin gene are associated with clinical reactivity to foods.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the genetic association of Filaggrin loss-of-function (FLG LOF) genetic variants with food allergy, and to investigate the added value of this test in diagnosing food allergy. Clinical reactivity to foods was diagnosed by the gold standard, the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Of 155 children, 33 (21.3%) children had at least one FLG LOF variant, and of these, 29 (87.9%) were clinically reactive to at least one food, compared to 73 of 122 children (59.8%) carrying wild-type alleles. The odds ratio for having at least one FLG LOF variant and clinical reactivity to at least one food was 4.9 (CI = 1.6-14.7, P = 0.005), corresponding to a relative risk of 1.5, compared to carriers of wild-type alleles. Prediction of food allergy improved when FLG LOF variants were included in the model. Therefore, genetic markers may be useful as an addition to clinical assessment in the diagnosis of food allergy. PMID:25620092

van Ginkel, C D; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J; Kollen, B J; Kukler, J; Koppelman, G H; Dubois, A E J

2015-04-01

151

A model of freezing foods with liquid nitrogen using special functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A food freezing model is analyzed analytically. The model is based on the heat diffusion equation in the case of cylindrical shaped food frozen by liquid nitrogen; and assuming that the thermal conductivity of the cylindrical food is radially modulated. The model is solved using the Laplace transform method, the Bromwich theorem, and the residue theorem. The temperature profile in the cylindrical food is presented as an infinite series of special functions. All the required computations are performed with computer algebra software, specifically Maple. Using the numeric values of the thermal and geometric parameters for the cylindrical food, as well as the thermal parameters of the liquid nitrogen freezing system, the temporal evolution of the temperature in different regions in the interior of the cylindrical food is presented both analytically and graphically. The duration of the liquid nitrogen freezing process to achieve the specified effect on the cylindrical food is computed. The analytical results are expected to be of importance in food engineering and cooking engineering. As a future research line, the formulation and solution of freezing models with thermal memory is proposed.

Rodríguez Vega, Martín.

2014-05-01

152

Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Dietary factors are important in the pathogenesis of CVD and may to a large degree determine CVD risk, but have been less extensively investigated. Functional foods are those that are thought to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond their basic nutritional functions. The food industry has started to market products labelled as “functional foods.” Although many review articles have focused on individual dietary variables as determinants of CVD that can be modified to reduce the risk of CVD, the aim of this current paper was to examine the impact of functional foods in relation to the development and progression of CVD. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the association between certain dietary patterns and cardiovascular health. Research into the cardio-protective potential of their dietary components might support the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This paper will also compare the effect of individual bioactive dietary compounds with the effect of some dietary patterns in terms of their cardiovascular protection. PMID:22570771

Alissa, Eman M.; Ferns, Gordon A.

2012-01-01

153

Are Food Constituents Relevant to the Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Young Adults? - A Rome III Based Prevalence Study of the Korean Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is prevalent in general population. This study investigates the prevalence of IBS in medical college students in Korea as well as the influence of dietary habits and nutritional intake on IBS. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study of 319 students (239 males and 80 females, age 22.3 ± 2.5 years) from the 6 grade levels of the Medical College in Korea. All students filled out a self-reported questionnaire for ROME III criteria. They also completed a questionnaire to validate dietary habits and food frequency in Korean. Results The overall prevalence of IBS was 29.2% without correlation to age, body mass index and grade level in Medical School. However, the prevalence was significantly higher in females than males (33/80 vs 60/239, P = 0.007). There were no significant differences between the IBS-group and the non-IBS group in aspect of nutrition. Not only the diet habits, but also the daily nutritional intake, and even the breakdown into the 12 micronutrients, yielded no significant differences between the 2 groups. Conclusions Twenty-nine percent of the medical college students have IBS with a greater prevalence in females. The dietary habits and nutritional intake of the students might not be associated with IBS. PMID:21860822

Jung, Hyun Joo; Moon, Won; Park, Seun Ja; Kim, Hyung Hun; Noh, Eun Ji; Lee, Gyu Jin; Kim, Joo Hoon; Kim, Dong Gyu

2011-01-01

154

FRUITS WITH HIGH ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AS FUNCTIONAL FOODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruits have been shown to contain high levels of antioxidant compounds such as carotenoids, vitamins, phenols, flavonoids, dietary glutathionine, and endogenous metabolites. These antioxidants are capable of performing a number of functions including acting as free radical scavengers, peroxide deco...

155

Modeling the tripartite drug efflux pump archetype: structural and functional studies of the macromolecular constituents reveal more than their names imply.  

PubMed

It is a remarkable age in molecular biology when one can argue that our current understanding of a process is influenced as much by structural studies as it is by genetic and physiological manipulations. This statement is particularly poignant with membrane proteins for which structural knowledge has been long impeded by the inability to easily obtain crystal structures in a lipid matrix. Thus, several high-resolution structures of the components comprising tripartite multidrug efflux pumps from Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are now available and were received with much acclaim over ever-evolving crystal structures of soluble, aqueous proteins. These structures, in conjunction with functional mutagenesis studies, have provided insight into substrate capture and binding domains and redefined the potential interactions between individual pump constituents. However, correct assembly of the components is still a matter of debate as is the functional contribution of each to the translocation of drug substrates over long distances spanning the Gram-negative cell envelope. PMID:16433187

Elkins, C A; Beenken, K E

2005-12-01

156

Quantitative determination of amino acids in functional foods by microchip electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Microchip electrophoresis (MCE), a first-generation micrototal analysis system, has emerged during the miniaturization phase of food analysis. Based on the micellar electrokinetic chromatography mode, a simple and fast MCE method with light emitting diode-induced fluorescence detection was developed for quantitative analysis of amino acids in three different kinds of functional foods, viz. sports beverages, jelly-form beverages, and tablet-form functional foods. In contrast to the glass microchip, we improved the separation of amino acids on a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) chip by addition of cationic starch derivatives. 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole, which has a short labeling time for amino acids, was used as the fluorescently labeled dye. This MCE method takes less than 10 min of total analysis time including sample preparation and analysis of amino acids in functional foods on a PMMA chip. The results show that this approach has the potential to be a fast and simple method for amino acid analysis in functional foods. PMID:18266297

Ueno, Hiroko; Wang, Jun; Kaji, Noritada; Tokeshi, Manabu; Baba, Yoshinobu

2008-03-01

157

The Red Flour Beetle Tribolium castaneum as a Model to Monitor Food Safety and Functionality.  

PubMed

: Food quality is a fundamental issue all over the world. There are two major requirements to provide the highest quality of food: having the lowest reachable concentrations of health-threatening ingredients or contaminants and having the optimal concentrations of health-improving functional ingredients. Often, the boundaries of both requirements are blurred, as might be best exemplified by nutraceuticals (enriched food products invented to prevent or even treat diseases), for which undesirable side effects have been reported sometimes. Accordingly, there is an increasing need for reliable methods to screen for health effects of wanted or unwanted ingredients in a complex food matrix before more complex model organisms or human probands become involved. In this chapter, we present the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum as a model organism to screen for effects of complex foods on healthspan or lifespan by assessing the survival of the beetles under heat stress at 42 °C after feeding different diets. There is a higher genetic homology between T. castaneum and humans when compared to other invertebrate models, such as Drosophila melanogaster or Caenorhabditis elegans. Therefore, the red flour beetle appears as an interesting model to study interactions between genes and food ingredients, with relevance for stress resistance and lifespan. In that context, we provide data showing reduced lifespans of the beetles when the food-relevant contaminant benz(a)pyrene is added to the flour they were fed on, whereas a lifespan extension was observed in beetles fed on flour enriched with an extract of red wine. PMID:23748350

Grünwald, Stefanie; Adam, Iris V; Gurmai, Ana-Maria; Bauer, Ludmila; Boll, Michael; Wenzel, Uwe

2013-01-01

158

HPLC and HPLC-MS as tools to monitor the quality of vegetable oils, nutraceuticals, and functional foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

HPLC and HPLC-MS have become valuable tools to analyze the “functional lipids” in vegetable oils, nutraceuticals, functional foods, and conventional foods. These functional lipids include phytosterols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. These analytical methods have provided a means to id...

159

Child and parent perceived food-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It is unknown whether children with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders identify specific foods that exacerbate their GI symptoms. The objectives of this study were to determine the perceived role of food on GI symptoms and to determine the impact of food-induced symptoms on quality of life (...

160

The influence of lifestyle on health behavior and preference for functional foods.  

PubMed

The main objective of this survey is to reveal the relationship between lifestyle, health behavior, and the consumption of functional foods on the basis of Grunert's food-related lifestyle model. In order to achieve this objective, a nationwide representative questionnaire-based survey was launched with 1000 participants in Hungary. The results indicate that a Hungarian consumer makes rational decisions, he or she seeks bargains, and he wants to know whether or not he gets good value for his money. Further on, various lifestyle segments are defined by the authors: the rational, uninvolved, conservative, careless, and adventurous consumer segments. Among these, consumers with a rational approach provide the primary target group for the functional food market, where health consciousness and moderate price sensitivity can be observed together. Adventurous food consumers stand out because they search for novelty; this makes them an equally important target group. Conservative consumers are another, one characterized by positive health behavior. According to the findings of the research, there is a significant relationship between lifestyle, health behavior, and the preference for functional food products. PMID:22119479

Szakály, Zoltán; Szente, Viktória; Kövér, György; Polereczki, Zsolt; Szigeti, Orsolya

2012-02-01

161

An Overview of the Functional Food Market: From Marketing Issues and Commercial Players to Future Demand from Life in Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Companies in the food industry have high expectations for food products that meet the consumers’ demand for a healthy life\\u000a style. In this context Functional Food plays a specific role. These foods are not intended only to satisfy hunger and provide\\u000a the necessary human nutrients, but also to prevent nutrition-related diseases and increase the physical and mental well-being\\u000a of their

Francesca Vergari; Arianna Tibuzzi; Giovanni Basile

162

Essential fatty acids as functional components of foods- a review.  

PubMed

During the recent decades, awareness towards the role of essential fatty acids in human health and disease prevention has been unremittingly increasing among people. Fish, fish oils and some vegetable oils are rich sources of essential fatty acids. Many studies have positively correlated essential fatty acids with reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, infant development, cancer prevention, optimal brain and vision functioning, arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and neurological/neuropsychiatric disorders. Beneficial effects may be mediated through several different mechanisms, including alteration in cell membrane composition, gene expression or eicosanoid production. However, the mechanisms whereby essential fatty acids affect gene expression are complex and involve multiple processes. Further understanding of the molecular aspects of essential fatty acids will be the key to devising novel approaches to the treatment and prevention of many diseases. PMID:25328170

Kaur, Narinder; Chugh, Vishal; Gupta, Anil K

2014-10-01

163

Resistance of functional Lactobacillus plantarum strains against food stress conditions.  

PubMed

The survival of three Lactobacillus plantarum strains (Lp 790, Lp 813 and Lp 998) with functional properties was studied taking into account their resistance to thermal, osmotic and oxidative stress factors. Stress treatments applied were: 52 °C-15 min (Phosphate Buffer pH 7, thermal shock), H2O2 0.1% (p/v) - 30 min (oxidative shock) and NaCl aqueous solution at 17, 25 and 30% (p/v) (room temperature - 1 h, osmotic shock). The osmotic stress was also evaluated on cell growth in MRS broth added of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% (p/v) of NaCl, during 20 h at 30 °C. The cell thermal adaptation was performed in MRS broth, selecting 45 °C for 30 min as final conditions for all strains. Two strains (Lp 813 and Lp 998) showed, in general, similar behaviour against the three stress factors, being clearly more resistant than Lp 790. An evident difference in growth kinetics in presence of NaCl was observed between Lp 998 and Lp 813, Lp998 showing a higher optical density (OD570nm) than Lp 813 at the end of the assay. Selected thermal adaptation improved by 2 log orders the thermal resistance of both strains, but cell growth in presence of NaCl was enhanced only in Lp 813. Oxidative resistance was not affected with this thermal pre-treatment. These results demonstrate the relevance of cell technological resistance when selecting presumptive "probiotic" cultures, since different stress factors might considerably affect viability or/and performance of the strains. The incidence of stress conditions on functional properties of the strains used in this work are currently under research in our group. PMID:25790993

Ferrando, Verónica; Quiberoni, Andrea; Reinhemer, Jorge; Suárez, Viviana

2015-06-01

164

Food supplementation and testosterone interact to influence reproductive behavior and immune function in Sceloporus graciosus.  

PubMed

The energetic resources in an organism's environment are essential for executing a wide range of life-history functions, including immunity and reproduction. Most energetic budgets, however, are limited, which can lead to trade-offs among competing functions. Increasing reproductive effort tends to decrease immunity in many cases, and increasing total energy via supplemental feedings can eliminate this effect. Testosterone (T), an important regulator of reproduction, and food availability are thus both potential factors regulating life-history processes, yet they are often tested in isolation of each other. In this study, we considered the effect of both food availability and elevated T on immune function and reproductive behavior in sagebrush lizards, Sceloporus graciosus, to assess how T and energy availability affect these trade-offs. We experimentally manipulated diet (via supplemental feedings) and T (via dermal patches) in males from a natural population. We determined innate immune response by calculating the bacterial killing capability of collected plasma exposed to Escherichia coli ex vivo. We measured reproductive behavior by counting the number of courtship displays produced in a 20-min sampling period. We observed an interactive effect of food availability and T-patch on immune function, with food supplementation increasing immunity in T-patch lizards. Additionally, T increased courtship displays in control food lizards. Lizards with supplemental food had higher circulating T than controls. Collectively, this study shows that the energetic state of the animal plays a critical role in modulating the interactions among T, behavior and immunity in sagebrush lizards and likely other species. PMID:19800885

Ruiz, Mayté; French, Susannah S; Demas, Gregory E; Martins, Emília P

2010-02-01

165

Food supplementation and testosterone interact to influence reproductive behavior and immune function in Sceloporous graciosus  

PubMed Central

The energetic resources in an organism’s environment are essential for executing a wide range of life history functions, including immunity and reproduction. Most energetic budgets, however, are limited, which can lead to trade-offs among competing functions. Increasing reproductive effort tends to decrease immunity in many cases; and increasing total energy via supplemental feedings can eliminate this effect. Testosterone (T), an important regulator of reproduction, and food availability are thus both potential factors regulating life-history processes, yet they are often tested in isolation of each other. In this study, we considered the effect of both food availability and elevated T on immune function and reproductive behavior in sagebrush lizards, Sceloporus graciosus, to assess how T and energy availability affect these trade-offs. We experimentally manipulated diet (via supplemental feedings) and T (via dermal patches) in males from a natural population. We determined innate immune response by calculating the bacterial killing capability of collected plasma exposed to E. coli ex vivo. We measured reproductive behavior by counting the number of courtship displays produced in a 20-min sampling period. We observed an interactive effect of food availability and T-patch on immune function, with food supplementation increasing immunity in T-patch lizards. Additionally, T increased courtship displays in control food lizards. Lizards with supplemental food had higher circulating T than controls. Collectively, this study shows that the energetic state of the animal plays a critical role in modulating the interactions among T, behavior and immunity in sagebrush lizards and likely other species. PMID:19800885

Ruiz, Mayté; French, Susannah S.; Demas, Gregory E.; Martins, Emília P.

2009-01-01

166

Calcium bioavailability of functional foods and discovery of novel bone biomarkers using serum proteomic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is a serious threat to public health. The quantity and quality of dietary calcium intake play important roles in osteoporosis prevention. Functional foods containing active components promoting calcium absorption or high-quality calcium are useful sources to maximize calcium utilization through dietary modification. In the first study, the acute and chronic effects of whey proteins on calcium and bone metabolism

Yongdong Zhao

2005-01-01

167

Promoting functional foods as acceptable alternatives to doping: potential for information-based social marketing approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Substances with performance enhancing properties appear on a continuum, ranging from prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED) through dietary supplements to functional foods (FF). Anti-doping messages designed to dissuade athletes from using PEDs have been typically based on moralising sport competition and\\/or employing scare campaigns with focus on the negative consequences. Campaigns offering comparable and acceptable alternatives are nonexistent, nor

Ricky James; Declan P Naughton; Andrea Petróczi

2010-01-01

168

Functional foods and cardiometabolic diseases* International Task Force for Prevention of Cardiometabolic Diseases.  

PubMed

Mounting evidence supports the hypothesis that functional foods containing physiologically-active components may be healthful. Longitudinal cohort studies have shown that some food classes and dietary patterns are beneficial in primary prevention, and this has led to the identification of putative functional foods. This field, however, is at its very beginning, and additional research is necessary to substantiate the potential health benefit of foods for which the diet-health relationships are not yet scientifically validated. It appears essential, however, that before health claims are made for particular foods, in vivo randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trials of clinical end-points are necessary to establish clinical efficacy. Since there is need for research work aimed at devising personalized diet based on genetic make-up, it seems more than reasonable the latter be modeled, at present, on the Mediterranean diet, given the large body of evidence of its healthful effects. The Mediterranean diet is a nutritional model whose origins go back to the traditional dietadopted in European countries bordering the Mediterranean sea, namely central and southern Italy, Greece and Spain; these populations have a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases than the North American ones, whose diet is characterized by high intake of animal fat. The meeting in Naples and this document both aim to focus on the changes in time in these two different models of dietary habits and their fall out on public health. PMID:25467217

Assmann, G; Buono, P; Daniele, A; Della Valle, E; Farinaro, E; Ferns, G; Krogh, V; Kromhout, D; Masana, L; Merino, J; Misciagna, G; Panico, S; Riccardi, G; Rivellese, A A; Rozza, F; Salvatore, F; Salvatore, V; Stranges, S; Trevisan, M; Trimarco, B; Vetrani, C

2014-12-01

169

Neural responses to visual food cues: insights from functional magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to describe the patterns of functional magnetic resonance imaging activation produced by visual food stimuli in healthy participants, as well as in those with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and obesity. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in the last decade on normal and abnormal eating. This review suggested the existence of neural differences in response to the sight of food between healthy individuals, those with an eating disorder and obese subjects. Differences were identified in two brain circuits: (i) limbic and paralimbic areas associated with salience and reward processes and (ii) prefrontal areas supporting cognitive control processes. PMID:23348964

García-García, I; Narberhaus, A; Marqués-Iturria, I; Garolera, M; R?doi, A; Segura, B; Pueyo, R; Ariza, M; Jurado, M A

2013-03-01

170

Rubus fruticosus L.: constituents, biological activities and health related uses.  

PubMed

Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food. PMID:25072202

Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Moga, Marius

2014-01-01

171

Sub and supercritical fluid extraction of functional ingredients from different natural sources: Plants, food-by-products, algae and microalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing interest of consumers in functional foods has brought about a rise in demand for functional ingredients obtained using “natural” processes. In this review, new environmentally clean technologies for producing natural food ingredients are discussed. This work provides an updated overview on the principal applications of two clean processes, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction, used to isolate

Miguel Herrero; Alejandro Cifuentes; Elena Ibańez

2006-01-01

172

Preventive and Prophylactic Mechanisms of Action of Pomegranate Bioactive Constituents  

PubMed Central

Pomegranate fruit presents strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiobesity, and antitumoral properties, thus leading to an increased popularity as a functional food and nutraceutical source since ancient times. It can be divided into three parts: seeds, peel, and juice, all of which seem to have medicinal benefits. Several studies investigate its bioactive components as a means to associate them with a specific beneficial effect and develop future products and therapeutic applications. Many beneficial effects are related to the presence of ellagic acid, ellagitannins (including punicalagins), punicic acid and other fatty acids, flavonoids, anthocyanidins, anthocyanins, estrogenic flavonols, and flavones, which seem to be its most therapeutically beneficial components. However, the synergistic action of the pomegranate constituents appears to be superior when compared to individual constituents. Promising results have been obtained for the treatment of certain diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, intestinal inflammation, and cancer. Although moderate consumption of pomegranate does not result in adverse effects, future studies are needed to assess safety and potential interactions with drugs that may alter the bioavailability of bioactive constituents of pomegranate as well as drugs. The aim of this review is to summarize the health effects and mechanisms of action of pomegranate extracts in chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:23737845

Viladomiu, Monica; Hontecillas, Raquel; Lu, Pinyi; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

2013-01-01

173

Preventive and prophylactic mechanisms of action of pomegranate bioactive constituents.  

PubMed

Pomegranate fruit presents strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiobesity, and antitumoral properties, thus leading to an increased popularity as a functional food and nutraceutical source since ancient times. It can be divided into three parts: seeds, peel, and juice, all of which seem to have medicinal benefits. Several studies investigate its bioactive components as a means to associate them with a specific beneficial effect and develop future products and therapeutic applications. Many beneficial effects are related to the presence of ellagic acid, ellagitannins (including punicalagins), punicic acid and other fatty acids, flavonoids, anthocyanidins, anthocyanins, estrogenic flavonols, and flavones, which seem to be its most therapeutically beneficial components. However, the synergistic action of the pomegranate constituents appears to be superior when compared to individual constituents. Promising results have been obtained for the treatment of certain diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, intestinal inflammation, and cancer. Although moderate consumption of pomegranate does not result in adverse effects, future studies are needed to assess safety and potential interactions with drugs that may alter the bioavailability of bioactive constituents of pomegranate as well as drugs. The aim of this review is to summarize the health effects and mechanisms of action of pomegranate extracts in chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:23737845

Viladomiu, Monica; Hontecillas, Raquel; Lu, Pinyi; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

2013-01-01

174

Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases  

PubMed Central

The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:21747748

Lordan, Sinéad; Ross, R. Paul; Stanton, Catherine

2011-01-01

175

Evaluation of soy hulls as a potential ingredient of functional foods for the prevention of obesity.  

PubMed

The prevalence of obesity and its associated health problems is rising to epidemic proportions throughout the world. Soy hulls, an industrial waste from oil extraction, contain a high proportion of fiber--soluble and insoluble--and may be a potential ingredient of functional foods for the prevention of obesity. However, crude soybeans, as do all legumes, present challenges to their use because of intensive antitrypsin and antichimotrypsin activity that impairs normal growth in humans and other mammals, requiring inactivation. To evaluate possible antinutritional effects of soybean hulls, diets with 10 percent fiber from soybean hulls or cellulose were offered to weanling IIMb/Beta obese rats during their prepubertal timeframe. The fact that no significant differences were found in growth, blood parameters nor in fat depots' weight and lipid content plus the proven beneficial effects on obese adult rats suggest that soy hulls may be a useful ingredient of functional foods for the prevention and treatment of human obesity. PMID:21883083

Olguin, María Catalina; Posadas, Marta Delia; Revelant, Gilda Celina; Labourdette, Verónica Beatriz; Elías, Héctor Daniel; Venezia, María Rosa

2010-01-01

176

Phytate-degrading Pediococcus pentosaceus CFR R123 for application in functional foods.  

PubMed

The present work looks at the role of phytate-degrading Pediococcus pentosaceus CFR R123 application in functional foods to evaluate the fate of phytate and calcium solubility during fermentation. Under standard conditions, CFR R123 grown in modified MRS containing sodium phytate CFR R123 showed 43% degradation of sodium phytate in 15 minutes. Fermentation of malted finger millet seed coat (MFSC) and soya milk (SM) with CFR R123 for 12 h resulted in 5.6-12% phytate degradation and a notable increase in calcium availability (125%) was observed. The isolate CFR R123 was found to decrease the phytic acid levels resulting in increased levels of calcium during MFSC and soya milk fermentation. This study introduces phytate-degrading P. pentosaceus CFR R123 that can be employed as a starter culture as well as an ingredient of functional food to provide nutritive benefits to the consumer with a natural phenomenon. PMID:21831790

Raghavendra, P; Ushakumari, S R; Halami, P M

2011-03-01

177

Evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials for space agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been studying the useful life-support system in closed bio-ecosystem for space agriculture. We have already proposed the several species as food material, such as Nostoc sp. HK-01 and Prunnus sp., cyanobacterium and Japanese cherry tree, respectively. The cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp Hk-01, has high tolerances to several space environment. Furthermore, the woody plant materials have useful utilization elements in our habitation environment. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. We have already found that they can produce the important functional substances for human. Here, we will show the evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials under the possible conditions for space agriculture after cooking.

Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Ajioka, Reiko

178

Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods  

PubMed Central

A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases. PMID:25114554

Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Ishihara, Kohji

2012-01-01

179

Support of drug therapy using functional foods and dietary supplements: focus on statin therapy.  

PubMed

Functional foods and dietary supplements might have a role in supporting drug therapy. These products may (1) have an additive effect to the effect that a drug has in reducing risk factors associated with certain conditions, (2) contribute to improve risk factors associated with the condition, other than the risk factor that the drug is dealing with, or (3) reduce drug-associated side effects, for example, by restoring depleted compounds or by reducing the necessary dose of the drug. Possible advantages compared with a multidrug therapy are lower drug costs, fewer side effects and increased adherence. In the present review we have focused on the support of statin therapy using functional foods or dietary supplements containing plant sterols and/or stanols, soluble dietary fibre, n-3 PUFA or coenzyme Q10. We conclude that there is substantial evidence that adding plant sterols and/or stanols to statin therapy further reduces total and LDL-cholesterol by roughly 6 and 10 %, respectively. Adding n-3 PUFA to statin therapy leads to a significant reduction in plasma TAG of at least 15 %. Data are insufficient and not conclusive to recommend the use of soluble fibre or coenzyme Q10 in patients on statin therapy and more randomised controlled trials towards these combinations are warranted. Aside from the possible beneficial effects from functional foods or dietary supplements on drug therapy, it is important to examine possible (negative) effects from the combination in the long term, for example, in post-marketing surveillance studies. Moreover, it is important to monitor whether the functional foods and dietary supplements are taken in the recommended amounts to induce significant effects. PMID:20196891

Eussen, Simone; Klungel, Olaf; Garssen, Johan; Verhagen, Hans; van Kranen, Henk; van Loveren, Henk; Rompelberg, Cathy

2010-05-01

180

Bottom-up effects of species diversity on the functioning and stability of food webs.  

PubMed

1. The importance of species diversity for the stability of populations, communities and ecosystem functions is a central question in ecology. 2. Biodiversity experiments have shown that diversity can impact both the average and variability of stocks and rates at these levels of ecological organization in single trophic-level ecosystems. Whether these impacts hold in food webs and across trophic levels is still unclear. 3. We asked whether resource species diversity, community composition and consumer feeding selectivity in planktonic food webs impact the stability of resource or consumer populations, community biomass and ecosystem functions. We also tested the relative importance of resource diversity and community composition. 4. We found that resource diversity negatively affected resource population stability, but had no effect on consumer population stability, regardless of the consumer's feeding selectivity. Resource diversity had positive effects on most ecosystem functions and their stability, including primary production, resource biomass and particulate carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. 5. Community composition, however, generally explained more variance in population, community and ecosystem properties than species diversity per se. This result points to the importance of the outcomes of particular species interactions and individual species' effect traits in determining food web properties and stability. 6. Among the stabilizing mechanisms tested, an increase in the average resource community biomass with increasing resource diversity had the greatest positive impact on stability. 7. Our results indicate that resource diversity and composition are generally important for the functioning and stability of whole food webs, but do not have straightforward impacts on consumer populations. PMID:22325003

Narwani, Anita; Mazumder, Asit

2012-05-01

181

Food Packaging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how food packages are designed and made, including the three main functions. The packaging design and materials must keep food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in food, and identify a food appealingly. Then, in the associated activity, students act as if they are packaging engineers by designing and creating their own food packages for particular food types.

2014-09-18

182

Liking of health-functional foods containing lupin kernel fibre following repeated consumption in a dietary intervention setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liking of a particular food after repeated consumption may be reduced, limiting the effectiveness of health-functional foods requiring on-going consumption to deliver their benefits. This study examined the effect of repeated consumption of foods containing the novel ingredient, Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKFibre) on sensory acceptability in the dietary intervention setting. In a single-blind randomised crossover 4-week

Ramon S. Hall; Amynta L. Baxter; Cathy Fryirs; Stuart K. Johnson

2010-01-01

183

Sex and Cultural Differences in the Acceptance of Functional Foods: A Comparison of American, Canadian, and French College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Functional foods (FF)—foods containing nutritional supplements in addition to natural nutrients—have an increasing presence in the marketplace. Expanding on previous research, the authors investigated college students' acceptance of FF. Participants: In September-March 2004, 811 undergraduates in Canada, the United States, and France participated in the study. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire measured students' general food attitudes and beliefs as well as

Jane Kolodinsky; JoAnne Labrecque; Maurice Doyon; Travis Reynolds; Frédéric Oble; François Bellavance; Marie Marquis

2008-01-01

184

Child and Parent Perceived Food-Induced Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Quality of Life in Children with Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders  

PubMed Central

It is unknown whether children with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) identify specific foods that exacerbate their gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. The objectives of this study were to determine the perceived role of food on GI symptoms and to determine the impact of food-induced symptoms on quality of life (QOL) in children with FGIDs. Between August and November 2010, 25 children ages 11–17 years old with FGIDs and a parent completed a food symptom association questionnaire and validated questionnaires assessing FGID symptoms and QOL. In addition, children completed a 24-hour food recall, participated in focus groups to identify problematic foods and any coping strategies, and discussed how their QOL was affected. Statistical analyses were conducted using chi-squared, t-testing, Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon signed-rank, and Spearman’s rho. Children identified a median of 11 (range 2–25) foods as exacerbating a GI symptom, with the most commonly identified foods being spicy foods, cow’s milk, and pizza. Several coping strategies were identified including consuming smaller portions, modifying foods, and avoiding a median of 8 (range 1–20) foods. Children reported that food-induced symptoms interfered with school performance, sports, and social activities. Although the parent’s assessment of their child’s QOL negatively correlated with the number of perceived symptom-inducing foods in their child, this relationship was not found in the children. Findings suggest that specific foods are perceived to exacerbate GI symptoms in children with FGIDs. Moreover, despite use of several coping strategies, food-induced symptoms may adversely impact children’s QOL in several important areas. PMID:24360501

Carlson, Michelle J.; Moore, Carolyn E.; Tsai, Cynthia M.; Shulman, Robert J.; Chumpitazi, Bruno P.

