Sample records for functional food constituent

  1. Folate: a functional food constituent.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Ramya; Tomar, S K

    2009-01-01

    Folate, a water-soluble vitamin, includes naturally occurring food folate and synthetic folic acid in supplements and fortified foods. Mammalian cells cannot synthesize folate and its deficiency has been implicated in a wide variety of disorders. A number of reviews have dwelt up on the health benefits associated with increased folate intakes and many countries possess mandatory folate enrichment programs. Lately, a number of studies have shown that high intakes of folic acid, the chemically synthesized form, but not natural folates, can cause adverse effects in some individuals such as the masking of the hematological manifestations of vitamin B(12) deficiency, leukemia, arthritis, bowel cancer, and ectopic pregnancies. As fermented milk products are reported to contain even higher amounts of folate produced by the food-grade bacteria, primarily lactic acid bacteria (LAB), the focus has primarily shifted toward the natural folate, that is, folate produced by LAB and levels of folate present in foods fermented by/or containing these valuable microorganisms. The proper selection and use of folate-producing microorganisms is an interesting strategy to increase "natural" folate levels in foods. An attempt has been made through this review to share information available in the literature on wide ranging aspects of folate, namely, bioavailability, analysis, deficiency, dietary requirements, and health effects of synthetic and natural folate, dairy and nondairy products as a potential source of folate, microorganisms with special reference to Streptococcus thermophilus as prolific folate producer, and recent insight on modulation of folate production levels in LAB by metabolic engineering. PMID:20492126

  2. [Search for antidiabetic constituents of medicinal food].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Many foods are known to have not only nutritive and taste values but also medicinal effects. In Chinese traditional medicine, the treatment using medicinal foods has been recommended highly. Recently, we examined the effects of the extract and constituents of several medicinal foods on experimental models of diabetes. In this paper, we focus on the bioactive constituents of four medicinal foods, namely the antidiabetic constituents from 1) the roots, stems and leaves of Salacia plants, 2) the male flowers of Borassus flabellifer, 3) the flower buds of Camellia sinensis, 4) the processed leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii (Hydrangeae Dulcis Folium). PMID:21628977

  3. FUNCTIONAL FOODS: AN OVERVIEW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional Foods: Any food, modified food or food ingredient that provides structural, functional or health benefits, thus promoting optimal health, longevity and quality of life, "Food products that provide specific health benefits beyond the traditional nutrients they contain". It is expected th...

  4. [Analysis of constituents in urushi wax, a natural food additive].

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhe-Long; Tada, Atsuko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Masuda, Aino; Yamagata, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2006-08-01

    Urushi wax is a natural gum base used as a food additive. In order to evaluate the quality of urushi wax as a food additive and to obtain information useful for setting official standards, we investigated the constituents and their concentrations in urushi wax, using the same sample as scheduled for toxicity testing. After methanolysis of urushi wax, the composition of fatty acids was analyzed by GC/MS. The results indicated that the main fatty acids were palmitic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid. LC/MS analysis of urushi wax provided molecular-related ions of the main constituents. The main constituents were identified as triglycerides, namely glyceryl tripalmitate (30.7%), glyceryl dipalmitate monooleate (21.2%), glyceryl dioleate monopalmitate (2.1%), glyceryl monooleate monopalmitate monostearate (2.6%), glyceryl dipalmitate monostearate (5.6%), glyceryl distearate monopalmitate (1.4%). Glyceryl dipalmitate monooleate isomers differing in the binding sites of each constituent fatty acid could be separately determined by LC/MS/MS. PMID:16984037

  5. Impact of 'functional food'.

    PubMed

    Guesry, Pierre René

    2005-01-01

    'Functional Food' is not a new concept but it became more important recently due to the collapse of most social health system because 'Functional Foods' allow low cost prevention of numerous diseases. 'Functional Foods' are different from 'Neutraceuticals' which remain drug based with poor taste whereas 'Functional Foods' remain good food which could be consumed for years, but in addition have a disease prophylactic function. They are becoming particularly important for the prevention of food allergy in 'at risk' population, obesity, osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases and particularly high blood pressure and atherosclerosis, but also for cancer prevention. The newest trend is that governments and health authorities allow food manufacturers to make health prevention related claims on mass media. PMID:15702590

  6. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  7. Functional foods innovations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ERRC, ARS, USDA, is to improve human health and well being by developing functional food and consumer products that utilize milk and fruit and vegetable processing residues of specialty crops. Major research approaches involve: biotec...

  8. [Pharmaceutical food science: search for anti-obese constituents from medicinal foods-anti-hyperlipidemic saponin constituents from the flowers of Bellis perennis].

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Toshio; Muraoka, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2010-05-01

    Among a variety of food materials, some are being used as resources of traditional, alternative, and/or complementary medicines all over the world. These medicinal foods are known to have not only nutritive and taste values but also medicinal effects, and they are prescribed in various traditional preparations. Regarding this point, we focused on exploring bioactive constituents in these medicinal foods, which would be applicable to remedy so-called metabolic syndrome. In this review, our recent studies on anti-hyperlipidemic saponin constituents from flowers of Bellis perennis are described. PMID:20460863

  9. The Constituent Ordering Process in Functional Discourse Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, John H.

    2012-01-01

    An essential task for the morphosyntactic level within the grammatical component of Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG) is the handling of constituent ordering. This area of grammar, which is known as positional syntax, constitutes the subject of the present paper, in which the ordering of constituents is examined within the framework of a dynamic…

  10. Development of Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in intestinal microbiota research are the background for the appearance of functional foods. Lactic fermentation products are included in the functional foods and classified into 3 groups based on their mechanisms of action: probiotics, prebiotics and biogenics. Probiotics are viable microorganisms, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, that beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal bacterial balance. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients, such as oligosaccharides and dietary fiber, that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activities of beneficial intestinal bacteria in the colon and thus improve the health of the hosts. Biogenics are biologically active peptides, including immunopotentiators (biological response modifier: BRM), plant flavonoids, etc. They act directly or indirectly through modulation of intestinal microbiota on the health of the hosts. Thus, functional foods enhance bioregulation such as stresses, appetite and absorption; biodefence, such as immunity and suppression of allergies; prevent diseases, including diarrhea, constipation, cancer, cholesterolemia and diabetes; and suppress aging through immunostimulation as well as suppression of mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, oxidation processes, intestinal putrefaction, and cholesterolemia. PMID:25032085

  11. Microencapsulation and functional bioactive foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food, the essential unit of human nutrition has been both wholesome and safe through human history ensuring the continuity of the human race. Functionalized foods are the rediscovery of the need to provide all nutrients through foods without adulteration. The functional components of foods include...

  12. Functional foods and cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare M. Hasler; Susan Kundrat; Deborah Wool

    2000-01-01

    Functional foods are foods that, by virtue of physiologically active food components, provide health benefits beyond basic\\u000a nutrition. Many functional foods have been found to be potentially beneficial in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular\\u000a disease, the leading cause of mortality in the United States. These foods include soybeans, oats, psyllium, flaxseed, garlic,\\u000a tea, fish, grapes, nuts, and stanol- and

  13. Probiotics as functional foods.

    PubMed

    Lin, David C

    2003-12-01

    Probiotic products have been widely used in Japan and Europe for years. Probiotics are now emerging as an important category of food supplement in the United States. Questions about the biologic nature, available products, claimed health benefits, and safety and regulation of probiotics are important for both consumers and nutrition professionals. Probiotics can be considered functional foods because they provide health benefits beyond the traditional nutrition function. With few exceptions, most probiotic products currently available contain lactic-acid-producing bacteria, which mainly belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. We reviewed the scientific papers published in major nutrition journals and abstracts available on the PubMed website regarding probiotics. Evidence suggests the following beneficial effects of probiotics: normalization of the intestinal microflora, ability to block the invasion of potential pathogens in the gut, prophylactic or therapeutic treatment for several types of diarrhea, relief of symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease, amelioration of lactose intolerance, prevention of colon cancer, modulation of immune function, inhibition of Helicobacter pylori, and possible enhancement of calcium absorption and reduction of blood cholesterol levels. Mechanisms for the above benefits have been proposed, but none has been proven. An adequate level of viable bacteria in a probiotic product and an appropriate daily dose are critical to achieve a health benefit. Because probiotics are not known to be pathogenic and their upper tolerable level is high, they could be promoted as a beneficial food supplement. Currently, no disease-prevention or therapeutic claim for probiotics is legally allowed. PMID:16215085

  14. Effects of Some Common Food Constituents on Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaling; Chan, Sze Wa; Hu, Miao; Walden, Richard; Tomlinson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and there is considerable interest in the role of dietary constituents and supplements in the prevention and treatment of these disorders. We reviewed the major publications related to potential effects on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes of some common dietary constituents: carotenoids, flavonoid-rich cocoa, tea, red wine and grapes, coffee, omega-3 fatty acids, and garlic. Increased intake of some of these has been associated with reduced all-cause mortality or reduced incidence of myocardial infraction, stroke, and hypertension. However, although the evidence from observational studies is supportive of beneficial effects for most of these foodstuffs taken as part of the diet, potential benefits from the use of supplements derived from these natural products remain largely inconclusive. PMID:22347642

  15. Search for bioactive constituents from several medicinal foods: hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, and antiallergic activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshio Morikawa

    2007-01-01

    In the course of our characterization studies on bioactive constituents from medicinal herbs, several medicinal foods and\\u000a their constituents were found to show the following biological activities: (1) hepatoprotective sesquiterpenes from Zedoariae\\u000a Rhizoma (2) ?-glucosidase and aldose reductase inhibitors form Salacia spices and the flowers of Chrysanthemum indicum, and (3) anti-allergic and antiinflammatory diaryloheptanoids from the barks of Myrica rubra

  16. HUMAN NUTRITION -FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition -Functional Foods

    E-print Network

    HUMAN NUTRITION - FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition - Functional Foods Poäng: 5.0 Betygskala grupparbeten. Litteratur: Garrow, J.S.; James, W.P.T.: Human nutrition and dietetics, 9th ed, Churchill Livingstone eller Whitney, E.S., Rolfes, S.R.: Understanding nutrition, 8th ed, 1999, West Publishing Company

  17. Functional food science and behaviour and psychological functions.

    PubMed

    Bellisle, F; Blundell, J E; Dye, L; Fantino, M; Fern, E; Fletcher, R J; Lambert, J; Roberfroid, M; Specter, S; Westenhöfer, J; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    1998-08-01

    The impact of ingesting various foods on psychological and behavioural functions is a topic of both interest and concern to the general public. In this article, the scientific literature concerning demonstrated cause-and-effect relationships is reviewed, beginning with methodological considerations specific to the quantification of particular behaviours and psychological events. The essential function of food is to satisfy hunger and the need for essential nutrients. The contributions of macronutrients to appetite and satiety are described, as well as their impact on metabolism and energy balance. Functional properties of macronutrient substitutes (high-intensity sweeteners, fat replacers) and flavour enhancers are examined in relation to their contribution to hunger, satiety, and energy balance. The effects of foods and individual nutrients on the performance of diverse psychomotor tasks are studied with consideration given to the various validated quantitative tools used to assess behaviour. The effects of food components on activation, sedation, and affective states such as dysphoria are also reviewed, with special attention given to brain function and neuroactive substances such as serotonin and the endorphins. The case of hyperactivity in children is given special emphasis with reference to the potential influence of sugar and food additives. Safety issues related to food constituents and additives are discussed. Finally, a set of criteria is proposed for the evaluation and elaboration of studies in the behavioural and psychological fields, along with suggestions for future research. PMID:9849358

  18. Complexing of Green Tea Catechins with Food Constituents and Degradation of the Complexes by Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Taeko; Ueda, Shuhei; Tsuruta, Hiroki; Kuwahara, Hiroshige; Osawa, Ro

    2012-01-01

    Complexing of green tea catechins with food constituents and their hydrolysis by tannase-producing Lactobacillus plantarum strains, were investigated. Our observations indicated that 1) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and other catechin galloyl esters bound with food ingredients (i.e., proteins) to form a complex that is likely to be unabsorbable through the intestinal wall, whereas most catechins not esterified with gallic acid (GA) remain in free form, not complexing with food ingredients; 2) tannase activity of L. plantarum is strain dependent, possibly grouped into those with high tannase activity hydrolyzing EGCg to epigallocatechin and GA and those with the low activity; and 3) L. plantarum strains with high tannase activity are capable of hydrolyzing not only intact EGCg but also EGCg and other catechin galloyl esters complexed with dietary proteins to free non-galloyl ester catechins and GA. The evidence suggests that L. plantarum with high tannase activity, if it colonizes the human intestine, would release free non-galloyl-ester catechins and GA that are readily absorbed through the human intestinal epithelia from the complexes, thereby ensuring maximum delivery of the bioactive polyphenols of green tea to the host. PMID:24936346

  19. Probiotics and functional foods in gastrointestinal disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin H. Floch; JoAnn Hong-Curtiss

    2002-01-01

    Opinion statement  Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that benefit the host animal by improving intestinal microbial balance. When\\u000a they are fed in yogurts, they can fall into the category of functional foods. Functional foods include these probiotics, prebiotics,\\u000a and, to a certain extent, dietary fiber. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients or supplements that alter the intestinal\\u000a flora and stimulate the

  20. Probiotics and functional foods in gastrointestinal disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin H. Floch; JoAnn Hong-Curtiss

    2001-01-01

    Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that benefit the host animal by improving intestinal microbial balance. When\\u000a they are fed in yogurts, they can fall into the category of functional foods. Functional foods include these probiotics, prebiotics,\\u000a and, to a certain extent, dietary fiber. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients or supplements that alter the intestinal\\u000a flora and stimulate the growth

  1. Melatonin, a potent agent in antioxidative defense: Actions as a natural food constituent, gastrointestinal factor, drug and prodrug

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rüdiger Hardeland; SR Pandi-Perumal

    2005-01-01

    Melatonin, originally discovered as a hormone of the pineal gland, is also produced in other organs and represents, additionally, a normal food constituent found in yeast and plant material, which can influence the level in the circulation. Compared to the pineal, the gastrointestinal tract contains several hundred times more melatonin, which can be released into the blood in response to

  2. Reasons behind consumers’ functional food choices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina Urala; Liisa Lähteenmäki

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine what reasons consumers give for either choosing or not choosing functional foods. Laddering interviews were used to find out how consumers described their reasons for choosing functional food alternatives in different product categories and how these descriptions are linked with values. Yoghurt, spread, juice, carbonated soft drinks, sweets and ice cream were

  3. Functional Foods Baseline and Requirements Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, M. R.; Bermudez-Aguirre, L. D.; Douglas, G.

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight foods were evaluated to determine if their nutrient profile supports positioning as a functional food and if the stability of the bioactive compound within the food matrix over an extended shelf-life correlated with the expected storage duration during the mission. Specifically, the research aims were: Aim A. To determine the amount of each nutrient in representative spaceflight foods immediately after processing and at predetermined storage time to establish the current nutritional state. Aim B. To identify the requirements to develop foods that stabilize these nutrients such that required concentrations are maintained in the space food system throughout long duration missions (up to five years). Aim C. To coordinate collaborations with health and performance groups that may require functional foods as a countermeasure.

  4. Ginseng leaf-stem: bioactive constituents and pharmacological functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongwei Wang; Dacheng Peng; Jingtian Xie

    2009-01-01

    Ginseng root is used more often than other parts such as leaf stem although extracts from ginseng leaf-stem also contain similar active ingredients with pharmacological functions. Ginseng's leaf-stems are more readily available at a lower cost than its root. This article reviews the pharmacological effects of ginseng leaf-stem on some diseases and adverse effects due to excessive consumption. Ginseng leaf-stem

  5. Food Safety Microbiology, Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens, and Food Antimicrobials Functionalization of Food Antimicrobials by Nano-encapsulation

    E-print Network

    Food Safety Microbiology, Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens, and Food Antimicrobials Functionalization of Food Antimicrobials by Nano-encapsulation Thisresearcheffortfocusesonthecompletionoffundamentalandappliedmicrobiolog- ical research to improve the utility of differing naturally occurring food antimicrobials

  6. 3x3 MAGIC SQUARES: CUBICAL AND AFFINE Constituents of the counting functions

    E-print Network

    Zaslavsky, Thomas

    3x3 MAGIC SQUARES: CUBICAL AND AFFINE Constituents of the counting functions and initial values longer. > enddegree:=100; enddegree := 100 Magic squares: cubical count The dimension and period: print("Coefficients complete.",n,co); "Coefficients complete.", 101, 39992 #12;Reduced magic squares

  7. 3x3 MAGIC SQUARES: CUBICAL AND AFFINE Constituents of the counting functions

    E-print Network

    Zaslavsky, Thomas

    3x3 MAGIC SQUARES: CUBICAL AND AFFINE Constituents of the counting functions and initial values; enddegree := 100 Magic squares: cubical count The dimension and period for cubical magic, and the standard, to find the actual numbers of squares and symmetry types, M_c(t), m_c(t), M_a(t), m_a(t). > enddegree:=100

  8. [Multiple emulsions; bioactive compounds and functional foods].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The continued appearance of scientific evidence about the role of diet and/or its components in health and wellness, has favored the emergence of functional foods which currently constitute one of the chief factors driving the development of new products. The application of multiple emulsions opens new possibilities in the design and development of functional foods. Multiple emulsions can be used as an intermediate product (food ingredient) into technological strategies normally used in the optimization of the presence of bioactive compounds in healthy and functional foods. This paper presents a summary of the types, characteristics and formation of multiple emulsions, possible location of bioactive compounds and their potential application in the design and preparation of healthy and functional foods. Such applications are manifested particularly relevant in relation to quantitative and qualitative aspects of lipid material (reduced fat/calories and optimization of fatty acid profile), encapsulation of bioactive compounds mainly hydrophilic and sodium reduction. This strategy offers interesting possibilities regarding masking flavours and improving sensory characteristics of foods. PMID:24160194

  9. Longitudinal structure function of the proton at low momentum transfer and extended constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simula, Silvano

    2003-11-01

    Recent data on the (inelastic) Nachtmann moments of the unpolarized proton structure function F2p, obtained at low momentum transfer with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab., have been interpreted in terms of the dominance of the elastic coupling of the virtual photon with extended substructures inside the proton. Adopting the same constituent form factors and the same light-front wave function describing the motion of the constituents in the proton, the (inelastic) Nachtmann moments of the longitudinal proton structure function FLp are calculated (without further parameters) for values of the squared four-momentum transfer 0.2?Q2 (GeV/c)2?2. The different role played by the Pauli form factor of the constituents in the transverse and longitudinal channels is illustrated. Our predictions, including an estimate of the theoretical uncertainties, may be checked against the forthcoming results of the experiment E94110 at Jefferson Lab. A positive comparison with the new data may provide compelling evidence that constituent quarks are intermediate substructures between the hadrons and the current quarks and gluons of QCD.

  10. Functional metagenomics to decipher food-microbe-host crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Larraufie, Pierre; de Wouters, Tomas; Potocki-Veronese, Gabrielle; Blottière, Hervé M; Doré, Joël

    2015-02-01

    The recent developments of metagenomics permit an extremely high-resolution molecular scan of the intestinal microbiota giving new insights and opening perspectives for clinical applications. Beyond the unprecedented vision of the intestinal microbiota given by large-scale quantitative metagenomics studies, such as the EU MetaHIT project, functional metagenomics tools allow the exploration of fine interactions between food constituents, microbiota and host, leading to the identification of signals and intimate mechanisms of crosstalk, especially between bacteria and human cells. Cloning of large genome fragments, either from complex intestinal communities or from selected bacteria, allows the screening of these biological resources for bioactivity towards complex plant polymers or functional food such as prebiotics. This permitted identification of novel carbohydrate-active enzyme families involved in dietary fibre and host glycan breakdown, and highlighted unsuspected bacterial players at the top of the intestinal microbial food chain. Similarly, exposure of fractions from genomic and metagenomic clones onto human cells engineered with reporter systems to track modulation of immune response, cell proliferation or cell metabolism has allowed the identification of bioactive clones modulating key cell signalling pathways or the induction of specific genes. This opens the possibility to decipher mechanisms by which commensal bacteria or candidate probiotics can modulate the activity of cells in the intestinal epithelium or even in distal organs such as the liver, adipose tissue or the brain. Hence, in spite of our inability to culture many of the dominant microbes of the human intestine, functional metagenomics open a new window for the exploration of food-microbe-host crosstalk. PMID:25417646

  11. Dieticians' intentions to recommend functional foods: The mediating role of consumption frequency of functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiyeon; Song, Mi Jung

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the conceptual framework of dieticians' intentions to recommend functional food and the mediating role of consumption frequency. A web-based survey was designed using a self-administered questionnaire. A sample of Korean dieticians (N=233) responded to the questionnaire that included response efficacy, risk perception, consumption frequency, and recommendation intention for functional foods. A structural equation model was constructed to analyze the data. We found that response efficacy was positively related to frequency of consumption of functional foods and to recommendation intention. Consumption frequency also positively influenced recommendation intention. Risk perception had no direct influence on recommendation intention; however, the relationship was mediated completely by consumption frequency. Dieticians' consumption frequency and response efficacy were the crucial factors in recommending functional foods. Dieticians may perceive risks arising from the use of functional foods in general, but the perceived risks do not affect ratings describing dieticians' intentions to recommend them. The results also indicated that when dieticians more frequently consume functional foods, the expression of an intention to recommend functional foods may be controlled by the salience of past behaviors rather than by attitudes. PMID:20198212

  12. Functional Food Product Development Jim Smith and Edward Charter

    E-print Network

    Haddadi, Hamed

    Functional Food Product Development Edited by Jim Smith and Edward Charter Prince Edward Island Food Technology Centre Charlottetown, Canada A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication #12;#12;Functional Food Product Development #12;A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication Functional Food Science

  13. Function of Traditional Foods and Food Culture in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Te LI; Li-Jun YIN; Masayoshi SAITO

    2004-01-01

    Chinese people have exploited traditional foods through their long history, and developed an abundant food culture. Especially, preserving health by dieting has been an important part of the traditional food culture in China, which is based on the theory of Chinese medicine. Some of the traditional foods are on the verge of being lost, but improvements in traditional foods will

  14. Constituents and their antioxidative effects in eucalyptus leaf extract used as a natural food additive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiaki Amakura; Yukiko Umino; Sumiko Tsuji; Hideyuki Ito; Tsutomu Hatano; Takashi Yoshida; Yasuhide Tonogai

    2002-01-01

    The components of a natural food additive, “eucalyptus leaf extract”, were isolated and identified in order to determine their structures and contents. The structures of eight major compounds, namely gallic and ellagic acids, eucalyptone and macrocarpals A–E, isolated from them were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The antioxidative activities of these isolated compounds were estimated by several assays, and it appears

  15. Method of determining the optimal dilution ratio for fluorescence fingerprint of food constituents.

    PubMed

    Trivittayasil, Vipavee; Tsuta, Mizuki; Kokawa, Mito; Yoshimura, Masatoshi; Sugiyama, Junichi; Fujita, Kaori; Shibata, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative determination by fluorescence spectroscopy is possible because of the linear relationship between the intensity of emitted fluorescence and the fluorophore concentration. However, concentration quenching may cause the relationship to become nonlinear, and thus, the optimal dilution ratio has to be determined. In the case of fluorescence fingerprint (FF) measurement, fluorescence is measured under multiple wavelength conditions and a method of determining the optimal dilution ratio for multivariate data such as FFs has not been reported. In this study, the FFs of mixed solutions of tryptophan and epicatechin of different concentrations and composition ratios were measured. Principal component analysis was applied, and the resulting loading plots were found to contain useful information about each constituent. The optimal concentration ranges could be determined by identifying the linear region of the PC score plotted against total concentration. PMID:25485961

  16. Physical modification of food starch functionalities.

    PubMed

    BeMiller, James N; Huber, Kerry C

    2015-01-01

    Because, in general, native starches do not have properties that make them ideally suited for applications in food products, most starch is modified by dervatization to improve its functionality before use in processed food formulations, and because food processors would prefer not to have to use the modified food starch label designation required when chemically modified starches are used, there is considerable interest in providing starches with desired functionalities that have not been chemically modified. One investigated approach is property modification via physical treatments, that is, modifications of starches imparted by physical treatments that do not result in any chemical modification of the starch. Physical treatments are divided into thermal and nonthermal treatments. Thermal treatments include those that produce pregelatinized and granular cold-water-swelling starches, heat-moisture treatments, annealing, microwave heating, so-called osmotic pressure treatment, and heating of dry starch. Nonthermal treatments include ultrahigh-pressure treatments, instantaneous controlled pressure drop, use of high-pressure homogenizers, dynamic pulsed pressure, pulsed electric field, and freezing and thawing. PMID:25884280

  17. Chemical constituents of peppers (Piper spp.) and application to food preservation: naturally occurring antioxidative compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, N; Inatani, R; Ohta, H; Nishioka, A

    1986-01-01

    In a structure analysis of the compounds of the genus Piper (Family Piperaceae), we identified five phenolic amides from Piper nigrum, seven compounds from P. retrofractum, and two compounds from P. baccatum. All the phenolic amides possess significant antioxidant activities that are more effective than the naturally occurring antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol. One amide, feruperine, has antioxidant activity as high as the synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Naturally occurring antioxidants, therefore, may surpass BHA and BHT in their ability to inactivate mutagens in food. PMID:3757949

  18. Identification and quantitative determination of the polar constituents in Helichrysum italicum flowers and derived food supplements.

    PubMed

    Mari, Angela; Napolitano, Assunta; Masullo, Milena; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2014-08-01

    Helichrysum italicum is widely used in traditional medicine, in cosmetic, in food and pharmaceutical field. In spite of this, very little is known about the chemical composition of its polar extracts. Therefore this study was addressed to the determination of the metabolite profile of the methanol extract of H. italicum flowers, by using LC-ESI(IT)MSMS. This approach oriented the isolation of 14 compounds, whose structures were unambiguously elucidated by NMR as belonging to flavonoid, phenylpropanoid and acylbenzofuran classes. In addition, one novel drimane sesquiterpene was identified. The quantitative determination of the main compounds occurring in the methanol extract of H. italicum flowers was carried out and their content was compared with that of three selected commercial food supplements based on H. italicum, by using LC-ESI(QqQ)MS. In conclusion the wide occurrence, in high amounts, of quinic acid derivatives in all the analyzed samples was highlighted, showing these compounds as chemical markers of the species for standardization procedures. PMID:24786189

  19. Melatonin, a potent agent in antioxidative defense: Actions as a natural food constituent, gastrointestinal factor, drug and prodrug

    PubMed Central

    Hardeland, Rüdiger; Pandi-Perumal, SR

    2005-01-01

    Melatonin, originally discovered as a hormone of the pineal gland, is also produced in other organs and represents, additionally, a normal food constituent found in yeast and plant material, which can influence the level in the circulation. Compared to the pineal, the gastrointestinal tract contains several hundred times more melatonin, which can be released into the blood in response to food intake and stimuli by nutrients, especially tryptophan. Apart from its use as a commercial food additive, supraphysiological doses have been applied in medical trials and pure preparations are well tolerated by patients. Owing to its amphiphilicity, melatonin can enter any body fluid, cell or cell compartment. Its properties as an antioxidant agent are based on several, highly diverse effects. Apart from direct radical scavenging, it plays a role in upregulation of antioxidant and downregulation of prooxidant enzymes, and damage by free radicals can be reduced by its antiexcitatory actions, and presumably by contributions to appropriate internal circadian phasing, and by its improvement of mitochondrial metabolism, in terms of avoiding electron leakage and enhancing complex I and complex IV activities. Melatonin was shown to potentiate effects of other antioxidants, such as ascorbate and Trolox. Under physiological conditions, direct radical scavenging may only contribute to a minor extent to overall radical detoxification, although melatonin can eliminate several of them in scavenger cascades and potentiates the efficacy of antioxidant vitamins. Melatonin oxidation seems rather important for the production of other biologically active metabolites such as N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) and N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK), which have been shown to also dispose of protective properties. Thus, melatonin may be regarded as a prodrug, too. AMK interacts with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, conveys protection to mitochondria, inhibits and downregulates cyclooxygenase 2. PMID:16153306

  20. Quark flavor distribution functions for the octet baryons in the chiral quark constituent model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahiya, Harleen

    2015-05-01

    The quark flavor distribution functions of the octet baryons (N , ? , ? , and ? ) have been calculated in the chiral constituent quark model. In particular, the valence and sea quark flavor distribution functions of the scalar density matrix elements of octet baryons have been computed explicitly. The implications of chiral symmetry breaking and SU(3) symmetry breaking have been discussed in detail for the sea quark asymmetries, a fraction of a particular quark (antiquark) present in a baryon, flavor structure functions and the Gottfried integral. The meson-baryon sigma terms ?? B, ?K B, and ?? B for the case of N , ? , and ? baryons have also been calculated. The results have been compared with the recent available experimental observations for the case of N , and how the future experiments for ? , ? , and ? can provide important constraints to describe the role of nonvalence (sea) degrees of freedom has been discussed.

  1. Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arpita Das; Utpal Raychaudhuri; Runu Chakraborty

    Due to constant health awareness and readily available information on usefulness of different diet and their direct link with\\u000a health, the demand of functional food is increasing day by day. The concept of functional foods includes foods or food ingredients\\u000a that exert a beneficial effect on host health and\\/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions.\\u000a Increasing

  2. Chemical constituents of fine particulate air pollution and pulmonary function in healthy adults: the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Hao, Yu; Shima, Masayuki; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling; Huang, Jing; Qin, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao

    2013-09-15

    The study examined the associations of 32 chemical constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ?2.5 ?m (PM?.?) with pulmonary function in a panel of 21 college students. Study subjects relocated from a suburban area to an urban area with changing ambient air pollution levels and contents in Beijing, China, and provided daily morning/evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV??) measurements over 6 months in three study periods. There were significant reductions in evening PEF and morning/evening FEV?? associated with various air pollutants and PM?.? constituents. Four PM?.? constituents (copper, cadmium, arsenic and stannum) were found to be most consistently associated with the reductions in these pulmonary function measures. These findings provide clues for the respiratory effects of specific particulate chemical constituents in the context of urban air pollution. PMID:23747477

  3. NEW FUNCTIONAL FOOD INGREDIENTS FOR IMPROVING THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF ASIAN FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to utilize new functional food ingredients containing soluble betaglucan fiber that could be used to improve the heatlh qualities of Asian foods. These functional food fibers were studied as replacements for coconut milk, butter, or saturated fat shortenings that are w...

  4. NEW FUNCTIONAL FOOD INGREDIENTS FOR IMPROVING THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF ASIAN FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to utilize new functional food ingredients containing soluble beta-glucan fiber that could be used to improve the health qualities of Asian foods. These functional food fibers were studied as replacements for coconut milk, butter, or saturated fat shortenings that are ...

  5. Functional Foods as Modifiers of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Carol

    2009-01-01

    There is growing consensus that systemic inflammation is at the heart of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Inflammation is a key feature of the immune system, functioning to defend tissue integrity and function. However, chronic stimulation of inflammatory mediators leads to lasting vascular reactivity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and, subsequently, chronic disease. Dietary practices to minimize inflammatory stimuli and CVD risk include regular intakes of fatty fish rich in the eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids that compete with the more pervasive membrane fatty acid, arachidonic acid, disrupting the metabolic cascades that stimulate inflammation. Another effective dietary strategy is to consume less arachidonic acid by reducing beef, poultry, fish, and eggs from the diet (e.g., adopting a vegetarian-like diet). Since oxidative stress plays a prominent role in immune system activation, regular ingestion of ample amounts of fruits and vegetables (8+ servings/d) rich in antioxidant compounds, the polyphenols, carotenoids, and vitamin C (e.g., citrus, tomatoes, berries, carrots, and greens), lowers inflammatory mediators and risk for chronic disease. Whole grains, legumes, and nuts have also been demonstrated in clinical trials to effectively reduce inflammatory mediators and risk for CVD. Hence, as proclaimed in antiquity, ‘let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food’. PMID:20368755

  6. Consumers’ willingness to pay for a functional food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Veneziani; Paolo Sckokai; Daniele Moro

    2012-01-01

    In recent years food manufacturers have been devoting a large portion of their R&D budget to the development off functional foods, as a competitive strategy within food demand markets; on the other hand, consumers, despite functional foods exhibit a significant level of information asymmetry, show an increasing attention towards them,recognizing their role in preventing or reducing health risks and\\/or improving

  7. Quark flavor distribution functions for the octet baryons in the chiral quark constituent model

    E-print Network

    Harleen Dahiya

    2015-05-13

    The quark flavor distribution functions of the octet baryons ($N$, $\\Sigma$, $\\Xi$ and $\\Lambda$) have been calculated in the chiral constituent quark model ($\\chi$CQM). In particular, the valence and sea quark flavor distribution functions of the scalar density matrix elements of octet baryons have been computed explicitly. The implications of chiral symmetry breaking and SU(3) symmetry breaking have been discussed in detail for the sea quark asymmetries, fraction of a particular quark (antiquark) present in a baryon, flavor structure functions and the Gottfried integral. The meson-baryon sigma terms $\\sigma_{\\pi B}$, $\\sigma_{K B}$, and $\\sigma_{\\eta B}$ for the case of $N$, $\\Sigma$ and $\\Xi$ baryons have also been calculated. The results have been compared with the recent available experimental observations for the case of $N$ and how the future experiments for $\\Sigma$, $\\Xi$ and $\\Lambda$ can provide important constraints to describe the role of non-valence (sea) degrees of freedom has been discussed.

  8. The role of rabbit meat as functional food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonella Dalle Zotte; Zsolt Szendr?

    2011-01-01

    Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functional food ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functional foods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview

  9. Food webs: reconciling the structure and function of biodiversity

    E-print Network

    Hall Jr., Robert O.

    in and between living organisms and between living organisms and their environment. Cascade model: a food-webFood webs: reconciling the structure and function of biodiversity Ross M. Thompson1 , Ulrich Brose2, whereas ecosystem ecology focuses on fluxes of energy and materials. Food webs provide a quantitative

  10. Investigating Constituent Order Change with Elicited Pantomime: A Functional Account of SVO Emergence

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew L.; Ferreira, Victor S.; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most basic functions of human language is to convey who did what to whom. In the world’s languages, the order of these three constituents (subject (S), verb (V), and object (O)) is uneven, with SOV and SVO being most common. Recent experiments using experimentally-elicited pantomime provide a possible explanation for the prevalence of SOV, but extant explanations for the prevalence of SVO could benefit from further empirical support. Here, we test whether SVO might emerge because (a) SOV is not well suited for describing reversible events (a woman pushing a boy), and (b) pressures to be efficient and mention subjects before objects conspire to rule out many other alternatives. We tested this by asking participants to describe reversible and non-reversible events in pantomime, and instructed some participants to be consistent in the form of their gestures and to teach them to the experimenter. These manipulations led to the emergence of SVO in speakers of both English (SVO) and Turkish (SOV). PMID:24641486

  11. Utilization of functional food components from pulses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry beans, peas, and lentils (pulses) are a principle source of protein in many parts of the world and have long been known to be healthy foods. Their use in traditional ethnic foods is well established; however, unlike grains, meat, dairy products, and other vegetables, they are not universally pre...

  12. Functional food science and defence against reactive oxidative species.

    PubMed

    Diplock, A T; Charleux, J L; Crozier-Willi, G; Kok, F J; Rice-Evans, C; Roberfroid, M; Stahl, W; Viña-Ribes, J

    1998-08-01

    This paper assesses critically the science base that underpins the argument that oxidative damage is a significant causative factor in the development of human diseases and that antioxidants are capable of preventing or ameliorating these disease processes. The assessment has been carried out under a number of headings, and some recommendations for future research are made based on the present day knowledge base. The knowledge database (1) Consideration of the basic science that underlies understanding of the role of free radicals in causing cellular pathologies, and the role of antioxidants in preventing this, shows that an imbalance of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defence systems may lead to chemical modifications of biologically relevant macromolecules. This imbalance provides a logical pathobiochemical mechanism for the initiation and development of several disease states. Experimental data obtained in vivo provide evidence that antioxidants function in systems that scavenge reactive oxygen species and that these are relevant to what occurs in vivo. The relevance in vivo of these observations depends inter alia on knowledge of the uptake and distribution of the antioxidant within the human body, and on what tissue levels of the antioxidant may be expected in relation to dietary levels. (2) There is some way to go until validated precise methods are available for measuring biomarkers of oxidative damage in human subjects in vivo under minimally invasive conditions. With respect to oxidative damage in DNa, HPLC and GC-mass spectrophotometry methods have both merits and limitations. Lipid oxidation products in plasma are best measured as isoprostanes or as lipid hydroperoxides using specific HPLC techniques. Development of isoprostane measurement will advance specificity and precision. The measurement of oxidative damage to proteins has some potential but such methods have not been effectively exploited. (3) Epidemiological studies support the hypothesis that the major antioxidant nutrients vitamin E and vitamin C, and beta-carotene (which may or may not be acting as an antioxidant in vivo), may play a beneficial role in prevention of several chronic disorders. More research is needed on the impact of other non-nutrient compounds, such as other carotenoids and flavonoids, on human health. In general, human intervention studies using hard end-points are the gold standard. Trials are restricted mainly to the major antioxidants and do not allow firm conclusions because of inconsistent findings, an insufficient number of studies and the use of varying doses. There is evidence that large doses of beta-carotene may be deleterious to the health of certain subgroups of the population such as heavy habitual smokers. (4) With respect to the safety of administration of supplementary vitamins, vitamin C is safe at levels of supplementation up to 600 mg/d, and higher levels, up to 2000 mg/d, are without risk. Vitamin E has a very low human toxicity and an intake of 1000 mg/d is without risk; 3200 mg/d has been shown to be without any consistent risk. Large intakes of beta-carotene must be viewed with caution because they have been shown to confer detriment to a population at high risk of lung cancer when administered after many years of high risk (smoking) behaviour. Until further work clarifies the situation in heavy smokers with respect to taking supplements, larger doses should be avoided by such individuals. There is little reliable information about the human toxicology of flavonoids and related non-nutrient antioxidant constituents of the diet. (5) The food industry has long experience in the control of oxidative damage in foods and this experience can be used to advantage for the protection of food antioxidants which are beneficial. Some of these, such as vitamins C and E and beta-carotene, are well known, and strategies for their protection in foods are already exploited by food technologies. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:9849355

  13. Functional group diversity increases with modularity in complex food webs.

    PubMed

    Montoya, D; Yallop, M L; Memmott, J

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity increases the ability of ecosystems to provide multiple functions. Most studies report a positive relationship between species richness and the number of ecosystem functions. However, it is not known whether the number of functional groups is related to the structure of the underlying species interaction network. Here we present food web data from 115 salt marsh islands and show that network structure is associated with the number of functional groups present. Functional group diversity is heterogeneously distributed across spatial scales, with some islands hosting more functional groups than others. Functional groups form modules within the community so that food webs with more modular architectures have more functional group diversity. Further, in communities with different interaction types, modularity can be seen as the multifunctional equivalent of trophic complementarity. Collectively, these findings reveal spatial heterogeneity in the number of functional groups that emerges from patterns in the structure of the food web. PMID:26059871

  14. Functional group diversity increases with modularity in complex food webs

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, D.; Yallop, M.L.; Memmott, J.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity increases the ability of ecosystems to provide multiple functions. Most studies report a positive relationship between species richness and the number of ecosystem functions. However, it is not known whether the number of functional groups is related to the structure of the underlying species interaction network. Here we present food web data from 115 salt marsh islands and show that network structure is associated with the number of functional groups present. Functional group diversity is heterogeneously distributed across spatial scales, with some islands hosting more functional groups than others. Functional groups form modules within the community so that food webs with more modular architectures have more functional group diversity. Further, in communities with different interaction types, modularity can be seen as the multifunctional equivalent of trophic complementarity. Collectively, these findings reveal spatial heterogeneity in the number of functional groups that emerges from patterns in the structure of the food web. PMID:26059871

  15. Strategies of Functional Foods Promote Sleep in Human Being

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yawen; Yang, Jiazhen; Du, Juan; Pu, Xiaoying; Yang, Xiaomen; Yang, Shuming; Yang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is a vital segment of life, however, the mechanisms of diet promoting sleep are unclear and are the focus of research. Insomnia is a general sleep disorder and functional foods are known to play a key role in the prevention of insomnia. A number of studies have demonstrated that major insomnia risk factors in human being are less functional foods in dietary. There are higher functional components in functional foods promoting sleep, including tryptophan, GABA, calcium, potassium, melatonin, pyridoxine, L-ornithine and hexadecanoic acid; but wake-promoting neurochemical factors include serotonin, noradrenalin, acetylcholine, histamine, orexin and so on. The factors promoting sleep in human being are the functional foods include barley grass powder, whole grains, maca, panax, Lingzhi, asparagus powder, lettuce, cherry, kiwifruits, walnut, schisandra wine, and milk; Barley grass powder with higher GABA and calcium, as well as potassium is the most ideal functional food promoting sleep, however, the sleep duration for modern humans is associated with food structure of ancient humans. In this review, we put forward possible mechanisms of functional components in foods promoting sleep. Although there is clear relevance between sleep and diet, their molecular mechanisms need to be studied further. PMID:26005400

  16. MODIFIED SOY PROTEIN AS A NOVEL FUNCTIONAL FOOD INGREDIENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the market of food ingredients is very competitive, the functionality of soy protein must be improved or redesigned for specific food applications by either physical or chemical modification. Unlike modified starch, soy protein does not naturally impart instantaneous and significant stability ...