2014-01-01

185

Functional Screening of Antibiotic Resistance Genes from a Representative Metagenomic Library of Food Fermenting Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) represent the predominant microbiota in fermented foods. Foodborne LAB have received increasing attention as potential reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR) determinants, which may be horizontally transferred to opportunistic pathogens. We have previously reported isolation of AR LAB from the raw ingredients of a fermented cheese, while AR genes could be detected in the final, marketed product only by PCR amplification, thus pointing at the need for more sensitive microbial isolation techniques. We turned therefore to construction of a metagenomic library containing microbial DNA extracted directly from the food matrix. To maximize yield and purity and to ensure that genomic complexity of the library was representative of the original bacterial population, we defined a suitable protocol for total DNA extraction from cheese which can also be applied to other lipid-rich foods. Functional library screening on different antibiotics allowed recovery of ampicillin and kanamycin resistant clones originating from Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus genomes. We report molecular characterization of the cloned inserts, which were fully sequenced and shown to confer AR phenotype to recipient bacteria. We also show that metagenomics can be applied to food microbiota to identify underrepresented species carrying specific genes of interest. PMID:25243126

Devirgiliis, Chiara; Barile, Simona; Perozzi, Giuditta

2014-01-01

186

Biocatalysis for the production of industrial products and functional foods from rice and other agricultural produce.  

PubMed

Many industrial products and functional foods can be obtained from cheap and renewable raw agricultural materials. For example, starch can be converted to bioethanol as biofuel to reduce the current demand for petroleum or fossil fuel energy. On the other hand, starch can also be converted to useful functional ingredients, such as high fructose and high maltose syrups, wine, glucose, and trehalose. The conversion process involves fermentation by microorganisms and use of biocatalysts such as hydrolases of the amylase superfamily. Amylases catalyze the process of liquefaction and saccharification of starch. It is possible to perform complete hydrolysis of starch by using the fusion product of both linear and debranching thermostable enzymes. This will result in saving energy otherwise needed for cooling before the next enzyme can act on the substrate, if a sequential process is utilized. Recombinant enzyme technology, protein engineering, and enzyme immobilization are powerful tools available to enhance the activity of enzymes, lower the cost of enzyme through large scale production in a heterologous host, increase their thermostability, improve pH stability, enhance their productivity, and hence making it competitive with the chemical processes involved in starch hydrolysis and conversions. This review emphasizes the potential of using biocatalysis for the production of useful industrial products and functional foods from cheap agricultural produce and transgenic plants. Rice was selected as a typical example to illustrate many applications of biocatalysis in converting low-value agricultural produce to high-value commercial food and industrial products. The greatest advantages of using enzymes for food processing and for industrial production of biobased products are their environmental friendliness and consumer acceptance as being a natural process. PMID:18942836

Akoh, Casimir C; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Shaw, Jei-Fu

2008-11-26

187

Functional foods and nutraceuticals in a market of bolivian immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina).  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas ("health-food stores"), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas. PMID:22203866

Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M; Ulibarri, Emilio A; Hurrell, Julio A

2012-01-01

188

Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in a Market of Bolivian Immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina)  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas (“health-food stores”), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas. PMID:22203866

Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P.; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M.; Ulibarri, Emilio A.; Hurrell, Julio A.

2012-01-01

189

Can Suillus granulatus (L.) Roussel be classified as a functional food?  

PubMed

The present work outlines a detailed chemical characterization of Suillus granulatus species, besides presenting the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of their methanolic extracts. The study was carried out with samples drawn from Portugal and Serbia in order to prove that though mushrooms are strongly influenced by the environment in which they develop, they have a specific chemical profile that can be typical of their genus/species. The studied species proved to be healthy foods, low in fat and rich in protein and carbohydrates, with mannitol and trehalose being the main free sugars detected. They also proved to be a source of organic and phenolic acids, as well as mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids and tocopherols. The Serbian samples revealed higher antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Accordingly, we find that the S. granulatus species can be considered to be a functional food, since it is a source of nutraceutical and biologically active compounds. PMID:25231126

Reis, Filipa S; Stojkovi?, Dejan; Barros, Lillian; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; ?iri?, Ana; Sokovi?, Marina; Martins, Anabela; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2014-11-01

190

Difructose Dianhydrides (DFAs) and DFA-Enriched Products as Functional Foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review provides an overview of the current status of the chemistry and biology of di-d-fructose dianhydrides (DFAs) with a focus on their potential as functional foods. The history of this family of cyclic ketodisaccharides has expanded for almost 100 years and offers a paradigmatic example of artificial synthetic molecules that were identified as natural products later on and finally encountered in our own table. Issued from fundamental investigations on the reactivity of carbohydrates in strongly acidic media, DFAs remained laboratory curiosities for decades. Early reports on their isolation from plants raised doubts, until the formation of some DFA representatives by the action of microorganisms on fructans was reported in the middle 1980s. Since then, research on DFAs has run in parallel in the areas of microbiology and carbohydrate chemistry. Evidence of the potential of these compounds as functional food was accumulated from both sides, with the development of biotechnological processes for mass production of selected candidates and of chemical methodologies to prepare DFA-enriched products from sucrose or inulin. In 1994 a decisive discovery in the field took place in the laboratory of Jacques Defaye in Grenoble, France: the presence of DFAs in a commercial sucrose caramel was evidenced in a quite significant 18% mass proportion! The development of an efficient analytical protocol for DFAs and the stereoselective synthesis of individual standards allowed one to demonstrate that DFAs and their glycosylated derivatives (glycosyl-DFAs) are universally formed during caramelization reactions. They are not potential food products; they have actually always been in our daily food. Most important, they seem to exert beneficial effects: they are acariogenic, low-caloric, and promote the growth of beneficial microflora in the gut.

Mellet, Carmen Ortiz; Fernández, José M. García

191

A Study of Customer Service, Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality in the Logistics Function of the UK Food Processing Industry   

E-print Network

The aim of this thesis is to test the importance and sufficiency of existing constructs of customer service, customer satisfaction and service quality in the logistics function of the UK food processing industry. These ...

Grant, David Bruce

192

Stable Binding of Alternative Protein-enriched Food Matrices with Concentrated Cranberry Bioflavonoids for Functional Food Applications  

PubMed Central

Defatted soy flour (DSF), soy protein isolate (SPI), hemp protein isolate (HPI), medium roast peanut flour (MPF) and pea protein isolate (PPI) stably bind and concentrate cranberry (CB) polyphenols, creating protein/polyphenol-enriched matrices. Proanthocyanidins (PAC) in the enriched matrices ranged from 20.75 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 10.68 mg/g (CB-SPI). Anthocyanins (ANC) ranged from 3.19 mg/g (CB-DSF) to 1.68 mg/g (CB-SPI), while total phenolics (TP) ranged from 37.61 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 21.29 mg/g (CB-SPI). LC-MS indicated that the enriched matrices contained all identifiable ANC, PAC and flavonols present in CB juice. Complexation with SPI stabilized and preserved the integrity of the CB polyphenolic components for at least 15 weeks at 37 °C. PAC isolated from enriched matrices demonstrated comparable anti-adhesion bioactivity to PAC isolated directly from CB juice (MIC 0.4 to 0.16 mg/mL), indicating their potential utility for maintenance of urinary tract health. Approximately 1.0 g of polyphenol-enriched matrix delivered the same amount of PAC available in one cup (300 mL) of commercial CB juice cocktail; which has been shown clinically to be the prophylactic dose for reducing recurring urinary tract infections. CB-SPI inhibited gram- positive and gram-negative bacterial growth. Nutritional and sensory analyses indicated that the targeted CB-matrix combinations have high potential for incorporation in functional food formulations. PMID:23786629

Grace, Mary H.; Guzman, Ivette; Roopchand, Diana E.; Moskal, Kristin; Cheng, Diana M.; Pogrebnyak, Natasha; Raskin, Ilya; Howell, Amy; Lila, Mary Ann

2013-01-01

193

Stable binding of alternative protein-enriched food matrices with concentrated cranberry bioflavonoids for functional food applications.  

PubMed

Defatted soy flour (DSF), soy protein isolate (SPI), hemp protein isolate (HPI), medium-roast peanut flour (MPF), and pea protein isolate (PPI) stably bind and concentrate cranberry (CB) polyphenols, creating protein/polyphenol-enriched matrices. Proanthocyanidins (PAC) in the enriched matrices ranged from 20.75 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 10.68 mg/g (CB-SPI). Anthocyanins (ANC) ranged from 3.19 mg/g (CB-DSF) to 1.68 mg/g (CB-SPI), whereas total phenolics (TP) ranged from 37.61 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 21.29 mg/g (CB-SPI). LC-MS indicated that the enriched matrices contained all identifiable ANC, PAC, and flavonols present in CB juice. Complexation with SPI stabilized and preserved the integrity of the CB polyphenolic components for at least 15 weeks at 37 °C. PAC isolated from enriched matrices demonstrated comparable antiadhesion bioactivity to PAC isolated directly from CB juice (MIC 0.4-0.16 mg/mL), indicating their potential utility for maintenance of urinary tract health. Approximately 1.0 g of polyphenol-enriched matrix delivered the same amount of PAC available in 1 cup (300 mL) of commercial CB juice cocktail, which has been shown clinically to be the prophylactic dose for reducing recurring urinary tract infections. CB-SPI inhibited Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial growth. Nutritional and sensory analyses indicated that the targeted CB-matrix combinations have high potential for incorporation in functional food formulations. PMID:23786629

Grace, Mary H; Guzman, Ivette; Roopchand, Diana E; Moskal, Kristin; Cheng, Diana M; Pogrebnyak, Natasha; Raskin, Ilya; Howell, Amy; Lila, Mary Ann

2013-07-17

194

Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix G: Ground support system analysis. Appendix H: Galley functional details analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capabilities for preflight feeding of flight personnel and the supply and control of the space shuttle flight food system were investigated to determine ground support requirements; and the functional details of an onboard food system galley are shown in photographic mockups. The elements which were identified as necessary to the efficient accomplishment of ground support functions include the following: (1) administration; (2) dietetics; (3) analytical laboratories; (4) flight food warehouse; (5) stowage module assembly area; (6) launch site module storage area; (7) alert crew restaurant and disperse crew galleys; (8) ground food warehouse; (9) manufacturing facilities; (10) transport; and (11) computer support. Each element is discussed according to the design criteria of minimum cost, maximum flexibility, reliability, and efficiency consistent with space shuttle requirements. The galley mockup overview illustrates the initial operation configuration, food stowage locations, meal assembly and serving trays, meal preparation configuration, serving, trash management, and the logistics of handling and cleanup equipment.

1974-01-01

195

Composition and functional properties of unprocessed and locally processed seeds from three underutilized food sources in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and functional properties of unprocessed (raw) and locally processed seeds ofBrachystegia eurycoma, Detarium microcarpum andMucuna sloanei that affect their utilization as sources of human food were investigated. The seeds, which are underutilized food sources\\u000a in Nigeria, were subjected to local processing methods which included roasting, boiling, dehulling\\/shelling, soaking and the\\u000a changes in composition and functional properties were estimated. Chemical

S. Y. Giami; O. C. Wachuku

1997-01-01

196

Intake_epis_food(): An R Function for Fitting a Bivariate Nonlinear Measurement Error Model to Estimate Usual and Energy Intake for Episodically Consumed Foods.  

PubMed

We consider a Bayesian analysis using WinBUGS to estimate the distribution of usual intake for episodically consumed foods and energy (calories). The model uses measures of nutrition and energy intakes via a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) along with repeated 24 hour recalls and adjusting covariates. In order to estimate the usual intake of the food, we phrase usual intake in terms of person-specific random effects, along with day-to-day variability in food and energy consumption. Three levels are incorporated in the model. The first level incorporates information about whether an individual in fact reported consumption of a particular food item. The second level incorporates the amount of intake from those individuals who reported consumption of the food, and the third level incorporates the energy intake. Estimates of posterior means of parameters and distributions of usual intakes are obtained by using Markov chain Monte Carlo calculations. This R function reports to users point estimates and credible intervals for parameters in the model, samples from their posterior distribution, samples from the distribution of usual intake and usual energy intake, trace plots of parameters and summary statistics of usual intake, usual energy intake and energy adjusted usual intake. PMID:22837731

Pérez, Adriana; Zhang, Saijuan; Kipnis, Victor; Midthune, Douglas; Freedman, Laurence S; Carroll, Raymond J

2012-03-01

197

Combined impacts of global warming and pollution: impacts on food web structure and ecosystem function.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of global species loss on ecosystem function have traditionally been extrapolated from studies which investigate the effect of random species loss or addition. Real species loss is highly patterned and clumped according to trophic position, taxonomic relatedness and interconnectedness with the remainder of the food web. Using pond microcosms, I evoked a realistic pattern of species loss using toxins and warming. Species loss was predictably highly patterned. Influences on ecosystem functions ranged from simple and linear in the case of algal productivity, through to complex and step-like in the case of bacterial decomposition. Impacts on algal productivity were mediated by effects on the rate of grazing by invertebrates. There is strong evidence from the bacterial decomposition results of an `insurance effect' whereby the presence of multiple stressors has a strong, non-additive effect on function. These results clearly show that the traditional ecotoxicological practice of studying effects of single toxins on single species may be highly misleading.

Thompson, R. M.

2005-05-01

198

Abnormal intragastric distribution of food during gastric emptying in functional dyspepsia patients.  

PubMed Central

Although delayed gastric emptying is found in some patients with functional dyspepsia, there seems to be little relation between rate of emptying and symptoms. This study examined the hypothesis that food maldistribution rather than gastric stasis may equate to symptoms in such patients and used scintigraphic techniques to quantify the partition of gastric contents between proximal and distal stomach during gastric emptying. Eleven patients with functional dyspepsia characterised by chronic severe postprandial bloating without organic abnormality, and 12 healthy volunteers, ingested a standard meal labelled with technetium-99M (99mTc). Serial images of the gastric area in anterior and posterior projections were taken for 90 minutes, regions of interest for proximal, distal, and total stomach were defined, and activity time curves were derived from the geometric means of anterior and posterior counts. Total emptying in patients (median: 46 minutes; range: 30-76) was not significantly different from controls (45 minutes; 28-58) and only three showed delayed gastric emptying. In controls, food remained predominantly in the proximal half of the stomach after ingestion and then redistributed to the distal half. In the patients, however, initial activity in the proximal half after ingestion (48%; 40-65) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in controls (60%; 39-73) and distributed more fully to the distal half of the stomach with a peak distal activity (56%; 34-58), which was consistently higher than in controls (36%; 33-42) (p < 0.05). It is concluded that this subgroup of functional dyspepsia patients show abnormal intragastric distribution of food, independent of gastric emptying rate. Images Figure 1 PMID:8150341

Troncon, L E; Bennett, R J; Ahluwalia, N K; Thompson, D G

1994-01-01

199

Merging traditional Chinese medicine with modern drug discovery technologies to find novel drugs and functional foods.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) are rapidly gaining attention in the West as sources of new drugs, dietary supplements and functional foods. However, lack of consistent manufacturing practices and quality standards, fear of adulteration, and perceived deficiencies in scientific validation of efficacy and safety impede worldwide acceptance of TCM. In addition, Western pharmaceutical industries and regulatory agencies are partial toward single ingredient drugs based on synthetic molecules, and skeptical of natural product mixtures. This review concentrates on three examples of TCM-derived pharmaceuticals and functional foods that have, despite these usual obstacles, risen to wide acceptance in the West based on their remarkable performance in recent scientific investigations. They are: Sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua), the source of artemisinin, which is the currently preferred single compound anti-malarial drug widely used in combination therapies and recently approved by US FDA; Thunder god vine (Tripterygium wilfordii) which is being developed as a botanical drug for rheumatoid arthritis; and green tea (Camellia sinensis) which is used as a functional beverage and a component of dietary supplements. PMID:20156139

Graziose, Rocky; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

2010-03-01

200

Engineering functional nanothin multilayers on food packaging: ice-nucleating polyethylene films.  

PubMed

Polyethylene is the most prevalent plastic and is commonly used as a packaging material. Despite its common use, there are not many studies on imparting functionalities to those films which can make them more desirable for frozen food packaging. Here, commercial low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films were oxidized by UV-ozone (UVO) treatment to obtain a negatively charged hydrophilic surface to allow fabrication of functional multilayers. An increase in hydrophilicity was observed when films were exposed to UVO for 4 min and longer. Thin multilayers were formed by dipping the UVO-treated films into biopolymer solutions, and extracellular ice nucleators (ECINs) were immobilized onto the film surface to form a functional top layer. Polyelectrolyte adsorption was studied and confirmed on silicon wafers by measuring the water contact angles of the layers and investigating the surface morphology via atomic force microscopy. An up to 4-5 °C increase in ice nucleation temperatures and an up to 10 min decrease in freezing times were observed with high-purity deionized water samples frozen in ECIN-coated LDPE films. Films retained their ice nucleation activity up to 50 freeze-thaw cycles. Our results demonstrate the potential of using ECIN-coated polymer films for frozen food application. PMID:23611300

Gezgin, Zafer; Lee, Tung-Ching; Huang, Qingrong

2013-05-29

201

Potential herbs and herbal nutraceuticals: food applications and their interactions with food components.  

PubMed

Since ancient times, herbs have been used as natural remedies for curing many physiological disorders. Traditional medicinal literature appreciated their value as nature's gift to mankind for the healing of illnesses. Some of the herbs have also been used for culinary purposes, and few of them have been used in cheese manufacture both as coagulating agents and flavor ingredients. Scientific investigations regarding biological activity and toxicity of chemical moieties present in many herbs have been carried out over a period of time. Consequently, literature related to the use of herbs or their functional ingredients in foods and their interaction with food constituents has been appearing in recent times. This article presents the information regarding some biologically active constituents occurring in commonly used herbs, viz., alkaloids, anthraquinones, bitters, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and essential oils, their physiological functionalities, and also the description of few herbs of importance, viz., Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Bacopa monniera, Pueraria tuberose, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia arjuna, and Aloe vera, in terms of their chemical composition, biological functionality, and toxicity. This article also reviews the use of herbs and their active ingredients in foods and their interactions with different food constituents. PMID:24915396

Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Panjagari, Narender Raju; Singh, R R B; Patil, G R

2015-01-01

202

Recent advances in food biopeptides: production, biological functionalities and therapeutic applications.  

PubMed

The growing momentum of several common life-style diseases such as myocardial infarction, cardiovascular disorders, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, and atherosclerosis has become a serious global concern. Recent developments in the field of proteomics offering promising solutions to solving such health problems stimulates the uses of biopeptides as one of the therapeutic agents to alleviate disease-related risk factors. Functional peptides are typically produced from protein via enzymatic hydrolysis under in vitro or in vivo conditions using different kinds of proteolytic enzymes. An array of biological activities, including antioxidative, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and immunomodulating has been ascribed to different types of biopeptides derived from various food sources. In fact, biopeptides are nutritionally and functionally important for regulating some physiological functions in the body; however, these are yet to be extensively addressed with regard to their production through advance strategies, mechanisms of action and multiple biological functionalities. This review mainly focuses on recent biotechnological advances that are being made in the field of production in addition to covering the mode of action and biological activities, medicinal health functions and therapeutic applications of biopeptides. State-of-the-art strategies that can ameliorate the efficacy, bioavailability, and functionality of biopeptides along with their future prospects are likewise discussed. PMID:25499177

Saadi, Sami; Saari, Nazamid; Anwar, Farooq; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Mohd Ghazali, Hasanah

2015-01-01

203

Chemical constituents of Asparagus  

PubMed Central

Asparagus species (family Liliaceae) are medicinal plants of temperate Himalayas. They possess a variety of biological properties, such as being antioxidants, immunostimulants, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antioxytocic, and reproductive agents. The article briefly reviews the isolated chemical constituents and the biological activities of the plant species. The structural formula of isolated compounds and their distribution in the species studied are also given. PMID:22228964

Negi, J. S.; Singh, P.; Joshi, G. P.; Rawat, M. S.; Bisht, V. K.

2010-01-01

204

Conjugated linoleic acids as functional food: an insight into their health benefits  

PubMed Central

This review evaluates the health benefits of the functional food, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) - a heterogeneous group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid predominantly found in milk, milk products, meat and meat products of ruminants. During the past couple of decades, hundreds of reports - principally based on in vitro, microbial, animal, and of late clinical trials on humans - have been accumulating with varying biological activities of CLA isomers. These studies highlight that CLA, apart form the classical nuclear transcription factors-mediated mechanism of action, appear to exhibit a number of inter-dependent molecular signalling pathways accounting for their reported health benefits. Such benefits relate to anti-obesitic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetagenic, immunomodulatory, apoptotic and osteosynthetic effects. On the other hand, negative effects of CLA have been reported such as fatty liver and spleen, induction of colon carcinogenesis and hyperproinsulinaemia. As far as human consumption is concerned, a definite conclusion for CLA safety has not been reached yet. Parameters such as administration of the type of CLA isomer and/or their combination with other polyunsaturated fatty acids, mode of administration (eg., as free fatty acid or its triglyceride form, liquid or solid), daily dose and duration of consumption, gender, age, or ethnic and geographical backgrounds remain to be determined. Yet, it appears from trials so far conducted that CLA are functional food having prevailing beneficial health effects for humans. PMID:19761624

Benjamin, Sailas; Spener, Friedrich

2009-01-01

205

Role of Bioactive Food Components in Diabetes Prevention: Effects on Beta-Cell Function and Preservation  

PubMed Central

Bioactive compounds found in fruits and vegetables can have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic effects and can be protective against various diseases and metabolic disorders. These beneficial effects make them good candidates for the development of new functional foods with potential protective and preventive properties for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the most relevant results concerning the effects of various bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, vitamins, and carotenoids on several aspects of beta-cell functionality. Studies using animal models with induced diabetes and diabetic patients support the hypothesis that bioactive compounds could ameliorate diabetic phenotypes. Published data suggest that there might be direct effects of bioactive compounds on enhancing insulin secretion and preventing beta-cell apoptosis, and some compounds might modulate beta-cell proliferation. Further research is needed to establish any clinical effects of these compounds. PMID:25092987

Oh, Yoon Sin; Jun, Hee-Sook

2014-01-01

206

Programme on the recyclability of food-packaging materials with respect to food safety considerations: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), paper and board, and plastics covered by functional barriers.  

PubMed

Stimulated by new ecology-driven European and national regulations, news routes of recycling waste appear on the market. Since food packages represent a large percentage of the plastics consumption and since they have a short lifetime, an important approach consists in making new packages from post-consumer used packages. On the other hand, food-packaging regulations in Europe require that packaging materials must be safe. Therefore, potential mass transfer (migration) of harmful recycling-related substances to the food must be excluded and test methods to ensure the safety-in-use of recycled materials for food packaging are needled. As a consequence of this situation, a European research project FAIR-CT98-4318, with the acronym 'Recyclability', was initiated. The project consists of three sections each focusing on a different class of recycled materials: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), paper and board, and plastics covered by functional barriers. The project consortium consists of 28 project members from 11 EU countries. In addition, the project is during its lifetime in discussion with the US Food and Drug Administrations (FDA) to consider also US FDA regulatory viewpoints and to aim, as a consequence, to harmonizable conclusions and recommendations. The paper introduces the project and presents an overview of the project work progress. PMID:11962719

Franz, R

2002-01-01

207

Delivery of Functionality in Complex Food Systems: Physically Inspired Approaches from Nanoscale to Microscale, Wageningen 18-21 October 2009.  

PubMed

The Wageningen Delivery of Functionality symposium covered all aspects involved with food structural design to arrive at high-quality foods which meet demanding customer expectations and regulatory requirements. The symposium integrated aspects from the structural organization of foods at molecular and supramolecular scales to dedicated techniques required to describe and visualize such structures, the gastro-intestinal events and how to model these in a laboratory setting, and finally the impact those food structures and ingredients have on the consumer's physiology and on the human perception. As an interdisciplinary platform, bringing together more than 160 researchers from academia and industry, the symposium meanwhile fulfills an important role in the food science community. PMID:21125000

van der Linden, Erik; Ubbink, Job; Duchateau, Guus

2010-12-01

208

Determination of Constituent Composition of Hemoglobin and Structural/Morphological Parameters of Skin Based on Approximating Functions for Radiation Fluxes Backscattered from Skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained an analytical expression approximating the dependence of the backscatter signals, detected outside the region where the skin is irradiated, on the optical and structural parameters of the skin. A method is proposed for fast determination of the optical and structural/morphological parameters of skin and also the constituent composition of hemoglobin (including oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, and sulfhemoglobin), based on measurements of the spatially resolved spectral backscatter signals and their analytical dependence on the unknown parameters. Based on numerical modeling results for the backscatter signal, we studied the effectiveness of the proposed method and have shown that it is possible to improve the diagnostic power as a result of simultaneous processing of the spectral and spatial characteristics of backscatter from skin.

Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.

2014-07-01

209

Reporting the social indicators to the functional unit for food product. Theoretical contribution regarding the collection of  

E-print Network

provided about the impacts to be related to the functional unit. This property means that- up to a pointReporting the social indicators to the functional unit for food product. Theoretical contribution build another representation. The values of the social indicators may be related proportionally

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

210

How Tactile and Function Information Affect Young Children's Ability to Understand the Nature of Food-Appearing, Deceptive Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool children's (N = 64) ability to use tactile information and function cues on less-realistic and more-realistic food-appearing, deceptive objects was examined before and after training on the function of deceptive objects. They also responded to appearance and reality questions about deceptive objects. Half of the children (F-S:…

Krause, Christina Miles

2008-01-01

211

An overview of the functional food market: from marketing issues and commercial players to future demand from life in space.  

PubMed

Companies in the food industry have high expectations for food products that meet the consumers' demand for a healthy life style. In this context Functional Food plays a specific role. These foods are not intended only to satisfy hunger and provide the necessary human nutrients, but also to prevent nutrition-related diseases and increase the physical and mental well-being of their consumer. Among participants in space science and missions, recognition of nutraceuticals and dietary supplements is growing for their potential in reducing health risks and to improve health quality and eating habits during long-term flights and missions. In 2008 the entire functional foods market was worth over an estimated US $80 billion, with the US holding a majority share in the nutraceuticals market (35%) followed byJapan (25%) and with the ever-growing European market, currently estimated at US$8 billion. India and China are the two major countries known for their production of traditional functional food products and nutraceuticals, but other South-East Asian countries and Gulf nations are developing potential markets. PMID:21520721

Vergari, Francesca; Tibuzzi, Arianna; Basile, Giovanni

2010-01-01

212

Evaluation of coriander spice as a functional food by using in vitro bioassays.  

PubMed

Coriander leaves and seeds are widely used as a condiment and spice. The use of roasted coriander seeds in food and beverage is very common. In this study, we investigated raw and roasted coriander seeds for their functional food quality using antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and human tumour cell proliferation inhibitory assays. The hexane and methanolic extracts of raw and roasted coriander seeds showed identical chromatographic and bioassay profiles. Chromatographic purification of the roasted seed extracts afforded tripetroselinin as the predominant component. Other isolates were petroselinic acid, 1,3-dipetroselinin, 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol, 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-O-?-d-glucopyranoside and linalool. Hexane and methanolic extracts of both raw and roasted seeds and pure isolates from them showed comparable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities to the positive controls used in the assays, and inhibited the growth of human tumour cells AGS (gastric carcinoma), DU-145 and LNCaP (prostate carcinoma), HCT-116 (colon carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma) and NCI-H460 (lung carcinoma) by 4-34%, respectively. PMID:25148954

Zhang, Chuan-Rui; Dissanayake, Amila A; Kevsero?lu, Kudret; Nair, Muraleedharan G

2015-01-15

213

High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods—A Review  

PubMed Central

Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bęche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:22072996

Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

2011-01-01

214

Heart health peptides from macroalgae and their potential use in functional foods.  

PubMed

Macroalgae have for centuries been consumed whole among the East Asian populations of China, Korea, and Japan. Due to the environment in which they grow, macroalgae produce unique and interesting biologically active compounds. Protein can account for up to 47% of the dry weight of macroalgae depending on species and time of cultivation and harvest. Peptides derived from marcoalgae are proven to have hypotensive effects in the human circulatory system. Hypertension is one of the major, yet controllable, risk factors in cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the main cause of death in Europe, accounting for over 4.3 million deaths each year. In the United States it affects one in three individuals. Hypotensive peptides derived from marine and other sources have already been incorporated into functional foods such as beverages and soups. The purpose of this review is to highlight the potential of heart health peptides from macroalgae and to discuss the feasibility of expanding the variety of foods these peptides may be used in. PMID:21574559

Fitzgerald, Ciaran; Gallagher, Eimear; Tasdemir, Deniz; Hayes, Maria

2011-07-13

215

Bioactive fungal polysaccharides as potential functional ingredients in food and nutraceuticals.  

PubMed

Fungal bioactive polysaccharides deriving mainly from the Basidiomycetes family (and some from the Ascomycetes) and medicinal mushrooms have been well known and widely used in far Asia as part of traditional diet and medicine, and in the last decades have been the core of intense research for the understanding and the utilization of their medicinal properties in naturally produced pharmaceuticals. In fact, some of these biopolymers (mainly ?-glucans or heteropolysaccharides) have already made their way to the market as antitumor, immunostimulating or prophylactic drugs. The fact that many of these biopolymers are produced by edible mushrooms makes them also very good candidates for the formulation of novel functional foods and nutraceuticals without any serious safety concerns, in order to make use of their immunomodulating, anticancer, antimicrobial, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic and health-promoting properties. This article summarizes the most important properties and applications of bioactive fungal polysaccharides and discusses the latest developments on the utilization of these biopolymers in human nutrition. PMID:24518400

Giavasis, Ioannis

2014-04-01

216

Food synergy: an operational concept for understanding nutrition1234  

PubMed Central

Research and practice in nutrition relate to food and its constituents, often as supplements. In food, however, the biological constituents are coordinated. We propose that “thinking food first”' results in more effective nutrition research and policy. The concept of food synergy provides the necessary theoretical underpinning. The evidence for health benefit appears stronger when put together in a synergistic dietary pattern than for individual foods or food constituents. A review of dietary supplementation suggests that although supplements may be beneficial in states of insufficiency, the safe middle ground for consumption likely is food. Also, food provides a buffer during absorption. Constituents delivered by foods taken directly from their biological environment may have different effects from those formulated through technologic processing, but either way health benefits are likely to be determined by the total diet. The concept of food synergy is based on the proposition that the interrelations between constituents in foods are significant. This significance is dependent on the balance between constituents within the food, how well the constituents survive digestion, and the extent to which they appear biologically active at the cellular level. Many examples are provided of superior effects of whole foods over their isolated constituents. The food synergy concept supports the idea of dietary variety and of selecting nutrient-rich foods. The more we understand about our own biology and that of plants and animals, the better we will be able to discern the combinations of foods, rather than supplements, which best promote health. PMID:19279083

Gross, Myron D; Tapsell, Linda C

2009-01-01

217

Predator-dependent functional response in wolves: from food limitation to surplus killing.  