  17. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative.

  18. The perceived healthiness of functional foods. A conjoint study of Danish, Finnish and American consumers' perception of functional foods.

    PubMed

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G

    2003-02-01

    Functional foods presumably enable the consumer to lead a healthier life without changing eating habits. Whether consumers accept this proposition or not is potentially influenced by their perceptions of the healthiness of the processing methods, enrichment components, food-types, and health claims used in the production and marketing of functional foods. Because consumers may perceive functional enrichment as interfering with nature, cultural values pertaining to man's manipulation of nature may also influence consumer acceptance of functional foods. The purpose of the study described here is to clarify to which extent Danish, Finnish and American consumers' perceptions of the healthiness of functional foods are explained by the factors mentioned above. The general results indicate that values pertaining to man's manipulation of nature is only modestly related to the acceptance of functional foods, whereas the use of different health claims, processing methods, enrichments, product types, and especially the interactions between the two latter, are important determinants of consumers' perceptions of the healthiness of functional foods. PMID:12631500

  19. VARIATION IN SURFACE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF COTTON FIBER AS A FUNCTION OF MATURITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MODERN COTTON YARN PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY HAS MADE IT IMPERATIVE THAT NEW PREDICTORS OF YARN SPINNING EFFICIENCY BE DETERMINED. SURFACE FRICTIONAL FORCES PLAY A LARGE ROLE IN SPINNING EFFICIENCY, YET LITTLE IS KNOWN ABOUT THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS COMPRISING THE COTTON FIBER SURFACE OR THEIR RESPEC...

  20. Applications and functions of food-grade phosphates.

    PubMed

    Lampila, Lucina E

    2013-10-01

    Food-grade phosphates are used in the production of foods to function as buffers, sequestrants, acidulants, bases, flavors, cryoprotectants, gel accelerants, dispersants, nutrients, precipitants, and as free-flow (anticaking) or ion-exchange agents. The actions of phosphates affect the chemical leavening of cakes, cookies, pancakes, muffins, and doughnuts; the even melt of processed cheese; the structure of a frankfurter; the bind and hydration of delicatessen meats; the fluidity of evaporated milk; the distinctive flavor of cola beverages; the free flow of spice blends; the mineral content of isotonic beverages; and the light color of par-fried potato strips. In the United States, food-grade phosphates are generally recognized as safe, but use levels have been defined for some foods by the Code of Federal Regulations, specifically Titles 9 and 21 for foods regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), respectively. Standards for food purity are defined nationally and internationally in sources such as the Food Chemicals Codex and the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives. PMID:24033359

  1. Mechanisms of Probiosis and Prebiosis: Considerations for Enhanced Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Saulnier, Delphine M. A.; Spinler, Jennifer K.; Gibson, Glenn R.; Versalovic, James

    2009-01-01

    The technologies of metagenomics and metabolomics are broadening our knowledge of the roles the human gut microbiota play in health and disease. For many years now, probiotics and prebiotics have been included in foods for their health benefits, however we have only recently begun to understand their modes of action. This review highlights recent advances in deciphering the mechanisms of probiosis and prebiosis, and describes how this knowledge could be transferred to select for enhancing functional foods targeting different populations. A special focus will be given to the addition of prebiotics and probiotics in functional foods for infants and seniors. PMID:19243931

  2. Functional components and medicinal properties of food: a review.

    PubMed

    Abuajah, Christian Izuchukwu; Ogbonna, Augustine Chima; Osuji, Chijioke Maduka

    2015-05-01

    Research has proved a relationship between functional components of food, health and well-being. Thus, functional components of food can be effectively applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. They act simultaneously at different or identical target sites with the potential to impart physiological benefits and promotion of wellbeing including reducing the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, inflammation, type II diabetes, and other chronic degenerative diseases, lowering of blood cholesterol, neutralization of reactive oxygen species and charged radicals, anticarcinogenic effect, low-glycaemic response, etc. Previously, it was thought that functional ingredients such as non-starchy carbohydrates including soluble and insoluble dietary fibres, fucoidan; antioxidants including polyphenols, carotenoids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols, isoflavones, organosulphur compounds; plant sterols and soy phytoestrogens occur only in plant foods (whole grains, fruits, and vegetables) as phytochemicals. However, probiotics, prebiotics, conjugated linolenic acid, long-chain omega-3, -6 and -9-polyunsaturated fatty acids, and bioactive peptides have proved that functional components are equally available in animal products such as milk, fermented milk products and cold-water fish. The way a food is processed affects its functional components. Many processing techniques have been found to lower the concentration of functional components in food. Conversely, other techniques were found to increase them. Hence, in a time when the role of a healthy diet in preventing non-communicable diseases is well accepted, the borderline between food and medicine is becoming very thin. PMID:25892752

  3. Functional foods as carriers for SYNBIO®, a probiotic bacteria combination.

    PubMed

    Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cecchini, Cinzia; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2012-07-16

    The popularity of functional foods continues to increase as consumers desire flavorful foods that will fulfil their health needs. Among these foods, probiotics may exert positive effects on the composition of gut microbiota and overall health. However, in order to be beneficial, the bacterial cultures have to remain live and active at the time of consumption. The aim of this study was to develop new probiotic food products, such as seasoned cheeses, salami, chocolate and ice-cream with a final probiotic concentration of approximately 10?CFU/daily dose of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® mixed 1:1 (SYNBIO®). The survival and viability of probiotics were determined during the foods shelf-life. The values of viable probiotic bacteria of all dairy and non-dairy foods were between 10? and 10?CFU/g of food at the end of the shelf-life and for some of them the values were maintained even after the expiry date. Based on the results of the current study, all the dairy ("Caciotta" cheese, "Pecorino" cheese, "Büscion" Swiss cheese and "Fiordilatte" ice-cream) and non-dairy ("Ciauscolo" salami, Larded salami, Swiss small salami, milk chocolate, dark chocolate, organic jam and chocolate mousse) food products studied would be excellent vehicles to deliver the probiotic health effects because of the high viability of probiotics during the shelf-life of foods and in some cases even after their expiry date. PMID:22727086

  4. When is dietary fiber considered a functional food?

    PubMed

    Prosky, L

    2000-01-01

    Before answering the question of when dietary fiber can be considered a functional food we must first decide what can be called a dietary fiber. The generally accepted definition of dietary fiber is that of Trowell that dietary fiber consists of the remnants of edible plant cells polysaccharides, lignin, and associated substances resistant to (hydrolysis) digestion by the alimentary enzymes of humans. In Japan the food tables list the dietary fiber content of animal as well as plant tissues, while many countries accept saccharides of less than DP-10 as dietary fiber (inulin, oligofructose, Fibersol-2, polydextrose, fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides etc.). These shorter chain oligosaccharides do not precipitate as dietary fiber in the standard Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method, which is accepted by the US Food & Drug Administration, the US Department of Agriculture and the Food & Agriculture Organization of the World Health Organization for nutrition labeling purposes. In the United Kingdom the term dietary fiber has been replaced in nutrition labeling by nonstarch polysaccharides. Therefore the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) commissioned an ad hoc committee of scientists to evaluate continuing validity of the currently used definition, and if appropriate, to modify and update that definition. Obtaining scientific input from the community of analysts, health professionals, and dietary fiber researchers was considered a high priority. To this end three meetings were held in the space of six months to assure input from all persons knowledgeable in the field with the answer expected sometime before 2000. Dietary fiber can be considered a functional food when it imparts a special function to that food aside from the normal expected function and similarly when the dietary fiber is used as an additive to foods. For example, dietary fiber contributes to colonic health, bifidobacterial or lactobacillus stimulation in the gut, coronary artery health, cholesterol reduction, glucose metabolism, insulin response, blood lipids, cancer etc. The author discusses in detail the functional food properties of dietary fiber. PMID:11216498

  5. Flax and flaxseed oil: an ancient medicine & modern functional food.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankit; Sharma, Vivek; Upadhyay, Neelam; Gill, Sandeep; Sihag, Manvesh

    2014-09-01

    Flaxseed is emerging as an important functional food ingredient because of its rich contents of ?-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3 fatty acid), lignans, and fiber. Flaxseed oil, fibers and flax lignans have potential health benefits such as in reduction of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, autoimmune and neurological disorders. Flax protein helps in the prevention and treatment of heart disease and in supporting the immune system. As a functional food ingredient, flax or flaxseed oil has been incorporated into baked foods, juices, milk and dairy products, muffins, dry pasta products, macaroni and meat products. The present review focuses on the evidences of the potential health benefits of flaxseed through human and animals' recent studies and commercial use in various food products. PMID:25190822

  6. Consumer issues and expectations for functional foods.

    PubMed

    Wrick, K L

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary consumer data have indicated that about 50% of American adults, especially in the older age groups, not only have read or heard about natural substances in foods that may help prevent chronic diseases, but they also believe that these substances really do work. The readiness of the marketplace for disease-preventing products, such as those that could deliver enhanced levels of antioxidants, raises many marketing and regulatory issues, but also some consumer issues as well. The following discussion frames the consumer issues that are important for the scientific, regulatory, and business community to understand and address so that substances with disease-preventing capabilities reach those who will truly benefit the most. PMID:7748476

  7. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-07-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative. PMID:26151025

  8. The Role of Functional Foods in Cutaneous Anti-aging

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Soyun

    2014-01-01

    Oral supplementation of micronutrients, or functional foods, to prevent aging has gained much attention and popularity as society ages and becomes more affluent, and as science reveals the pathological mechanisms of aging. Aging of the skin combines biologic aging and extrinsic aging caused predominantly by sunlight and other environmental toxins. Anti-aging functional foods exert their influence mostly through their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, thereby abrogating collagen degradation and/or increasing procollagen synthesis. Clinical evidence supporting a role in preventing cutaneous aging is available for oral supplements such as carotenoids, polyphenols, chlorophyll, aloe vera, vitamins C and E, red ginseng, squalene, and omega-3 fatty acids. Collagen peptides and proteoglycans are claimed to provide building blocks of the dermal matrix. This review summarizes the current study findings of these functional foods.

  9. Materiality matters: Blurred boundaries and the domestication of functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Kate; Will, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Previous scholarship on novel foods, including functional foods, has suggested that they are difficult to categorise for both regulators and users. It is argued that they blur the boundary between ‘food' and ‘drug' and that uncertainties about the products create ‘experimental' or ‘restless' approaches to consumption. We investigate these uncertainties drawing on data about the use of functional foods containing phytosterols, which are licensed for sale in the EU for people wishing to reduce their cholesterol. We start from an interest in the products as material objects and their incorporation into everyday practices. We consider the scripts encoded in the physical form of the products through their regulation, production and packaging and find that these scripts shape but do not determine their use. The domestication of phytosterols involves bundling the products together with other objects (pills, supplements, foodstuffs). Considering their incorporation into different systems of objects offers new understandings of the products as foods or drugs. In their accounts of their practices, consumers appear to be relatively untroubled by uncertainties about the character of the products. We conclude that attending to materials and practices offers a productive way to open up and interrogate the idea of categorical uncertainties surrounding new food products.

  10. Functional foods : An empirical study on perceived health benefits in relation to pre-purchase intentions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne Labrecque; Sylvain Charlebois

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Functional foods, also known controversially as “phoods,” are perceived by many as the food industry's response to consumers' increasing desire to make healthier eating choices. The objective of the present study is to determine the influence of the production technology used to make functional foods on the perceived health value of functional foods. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To meet the

  11. Dairy and functional foods research in the Agricultural Research Service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit is the only group in the Agricultural Research Service that is dedicated to solving critical problems in milk utilization and fruit and vegetable byproducts from specialty crops. The many areas of investigation include development of specialty cheese, c...

  12. Structural and functional insights into an archaeal L-asparaginase obtained through the linker-less assembly of constituent domains.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Rachana; Sharma, Pankaj; Srivastava, Ankit; Bansal, Saurabh; Kundu, Bishwajit

    2014-12-01

    Covalent linkers bridging the domains of multidomain proteins are considered to be crucial for assembly and function. In this report, an exception in which the linker of a two-domain dimeric L-asparaginase from Pyrococcus furiosus (PfA) was found to be dispensable is presented. Domains of this enzyme assembled without the linker into a conjoined tetrameric form that exhibited higher activity than the parent enzyme. The global shape and quaternary structure of the conjoined PfA were also similar to the wild-type PfA, as observed by their solution scattering profiles and X-ray crystallographic data. Comparison of the crystal structures of substrate-bound and unbound enzymes revealed an altogether new active-site composition and mechanism of action. Thus, conjoined PfA is presented as a unique enzyme obtained through noncovalent, linker-less assembly of constituent domains that is stable enough to function efficiently at elevated temperatures. PMID:25478837

  13. Food reward functions as affected by obesity and bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shin, AC; Berthoud, H-R

    2012-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) remains to be the most effective long-term treatment for obesity and its associated comorbidities, but the specific mechanisms involved remain elusive. Because RYGB patients appear to no longer be preoccupied with thoughts about food and are satisfied with much smaller meals and calorically dilute foods, brain reward mechanisms could be involved. Just as obesity can produce maladaptive alterations in reward functions, reversal of obesity by RYGB could normalize these changes or even further reset the food reward system through changes in gut hormone secretion, aversive conditioning and/or secondary effects of weight loss. Future studies with longitudinal assessments of reward behaviors and their underlying neural circuits before and after surgery will be necessary to uncover the specific mechanisms involved. Such new insights could be the base for future `knifeless' pharmacological and behavioral approaches to obesity. PMID:21912387

  14. Preference for internucleotide linkages as a function of the number of constituents in a mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.

    1998-01-01

    Phosphoimidazolide-activated ribomononucleotides (*pN; see Scheme I) are useful substrates for the nonenzymatic synthesis of oligonucleotides. In the presence of metal ions dilute neutral aqueous solutions of *pN (0.01 M) typically yield only small amounts of dimers and traces of oligomers; most of *pN hydrolyzes to yield nucleoside 5'-monophosphate (5'NMP). An earlier investigation of *pN reactions in highly concentrated aqueous solutions (up to 1.4 M) showed, as expected, that the percentage yield of the condensation products increases and the yield of the hydrolysis product correspondingly decreases with *pN concentration (Kanavarioti 1997). Here we report product distributions in reactions with one, two, or three reactive components at the same total nucleotide concentration. *pN used as substrates were the nucleoside 5'-phosphate 2-methylimidazolides, 2-MeImpN, with N = cytidine (C), uridine (U), or guanosine (G). Reactions were conducted as self-condensations, i. e., one nucleotide only, with two components in the three binary U,C, U,G, and C,G mixtures, and with three components in the ternary U,C, G mixture. The products are 5'NMP, 5',5'-pyrophosphate-, 2',5'-, 3', 5'-linked dimers, cyclic dimers, and a small percentage of longer oligomers. The surprising finding was that, under identical conditions, including the same total monomer concentration, the product distribution differs substantially from one reaction to another, most likely due to changing intermolecular interactions depending on the constituents. Even more unexpected was the observed trend according to which reactions of the U,C,G mixture produce the highest yield of internucleotide-linked dimers, whereas the self-condensations produce the least and the reactions with the binary mixtures produce yields that fall in between. What is remarkable is that the approximately two-fold increase in the percentage yield of internucleotide-linked dimers is not due to a concentration effect or a catalyst, but to the increased complexity of the system from a single to two and three components. These observations, perhaps, provide an example of how increased complexity in relatively simple chemical systems leads to organization of the material and consequently to chemical evolution. A possible link between prebiotic chemistry and the postulated RNA world is discussed.

  15. Germinated grains: a superior whole grain functional food?

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kristina; Stojanovska, Lily; Vasiljevic, Todor; Mathai, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Grains are global dietary staples that when consumed in whole grain form, offer considerable health benefits compared with milled grain foods, including reduced body weight gain and reduced cardiovascular and diabetes risks. Dietary patterns, functional foods, and other lifestyle factors play a fundamental role in the development and management of epidemic lifestyle diseases that share risks of developing adverse metabolic outcomes, including hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Whole grains provide energy, nutrients, fibres, and bioactive compounds that may synergistically contribute to their protective effects. Despite their benefits, the intake of grains appears to be lower than recommended in many countries. Of emerging interest is the application of germination processes, which may significantly enhance the nutritional and bioactive content of grains, as well as improve palatability. Enhancing grain foods in a natural way using germination techniques may therefore offer a practical, natural, dietary intervention to increase the health benefits and acceptability of whole grains, with potentially widespread effects across populations in attenuating adverse lifestyle disease outcomes. Continuing to build on the growing body of in-vitro studies requires substantiation with extended in-vivo trials so that we may further develop our understanding of the potential of germinated grains as a functional food. PMID:23746040

  16. [Inulin and derivates as key ingredients in functional foods].

    PubMed

    Madrigal, Lorena; Sangronis, Elba

    2007-12-01

    Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate that is contained in many vegetables, fruits and cereals. It is industrially produced from the chicory's root (Cichorium intybus) and it is widely used as ingredient in functional foods. Inulin and its derivate compounds (oligofructose, fructooligosaccharides) are usually called fructans, as they are basically based on linear fructose chains. This review presents a description of inulin and its most common derivate compounds: chemical structure, natural sources, physic-chemical properties, technological functionality, industrial manufacturing, analytical method for determination and health benefits: prebiotic, dietary fiber, low caloric value, hypoglycemic action, enhancement of calcium and magnesium bioavailability. Potential benefits: lipid parameters regulation, reduction of colon cancer risk and others, improvement of immune response, intestinal disorders protection. From technological point of view, these compounds exhibit a variety of properties: thickener, emulsifier, gel forming, sugar and fat substitute, humectant, freezing point depression. Inulin and derivates are been used in pharmaceutical, chemical and processing industry as technological additives and excipients. They are also been used for animal feeding. They are been considered as "bioactive" compounds to be proposed as future packaging material. Fructans are proposed to be classified as "functional fiber", according to recent concepts based on physiological effects on individuals. This review of inulin and its derivates was useful to show the broad boundaries of these compounds in the food industry and why they may be considered as key ingredients in the expanding functional food market. PMID:18524324

  17. Reconstitution of a Functional Synaptosomal Membrane Possessing the Protein Constituents Involved in Acetylcholine Translocation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Israel; B. Lesbats; N. Morel; R. Manaranche; T. Gulik-Krzywicki; J. C. Dedieu

    1984-01-01

    Reconstitution of a functional presynaptic membrane possessing calcium-dependent acetylcholine release properties has been achieved. The proteoliposomal membrane obtained gains its acetylcholine-releasing capabilities from presynaptic membrane proteins. At the peak of acetylcholine release, intramembrane particles became more numerous in one of the proteoliposomal membrane faces. This phenomenon resembles the intramembrane particle rearrangements found in stimulated synaptosomes. No visible structures capable of

  18. Is lactate an undervalued functional component of fermented food products?

    PubMed Central

    Garrote, Graciela L.; Abraham, Analía G.; Rumbo, Martín

    2015-01-01

    Although it has been traditionally regarded as an intermediate of carbon metabolism and major component of fermented dairy products contributing to organoleptic and antimicrobial properties of food, there is evidence gathered in recent years that lactate has bioactive properties that may be responsible of broader properties of functional foods. Lactate can regulate critical functions of several key players of the immune system such as macrophages and dendritic cells, being able to modulate inflammatory activation of epithelial cells as well. Intraluminal levels of lactate derived from fermentative metabolism of lactobacilli have been shown to modulate inflammatory environment in intestinal mucosa. The molecular mechanisms responsible to these functions, including histone deacetylase dependent-modulation of gene expression and signaling through G-protein coupled receptors have started to be described. Since lactate is a major fermentation product of several bacterial families with probiotic properties, we here propose that it may contribute to some of the properties attributed to these microorganisms and in a larger view, to the properties of food products fermented by lactic acid bacteria.