PubMed

The functional response of a predator describes the change in per capita kill rate to changes in prey density. This response can be influenced by predator densities, giving a predator-dependent functional response. In social carnivores which defend a territory, kill rates also depend on the individual energetic requirements of group members and their contribution to the kill rate. This study aims to provide empirical data for the functional response of wolves Canis lupus to the highly managed moose Alces alces population in Scandinavia. We explored prey and predator dependence, and how the functional response relates to the energetic requirements of wolf packs. Winter kill rates of GPS-collared wolves and densities of cervids were estimated for a total of 22 study periods in 15 wolf territories. The adult wolves were identified as the individuals responsible for providing kills to the wolf pack, while pups could be described as inept hunters. The predator-dependent, asymptotic functional response models (i.e. Hassell-Varley type II and Crowley-Martin) performed best among a set of 23 competing linear, asymptotic and sigmoid models. Small wolf packs acquired >3 times as much moose biomass as required to sustain their field metabolic rate (FMR), even at relatively low moose abundances. Large packs (6-9 wolves) acquired less biomass than required in territories with low moose abundance. We suggest the surplus killing by small packs is a result of an optimal foraging strategy to consume only the most nutritious parts of easy accessible prey while avoiding the risk of being detected by humans. Food limitation may have a stabilizing effect on pack size in wolves, as supported by the observed negative relationship between body weight of pups and pack size. PMID:25109601

Zimmermann, Barbara; Sand, Hĺkan; Wabakken, Petter; Liberg, Olof; Andreassen, Harry Peter

2014-08-11

218

Permanence and periodic solutions for an impulsive reaction-diffusion food-chain system with ratio-dependent functional response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An impulsive reaction-diffusion periodic food-chain system with ratio-dependent functional response is investigated in the present paper. Sufficient conditions for the ultimate boundedness and permanence of the food-chain system are established based on the comparison theory of differential equation and upper and lower solution method. By constructing appropriate auxiliary function, the conditions for the existence of a unique globally stable positive periodic solution are also obtained. Some numerical examples are presented to verify our results. A discussion is given in the end of the paper.

Liu, Zijian; Zhong, Shouming; Liu, Xiaoyun

2014-01-01

219

Food Crystalization and Eggs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food Crystalization and Eggs Deana R. Jones, Ph.D. USDA Agricultural Research Service Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit Athens, Georgia, USA Deana.Jones@ars.usda.gov Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a foo...

220

Food Chains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, you will discover the way food chains function by viewing four different types of food chains and designing your favorite one. How is the flow of energy traced through a food chain? Use your cluster organizer to record information for four different food chains and what the consumers, 1st level consumers, 2nd level consumers, and 3rd level consumers are and what they eat. Begin by viewing ecosystems: Introduction to Ecosystems Now that you know what an ...

Ms. Hammond

2009-10-21

221

Cryptic biodiversity effects: importance of functional redundancy revealed through addition of food web complexity.  

PubMed

Interactions between predators and the degree of functional redundancy among multiple predator species may determine whether herbivores experience increased or decreased predation risk. Specialist parasites can modify predator behavior, yet rarely have cascading effects on multiple predator species and prey been evaluated. We examined influences of specialist phorid parasites (Pseudacteon spp.) on three predatory ant species and herbivores in a coffee agroecosystem. Specifically, we examined whether changes in ant richness affected fruit damage by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and whether phorids altered multi-predator effects. Each ant species reduced borer damage, and without phorids, increasing predator richness did not further decrease borer damage. However, with phorids, activity of one ant species was reduced, indicating that the presence of multiple ant species was necessary to limit borer damage. In addition, phorid presence revealed synergistic effects of multiple ant species, not observed without the presence of this parasite. Thus, a trait-mediated cascade resulting from a parasite-induced predator behavioral change revealed the importance of functional redundancy, predator diversity, and food web complexity for control of this important pest. PMID:22764486

Philpott, Stacy M; Pardee, Gabriella L; Gonthier, David J

2012-05-01

222

Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs of individual plants: plant species and community effects.  

PubMed

Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers and providers of resources to the soil food web, are of vital importance for the composition, structure, and functioning of soil communities. However, whether natural soil food webs that are completely open to immigration and emigration differ underneath individual plants remains unknown. In a biodiversity restoration experiment we first compared the soil nematode communities of 228 individual plants belonging to eight herbaceous species. We included grass, leguminous, and non-leguminous species. Each individual plant grew intermingled with other species, but all plant species had a different nematode community. Moreover, nematode communities were more similar when plant individuals were growing in the same as compared to different plant communities, and these effects were most apparent for the groups of bacterivorous, carnivorous, and omnivorous nematodes. Subsequently, we analyzed the composition, structure, and functioning of the complete soil food webs of 58 individual plants, belonging to two of the plant species, Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae) and Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae). We isolated and identified more than 150 taxa/groups of soil organisms. The soil community composition and structure of the entire food webs were influenced both by the species identity of the plant individual and the surrounding plant community. Unexpectedly, plant identity had the strongest effects on decomposing soil organisms, widely believed to be generalist feeders. In contrast, quantitative food web modeling showed that the composition of the plant community influenced nitrogen mineralization under individual plants, but that plant species identity did not affect nitrogen or carbon mineralization or food web stability. Hence, the composition and structure of entire soil food webs vary at the scale of individual plants and are strongly influenced by the species identity of the plant. However, the ecosystem functions these food webs provide are determined by the identity of the entire plant community. PMID:21058562

Bezemer, T M; Fountain, M T; Barea, J M; Christensen, S; Dekker, S C; Duyts, H; van Hal, R; Harvey, J A; Hedlund, K; Maraun, M; Mikola, J; Mladenov, A G; Robin, C; de Ruiter, P C; Scheu, S; Setälä, H; Smilauer, P; van der Putten, W H

2010-10-01

223

Liking of health-functional foods containing lupin kernel fibre following repeated consumption in a dietary intervention setting.  

PubMed

Liking of a particular food after repeated consumption may be reduced, limiting the effectiveness of health-functional foods requiring on-going consumption to deliver their benefits. This study examined the effect of repeated consumption of foods containing the novel ingredient, Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKFibre) on sensory acceptability in the dietary intervention setting. In a single-blind randomised crossover 4-week intervention, participants consumed both control and equivalent LKFibre-containing products daily on separate interventions separated by a 4-week period on habitual diet. Seven products: muesli, bread, muffin, chocolate brownie, chocolate milk drink, pasta and instant mashed potato were assessed twice (days 4 and 18 of intervention), by 38 participants for appearance, texture, flavour and general acceptability using a structured graphic hedonic scale. Overall the results showed there was no reduction (P=0.594) in general acceptability of LKFibre foods after repeated consumption, suggesting potential for long-term consumption. The control food products were however generally preferred (P<0.001) over the LKFibre foods; the mean difference for general acceptability between being <6% (0.82cm) of the 15cm hedonic scale used, suggesting LKF addition did not severely affect product palatability. PMID:20542068

Hall, Ramon S; Baxter, Amynta L; Fryirs, Cathy; Johnson, Stuart K

2010-10-01

224

Food Crystallization and Egg Products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a food product can be either beneficial or detrimental and is of particular importance in candy and frozen desserts. The most common crystal in foods is sugar which affects th...

225

Impact of Exotic Invertebrate Invaders on Food Web Structure and Function in the Great Lakes: a Network Analysis Approach  

E-print Network

Impact of Exotic Invertebrate Invaders on Food Web Structure and Function in the Great Lakes a second wave of species invasions dominated by exotic invertebrates- Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha invasions (e.g., sea Lamprey and Alewife), these invertebrates inserted themselves in the lower trophic

226

From functional food to medicinal product: Systematic approach in analysis of polyphenolics from propolis and wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade we have been working on standardization of propolis extract and determination of active constituents of wine those are rich in polyphenolics and have nutritional as well as therapeutic value. Here we are summarizing our results and providing overview on systematic approach how to analyse natural products rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids. Chromatographic methods (thin layer

Marica Medi?-Šari?; Vesna Rastija; Mirza Boji?; Željan Maleš

2009-01-01

227

Quality traits of Indian peanut cultivars and their utility as nutritional and functional food.  

PubMed

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is considered as a highly nutritious foodstuff. Of late, the importance of peanut as a functional food has been growing. Kernels of forty-one Indian peanut cultivars were analyzed for their oil, fatty acid profiles, sucrose, raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs); phenolics, and free amino acids contents along with antioxidant capacity. The range and the mean value (given in parenthesis) for each of the traits analysed were, oil: 44.1-53.8% (50.1%), O/L ratio: 0.9-2.8 (1.4), sucrose: 2.61-6.5% (4.63%), RFOs: 0.12-0.76% (0.47%), phenolics: 0.14-0.39% (0.23%), free amino acids: 0.052-0.19% (0.12%) and antioxidant capacity: 1.05-6.97 (3.40) ?mol TEg(-1). The significant correlation between phenol content and antioxidant capacity suggests phenol content as an easy marker for rapid screening of genotypes for their antioxidant capacity. A few cultivars with desirable traits and their prospective utility were identified which would be useful for future breeding programme to develop nutritional superior peanuts. PMID:25148966

Bishi, S K; Lokesh, Kumar; Mahatma, M K; Khatediya, N; Chauhan, S M; Misra, J B

2015-01-15

228

Functional foods effective for hepatitis C: Identification of oligomeric proanthocyanidin and its action mechanism  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis and currently infects approximately 170 million people worldwide. An infection by HCV causes high rates of chronic hepatitis (> 75%) and progresses to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma ultimately. HCV can be eliminated by a combination of pegylated ?-interferon and the broad-spectrum antiviral drug ribavirin; however, this treatment is still associated with poor efficacy and tolerability and is often accompanied by serious side-effects. While some novel direct-acting antivirals against HCV have been developed recently, high medical costs limit the access to the therapy in cost-sensitive countries. To search for new natural anti-HCV agents, we screened local agricultural products for their suppressive activities against HCV replication using the HCV replicon cell system in vitro. We found a potent inhibitor of HCV RNA expression in the extracts of blueberry leaves and then identified oligomeric proanthocyanidin as the active ingredient. Further investigations into the action mechanism of oligomeric proanthocyanidin suggested that it is an inhibitor of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) such as hnRNP A2/B1. In this review, we presented an overview of functional foods and ingredients efficient for HCV infection, the chemical structural characteristics of oligomeric proanthocyanidin, and its action mechanism. PMID:25544874

Ishida, Yo-ichi; Takeshita, Masahiko; Kataoka, Hiroaki

2014-01-01

229

By-products of plant food processing as a source of functional compounds — recent developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a rapidly growing body of literature covering the role of plant secondary metabolites in food and their potential effects on human health. Furthermore, consumers are increasingly aware of diet related health problems, therefore demanding natural ingredients which are expected to be safe and health-promoting. By-products of plant food processing represent a major disposal problem for the industry concerned,

A Schieber; F. C Stintzing; R Carle

2001-01-01

230

Functional foods and their expanding applications in the improvement of human health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During the last few decades, various epidemiological investigations have reinforced the concept that diet plays an important role in human health. These analyses have demonstrated that the types of food consumed, the composition of those foods, and the amounts consumed can all be linked to the promo...

231

[Determination of aluminum in foods].  

PubMed

In connection with studies on the changes of functional properties of food constituents (e. g. solubility of proteins) by means of aluminium compounds, the elaboration of an appropriate method for the quantitative determination of aluminium has been necessary. The organic samples are mineralized with 80% perchloric acid; in case of fat-containing foods, after fat removal. After reaction with aluminon (ammonium salt of aurin tricarboxylic acid), aluminium is determined photometrically at 530 nm. The limit of detection lies between 1 and 2 ppm; the recovery rate is 103%; the standard deviation is +/- 10%. The determination (without mineralization) requires about 1 hours. The authors analyzed, inter alia, milk (1.2--1.7 ppm A1), fat cheese (9 ppm), micora (4 ppm), aluminium-stabilized protein texturates (300--1500 ppm). PMID:460394

Klaus, H; Quade, H D

1979-01-01

232

Functional foods-based diet as a novel dietary approach for management of type 2 diabetes and its complications: A review.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes is a complicated metabolic disorder with both short- and long-term undesirable complications. In recent years, there has been growing evidence that functional foods and their bioactive compounds, due to their biological properties, may be used as complementary treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this review, we have highlighted various functional foods as missing part of medical nutrition therapy in diabetic patients. Several in vitro, animal models and some human studies, have demonstrated that functional foods and nutraceuticals may improve postprandial hyperglycemia and adipose tissue metabolism modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Functional foods may also improve dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, and attenuate oxidative stress and inflammatory processes and subsequently could prevent the development of long-term diabetes complications including cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. In conclusion available data indicate that a functional foods-based diet may be a novel and comprehensive dietary approach for management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24936248

Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Azizi, Fereidoun

2014-06-15

233

Functional foods-based diet as a novel dietary approach for management of type 2 diabetes and its complications: A review  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes is a complicated metabolic disorder with both short- and long-term undesirable complications. In recent years, there has been growing evidence that functional foods and their bioactive compounds, due to their biological properties, may be used as complementary treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this review, we have highlighted various functional foods as missing part of medical nutrition therapy in diabetic patients. Several in vitro, animal models and some human studies, have demonstrated that functional foods and nutraceuticals may improve postprandial hyperglycemia and adipose tissue metabolism modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Functional foods may also improve dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, and attenuate oxidative stress and inflammatory processes and subsequently could prevent the development of long-term diabetes complications including cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. In conclusion available data indicate that a functional foods-based diet may be a novel and comprehensive dietary approach for management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24936248

Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Azizi, Fereidoun

2014-01-01

234

Food Chain & Food Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the differences and similarities between food chain and food web? Print (2) Garden Gate Print (1) Venn Diagram Garden Gate Venn Diagram Let's learn about the food chain and food web.Read the notes.Food Chain 4 Also, view more notes on food chain and food web. Go to the 7th title Food Chain which is before the Habitats and food chain title of the webpage.Food Chain Power Point Presentation Record what you learn ...

Ms. B

2011-10-27

235

Development of a functional food or drug against unloading-mediated muscle atrophy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is a primary regulator of muscle protein turnover, providing a mechanism for selective degradation of regulatory and structural proteins. This pathway is constitutively active in muscle fibers and mediates both intracellular signaling events and normal muscle protein turnover. However, conditions of decreased muscle use, so called unloading, remarkably stimulate activity of this pathway, resulting in loss of muscle protein. In fact, we previously reported that expression of several ubiquitin ligase genes, such as MuRF-1, Cbl-b, and Siah-1A, which are rate-limiting enzymes of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway, are significantly up-regulated in rat skeletal muscle during spaceflight. Moreover, we found that Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1, an important intermediates of IGF-1 signal transduction, contributes to muscle atrophy during unloading. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1 leads to prevention of muscle atrophy during unloading. In this study, we aimed to evaluate oligopeptide as an inhibitor against ubiquitination of IRS-1 by Cbl-b. We synthesized various oligopeptides that may competitively inhibit the binding of Cbl-b to IRS-1 on the basis of their structures and screened inhibitory effects of these synthesized oligopeptides on Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination of IRS-1 using in vitro ubiquitination systems. We found that two synthetic oligopeptides with specific amino acid sequences effectively inhibited interaction with Cbl-b and IRS-1, resulting in decreased ubiquitination and degradation of IRS-1 (Patent pending). In contrast, we also found inhibitory activity against Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination of IRS-1 in soy protein-derived oligopeptides, whereas their inhibitory effects were weaker than those of synthetic oligopeptides. Our results suggest that specific oligopeptides may be available as a functional food against the muscle atrophy, especially through downregulation of the Cbl-b-mediated IRS-1 degradation.

Nikawa, Takeshi; Nakao, Reiko; Kagawa, Sachiko; Yamada, Chiharu; Abe, Manami; Tamura, Seiko; Kohno, Shohei; Sukeno, Akiko; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Okumura, Yuushi; Ishidoh, Kazumi

236

Food bodies in Cissus verticillata (Vitaceae): ontogenesis, structure and functional aspects  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The distinction between pearl bodies (or pearl glands) and food bodies (FBs) is not clear; neither is our understanding of what these structures really represent. The present work examined the ontogenesis, structure, ultrastructure and histochemical aspects of the protuberances in Cissus verticillata, which have been described since the beginning of the 19th century as pearl glands or pearl bodies, in order to establish a relationship between their structure and function. Methods Segments of stems and leaves in different stages of development were collected and fixed for study under light microscopy as well as electron transmission and scanning microscopy. Samples of FBs were subjected to chemical analysis using thin-layer chromatography. Key Results The FBs in C. verticillata are globose and attached to the plant by a short peduncle. These structures are present along the entire stem during primary growth, and on the inflorescence axis and the abaxial face of the leaves. The FBs were observed to be of mixed origin, with the participation of both the epidermis and the underlying parenchymatic cells. The epidermis is uniseriate with a thin cuticle, and the cells have dense cytoplasm and a large nucleus. The internal parenchymatic cells have thin walls; in the young structures these cells have dense cytoplasm with a predominance of mitochondria and plastids. In the mature FBs, the parenchymatic cells accumulate oils and soluble sugars; dictyosomes and rough endoplasmic reticulum predominate in the cytoplasm; the vacuoles are ample. Removal of the FBs appears to stimulate the formation of new ones, at the same place. Conclusions The vegetative vigour of the plant seems to influence the number of FBs produced, with more vigorous branches having greater densities of FBs. The results allow the conclusion that the structures traditionally designated pearl glands or pearl bodies in C. verticillata constitute FBs that can recruit large numbers of ants. PMID:19049986

Paiva, Elder Antônio Sousa; Buono, Rafael Andrade; Lombardi, Julio Antonio

2009-01-01

237

The effects of food deprivation and incentive motivation on blood glucose levels and cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated the relationships between blood glucose levels, mild food deprivation, sympathetic arousal,\\u000a and cognitive processing efficiency. Subjects (n?=?82) were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, comprising combined manipulations of food deprivation and incentive\\u000a motivation. Baseline and mid-session measurements of blood glucose, blood pressure and pulse rate were taken. Subjects completed\\u000a a number of measures of cognitive processing

M. W. Green; Nicola A. Elliman; Peter J. Rogers

1997-01-01

238

Membrane Bioreactor Technology for the Development of Functional Materials from Sea-Food Processing Wastes and Their Potential Health Benefits  

PubMed Central

Sea-food processing wastes and underutilized species of fish are a potential source of functional and bioactive compounds. A large number of bioactive substances can be produced through enzyme-mediated hydrolysis. Suitable enzymes and the appropriate bioreactor system are needed to incubate the waste materials. Membrane separation is a useful technique to extract, concentrate, separate or fractionate the compounds. The use of membrane bioreactors to integrate a reaction vessel with a membrane separation unit is emerging as a beneficial method for producing bioactive materials such as peptides, chitooligosaccharides and polyunsaturated fatty acids from diverse seafood-related wastes. These bioactive compounds from membrane bioreactor technology show diverse biological activities such as antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antitumor, anticoagulant, antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. This review discusses the application of membrane bioreactor technology for the production of value-added functional materials from sea-food processing wastes and their biological activities in relation to health benefits. PMID:24957872

Kim, Se-Kwon; Senevirathne, Mahinda

2011-01-01

239

Neural correlates of stress and favorite-food cue exposure in adolescents: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a critical period of neurodevelopment for stress and appetitive processing, as well as a time of increased vulnerability to stress and engagement in risky behaviors. This study was conducted to examine brain activation patterns during stress and favorite-food-cue experiences relative to a neutral-relaxing condition in adolescents. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed using individualized script-driven guided imagery to compare brain responses with such experiences in 43 adolescents. Main effects of condition and gender were found, without a significant gender-by-condition interaction. Stress imagery, relative to neutral, was associated with activation in the caudate, thalamus, left hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, midbrain, left superior/middle temporal gyrus, and right posterior cerebellum. Appetitive imagery of favorite food was associated with caudate, thalamus, and midbrain activation compared with the neutral-relaxing condition. To understand neural correlates of anxiety and craving, subjective (self-reported) measures of stress-induced anxiety and favorite-food-cue-induced craving were correlated with brain activity during stress and appetitive food-cue conditions, respectively. High self-reported stress-induced anxiety was associated with hypoactivity in the striatum, thalamus, hippocampus, and midbrain. Self-reported favorite-food-cue-induced craving was associated with blunted activity in cortical-striatal regions, including the right dorsal and ventral striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, motor cortex, and left anterior cingulate cortex. These findings in adolescents indicate the activation of predominantly subcortical-striatal regions in the processing of stressful and appetitive experiences and link hypoactive striatal circuits to self-reported stress-induced anxiety and cue-induced favorite-food craving. PMID:22504779

Hommer, Rebecca E; Seo, Dongju; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Chaplin, Tara M; Mayes, Linda C; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N

2013-10-01

240

Duties and functions of veterinary public health for the management of food safety: present needs and evaluation of efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functions of veterinarians in the context of food safety assurance have changed very much in the last ten years as a consequence\\u000a of new legislation. The aim of this review is to evaluate the management tools in veterinary public health that shall be used\\u000a in response to the actual need and consider some possible key performance indicators. This review involved

M. Trevisani; R. Rosmini

2008-01-01

241

Sensitivity of ecosystem functioning to changes in trophic structure, functional group composition and species diversity in belowground food webs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present paper, using decomposer food webs as a tool, is to explore the levels of the ecological hierarchy (trophic groups, feeding guilds, species populations) at which reduction in complexity brings about significant changes in ecosystem performance. A review is given of various mini-ecosystem studies that have recently been conducted at the University of Jyväskylä. It is

Heikki Setälä

2002-01-01

242

Review of existing experimental approaches for the clinical evaluation of the benefits of plant food supplements on cardiovascular function.  

PubMed

We conducted a survey of the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) PubMed database to identify methods most commonly used for the evaluation of the effect of plant food supplements on the cardiovascular system and their relevance to the regulatory status of these products. Particularly, our search strategy was aimed at the selection of studies concerning the clinical evaluation of the beneficial effects of the most commonly studied plant food supplements acting on the cardiovascular system. Following the screening of 3839 papers for inclusion criteria, 48 published reports were retained for this review. Most studies included in this review used a double blind controlled design, and evaluated the effect of plant food supplements on individuals affected by a disease of the cardiovascular system. The majority of the studies were found to be of low methodological quality on the Jadad scale, mainly because of inadequate reporting of adverse events and of patient withdrawals. In comparison, measures used for the evaluation of benefits included mostly cardiovascular risk factors as recommended in international guidelines and in accordance with principles laid down for the evaluation of health claims in food. The risk factors most frequently evaluated belonged to the category of "lipid function and levels", "heart function" and "blood pressure". For the absolute majority of the studies, the study period did not exceed one month. This review highlights critical factors to be considered in the design of studies evaluating the health effects of plant food supplements on the cardiovascular system. Between others, the inclusion of healthy individuals, better reporting and description of the characteristics of the product used could improve the quality and relevance of these studies. PMID:23673390

Meoni, Paolo; Restani, Patrizia; Mancama, Dalu T

2013-06-01

243

Occurrence of toxigenic fungi and determination of mycotoxins by HPLC-FLD in functional foods and spices in China markets.  

PubMed

Twenty-four samples including 14 functional foods and 10 spices obtained from Chinese markets were examined for their mould profile. The mycotoxin contamination levels were also determined by an optimized HPLC-FLD method. 124 fungal isolates belonging to four different genera were recovered with Aspergillus and Penicillium as predominant fungi, with an incidence of 66.1% and 15.3%, respectively. In functional foods Aspergillus niger section (57.1%) was isolated more frequently, followed by Aspergillus flavi section (50.0%) and Aspergillus ochraceus section (21.4%), with the most contaminated samples being Coix seeds. Similar fungal presence and frequency were encountered in spice with A. niger section group (60.0%) and A. flavi section (40.0%) as main fungi. Cumin and Pricklyash peel samples showed the highest fungal contamination. Four functional foods and three spices were found to be positive at low levels for mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 (up to 0.26?g/kg) and ochratoxin A (OTA) (5.0?g/kg). The more frequently detected mycotoxin was AFB1 (16.7%). PMID:24176349

Kong, Weijun; Wei, Riwei; Logrieco, Antonio F; Wei, Jianhe; Wen, Jing; Xiao, Xiaohe; Yang, Meihua

2014-03-01

244

Composition and functional properties of unprocessed and locally processed seeds from three underutilized food sources in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Chemical and functional properties of unprocessed (raw) and locally processed seeds of Brachystegia eurycoma, Detarium microcarpum and Mucuna sloanei that affect their utilization as sources of human food were investigated. The seeds, which are underutilized food sources in Nigeria, were subjected to local processing methods which included roasting, boiling, dehulling/shelling, soaking and the changes in composition and functional properties were estimated. Chemical analyses showed that the crude protein contents of the raw seeds ranged from 12.2 to 23.2%; fat varied from 4.9 to 12.0%. The level of phytic acid in the raw seeds (192.4-215 mg/100 g) was observed to be lower than the levels found in some commonly consumed pulses in Nigeria. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between crude protein contents and the least gelation concentrations of the raw and processed samples, but processing (roasting, boiling, dehulling and soaking) significantly (p = 0.011) improved in vitro protein digestibility, water and fat absorption capacity and decreased the bulk density, nitrogen solubility and the phytic acid and polyphenol contents of the samples. Processed samples had high water (3.4-3.8 g/g) and fat (1.8-2.1 g/g) absorption capacities and hence may be useful as functional agents in fabricated foods such as bakery products and ground meat formulations. PMID:9198112

Giami, S Y; Wachuku, O C

1997-01-01

245

Functionality of liquid smoke as an all-natural antimicrobial in food preservation.  

PubMed

The smoking of foods, especially meats, has been used as a preservation technique for centuries. Today, smoking methods often involve the use of wood smoke condensates, commonly known as liquid smoke. Liquid smoke is produced by condensing wood smoke created by the pyrolysis of sawdust or wood chips followed by removal of the carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The main products of wood pyrolysis are phenols, carbonyls and organic acids which are responsible for the flavor, color and antimicrobial properties of liquid smoke. Several common food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus have shown sensitivity to liquid smoke in vitro and in food systems. Therefore liquid smoke has potential for use as an all-natural antimicrobial in commercial applications where smoke flavor is desired. This review will cover the application and effectiveness of liquid smoke and fractions of liquid smoke as an all-natural food preservative. This review will be valuable for the industrial and research communities in the food science and technology areas. PMID:24583328

Lingbeck, Jody M; Cordero, Paola; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

2014-06-01

246

Fermented milks and milk products as functional foods--a review.  

PubMed

Fermented foods and beverages possess various nutritional and therapeutic properties. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a major role in determining the positive health effects of fermented milks and related products. The L. acidophilus and Bifidobacteria spp are known for their use in probiotic dairy foods. Cultured products sold with any claim of health benefits should meet the criteria of suggested minimum number of more than 10? cfu/g at the time of consumption. Yoghurt is redefined as a probiotic carrier food. Several food powders like yoghurt powder and curd (dahi) powder are manufactured taking into consideration the number of organisms surviving in the product after drying. Such foods, beverages and powders are highly acceptable to consumers because of their flavor and aroma and high nutritive value. Antitumor activity is associated with the cell wall of starter bacteria and so the activity remains even after drying. Other health benefits of fermented milks include prevention of gastrointestinal infections, reduction of serum cholesterol levels and antimutagenic activity. The fermented products are recommended for consumption by lactose intolerant individuals and patients suffering from atherosclerosis. The formulation of fermented dietetic preparations and special products is an expanding research area. The health benefits, the technology of production of fermented milks and the kinetics of lactic acid fermentation in dairy products are reviewed here. PMID:23391015

Shiby, V K; Mishra, H N

2013-01-01

247

The use of dry Jerusalem artichoke as a functional nutrient in developing extruded food with low glycaemic index.  

PubMed

This study considers the use of dry Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as a functional nutrient in developing food products with enhanced nutritional characteristics and low glycaemic index (GI). Three different formulations based on buckwheat and JA were developed and processed using extrusion technology. Nutritional properties including the levels of total dietary fibre (TDF), protein, inulin, total carbohydrates and lipids were analysed. A clinical study was performed on ten healthy volunteers (aged between 21 and 56) to determine the level of GI and glycaemic load (GL). The results revealed that JA significantly (P<0.05) increased the levels of TDF and inulin whilst decreasing carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. The resulting products had a significant (P<0.05) effect on IAUC between reference food and extruded products, GI and GL. Samples containing 80% of Jerusalem artichoke were considered as a low GI food whilst samples containing 30% and 60% of Jerusalem artichoke as a medium GI food. A similar trend was seen in terms of GL. PMID:25660861

Radovanovic, Ana; Stojceska, Valentina; Plunkett, Andrew; Jankovic, Slobodan; Milovanovic, Dragan; Cupara, Snezana

2015-06-15

248

Promoting functional foods as acceptable alternatives to doping: potential for information-based social marketing approach  

PubMed Central

Background Substances with performance enhancing properties appear on a continuum, ranging from prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED) through dietary supplements to functional foods (FF). Anti-doping messages designed to dissuade athletes from using PEDs have been typically based on moralising sport competition and/or employing scare campaigns with focus on the negative consequences. Campaigns offering comparable and acceptable alternatives are nonexistent, nor are athletes helped in finding these for themselves. It is timely that social marketing strategies for anti-doping prevention and intervention incorporate media messages that complement the existing approaches by promoting comparable and acceptable alternatives to doping. To facilitate this process, the aim of this study was to ascertain whether a single exposure knowledge-based information intervention led to increased knowledge and subsequently result in changes in beliefs and automatic associations regarding performance enhancements. Methods In a repeated measure design, 115 male recreational gym users were recruited and provided with a brief information pamphlet on nitrite/nitrate and erythropoietin as a comparison. Measures of knowledge, beliefs and automatic associations were taken before and after the intervention with at least 24 hours between the two assessments. The psychological tests included explicit measures of beliefs and cognitive attitudes toward FF and PED using a self-reported questionnaire and computerised assessments of automatic associations using the modified and shortened version of the Implicit Association Test. Results The information based intervention significantly increased knowledge (p < 0.001), changed explicit beliefs in specific FF (p < 0.001) and shifted the automatic association of FF with health to performance (p < 0.001). Explicitly expressed beliefs and automatic associations appear to be independent. Conclusion Evidence was found that even a single exposure to a persuasive positive message can lead to belief change and can create new or alter existing associations - but only in the specific domain. Interventions to change outcome expectations in a positive way could be a rewarding avenue for anti-doping. Effective social marketing campaigns for drug free sport should follow appropriate market segmentation and use targeted messages via promoting the natural form as opposed to the purified form of the main active ingredient. PMID:21067611

2010-01-01

249

The Importance of Take-Out Food Packaging Attributes: Conjoint Analysis and Quality Function Deployment Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research aims to investigate the importance of take-out food packaging attributes, using conjoint analysis and QFD approach among consumers of take-out food products in Jakarta, Indonesia. The conjoint results indicate that perception about packaging material (such as paper, plastic, and polystyrene foam) plays the most important role overall in consumer perception. The clustering results that there is strong segmentation in which take-out food packaging material consumer consider most important. Some consumers are mostly oriented toward the colour of packaging, while another segment of customers concerns on packaging shape and packaging information. Segmentation variables based on packaging response can provide very useful information to maximize image of products through the package's impact. The results of House of Quality development described that Conjoint Analysis - QFD is a useful combination of the two methodologies in product development, market segmentation, and the trade off between customers' requirements in the early stages of HOQ process

Lestari Widaningrum, Dyah

2014-03-01

250

Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.  