  19. Japanese Consumers’ Valuation of Genetically Modified Functional Foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renee B Kim

    2009-01-01

    Recent food safety scares have increased Japanese consumers’ concerns for food safety and Genetically Modified (GM) foods as they perceive the uncertainty associated with GM foods as potential risk. However, this risk perception can be considerably reduced as the consumers observe or experience the benefits of GM foods directly. Technical advancement in GM food development and manufacturing has led to

  20. Functional Foods Programs Serve as a Vehicle to Provide Nutrition Education to Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirignano, Sherri M.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in consumer interest in functional foods provides an opportunity for FCS educators to use this topic in Extension programming to promote current nutrition recommendations. The Functional Foods for Life Educational Programs (FFL) are a curriculum of six evidence-based mini-seminars that highlight specific functional foods that have the…

  1. From functional food to medicinal product: Systematic approach in analysis of polyphenolics from propolis and wine

    PubMed Central

    Medi?-Šari?, Marica; Rastija, Vesna; Boji?, Mirza; Maleš, Željan

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade we have been working on standardization of propolis extract and determination of active constituents of wine those are rich in polyphenolics and have nutritional as well as therapeutic value. Here we are summarizing our results and providing overview on systematic approach how to analyse natural products rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids. Chromatographic methods (thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography) were used for identification, quantification, and characterization of individual flavonoid or phenolic acid. Total content of active constituents and antioxidant activity were determined by spectrophotometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and using appropriate software. Quantitative structure-activity relationship study of antioxidant activity was conducted, as well as assessment of prolonged propolis supplementation on antioxidative status of organism. Thin layer chromatography-densitometry has been proven as quick and reliable method for standard analysis of propolis and wine; the best mobile phase being chloroform – methanol – formic acid (98–100%) in ratio 44 : 3.5 : 2.5 (v/v). Higher number of polyphenolics was determined by high performance liquid chromatography; 15 compared to 9 by thin layer chromatography. Interactions in situ with acetylsalicylic acid were detected with most of polyphenolics analysed. Plasma protein binding and blood-barrier penetration was greatest for flavone. The interactions with human serum albumin have been grater than 95% for all flavonoids analysed. The prolonged propolis consumption increased superoxide dismutase activity. The necessity of standardization of natural products and their registration as functional nutraceuticals demand easy, quick and inexpensive methods of analysis. In this work we provided overview of analytical part for polyphenolics that could be used as data for possible registration of final products either as functional food or medicinal product. This feature introduces the readers to the authors' research through a concise overview of the selected topic. Reference to important work from others in the field is included. PMID:19624827

  2. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (?60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (n?=?200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Results Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p?=?0.045). Conclusions Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers. PMID:24886306

  3. EFFECT OF OIL COMBUSTION PARTICLE BIOAVAILABLE CONSTITUENTS ON EX VIVO VASCULAR FUNCTION OF AORTAS RECOVERED FROM NORMAL AND TYPE 2 DIABETIC RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of Oil Combustion Particle Bioavailable Constituents on Ex Vivo Vascular Function of Aortae Recovered from Healthy and Early Type 2 Diabetic Rats KL Dreher1, SE Kelly2, SD Proctor2, and JC Russell2. 1National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, US EPA, RTP, NC;...

  4. Functional Foods: A Survey of Health Claims, Pros and Cons, and Current Legislation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis; Maria Van Houwelingen-Koukaliaroglou

    2005-01-01

    Functional foods stand for a new category of remarkably promising foods bearing properties (i.e., low cholesterol, antioxidant, anti-aging, anticancer, etc.) that have already rendered them quite appealing. There are many classes of functional foods (pro- and pre-biotics, dietary fiber, low fat, etc.), and their definition is occasionally confused with that of nutraceuticals and novel foods. Consumers' main skepticism regarding functional

  5. Functional and nutritional evaluation of supplementary food formulations.

    PubMed

    Khanam, Anjum; Chikkegowda, Rashmi Kumkum; Swamylingappa, Bhagya

    2013-04-01

    Two type of ready to eat supplementary food formulations were developed by roller drying based on wheat, soy protein concentrate, whey protein concentrate, and green gram flour and were fortified with vitamins and minerals to meet the one third of the Recommended daily allowance (RDA). The supplementary food formulations contained 20-21% protein, 370-390 kcal of energy and 2,300 ?g of ?-carotene per 100 g serving. The physico-chemical, functional and nutritional characteristics were evaluated. The chemical score indicated that sulphur containing amino acids were the first limiting in both the formulations. The calculated nutritional indices, essential amino acid index, biological value, nutritional index and C-PER were higher for formula II. Rat bioassay showed higher PER (2.3) for formula II compared to formula I (2.1). The bioaccessibility of iron was 23%. Sensory studies indicated that the products were acceptable with a shelf life of 1 year under normal storage condition. However, the formulations were nutritionally better than only cereal based supplementary food formulations available commercially. The product could be served in the form of porridge with water/milk or in the form of small laddu. PMID:24425921

  6. Modelling Reference-Dependent and Labelling Effects in Consumers’ Functional Food Choices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ning Ning Zou; Jill E. Hobbs

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the reference-dependent and labelling effects when consumers make choices about functional foods, and explores how changes in reference points could alter individuals’ preferences. Functional food (probiotic yogurt) and regular food (regular yogurt) are used as examples to explore the potential reference-dependent effects and labelling effects. A consumer utility model with reference point effects is developed. The paper

  7. Selected Functional Foods for Potential in Diseases Treatment and their Regulatory Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masood Sadiq Butt; M. Tauseef Sultan

    2011-01-01

    The significant association between diet and human health broaden the consumer concept to look at food not only for its basic nutrition but also for allied health benefits. Nevertheless, a large segment of population is still reluctant to buy functional foods due to ambiguities related to their health claims. This review highlighted the role of functional foods against various physiological

  8. Structure and function Many scientists use food webs to portray ecolo-

    E-print Network

    Hessen, Dag Olav

    PART I Structure and function Many scientists use food webs to portray ecolo- gical communities mechanisms regulate food-web function and can give rise to observed structure and dynamics. These mechanisms observe. This section of the book presents and discusses responses of food webs to trophic interactions

  9. Executive function and food approach behavior in middle childhood

    PubMed Central

    Groppe, Karoline; Elsner, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Executive function (EF) has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating “hot” affective and “cool” cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation of eating behavior. So far, however, the links between EF and eating behavior have rarely been investigated in children and non-clinical populations. First, we examined whether EF can be divided into hot and cool factors or whether they actually correspond to a unitary construct in middle childhood. Second, we examined how hot and cool EF are associated with different eating styles that put children at risk of becoming overweight during development. Hot and cool EF were assessed experimentally in a non-clinical population of 1657 elementary-school children (aged 6–11 years). The “food approach” behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires. Findings indicate that hot EF is distinguishable from cool EF. However, only cool EF seems to represent a coherent functional entity, whereas hot EF does not seem to be a homogenous construct. This was true for a younger and an older subgroup of children. Furthermore, different EF components were correlated with eating styles, such as responsiveness to food, desire to drink, and restrained eating in girls but not in boys. This shows that lower levels of EF are not only seen in clinical populations of obese patients but are already associated with food approach styles in a normal population of elementary school-aged girls. Although the direction of effect still has to be clarified, results point to the possibility that EF constitutes a risk factor for eating styles contributing to the development of overweight in the long-term. PMID:24904466

  10. Food-web constraints on biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships.

    PubMed

    Thébault, Elisa; Loreau, Michel

    2003-12-01

    The consequences of biodiversity loss for ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services have aroused considerable interest during the past decade. Recent work has focused mainly on the impact of species diversity within single trophic levels, both experimentally and theoretically. Experiments have usually showed increased plant biomass and productivity with increasing plant diversity. Changes in biodiversity, however, may affect ecosystem processes through trophic interactions among species as well. An important current challenge is to understand how these trophic interactions affect the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we present a mechanistic model of an ecosystem with multiple trophic levels in which plants compete for a limiting soil nutrient. In contrast to previous studies that focused on single trophic levels, we show that plant biomass does not always increase with plant diversity and that changes in biodiversity can lead to complex if predictable changes in ecosystem processes. Our analysis demonstrates that food-web structure can profoundly influence ecosystem properties. PMID:14638942

  11. Food-web constraints on biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships

    PubMed Central

    Thébault, Elisa; Loreau, Michel

    2003-01-01

    The consequences of biodiversity loss for ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services have aroused considerable interest during the past decade. Recent work has focused mainly on the impact of species diversity within single trophic levels, both experimentally and theoretically. Experiments have usually showed increased plant biomass and productivity with increasing plant diversity. Changes in biodiversity, however, may affect ecosystem processes through trophic interactions among species as well. An important current challenge is to understand how these trophic interactions affect the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we present a mechanistic model of an ecosystem with multiple trophic levels in which plants compete for a limiting soil nutrient. In contrast to previous studies that focused on single trophic levels, we show that plant biomass does not always increase with plant diversity and that changes in biodiversity can lead to complex if predictable changes in ecosystem processes. Our analysis demonstrates that food-web structure can profoundly influence ecosystem properties. PMID:14638942

  12. Response to consumer demand for reduced-fat foods; multi-functional fat replacers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The excessive dietary fat intake can result in health problems such as obesity and heart-related diseases, resulting in increased consumer demand for reduced fat foods. A number of food ingredients with fat-like functions have been developed as fat alternatives in the food industry. Especially, so...

  13. Regulating Functional Foods in the European Union: Informed Choice versus Consumer Protection?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana Klompenhouwer; Henk van den Belt

    2003-01-01

    Due to the rise of functional foods,the distinction between foods and medicines hasbecome increasingly blurred. A new EUregulation covering health claims and otherclaims on food and drink products is on thedocks. A basic motive of legal regulation oflabeling and advertising is to inform andprotect the consumer. Promotion of informedchoice and consumer protection may, however, beconflicting objectives. A further problemsprings from

  14. Prediction of a glucose appearance function from foods using deconvolution.

    PubMed

    Yates, T L; Fletcher, L R

    2000-06-01

    The glycaemic response of an insulin-treated diabetic patient goes through many transitory phases, leading to a steady state glycaemic profile following a change in either insulin regimen or diet. Most models attempting to model the glucose and insulin relationship try to model the effect of oral or injected glucose rather than that from the digestion of food. However, it is clear that a better understanding of the glycaemic response would arise from consideration of intestinal absorption from the gut. It is assumed that this type of absorption can be modelled by a so-called glucose appearance function (systemic appearance of glucose via glucose absorption from the gut) predicting the glucose load from the food. Much research has been carried out in the areas of hepatic balance, insulin absorption and insulin independent/dependent utilization. However, little is known about intestinal absorption patterns or their corresponding glucose appearance profiles. The strategy under investigation herein is to use deconvolution or backward engineering. By starting with specific results i.e. blood glucose and insulin therapy, it is possible to work backwards to predict the glucose forcing functions responsible for the outcome. Assuming compartmental consistency, this will allow a clearer insight into the true gut absorption process. If successful, the same strategy can be applied to more recent glucose and insulin models to further our understanding of the food to blood glucose problem. This paper investigates the Lehmann-Deutsch modified model of glucose and insulin interaction, created from the model proposed by Berger-Rodbard. The model attempts to simulate the steady state glycaemic and plasma insulin responses, independent of the initial values from which the simulation is started. Glucose enters the model via both intestinal absorption and hepatic glucose production. We considered a 70 kg male insulin-dependent diabetic patient with corresponding hepatic and insulin sensitivity parameters of 0.6 and 0.3 respectively. Net hepatic glucose balance was modelled piecewise by linear and symmetric functions. A first-order Euler method with step size of 15 minutes was employed. For the simulation, only Actrapid and NPH injections were considered. The injection of insulin and the glucose flux to the gut were started simultaneously to avoid any delay associated with gastric emptying. The systemic appearance of glucose was compared from two view points, not only to assess the strategic principle, but also to assess the suitability of the modifications made by Lehmann and Deutsch. The first is a forward prediction using the compartmental structure. This analysis involves the rate of gastric emptying without time delay. The second is a backward prediction from experimentally observed blood glucose profiles. Investigations involved porridge, white rice and banana containing the same carbohydrate content (25 g). Results obtained from the first analysis were dependent on the rate of gastric emptying, especially its ascending and descending branches. Results from the second analysis were dependent on the dose and type of insulin administered. Both predicted profiles showed consistency with physiological reasoning, although it became apparent that such solutions could be unstable. Furthermore, both types of prediction were similar in structure and appearance, especially in simulations for porridge and banana. This emphasized the consistency and suitability of both analyses when investigating the compartmental accuracy and limitations within a model. The new strategic approach was deemed a success within the model, and the modifications made by Lehmann and Deutsch appropriate. We suggest that a gastric emptying curve with a possible gastric delay is the way forward in regulating the appearance of glucose via gut absorption. The Lehmann-Deutsch gastric curve is described by either a trapezoidal or triangular function dependent on the carbohydrate cont PMID:10994512

  15. Structure–physicochemical function relationships of 7S globulins (vicilins) from red bean ( Phaseolus angularis) with different polypeptide constituents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuan-He Tang; Xin Sun

    2011-01-01

    Red bean 7S globulins (vicilins) with different polypeptide constituents or heterogeneity were fractionated using acidic extraction (at 0.5 M NaCl) and anion-exchange column chromatography. The physicochemical and conformational properties, including amino acid composition, net charge and\\/or surface hydrophobicity (H0), protein solubility (PS), thermal and emulsifying properties, as well as secondary, tertiary and\\/or quaternary conformations, were evaluated. There were distinct differences in

  16. Worlds apart. Consumer acceptance of functional foods and beverages in Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Michael; Shi, Jing; Giusto, Alice; Hartmann, Christina

    2015-09-01

    This study examined consumers' willingness to buy functional foods. Data were collected from an Internet survey in Germany (n?=?502) and China (n?=?443). The results showed that consumers in China were much more willing to buy functional foods, compared with their German counterparts. A substantial segment of the German consumers indicated lower willingness to buy functional foods, compared with the same foods without additional health benefits. The findings further showed that in both countries, the participants with higher health motivation and more trust in the food industry reported higher willingness to buy functional foods than the participants with lower health motivation and less trust in the industry. Food neophobia had a negative impact on acceptance of functional foods in the Chinese sample. No such association was observed for the German sample. The results suggest that cultural factors play a significant role in the acceptance of functional foods; therefore, caution should be exercised in generalizing research findings from Western countries to others. PMID:26002279

  17. The Use of Health Functional Foods in Gastrointestinal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hwa Pyoung; Lee, Hosun; Oh, Tak Geun; Lee, Kyong Joo; Park, Soo Jung; Kim, Seung Up; Lee, Hyuk; Park, Jun Chul; Hong, Sung Pil; Park, Jun Yong; Park, Jeong Youp; Bang, Seungmin; Kim, Do Young; Cheon, Jae Hee; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Tae Il; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young

    2013-01-01

    As an adjunct to cancer treatment, the use of health functional foods (HFFs) seems to be increasing. However, little is known for the use of HFFs among cancer patients in Korea. The aims of this study were to investigate the exposure rate of HFF use among gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients and to examine the relationship of socio-demographic and disease-related characteristics with the use of HFFs. A total of 126 patients diagnosed with GI cancer participated in the study. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a questionnaire. Over a half of all the patients surveyed (n = 67; 53.2%) used HFFs. Patients who were younger, had higher income, or longer duration of disease showed a trend to use HFFs more frequently, even though the tendency was not statistically significant. The most commonly used HFF was vitamin complex (n = 20; 16%), followed by red ginseng (n = 15; 12%), and sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) (n = 11; 8.8%). About 26% of all responders expressed concerns for using HFFs. The primary concern was 'going against physician's recommendations' (36.8%). About 63% of respondents expressed a desire to consult with their physicians and follow their recommendations. More basic scientific data and educational materials regarding HFFs are required for both health-care professionals and cancer patients. A larger sample and size-controlled groups representing each cancer type will continue to be recruited for participation in this survey. PMID:23429665

  18. Food Sources

    Cancer.gov

    Understanding what foods contribute to energy, nutrient, and food group intake enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and gives context for dietary guidance. Examining the top sources of dietary constituents that should be reduced is especially helpful for identifying targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment.

  19. Functional Effects of Parasites on Food Web Properties during the Spring Diatom Bloom in Lake Pavin: A Linear

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Functional Effects of Parasites on Food Web Properties during the Spring Diatom Bloom in Lake Pavin on a planktonic food web. We used a carbon-based food web model of Lake Pavin (Massif Central, France-derived fluxes. Model results support recent theories on the probable impact of parasites on food web function

  20. Functional foods and food supplements for athletes: from myths to benefit claims substantiation through the study of selected biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Brouns, Fred; Nieuwenhoven, Michiel van; Jeukendrup, Asker; Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter van

    2002-11-01

    The development of the sports food market and industrial involvement have led to numerous nutritional studies to define the type of nutrients that are most suited to support energy metabolism, fluid balance and muscle function. The key question in many of these studies was: 'Does the product lead to a significant product/consumer benefit that can be used as a claim on the package?' New methods and techniques have been developed, partly with sponsorship of the food industry, with the goal of measuring the effects of specific nutrients and supplements on athletic performance and metabolism. In line with this development, a wide variety of supplements and sports foods/drinks labelled with various performance or health benefit statements have been launched on the sports nutrition market. Although a variety of products have been tested clinically, there are also many products on the market with benefit claims that cannot be supported by sound nutritional and sports physiological science. The current short review highlights some of the methods and biomarkers that are used to substantiate product/consumer benefit claims for foods and drinks that are marketed as functional foods for athletes. PMID:12495460

  1. The functional human neuroanatomy of food pleasure cycles.

    PubMed

    Kringelbach, Morten L; Stein, Alan; van Hartevelt, Tim J

    2012-06-01

    Food ensures our survival and is a potential source of pleasure and general well-being. In order to survive, the human brain is required to optimize the resource allocation such that rewards are pursued when relevant. This means that food intake follows a similar cyclical time course to other rewards with phases related to expectation, consummation and satiety. Here we develop a multilevel model for the full cycle of eating behavior based on the evidence for the brain networks and mechanisms initiating, sustaining and terminating the various phases of eating. We concentrate on how the underlying reward mechanisms of wanting, liking and learning lead to how human food intake is governed by both hedonic and homeostatic principles. We describe five of the main processing principles controlling food intake: hunger and attentional signal processing; motivation-independent discriminative processing; reward representations; learning-dependent multimodal sensory representations and hedonic experience. Overall, the evidence shows that while human food intake is complex, we are making progress in understanding the underlying mechanisms and that the brain networks supporting the food pleasure cycle are remarkably similar to those underlying the processing of other rewards. PMID:22487544

  2. 75 FR 39450 - Terpene Constituents of the Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ...herbs, spices, and other foods and beverages. These three terpene constituents are found naturally in food, permitted as food and fragrance...inhalation through consumption of foods and beverages, as well as through dermal...