PubMed

Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers. PMID:24760975

Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

2014-06-01

251

Genetic resources of the functional food, teramnus labialis (L.f.) spreng for improving seed number, flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Teramnus labialis is used as food in India and has potential to be used as a functional food vegetable in the U.S.A. Photoperiod-sensitive T. labialis accessions were grown in the greenhouse from 2010 to 2011 and evaluated for flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions. Significant variati...

252

Diets Enriched in Foods with High Antioxidant Activity Reverse Age-Induced Decreases in Cerebellar Adrenergic Function and Increases in Proinflammatory Cytokines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidants and diets supplemented with foods high in oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) reverse age-related de- creases in cerebellar -adrenergic receptor function. We exam- ined whether this effect was related to the antioxidant capacity of the food supplement and whether an antioxidant-rich diet reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the cerebel- lum. Aged male Fischer 344 rats were given

Carmelina Gemma; Michael H. Mesches; Boris Sepesi; Kevin Choo; Douglas B. Holmes; Paula C. Bickford

2002-01-01

253

An analysis of food-web structure and function in a shortgrass prairie, a mountain meadow, and a lodgepole pine forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of the below-ground detrital food web was similar in three different semiarid vegetation types: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta subsp. latifolia), mountain meadow (Agropyron smithii), and shortgrass prairie (Bouteloua gracilis). The densities of component food-web functional groups and the response to removal of component groups, differed however. As measured by biomass, bacteria were dominant in the meadow and prairie,

E. R. Ingham; J. C. Moore

1989-01-01

254

Antimelanoma and Antityrosinase from Alpinia galangal Constituents  

PubMed Central

Two compounds, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (BHPHTO) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) they have been isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia galangal, and the structures of both pure constituents were determined using spectroscopic analyses. The study examined the bioeffectivenesses of the two compounds on the human melanoma A2058 and showed that significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in the cell viability assay. This research was also taken on the tests to B16-F10 cell line and showed minor inhibitory consequences of cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin contents. Our results revealed the anticancer effects of A. galangal compounds, and therefore, the target compounds could be potentially applied in the therapeutic application and the food industry. PMID:24027439

Liu, Po-Len; Lin, Li-Ching; Chen, Yen-Ting; Hseu, You-Cheng; Wen, Zhi-Hong

2013-01-01

255

Natural Health Products and Functional Foods A Growing Market for Canadian Oilseeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

New scientific knowledge regarding the role that diet may play in preventing disease is rapidly emerging as information continues to reveal components within food that not only promote general health and well being but can also reduce the risk of illness. These findings are resulting in an increased desire to incorporate \\

Kelley C. Fitzpatrick

256

Chemical Composition and Potential Health Effects of Prunes: A Functional Food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referee: Paul La Chance, Dept. of Food Science, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ Supported in part by an educational grant from California Dried Plum Board. Prunes are dried plums, fruits of Prunus domestica L., cultivated and propagated since ancient times. Most dried prunes are produced from cultivar d'Agen, especially in California and France, where the cultivar originated. After harvest, prune-making

Maria Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis; Phyllis E. Bowen; Erum A. Hussain; Bernadette I. Damayanti-Wood; Norman R. Farnsworth

2001-01-01

257

Mechanical properties of foods used in experimental studies of primate masticatory function  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In vivo studies of jaw-muscle behavior have been integral factors in the development of our current understanding the primate masticatory apparatus. However, even though it has been shown that food textures and mechanical properties influence jaw- muscle activity during mastication, very little effo...

258

Reward for food odors: an fMRI study of liking and wanting as a function of metabolic state and BMI.  

PubMed

Brain reward systems mediate liking and wanting for food reward. Here, we explore the differential involvement of the following structures for these two components: the ventral and dorsal striatopallidal area, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior insula and anterior cingulate. Twelve healthy female participants were asked to rate pleasantness (liking of food and non-food odors) and the desire to eat (wanting of odor-evoked food) during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective ratings and fMRI were performed in hunger and satiety states. Activations of regions of interest were compared as a function of task (liking vs wanting), odor category (food vs non-food) and metabolic state (hunger vs satiety). We found that the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum were differentially involved in liking or wanting during the hunger state, which suggests a reciprocal inhibitory influence between these structures. Neural activation of OFC subregions was correlated with either liking or wanting ratings, suggesting an OFC role in reward processing magnitude. Finally, during the hunger state, participants with a high body mass index exhibited less activation in neural structures underlying food reward processing. Our results suggest that food liking and wanting are two separable psychological constructs and may be functionally segregated within the cortico-striatopallidal circuit. PMID:24948157

Jiang, Tao; Soussignan, Robert; Schaal, Benoist; Royet, Jean-Pierre

2015-04-01

259

[Chemical constituents from Parthenocissus quinquefolia].  

PubMed

The chemical constituents of Parthenocissus quinque were investigated. The chemical constituents were isolated by column chromatography on silical gel and sephadex LH-20. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis and of comparison of physical constant. Nine compounds were isolated from this plant and the structures of them were identified as 3,4,5-trihydroxy- benzoic acid (1), piceatannol (2), resveratrol (3), resveratrol trans-dehydrodimer (4), cyphoste mmin B (5), pallidol (6), cyphostemmin A (7), quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (8), myricetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (9), respectively. Compounds 1, 4-9 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:20815210

Yang, Jianbo; Wang, Aiguo; Ji, Tengfei; Su, Yalun

2010-06-01

260

Characterization of Black Raspberry Functional Food Products for Cancer Prevention Human Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Our team is designing and fully characterizing black raspberry (BRB) food products suitable for long-term cancer prevention studies. The processing, scale-up, and storage effects on the consistency, quality, bioactive stability, and sensory acceptability of two BRB delivery systems of various matrices are presented. BRB dosage, pH, water activity, and texture were consistent in the scale-up production. Confections retained >90% of anthocyanins and ellagitannin after processing. Nectars had >69% of anthocyanins and >66% of ellagitannin retention, which varied with BRB dosage due to the processing difference. Texture remained unchanged during storage. BRB products consumed in a prostate cancer clinical trial were well accepted in sensory tests. Thus, this study demonstrates that two different BRB foods can be formulated to meet quality standards with a consistent bioactive pattern and successfully scaled up for a large human clinical trial focusing on cancer risk and other health outcomes. PMID:24345009

Gu, Junnan; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer H.; Riedl, Kenneth M.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Clinton, Steven K.; Vodovotz, Yael

2014-01-01

261

The Biochemical and Functional Food Properties of the Bowman-Birk Inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) is a small water-soluble protein present in soybean and almost all monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds. The molecular size of BBI ranges from 1,513 Da to about 20,000 Da. BBI is to seeds what ?1-antitrypsin is to humans. Soy-based food products rich in BBI include soybean grits, soymilk, oilcake, soybean isolate, and soybean protein concentrate. BBI is

Jack N. Losso

2008-01-01

262

Plant Sterols and Stanols as Cholesterol-Lowering Ingredients in Functional Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews developments related to the use of plant sterols and stanols as cholesterol-lowering ingredients in foods and nutraceuticals preparations. Plant sterols and stanols are extracted from the deodorizer distillates of vegetable oil refining and from tall oil, a by-product of paper pulping industry. Plant sterols\\/stanols inhibit cholesterol absorption possibly by competitively inhibiting its incorporation into the mixed micelles

Afaf Kamal-Eldin; Ali Moazzami

2009-01-01

263

The Antioxidant Functions of Tocopherol and Tocotrienol Homologues in Oils, Fats, and Food Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review paper is focused on the relative antioxidant activities of tocopherols and tocotrienols in oils and fats and certain\\u000a food systems. ?-Tocopherol generally showed better antioxidant activity than ?-tocopherol in fats and oils, but at higher\\u000a concentrations ?-tocopherol was found to be a more active antioxidant. The results of studies on the optimum antioxidant concentrations\\u000a of tocopherols in oils

Christine M. SeppanenQinghua Song; Qinghua Song; A. Saari Csallany

2010-01-01

264

Volatile Constituents of Agastache rugosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile part of Agastache rugosa, (Labiatae) contains more than 90% of methyl chavicol. The fresh, herbaceous, spicy odor of the ground leaves was therefore caused by methyl chavicol in combination with some minor constituents such as anisaldehyde and p-methoxy cinnamaldehyde.

Peter Weyerstahl; Helga Marschall; Elfriede Manteuffel; Siegfried Huneck

1992-01-01

265

A Study on Intake of Health Functional Food and Its Related Factors in Adults Living in Busan and Gyeongnam Area  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of "health functional food (HFF)" intake and related factors in Busan and Gyeongnam area and provide useful information for health promotion through the use of HFF. Among subjects of this study (n = 634), about 64% of the subjects reported that they are currently taking HFFs or other health foods or had HFFs in the last year. The reason of subjects taking HFF was to maintain and promote their health. They choose HFF by their own judgement or knowledge and the main place of purchasing HFF was the HFF store. Main food sources for promoting health in study subjects were nutrient fortified foods (76.8%), fruit or vegetable extracts (64.8%), HFF (64%), herbs or oriental medicines (29.6%), folk remedies or unidentified remedies (24.9%), respectively. The preference type of the products was capsule and liquid. 60.6% of consumers thought that HFF are expensive. 9.7% of consumers experienced the side effect such as stomachache and gastroenteric trouble. Using logistic regression analysis, the use of HFF was 1.9 times higher in female than male subjects indicating strong association between gender and HFF use. Additionally higher prevalence was found in female subjects for right conception of HFF and distinction of HFF. Interestingly subjects who consume less salts exhibited a higher tendency (-1.5 folds) in HFF intake than who prefer to use salt and seasonings in diets. In total study subjects 83.9% of them have known and heard about definition of the HFF. The major route of acquiring the information about HFF was mass media such as TV, internet and newspapers. Also subjects who had taken HFF exhibited high a proper conception toward the knowledge about 'distinction of HFF'. Taken together education programs considering gender, dietary habit and life style is necessary for consumers to select proper HFF. PMID:23431063

Park, Hyun-Jung

2012-01-01

266

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

Food Allergy Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, your immune system ... it-All. Test your knowledge about food allergies. » Food Allergy Symptoms & Diagnosis Symptoms Allergic reactions to food ...

267

Food Crystals: the Role of Eggs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a food product can be beneficial or detrimental and is of particular importance in candy and frozen desserts. The most common crystal in foods is sugar which affects the quali...

268

Pollution-induced community tolerance and functional redundancy in a decomposer food web in metal-stressed soil.  

PubMed

Pollution may lead to the development of pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) in a stressed community. We studied the presence of PICT in soil food webs using soil microcosms. Soil microcosms containing soil invertebrates and microbes were collected from polluted and unpolluted areas and exposed to a range of soil zinc concentrations. A pine seedling was planted in each microcosm to measure the effects of the origin of the community and Zn pollution on above-ground plant production. The effects of the treatments on nutrient content in the soil were also measured. The diversity of soil microarthropods and the soil's mineral nutrient content were low at the Zn-polluted site. We did not observe an increasing Zn tolerance among the soil organisms in the polluted soil. However, low population growth rates of soil invertebrates from the polluted site may indicate the deleterious effects on fitness of long-lasting pollution. In the soil from the nonpolluted site, Zn additions caused changes in the invertebrate food web structure. These changes were explained by the good physiological condition of the animals and their insensitivity to Zn. The fact that the food web structure in soil from the polluted site did not change can be used as a rough indicator of PICT. Structural stability is presumed by the lack of Zn-sensitive species at this site and the inability of populations to acclimate by altering their growth or reproduction patterns in response to changing soil conditions. Although microbial-based soil decomposer systems may have a high functional redundancy, our results indicate that metal stress at the polluted site exceeds the tolerance limits of the system. As a consequence, ecosystem function at this site is endangered. This study also shows that the evolution of metal tolerance by soil decomposer organisms may not be a common reaction to soil pollution, although changes of population and community structure indicated severe metal stress on organisms. PMID:11596762

Salminen, J; van Gestel, C A; Oksanen, J

2001-10-01

269

HPLC, HPLC-MS and Lipidomics methods for the analysis of functional lipids in vegetable oils, nutraceuticals, and functional foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Functional lipids include triacylglycerols (some contain health-promoting omega-3 fatty acids), phytosterols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids, and related natural products. Until recently, thin layer chromatography was commonly used for their qualitative separation and gas chromatography (GC...

270

Bioactive compounds and nutritional significance of virgin argan oil--an edible oil with potential as a functional food.  

PubMed

This review compiles recently published scientific reports on the bioactive compounds present in virgin argan oil along with their possible beneficial effects on human health, which could justify consideration of this oil as a new functional food. Virgin argan oil is characterized by high levels of linoleic and oleic acids, tocopherols (especially ?-tocopherol), and minor compounds such as sterols, carotenoids, and squalene. The total antioxidant capacity of virgin argan oil is higher than that of other vegetable oils. Recent studies suggest that this edible oil, as a functional food, may play a role in disease prevention. For example, some authors have found it to have hypolipidemic, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive effects as well as a possible role in cancer prevention. This review demonstrates the need for further studies in order to fully characterize argan oil from bromatological, nutritional, culinary, and technological perspectives. In particular, the scarcity of clinical data hampers relevant conclusions from being drawn regarding the therapeutic effects of virgin argan oil. PMID:22537213

Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Marfil, Rocío; Giménez, Rafael; Martínez-Augustin, Olga

2012-05-01

271

Nematomorph parasites indirectly alter the food web and ecosystem function of streams through behavioural manipulation of their cricket hosts.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nematomorph parasites manipulate crickets to enter streams where the parasites reproduce. These manipulated crickets become a substantial food subsidy for stream fishes. We used a field experiment to investigate how this subsidy affects the stream community and ecosystem function. When crickets were available, predatory fish ate fewer benthic invertebrates. The resulting release of the benthic invertebrate community from fish predation indirectly decreased the biomass of benthic algae and slightly increased leaf break-down rate. This is the first experimental demonstration that host manipulation by a parasite can reorganise a community and alter ecosystem function. Nematomorphs are common, and many other parasites have dramatic effects on host phenotypes, suggesting that similar effects of parasites on ecosystems might be widespread.

Sato, T.; Egusa, T.; Fukushima, K.; Oda, T.; Ohte, N.; Tokuchi, Naoko; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Kanaiwa, Minoru; Murakami, Isaya; Lafferty, Kevin D.

2012-01-01

272

Food consumption by young children: a function of parental feeding goals and practices.  

PubMed

Staggering health implications are associated with poor child diet. Given the importance of parents in impacting children's eating outcomes, the current study examined a theoretical framework in which both parental feeding goals and practices impact specific healthy and unhealthy child eating behaviors. Participants were 171 mothers of 3-6year old children who were diverse both socioeconomically and with regard to BMI. Mothers completed questionnaires via Mechanical Turk, an online workforce through Amazon.com. Structural Equation Modeling showed an adequate model fit in which Negative Feeding Practices (e.g., using food as a reward) mediated the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals (i.e., feeding children with health-oriented goals in mind) and Negative Eating Behaviors (e.g., consumption of candy and snacks). However, Negative Feeding Practices did not mediate the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals and Positive Eating Behaviors (i.e., fruits and vegetables). These findings suggest the important role of habitual food parenting practices in children's eating and have implications for parental health education programs. PMID:24275668

Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison E; Hoffmann, Debra A; Meers, Molly R; Koball, Afton M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

2014-03-01

273

Is the structural diversity of tripeptides sufficient for developing functional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multifunctional peptides have attracted increasing attention in the food science community because of their therapeutic potential, low toxicity and rapid intestinal absorption. However, previous study demonstrated that the limited structural variations make it difficult to optimize dipeptide molecules in a good balance between desirable and undesirable properties (F. Tian, P. Zhou, F. Lv, R. Song, Z. Li, J. Pept. Sci. 13 (2007) 549-566). In the present work, we attempt to answer whether the structural diversity is sufficient for a tripeptide to have satisfactory multiple bioactivities. Statistical test, structural examination and energetic analysis confirm that peptides of three amino acids long can bind tightly to human angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and thus exert significant antihypertensive efficacy. Further quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling and prediction of all 8000 possible tripeptides reveal that their ACE-inhibitory potency exhibits a good (positive) relationship to antioxidative activity, but has only a quite modest correlation with bitterness. This means that it is possible to find certain tripeptide entities possessing the optimal combination of strong ACE-inhibitory potency, high antioxidative activity and weak bitter taste, which are the promising candidates for developing multifunctional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities. The marked difference between dipeptide and tripeptide can be attributed to the fact that the structural diversity of peptides increases dramatically with a slight change in sequence length.

Wang, Jian-Hui; Liu, Yong-Le; Ning, Jing-Heng; Yu, Jian; Li, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Fa-Xiang

2013-05-01

274

Bioavailability of Mercury to Riverine Food Webs as a Function of Flood-Event Inundation of Channel Boundary Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioavailability of sediment-adsorbed contaminants to food webs in river corridors is typically controlled by biological, chemical, and physical factors, but understanding of their respective influences is limited due to a dearth of landscape-scale investigations of these biogeochemical links. Studies that account for the dynamics and interactions of hydrology and sediment transport in affecting the reactivity of sediment-adsorbed heavy metals such as mercury (Hg) are particularly lacking. Sequences of flood events generate complex inundation histories with banks, terraces, and floodplains that have the potential to alter local redox conditions and thereby affect the oxidation of elemental Hg0 to inorganic Hg(II), and the microbial conversion of Hg(II) to methylmercury (MeHg), potentially increasing the risk of Hg uptake into aquatic food webs. However, the probability distributions of saturation/inundation frequency and duration are typically unknown for channel boundaries along sediment transport pathways, and landscape-scale characterizations of Hg reactivity are rare along contaminated rivers. This research provides the first links between the dynamics of physical processes and biochemical processing and uptake into food webs in fluvial systems beset by large-scale mining contamination. Here we present new research on Hg-contaminated legacy terraces and banks along the Yuba River anthropogenic fan, produced by 19th C. hydraulic gold mining in Northern California. To assess the changes in Hg(II) availability for methylation and MeHg bioavailability into the food web, we combine numerical modeling of streamflow with geochemical assays of total Hg and Hg reactivity to identify hot spots of toxicity within the river corridor as a function of cycles of wetting/drying. We employ a 3D hydraulic model to route historical streamflow hydrographs from major flood events through the Yuba and Feather Rivers into the Central Valley to assess the frequency and duration of saturation/inundation of channel boundary sediments. We compare these spatiotemporal modeling results to sediment total Hg and stannous chloride ';reducible' Hg(II) concentrations (the latter as a proxy for Hg(II) availability for methylation) along this ~70 km swath of river corridor. Finally, we evaluate these potential hot spots of Hg toxicity against MeHg concentrations in local aquatic biota at several trophic levels. The research will provide the basis for new models describing the evolution of toxic substances in river corridors and may prove helpful in explaining the contribution of Hg to food webs of the San Francisco Bay-Delta as an enduring legacy of California's 19th C. Gold Rush.

Singer, M. B.; Pellachini, C.; Blum, J. D.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Donovan, P. M.

2013-12-01

275

[Effects on the lipid profile in humans of a polyphenol-rich carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) extract in a dairy matrix like a functional food; a pilot study].  

PubMed

The design of functional foods enriched in nutrients that favorably alter the lipid profile to prevent cardiovascular diseases and stimulate bowel function is of great interest. We have assayed a non-extractable-tannates-rich carob-fiber (PF-1®) in a milk matrix developed by Biosearch S.A. to discover its effects on the lipid profile and bowel function of human volunteers. A 4-week interventional study (400 mL daily consumption of this functional food, containing 20 g of PF-1®/L), was conducted: blood samples were analyzed for lipid profile, glucose, transaminases, creatinine and fat-soluble vitamins. The body-mass index and bowel function of the participants in the study were also measured. A tendency for triglyceride levels to diminish was observed in all participants (P = 0.066), and in the normal-cholesterol group in particular (P = 0.078). Another tendency to total cholesterol levels fell in the hypercholesterolemic group (P = 0.061) was also found. In the normal-cholesterol group, total cholesterol (CT), HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels significantly increased with the consumption of the functional food (P < 0.05). A better bowel function was also recorded by volunteers. This preliminary study highlights the possible positive influence of this functional food on the regulation of the lipid profile and bowel function in humans. PMID:24506389

Martínez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos; Fonollá-Joya, Juristo

2013-01-01

276

Smokers’ and Nonsmokers’ Beliefs About Harmful Tobacco Constituents: Implications for FDA Communication Efforts  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Legislation requires the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to release information to the public about harmful constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. To inform these efforts, we sought to better understand how smokers and nonsmokers think about tobacco constituents. Methods: In October 2012, 300U.S. adults aged 18–66 years completed a cross-sectional Internet survey. The questions focused on 20 harmful tobacco constituents that the FDA has prioritized for communicating with the public. Results: Most participants had heard of 7 tobacco constituents (ammonia, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and nicotine), but few participants had heard of the others (e.g., acrolein). Few participants correctly understood that many constituents were naturally present in tobacco. Substances that companies add to cigarette tobacco discouraged people from wanting to smoke more than substances that naturally occur in cigarette smoke (p < .001). Ammonia, arsenic, carbon monoxide, and formaldehyde being in cigarettes elicited the most discouragement from smoking. Constituents elicited greater discouragement from wanting to smoke if respondents were nonsmokers (? = ?.34, p < .05), had negative images of smokers (i.e., negative smoker prototypes; ? = .19, p < .05), believed constituents are added to tobacco (? = .14, p < .05), or were older (? = .16, p < .05). Conclusions: Our study found low awareness of most tobacco constituents, with greater concern elicited by additives. Efforts to communicate health risks of tobacco constituents should consider focusing on ones that elicited the most discouragement from smoking. PMID:24151139

2014-01-01

277

[Chemical constituents of Nauclea officinalis].  

PubMed

In order to study the chemical constituents in the water extract of the stem of Nauclea officinalis, column chromatography over D101 macroporous resin and silica gel and an automatic purification system were used to isolate and purify the chemical constituents from the extract. Nine compounds were obtained. By analysis of the physicochemical properties and spectral data, their structures were identified as naucleamide G (1), 3, 4-dimethoxyphenol-beta-D-apiofuranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), kelampayoside A (3), 3alpha, 5alpha-tetrahydrodeoxycordifoline lactam (4), naucleamide A-10-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), pumiloside (6), 3-epi-pumiloside (7), strictosamide (8) and vincosamide (9), separately. Among them, compound 1 is a new compound, compound 2 was found in plants of the genus Nauclea for the first time, and compounds 3 and 4 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:23672026

Zhu, Fen-Xia; Wang, Jing-Jing; Song, Jie; Ding, Shu-Min; Jia, Xiao-Bin

2013-02-01

278

Organic Constituents of the Soil.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION . . AGBICULTUBAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL. Rcrldent BULLETIN NO. 300 SEPTEMBER, 1922 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY ORGANIC CONSTITUENTS OF THE SOIL R. Y OUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOR, COLLEGE STATION.... s ~gro~omist,.Soils E. R. REYNOLDS, M. S., Aaronomlst. Small Grains G. N. STROMAN, M. S., Agronomist; Farm Suprrlntendent **PEARL DRUMMOND, Seed Analyst PLANT PATHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY J. J. TAUBENHAUS, Ph. D.. Chief COTTON BREEDING G. F. FREEMAN...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1922-01-01

279

Chemical constituents of Thai propolis.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation on the constituents of Thai propolis led the isolation of a new phenylallylflavanone, (7?S)-8-[1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-yl]-(2S)-pinocembrin (1) and (E)-cinnamyl-(E)-cinnamylidenate (2) from methanolic extract of Thai propolis. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis. In addition to this, 19 compounds (3-21) belonging to flavonoids and phenolic esters were isolated and identified. PMID:23660244

Athikomkulchai, Sirivan; Awale, Suresh; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kadota, Shigetoshi

2013-07-01

280

Chemical constituents of Hypogymnia enteromorpha  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lichenHypogymnia enteromorpha (Ach.) Nyl. was sequentially extracted by a solvent series that ranged from non-polar to highly polar liquids. The principal extracellular lichen products isolated from this species were thiophaninic acid, physodalic acid, physodic acid, atranorin, and ventosic acid. The carbohydrate D-arabitol was isolated from the more polar extracts. The isolated constituents were identified by means of mixed melting

Takayuki Shibamoto; Richard A. Bernhard

1974-01-01

281

Food supplementation and testosterone interact to influence reproductive behavior and immune function in Sceloporus graciosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energetic resources in an organism's environment are essential for executing a wide range of life-history functions, including immunity and reproduction. Most energetic budgets, however, are limited, which can lead to trade-offs among competing functions. Increasing reproductive effort tends to decrease immunity in many cases, and increasing total energy via supplemental feedings can eliminate this effect. Testosterone (T), an important

Mayté Ruiz; Susannah S. French; Gregory E. Demas; Emília P. Martins

2010-01-01

282

Brazilian fruit pulps as functional foods and additives: evaluation of bioactive compounds.  

PubMed

Eight tropical fruit pulps from Brazil were simultaneously characterised in terms of their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Antioxidant activity was screened by DPPH radical scavenging activity (126-3987 mg TE/100g DW) and ferric reduction activity power (368-20819 mg AAE/100g DW), and complemented with total phenolic content (329-12466 mg GAE/100g DW) and total flavonoid content measurements (46-672 mg EE /100g DW), whereas antimicrobial activity was tested against the most frequently found food pathogens. Acerola and açaí presented the highest values for the antioxidant-related measurements. Direct correlations between these measurements could be observed for some of the fruits. Tamarind exhibited the broadest antimicrobial potential, having revealed growth inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus. Açaí and tamarind extracts presented an inverse relationship between antibacterial and antioxidant activities, and therefore, the antibacterial activity cannot be attributed (only) to phenolic compounds. PMID:25442579

Paz, Mário; Gúllon, Patricia; Barroso, M Fátima; Carvalho, Ana P; Domingues, Valentina F; Gomes, Ana M; Becker, Helena; Longhinotti, Elisane; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

2015-04-01

283

Plant sterols and stanols as cholesterol-lowering ingredients in functional foods.  

PubMed

This article reviews developments related to the use of plant sterols and stanols as cholesterol-lowering ingredients in foods and nutraceuticals preparations. Plant sterols and stanols are extracted from the deodorizer distillates of vegetable oil refining and from tall oil, a by-product of paper pulping industry. Plant sterols/stanols inhibit cholesterol absorption possibly by competitively inhibiting its incorporation into the mixed micelles in the small intestine although other mechanisms can not be excluded. Daily consumption of 1-2 grams of plant sterols or stanols was shown to cause 10-20% reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL cholesterol). Combinations of plant sterols/stanols with certain lipid-lowering ingredients were shown to potentate their cholesterol-lowering effects and, in some cases, add triacylglycerol-lowering effects. In this article, patents based information is also discussed. PMID:20653521

Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Moazzami, Ali

2009-01-01

284

Healthy and Adverse Effects of Plant-Derived Functional Metabolites: The Need of Revealing their Content and Bioactivity in a Complex Food Matrix  

PubMed Central

In recent years, both food quality and its effect on human health have become a fundamental issue all over the world. As a consequence of this new and increased awareness, American, European, and Asian policymakers have strongly encouraged the research programs on food quality and safety thematic. Attempts to improve human health and to satisfy people's desire for healthcare without intake of pharmaceuticals, has led the food industry to focus attention on functional or nutraceutical food. For a long time, compounds with nutraceutical activity have been produced chemically, but the new demands for a sustainable life have gradually led the food industry to move towards natural compounds, mainly those derived from plants. Many phytochemicals are known to promote good health, but, sometimes, undesirable effects are also reported. Furthermore, several products present on the market show few benefits and sometimes even the reverse – unhealthy effects; the evidence of efficacy is often unconvincing and epidemiological studies are necessary to prove the truth of their claims. Therefore, there is a need for reliable analytical control systems to measure the bioactivity, content, and quality of these additives in the complex food matrix. This review describes the most widespread nutraceutics and an analytical control of the same using recently developed biosensors which are promising candidates for routine control of functional foods. PMID:23072533

Lavecchia, Teresa; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Giardi, Maria T.

2012-01-01

285

Healthy and adverse effects of plant-derived functional metabolites: the need of revealing their content and bioactivity in a complex food matrix.  

PubMed

In recent years, both food quality and its effect on human health have become a fundamental issue all over the world. As a consequence of this new and increased awareness, American, European, and Asian policymakers have strongly encouraged the research programs on food quality and safety thematic. Attempts to improve human health and to satisfy people's desire for healthcare without intake of pharmaceuticals, has led the food industry to focus attention on functional or nutraceutical food. For a long time, compounds with nutraceutical activity have been produced chemically, but the new demands for a sustainable life have gradually led the food industry to move towards natural compounds, mainly those derived from plants. Many phytochemicals are known to promote good health, but, sometimes, undesirable effects are also reported. Furthermore, several products present on the market show few benefits and sometimes even the reverse - unhealthy effects; the evidence of efficacy is often unconvincing and epidemiological studies are necessary to prove the truth of their claims. Therefore, there is a need for reliable analytical control systems to measure the bioactivity, content, and quality of these additives in the complex food matrix. This review describes the most widespread nutraceutics and an analytical control of the same using recently developed biosensors which are promising candidates for routine control of functional foods. PMID:23072533

Lavecchia, Teresa; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Giardi, Maria T

2013-01-01

286

Original article Major constituents, leptin, and non-protein nitrogen  

E-print Network

a further indication that mares' milk can be regarded as a functional food. mares' milk / colostrum / major, enzymes, hormones and protective and trophic factors. Milk helps to prevent metabolic disorders and chronic diseases in newborn mammals [17] and has been called a "functional food" due to its other roles

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

287

Space Food Systems Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

288

Immune function and hematology of male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in response to food supplementation and methionine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined effects of supplementation of food quantity and quality (=enhanced methionine) on hematologic and immunologic parameters of wild, but enclosed, adult male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in north-central Oklahoma. Sheet metal enclosures were stocked with a high density of wild-caught cotton rats (160 animals/ha) and randomly assigned a treatment of no supplementation, mixed-ration supplementation or methionine-enhanced supplementation. Aside from small increases in counts of red blood cells and hematocrit levels, most indices of erythrocytic characteristics were not affected by supplementation with the mixed-ration or enhanced methionine. In contrast, platelet counts were highest in mixed-ration and methionine treatments and counts of total white blood cells were highest with methionine supplementation, albeit relative proportions of different leukocytes did not differ among treatments. Immunologically, neither delayed-type hypersensitivity response nor hemolytic-complement activity differed among treatments. Supplementation of food quantity and quality did not broadly affect hematologic parameters and immune function of male cotton rats, but enhanced platelet and leukocyte counts may confer advantages to overall health. Clarification of the role of such effects on population limitation or regulation requires additional research. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Webb, R.E.; Leslie, D.M., Jr.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.

2003-01-01

289

Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that contain ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have an ...

290

Plant sterols: factors affecting their efficacy and safety as functional food ingredients  

PubMed Central

Plant sterols are naturally occurring molecules that humanity has evolved with. Herein, we have critically evaluated recent literature pertaining to the myriad of factors affecting efficacy and safety of plant sterols in free and esterified forms. We conclude that properly solubilized 4-desmetyl plant sterols, in ester or free form, in reasonable doses (0.8–1.0 g of equivalents per day) and in various vehicles including natural sources, and as part of a healthy diet and lifestyle, are important dietary components for lowering low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and maintaining good heart health. In addition to their cholesterol lowering properties, plant sterols possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenicity, and anti-oxidation activities, and should thus be of clinical importance, even for those individuals without elevated LDL cholesterol. The carotenoid lowering effect of plant sterols should be corrected by increasing intake of food that is rich in carotenoids. In pregnant and lactating women and children, further study is needed to verify the dose required to decrease blood cholesterol without affecting fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoid status. PMID:15070410

Berger, Alvin; Jones, Peter JH; Abumweis, Suhad S

2004-01-01

291

Functional food quality of Curcuma caesia, Curcuma zedoaria and Curcuma aeruginosa endemic to Northeastern India.  

PubMed

Curcuma spp. (Zingiberaceae) is one of the significant ingredients in food and traditional medicines. The current study was to investigate health-benefits of the rhizomes of endemic Curcuma caesia, Curcuma zedoaria and Curcuma aeruginosa using in vitro antioxidant, antiinflammatory and human tumor cell proliferation inhibitory activities. Among these, C. caesia (black turmeric) showed the best overall biological activities based on [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO), cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and -2) enzymes, and tumor cell growth inhibitory assays. The hexane and methanolic extracts of C. caesia (CCH and CCM) showed LPO inhibition by 31 and 43 %, and COX-2 enzyme by 29 and 38 %, respectively, at 100 ?g/ml. Eleven terpenoids were isolated and identified. The MTT antioxidant assay revealed that the extracts of three Curcuma spp. at 250 ?g/ml and isolates at 5 ?g/ml demonstrated activity comparable to positive controls vitamin C and t-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) at 25 ?g/ml. The extracts inhibited LPO by 40 % at 250 ?g/ml whereas pure isolates 1-11 by about 20 %. The extracts and isolates inhibited COX-1 and -2 enzymes between the ranges of 3-56 and 5-30 %, respectively. The in vitro biological activity exhibited by the extracts and isolates of C. caesia rhizome further supported its use in traditional medicine. PMID:23359084

Liu, Yunbao; Roy, Subhra Saikat; Nebie, Roger H C; Zhang, Yanjun; Nair, Muraleedharan G

2013-03-01

292

In vitro evaluation of the probiotic and functional potential of Lactobacillus strains isolated from fermented food and human intestine.  

PubMed

This study aims to evaluate the functional and probiotic characteristics of eight indigenous Lactobacillus strains in vitro. The selected lactobacilli include strains of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salicinius, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. All strains tolerated both pH 2 for 3 h and 1% bile salt for 24 h. The strains CICC 23174 and CGMCC 1.557 were the most adhesive strains producing the highest quantity of EPS. Although a wide variation in the ability of the eight strains to deplete cholesterol and nitrite, antagonize pathogens, scavenge free radical, and stimulate innate immune response were observed, the strains CICC 23174 and CGMCC 1.557 showed the widest range of these useful traits. Taken together, the strains CICC 23174 and CGMCC 1.557 exhibited the best probiotic properties with the potential for use in the production of probiotic fermented foods. PMID:25046742

Ren, Dayong; Li, Chang; Qin, Yanqing; Yin, Ronglan; Du, Shouwen; Ye, Fei; Liu, Cunxia; Liu, Hongfeng; Wang, Maopeng; Li, Yi; Sun, Yang; Li, Xiao; Tian, Mingyao; Jin, Ningyi

2014-12-01

293

[Functional properties and possible uses of a hydrolysate of pepitona (Arca zebra) in the preparation of foods].  

PubMed

The present study revealed that the drum-drying and spray-drying procedures used on the pepitona (Arca zebra) hydrolysate, as well as the storage time, exert a deteriorative significant effect on the functional properties of both hydrolysates. The greatest and more significant losses of the majority of such properties occur during the first two months of storage period. Thus, in the case of foaming capacity, losses ranging from 17% to 34% were detected in the drum-dried hydrolysate, and of 38% to 49% in the hydrolysate dehydrated using a spray drier, during the first two months of storage. The emulsifying capacity was also altered in 14% of the hydrolysate dehydrated in a drum drier, and in 25% of the hydrolysate dehydrated using a spray drier. Sensory evaluation tests demonstrated the potential of both hydrolysates for use as supplements of conventional foods such as cookies and extruded products. PMID:3842930

Arbej, J; Luna, G

1985-12-01

294

Food hydrocolloids as additives to improve the mechanical and functional properties of fish products: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restructuring process offers to fish processors the opportunity to obtain new products, taking advantage of both low-value fish species and remains from filleting and other processing operations. However, mechanical and functional properties of restructured products depend on the biochemical and physicochemical properties of muscle proteins, mainly myosin and actomyosin. In this regard, the biochemistry of fish muscle is different

José A. Ramírez; Rocio M. Uresti; Gonzalo Velazquez; Manuel Vázquez

2011-01-01

295

[Chemical constituents of Eupatorium lindleyanum].  

PubMed

To study chemical constituents of Eupatorium lindleyanum. Ethyl acetate extractive fractions were separated with silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 by column chromatography, and their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. Sixteen compounds were separated and identified as scopoletin (1), 6, 7-dimethylesculetin (2), nepetin (3), eupatrin (4), luteolin (5), isoquerecitrin (6), jaceosidin (7), quceritin (8), kaempferol (9), rutin (10), cirsiliol (11), taraxasterylacetate (12), pseudotaraxasteryl acetate (13), pseudotaraxasterol (14), butanoic acid (15) and n-hexadecanoic acid (16). Of them, compounds 1-6 and 11, 13 and 15 were separated from this plant for the first time. PMID:22792793

Wu, Shuangqing; Sun, Qun; Chu, Chunjun; Zhang, Jian

2012-04-01

296

Food, ethics and aesthetics.  

PubMed

The authors test the popular thesis of some of the most influential theorists of contemporary societies about the erosion of the social structuring of consumption choices and their consequent individualisation in westernised societies, using the example of food practices. The analysis is based on data obtained from a random sample of the Slovenian population within a research project entitled 'Lifestyles in a Mediated Society.' The aims of the analysis were: (a) to explore the role of socio-demographic variables in food practices, and (b) to discover the inherent logic that motivates each particular set of food practices and which makes them meaningful for the individual, by studying an association of respondents' food practices with their worldview and cultural consumption. A cluster analysis revealed six food cultures (Male traditionalists, Yes-sayers, Male modernists, Weight-watchers, Carefree hedonists, and Health-conscious hedonists) lying along a continuum where traditionalism occupies one end and post-traditionalism the other. The authors conclude that although two out of six food cultures crosscut socio-demographic affiliations and transform food consumption into a constituent part of a lifestyle as an identity project, there is still a significant influence of socio-demographic characteristics (particularly gender and formal education) on food practices in contemporary Slovenia. Furthermore, significant associations exist between food practices, on the one hand, and the respondent's worldview and cultural consumption, on the other. PMID:15808896

Tivadar, Blanka; Luthar, Breda

2005-04-01

297

[Phenolic constituents from Oplopanax horridus].  

PubMed

The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic techniques indluding silica gel, reverse phase silica gel, sephadex LH-20 and pre-HPLC and identified by their physicochemical properties and spectral data. Sixteen phenolic compounds had been isolated and n-butanol extracts which were fractionated from the ethanol extract of Oplopanax horridus roots bark. Their structures were identified as below, including 7 phenylpropanoid compounds, ferulic acid (1), 3-acetylcaffeic acid (2), caffeic acid (3), homovanillyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 3-hydroxyphenethyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), 3, 5-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), and 3-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7). Three coumarins, scopoletin (8), esculetin (9) and 3'-angeloyl-4'-acetyl-cis-knellactone (10). And 6 lignan compounds, (+)-isolaricires-inol-9'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (11), 3, 3'-dimethoxy-4, 9, 9'-trihydroxy-4', 7-epoxy-5', 8-lignan-4, 9-bis-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (12), (+)-5, 5'-dimethoxylariciresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (13), (-)-5,5'-dimethoxylariciresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (14), (-)-pinoresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (15), and (+)-5, 5'-dimethoxylariciresinol 9'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (16). All compounds were isolated and identified for the first time from this plant All the constituents except compounds 4, 6, 12 and 13 were obtained for the first time from the genus Oplopanax. PMID:25282894

Huang, Wei-Hua; Luo, Wei; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Nie, Ming-Kun; Shi, Shu-Yun; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng

2014-05-01

298

Flavonoid content in ethanolic extracts of selected raw and traditionally processed indigenous foods consumed by vulnerable groups of Kenya: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related functional properties.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the flavonoid content, antioxidant as well as type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activities of ethanolic extract of certain raw and traditionally processed indigenous food ingredients including cereals, legumes, oil seeds, tubers, vegetables and leafy vegetables, which are commonly consumed by vulnerable groups in Kenya. The vegetables exhibited higher flavonoid content (50-703 mg/100 g) when compared with the grains (47-343 mg/100 g). The ethanolic extract of presently studied food ingredients revealed 33-93% DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 486-6,389 mmol Fe(II)/g reducing power, 19-43% ?-amylase inhibition activity and 14-68% ?-glucosidase inhibition activity. Among the different food-stuffs, the drumstick and amaranth leaves exhibited significantly higher flavonoid content with excellent functional properties. Roasting of grains and cooking of vegetables were found to be suitable processing methods in preserving the functional properties. Hence, such viable processing techniques for respective food samples will be considered in the formulation of functional supplementary foods for vulnerable groups in Kenya. PMID:21375390

Kunyanga, Catherine N; Imungi, Jasper K; Okoth, Michael W; Biesalski, Hans K; Vadivel, Vellingiri

2011-08-01

299

ZnO-reinforced poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) bionanocomposites with antimicrobial function for food packaging.  

PubMed

Biodegradable nanocomposites were prepared by adding ZnO nanoparticles to bacterial polyester poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) via solution casting technique. The morphology, thermal, mechanical, antibacterial, barrier, and migration properties of the nanocomposites were analyzed. The nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed within PHBV without the aid of coupling agents, and acted effectively as nucleating agents, raising the crystallization temperature and the level of crystallinity of the matrix while decreasing its crystallite size. A gradual rise in thermal stability was found with increasing ZnO loading, since the nanofillers hinder the diffusion of volatiles generated during the decomposition process. The nanocomposites displayed superior stiffness, strength, toughness, and glass transition temperature, whereas they displayed reduced water uptake and oxygen and water vapor permeability compared to the neat biopolymer, related to the strong matrix-nanofiller interfacial adhesion attained via hydrogen bonding interactions. At an optimal concentration of 4.0 wt % ZnO, the tensile strength and Young's and storage moduli showed a maximum that coincided with the highest crystallinity and the best barrier properties. PHBV/ZnO films showed antibacterial activity against human pathogen bacteria, and the effect on Escherichia coli was stronger than on Staphylococcus aureus. The overall migration levels of the nanocomposites in both nonpolar and polar simulants dropped upon increasing nanoparticle content, and were well below the limits required by the current normative for food packaging materials. These sustainable nanomaterials with antimicrobial function are very promising to be used as containers for beverage and food products as well as for disposable applications like cutlery or overwrap films. PMID:24846876

Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Díez-Vicente, Angel L

2014-06-25

300

[Chemical constituents of Scolopendra negrocapitis].  

PubMed

The chemical constituent of Scolopendra negrocapitis Zhang et Wang were systematically analyzed and compared with S. subspinipes mutilans L. Koch. The results showed the lipid content was 18.7%, protein was 63.4% and total amino acid was 11.9%; S. negrocapitis contained the same twelve fat acids (the content of unsaturated fat acid was nearly 64% in its fat acids), twenty one amino acids and twelve trace elements as S. subspinipes mutilans had. The protein of S. negrocapitis showed forteen bands as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. S. negrocapitis and S. subspinipes mutilans have the same main chemical composition. The contents of compositions are different. S. negrocapitis is worth as the nature resources of medicinal centepede. PMID:12575073

Fang, H; Deng, F; Yan, Y; Wang, K

1999-05-01

301

Effects of nutrient limitation on biochemical constituents of Ankistrodesmus falcatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Cell size and volume changed as a function of the type of resource limitation, with nitrogen-limited cells being smaller and less dense and phosphorus-limited cells being larger and more dense than non-limited cells. 2. The major biochemical constituents of the green alga Ankistrodesmus falcatus varied as a function of nitrogen or phosphorus limitation (15% of maximum growth rate) compared

SUSAN S. K ILHAM; D ANIEL A. K REEGER; C L Y DE; E. G OULDEN; SUMMAR Y

302

Safety Evaluation of Phytosterol Esters. Part 2. Subchronic 90Day Oral Toxicity Study on Phytosterol Esters–A Novel Functional Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytosterol esters (PE) are intended for use as a novel food ingredient, primarily in margarines and spreads as a functional component with plasma cholesterol lowering activity. Phytosterols and their esters are present naturally in vegetable oils and on average people consume 200mg\\/day, but their consumption at this level is not sufficient to lower plasma cholesterol levels. Therefore, through the incorporation

P. A. Hepburn; S. A. Horner; M. Smith

1999-01-01

303

Long-term association of food and nutrient intakes with cognitive and functional1 decline: a 13-year follow-up study of elderly French women2  

E-print Network

, lifestyle and41 health factors were performed to evaluate associations between habitual dietary intakes and, as well as higher intakes of dairy dessert and ice-cream. IADL impairment was45 associated with lower1 Long-term association of food and nutrient intakes with cognitive and functional1 decline: a 13

Boyer, Edmond

304

Comparison of the effects of the degree of food restriction during rearing on ovarian function at the onset of lay in unselected ducks (anas platyrhynchos) and in a line selected for improved food efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Ovarian structure and function at sexual maturity in two lines of ducks (selected or not selected for juvenile food efficiency), fed ad libitum or restricted to achieve 0.50, 0.65 or 0.80 of unrestricted body weight at 24 weeks, were compared in a randomised block factorial experiment.2. Selected ducks were larger but not fatter or older at sexual maturity, had

P. M. Hocking

1990-01-01

305

Filtered molasses concentrate from sugar cane: natural functional ingredient effective in lowering the glycaemic index and insulin response of high carbohydrate foods.  

PubMed

An aqueous filtered molasses concentrate (FMC) sourced from sugar cane was used as a functional ingredient in a range of carbohydrate-containing foods to reduce glycaemic response. When compared to untreated controls, postprandial glucose responses in the test products were reduced 5-20%, assessed by accredited glycaemic index (GI) testing. The reduction in glucose response in the test foods was dose-dependent and directly proportional to the ratio of FMC added to the amount of available carbohydrate in the test products. The insulin response to the foods was also reduced with FMC addition as compared to untreated controls. Inclusion of FMC in test foods did not replace any formulation ingredients; it was incorporated as an additional ingredient to existing formulations. Filtered molasses concentrate, made by a proprietary and patented process, contains many naturally occurring compounds. Some of the identified compounds are known to influence carbohydrate metabolism, and include phenolic compounds, minerals and organic acids. FMC, sourced from a by-product of sugar cane processing, shows potential as a natural functional ingredient capable of modifying carbohydrate metabolism and contributing to GI reduction of processed foods and beverages. PMID:25373842

Wright, Alison G; Ellis, Timothy P; Ilag, Leodevico L

2014-12-01

306

Naturally Occurring Food Toxins  

PubMed Central

Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States. PMID:22069686

Dolan, Laurie C.; Matulka, Ray A.; Burdock, George A.

2010-01-01

307

A Prospective Cohort Study of the Effects of Adjuvant Breast Cancer Chemotherapy on Taste Function, Food Liking, Appetite and Associated Nutritional Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background ‘Taste’ changes are commonly reported during chemotherapy. It is unclear to what extent this relates to actual changes in taste function or to changes in appetite and food liking and how these changes affect dietary intake and nutritional status. Patients and methods This prospective, repeated measures cohort study recruited participants from three oncology clinics. Women (n?=?52) prescribed adjuvant chemotherapy underwent standardised testing of taste perception, appetite and food liking at six time points to measure change from baseline. Associations between taste and hedonic changes and nutritional outcomes were examined. Results Taste function was significantly reduced early in chemotherapy cycles (p<0.05) but showed recovery by late in the cycle. Ability to correctly identify salty, sour and umami tastants was reduced. Liking of sweet food decreased early and mid-cycle (p<0.01) but not late cycle. Liking of savory food was not significantly affected. Appetite decreased early in the cycle (p<0.001). Reduced taste function was associated with lowest kilojoule intake (r?=?0.31; p?=?0.008) as was appetite loss with reduced kilojoule (r?=?0.34; p?=?0.002) and protein intake (r?=?0.36; p?=?0.001) early in the third chemotherapy cycle. Decreased appetite early in the third and final chemotherapy cycles was associated with a decline in BMI (p?=?<0.0005) over the study period. Resolution of taste function, food liking and appetite was observed 8 weeks after chemotherapy completion. There was no association between taste change and dry mouth, oral mucositis or nausea. Conclusion The results reveal, for the first time, the cyclical yet transient effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on taste function and the link between taste and hedonic changes, dietary intake and nutritional outcomes. The results should be used to inform reliable pre-chemotherapy education. PMID:25078776

Boltong, Anna; Aranda, Sanchia; Keast, Russell; Wynne, Rochelle; Francis, Prudence A.; Chirgwin, Jacqueline; Gough, Karla

2014-01-01

308

Consumers' salient beliefs regarding dairy products in the functional food era: a qualitative study using concepts from the theory of planned behaviour  

PubMed Central

Background Inadequate consumption of dairy products without appropriate dietary substitution may have deleterious health consequences. Social research reveals the factors that may impede compliance with dietary recommendations. This is particularly important given the recent introduction of functional dairy products. One of the challenges for public health professionals is to demonstrate the efficacy of nutrition education in improving attitudes toward nutrient rich foods. The aim of this study was to explore the salient beliefs of adult weight loss trial participants regarding both traditional and functional dairy products and to compare these with a control group not exposed to nutrition education. Methods Six focus groups were conducted, three with weight loss trial completers (n = 15) that had received nutrition education and three with individuals from the same region (n = 14) to act as controls. Transcribed focus groups were coded using the Theory of Planned Behaviour theoretical framework. Results Non-trial participants perceived dairy foods as weight inducing and were sceptical of functional dairy products. A lack of time/ability to decipher dairy food labels was also discussed by these individuals. In contrast trial participants discussed several health benefits related to dairy foods, practised label reading and were confident in their ability to incorporate dairy foods into their diet. Normative beliefs expressed were similar for both groups indicating that these were more static and less amenable to change through nutrition education than control and behavioural beliefs. Conclusions Nutrition education provided as a result of weight loss trial participation influenced behavioural and control beliefs relating to dairy products. This study provides a proof of concept indication that nutrition education may improve attitudes towards dairy products and may thus be an important target for public health campaigns seeking to increase intake of this food group. PMID:22047610

2011-01-01

309

Food Chains and Food Webs - Balance within Natural Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a continued focus on the Sonoran Desert, students are introduced to the concepts of food chains and food webs through a PowerPoint® presentation. They learn the difference between producers and consumers and study how these organisms function within their communities as participants in various food chains. They further understand ecosystem differences by learning how multiple food chains link together to form intricate and balanced food webs. At lesson end, students construct food webs using endemic desert species.

2014-09-18

310

Food phenolics and lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic compounds are important constituents of food products of plant origin. These compounds are directly related to sensory characteristics of foods such as flavour, astringency, and colour. In addition, the presence of phenolic compounds on the diet is beneficial to health due to their chemopreventive activities against carcinogenesis and mutagenesis, mainly due to their antioxidant activities. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

Héctor Rodríguez; José Antonio Curiel; José María Landete; Blanca de las Rivas; Félix López de Felipe; Carmen Gómez-Cordovés; José Miguel Mancheńo; Rosario Muńoz

2009-01-01

311

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.): a potential source of high-value components for functional foods and nutraceuticals--a review.  

PubMed

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), a herbal plant, belonging to the family Apiceae, is valued for its culinary and medicinal uses. All parts of this herb are in use as flavoring agent and/or as traditional remedies for the treatment of different disorders in the folk medicine systems of different civilizations. The plant is a potential source of lipids (rich in petroselinic acid) and an essential oil (high in linalool) isolated from the seeds and the aerial parts. Due to the presence of a multitude of bioactives, a wide array of pharmacological activities have been ascribed to different parts of this herb, which include anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anxiolytic, anti-epileptic, anti-depressant, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-dyslipidemic, anti-hypertensive, neuro-protective and diuretic. Interestingly, coriander also possessed lead-detoxifying potential. This review focuses on the medicinal uses, detailed phytochemistry, and the biological activities of this valuable herb to explore its potential uses as a functional food for the nutraceutical industry. PMID:23281145

Sahib, Najla Gooda; Anwar, Farooq; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid; Alkharfy, Khalid M

2013-10-01

312

Analysis of the Functional Morphology of Mouthparts of the Beetle Priacma serrata, and a Discussion of Possible Food Sources  

PubMed Central

With the help of scanning electron microscopy, high resolution X-ray tomography (µCT), and finite element analysis, the mechanical and functional properties of the mandibles and associated muscles of the beetle Priacma serrata (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Archostemata) were studied. The combination of these techniques allowed for studying mechanical properties of the headmandible- system without using living animals. The µCT analysis delivered precise volumetric data of the geometry of the system to be studied. Dimensions of the cuticle of the parts involved could be readily deduced from the µCT-data. Thus, an exact representation of the specimen without significant artifacts like deformations and misalignments, usually resulting from histological sectioning, could be reconstructed. A virtual 3D model built from these data allowed for investigating different stress scenarios with finite element analysis. Combining these methods showed that P. serrata most likely uses its robustly-built mandibles for cutting hard material. In combination with available information on its habitat, possible food sources are discussed. PMID:24786670

Hörnschemeyer, Thomas; Bond, Jake; Young, Philippe G.

2013-01-01

313

Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) in foods: a comprehensive review on consumption, functionality, safety, and regulatory matters.  

PubMed

Caffeine ranks as one of the top most commonly consumed dietary ingredients throughout the world. It is naturally found in coffee beans, cacao beans, kola nuts, guarana berries, and tea leaves including yerba mate. The total daily intake, as well as the major source of caffeine varies globally; however, coffee and tea are the 2 most prominent sources. Soft drinks are also a common source of caffeine as well as energy drinks, a category of functional beverages. Moderate caffeine consumption is considered safe and its use as a food ingredient has been approved, within certain limits, by numerous regulatory agencies around the world. Performance benefits attributed to caffeine include physical endurance, reduction of fatigue, and enhancing mental alertness and concentration. Caffeine has also been recently linked to weight loss and consequent reduction of the overall risks for developing the metabolic syndrome. However, the caloric contribution of caffeine-sweetened beverages needs to be considered in the overall energy balance. Despite all these benefits the potential negative effects of excessive caffeine intake should also be considered, particularly in children and pregnant women. PMID:20492310

Heckman, Melanie A; Weil, Jorge; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

2010-04-01

314

Correlation between Major Constituents and Antibacterial Activities of Some Plant Essential Oils against Some Pathogenic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different plant essential oils (Satureja hortensis, Thymus sipyleus ssp. rosulans, Thymus haussknechtii, Origanum rotundifolium (cultured form) and Origanum acutidens (wild and cultured form)) and their two major constituents carvacarol and thymol were evaluated for antibacterial activity against food-borne Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis) and Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus

Neslihan Dikbas; Recep Kotan; Fatih Dadasoglu; Kenan Karagöz; Ramazan Çakmakci

315

The relevance of biotechnology in the development of functional foods for improved nutritional and health quality in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of food and food plants can be modified and optimized to meet the nutritional and health needs of at-risk and compromised populations prevalent in most of the developing countries. High rates of malnutrition, infectious disease as well as diet-related diseases such as diabetes and hypertension are prevalent in many developing countries. These are as a result of compromised

Lorraine L. Niba

2003-01-01

316

Food nanotechnology – an overview  

PubMed Central

Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packaging materials may extend food life, improve food safety, alert consumers that food is contaminated or spoiled, repair tears in packaging, and even release preservatives to extend the life of the food in the package. Nanotechnology applications in the food industry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. Nanotechnology holds great promise to provide benefits not just within food products but also around food products. In fact, nanotechnology introduces new chances for innovation in the food industry at immense speed, but uncertainty and health concerns are also emerging. EU/WE/global legislation for the regulation of nanotechnology in food are meager. Moreover, current legislation appears unsuitable to nanotechnology specificity. PMID:24198465

Sekhon, Bhupinder S

2010-01-01

317

Infrared Measurements of Atmospheric Constituents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research program studies atmospheric trace gas concentrations and altitude distributions, particularly for those gases that are important in stratospheric chemistry and radiative balance. Measurements are made with infrared remote sensing instruments, either ground based or balloon-borne. Most of the ground based instruments are part of the Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC), including a very high spectral resolution solar absorption spectrometer at Mauna Loa Observatory and similar system at McMurdo Station, Antarctica (operated in collaboration with the New Zealand NIWA). Additionally, we are deriving stratospheric constituent data from the spectra obtained at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program's site in north-central Oklahoma. We have an atmospheric emission spectrometer system at the South Pole (with additional support from NSF), and an identical NSF support instrument at Eureka, NWT, Canada. Our balloon-borne instruments include a very high resolution solar absorption spectrometer system, a smaller, slightly lower resolution solar spectrometer system, a high resolution atmospheric emission spectrometer, and several medium resolution emission spectrometers (CAESRs) that are usually flown piggyback. During the past year, we participated in the MANTRA balloon flight from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, with the high resolution solar spectrometer system. Several of our instruments were extensively compared to (UARS) Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite observations, and so provide a data set with known connections to UARS. In the longer term, the data can be used to relate UARS data to (EOS) Earth Observing System and (ADEOS) Advanced Airborne Earth Observing System.

Murcray, Frank J.

1998-01-01

318

[Chemical constituents of Illicium burmanicum].  

PubMed

Chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract of Illicium burmanicum were isolated and purified by various chromatographic methods,including Silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, C18 reverse-phased silica gel, Preparative TLC and Preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified by spectral analysis including NMR and MS data. Fourteen compounds were separated from I. burmanicum and their structures were identified as 7S,8R-erythro-4,7,9,9'-tetrahydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (1), 7R,8R-threo-4,7, 9,9'-tetrahydroxy-3,3 '-dimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan(2) ,polystachyol(3), (-) -massoniresinol(4), angustanoic acid F (5), trans-sobrerol(6), (3S,6R) -6,7-dihydroxy-6,7-dihydrolinalool (7), (3S, 6S) -6,7-dihydroxy-6,7-dihydrolinalool (8), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-allyl-phenol (9), 3,5-dihydroxy4-hydroxy benzaldehyde (10), 3-hydroxy4-methoxybenzaldehyde (11), methyl vanillate (12), shikimic acid ethylester (13) and beta-sitosrerol (14). Except compound 14, the rest thirteen compounds were separated from this plant for the first time. PMID:25276976

Wang, Jia-Ping; Guan, Zheng-Ye; Dong, Chuan-Fu; Gao, Li; Luo, Shi-De; Wang, Yi-Fen

2014-07-01

319

Probing Food Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between a food’s structure and its properties\\/functionalities is of fundamental interest in food materials\\u000a science. The great expectation is to relate the functionality of a food material to the physico-chemical characteristics of\\u000a its ingredients and their geometric arrangement (i.e., structure formation). Functionalities of interest are either of chemical\\u000a (e.g., flavor release from a given matrix), physical\\/ mechanical (e.g.,

Martin Michel; Laurent Sagalowicz

320

The equation of state for cool relativistic two-constituent superfluid dynamics  

E-print Network

The natural relativistic generalisation of Landau's two constituent superfluid theory can be formulated in terms of a Lagrangian L that is given as a function of the entropy current 4-vector s^\\rho and the gradient \

Carter, B; Carter, Brandon; Langlois, David

1995-01-01

321

Food-Web Models Predict Species Abundances in Response to Habitat Change  

E-print Network

sizes of food-web constituents than did simple keystone species models, models that included only species effects, which emphasize responses of populations to changes in the abundance of a single keystone species (food- web and keystone species mod

Gotelli, Nicholas J.