  3. Diurnal rhythmicity in biological processes involved in bioavailability of functional food factors

    PubMed Central

    Tsurusaki, Takashi; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Aoshima, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Sakono, Masanobu; Shimoi, Kayoko

    2013-01-01

    In the past few decades, many types of functional factors have been identified in dietary foods; for example, flavonoids are major groups widely distributed in the plant kingdom. However, the absorption rates of the functional food factors are usually low, and many of these are difficult to be absorbed in the intact forms because of metabolization by biological processes during absorption. To gain adequate beneficial effects, it is therefore mandatory to know whether functional food factors are absorbed in sufficient quantity, and then reach target organs while maintaining beneficial effects. These are the reasons why the bioavailability of functional food factors has been well investigated using rodent models. Recently, many of the biological processes have been reported to follow diurnal rhythms recurring every 24 h. Therefore, absorption and metabolism of functional food factors influenced by the biological processes may vary with time of day. Consequently, the evaluation of the bioavailability of functional food factors using rodent models should take into consideration the timing of consumption. In this review, we provide a perspective overview of the diurnal rhythm of biological processes involved in the bioavailability of functional food factors, particularly flavonoids. PMID:23704810

  4. Structure-function relationships in soft tissue mechanics: Examining how the micro-scale architecture of biochemical constituents effects health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, David Sheldon

    Countless debilitating pathologies exhibit symptoms that result from altered mechanical behavior of soft tissue. Therefore, it is of clinical and economic importance to mechanically evaluate soft tissues and attribute degenerative changes to alterations in structural constituents. The studies presented here focus on the annulus fibrosus and the sclera. Failure in these tissues is common and catastrophic. The annulus fibrosus may fail, resulting in herniation and nerve impingement, or the disc may degenerate over time, resulting in reduced mobility and pain. Similarly, the sclera may degenerate over time with intraocular pressure spurring creep behavior that distends the eye beyond its ideal shape. This causes myopic vision and puts patients at risk of macular degeneration and retinal detachment. These two tissues share a common structural role as the outer wall of a pressure vessel. Also, they are made of strikingly similar constituents, primarily consisting of water, type I collagen, glycosaminoglycans and elastin. The microstructure of these tissues, however, is very different. The annulus fibrosus is representative of an anisotropic tissue. Its well-organized fibril structure was analyzed via polarization modulated second harmonic microscopy in order to characterize fibril architecture. Structurally relevant biochemical constituents were quantified with biochemical assays. Morphologically healthy annulus tended to have a more highly organized microstructure and tended to absorb more strain energy when subject to a tensile load cycle. Given the strong correlation between fibril organization and select mechanical properties, predictive models will likely benefit from a characterization of fibril continuity and orientation coherence. The sclera is representative of an isotropic tissue. Its less-organized fibril structure has evolved to sustain biaxial plane stress. In the sclera, collagen content and associated crosslinks were primary determinants of stiffness. Substantial collagen crosslink accumulation is a primary factor causing the stiffening of sclera with increased age. The influence of crosslinks dominates diffusion and permeability behavior. Exogenous crosslinking may help modulate the mechanical and fluid transport properties of the sclera and cornea. Treatment with methylglyoxal reduces the permeability and increases the stiffness of both. However, differences in the pre-treatment level of organization within the microstructure encourages asymmetric results.

  5. Functional properties of anthocyanins and betalains in plants, food, and in human nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian C Stintzing; Reinhold Carle

    2004-01-01

    Anthocyanins and betalains play important roles both in plant physiology, visual attraction for pollinators and seed dispersers, but also in food mainly defining its aesthetic value. Since anthocyanin and betalain structures allow to predict only part of their appearance, additional chemical and anatomical functions are required to modulate the appearance of plants and coloured food. Physiological effects that the same

  6. Developing Functional Foods Using Red Palm Olein: Objective Color and Instrumental Texture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Al-Hooti; J. S. Sidhu; J. M. Al-Saqer; H. A. Al-Amiri; A. Al-Othman; I. B. Mansour; M. Johari

    2004-01-01

    Edible red palm olein (RPOL) has been newly developed by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board for use in food products to enhance their nutritional value. The results of the effect of RPOL and red palm shortening (RPS) on the objective color and instrumental texture of these functional foods are presented. The results indicate that using up to 100% RPS in

  7. Functional responses to food diversity: the effect of seed availability on the feeding of facultative granivores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative importance and availability of different foods to animals is critical in determining how they function within food webs. We examined how the diverse communities of carabid beetles and crickets in a perennial hayfield respond to seed availability numerically and in their feeding behavior...

  8. The importance of GRAS to the functional food and nutraceutical industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. Burdock; Ioana G. Carabin; James C. Griffiths

    2006-01-01

    At a time when 150 million Americans spend over $20.5 billion on functional foods, nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is doing little to ensure that all the safe and efficacious products that could come to the market are allowed to do so. FDA has only responded slowly and reluctantly to Congressional action and to mandates

  9. Coevolution between human's anticancer activities and functional foods from crop origin center in the world.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ya-Wen; Du, Juan; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Jia-Zhen; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shu-Ming; Yang, Xiao-Meng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death around the world. Anticancer activities from many functional food sources have been reported in years, but correlation between cancer prevalence and types of food with anticancer activities from crop origin center in the world as well as food source with human migration are unclear. Hunger from food shortage is the cause of early human evolution from Africa to Asia and later into Eurasia. The richest functional foods are found in crop origin centers, housing about 70% in the world populations. Crop origin centers have lower cancer incidence and mortality in the world, especially Central Asia, Middle East, Southwest China, India and Ethiopia. Asia and Africa with the richest anticancer crops is not only the most important evolution base of humans and origin center of anticancer functional crop, but also is the lowest mortality and incidence of cancers in the world. Cancer prevention of early human migrations was associated with functional foods from crop origin centers, especially Asia with four centers and one subcenter of crop origin, accounting for 58% of the world population. These results reveal that coevolution between human's anticancer activities associated with functional foods for crop origin centers, especially in Asia and Africa. PMID:25824728

  10. Functional food microstructures for macronutrient release and delivery.

    PubMed

    Norton, J E; Gonzalez Espinosa, Y; Watson, R L; Spyropoulos, F; Norton, I T

    2015-03-11

    There is a need to understand the role of fat, protein and carbohydrate in human health, and also how foods containing and/or structured using these macronutrients can be designed so that they can have a positive impact on health. This may include a reduction in fat, salt or sugar, the protection and targeted release of micronutrients or active ingredients from/to particular parts of the digestive system, improvement of gastrointestinal health or satiety enhancing properties. Such foods can be designed with various macro- and microstructures that will impact on macronutrient release and delivery. These include simple and double emulsions, the use of Pickering particles and shells, nanoparticles, liposomes, gelled networks, fluid gels and gel particles, foams, self-assembled structures, and encapsulated systems. In order to design foods that deliver these benefits understanding of how these structures behave in the gastrointestinal tract is also required, which should involve utilising both in vitro and in vivo studies. This review aims to draw together research in these areas, by focusing on the current state of the art, but also exciting possibilities for future research and food development. PMID:25553863

  11. Abiotic controls on the functional structure of soil food webs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter G. Whitford

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that the trophic structure of soil food webs changes as a result of the abiotic environment was examined by reviewing studies of soil biota. In dry soils with a water potential below -1.5 MPa, most bacteria, protozoans, and many species of nematodes are not active. These taxa persist in the soil in a state of anhydrobiosis. Because soil

  12. Executive Cognitive Function and Food Intake in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated relations among neurocognitive skills important for behavioral regulation, and the intake of fruit, vegetables, and snack food in children. Design: Participants completed surveys at a single time point. Setting: Assessments took place during school. Participants: Participants were 107 fourth-grade children…

  13. Variations of body mass and immune function in response to food unpredictability in magpies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucco, Marco; Ottonelli, Roberta; Raviola, Mara; Malacarne, Giorgio

    2002-08-01

    The effects of food unpredictability on body mass regulation have been studied in a few species of birds. It has been shown that small passerines can counteract variability of food resources by actively regulating their body reserves through an increase of mass. However, it was recently found that, with unpredictable food availability, quails and hooded crows do not adopt an adaptive fattening strategy but lose mass. At present, little is known about the effects of food unpredictability on other body parameters, such as immune functions and blood variables. In this study, we analysed the responses to food abundance and unpredictability by performing two experiments of controlled food administration in the magpie, a passerine intermediate in size between small passerines and crows. Body mass, leukocyte abundance, haematocrit, spleen mass and immune reaction to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) were assessed during a 15-d period. In the first experiment, the food release was predictable (same amount each day), but the quantity of food varied in four groups of birds. Low food levels induced a greater decrease in mass. In the second experiment, the same average quantity of food was supplied, but with predictable or unpredictable (random) schedules. As previously reported for crows and quails, magpies did not adaptively increase their mass in response to food unpredictability. Furthermore, there was a decrease of haematocrit and immune response to PHA. It appears that a body mass decrease in the magpie can be induced by a reduction of either food abundance or food predictability, and it is accompanied by a worsening of health state.

  14. Response surface methodology for evaluation of physical and functional properties of extruded snack foods developed from food-by-products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sibel Ya?c?; Fahrettin Gö?ü?

    2008-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of extrusion conditions including moisture content (12–18%), temperature (150–175°C), screw speed (200–280rpm), and change in feed composition, durum clear flour (8–20%), partially defatted hazelnut flour (PDHF) (5–15%) and fruit waste (3–7%) contents on the physical and functional characteristics of the extruded snack food based on rice grit in combination with fruit

  15. Plant food allergens—structural and functional aspects of allergenicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heimo Breiteneder; E. N. Clare Mills

    2005-01-01

    The three dominating plant food allergen groups belong to the prolamin and cupin superfamilies and to the family 10 of pathogenesis-related proteins. The prolamin superfamily comprises allergenic 2S albumins, nonspecific lipid transfer proteins and cereal alpha-amylase\\/trypsin inhibitors. These allergens have related structures and are stable to thermal processing and proteolysis. The cupin superfamily comprises the allergenic 7S and 11S globulin

  16. Enclosing decomposer food web: implications for community structure and function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Nieminen; H. Setälä

    1997-01-01

    We designed a field experiment to evaluate how restriction of soil faunal movements affects decomposer community structure,\\u000a food web architecture, and decomposition of organic matter. Intact soil cores (3cm thick, diameter 16cm) were placed either\\u000a in “open” (mesh size 1mm, allowing all meso- and microfauna to move through) or “closed” (27?m, animal movement prevented\\u000a except for the smallest microfauna) mesh

  17. Fine oil combustion particle bioavailable constituents induce molecular profiles of oxidative stress, altered function, and cellular injury in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Knuckles, Travis L; Dreher, Kevin L

    2007-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between exposure to air particulate matter (PM) pollution and adverse cardiovascular health effects in susceptible subpopulations such as those with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. The mechanism(s) through which pulmonary deposited PM, particularly fine PM2.5, PM with mass median aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microm, affects the cardiovascular system is currently not known and remains a major focus of investigation. In the present study, the transcriptosome and transcription factor proteome were examined in rat neonatal cardiomyocyte (RCM) cultures, following an acute exposure to bioavailable constituents of PM2.5 oil combustion particles designated residual oil fly ash leachate (ROFA-L). Out of 3924 genes examined, 38 genes were suppressed and 44 genes were induced following a 1-h exposure to 3.5 microg/ml of a particle-free leachate of ROFA (ROFA-L). Genomic alterations in pathways related to IGF-1, VEGF, IL-2, PI3/AKT, cardiovascular disease, and free radical scavenging, among others, were detected 1 h postexposure to ROFA-L. Global gene expression was altered in a manner consistent with cardiac myocyte electrophysiological remodeling, cellular oxidative stress, and apoptosis. ROFA-L altered the transcription factor proteome by suppressing activity of 24 and activating 40 transcription factors out of a total of 149. Genomic alterations were found to correlate with changes in transcription factor proteome. These acute changes indicate pathological molecular alterations, which may lead to possible chronic alterations to the cardiac myocyte. These data also potentially relate underlying cardiovascular effects from occupational exposure to ROFA and identify how particles from specific emission sources may mediate ambient PM cardiac effects. PMID:17934955

  18. Health-care professionals' perceived trust in and willingness to recommend functional foods: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Landström, Eva; Sidenvall, Birgitta; Koivisto Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa; Magnusson, Maria

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate some Swedish dieticians', registered nurses' and physicians' thoughts about functional foods and their willingness to recommend such foods to patients. The health-care professionals were recruited to participate in one group interview with each profession. Participants were recruited through mailed invitations from primary care centers in Uppsala County district. The interviewed physicians and registered nurses, in contrast to the dieticians, expressed more skepticism and distrust about functional foods, their claimed effects on health and the research documenting these effects. The participating dieticians were more willing to recommend the products to patients than were the participating nurses and physicians. Differences in educational and professional background and level of proficiency in nutrition may have affected the disparate beliefs about functional foods among the interviewed groups. Confusion among patients could be a consequence but further research into these disparities is needed. PMID:17113191

  19. A Review on Bioactivities of Perilla: Progress in Research on the Functions of Perilla as Medicine and Food

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Perilla is a useful pharmaceutical and food product and is empirically consumed by humans. However, its properties have not been evaluated extensively. In this review, we summarize the progress made in research, focusing on the bioactivities of perilla. There are many in vitro and animal studies on the cytostatic activity and antiallergic effects, respectively, of perilla and its constituents. However, its influence on humans remains unclear. Hence, investigating and clarifying the physiological effects of perilla and its constituents on humans are imperative in the future to adhere to the ideals of evidence-based medicine. PMID:24319488

  20. Innovative analytical tools to characterize prebiotic carbohydrates of functional food interest.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Claudio; Lantano, Claudia; Cavazza, Antonella

    2013-05-01

    Functional foods are one of the most interesting areas of research and innovation in the food industry. A functional food or functional ingredient is considered to be any food or food component that provides health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Recently, consumers have shown interest in natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in the diet owing to their various beneficial effects for health. Water-soluble fibers and nondigestible oligosaccharides and polysaccharides can be defined as functional food ingredients. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin are resistant to direct metabolism by the host and reach the caecocolon, where they are used by selected groups of beneficial bacteria. Furthermore, they are able to improve physical and structural properties of food, such as hydration, oil-holding capacity, viscosity, texture, sensory characteristics, and shelf-life. This article reviews major innovative analytical developments to screen and identify FOS, inulins, and the most employed nonstarch carbohydrates added or naturally present in functional food formulations. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection (HPAEC-PED) is one of the most employed analytical techniques for the characterization of those molecules. Mass spectrometry is also of great help, in particularly matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), which is able to provide extensive information regarding the molecular weight and length profiles of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Moreover, MALDI-TOF-MS in combination with HPAEC-PED has been shown to be of great value for the complementary information it can provide. Some other techniques, such as NMR spectroscopy, are also discussed, with relevant examples of recent applications. A number of articles have appeared in the literature in recent years regarding the analysis of inulin, FOS, and other carbohydrates of interest in the field and they are critically reviewed. PMID:23420135

  1. Understanding heterogeneity among elderly consumers: an evaluation of segmentation approaches in the functional food market.

    PubMed

    van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-06-01

    It is beneficial for both the public health community and the food industry to meet nutritional needs of elderly consumers through product formats that they want. The heterogeneity of the elderly market poses a challenge, however, and calls for market segmentation. Although many researchers have proposed ways to segment the elderly consumer population, the elderly food market has received surprisingly little attention in this respect. Therefore, the present paper reviewed eight potential segmentation bases on their appropriateness in the context of functional foods aimed at the elderly: cognitive age, life course, time perspective, demographics, general food beliefs, food choice motives, product attributes and benefits sought, and past purchase. Each of the segmentation bases had strengths as well as weaknesses regarding seven evaluation criteria. Given that both product design and communication are useful tools to increase the appeal of functional foods, we argue that elderly consumers in this market may best be segmented using a preference-based segmentation base that is predictive of behaviour (for example, attributes and benefits sought), combined with a characteristics-based segmentation base that describes consumer characteristics (for example, demographics). In the end, the effectiveness of (combinations of) segmentation bases for elderly consumers in the functional food market remains an empirical matter. We hope that the present review stimulates further empirical research that substantiates the ideas presented in this paper. PMID:24924413

  2. Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger

    PubMed Central

    Charbonnier, Lisette; van der Laan, Laura N.; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A. M.

    2015-01-01

    We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI) studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low). Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (pre)cuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject’s low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food’s biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance. PMID:26167916

  3. Macroscopic and microscopic spatially-resolved analysis of food contaminants and constituents using laser-ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Nielen, Michel W F; van Beek, Teris A

    2014-11-01

    Laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) does not require very flat surfaces, high-precision sample preparation, or the addition of matrix. Because of these features, LAESI-MSI may be the method of choice for spatially-resolved food analysis. In this work, LAESI time-of-flight MSI was investigated for macroscopic and microscopic imaging of pesticides, mycotoxins, and plant metabolites on rose leaves, orange and lemon fruit, ergot bodies, cherry tomatoes, and maize kernels. Accurate mass ion-map data were acquired at sampling locations with an x-y center-to-center distance of 0.2-1.0 mm and were superimposed onto co-registered optical images. The spatially-resolved ion maps of pesticides on rose leaves suggest co-application of registered and banned pesticides. Ion maps of the fungicide imazalil reveal that this compound is only localized on the peel of citrus fruit. However, according to three-dimensional LAESI-MSI the penetration depth of imazalil into the peel has significant local variation. Ion maps of different plant alkaloids on ergot bodies from rye reveal co-localization in accordance with expectations. The feasibility of using untargeted MSI for food analysis was revealed by ion maps of plant metabolites in cherry tomatoes and maize-kernel slices. For tomatoes, traveling-wave ion mobility (TWIM) was used to discriminate between different lycoperoside glycoalkaloid isomers; for maize quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) was successfully used to elucidate the structure of a localized unknown. It is envisaged that LAESI-MSI will contribute to future research in food science, agriforensics, and plant metabolomics. PMID:24961635

  4. A model of freezing foods with liquid nitrogen using special functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Vega, Martín.

    2014-05-01

    A food freezing model is analyzed analytically. The model is based on the heat diffusion equation in the case of cylindrical shaped food frozen by liquid nitrogen; and assuming that the thermal conductivity of the cylindrical food is radially modulated. The model is solved using the Laplace transform method, the Bromwich theorem, and the residue theorem. The temperature profile in the cylindrical food is presented as an infinite series of special functions. All the required computations are performed with computer algebra software, specifically Maple. Using the numeric values of the thermal and geometric parameters for the cylindrical food, as well as the thermal parameters of the liquid nitrogen freezing system, the temporal evolution of the temperature in different regions in the interior of the cylindrical food is presented both analytically and graphically. The duration of the liquid nitrogen freezing process to achieve the specified effect on the cylindrical food is computed. The analytical results are expected to be of importance in food engineering and cooking engineering. As a future research line, the formulation and solution of freezing models with thermal memory is proposed.

  5. Loss-of-function variants of the filaggrin gene are associated with clinical reactivity to foods.

    PubMed

    van Ginkel, C D; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J; Kollen, B J; Kukler, J; Koppelman, G H; Dubois, A E J

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the genetic association of Filaggrin loss-of-function (FLG LOF) genetic variants with food allergy, and to investigate the added value of this test in diagnosing food allergy. Clinical reactivity to foods was diagnosed by the gold standard, the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Of 155 children, 33 (21.3%) children had at least one FLG LOF variant, and of these, 29 (87.9%) were clinically reactive to at least one food, compared to 73 of 122 children (59.8%) carrying wild-type alleles. The odds ratio for having at least one FLG LOF variant and clinical reactivity to at least one food was 4.9 (CI = 1.6-14.7, P = 0.005), corresponding to a relative risk of 1.5, compared to carriers of wild-type alleles. Prediction of food allergy improved when FLG LOF variants were included in the model. Therefore, genetic markers may be useful as an addition to clinical assessment in the diagnosis of food allergy. PMID:25620092

  6. An Overview of Probiotics, Prebiotics and Synbiotics in the Functional Food Concept: Perspectives and Future Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cherie J. Ziemer; Glenn R. Gibson

    1998-01-01

    The functional food concept has, in recent years, moved progressively towards the development of dietary supplementation that may affect gut microbial composition and activities. The rationale behind this derives from a realisation that the human colon contains pathogenic, benign and possibly health promoting species. This microbiota functions in such a manner that the colon is the most metabolically active organ

  7. Optimization of Spray Drying of an Innovative Functional Food: Fermented Mixed Juice of Carrot and Watermelon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Mestry; A. S. Mujumdar; B. N. Thorat

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with formulation and drying of a newly developed functional food. A watermelon and carrot juice mixture in the ratio 70:30 by volume was fermented at 37°C with Lactobacillus acidophilus to produce an innovative non-dairy-based food formulation with good flavor and high nutritional value. Viable count, pH, titrable acidity, protein content, and reducing sugar were measured during fermentation.

  8. Food habits in 10–11-year-old children with functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Haapalahti; H Mykkänen; S Tikkanen; J Kokkonen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of food habits and nutrient intake in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) considering their association with psychosocial factors.Design: Cross-sectional.Setting: A rural town in Mid-Western Finland.Subjects: After excluding organic gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, a total of 49 children with FGID and 78 control children without GI symptoms from a cohort of 422 children were studied.Methods: Food

  9. Influence of nutritional knowledge on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Giménez, Ana; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2008-11-01

    In order to assess the influence of nutritional knowledge on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods, 104 consumers filled out a Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire and answered a conjoint task. Participants had to evaluate 16 concepts consisting of combinations of carrier products (yogurt, milk desserts, pan bread and mayonnaise) and nutritional modifications (regular product, low-fat, enriched with antioxidants, and enriched with fibre). Three groups of consumers were identified with different level of nutritional knowledge. Highly significant differences were found in the healthiness evaluations of the clusters, which mainly depended on nutritional knowledge related to the links of diet and diseases. Highly significant differences in willingness to try functional foods were also found between the clusters. Whereas consumers with the lowest nutritional knowledge were not interested in consuming functional foods, the addition of fibre or antioxidants to healthy products increased the willingness of consumers with the highest level of nutritional knowledge to try the evaluated functional foods. These results suggested that lack of nutritional knowledge might limit the acceptance of functional foods and thus the use of health claims might be necessary to assure that consumers are aware of their health benefits. PMID:18582509

  10. Bioavailability and metabolism of botanical constituents and enhancement of intestinal barrier function by caffeic acid derivatives in Caco-2 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiyi Qiang

    2011-01-01

    \\u000aPublic interest in botanical supplements has increased greatly in recent years as various plant materials might be used for anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, antioxidant and cancer preventive effects. Our long term goal is to improve our understanding of the characteristics of phytochemicals that contribute to human health benefits on gut functions, and thereby pave the way for optimizing herbal supplements for study

  11. 75 FR 33814 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ...of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION...advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The...Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration, 9200 Corporate...potentially harmful constituents, the rational for inclusion of each...

  12. Food-web constraints on biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisa Thébault; Michel Loreau

    2003-01-01

    The consequences of biodiversity loss for ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services have aroused considerable interest during the past decade. Recent work has focused mainly on the impact of species diversity within single trophic levels, both experimentally and theoretically. Experiments have usually showed increased plant biomass and productivity with increasing plant diversity. Changes in biodiversity, however, may affect ecosystem processes through

  13. The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in food webs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisa Thébault; Michel Loreau

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental work provides clear evidence that biodiversity loss can have profound impacts on functioning of natural and managed ecosystems and the ability of ecosystems to deliver ecological services to human societies. Work on simplified ecosystems in which the diversity of a single trophic level is manipulated shows that diversity can enhance ecosystem processes such as primary productivity

  14. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  15. HPLC and HPLC-MS as tools to monitor the quality of vegetable oils, nutraceuticals, and functional foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HPLC and HPLC-MS have become valuable tools to analyze the “functional lipids” in vegetable oils, nutraceuticals, functional foods, and conventional foods. These functional lipids include phytosterols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. These analytical methods have provided a means to id...

  16. Child and parent perceived food-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is unknown whether children with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders identify specific foods that exacerbate their GI symptoms. The objectives of this study were to determine the perceived role of food on GI symptoms and to determine the impact of food-induced symptoms on quality of life (...

  17. Comparative functionality of plasma protein isolate in meat food products 

    E-print Network

    Weinblatt, Philip Jeffrey

    1978-01-01

    . , 1976; and Smith, 1973). Based on its functional properties, plasma protein isolate from bovine blood is a potential meat binder, emulsifier and color enhancer and has been produced as an odorless, yellowish, water-inso)uble, light- weight powder... are colorless, odorless, bland, edible protein powders with a protein content that has been shown to be similar to beef, lamb or pork muscle. Pals (1970) mentioned that all of the equipment necessary for conveying, centri- fuging, storing and drying blood...

  18. The spliceosomal snRNP core complex of Trypanosoma brucei: Cloning and functional analysis reveals seven Sm protein constituents

    PubMed Central

    Palfi, Zsofia; Lücke, Stephan; Lahm, Hans-Werner; Lane, William S.; Kruft, Volker; Bragado-Nilsson, Elisabeth; Séraphin, Bertrand; Bindereif, Albrecht

    2000-01-01

    Each of the trypanosome small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) U2, U4/U6, and U5, as well as the spliced leader (SL) RNP, contains a core of common proteins, which we have previously identified. This core is unusual because it is not recognized by anti-Sm Abs and it associates with an Sm-related sequence in the trypanosome small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). Using peptide sequences derived from affinity-purified U2 snRNP proteins, we have cloned cDNAs for five common proteins of 8.5, 10, 12.5, 14, and 15 kDa of Trypanosoma brucei and identified them as Sm proteins SmF (8.5 kDa), -E (10 kDa), -D1 (12.5 kDa), -G (14 kDa), and -D2 (15 kDa), respectively. Furthermore, we found the trypanosome SmB (T. brucei) and SmD3 (Trypanosoma cruzi) homologues through database searches, thus completing a set of seven canonical Sm proteins. Sequence comparisons of the trypanosome proteins revealed several deviations in highly conserved positions from the Sm consensus motif. We have identified a network of specific heterodimeric and -trimeric Sm protein interactions in vitro. These results are summarized in a model of the trypanosome Sm core, which argues for a strong conservation of the Sm particle structure. The conservation extends also to the functional level, because at least one trypanosome Sm protein, SmG, was able to specifically complement a corresponding mutation in yeast. PMID:10900267

  19. Food supplementation and testosterone interact to influence reproductive behavior and immune function in Sceloporus graciosus.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Mayté; French, Susannah S; Demas, Gregory E; Martins, Emília P

    2010-02-01

    The energetic resources in an organism's environment are essential for executing a wide range of life-history functions, including immunity and reproduction. Most energetic budgets, however, are limited, which can lead to trade-offs among competing functions. Increasing reproductive effort tends to decrease immunity in many cases, and increasing total energy via supplemental feedings can eliminate this effect. Testosterone (T), an important regulator of reproduction, and food availability are thus both potential factors regulating life-history processes, yet they are often tested in isolation of each other. In this study, we considered the effect of both food availability and elevated T on immune function and reproductive behavior in sagebrush lizards, Sceloporus graciosus, to assess how T and energy availability affect these trade-offs. We experimentally manipulated diet (via supplemental feedings) and T (via dermal patches) in males from a natural population. We determined innate immune response by calculating the bacterial killing capability of collected plasma exposed to Escherichia coli ex vivo. We measured reproductive behavior by counting the number of courtship displays produced in a 20-min sampling period. We observed an interactive effect of food availability and T-patch on immune function, with food supplementation increasing immunity in T-patch lizards. Additionally, T increased courtship displays in control food lizards. Lizards with supplemental food had higher circulating T than controls. Collectively, this study shows that the energetic state of the animal plays a critical role in modulating the interactions among T, behavior and immunity in sagebrush lizards and likely other species. PMID:19800885

  20. Food supplementation and testosterone interact to influence reproductive behavior and immune function in Sceloporous graciosus

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Mayté; French, Susannah S.; Demas, Gregory E.; Martins, Emília P.

    2009-01-01

    The energetic resources in an organism’s environment are essential for executing a wide range of life history functions, including immunity and reproduction. Most energetic budgets, however, are limited, which can lead to trade-offs among competing functions. Increasing reproductive effort tends to decrease immunity in many cases; and increasing total energy via supplemental feedings can eliminate this effect. Testosterone (T), an important regulator of reproduction, and food availability are thus both potential factors regulating life-history processes, yet they are often tested in isolation of each other. In this study, we considered the effect of both food availability and elevated T on immune function and reproductive behavior in sagebrush lizards, Sceloporus graciosus, to assess how T and energy availability affect these trade-offs. We experimentally manipulated diet (via supplemental feedings) and T (via dermal patches) in males from a natural population. We determined innate immune response by calculating the bacterial killing capability of collected plasma exposed to E. coli ex vivo. We measured reproductive behavior by counting the number of courtship displays produced in a 20-min sampling period. We observed an interactive effect of food availability and T-patch on immune function, with food supplementation increasing immunity in T-patch lizards. Additionally, T increased courtship displays in control food lizards. Lizards with supplemental food had higher circulating T than controls. Collectively, this study shows that the energetic state of the animal plays a critical role in modulating the interactions among T, behavior and immunity in sagebrush lizards and likely other species. PMID:19800885

  1. Essential fatty acids as functional components of foods- a review.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Narinder; Chugh, Vishal; Gupta, Anil K

    2014-10-01

    During the recent decades, awareness towards the role of essential fatty acids in human health and disease prevention has been unremittingly increasing among people. Fish, fish oils and some vegetable oils are rich sources of essential fatty acids. Many studies have positively correlated essential fatty acids with reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, infant development, cancer prevention, optimal brain and vision functioning, arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and neurological/neuropsychiatric disorders. Beneficial effects may be mediated through several different mechanisms, including alteration in cell membrane composition, gene expression or eicosanoid production. However, the mechanisms whereby essential fatty acids affect gene expression are complex and involve multiple processes. Further understanding of the molecular aspects of essential fatty acids will be the key to devising novel approaches to the treatment and prevention of many diseases. PMID:25328170

  2. Improved prognosis of postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma patients when treated with functional foods: a prospective cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoichi Matsui; Junya Uhara; Sohei Satoi; Masaki Kaibori; Hitoshi Yamada; Hiroaki Kitade; Atsusi Imamura; Soichiro Takai; Yusai Kawaguchi; A-Hon Kwon; Yasuo Kamiyama

    2002-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) is a newly developed functional food. In vitro experiments have shown that AHCC enhances natural killer cell activity, and may be considered a potent biological response modifier in the treatment of cancer patients. However, the effects of AHCC in a clinical setting have not been reported. We seek to determine whether AHCC can improve

  3. Influence of nutritional knowledge on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gastón Ares; Ana Giménez; Adriana Gámbaro

    2008-01-01

    In order to assess the influence of nutritional knowledge on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods, 104 consumers filled out a Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire and answered a conjoint task. Participants had to evaluate 16 concepts consisting of combinations of carrier products (yogurt, milk desserts, pan bread and mayonnaise) and nutritional modifications (regular product, low-fat, enriched with antioxidants, and

  4. Alimentos funcionais em angiologia e cirurgia vascular Functional foods in angiology and vascular surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas Faria; Corrêa Anjo

    Functional foods are defined as products containing some biologically active substance that, when added to usual diet, triggers metabolic or physiological processes, resulting in prevention of diseases and maintenance of health. The objective of this study is to make angiologists and vascular surgeons aware of this topic. The main groups of bioactive substances and their indications are presented. Being a

  5. Predicting abundance–body size relationships in functional and taxonomic subsets of food webs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. D. Maxwell; S. Jennings

    2006-01-01

    Abundance–body size relationships are widely observed macroecological patterns in complete food webs and in taxonomically or functionally defined subsets of those webs. Observed abundance–body size relationships have frequently been compared with predictions based on the energetic equivalence hypothesis and, more recently, with predictions based on energy availability to different body size classes. Here, we consider the ways in which working

  6. Variations of body mass and immune function in response to food unpredictability in magpies

    E-print Network

    Cucco, Marco

    ). In these situations, birds usually store fat reserves, but they can also actively lose mass, for exampleVariations of body mass and immune function in response to food unpredictability in magpies Marco unpredictability on body mass regulation have been studied in a few species of birds. It has been shown that small

  7. Acute effects of tea constituents L-theanine, caffeine, and epigallocatechin gallate on cognitive function and mood: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Camfield, David A; Stough, Con; Farrimond, Jonathon; Scholey, Andrew B

    2014-08-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted on 11 randomized placebo-controlled human studies of acute effects of tea constituents L-theanine and epigallocatechin gallate, administered alone or in combination with caffeine, on cognitive function and mood. The outcome measures of mood were alertness, calmness, and contentedness, derived from the Bond-Lader scales, and state anxiety, from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Cognitive measures assessed were attentional switch, intersensory attention, and rapid visual information processing. Standardized mean differences between placebo and treatment groups are presented for each study and outcome measure. Meta-analysis using a random-effects model was conducted when data were available for three or more studies. Evidence of moderate effect sizes in favor of combined caffeine and L-theanine in the first 2 hours postdose were found for outcome measures Bond-Lader alertness, attentional switching accuracy, and, to a lesser extent, some unisensory and multisensory attentional outcomes. Moderator analysis of caffeine and L-theanine doses revealed trends toward greater change in effect size for caffeine dose than for L-theanine dose, particularly during the first hour postdose. PMID:24946991

  8. A novel area of predictive modelling: describing the functionality of beneficial microorganisms in foods.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Degeest, Bart; De, Vuyst Luc

    2002-03-01

    Predictive microbiology generally focuses on the potential outgrowth of spoilage bacteria and foodborne pathogens in foods. Little attention has been paid to the biokinetics of beneficial foodgrade microorganisms, such as lactic acid bacteria. The latter is commonly used in the food fermentation industry, mainly for the in situ production of the antimicrobial lactic acid to extend the shelf life of the food. Furthermore, many strains show additional industrial potential as novel starter cultures since they produce functional metabolites, such as bacteriocins and exopolysaccharides. The production of these functional metabolites has been demonstrated during in vitro experiments, but in many cases these novel starter cultures seem to be less efficient when applied in a food system. A modelling approach may contribute to a better understanding of the tight relation between the food environment and bacterial functionality. Primary modelling can be applied to fit the experimental data concerning cell growth, sugar metabolism, and the production of functional metabolites for a given set of environmental conditions. This led to conclusions concerning the growth-associated production of bacteriocin and exopolysaccharides, the inactivation of these molecules when cell growth levels off, and a minimum cell concentration to trigger on bacteriocin production. Examples deal with the production of the bacteriocin sakacin K by the natural fermented sausage isolate Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494, and the production of heteropolysaccharides by the yoghurt starter culture Streptococcus thermophilus LY03. Secondary modelling of biokinetic parameters quantifies the production of bacteriocin and exopolysaccharides in function of environmental factors. As an example, the specific bacteriocin production by Lb. sakei CTC 494 decreases with increasing sodium chloride concentrations. Furthermore, since the assessment of functionality is frequently hampered by the nature of the food system, mathematical modelling techniques may help to predict the functional behaviour of novel lactic acid bacteria starter cultures in a food matrix, and hence quantify in situ production. For example, a model may simulate cell growth and exopolysaccharide production of S. thermophilus LY03 in a milk environment, where direct measurements are difficult to perform. PMID:11934033

  9. Standardized extracts, foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Lemanske; Steve L. Taylor

    1987-01-01

    Summary  While progress has been made in the areas of food allergen characterization, both the complexity of the biochemical constituents\\u000a of food and the body’s normal physiologic (digestion) and immunologic responses to food ingestion provide challenging obstacles\\u000a to efforts aimed at developing standardized food extracts. As indicated above, while currently available food extracts can\\u000a be useful in the evaluation of food

  10. A flood of health functional foods: what is to be recommended?

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Sil

    2015-04-01

    Health functional food is referred to a food prepared or processed from specific components or ingredients for functionality beneficial to the body through extraction, concentration, purification, blending and other methods. The demand for health functional foods is steadily increasing, and red ginseng is the most demanded food among women in the 50s, followed by multivitamin, omega-3, glucosamine and aloe. To date, there is insufficient evidence on the effect of red ginseng on exercise capacity, somatic symptom and cognitive performance in healthy individuals. Moreover, evidence is insufficient that a nutritional dose of vitamin or mineral reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease and cancer, or mortality rate. A steady intake of oily fish is recommended to prevent the incidence of cardiovascular disease for postmenopausal women. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids is expected to prevent cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women with almost no intake of oily fish and those not taking statins. It still remains controversial whether glucosamine is effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Hence, physicians should fully inform patients with all controversial information about the effectiveness of glucosamine when prescribing glucosamine for patients with osteoarthritis. PMID:26046032

  11. A Flood of Health Functional Foods: What Is to Be Recommended?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Health functional food is referred to a food prepared or processed from specific components or ingredients for functionality beneficial to the body through extraction, concentration, purification, blending and other methods. The demand for health functional foods is steadily increasing, and red ginseng is the most demanded food among women in the 50s, followed by multivitamin, omega-3, glucosamine and aloe. To date, there is insufficient evidence on the effect of red ginseng on exercise capacity, somatic symptom and cognitive performance in healthy individuals. Moreover, evidence is insufficient that a nutritional dose of vitamin or mineral reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease and cancer, or mortality rate. A steady intake of oily fish is recommended to prevent the incidence of cardiovascular disease for postmenopausal women. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids is expected to prevent cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women with almost no intake of oily fish and those not taking statins. It still remains controversial whether glucosamine is effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Hence, physicians should fully inform patients with all controversial information about the effectiveness of glucosamine when prescribing glucosamine for patients with osteoarthritis. PMID:26046032

  12. Rubus fruticosus L.: constituents, biological activities and health related uses.

    PubMed

    Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Moga, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food. PMID:25072202

  13. A model for the development of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti as a function of the available food.