322

Constituent Quarkstructur and $F^{p}_{2}$ Data  

E-print Network

We have calculated the partonic structure of a constituent quark in the leading order in QCD for the first time and examined its ipmlications on the proton structure function, $F^{p}_{2}, data from HERA. It turned out that although qualitatively it agrees with the data but for a finer refinement we need to consider an {\\it{inherent}} component due to gluons which act as the binding agent between constituents quarks in the proton. Good agreement with nucleon structure function, $F_{2}(x,Q^{2})$, for a wide range of $x=[10^{-6} ,1]$ and $Q^{2}=[0.5, 5000]$ $GeV^{2}$ is reached. {\\bf{PACS Numbers 13.60 Hb, 12.39.-x, 13.88 +e, 12.20.Fv}}

Firooz Arash; Ali Naghi Khorramian

1999-09-11

323

Food poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Food poisoning occurs when you swallow food or water that contains bacteria, parasites, viruses, or the toxins made ... Food poisoning can affect one person or a group of people who all ate the same food. It ...

324

Food Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... More Information Health and Nutrition Information for Preschoolers Food Safety Preschoolers' immune systems are still developing. This ... more about food safety Resources for Nutrition & Health Food Groups & Related Topics Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods ...

325

Food additives  

MedlinePLUS

Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

326

OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF FOODS: MASS TRANSFER AND MODELING ASPECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological materials contain a variety of individual soluble components. When cellular biological materials are immersed in osmotic solution, multicomponent mass transfer occurs, which ultimately leads to the loss of water from the food, or osmotic dehydration. Mass transfer of food constituents during osmotic dehydration may cause changes in food quality in terms of nutritional value, texture, color, and taste. The

John Shi; Marc Le Maguer

2002-01-01

327

Compound orbits break-up in constituents: an algorithm  

E-print Network

In this paper decomposition of periodic orbits in bifurcation diagrams are derived in unidimensional dynamics system $x_{n+1}=f(x_{n};r)$, being $f$ an unimodal function. We proof a theorem which states the necessary and sufficient conditions for the break-up of compound orbits in their simpler constituents. A corollary to this theorem provides an algorithm for the computation of those orbits. This process closes the theoretical framework initiated in (Physica D, 239:1135--1146, 2010).

Jesús San Martín; A. González Gómez; Ma José Moscoso; Daniel Rodríguez-Pérez

2014-02-24

328

Honey ameliorates influence of hemorrhage and food restriction on renal and hepatic functions, and hematological and biochemical variables.  

PubMed

The objectives were to assess the effects of various diets, including total food restriction with 50% honey feeding, total food restriction with 50% dextrose feeding or adlibitum (control group) commercial regular diet, on the hematology and biochemical variables, and to assess the effects of the various diets on the influence of acute blood loss on the same parameters. Thirty Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups, 10 rats each: group A, fed a commercial regular diet; group B, total food restriction with 50% dextrose feeding; and group C, total food restriction with 50% honey feeding. After 8 days of feeding, rats were subjected to acute blood loss (6 ml/kg) and blood investigations were performed. After acute blood loss, the same feedings were continued for a further 8 days and the blood tests were repeated at day 8 post-bleeding. Total food restriction with 50% dextrose feeding compared with commercial regular diet reduces hematological and biochemical variables. Total food restriction with 50% honey feeding compared with total food restriction with 50% dextrose feeding causes a greater reduction in fasting blood glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and triacylglycerol. Acute blood loss causes elevation of white blood cells, lymphocyte percentage, fasting blood sugar, blood urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase and triacylglycerol, and a reduction in serum albumen, protein, cholesterol, AST, serum creatinine and hemoglobin; the results are significant (P<0.05) concerning fasting blood glucose, AST, alkaline phosphatase, serum albumin and protein. A significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, white blood cells, BUN, AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and triacylglycerol, and a significant elevation of hemoglobin and serum albumin are obtained after acute blood loss in rats on total food restriction with 50% honey feeding as compared with the other two groups. Total food restriction with 50% honey feeding increases serum albumin, serum protein, fasting blood glucose, and causes lower reduction in hemoglobin as compared with the other groups. Conclusively, honey feeding during total food restriction significantly modifies and ameliorates biochemical and hematological changes observed after acute blood loss. This will pave the way to use honey as part of bleeding management and during a food restriction regimen. PMID:17135025

Al-Waili, Noori S; Saloom, Khelod Y; Akmal, Mohammod; Al-Waili, Faiza; Al-Waili, Thia N; Al-Waili, Ali N; Ali, Amjed

2006-01-01

329

The function of polydomy: the ant Crematogaster torosa preferentially forms new nests near food sources and fortifies outstations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many ant species are polydomous, forming multiple spatially segregated nests that exchange workers and brood. However, why\\u000a polydomy occurs is still uncertain. We investigated whether colonies of Crematogaster torosa form new polydomous nests to better exploit temporally stable food resources. Specifically, we tested the effect of food\\u000a presence or absence and distance on the likelihood that colonies would form a

Michele C. Lanan; Anna Dornhaus; Judith L. Bronstein

2011-01-01

330

Would Consumers Value New Functional Properties of GM Food? A Choice-Modeling Approach for Rapeseed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

European consumers and, in particular, German consumers are known to be very critical towards the introduction of genetically modified (GM) foods. It is analyzed here whether German consumers do reject second-generation GMO foods, too. Whereas first-generation GM crops induced producer-related benefits, second-generation GM crops are associated with consumer-oriented benefits like an improvement of nutritional quality. The determinants of demand for

Jochen Hartl; Roland Herrmann

2009-01-01

331

Promotion of quality standard of herbal medicine by constituent removing and adding  

PubMed Central

To identify major active constituents and measure their levels in a typical medicinal herb–Rhizoma coptidis, we applied the concept of removing and adding, taking inspiration from functional genetic methods. As this herb has bacteriostatic properties and is used to treat bacterial diarrhea, we examined the effects of individual constituents (berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, jateorrhizine and columbamine) on the growth of Shigella dysenteriae with microcalorimetry. The removing and adding procedures revealed that berberine and coptisine were the main antibacterial constituents of R. coptidis, with bacteriostatic activities of 54.10% and 39.75%, respectively. The relative levels of berberine and coptisine in R. coptidis were 8.08%–31.92% and 4.05%–14.45%, respectively. On the basis of whole effect, the method of constituents removing and adding, coupled with a bioassay, is a useful strategy to identify the active constituents and measure their levels in herbal medicines, which may provide reference to other natural products. PMID:24413194

Yan, Dan; Li, Junxian; Xiong, Yin; Zhang, Congen; Luo, Jiaoyang; Han, Yumei; Wang, Ruiling; Jin, Cheng; Qian, Hong; Li, Jiangyu; Qiu, Lingling; Peng, Cheng; Lin, Yuling; Song, Xueai; Xiao, Xiaohe

2014-01-01

332

Functionality Enhancement of Composite Cassava Flour in the Production of Maize Tuwo (A Non-fermented Maize-Based Food Dumpling)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was focused on the evaluation of textural and sensory quality enhancing functionality of cassava flour in the production\\u000a of maize tuwo (a non-fermented maize-based food dumpling). The cassava flour was added to maize flour at the level of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%,\\u000a 25% and 30% (w\\/w), respectively. The bulk density and water holding capacity of maize\\/cassava flour mixes

Mathew Kolawole Bolade; Isaac Adebayo Adeyemi

333

Classical relativistic constituent particles and composite states. II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A classical theory of interacting relativistic constituent and composite particles is developed further. The Lorentz-invariant Lagrangian, a function of the single unmeasurable evolution parameter s, is considered for attractive and repulsive harmonic-oscillator forces acting pairwise between constituent particles. Nonrelativistic Newtonian equations of motion can be derived by letting c-->? in ``equal-time'' solutions, but, in general, there is a ``surplus'' of solutions which have no nonrelativistic counterpart. These solutions are used to construct classical models of strongly interacting composite particles. Asymptotic selection rules and constituent confinement are postulated and lead to space-time conservation laws for systems of scattering composite particles. Constituent four-vectors are linear combinations of ``kinematic'' terms and ``intrinsic'' normal modes. The latter are identified with internal symmetries of the composite particles, which are labeled by sets of ``intrinsic numbers'' analogous to additive quantum numbers. Formation of two- and three-body composite particles follows an exact analogy to the color quark model, in which the meson is composed of a quark and an antiquark of the same color, and the baryon is formed from three quarks of three different colors. Scattering examples are given analogous to MM-->MM, MB-->MB, and BB-->BB. The reactions take place through constituent exchange, and total intrinsic numbers are conserved. There are other similarities to quantum field theory, such as particle-antiparticle pair creation and annihilation, fixed relative values of internal angular momenta, fixed orbital angular momentum, and many-particle systems characterized by a vacuum state (lowest energy state) and the existence of virtual composite particles as well as physically observable composite particles.

King, Marcia J.

1985-05-01

334

Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

Pelletier, Jean-Francois

1980-01-01

335

New parasites and predators follow the introduction of two fish species to a subarctic lake: implications for food-web structure and functioning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduced species can alter the topology of food webs. For instance, an introduction can aid the arrival of free-living consumers using the new species as a resource, while new parasites may also arrive with the introduced species. Food-web responses to species additions can thus be far more complex than anticipated. In a subarctic pelagic food web with free-living and parasitic species, two fish species (arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus and three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus) have known histories as deliberate introductions. The effects of these introductions on the food web were explored by comparing the current pelagic web with a heuristic reconstruction of the pre-introduction web. Extinctions caused by these introductions could not be evaluated by this approach. The introduced fish species have become important hubs in the trophic network, interacting with numerous parasites, predators and prey. In particular, five parasite species and four predatory bird species depend on the two introduced species as obligate trophic resources in the pelagic web and could therefore not have been present in the pre-introduction network. The presence of the two introduced fish species and the arrival of their associated parasites and predators increased biodiversity, mean trophic level, linkage density, and nestedness; altering both the network structure and functioning of the pelagic web. Parasites, in particular trophically transmitted species, had a prominent role in the network alterations that followed the introductions.

Amundsen, Per-Arne; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Knudsen, Rune; Primicerio, Raul; Kristoffersen, Roar; Klemetsen, Anders; Kuris, Armand M.

2012-01-01

336

Functional Effects of Parasites on Food Web Properties during the Spring Diatom Bloom in Lake Pavin: A Linear Inverse Modeling Analysis  

PubMed Central

This study is the first assessment of the quantitative impact of parasitic chytrids on a planktonic food web. We used a carbon-based food web model of Lake Pavin (Massif Central, France) to investigate the effects of chytrids during the spring diatom bloom by developing models with and without chytrids. Linear inverse modelling procedures were employed to estimate undetermined flows in the lake. The Monte Carlo Markov chain linear inverse modelling procedure provided estimates of the ranges of model-derived fluxes. Model results support recent theories on the probable impact of parasites on food web function. In the lake, during spring, when ‘inedible’ algae (unexploited by planktonic herbivores) were the dominant primary producers, the epidemic growth of chytrids significantly reduced the sedimentation loss of algal carbon to the detritus pool through the production of grazer-exploitable zoospores. We also review some theories about the potential influence of parasites on ecological network properties and argue that parasitism contributes to longer carbon path lengths, higher levels of activity and specialization, and lower recycling. Considering the “structural asymmetry” hypothesis as a stabilizing pattern, chytrids should contribute to the stability of aquatic food webs. PMID:21887240

Niquil, Nathalie; Jobard, Marlčne; Saint-Béat, Blanche; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

2011-01-01

337

Therapeutic Implications of Black Seed and Its Constituent Thymoquinone in the Prevention of Cancer through Inactivation and Activation of Molecular Pathways  

PubMed Central

The cancer is probably the most dreaded disease in both men and women and also major health problem worldwide. Despite its high prevalence, the exact molecular mechanisms of the development and progression are not fully understood. The current chemotherapy/radiotherapy regime used to treat cancer shows adverse side effect and may alter gene functions. Natural products are generally safe, effective, and less expensive substitutes of anticancer chemotherapeutics. Based on previous studies of their potential therapeutic uses, Nigella sativa and its constituents may be proved as good therapeutic options in the prevention of cancer. Black seeds are used as staple food in the Middle Eastern Countries for thousands of years and also in the treatment of diseases. Earlier studies have shown that N. sativa and its constituent thymoquinone (TQ) have important roles in the prevention and treatment of cancer by modulating cell signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the role of N. sativa and its constituents TQ in the prevention of cancer through the activation or inactivation of molecular cell signaling pathways. PMID:24959190

Rahmani, Arshad H.; Alzohairy, Mohammad A.; Khan, Masood A.; Aly, Salah M.

2014-01-01

338

Professional Schools: Research and Assessment Involving Multiple Constituencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adopting the concept of multiple constituencies as an approach to organizational effectiveness, this chapter identifies key constituents and highlights areas and circumstances in which these constituents have an impact on research and assessment of professional schools. (Contains 1 table.)

Sun, Jeffrey C.

2004-01-01

339

Antiparasitic efficacy of a novel plant-based functional food using an Ascaris suum model in pigs.  

PubMed

Ascaris lumbricoides is the most prevalent soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection of human beings worldwide. Chemotherapy with synthetic anthelmintics such as albendazole, mebendazole, and pyrantel pamoate is the current method of treatment; however, the emergence of anthelmintic resistance could substantially decrease the efficacy of such treatments and the sustainability of STH control programs. Additionally, benzimidazoles are not recommended for pregnant women or children under age one. A blinded, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two microencapsulated, plant-based essential oil blends, TTN1013 (?-pinene, linalyl acetate, p-cymene, and thymol octanoate) and TTN1014 (?-pinene, linalyl acetate, p-cymene, and thymol acetate) as functional foods against Ascaris suum infection in pigs, an important pathogen that closely resembles human infections with A. lumbricoides. Four groups of 16 female, 21-24 day old, Yorkshire-cross pigs were treated daily with 0.5 or 1.0mg/kg TTN1013, 1.0mg/kg TTN1014, or 1.0mg/kg equivalent of empty capsules, delivered inside a cream-filled sandwich cookie for 14 weeks. Three days after the initiation of daily treatments, pigs were inoculated daily with A. suum eggs for four weeks. Pigs were weighed weekly and fecal egg counts (FEC) were conducted weekly starting five weeks after initial inoculation with A. suum eggs. Fourteen weeks after first infection with eggs, pigs were necropsied and worms were recovered, counted and separated according to sex. TTN1013 administered daily at a dose of 1.0mg/kg yielded a statistically significant reduction in total worm counts (76.8%), female worm counts (75.5%), FEC (68.6%), and worm volume (62.9%) when compared to control group. Reduction of total and female worm numbers and FEC were not significant for TTN1014 or at the 0.5mg/kg dose of TTN1013. All treatments were well-tolerated by all pigs and did not cause any adverse reactions. All pigs remained clinically normal and showed no signs of reduced intestinal health for the duration of treatment. Based on these results, TTN1013 shows promise as a daily supplement to reduce infection burdens of soil transmitted helminths in both pigs and human beings. PMID:24979686

Kaplan, R M; Storey, B E; Vidyashankar, A N; Bissinger, B W; Mitchell, S M; Howell, S B; Mason, M E; Lee, M D; Pedroso, A A; Akashe, A; Skrypec, D J

2014-11-01

340

Generalized parton distributions of hadrons with composite constituents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is described for calculating the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) of spin 1/2 hadrons made of composite constituents, in an Impulse Approximation framework. GPDs are obtained from the convolution between the light cone non-diagonal momentum distribution of the hadron and the GPD of the constituent. DIS structure functions and electromagnetic form factors are consistently recovered with the proposed formalism. Results are presented for the nucleon and for the 3He nucleus. For a nucleon assumed to be made of composite constituent quarks, the proposed scheme permits to study the so-called Efremov-Radyushkin-Brodsky-Lepage (ERBL) region, difficult to access in model calculations. Results are presented for both helicity-independent and helicity-dependent GPDs. For 3He, the calculation has been performed by evaluating a non-diagonal spectral function within the AV18 interaction. It turns out that a measurement of GPDs for 3He could shed new light on the short-range nuclear structure at the quark level.

Scopetta, S.

2007-02-01

341

Charitable food assistance as symbolic gesture: an ethnographic study of food banks in Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based charitable food assistance programs have recently been established in several affluent nations to distribute public and corporate food donations to ‘the needy’. In Canada, food banks comprise the primary response to hunger and food insecurity, but problems of unmet food need persist. We conducted an ethnographic study of food bank work in southern Ontario to examine the functioning of

Valerie Tarasuk; Joan M. Eakin

2003-01-01

342

Benefits and limitations of food processing by high-pressure technologies: effects on functional compounds and abiotic contaminants Beneficios y limitaciones del procesamiento de alimentos por tecnologías de alta presión: efectos en componentes funcionales y contaminantes abióticos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuing and worldwide growth of pressure processing technologies to pasteurize and sterilize foods justifies the need to study the effects on functional compounds and abiotic contaminants as affected by high-pressure processing (HPP) and pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP). Substantially more research will be required to determine the complex effects of the food matrix on chemical reactions leading to losses of

Zamantha Escobedo-Avellaneda; Mirian Pateiro Moure; Nattaporn Chotyakul; J. Antonio Torres; Jorge Welti-Chanes; Concepción Pérez Lamela

2011-01-01

343

Thermal degradation of cloudy apple juice phenolic constituents.  

PubMed

Although conventional thermal processing is still the most commonly used preservation technique in cloudy apple juice production, detailed knowledge on phenolic compound degradation during thermal treatment is still limited. To evaluate the extent of thermal degradation as a function of time and temperature, apple juice samples were isothermally treated during 7,200s over a temperature range of 80-145 °C. An untargeted metabolomics approach based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry was developed and applied with the aim to find out the most heat labile phenolic constituents in cloudy apple juice. By the use of a high resolution mass spectrometer, the high degree of in-source fragmentation, the quality of deconvolution and the employed custom-made database, it was possible to achieve a high degree of structural elucidation for the thermolabile phenolic constituents. Procyanidin subclass representatives were discovered as the most heat labile phenolic compounds of cloudy apple juice. PMID:24874374

De Paepe, D; Valkenborg, D; Coudijzer, K; Noten, B; Servaes, K; De Loose, M; Voorspoels, S; Diels, L; Van Droogenbroeck, B

2014-11-01

344

Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems  

SciTech Connect

The technical objectives of this project are: (1) To define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and to characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail. (2) To elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes (involving basic principles of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics) by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur; and (3) to develop, based on the information required in (1) and (2), a tractable process'' model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the nature and distribution of products. 26 refs., 151 figs., 51 tabs.

Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)); Shah, N.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States))

1991-09-01

345

Genetic Screening of Functional Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria in a Fermented Pearl Millet Slurry and in the Metagenome of Fermented Starchy Foods?  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (n = 152) in African pearl millet slurries and in the metagenomes of amylaceous fermented foods were investigated by screening 33 genes involved in probiotic and nutritional functions. All isolates belonged to six species of the genera Pediococcus and Lactobacillus, and Lactobacillus fermentum was the dominant species. We screened the isolates for the abilities to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract and to synthesize folate and riboflavin. The isolates were also tested in vitro for their abilities to survive exposure to bile salts and to survive at pH 2. Because the ability to hydrolyze starch confers an ecological advantage on LAB that grow in starchy matrixes as well as improving the nutritional properties of the gruels, we screened for genes involved in starch metabolism. The results showed that genes with the potential ability to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract were widely distributed among isolates and metagenomes, whereas in vitro tests showed that only a limited set of isolates, mainly those belonging to L. fermentum, could tolerate a low pH. In contrast, the wide distribution of genes associated with bile salt tolerance, in particular bsh, is consistent with the high frequency of tolerance to bile salts observed. Genetic screening revealed a potential for folate and riboflavin synthesis in both isolates and metagenomes, as well as high variability among genes related to starch metabolism. Genetic screening of isolates and metagenomes from fermented foods is thus a promising approach for assessing the functional potential of food microbiotas. PMID:22003019

Turpin, Williams; Humblot, Christčle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

2011-01-01

346

ILSI Brazil International Workshop on Functional Foods: a narrative review of the scientific evidence in the area of carbohydrates, microbiome, and health  

PubMed Central

To stimulate discussion around the topic of ‘carbohydrates’ and health, the Brazilian branch of the International Life Sciences Institute held the 11th International Functional Foods Workshop (1–2 December 2011) in which consolidated knowledge and recent scientific advances specific to the relationship between carbohydrates and health were presented. As part of this meeting, several key points related to dietary fiber, glycemic response, fructose, and impacts on satiety, cognition, mood, and gut microbiota were realized: 1) there is a need for global harmonization of a science-based fiber definition; 2) low-glycemic index foods can be used to modulate the postprandial glycemic response and may affect diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes; 3) carbohydrate type may influence satiety and satiation; glycemic load and glycemic index show links to memory, mood, and concentration; 4) validated biomarkers are needed to demonstrate the known prebiotic effect of carbohydrates; 5) negative effects of fructose are not evident when human data are systematically reviewed; 6) new research indicates that diet strongly influences the microbiome; and 7) there is mounting evidence that the intestinal microbiota has the ability to impact the gut–brain axis. Overall, there is much promise for development of functional foods that impact the microbiome and other factors relevant to health, including glycemic response (glycemic index/glycemic load), satiety, mood, cognition, and weight management. PMID:23399638

Meheust, Agnčs; Augustin, Livia; Benton, David; Ber?ík, P?emysl; Birkett, Anne; Eldridge, Alison L.; Faintuch, Joel; Hoffmann, Christian; Jones, Julie Miller; Kendall, Cyril; Lajolo, Franco; Perdigon, Gabriela; Prieto, Pedro Antonio; Rastall, Robert A.; Sievenpiper, John L.; Slavin, Joanne; de Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel

2013-01-01

347

Gray relation analysis and multilayer functional link network sales forecasting model for perishable food in convenience store  

Microsoft Academic Search

In managing convenience store, making the right decision in placing a balanced order is a critical job that can enhance the competition of the corporation, especially in perishable food. In this study, the GMFLN forecasting model integrates Gray relation analysis (GRA) which sieves out the more influential factors from raw data then transforms them as the input data in the

F. L. Chen; T. Y. Ou

2009-01-01

348

The influence of food texture and liquid consistency modification on swallowing physiology and function: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Texture modification has become one of the most common forms of intervention for dysphagia, and is widely considered important for promoting safe and efficient swallowing. However, to date, there is no single convention with respect to the terminology used to describe levels of liquid thickening or food texture modification for clinical use. As a first step toward building a common taxonomy, a systematic review was undertaken to identify empirical evidence describing the impact of liquid consistency and food texture on swallowing behavior. A multi-engine search yielded 10,147 non-duplicate articles, which were screened for relevance. A team of ten international researchers collaborated to conduct full-text reviews for 488 of these articles, which met the study inclusion criteria. Of these, 36 articles were found to contain specific information comparing oral processing or swallowing behaviors for at least two liquid consistencies or food textures. Qualitative synthesis revealed two key trends with respect to the impact of thickening liquids on swallowing: thicker liquids reduce the risk of penetration-aspiration, but also increase the risk of post-swallow residue in the pharynx. The literature was insufficient to support the delineation of specific viscosity boundaries or other quantifiable material properties related to these clinical outcomes. With respect to food texture, the literature pointed to properties of hardness, cohesiveness, and slipperiness as being relevant both for physiological behaviors and bolus flow patterns. The literature suggests a need to classify food and fluid behavior in the context of the physiological processes involved in oral transport and flow initiation. PMID:25343878

Steele, Catriona M; Alsanei, Woroud Abdulrahman; Ayanikalath, Sona; Barbon, Carly E A; Chen, Jianshe; Cichero, Julie A Y; Coutts, Kim; Dantas, Roberto O; Duivestein, Janice; Giosa, Lidia; Hanson, Ben; Lam, Peter; Lecko, Caroline; Leigh, Chelsea; Nagy, Ahmed; Namasivayam, Ashwini M; Nascimento, Weslania V; Odendaal, Inge; Smith, Christina H; Wang, Helen

2015-02-01

349

Determination of antioxidant constituents in cactus pear fruits.  

PubMed

An analytical study was carried out on the presence of antioxidant constituents and the in vitro antioxidant capacity in the extracts of three species of Spanish red-skinned cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia undulata and Opuntia stricta). The cactus pear fruit extracts were analyzed for determined constituents: ascorbic acid, flavonoids (quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, kaempferol and luteolin), betalains, taurine, total carotenoids and total phenolics. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by means of two different methods: the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical method. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extract had the strongest antioxidant capacity and taurine content. O. stricta fruits were the richest in ascorbic acid and total phenolics, whereas O. undulata fruits showed the highest carotenoid content. Quercetin and isorhamnetin were the main flavonoids detected. This study provides basic information on the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in extracts of cactus pear fruits, in order to consider these extracts as ingredient for the production of health-promoting food. PMID:20811778

Fernández-López, José A; Almela, Luís; Obón, José M; Castellar, Rosario

2010-09-01

350

Food Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system ... had a serious reaction. Back Continue How Are Food Allergies Treated? There is no special medicine for ...

351

Chemical investigation and antimicrobial properties of mastic water and its major constituents.  

PubMed

Mastic water is a commercial flavouring obtained during the steam distillation of mastic resin (the resin of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia) for the production of mastic oil. The mastic water extracts were analysed by GC-MS. The major compounds identified were verbenone, ?-terpineol, linalool and trans-pinocarveol. Overall the composition was found to be very different from that of mastic oil. Additional GC-MS revealed the enantiomeric ratio of the chiral constituents of mastic water. The antimicrobial activity of mastic water extract, as well as that of its major constituents, was examined against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida spp. including ATCC wild clinical and food-borne strains. Linalool and ?-terpineol were found to be the most potent antimicrobial constituents. Finally the stability of mastic water at different temperatures was studied, showing no change in the GC-MS profile of the organic extract for a period of 4months at storage temperatures up to 4°C. PMID:25212317

Paraschos, Sotirios; Magiatis, Prokopios; Gousia, Panagiota; Economou, Vangelis; Sakkas, Hercules; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

2011-12-01

352

Food allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical expression of food hypersensitivity or food allergy is usually the end-result of a series of complex interactions among ingested food antigens, the digestive tract, tissue mast cells and circulating basophils, and food antigen-specific IgE. In some well-defined, food-induced diseases, such as gluten-induced enteropathy, additional immunologic mechanisms are involved. An understanding of the nature of antigens in foods capable

Dean D. Metcalfe

1985-01-01

353

Food Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Food Timeline was created as an independent research project on food history and period recipes. The timeline begins before 17,000 B.C. with gatherable foods (shellfish, eggs, mushrooms) and chronicles the appearance of cultivated plants, domesticated food animals, and commercial food products up to the present day. Each type of food is represented by a link to additional information on it, and there are also links to period recipes appearing in chronological order on the timeline.

Lynne Olver, Chief Librarian, Morris County Library (NJ)

354

Regulatory issues related to functional foods and natural health products in Canada: possible implications for manufacturers of conjugated linoleic acid1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Food and Drugs Act and Regulations, through its definitions of food and drug, currently restricts health-related claims for foods, food ingredients, and natural health products (NHPs). Over the past few decades, scientific research has led to a large body of information that demonstrates the benefits for health of many food and NHP ingredients. Health Canada recognized the constraints

Kelley C Fitzpatrick

355

Immunomodulatory Effects of Triphala and its Individual Constituents: A Review  

PubMed Central

The role of plant extracts and Ayurvedic polyherbal preparations in treating various ailments has been acknowledged since time immemorial. Studies based on the effect of these extracts in treatment of different diseases have also been well documented. Indian medicinal literature also emphasizes the synergistic effect of polyherbal drugs in restoring and rejuvenating immune system. This review focuses on the immunomodulatory potential of the polyherbal preparation, Triphala and its three constituents, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The role of Triphala and its extract has been emphasized in stimulating neutrophil function. Under stress condition such as noise, Triphala significantly prevents elevation of IL-4 levels as well as corrects decreased IL-2 and IFN-? levels. Under the condition of inflammatory stress its immunosuppressive activity is attributed to its inhibitory action on complement system, humoral immunity, cell mediated immunity and mitogen-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the individual constituents reportedly enhance especially the macrophage activation due to their free radical scavenging activity and the ability to neutralize reactive oxygen species. This study thus concludes the use of Triphala and its three individual constituents as potential immunostimulants and/or immunosuppressants further suggests them to be a better alternative for allopathic immunomodulators. PMID:25593379

Belapurkar, Pranoti; Goyal, Pragya; Tiwari-Barua, Preeti

2014-01-01

356

Immunomodulatory effects of triphala and its individual constituents: a review.  

PubMed

The role of plant extracts and Ayurvedic polyherbal preparations in treating various ailments has been acknowledged since time immemorial. Studies based on the effect of these extracts in treatment of different diseases have also been well documented. Indian medicinal literature also emphasizes the synergistic effect of polyherbal drugs in restoring and rejuvenating immune system. This review focuses on the immunomodulatory potential of the polyherbal preparation, Triphala and its three constituents, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The role of Triphala and its extract has been emphasized in stimulating neutrophil function. Under stress condition such as noise, Triphala significantly prevents elevation of IL-4 levels as well as corrects decreased IL-2 and IFN-? levels. Under the condition of inflammatory stress its immunosuppressive activity is attributed to its inhibitory action on complement system, humoral immunity, cell mediated immunity and mitogen-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the individual constituents reportedly enhance especially the macrophage activation due to their free radical scavenging activity and the ability to neutralize reactive oxygen species. This study thus concludes the use of Triphala and its three individual constituents as potential immunostimulants and/or immunosuppressants further suggests them to be a better alternative for allopathic immunomodulators. PMID:25593379

Belapurkar, Pranoti; Goyal, Pragya; Tiwari-Barua, Preeti

2014-01-01

357

Rethinking brain food  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

If omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are the functional food du jour, then that "jour" must first have been the 5th day of creation (according to Genesis 1:21), when the marine fish were created and exhorted to be fruitful and multiply. The exact time when these marine species became "brain food" for peopl...