    PubMed

    Romeo Aznar, Victoria; De Majo, María Sol; Fischer, Sylvia; Francisco, Diego; Natiello, Mario A; Solari, Hernán G

    2015-01-21

    We discuss the preimaginal development of the mosquito Aedes aegypti from the point of view of the statistics of developmental times and the final body-size of the pupae and adults. We begin the discussion studying existing models in relation to published data for the mosquito. The data suggest a developmental process that is described by exponentially distributed random times. The existing data show as well that the idea of cohorts emerging synchronously is verified only in optimal situations created at the laboratory but it is not verified in field experiments. We propose a model in which immature individuals progress in successive stages, all of them with exponentially distributed times, according to two different rates (one food-dependent and the other food-independent). This phenomenological model, coupled with a general model for growing, can explain the existing observations and new results produced in this work. The emerging picture is that the development of the larvae proceeds through a sequence of steps. Some of the steps depend on the available food. While food is in abundance, all steps can be thought as having equal duration, but when food is scarce, those steps that depend on food take considerably longer times. For insufficient levels of food, increase in larval mortality sets in. As a consequence of the smaller rates, the average pupation time increases and the cohort disperses in time. Dispersion, as measured by standard deviation, becomes a quadratic function of the average time indicating that cohort dispersion responds to the same causes than delays in pupation and adult emergence. During the whole developmental process the larva grows monotonically, initially at an exponential rate but later at decreasing rates, approaching a final body-size. Growth is stopped by maturation when it is already slow. As a consequence of this process, there is a slight bias favoring small individuals: Small individuals are born before larger individuals, although the tendency is very weak. PMID:25451964

  14. What are the ideal properties for functional food peptides with antihypertensive effect? A computational peptidology approach.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Yang, Chao; Ren, Yanrong; Wang, Congcong; Tian, Feifei

    2013-12-01

    Peptides with antihypertensive potency have long been attractive to the medical and food communities. However, serving as food additives, rather than therapeutic agents, peptides should have a good taste. In the present study, we explore the intrinsic relationship between the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and bitterness of short peptides in the framework of computational peptidology, attempting to find out the appropriate properties for functional food peptides with satisfactory bioactivities. As might be expected, quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling reveals a significant positive correlation between the ACE inhibition and bitterness of dipeptides, but this correlation is quite modest for tripeptides and, particularly, tetrapeptides. Moreover, quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics analysis of the structural basis and energetic profile involved in ACE-peptide complexes unravels that peptides of up to 4 amino acids long are sufficient to have efficient binding to ACE, and more additional residues do not bring with substantial enhance in their ACE-binding affinity and, thus, antihypertensive capability. All of above, it is coming together to suggest that the tripeptides and tetrapeptides could be considered as ideal candidates for seeking potential functional food additives with both high antihypertensive activity and low bitterness. PMID:23871047

  15. Biotechnological applications of functional metagenomics in the food and pharmaceutical industries

    PubMed Central

    Coughlan, Laura M.; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are found throughout nature, thriving in a vast range of environmental conditions. The majority of them are unculturable or difficult to culture by traditional methods. Metagenomics enables the study of all microorganisms, regardless of whether they can be cultured or not, through the analysis of genomic data obtained directly from an environmental sample, providing knowledge of the species present, and allowing the extraction of information regarding the functionality of microbial communities in their natural habitat. Function-based screenings, following the cloning and expression of metagenomic DNA in a heterologous host, can be applied to the discovery of novel proteins of industrial interest encoded by the genes of previously inaccessible microorganisms. Functional metagenomics has considerable potential in the food and pharmaceutical industries, where it can, for instance, aid (i) the identification of enzymes with desirable technological properties, capable of catalyzing novel reactions or replacing existing chemically synthesized catalysts which may be difficult or expensive to produce, and able to work under a wide range of environmental conditions encountered in food and pharmaceutical processing cycles including extreme conditions of temperature, pH, osmolarity, etc; (ii) the discovery of novel bioactives including antimicrobials active against microorganisms of concern both in food and medical settings; (iii) the investigation of industrial and societal issues such as antibiotic resistance development. This review article summarizes the state-of-the-art functional metagenomic methods available and discusses the potential of functional metagenomic approaches to mine as yet unexplored environments to discover novel genes with biotechnological application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26175729

  16. Biotechnological applications of functional metagenomics in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Laura M; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are found throughout nature, thriving in a vast range of environmental conditions. The majority of them are unculturable or difficult to culture by traditional methods. Metagenomics enables the study of all microorganisms, regardless of whether they can be cultured or not, through the analysis of genomic data obtained directly from an environmental sample, providing knowledge of the species present, and allowing the extraction of information regarding the functionality of microbial communities in their natural habitat. Function-based screenings, following the cloning and expression of metagenomic DNA in a heterologous host, can be applied to the discovery of novel proteins of industrial interest encoded by the genes of previously inaccessible microorganisms. Functional metagenomics has considerable potential in the food and pharmaceutical industries, where it can, for instance, aid (i) the identification of enzymes with desirable technological properties, capable of catalyzing novel reactions or replacing existing chemically synthesized catalysts which may be difficult or expensive to produce, and able to work under a wide range of environmental conditions encountered in food and pharmaceutical processing cycles including extreme conditions of temperature, pH, osmolarity, etc; (ii) the discovery of novel bioactives including antimicrobials active against microorganisms of concern both in food and medical settings; (iii) the investigation of industrial and societal issues such as antibiotic resistance development. This review article summarizes the state-of-the-art functional metagenomic methods available and discusses the potential of functional metagenomic approaches to mine as yet unexplored environments to discover novel genes with biotechnological application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26175729

  17. Evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Ajioka, Reiko

    We have been studying the useful life-support system in closed bio-ecosystem for space agriculture. We have already proposed the several species as food material, such as Nostoc sp. HK-01 and Prunnus sp., cyanobacterium and Japanese cherry tree, respectively. The cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp Hk-01, has high tolerances to several space environment. Furthermore, the woody plant materials have useful utilization elements in our habitation environment. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. We have already found that they can produce the important functional substances for human. Here, we will show the evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials under the possible conditions for space agriculture after cooking.

  18. Executive functions and consumption of fruits/ vegetables and high saturated fat foods in young adults.

    PubMed

    Limbers, Christine A; Young, Danielle

    2015-05-01

    Executive functions play a critical role in regulating eating behaviors and have been shown to be associated with overeating which over time can result in overweight and obesity. There has been a paucity of research examining the associations among healthy dietary behaviors and executive functions utilizing behavioral rating scales of executive functioning. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations among fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of foods high in saturated fat, and executive functions using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version. A total of 240 university students completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version, the 26-Item Eating Attitudes Test, and the Diet subscale of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted with two separate models in which fruit and vegetable consumption and saturated fat intake were the outcomes. Demographic variables, body mass index, and eating styles were controlled for in the analysis. Better initiation skills were associated with greater intake of fruits and vegetables in the last 7 days (standardized beta = -0.17; p < 0.05). Stronger inhibitory control was associated with less consumption of high fat foods in the last 7 days (standardized beta = 0.20; p < 0.05) in the multiple linear regression analysis. Executive functions that predict fruit and vegetable consumption are distinct from those that predict avoidance of foods high in saturated fat. Future research should investigate whether continued skill enhancement in initiation and inhibition following standard behavioral interventions improves long-term maintenance of weight loss. PMID:25903247

  19. Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods.

    PubMed

    Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Ishihara, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases. PMID:25114554

  20. Developing functional foods using red palm olein. IV. Tocopherols and tocotrienols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamila M. Al-Saqer; Jiwan S. Sidhu; Suad N. Al-Hooti; Hanan A. Al-Amiri; Amani Al-Othman; Latifa Al-Haji; Nissar Ahmed; Isa B. Mansour; Johari Minal

    2004-01-01

    Two functional foods (pan bread and sugar-snap cookies), were prepared using red palm olein (RPOL) and red palm shortening (RPS) with the objective of providing higher amounts of antioxidant vitamin E in our diet. The total vitamin E contents in the palm oils used in this study were significantly higher (ranging from 717.8 to 817.5 mg\\/kg fat) than those in

  1. Food Packaging

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Engineering K-PhD Program,

    Students learn how food packages are designed and made, including the three main functions. The packaging design and materials must keep food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in food, and identify a food appealingly. Then, in the associated activity, students act as if they are packaging engineers by designing and creating their own food packages for particular food types.

  2. Plasmodium falciparum enolase complements yeast enolase functions and associates with the parasite food vacuole

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sujaan; Shevade, Saudamini; LaCount, Douglas J.; Jarori, Gotam K.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum enolase (Pfeno) localizes to the cytosol, nucleus, cell membrane and cytoskeletal elements, suggesting multiple non-glycolytic functions for this protein. Our recent observation of association of enolase with the food vacuole (FV) in immuno-gold electron microscopic images of P. falciparum raised the possibility for yet another moonlighting function for this protein. Here we provide additional support for this localization by demonstrating the presence of Pfeno in purified FVs by immunoblotting. To examine the potential functional role of FV-associated Pfeno, we assessed the ability of Pfeno to complement a mutant Saccharomyces cervisiae strain deficient in enolase activity. In this strain (Tetr-Eno2), the enolase 1 gene is deleted and expression of the enolase 2 gene is under the control of a tetracycline repressible promoter. Enolase deficiency in this strain was previously shown to cause growth retardation, vacuolar fragmentation and altered expression of certain vacuolar proteins. Expression of Pfeno in the enolase-deficient yeast strain restored all three phenotypic effects. However, transformation of Tetr-eno2 with an enzymatically active, monomeric mutant form of Pfeno (?5Pfeno) fully restored cell growth, but only partially rescued the fragmented vacuolar phenotype, suggesting that the dimeric structure of Pfeno is required for the optimal vacuolar functions. Bioinformatic searches revealed the presence of Plasmodium orthologs of several yeast vacuolar proteins that are predicted to form complexes with Pfeno. Together, these observations raise the possibility that association of Pfeno with food vacuole in Plasmodium may have physiological function(s). PMID:21600245

  3. Consumer understanding and use of health claims: the case of functional foods.

    PubMed

    Annunziata, Azzurra; Mariani, Angela; Vecchio, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    As widely acknowledged functional foods (FFs) may contribute to improve human health due to the presence of specific components useful for their protective action against several diseases. However it is essential that consumers are able to comprehend and assess the properties of FFs health claims play a central role in helping consumers to select among food alternatives, beyond providing protection against unsupported or misleading statements about foods properties. At the same time health claims are the main marketing tool that the food industry could use to differentiate FFs from other products. Clearly, massive investments in research and development are necessary to enter the FF market segment, together with the possibility to protect innovation through patents. Current paper aims to examine factors influencing consumer understanding and use of food health claims on FFs, as well as providing several indications for developers, marketers and policy makers. After a brief review of the literature the results of a quantitative survey conducted online on 650 Italian consumers are presented. Results show that consumer use and understanding of health claims on FFs depend on different variables such as socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge and confidence with nutrition information but also wording and variables related specifically to the product. Furthermore, different segments with a diverse degree of use and understanding of health claims have been identified. Therefore, to boost market growth, more efforts are needed by policy makers and marketers to provide better information on nutrition and health aspects of FF using an approach capable to ensure truthful, significant and clear information. Finally some recent patents related to the FFs market with specific regard to components and/or functionality investigated in the current paper are reviewed. PMID:25693912

  4. The acceptance of functional foods in Denmark, Finland and the United States: A study of consumers' conjoint evaluations of the qualities of functional foods and perceptions of general health factors and cultural values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tino Bech-Larsen; Klaus. G. Grunert; Jacob Poulsen

    2001-01-01

    Functional foods is a relatively new concept covering food products enriched with various kinds of (natural) substances (eg vitamins, minerals or probiotic cultures) or modified so as to provide consumers with an additional physiological benefit presumed to prevent disease or promote health, without them having to change their eating habits fundamentally. 2. Health is one of the most important choice

  5. Functional Screening of Antibiotic Resistance Genes from a Representative Metagenomic Library of Food Fermenting Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Devirgiliis, Chiara; Barile, Simona; Perozzi, Giuditta

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) represent the predominant microbiota in fermented foods. Foodborne LAB have received increasing attention as potential reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR) determinants, which may be horizontally transferred to opportunistic pathogens. We have previously reported isolation of AR LAB from the raw ingredients of a fermented cheese, while AR genes could be detected in the final, marketed product only by PCR amplification, thus pointing at the need for more sensitive microbial isolation techniques. We turned therefore to construction of a metagenomic library containing microbial DNA extracted directly from the food matrix. To maximize yield and purity and to ensure that genomic complexity of the library was representative of the original bacterial population, we defined a suitable protocol for total DNA extraction from cheese which can also be applied to other lipid-rich foods. Functional library screening on different antibiotics allowed recovery of ampicillin and kanamycin resistant clones originating from Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus genomes. We report molecular characterization of the cloned inserts, which were fully sequenced and shown to confer AR phenotype to recipient bacteria. We also show that metagenomics can be applied to food microbiota to identify underrepresented species carrying specific genes of interest. PMID:25243126

  6. Chemical Effects during Storage of Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powrie, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)

  7. Sex and Cultural Differences in the Acceptance of Functional Foods: A Comparison of American, Canadian, and French College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolodinsky, Jane; Labrecque, JoAnne; Doyon, Maurice; Reynolds, Travis; Oble, Frederic; Bellavance, Francois; Marquis, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Objective: "Functional foods" (FF)--foods containing nutritional supplements in addition to natural nutrients--have an increasing presence in the marketplace. Expanding on previous research, the authors investigated college students' acceptance of FF. Participants: In September-March 2004, 811 undergraduates in Canada, the United States, and…

  8. Notothenioid fish, krill and phytoplankton from Antarctica contain a vitamin E constituent (alpha-tocomonoenol) functionally associated with cold-water adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Walter C; Fujisawa, Akio; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Moylan, Thomas J; Sidell, Bruce D

    2002-11-01

    The vitamin E (VE) content of tissues from the Antarctic notothenioid fish, Chaenocephalus aceratus, Champsocephalus gunnari and Gobionotothen gibberifrons, and extracts of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba and phytoplankton collected from the Antarctic Peninsula was examined. Included in the VE composition was a newly described 'marine-derived' tocopherol (MDT), an unsaturated-isoprenoid derivative of alpha-tocopherol, that is attributed to enhancing antioxidant protection of cellular lipids at low temperature. MDT was found to co-exist with alpha-tocopherol in all Antarctic samples, ranging from 2.8 to 22.3% of the total VE composition. The highest level of VE was found in the liver of G. gibberifrons (VE=416.7 pmol/mg wet tissue) although this tissue had a low MDT composition (7.7%), whereas the greatest MDT composition was measured in the liver of C. gunnari (MDT=22.3%). In notothenioids, the pectoral adductor muscle, which has a high density of mitochondria, contained higher levels of VE than white myotomal muscle, but differences in MDT composition were small. Phytoplankton and krill also contained MDT, which supports the contention that MDT is obtained directly from the primary food chain. Our finding of MDT in Antarctic organisms is consistent with its putatively adaptive function to enhance antioxidant protection in coldwater metabolism. PMID:12431397

  9. Can Suillus granulatus (L.) Roussel be classified as a functional food?

    PubMed

    Reis, Filipa S; Stojkovi?, Dejan; Barros, Lillian; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; ?iri?, Ana; Sokovi?, Marina; Martins, Anabela; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-11-01

    The present work outlines a detailed chemical characterization of Suillus granulatus species, besides presenting the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of their methanolic extracts. The study was carried out with samples drawn from Portugal and Serbia in order to prove that though mushrooms are strongly influenced by the environment in which they develop, they have a specific chemical profile that can be typical of their genus/species. The studied species proved to be healthy foods, low in fat and rich in protein and carbohydrates, with mannitol and trehalose being the main free sugars detected. They also proved to be a source of organic and phenolic acids, as well as mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids and tocopherols. The Serbian samples revealed higher antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Accordingly, we find that the S. granulatus species can be considered to be a functional food, since it is a source of nutraceutical and biologically active compounds. PMID:25231126

  10. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in a Market of Bolivian Immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P.; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M.; Ulibarri, Emilio A.; Hurrell, Julio A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas (“health-food stores”), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas. PMID:22203866

  11. A Study of Customer Service, Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality in the Logistics Function of the UK Food Processing Industry 

    E-print Network

    Grant, David Bruce

    The aim of this thesis is to test the importance and sufficiency of existing constructs of customer service, customer satisfaction and service quality in the logistics function of the UK food processing industry. These ...

  12. 21 CFR 501.100 - Animal food; exemptions from labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (a ) Substances that are added to a food during the processing of such food but are removed in some manner from the food... (b ) Substances that are added to a food during processing, are converted into constituents...

  13. Stable Binding of Alternative Protein-enriched Food Matrices with Concentrated Cranberry Bioflavonoids for Functional Food Applications

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Mary H.; Guzman, Ivette; Roopchand, Diana E.; Moskal, Kristin; Cheng, Diana M.; Pogrebnyak, Natasha; Raskin, Ilya; Howell, Amy; Lila, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    Defatted soy flour (DSF), soy protein isolate (SPI), hemp protein isolate (HPI), medium roast peanut flour (MPF) and pea protein isolate (PPI) stably bind and concentrate cranberry (CB) polyphenols, creating protein/polyphenol-enriched matrices. Proanthocyanidins (PAC) in the enriched matrices ranged from 20.75 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 10.68 mg/g (CB-SPI). Anthocyanins (ANC) ranged from 3.19 mg/g (CB-DSF) to 1.68 mg/g (CB-SPI), while total phenolics (TP) ranged from 37.61 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 21.29 mg/g (CB-SPI). LC-MS indicated that the enriched matrices contained all identifiable ANC, PAC and flavonols present in CB juice. Complexation with SPI stabilized and preserved the integrity of the CB polyphenolic components for at least 15 weeks at 37 °C. PAC isolated from enriched matrices demonstrated comparable anti-adhesion bioactivity to PAC isolated directly from CB juice (MIC 0.4 to 0.16 mg/mL), indicating their potential utility for maintenance of urinary tract health. Approximately 1.0 g of polyphenol-enriched matrix delivered the same amount of PAC available in one cup (300 mL) of commercial CB juice cocktail; which has been shown clinically to be the prophylactic dose for reducing recurring urinary tract infections. CB-SPI inhibited gram- positive and gram-negative bacterial growth. Nutritional and sensory analyses indicated that the targeted CB-matrix combinations have high potential for incorporation in functional food formulations. PMID:23786629

  14. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix G: Ground support system analysis. Appendix H: Galley functional details analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The capabilities for preflight feeding of flight personnel and the supply and control of the space shuttle flight food system were investigated to determine ground support requirements; and the functional details of an onboard food system galley are shown in photographic mockups. The elements which were identified as necessary to the efficient accomplishment of ground support functions include the following: (1) administration; (2) dietetics; (3) analytical laboratories; (4) flight food warehouse; (5) stowage module assembly area; (6) launch site module storage area; (7) alert crew restaurant and disperse crew galleys; (8) ground food warehouse; (9) manufacturing facilities; (10) transport; and (11) computer support. Each element is discussed according to the design criteria of minimum cost, maximum flexibility, reliability, and efficiency consistent with space shuttle requirements. The galley mockup overview illustrates the initial operation configuration, food stowage locations, meal assembly and serving trays, meal preparation configuration, serving, trash management, and the logistics of handling and cleanup equipment.