358

Content and Profile of Isoflavones in Soy-Based Foods as a Function of the Production Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soy has been traditionally incorporated in diet as processed foods, such as soymilk, tofu, miso, tempeh, etc., and the consumption\\u000a is commonly associated with a reduction of the development of chronic diseases due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory,\\u000a and anti-allergic properties, among others. Many of the health benefits of soy have been attributed to isoflavones. They comprise\\u000a a group of naturally

Ana Villares; Mauricio A. Rostagno; Ana García-Lafuente; Eva Guillamón; J. Alfredo Martínez

2011-01-01

359

Harnessing functional food strategies for the health challenges of space travel—Fermented soy for astronaut nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astronauts face numerous health challenges during long-duration space missions, including diminished immunity, bone loss and increased risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Changes in the intestinal flora of astronauts may contribute to these problems. Soy-based fermented food products could provide a nutritional strategy to help alleviate these challenges by incorporating beneficial lactic acid bacteria, while reaping the benefits of soy isoflavones. We

Nicole D. Buckley; Claude P. Champagne; Adriana I. Masotti; Lisa E. Wagar; Thomas A. Tompkins; Julia M. Green-Johnson

2011-01-01

360

Warming shifts top-down and bottom-up control of pond food web structure and function  

PubMed Central

The effects of global and local environmental changes are transmitted through networks of interacting organisms to shape the structure of communities and the dynamics of ecosystems. We tested the impact of elevated temperature on the top-down and bottom-up forces structuring experimental freshwater pond food webs in western Canada over 16 months. Experimental warming was crossed with treatments manipulating the presence of planktivorous fish and eutrophication through enhanced nutrient supply. We found that higher temperatures produced top-heavy food webs with lower biomass of benthic and pelagic producers, equivalent biomass of zooplankton, zoobenthos and pelagic bacteria, and more pelagic viruses. Eutrophication increased the biomass of all organisms studied, while fish had cascading positive effects on periphyton, phytoplankton and bacteria, and reduced biomass of invertebrates. Surprisingly, virus biomass was reduced in the presence of fish, suggesting the possibility for complex mechanisms of top-down control of the lytic cycle. Warming reduced the effects of eutrophication on periphyton, and magnified the already strong effects of fish on phytoplankton and bacteria. Warming, fish and nutrients all increased whole-system rates of net production despite their distinct impacts on the distribution of biomass between producers and consumers, plankton and benthos, and microbes and macrobes. Our results indicate that warming exerts a host of indirect effects on aquatic food webs mediated through shifts in the magnitudes of top-down and bottom-up forcing. PMID:23007089

Shurin, Jonathan B.; Clasen, Jessica L.; Greig, Hamish S.; Kratina, Pavel; Thompson, Patrick L.

2012-01-01

361

Rapid identification of synthetic colorants in food samples by using indium oxide nanoparticle-functionalized porous polymer monolith coupled with HPLC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

A synthetic protocol for the preparation of an indium oxide nanoparticle-functionalized poly(methacrylic acid-glycidyl methacrylate-ethylene dimethacrylate-ethanediamine) monolithic column is reported. Various techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetric analysis were employed to characterize the synthesized monolith. The modified monolithic column was coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for determining synthetic colorants in various food samples. Under optimized conditions, good linearity was obtained for all the targets with squared regression coefficients greater than 0.9982. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) for 12 synthetic colorants were in the range of 0.012-2.97 ?g kg(-1). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations, ranging from 2.7% to 8.5%, were within the acceptable range. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of synthetic colorants in food samples (candy, milk, jelly, jam, canned food, juice, and carbonated drink). Target recoveries at different spiked levels ranged from 73.5% to 112.1% with relative standard deviations of less than 10.3%. PMID:25313528

Qi, Ruifang; Zhou, Xiao; Li, Xiqian; Ma, Jiutong; Lu, Chunmei; Mu, Jun; Zhang, Xuguang; Jia, Qiong

2014-12-01

362

Chemical Constituents of Gynura cusimbua Aerial Parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil isolated from the aerial parts of Gynura cusimbua was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Forty-seven constituents totaling 91.92% of the oil were identified. The major constituents of the oil are myrcene (31.0%), ?- phellandrene (12.43%), eugenol (6.34%), ?-humulene (6.20%), dodecyl acrylate (6.09%), ?-copaene (5.61%), phytol (3.21%), germacrene D (3.0%), cryptone (2.04%), 2,4-ditertbutylphenol (1.62%), ?-pinene (1.33%), ?-cadinene (1.26%),

Virendra S. Rana; M. Amparo Blazquez

2007-01-01

363

Space Station Food System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

1986-01-01

364

Food Justice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's food system, farm workers face difficult and hazardous conditions, low-income neighborhoods lack supermarkets but abound in fast-food restaurants and liquor stores, food products emphasize convenience rather than wholesomeness, and the international reach of American fast-food franchises has been a major contributor to an epidemic of \\

Robert Gottlieb; Anupama Joshi

2010-01-01

365

Food Groups  

MedlinePLUS

Welcome to the Five Food Groups MyPlate illustrates the five food groups that are the building blocks for a healthy diet using a familiar image – ... half your grains whole. >> See Grains Group Protein Foods Go lean with protein. >> See Protein Foods Group ...

366

Antioxidant content of foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant-based foods, especially fruits, vegetables, and nuts, contain bioactive components which have various biological functions, including free radical scavenging and metal chelating (antioxidant), inhibition of lipid peroxidation, anti-inflammatory properties, etc. Oxidative stress may contribute...

367

World Food Clock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Scout Staff keeps an eye out for sites that are both informative and interactive, and the World Food Clock does not disappoint. A true feat of graphic design, we loved this site for its innovative and effective presentation of information. The World Food Clock succeeds in providing relevant statistics in an easily digestible manner, with clean and informative visual representations. Likewise, the navigation is both fun and functional, allowing the user to have a stimulating learning experience about global consumption and production.How much food is being consumed around the world right now? It's a vast question that can be answered by the World Food Clock. This interesting website draws on information provided by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and presents a streaming set of data on global food consumption, global food waste, and other informative topics. It's visually arresting and users can scroll down to look through different "clocks" that track statistics such as the land used to grow wasted food and the stages of food waste, which include production, processing, and consumption. This is a wonderful tool for folks with an interest in food security, environmental studies, public health, and international relations. It could also be used in any number of design courses to illustrate a range of techniques and visualization strategies.

Twyman, Luke

368

Chiral-odd generalized parton distributions in constituent quark models  

E-print Network

We derive the overlap representation of chiral-odd generalized parton distributions using the Fock-state decomposition in the transverse-spin basis. This formalism is applied to the case of light-cone wave functions in a constituent quark model. Numerical results for the four chiral-odd generalized parton distributions at the hadronic scale are shown in different kinematics. In the forward limit we derive the transversity distribution, the tensor charge and the angular momentum sum rule for quarks with transverse polarization in an unpolarized nucleon.

B. Pasquini; M. Pincetti; S. Boffi

2005-11-02

369

Organic constituents of meteorites--a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

All meteoritic organic chemical analyses published since 1900 are critically reviewed. Inactive during the first half of the century, this field has been revived by the modern realities of spaceflight and exploration, but work has been concentrated on searching the organic constituents of the carbonaceous chondrites for compounds possibly indicative of extraterrestrial life. It is one theme of this paper

J. M. Hayes

1967-01-01

370

Investigating Constituent Values and School Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a sociopolitical perspective to understand the alignment of community values and school policies, we conducted focus groups in three geographically close but economically varied neighborhood in one Midwest urban area. The article presents findings related to constituent values, social capital, and school policies, including charter school…

Allen, Ann; Glassman, Michael; Riegel, Lisa; Dawson, Heather

2013-01-01

371

TRANSPORT OF MANURE CONSTITUENTS IN RUNOFF  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fecal coliforms (FC) are often used as indicators of pathogenic bacteria contamination of surface water from surface-applied manure. Manure constituents other than FC may serve as natural tracers of bacterial contamination provided the rates of release from manure and surface transport mechanisms ar...

372

Gulose as a constituent of a glycoprotein.  

PubMed

The aldohexose gulose was identified as a constituent of a hydroxyproline-rich glycopeptide derived from the glycoprotein SSG 185. This glycoprotein is part of the extracellular matrix of the green alga Volvox carteri. The gulose residue occupies a terminal position in the corresponding saccharide. PMID:1544415

Mengele, R; Sumper, M

1992-02-17

373

School Board Members' Responsiveness to Constituents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether New Jersey school board members follow the prescriptions of reformers and refer constituents with complaints to professional administrators, or act as elected representatives and respond to parents' and community groups' requests for help in dealing with teachers and administrators. Discusses factors influencing board members'…

Greene, Kenneth R.

1990-01-01

374

Baryon spectroscopy in constituent quark models  

E-print Network

We present a study of the baryon spectra for all flavor sectors within a constituent quark model. We address some of the outstanding problems in baryon spectroscopy, as for example the spin splitting evolution for te different flavor sectors, the flavor independence of confinement and the missing state problem.

J. Vijande; A. Valcarce; P. Gonzalez; H. Garcilazo

2007-11-28

375

Earth GRAM-99 and trace constituents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-99) is an engineering-level model of Earth's atmosphere. It provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly- and geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0-27 km, GRAM thermodynamics and winds are based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. Above 120 km, GRAM is based on the NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model. In the intervening altitude region, GRAM is based on Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) climatology that also forms the basis of the 1986 COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). Atmospheric composition is represented in GRAM by concentrations of both major and minor species. Above 120 km, MET provides concentration values for N2, O2, Ar, O, He, and H. Below 120 km, species represented also include H2O, O3, N2O, CO, CH4, and CO2. At COSPAR 2002 a comparison was made between GRAM constituents below 120 km and those provided by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) climatology. As a result of that study, there was no need identified for updating GRAM constituent climatology is the 0-120 km height range. This report examines GRAM (MET) constituents between 100 and 1000 km altitudes. Discrepancies are noted between GRAM (MET) constituent number densities and mass density or molecular weight. Near 110 km altitude, there is up to about 25% discrepancy between MET number density and mass density (with mass density being valid and number densities requiring adjustment). Near 700 km altitude there is also up to about 25% discrepancy between MET number density and mean molecular weight (with molecular weight requiring adjustment). In neither case are MET mass density estimates invalidated. These discrepancies have been traced to MET subroutines SLV (which affects 90-170 km height range) and SLVH (which affects helium above 440 km altitude). With these discrepancies corrected, results are presented to illustrate GRAM (MET) constituent mole fractions in terms of height-latitude cross sections from 100 to 1000 km altitude, and latitude-longitude ``maps'' at 450 km (approximate height of International Space Station) and at 900 km altitude. Plans are discussed for an update of MET (and GRAM) to correct these constituent inconsistencies and to incorporate several new thermospheric model features.

Justus, C.; Duvall, A.; Keller, V.

376

Sunset yellow FCF, a permitted food dye, alters functional responses of splenocytes at non-cytotoxic dose.  

PubMed

Sunset yellow FCF (SY), a permitted food color, is extensively used in various food preparations and quite often exceeds the permissible levels (100-200 mg/kg). Several toxicity studies on SY are reported, however immunomodulatory properties have not been explored yet. To investigate the immunotoxic properties of SY, splenocytes were isolated, cultured and subjected to mitogen stimulated proliferation assay (lipopolysaccharide, LPS or concanavalin A, Con A), mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assay, immunophenotypic analysis of cell surface receptor expression and assay for cytokines release in the culture supernatants were performed in the presence of SY. Since SY did not exhibit any cytotoxicity up to 250 ?g/ml, this dose was used for further studies. It was observed that SY (250 ?g/ml) significantly (p<0.05) suppressed the mitogen induced proliferation of splenocytes and MLR response. Further, immunophenotypic analysis revealed that SY alters the relative expression of CD3e/CD4/CD8 in T cells and CD19 in B-cells. Consistent with the suppression of T-cell and B-cell responses and altered surface receptor expression, SY also lowered the expression of IL2, IL4, IL6, IL-17, IFN-? and TNF-? cytokines. These results suggest that non-cytotoxic dose of SY may have immunomodulatory effects. PMID:23287708

Yadav, Ashish; Kumar, Arvind; Tripathi, Anurag; Das, Mukul

2013-03-13

377

Food masquerade.  

PubMed

Radishes cut to look like roses, watermelons carved into fruit baskets, apples made into swans, cakes frosted to look like dolls—when did this game of food masquerade start and how? This essay speculates about food's on-going history of disguise, of pretending to be what it's not. From the Renaissance courtier's delight in confections disguised as beasts, birds, and other fancies to our present day fascination with Japanese bento lunch boxes, food masquerade would seem to be a fanciful part of the history of food.Food masquerade injects some levity into our growing seriousness about food, our suspicion that most supermarket food is riddled with toxins and bad karma. It proposes that eating food should be fun. Food masquerade also gets to the very heart of artistic visual representation: the magical transformation of paint, clay or wood into an image of something else. It is a synecdoche for art itself. PMID:21539044

Bermingham, Ann

2010-01-01

378

How does the resuspension of the biofilm alter the functioning of the benthos-pelagos coupled food web of a bare mudflat in Marennes-Oléron Bay (NE Atlantic)?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intertidal mudflats are ecosystems submitted to natural hydrodynamical forcings during each tide. When the offshore water flows at high tide, a proportion of the biofilm produced at low tide can be resuspended in the water column and interact with the pelagic food web. As a consequence, the resuspension creates a link between the benthos and the pelagos, modifying their properties and the stability of the meta-ecosystem they form together. The aim of this study is to describe the consequences of the microbial biofilm resuspension on the pelagic food web, and to investigate the question of the stability of the benthos-pelagos coupling resulting from the biofilm resuspension. Two food webs were considered, corresponding to different hydrodynamical conditions in summer condition: one allowing the biofilm massive resuspension, and one without resuspension, but with particle sedimentation. The Monte-Carlo Markov Chain Linear Modelling was used to estimate the unknown flows of the food web. The comparison of the Ecological Network Analysis indices for the two food webs allowed defining their respective differences of structure and functioning. The results showed that the massive resuspension of the microbial biofilm stimulates pelagic primary production and microbial food web via a higher bacterivory. The higher activity of the whole system coupled with both a drop in the specialisation of the trophic pathways and a low cycling activity demonstrated that when massive resuspension occurs, the system is disturbed. In contrast, when sedimentation occurs, the food webs show functioning features pointing out to a higher stability of the whole system.

Saint-Béat, Blanche; Dupuy, Christine; Agogué, Hélčne; Carpentier, Alexandre; Chalumeau, Julien; Como, Serena; David, Valérie; De Crignis, Margot; Duchęne, Jean-Claude; Fontaine, Camille; Feunteun, Eric; Guizien, Katell; Hartmann, Hans; Lavaud, Johann; Lefebvre, Sébastien; Lefrançois, Christel; Mallet, Clarisse; Montanié, Hélčne; Mouget, Jean-Luc; Orvain, Francis; Ory, Pascaline; Pascal, Pierre-Yves; Radenac, Gilles; Richard, Pierre; Vézina, Alain F.; Niquil, Nathalie

2014-09-01

379

Foams prepared from whey protein isolate and egg white protein: 2. Changes associated with angel food cake functionality.  

PubMed

The effects of sucrose on the physical properties and thermal stability of foams prepared from 10% (w/v) protein solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI), egg white protein (EWP), and their combinations (WPI/EWP) were investigated in wet foams and angel food cakes. Incorporation of 12.8 (w/v) sucrose increased EWP foam stability (drainage 1/2 life) but had little effect on the stability of WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Increased stability was not due to viscosity alone. Sucrose increased interfacial elasticity (E ') of EWP and decreased E' of WPI and WPI/EWP combinations, suggesting that altered interfacial properties increased stability in EWP foams. Although 25% WPI/75% EWP cakes had similar volumes as EWP cakes, cakes containing WPI had larger air cells. Changes during heating showed that EWP foams had network formation starting at 45 degrees C, which was not observed in WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Moreover, in batters, which are foams with additional sugar and flour, a stable foam network was observed from 25 to 85 degrees C for batters made from EWP foams. Batters containing WPI or WPI/EWP mixtures showed signs of destabilization starting at 25 degrees C. These results show that sucrose greatly improved the stability of wet EWP foams and that EWP foams form network structures that remain stable during heating. In contrast, sucrose had minimal effects on stability of WPI and WPI/EWP wet foams, and batters containing these foams showed destabilization prior to heating. Therefore, destabilization processes occurring in the wet foams and during baking account for differences in angel food cake quality. PMID:19646042

Berry, Tristan K; Yang, Xin; Foegeding, E Allen

2009-06-01

380

Functional changes due to invasive species: Food web shifts at shallow Posidonia oceanica seagrass beds colonized by the alien macroalga Caulerpa racemosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple stable isotope analyses were used to examine the trophic shifts at faunal assemblages within the invading macroalga Caulerpa racemosa in comparison to established communities of Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows. Sampling of macrobenthic invertebrates and their potential food sources of algal mats and seagrass meadows in Mallorca (NW Mediterranean) showed differences in species composition of faunal and primary producers among seagrass and C. racemosa. Accordingly, changes in food web structure and trophic guilds were observed, not only at species level but also at community level. The carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures of herbivores, detritivores and deposit feeders confirmed that the seagrass provided a small contribution to the macrofaunal organisms. ? 13C at the P. oceanica seagrass and at the C. racemosa assemblages differed, ranging from -6.19 to -21.20‰ and -2.67 to -31.41‰, respectively. ? 15N at the Caulerpa mats was lower (ranging from 2.64 to 10.45‰) than that at the seagrass meadows (3.51-12. 94‰). Significant differences in isotopic signatures and trophic level among trophic guilds at P. oceanica and C. racemosa were found. N fractionation at trophic guild level considerable differed between seagrass and macroalgae mats, especially for detritivores, deposit feeders, and herbivores. Filter feeders slightly differed with a relatively lower N signal at the seagrass and CR values at community level and at trophic guild level were higher in the C. racemosa invaded habitats indicating an increase in diversity of basal resource pools. C. racemosa did seem to broaden the niche diversity of the P. oceanica meadows it colonised at the base of the food web, may be due to the establishment of a new basal resource. The extent of the effects of invasive species on ecosystem functioning is a fundamental issue in conservation ecology. The observed changes in invertebrate and macrophytic composition, stable isotope signatures of concomitant species and consequent trophic guild and niche breadth shifts at invaded Caulerpa beds increase our understanding of the seagrass systems.

Deudero, S.; Box, A.; Alós, J.; Arroyo, N. L.; Marbŕ, N.

2011-06-01

381

CONSTITUENTS OF ELEMENTARY BODIES OF VACCINIA  

PubMed Central

The results of chemical analyses reveal that it is possible to secure preparations of elementary bodies of vaccinia that possess a considerable uniformity in their chemical constituents. Furthermore, the amounts of certain of these constituents, namely, nitrogen, alpha-amino nitrogen after hydrolysis, phosphorus, total fat, phospholipid, neutral fat, reducing sugar after hydrolysis, and cystine, in the purified virus are significantly different from those in the various materials discarded during the process of purification. The amounts of phospholipid and neutral fat in the virus preparations are not appreciably affected by extraction with ethyl ether or by digestion with lipase, procedures which do not inactivate the virus. Cholesterol, on the contrary, is apparently completely removed by these manipulations, and hence is not considered to play an important part in the economy of the virus. PMID:19870995

Hoagland, Charles L.; Smadel, Joseph E.; Rivers, Thomas M.

1940-01-01

382

The constituent-quark model — Nowadays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present performance of the constituent-quark model as an effective tool to describe low-energy hadrons on the basis of quantum chromodynamics is exemplified along the relativistic constituent-quark model with quark dynamics relying on a realistic confinement and a Goldstone-boson-exchange hyperfine interaction. In particular, the spectroscopy of all known baryons is covered within a universal model in good agreement with phenomenology. The structure of the nucleons as probed under electromagnetic, weak, and gravitational interactions is produced in a correct manner. Likewise, the electroweak form factors of the baryons with u, d, and s flavor contents, calculated so far, result reasonably. Shortcomings still remain with regard to hadronic resonance decays.

Plessas, W.

2015-01-01

383

Food Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... in food handling, cooking, and storage can prevent foodborne illness. There are four basic steps to food safety at home: Clean - always wash your fruits and vegetables, hands, counters, and ... reached its expiration date. United States Department of Agriculture

384

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... trigger allergic reactions include fish, shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts, such as walnuts. Problem foods for children can include eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, and wheat. Symptoms of food allergy ...

385

Food Labels  

MedlinePLUS

... Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Other Symptoms Diagnosis & Testing Proven Methods Skin Prick Tests Blood Tests Oral Food ... Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Other Symptoms Diagnosis & Testing Proven Methods Skin Prick Tests Blood Tests Oral Food ...

386

Food Chain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K describes how energy moves through nature. You will learn about the food chain, and its members: producers, consumers, scavengers. It shows where humans fit into the food chain.

2011-08-15

387

Protein Foods  

MedlinePLUS

... Text Size: A A A Listen En Espańol Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Best Protein Choices The best choices are: Plant-based proteins ...

388

Baryon Spectroscopy and the Constituent Quark Model  

SciTech Connect

We explore further the idea that the lattice QCD data for hadron properties in the region m[^2][_pi] > 0.2GeV^2 can be described by the constituent quark model. This leads to a natural explanation of the fact that nucleon excited states are generally stable for pion masses greater than their physical excitation energies. Finally, we apply these same ideas to the problem of how pentaquarks might behave in lattice QCD, with interesting conclusions.

A.W. Thomas; R.D. Young

2005-07-26

389

Hybrid States from Constituent Glue Model  

E-print Network

The hybrid meson is one of the most interesting new hadron specie beyond the naive quark model. It acquire a great attention both from the theoretical and experimental efforts. Many good candidates have been claimed to be observed, but there is no absolute confirmation about existence of hybrid mesons. In the present work we propose new calculations of the masses and decay widths of the hybrid mesons in the context of constituent gluon model.

F. Iddir; L. Semlala

2007-12-11

390

Headspace constituents of Parkia speciosa seeds.  

PubMed

The headspace of Parkia speciosa seeds was analysed by means of GC and GC-MS and found to contain 21 volatile components. The main constituents were hydrogen sulphide (41.30%), ethanol (39.15%), 1,2,4-trithiolane (4.75%) and acetaldehyde (3.59%), of which 1,2,4-trithiolane was found as one of the main component for the characteristic odour. PMID:11858549

Miyazawa, M; Osman, F

2001-01-01

391

Packaged Food  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

1976-01-01

392

Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts 4 different food webs: Antarctica, the African Grasslands, the Australia Grasslands and a Marine environment. A separate food web for scavengers and decomposers is present in the African Grasslands section. Viewers must first build the web by moving boxes with the organism's picture and name to the appropriate spot on a grid. Clues describing food requirements are given as the boxes are moved. When the boxes are correctly placed a complete food web (with arrows) is displayed.

393

Food Scorecard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

394

Food jags  

MedlinePLUS

Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... mealtimes positive. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

395

Fried foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fried foods may taste good, but they can have terrible effects on your body if you eat too many of them. Someone who has bulimia would be likely to binge eat these fried foods. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted binge eats and then purges, or gets rid of, all of the food they just ate.

Sakurai Midori (None; )

2006-10-31

396

Harnessing functional food strategies for the health challenges of space travel—Fermented soy for astronaut nutrition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronauts face numerous health challenges during long-duration space missions, including diminished immunity, bone loss and increased risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Changes in the intestinal flora of astronauts may contribute to these problems. Soy-based fermented food products could provide a nutritional strategy to help alleviate these challenges by incorporating beneficial lactic acid bacteria, while reaping the benefits of soy isoflavones. We carried out strain selection for the development of soy ferments, selecting strains of lactic acid bacteria showing the most effective growth and fermentation ability in soy milk ( Streptococcus thermophilus ST5, Bifidobacterium longum R0175 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052). Immunomodulatory bioactivity of selected ferments was assessed using an in vitro challenge system with human intestinal epithelial and macrophage cell lines, and selected ferments show the ability to down-regulate production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 following challenge with tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The impact of fermentation on vitamin B1 and B6 levels and on isoflavone biotransformation to agluconic forms was also assessed, with strain variation-dependent biotransformation ability detected. Overall this suggests that probiotic bacteria can be successfully utilized to develop soy-based fermented products targeted against health problems associated with long-term space travel.

Buckley, Nicole D.; Champagne, Claude P.; Masotti, Adriana I.; Wagar, Lisa E.; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Green-Johnson, Julia M.

2011-04-01

397

CHEMICAL SPECIATION OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE CONSTITUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This project addresses the problem of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge disposal to land. Specifically, the chemical species of FGD sludge constituents are thermodynamically modeled using the equilibrium constant approach, in an attempt to predict the constituent concentratio...

398

Involvement of extracellular matrix constituents in breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

It has recently been established that the extracellular matrix is required for normal functional differentiation of mammary epithelia not only in culture, but also in vivo. The mechanisms by which extracellular matrix affects differentiation, as well as the nature of extracellular matrix constituents which have major impacts on mammary gland function, have only now begun to be dissected. The intricate variety of extracellular matrix-mediated events and the remarkable degree of plasticity of extracellular matrix structure and composition at virtually all times during ontogeny, make such studies difficult. Similarly, during carcinogenesis, the extracellular matrix undergoes gross alterations, the consequences of which are not yet precisely understood. Nevertheless, an increasing amount of data suggests that the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-receptors might participate in the control of most, if not all, of the successive stages of breast tumors, from appearance to progression and metastasis.

Lochter, Andre; Bissell, Mina J

1995-06-01

399

7 CFR Appendix A to Part 220 - Alternate Foods for Meals  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements for fruit/vegetable/juice and one...accepted by the Food and Nutrition... Recommended sources of iron are ferric...planned under the food-based menu planning...constituents of the food is removed...plant or animal sources. b. The...water, fat, oil, colors,...

2011-01-01

400

7 CFR Appendix A to Part 220 - Alternate Foods for Meals  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements for fruit/vegetable/juice and one...accepted by the Food and Nutrition... Recommended sources of iron are ferric...planned under the food-based menu planning...constituents of the food is removed...plant or animal sources. b. The...water, fat, oil, colors,...

2010-01-01

401

7 CFR Appendix A to Part 220 - Alternate Foods for Meals  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements for fruit/vegetable/juice and one...accepted by the Food and Nutrition... Recommended sources of iron are ferric...planned under the food-based menu planning...constituents of the food is removed...plant or animal sources. b. The...water, fat, oil, colors,...

2012-01-01

402

Food Chains and Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explains how energy travels through an ecosystem. This flow can be diagrammed in food chains and food webs as shown in the lesson's illustrations. Key terms are hyperlinked so students can easily view definitions of new concepts.

2012-06-14

403

A Functional mathematical index for predicting effects of food processing on eight sweet potato(Ipomoea batatas)cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this paper we apply an improved functional mathematical index (FMI), modified from those presented in previous publications, to define the influence of different cooking processes of eight sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars on composition of six bioactive phenolic compounds (flavonoids). Th...

404

What Happens to the Food We Eat? Children's Conceptions of the Structure and Function of the Digestive System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes children's conceptions of the structure and function of the human digestive system based on an investigation carried out with children aged 4-10 (n=45). Finds that children possess biological knowledge as an independent knowledge domain from the age of four. Discusses acquisition of and barriers to scientific concepts related to human…

Teixeira, Francimar Martins

2000-01-01

405

Vital Voices: Building Constituencies for Public School Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report explores the insights and experiences of activists who build strong constituencies to reform public schools. It presents data from a 2-year study involving the seven primary constituency and coalition building grantees of the Ford Foundation's Constituency Building for Public School Reform Initiative. Data were collected from 14…

Hirota, Janice M.; Jacobs, Lauren E.

406

Inclusion of Fermented Foods in Food Guides around the World  

PubMed Central

Fermented foods have been a well-established part of the human diet for thousands of years, without much of an appreciation for, or an understanding of, their underlying microbial functionality, until recently. The use of many organisms derived from these foods, and their applications in probiotics, have further illustrated their impact on gastrointestinal wellbeing and diseases affecting other sites in the body. However, despite the many benefits of fermented foods, their recommended consumption has not been widely translated to global inclusion in food guides. Here, we present the case for such inclusion, and challenge health authorities around the world to consider advocating for the many benefits of these foods. PMID:25580813

Chilton, Stephanie N.; Burton, Jeremy P.; Reid, Gregor

2015-01-01

407

Fibrillar structures in food.  

PubMed

Assembly of proteins or peptides into fibrils is an important subject of study in various research fields. In the field of food research, the protein fibrils are interesting candidates as functional ingredients. It is essential to understand the formation and properties of the fibrils for successful application of the fibrils in food products. This paper describes the impact of recent research on the general view of the process of fibril formation from ?-lg and the properties of the fibrils that are formed, leading to better control of applications for the fibrils. There is a need for a better understanding of the behavior of fibrils in more complex food systems. PMID:22094395

Kroes-Nijboer, Ardy; Venema, Paul; van der Linden, Erik

2012-03-01

408

Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems  

SciTech Connect

Objectives of this project are: (1) define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and (2) characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail; elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur; and develop, based on the information required in a. and b. above, a tractable process'' model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the nature and distribution of products. The work discussed highlights recent accomplishments in modeling synthetic char particle combustion times and temperatures with allowance for oxygen dissociation in the char boundary layer; in developing a continuum model for residual ash information and char fragmentation, permitting a more detailed time-resolved study of ash coalescence within a burning char particle; and in continuing development of the engineering model for ash particle formation. 40 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

Boni, A.A.; Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (USA)); Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA)); Huffman, G.P.; Huggins, F.E. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (USA))

1990-11-01

409

Dealing with Food and Eggs in Mouthbrooding Cichlids: Structural and Functional Trade-Offs in Fitness Related Traits  

PubMed Central

Background As in any vertebrate, heads of fishes are densely packed with functions. These functions often impose conflicting mechanical demands resulting in trade-offs in the species-specific phenotype. When phenotypical traits are linked to gender-specific parental behavior, we expect sexual differences in these trade-offs. This study aims to use mouthbrooding cichlids as an example to test hypotheses on evolutionary trade-offs between intricately linked traits that affect different aspects of fitness. We focused on the oral apparatus, which is not only equipped with features used to feed and breathe, but is also used for the incubation of eggs. We used this approach to study mouthbrooding as part of an integrated functional system with diverging performance requirements and to explore gender-specific selective environments within a species. Methodology/Principal Findings Because cichlids are morphologically very diverse, we hypothesize that the implications of the added constraint of mouthbrooding will primarily depend on the dominant mode of feeding of the studied species. To test this, we compared the trade-off for two maternal mouthbrooding cichlid species: a “suction feeder” (Haplochromis piceatus) and a “biter” (H. fischeri). The comparison of morphology and performance of both species revealed clear interspecific and intersex differences. Our observation that females have larger heads was interpreted as a possible consequence of the fact that in both the studied species mouthbrooding is done by females only. As hypothesized, the observed sexual dimorphism in head shape is inferred as being suboptimal for some aspects of the feeding performance in each of the studied species. Our comparison also demonstrated that the suction feeding species had smaller egg clutches and more elongated eggs. Conclusions/Significance Our findings support the hypothesis that there is a trade-off between mouthbrooding and feeding performance in the two studied haplochromine cichlids, stressing the importance of including species-specific information at the gender level when addressing interspecific functional/morphological differences. PMID:22348043

tkint, Tim; Verheyen, Erik; De Kegel, Barbara; Helsen, Philippe; Adriaens, Dominique

2012-01-01

410

Magilatin generating functions and constituents (general form, with cubic data)  

E-print Network

]:=2: simplexname[7]:="BDE1": ehrgf[7]:= 1/((1-x)*(1-x^2)*(1-x^3)) : dimen[7]:=2: simplexname[8]:="ABD": ehrgf[8 ( ) "BDE1", 2, 1 1 - x( ) 1 - x 2 ( ) 1 - x 3 ( ) "ABD", 2, 1 1 - x( ) 1 - x 2 ( ) 2 "FG1", 1, 1 1 - x 3

Zaslavsky, Thomas

411

Magilatin generating functions and constituents (general form, with affine data)  

E-print Network

)) : dimen[6]:=2: simplexname[7]:="BDE1": ehrgf[7]:= 1/((1-x^2)*(1-x^3)*(1-x^4)) : dimen[7]:=2: simplexname[8 ( ) 1 - x 4 ( ) 2 "OCE", 2, 1 1 - x( ) 1 - x 2 ( ) 1 - x 4 ( ) "BDE1", 2, 1 1 - x 2 ( ) 1 - x 3 ( ) 1

Zaslavsky, Thomas

412

[Food allergies].  

PubMed

Food allergies are not a phenomenon of our time. The public and published opinion characterize food allergies as an accompanying symptom of our modern industrial society. However, many years before our time, Hippocrates (400 B.C.) and Lucrezius (1. Century A.D.) had described symptoms of illness which seemed to be due to food-allergies and intolerances. Today, allergies (especially food allergies) are often depicted as having increased excessively and that this increase seems to result from harmful substances in the environment, residues, food additives or may even be due to food manufacturing processes. It is estimated that the frequency of all types of allergic illnesses at this time in West-Germany is between 10-20 percent. Taking into consideration all degrees of difficulty, the number of people with food allergies lies under 10 percent of the population, although exact numbers in this area are missing. It is undisputed that food allergies are induced as a result of some of the foreign substances mentioned. However, the predominant share of food allergies occur as a result of natural food substances. The trend towards less processed foods has especially increased the risk of food allergies, since for example unmodified protein may contain more possible allergens than the corresponding protein which has been denatured by heating. The wide distribution of "new" foods from exotic countries and the enormous expansion in the variety of seasonings is also thought of as a cause for many allergies. One cause for more allergens reaching our abundantly set tables is the increased distribution and range of products resulting from expansion of national and international trade. Allergy, which to some extent is due to a malfunctioning immune system, activates certain defense mechanisms in the body. Food or more precisely its contents, then becomes an alien substance or antigen for the body against which it builds certain antibodies to "stay in a good state of health". These antibodies cause typical allergic reaction such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, urticaria and difficulty in breathing, after a certain food has been eaten. We must differentiate between food allergies and incompatibility (food intolerances). The body does not produce antibodies for the latter. Unlike food allergies, intolerances can disappear with time. PMID:2059292

Oberritter, H

1991-03-01

413

Decaying hadrons within constituent-quark models  

E-print Network

Within conventional constituent-quark models hadrons come out as stable bound states of the valence (anti)quarks. Thereby the resonance character of hadronic excitations is completely ignored. A more realistic description of hadron spectra can be achieved by including explicit mesonic degrees of freedom, which couple directly to the constituent quarks. We will present a coupled-channel formalism that describes such hybrid systems in a relativistically invariant way and allows for the decay of excited hadrons. The formalism is based on the point-form of relativistic quantum mechanics. If the confining forces between the (anti)quarks are described by instantaneous interactions it can be formally shown that the mass-eigenvalue problem for a system that consists of dynamical (anti)quarks and mesons reduces to a hadronic eigenvalue problem in which the eigenstates of the pure confinement problem (bare hadrons) are coupled via meson loops. The only point where the quark substructure enters are form factors at the meson-(bare) hadron vertices. The physical picture that emerges resembles the kind of hadronic resonance model that has been developed by Sato and Lee and is now heavily used at the Excited Baryon Analysis Center (EBAC) to fix $N^\\ast$ properties. Our approach, however, is in a certain sense inverse to the one of Sato and Lee. Whereas they want to undress physical resonances to end up with bare quantities, we rather want to dress the bound-states resulting from a pure constituent quark model to end up with quantities that can be directly compared with experiment. The way how our approach works will be exemplified by means of a simple quark-antiquark-meson system.

Regina Kleinhappel; Wolfgang Schweiger

2012-06-19

414

Is It Food Allergy or Food Intolerance?  

MedlinePLUS

... this page: Lactose intolerance Food additives Gluten intolerance Food poisoning Histamine toxicity Other conditions Lactose intolerance Lactose is ... not considered a food allergy. back to top Food poisoning Some of the symptoms of food allergy, such ...

415

Survey of chemical constituents of Tehran's groundwater.  

PubMed

One hundred and forty wells throughout the City of Tehran and its environs were sampled to determine the chemical quality of the groundwater. Total alkalinity, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardness and detergent concentrations were determined as well as levels of bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, sulphate, chloride, sodium, potassium, fluoride, iodide and nitrate. Generally, chemical pollution of the water supplies was low. There were, however, regional elevations in nitrate, chloride and fluoride. Elevated fluoride levels were primarily in the northern regions of the city while high nitrates and chlorides were found primariiy in industrial areas. The health implications of chemical constituents in drinking water are discussed. PMID:24214233

Shariatpanahi, M; Anderson, A C

1987-12-01

416

Bioactive constituents from Rollinia emarginata (Annonaceae).  

PubMed

From an Argentine collection of the tropical tree Rollinia emarginata (Annonaceae), vomifoliol, dehydrovomifoliol, blumenol C, loliolide, 7-epiloliolide, vanillin, dihydroactinolide, as well as other common plant constituents were obtained, and identified by their NMR and MS features compared with authentic samples. Antifeedant and toxic actions were exerted to the polyphagous moth Spodoptera frugiperda by the ethanol extract of the plant, at 250 ppm in the larval diet. Additionally, in greenhouse studies, a 200 ppm aqueous solution of the extract produced a post-emergency herbicidal effect on the annual weed common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album). PMID:17365716

Colom, Olga Alvarez; Popich, Susana; Bardon, Alicia

2007-03-01

417

Hypoglycemic constituents of Gynura divaricata subsp. formosana.  

PubMed

Gynura divaricata Kitam. subsp. formosana is a folk medicine used as a hypoglycemic agent for diabetes patients in Taiwan. Guided by the hexose transport assay, the hypoglycemic constituents of the aerial part of this plant were disclosed through chromatographic methods. They are fructooligosaccharides, including beta-D-fructofuranose, sucrose, 1-kestose, nystose, and 1(F)-beta-fructofuranosylnystose. The hexose transport assay indicated that nystose was the most potent among these compounds, showing a 46.7% difference from pinitol in the stimulation index at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. PMID:22474963

Chou, Shen-Chieh; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Lee, Shoei-Sheng

2012-02-01

418

Glycosidic constituents from in vitro Anoectochilus formosanus.  

PubMed

The glycosidic constituents of whole plants of Anoectochilus formosanus propagated by tissue culture were investigated. A new compound, 2-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxymethyl)-5-hydroxymethylfuran, along with the known compounds, 3-(R)-3-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxybutanolide (kinsenoside), 3-(R)-3-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxybutanoic acid, 1-O-isopropyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, (R)-(+)-3,4-dihydroxy-butanoic acid y-lactone, 4-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)benzyl alcohol, (6R,9S)-9-hydroxy-megastigma-4,7-dien-3-one-9-O-beta-glucopy ranoside, and corchoionoside C were isolated. PMID:11086921

Du, X M; Sun, N Y; Irino, N; Shoyama, Y

2000-11-01

419

Total dissociative electron attachment cross sections for molecular constituents of DNA  

E-print Network

Total dissociative electron attachment cross sections for molecular constituents of DNA K Total cross sections for the dissociative electron attachment process are presented for the DNA bases gauged. In this paper we report DEA cross sections as a function of electron energy for total negative

Simons, Jack

420

Modeling of Alkane Oxidation Using Constituents and Species  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is currently not possible to perform simulations of turbulent reactive flows due in particular to complex chemistry, which may contain thousands of reactions and hundreds of species. This complex chemistry results in additional differential equations, making the numerical solution of the equation set computationally prohibitive. Reducing the chemical kinetics mathematical description is one of several important goals in turbulent reactive flow modeling. A chemical kinetics reduction model is proposed for alkane oxidation in air that is based on a parallel methodology to that used in turbulence modeling in the context of the Large Eddy Simulation. The objective of kinetic modeling is to predict the heat release and temperature evolution. This kinetic mechanism is valid over a pressure range from atmospheric to 60 bar, temperatures from 600 K to 2,500 K, and equivalence ratios from 0.125 to 8. This range encompasses diesel, HCCI, and gas-turbine engines, including cold ignition. A computationally efficient kinetic reduction has been proposed for alkanes that has been illustrated for n-heptane using the LLNL heptane mechanism. This model is consistent with turbulence modeling in that scales were first categorized into either those modeled or those computed as progress variables. Species were identified as being either light or heavy. The heavy species were decomposed into defined 13 constituents, and their total molar density was shown to evolve in a quasi-steady manner. The light species behave either in a quasi-steady or unsteady manner. The modeled scales are the total constituent molar density, Nc, and the molar density of the quasi-steady light species. The progress variables are the total constituent molar density rate evolution and the molar densities of the unsteady light species. The unsteady equations for the light species contain contributions of the type gain/loss rates from the heavy species that are modeled consistent with the developed mathematical forms for the total constituent molar density rate evolution; indeed, examination of these gain/loss rates shows that they also have a good quasi-steady behavior with a functional form resembling that of the constituent rate. This finding highlights the fact that the fitting technique provides a methodology that can be repeatedly used to obtain an accurate representation of full or skeletal kinetic models. Assuming success with the modified reduced model, the advantage of the modeling approach is clear. Because this model is based on the Nc rate rather than on that of individual heavy species, even if the number of species increases with increased carbon number in the alkane group, providing that the quasi-steady rate aspect persists, then extension of this model to higher alkanes should be conceptually straightforward, although it remains to be seen if the functional fits would remain valid or would require reconstruction.

Bellan, Jasette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

2010-01-01

421

Fatty Acid Composition and Volatile Constituents of Protaetia brevitarsis Larvae  

PubMed Central

A total of 48 different volatile oils were identified form P. brevitarsis larvae by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acids (48.67%) were detected as the major group in P. brevitarsis larvae comprising the largest proportion of the volatile compounds, followed by esters (19.84%), hydrocarbons (18.90%), alcohols (8.37%), miscellaneous (1.71%), aldehydes (1.35%) and terpenes (1.16%). The major volatile constituents were 9-hexadecenoic acid (16.75%), 6-octadecenoic acid (14.88%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (11.06%). The composition of fatty acid was also determined by GC analysis and 16 fatty acids were identified. The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (C18:1, 64.24%) followed by palmitic acid (C16:0, 15.89%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 10.43%) and linoleic acid (C18:2, 4.69%) constituting more than 95% of total fatty acids. The distinguished characteristic of the fatty acid profile of P. brevitarsis larvae was the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (80.54% of total fatty acids) versus saturated fatty acids (19.46% of total fatty acids). Furthermore, small but significant amounts of linoleic, linolenic and ?-linolenic acids bestow P. brevitarsis larvae with considerable nutritional value. The novel findings of the present study provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of the insect as a nutritionally promising food source and a possibility for more effective utilization. PMID:24471125

Yeo, Hyelim; Youn, Kumju; Kim, Minji; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

2013-01-01

422

Novel mechanism of modulating natural antioxidants in functional foods: involvement of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria NRRL B-30488.  

PubMed

The significance of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mediated increase in antioxidant potential in vegetables is yet unknown. The plant growth-promoting bacterium Bacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488 (B-30488) mediated induction of dietary antioxidant in vegetables ( Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lactuca sativa, Spinacia oleracea, and Daucus carota) and fruit ( Citrus sinensis) after minimal processing (fresh, boiled, and frozen) was tested by estimating the total phenol content, level of antioxidant enzymes, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide scavenging activities along with integral radical scavenging capacity by photochemiluminescence assay and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Minimal processing of vegetables showed that T. foenum-graecum had the highest phenol content in B-30488-treated plants followed by L. sativa, D. carota, and S. oleracea. Thermally treated vegetables T. foenum-graecum (26-114.5 GAE microg mg (-1)) had an exceptionally high total phenolic content, followed by D. carota (25.27-101.32 GAE microg mg (-1)), L. sativa (23.22-101.10 GAE microg mg (-1)), and S. oleracea (21.87-87.57 GAE microg mg (-1)). Among the vegetables and fruit used in this study for enzymatic estimation, induction of antioxidant enzymes, namely, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD), was observed in edible parts of T. foenum-graecum, L. sativa, S. oleracea, and D. carota, after inoculation with B-30488. The scavenging capacity of the vegetables treated with B-30488 against DPPH and superoxide anion radical activity was found to be significantly high as compared to nontreated control. Mild food processing had no adverse effect on radical scavenging capacity. Photochemiluminescence also ascertains the above findings. The ability of the plant extracts to protect against lipid peroxidation and its ability to prevent oxidation of reduced glutathione (GSH) was measured in rat liver homogenate, and the results suggested that the inoculated plant exhibited better activity in all of the screened plants. Significant increases in shoot length, root length, and dry weight, averaging 164, 132, and 135% in T. foenum-graecum, 174, 141, and 156% in L. sativa, 129, 141, and 59%, in S. oleracea, and 125, 146, and 42% in D. carota, respectively, over untreated controls, were attained in greenhouse trials. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of PGPR-mediated induction of antioxidant enzyme activity (PPO, APX, CAT, and SOD) along with the antioxidant activity of the extracts in both in vitro (DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide scavenging) and ex vivo conditions using the rat liver tissue (percent inhibition of lipid peroxidation and prevention of oxidation of GSH) and phenolic content. The results demonstrate the PGPR-mediated induction of antioxidant level in vegetables and fruit controls oxidative damage even after minimal processing and thus is indicative of its potential as a viable substitute of synthetic antioxidants. PMID:18491912

Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Govindarajan, Raghavan; Lavania, Meeta; Pushpangadan, Palpu

2008-06-25

423

Food Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate aim of activities and interventions aimed at guaranteeing food security is to arrive at a healthy and well-nourished\\u000a population that can take on, to the maximum of its capacities, the development of its own community, area or country. In these\\u000a efforts, agriculture, in its role as food producer, plays a crucial role. (Sufficient quality) food should be available

R. P. Roetter; H. VAN KEULEN

2007-01-01

424

Mutations of Electrons as Constituents of Hadrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conjecture (C) 1: Coulomb-charged constituents of electron (e) are attracted to its barycentre by lepto-strong force F=K/r^2+f; f is stably perturbative for r < the "radius" of e. An exterior magnetic field (MF) with gradient (G) secularly perturbs the eccentricities but not the energies of the constituents' orbits, changing the spin (s) and magnetic moment (?) of e. (C) 2: F coheres two or more e's dynamically with r approximately equal to the "radius" of e. The resulting MF and G at each e oscillate. Stable values of s and ? result for each e which differs from the atomic values. Binding energies change the masses of the e's. A hadron results. (C) 3: An e similarly may bind to a proton to form a Rutherford- Santilli neutron. The proton is negligibly mutated.(References: H. Dehmelt, Science 247, 539 (1990); T.E. Phipps, Jr., Heretical Verities (Classic Non-fiction Library, Urbana, 1986); R.M. Santilli, Hadronic Mechanics (Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev, 1995 and 1996), 3 volumes.)

Driscoll, R. B.

1997-04-01

425

Food additives  

PubMed Central

Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

Spencer, Michael

1974-01-01

426

Chemical constituents from Swietenia macrophylla bark and their antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Chemical constituents of the bark of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) was investigated not only to develop further bark utilization but also to understand the biochemical function of the bark in the forest environment. A new phenylpropanoid-substituted catechin, namely, swietemacrophyllanin [(2R*,3S*,7"R*)-catechin-8,7"-7,2"-epoxy-(methyl 4",5"-dihydroxyphenylpropanoate)] (1) was isolated from the bark of S. macrophylla together with two known compounds, catechin (2) and epicatechin (3). The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic data and by comparison of the NMR data with those of catiguanins A and B, phenylpropanoid-substituted epicatechins. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of the isolated compounds indicated that all of the three compounds have strong activity compared with trolox as a reference. Swietemacrophyllanin (1) had the strongest activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 56 microg mL(-1). PMID:19266907

Falah, S; Suzuki, T; Katayama, T

2008-08-15

427

Access to Secondary School Education through the Constituency Bursary Fund in Kanduyi Constituency, Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Secondary school education is very critical in any education system because of the crucial role, it plays in catalyzing national development. Consequently, maintaining a high student enrolment at this level should be a priority for all countries. The Constituency Bursary Fund (CBF) was established by the government of Kenya through an act of…

Wachiye, J. Herman; Nasongo, W. Joseph

2010-01-01

428

Central Administration of Leptin to Ovariectomized Ewes Inhibits Food Intake without Affecting the Secretion of Hormones from the Pituitary Gland: Evidence for a Dissociation of Effects on Appetite and Neuroendocrine Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the effect of leptin on food intake and neuroen- docrine function in ovariectomized ewes. Groups (n 5 5) received intracerebroventricular infusions of either vehicle or leptin (20 mg\\/h) for 3 days and were blood sampled ove r6ho ndays 21, 2, and for 3 h on day 3 relative to the onset of the infusion. The animals were

BELINDA A. HENRY; JAMES W. GODING; WARREN S. ALEXANDER; ALAN J. TILBROOK; BENEDICT J. CANNY; FRANK DUNSHEA; ALEXANDRA RAO; ASHLEY MANSELL; IAIN J. CLARKE

1999-01-01

429

Food Groups and Nutrients  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

State core objective: 3rd grade Health Standard 6 Objective 2. Students will learn the basic nutrient groups and be able to identify the functions of those nutrients. There is an interactive food pyramid for you to explore and several games that will help you learn how each nutrient is used in our bodies! Learning about nutrition is fun and useful! When you have learned all about the nutrient groups you will create your own food pyramid with your favorite foods and how they help your body. There are five basic food groups: Grains, vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy. These groups are organized into a pyramid, showing about how much of each you should eat each day. There is also a small section for sugars and fats. This pyramid will let you explore what ...

Miss Perry

2007-11-08

430

Effects of maternal food restriction on offspring lung extracellular matrix deposition and long term pulmonary function in an experimental rat model.  

PubMed

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of respiratory compromise throughout postnatal life. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the respiratory compromise in offspring following IUGR is not known. We hypothesized that IUGR following maternal food restriction (MFR) would affect extracellular matrix deposition in the lung, explaining the long-term impairment in pulmonary function in the IUGR offspring. Using a well-established rat model of MFR during gestation to produce IUGR pups, we found that at postnatal day 21, and at 9 months (9M) of age the expression and abundance of elastin and alpha smooth muscle actin (?SMA), two key extracellular matrix proteins, were increased in IUGR lungs when compared to controls (P?function, consistent with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, expression of the key alveolar extracellular matrix proteins elastin and ?SMA increased in the IUGR lung, thus providing a potential explanation for the compromised lung function in IUGR offspring. PMID:22058072

Rehan, Virender K; Sakurai, Reiko; Li, Yishi; Karadag, Ahmet; Corral, Julia; Bellusci, Saverio; Xue, Ying Ying; Belperio, John; Torday, John S

2012-02-01

431

EFFECTS OF MATERNAL FOOD RESTRICTION ON FETAL LUNG EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX DEPOSITION AND LONG TERM PULMONARY FUNCTION IN AN EXPERIMENTAL RAT MODEL  

PubMed Central

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of respiratory compromise throughout postnatal life. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the respiratory compromise in offspring following IUGR is not known. We hypothesized that IUGR following maternal food restriction (MFR) would affect extracellular matrix deposition in the lung, explaining the long-term impairment in pulmonary function in the IUGR offspring. Using a well-established rat model of MFR during gestation to produce IUGR pups, we found that at postnatal day 21, and at 9 months of age the expression and abundance of elastin and alpha smooth muscle actin (?SMA), two key extracellular matrix proteins, were increased in IUGR lungs when compared to controls (p<0.05, n = 6), as determined by both Western and immunohistochemistry analyses. Compared to controls, the MFR group showed no significant change in pulmonary resistance at baseline, but did have significantly decreased pulmonary compliance at 9 months (p<0.05 vs control, n=5). In addition, MFR lungs exhibited increased responsiveness to methacholine challenge. Furthermore, exposing cultured fetal rat lung fibroblasts to serum deprivation increased the expression of elastin and elastin-related genes, which was blocked by serum albumin supplementation, suggesting protein deficiency as the predominant mechanism for increased pulmonary elastin deposition in IUGR lungs. We conclude that accompanying the changes in lung function, consistent with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, expression of the key alveolar extracellular matrix proteins elastin and ?SMA increased in the IUGR lung, thus providing a potential explanation for the compromised lung function in IUGR offspring. PMID:22058072

Rehan, Virender K.; Sakurai, Reiko; Li, Yishi; Karadag, Ahmet; Corral, Julia; Bellusci, Saverio; Xue, Ying Ying; Belperio, John; Torday, John S.

2011-01-01

432

Food, novel foods, and allergenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain foods lead may to allergic responses in certain individuals. \\u000aMain allergenic foods are Crustacea (shrimp, lobster, crab), egg, fish,\\u000amilk, peanuts, soybeans, tree nuts, and wheat, and allergens are always\\u000aproteins. A wide array of symptoms can result from food allergy\\u000a(gastrointestinal, skin, respiratory). Severe and life threatening\\u000asituations can occur. The prevalence is about 2% of the population;

Loveren H van

2007-01-01

433

Deicing chemicals as source of constituents of highway runoff  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The dissolved major and trace constituents of deicing chemicals as a source of constituents in highway runoff must be quantified for interpretive studies of highway runoff and its effects on surface water and groundwater. Dissolved constituents of the deicing chemicals-sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and premix (a mixture of sodium and calcium chloride)-were determined by analysis of salt solutions created in the laboratory and are presented as mass ratios to chloride. Deicing chemical samples studied are about 98 and 97 percent pure sodium chloride and calcium chloride, respectively: however, each has a distinct major and trace ion constituent signature. The greatest impurity in sodium chloride road sail samples was sulfate, followed by calcium, potassium, bromide, vanadium, magnesium, fluoride, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. The greatest impurity in the calcium chloride road salt samples was sodium, followed by potassium, sulfate, bromide, silica, fluoride. strontium, magnesium, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. Major constituents of deicing chemicals in highway runoff may account for a substantial source of annual chemical loads. Comparison of estimated annual loads and first flush concentrations of deicing chemical constituents in highway runoff with those reported in the literature indicate that although deicing chemicals are not a primary source of trace constituents, they are not a trivial source, either. Therefore, deicing chemicals should be considered as a source of many major and trace constituents in highway and urban runoff.

Granato, G.E.

1996-01-01

434

Mono-aromatic constituents of Dendrobium longicornu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stems of several Dendrobium species (Orchidaceae) are used in traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic to nourish the stomach, promote the production of body fluid, and reduce fever [1]. The products prepared from the dried stems of Dendrobium plants are also used as precious health foods and nutrients [2]. Earlier work on the genus led to the isolation of

Jiang-Tao Li; Ben-Lin Yin; Ying Liu; Li-Qin Wang; Ye-Gao Chen

2009-01-01

435

Enzymatic solubilization of nitrogenous constituents of carrots  

E-print Network

rm derived ira Tra et a ~aan nina; and iitin, a ~ enzyme obtained from the latex of the fig tree (Ficus carica), were chosen. A-12-C was chosen because it had been investigated previ- ously in the food processing context and the reported data could...

Curry, James Cannon

1971-01-01

436

Tropospheric constituent variability associated with baroclinic waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baroclinic waves are fundamental to tropospheric dynamics, and therefore it is of interest to understand their impact on atmospheric constituents. Here we examine the dynamics of the troposphere during baroclinic wave life cycles and study in detail their influence on constituent transport. We incorporate two methods of studying the atmosphere. The first is the study of observations made by remote sensing of the atmosphere by satellites. The second is the examination of the atmosphere through the use of an atmospheric general circulation model. In an observational case study, we used upper tropospheric water vapor measurements from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder to investigate the structure and evolution of eastward traveling medium-scale wave features in Southern Hemisphere summertime and found that the water vapor field is well correlated with meteorological fields and derived potential vorticity fields. These results are consistent with model paradigms for the structure and evolution of baroclinic disturbances. In order to study the details of transport associated with baroclinic waves, we build upon the successes of other studies which use general circulation models to simulate baroclinic wave life cycles. These nonlinear simulations have shown that the wave evolution consists of baroclinic growth, maturity and barotropic decay. In our study, two life cycles are simulated with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) community climate model (CCM2), starting with baroclinically unstable initial conditions similar to those used by Thorncroft et al. (1993). The two life cycles differ in the strength and sense of the horizontal shear of the zonal wind. This strongly influences the behavior which ensues. In terms of potential vorticity-potential temperature diagnostics, the basic case is characterized by thinning troughs which are advected anti-cyclonically and equatorward, while the anomalous case has broadening troughs which wrap up cyclonically and poleward. In order to investigate transport during these two life cycles, four passive tracers are included in the simulation to be advected by the semi-Lagrangian transport scheme of CCM2. The resulting tracer budgets are analyzed in terms of the transformed Eulerian mean constituent transport formalism. Results show a net upward and poleward transport and a strong influence of the eddy flux term on the time tendency of the tracer. The largest transport occurs during the nonlinear growth stage of the life cycle. We also find that the transport varies little with the initial tracer distributions.

Stone, Elizabeth Mary

437

Food Labels  

MedlinePLUS

... cream. Trans fats are naturally found in these foods too, but they are also in vegetable oils that have been specially treated (hydrogenated) so they are solid at room temperature — like shortening. The amount of saturated and trans fats that are in a food are shown below total fat on the nutrition ...

438

Food Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... or artificial flavors? Studies have found that some food additives, such as tartrazine, or yellow No. 5, and aspartame (brand name: NutraSweet), an artificial sweetener, do cause ... condition is called a food allergy when the immune system thinks a certain ...

439

Irradiated foods  

MedlinePLUS

... and reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes and for the control of insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

440

Food Trends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

Schwenk, Nancy E.

1991-01-01

441

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... of links for more information about food allergy ?? Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the ... incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food ...

442

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... of links for more information about food allergy. ? Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the ... incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food ...

443

Food porn.  

PubMed

Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

McBride, Anne E

2010-01-01

444

Food & Community  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With an increased concern over the nature of food production across the globe, it would make sense that a number of organizations and foundations would see fit to address these conditions through any number of crucial initiatives. Launched in 2000, Food & Society is one such initiative. Created by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, the purpose of the initiative is â??to support the creation and expansion of community-based food systems that are locally owned and controlled, environmentally sound, and health promoting.â?ť On their homepage, visitors can sign up to receive news updates and look through a calendar of upcoming events. Another highlight of the homepage is the â??Food in the Newsâ?ť, which features the latest information on such topics as farmersâ?? markets and recent reports, such as â??Perceptions of the U.S. Food System: What and How Americans Think About Their Foodâ?ť.

2005-01-01

445

Finding food  

PubMed Central

A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

2011-01-01

446

[Studies on chemical constituents of Laurencia saitoi].  

PubMed

In order to search for bioactive natural products from marine algae, the chemical constituents of red alga Laurencia saitoi was separated by the combination of normal phase silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and recrystallization. Seven compounds: aplysistatin (1), 5-acetoxypalisadin B (2), palisadin B (3), palisadin A (4), pacifigorgiol (5), stigmast4-en-3alpha, 6beta-diol (6), 2, 3, 5, 6-Tetrabromoindole (7), were isolated and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS techniques. All compounds were isolated from L. saitoi for the first time. Cytotoxicities of purified compounds were evaluated by MTT method, however, all of them were found inactive (IC50 >10 mg x L(-1). PMID:19623985

Su, Hua; Yuan, Zhaohui; Li, Jing; Guo, Shuju; Han, Lijun; Zhu, Xiaobin; Shi, Dayong

2009-04-01

447

Therapeutic constituents and actions of Rubus species.  

PubMed

Rubus species (family Rosaceae) have been cultivated for centuries for their fruits. These and other parts of the plants have been used traditionally for therapeutic purposes. This article highlights these and the potential they can offer. The constituents reported in the various species and those demonstrated to exhibit pharmacological properties have been reviewed. In the search for biologically active compounds, one of the most frequently documented species of the genus is the raspberry plant R. idaeus, the leaves of whi