  15. Intake_epis_food(): An R Function for Fitting a Bivariate Nonlinear Measurement Error Model to Estimate Usual and Energy Intake for Episodically Consumed Foods

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Adriana; Zhang, Saijuan; Kipnis, Victor; Midthune, Douglas; Freedman, Laurence S.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a Bayesian analysis using WinBUGS to estimate the distribution of usual intake for episodically consumed foods and energy (calories). The model uses measures of nutrition and energy intakes via a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) along with repeated 24 hour recalls and adjusting covariates. In order to estimate the usual intake of the food, we phrase usual intake in terms of person-specific random effects, along with day-to-day variability in food and energy consumption. Three levels are incorporated in the model. The first level incorporates information about whether an individual in fact reported consumption of a particular food item. The second level incorporates the amount of intake from those individuals who reported consumption of the food, and the third level incorporates the energy intake. Estimates of posterior means of parameters and distributions of usual intakes are obtained by using Markov chain Monte Carlo calculations. This R function reports to users point estimates and credible intervals for parameters in the model, samples from their posterior distribution, samples from the distribution of usual intake and usual energy intake, trace plots of parameters and summary statistics of usual intake, usual energy intake and energy adjusted usual intake. PMID:22837731

  16. Intake_epis_food(): An R Function for Fitting a Bivariate Nonlinear Measurement Error Model to Estimate Usual and Energy Intake for Episodically Consumed Foods.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Adriana; Zhang, Saijuan; Kipnis, Victor; Midthune, Douglas; Freedman, Laurence S; Carroll, Raymond J

    2012-03-01

    We consider a Bayesian analysis using WinBUGS to estimate the distribution of usual intake for episodically consumed foods and energy (calories). The model uses measures of nutrition and energy intakes via a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) along with repeated 24 hour recalls and adjusting covariates. In order to estimate the usual intake of the food, we phrase usual intake in terms of person-specific random effects, along with day-to-day variability in food and energy consumption. Three levels are incorporated in the model. The first level incorporates information about whether an individual in fact reported consumption of a particular food item. The second level incorporates the amount of intake from those individuals who reported consumption of the food, and the third level incorporates the energy intake. Estimates of posterior means of parameters and distributions of usual intakes are obtained by using Markov chain Monte Carlo calculations. This R function reports to users point estimates and credible intervals for parameters in the model, samples from their posterior distribution, samples from the distribution of usual intake and usual energy intake, trace plots of parameters and summary statistics of usual intake, usual energy intake and energy adjusted usual intake. PMID:22837731

  17. Hericium erinaceus (Yamabushitake): a unique resource for developing functional foods and medicines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxing; Gao, Yang; Xu, Duoduo; Konishi, Tetsuya; Gao, Qipin

    2014-12-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is a fungus inhabiting the mountainous areas of the northeast territories in Asia. HE has been used in traditional folk medicine and medicinal cuisine in China, Korea and Japan. Evidence has been adduced for a variety of physiological effects, including anti-aging, anti-cancer, anti-gastritis, and anti-metabolic disease properties. Hence, HE is an attractive target resource for developing not only medicines, but also functional foods. Basic studies on the physiological functions of HE and on the chemical identification of its active ingredients have progressed in recent decades. In this article, we provide an overview of the biochemical and pharmacological studies on HE, especially of its antitumor and neuroprotective functions, together with a survey of recent developments in the chemical analysis of its polysaccharides, which comprise its major active components. PMID:25317734

  18. Merging Traditional Chinese Medicine with Modern Drug Discovery Technologies to Find Novel Drugs and Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Graziose, Rocky; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) are rapidly gaining attention in the West as sources of new drugs, dietary supplements and functional foods. However, lack of consistent manufacturing practices and quality standards, fear of adulteration, and perceived deficiencies in scientific validation of efficacy and safety impede worldwide acceptance of TCM. In addition, Western pharmaceutical industries and regulatory agencies are partial toward single ingredient drugs based on synthetic molecules, and skeptical of natural product mixtures. This review concentrates on three examples of TCM-derived pharmaceuticals and functional foods that have, despite these usual obstacles, risen to wide acceptance in the West based on their remarkable performance in recent scientific investigations. They are: Sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua), the source of artemisinin, which is the currently preferred single compound anti-malarial drug widely used in combination therapies and recently approved by US FDA; Thunder god vine (Tripterygium wilfordii) which is being developed as a botanical drug for rheumatoid arthritis; and green tea (Camellia sinensis) which is used as a functional beverage and a component of dietary supplements. PMID:20156139

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Seven Adulterants in Slimming Functional Foods by HPLC–ESI–MS\\/MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Li; Jiangtao Hu; Ying Shi; Aimin Sun; Chengjun Sun

    A high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometric method for simultaneous determination\\u000a of seven adulterants including pseudoephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, caffeine, strychnine, fenfluramine, sildenafil, and amfepramone\\u000a in slimming functional foods was established. For tablet formulation, the target chemicals were extracted with ammoniated\\u000a methanol, while for liquid samples, plant powder, or capsules formulations, these chemicals were extracted with a mixture\\u000a solution of ammoniated methanol-diethyl

  20. Obesity-enhanced colon cancer: functional food compounds and their mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Vanamala, Jairam; Tarver, Christopher C; Murano, Peter S

    2008-11-01

    Obesity is rapidly becoming a global phenomenon. This is more than a cosmetic issue as obesity is associated with several life-threatening diseases, including colon cancer. Insulin resistance and inflammation, underlying factors in obesity-related diseases, promote colonocyte proliferation and suppress programmed cell death, or apoptosis, by activating the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and prostaglandin pathways. These pathways converge on the Wnt pathway, which is implicated in colon carcinogenesis. Despite tremendous advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in colon carcinogenesis, mortality due to colon cancer world-wide is unacceptably high. Even though conventional therapies can prolong a patient's life-span a few years, they cause serious side effects. Thus, there is growing interest in functional foods and dietary bioactive compounds with chemopreventive properties. This search is fueled by the epidemiological studies indicating that plant-based diets are protective against several types of cancers. This review provides a brief summary of the IGF and prostaglandin pathways, which are implicated in obesity-enhanced colon cancer, and some of the functional foods/dietary compounds that target these pathways. It is essential to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in chemoprevention before providing appropriate science-based dietary recommendations to prevent colon cancer in both obese and non-obese individuals. PMID:18991570

  1. The guard cell metabolome: functions in stomatal movement and global food security.

    PubMed

    Misra, Biswapriya B; Acharya, Biswa R; Granot, David; Assmann, Sarah M; Chen, Sixue

    2015-01-01

    Guard cells represent a unique single cell-type system for the study of cellular responses to abiotic and biotic perturbations that affect stomatal movement. Decades of effort through both classical physiological and functional genomics approaches have generated an enormous amount of information on the roles of individual metabolites in stomatal guard cell function and physiology. Recent application of metabolomics methods has produced a substantial amount of new information on metabolome control of stomatal movement. In conjunction with other "omics" approaches, the knowledge-base is growing to reach a systems-level description of this single cell-type. Here we summarize current knowledge of the guard cell metabolome and highlight critical metabolites that bear significant impact on future engineering and breeding efforts to generate plants/crops that are resistant to environmental challenges and produce high yield and quality products for food and energy security. PMID:26042131

  2. Role of Bioactive Food Components in Diabetes Prevention: Effects on Beta-Cell Function and Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yoon Sin; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive compounds found in fruits and vegetables can have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic effects and can be protective against various diseases and metabolic disorders. These beneficial effects make them good candidates for the development of new functional foods with potential protective and preventive properties for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the most relevant results concerning the effects of various bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, vitamins, and carotenoids on several aspects of beta-cell functionality. Studies using animal models with induced diabetes and diabetic patients support the hypothesis that bioactive compounds could ameliorate diabetic phenotypes. Published data suggest that there might be direct effects of bioactive compounds on enhancing insulin secretion and preventing beta-cell apoptosis, and some compounds might modulate beta-cell proliferation. Further research is needed to establish any clinical effects of these compounds. PMID:25092987

  3. The guard cell metabolome: functions in stomatal movement and global food security

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Biswapriya B.; Acharya, Biswa R.; Granot, David; Assmann, Sarah M.; Chen, Sixue

    2015-01-01

    Guard cells represent a unique single cell-type system for the study of cellular responses to abiotic and biotic perturbations that affect stomatal movement. Decades of effort through both classical physiological and functional genomics approaches have generated an enormous amount of information on the roles of individual metabolites in stomatal guard cell function and physiology. Recent application of metabolomics methods has produced a substantial amount of new information on metabolome control of stomatal movement. In conjunction with other “omics” approaches, the knowledge-base is growing to reach a systems-level description of this single cell-type. Here we summarize current knowledge of the guard cell metabolome and highlight critical metabolites that bear significant impact on future engineering and breeding efforts to generate plants/crops that are resistant to environmental challenges and produce high yield and quality products for food and energy security. PMID:26042131

  4. Functional food and nutraceutical registration processes in Japan and China: a diffusion of innovation perspective.

    PubMed

    Patel, Darshika; Dufour, Yvon; Domigan, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - This paper looks into the functional food and nutraceutical registration processes in Japan and China. The Japanese have developed the Foods for Specified Health Use (FOSHU) registration process whereas the Chinese have put into place the Health Food (HF) registration process. The aim of this paper is to compare the regulation processes between the two countries in search for answers to three core empirical questions: (1) how have the registration processes developed and changed? (2) What are the similarities and differences between the processes of registration in the two countries investigated? (3) Why are the registration processes similar/different? Method - The study was conducted using secondary sources. The literature surveyed covered academic journals, trade journals, magazine and newspaper articles, market reports, proceedings, books and web pages of relevant regulatory authorities and regulatory consultants. Information from the more recently published sources was used preferentially over older sources. As well as using the most recent sources, information was selected on the basis of which source it was from. Official regulations and SFDA and MHLW websites would contain accurate and up to date information and information from here would be taken as true over other sources of information. Results - The two diagrams of the registration processes respectively in Japan and China clearly show that there are similarities and differences. There are six categories under which these can be found: (1) the scientific evidence required; (2) the application process; (3) the evaluation process; (4) the law and the categories of products; (5) the labels and the types of claims; and finally (6) the cost and the time involved. Conclusions -The data analysis suggests that the process of diffusion of innovation played a role in the development of the regulations. Further it was found that while Japan was at the outset a pioneer innovator in nutraceutical registration processes, there are indications that in more recent years it too imitated other countries. NOVELTY STATEMENT: The assortment of regulatory regimes creates much uncertainty for the firms and the lack of familiarity and poor knowledge of the regulatory situation increases the risk of failure. The research presented in this paper provides highly valuable information to any biotech/pharmaceutical/nutraceutical companies developing their market entry strategy in Japan and China. There are few national and international studies of drug registration application processes but even fewer comparative studies of functional food and neutraceutical registration application processes such as this one and none using a diffusion of innovation perspective. PMID:19183509

  5. How Tactile and Function Information Affect Young Children's Ability to Understand the Nature of Food-Appearing, Deceptive Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Christina Miles

    2008-01-01

    Preschool children's (N = 64) ability to use tactile information and function cues on less-realistic and more-realistic food-appearing, deceptive objects was examined before and after training on the function of deceptive objects. They also responded to appearance and reality questions about deceptive objects. Half of the children (F-S:…

  6. High-value components and bioactives from sea cucumbers for functional foods--a review.

    PubMed

    Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:22072996

  7. Evaluation of coriander spice as a functional food by using in vitro bioassays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan-Rui; Dissanayake, Amila A; Kevsero?lu, Kudret; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2015-01-15

    Coriander leaves and seeds are widely used as a condiment and spice. The use of roasted coriander seeds in food and beverage is very common. In this study, we investigated raw and roasted coriander seeds for their functional food quality using antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and human tumour cell proliferation inhibitory assays. The hexane and methanolic extracts of raw and roasted coriander seeds showed identical chromatographic and bioassay profiles. Chromatographic purification of the roasted seed extracts afforded tripetroselinin as the predominant component. Other isolates were petroselinic acid, 1,3-dipetroselinin, 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol, 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-O-?-d-glucopyranoside and linalool. Hexane and methanolic extracts of both raw and roasted seeds and pure isolates from them showed comparable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities to the positive controls used in the assays, and inhibited the growth of human tumour cells AGS (gastric carcinoma), DU-145 and LNCaP (prostate carcinoma), HCT-116 (colon carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma) and NCI-H460 (lung carcinoma) by 4-34%, respectively. PMID:25148954

  8. Spray-drying microencapsulation of synergistic antioxidant mushroom extracts and their use as functional food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Andreia; Ruphuy, Gabriela; Lopes, José Carlos; Dias, Madalena Maria; Barros, Lillian; Barreiro, Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-12-01

    In this work, hydroalcoholic extracts of two mushrooms species, Suillus luteus (L.: Fries) (Sl) and Coprinopsis atramentaria (Bull.) (Ca), were studied for their synergistic antioxidant effect and their viability as functional food ingredients tested by incorporation into a food matrix (cottage cheese). In a first step, the individual extracts and a combination of both, showing synergistic effects (Sl:Ca, 1:1), were microencapsulated by spray-drying using maltodextrin as the encapsulating material. The incorporation of free extracts resulted in products with a higher initial antioxidant activity (t0) but declining after 7days (t7), which was associated with their degradation. However, the cottage cheese enriched with the microencapsulated extracts, that have revealed a lower activity at the initial time, showed an increase at t7. This improvement can be explained by an effective protection provided by the microspheres together with a sustained release. Analyses performed on the studied cottage cheese samples showed the maintenance of the nutritional properties and no colour modifications were noticed. PMID:26041238

  9. High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:22072996

  10. Bioactive fungal polysaccharides as potential functional ingredients in food and nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Giavasis, Ioannis

    2014-04-01

    Fungal bioactive polysaccharides deriving mainly from the Basidiomycetes family (and some from the Ascomycetes) and medicinal mushrooms have been well known and widely used in far Asia as part of traditional diet and medicine, and in the last decades have been the core of intense research for the understanding and the utilization of their medicinal properties in naturally produced pharmaceuticals. In fact, some of these biopolymers (mainly ?-glucans or heteropolysaccharides) have already made their way to the market as antitumor, immunostimulating or prophylactic drugs. The fact that many of these biopolymers are produced by edible mushrooms makes them also very good candidates for the formulation of novel functional foods and nutraceuticals without any serious safety concerns, in order to make use of their immunomodulating, anticancer, antimicrobial, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic and health-promoting properties. This article summarizes the most important properties and applications of bioactive fungal polysaccharides and discusses the latest developments on the utilization of these biopolymers in human nutrition. PMID:24518400

  11. Preparation and storage stability of flaxseed chutney powder, a functional food adjunct.

    PubMed

    Rao, Pamidighantam Prabhakara; Rao, Galla Narsing; Mala, Kripanand Sathiya; Balaswamy, Karakala; Satyanarayana, Akula

    2013-02-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) chutney powder (FSCP), a palatable functional food adjunct was prepared by mixing roasted and powdered flaxseeds with other selected spice ingredients. The protein content of these powders was 24.2% and 23.4% in flaxseed powder (FSP) and FSCP respectively. Total polyphenol content of FSP and FSCP was 439 and 522 mg/100 g respectively. The free fatty acid content of FSCP increased from 0.38 to 1.03 after 6 months storage. The critical moisture content for FSP and FSCP was 10.2 and 13.5%, which were equilibrated at 82 and 68% RH respectively and the ERH studies indicated both the powders are non-hygroscopic in nature. Overall sensory quality of FSCP served with cooked rice scored 'good' (7.4) even after 6 months of storage. PMID:24425897

  12. Food Crystalization and Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food Crystalization and Eggs Deana R. Jones, Ph.D. USDA Agricultural Research Service Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit Athens, Georgia, USA Deana.Jones@ars.usda.gov Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a foo...

  13. GCLAS: a graphical constituent loading analysis system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKallip, T.E.; Koltun, G.F.; Gray, J.R.; Glysson, G.D.

    2001-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has developed a program called GCLAS (Graphical Constituent Loading Analysis System) to aid in the computation of daily constituent loads transported in stream flow. Due to the relative paucity with which most water-quality data are collected, computation of daily constituent loads is moderately to highly dependent on human interpretation of the relation between stream hydraulics and constituent transport. GCLAS provides a visual environment for evaluating the relation between hydraulic and other covariate time series and the constituent chemograph. GCLAS replaces the computer program Sedcalc, which is the most recent USGS sanctioned tool for constructing sediment chemographs and computing suspended-sediment loads. Written in a portable language, GCLAS has an interactive graphical interface that permits easy entry of estimated values and provides new tools to aid in making those estimates. The use of a portable language for program development imparts a degree of computer platform independence that was difficult to obtain in the past, making implementation more straightforward within the USGS' s diverse computing environment. Some of the improvements introduced in GCLAS include (1) the ability to directly handle periods of zero or reverse flow, (2) the ability to analyze and apply coefficient adjustments to concentrations as a function of time, streamflow, or both, (3) the ability to compute discharges of constituents other than suspended sediment, (4) the ability to easily view data related to the chemograph at different levels of detail, and (5) the ability to readily display covariate time series data to provide enhanced visual cues for drawing the constituent chemograph.

  14. Food Chains

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Hammond

    2009-10-21

    In this project, you will discover the way food chains function by viewing four different types of food chains and designing your favorite one. How is the flow of energy traced through a food chain? Use your cluster organizer to record information for four different food chains and what the consumers, 1st level consumers, 2nd level consumers, and 3rd level consumers are and what they eat. Begin by viewing ecosystems: Introduction to Ecosystems Now that you know what an ...

  15. Cryptic biodiversity effects: importance of functional redundancy revealed through addition of food web complexity.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Stacy M; Pardee, Gabriella L; Gonthier, David J

    2012-05-01

    Interactions between predators and the degree of functional redundancy among multiple predator species may determine whether herbivores experience increased or decreased predation risk. Specialist parasites can modify predator behavior, yet rarely have cascading effects on multiple predator species and prey been evaluated. We examined influences of specialist phorid parasites (Pseudacteon spp.) on three predatory ant species and herbivores in a coffee agroecosystem. Specifically, we examined whether changes in ant richness affected fruit damage by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and whether phorids altered multi-predator effects. Each ant species reduced borer damage, and without phorids, increasing predator richness did not further decrease borer damage. However, with phorids, activity of one ant species was reduced, indicating that the presence of multiple ant species was necessary to limit borer damage. In addition, phorid presence revealed synergistic effects of multiple ant species, not observed without the presence of this parasite. Thus, a trait-mediated cascade resulting from a parasite-induced predator behavioral change revealed the importance of functional redundancy, predator diversity, and food web complexity for control of this important pest. PMID:22764486

  16. Respiratory function in female workers occupationally exposed to organic dusts in food processing industries.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Mustajbegovi?, J; Schachter, E N; Kern, J; Ivankovi?, D; Heimer, S

    2000-01-01

    Respiratory consequences of work in food processing industry were studied in 764 female workers exposed to organic dusts associated with the processing of green and roasted coffee, tea, spices, dried fruits, cocoa and flour. A group of 387 female workers not exposed to respiratory irritants served as controls for the prevalence of acute (during work shift) and chronic respiratory symptoms. A greater prevalence of all acute and chronic respiratory symptoms was consistently found among exposed workers than among control workers. The highest prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms was recorded for chronic cough (40%), followed by acute symptoms of dry cough (58.7%). The difference in the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms between the exposed and control workers was in general significant (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). Mean acute reductions of lung function over the work shift were recorded in all of the studied groups; the mean across-shift decrease as a percentage of preshift values was particularly marked in FEF25 (-26.7%), FEF50 (-21.6%), followed by FEV1 (-9.9%) and FVC (-3.7%). The preshift (baseline) values of ventilatory capacity were decreased in comparison to the predicted ones, and were lowest for FEF50 and FEF25. This finding indicated an effect of organic dust on small airways. Our analysis suggested that both dust exposure and smoking history contributed independently to these respiratory findings. Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) significantly diminished across-shift reductions for FEF50 and FEF25 in a subgroup of the examined workers. Our data suggested the female workers employed in food processing industry to be at risk of developing both acute and chronic respiratory symptoms as well as ventilatory capacity impairment as the result of occupational exposures. PMID:11379483

  17. Enhanced Radio Frequency Biosensor for Food Quality Detection Using Functionalized Carbon Nanofillers.

    PubMed

    Tanguy, Nicolas R; Fiddes, Lindsey K; Yan, Ning

    2015-06-10

    This paper outlines an improved design of inexpensive, wireless and battery free biosensors for in situ monitoring of food quality. This type of device has an additional advantage of being operated remotely. To make the device, a portion of an antenna of a passive 13.56 MHz radio frequency identification (RFID) tag was altered with a sensing element composed of conductive nanofillers/particles, a binding agent, and a polymer matrix. These novel RFID tags were exposed to biogenic amine putrescine, commonly used as a marker for food spoilage, and their response was monitored over time using a general-purpose network analyzer. The effect of conductive filler properties, including conductivity and morphology, and filler functionalization was investigated by preparing sensing composites containing carbon particles (CPs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and binding agent grafted-multiwall carbon nanotubes (g-MWCNTs), respectively. During exposure to putrescine, the amount of reflected waves, frequency at resonance, and quality factor of the novel RFID tags decreased in response. The use of MWCNTs reduced tag cutoff time (i.e., faster response time) as compared with the use of CPs, which highlighted the effectiveness of the conductive nanofiller morphology, while the addition of g-MWCNTs further accelerated the sensor response time as a result of localized binding on the conductive nanofiller surface. Microstructural investigation of the film morphology indicated a better dispersion of g-MWCNTs in the sensing composite as compared to MWCNTs and CPs, as well as a smoother texture of the surface of the resulting coating. These results demonstrated that grafting of the binding agent onto the conductive particles in the sensing composite is an effective way to further enhance the detection sensitivity of the RFID tag based sensor. PMID:25993041

  18. Applications and bioefficacy of the functional food supplement fermented papaya preparation.

    PubMed

    Aruoma, Okezie I; Hayashi, Yuki; Marotta, Francesco; Mantello, Pierre; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer; Montagnier, Luc

    2010-11-28

    Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) (a product of yeast fermentation of Carica papaya Linn) is a food supplement. Studies in chronic and degenerative disease conditions (such as thalassemia, cirrhosis, diabetes and aging) and performance sports show that FPP favorably modulates immunological, hematological, inflammatory, vascular and oxidative stress damage parameters. Neuroprotective potential evaluated in an Alzheimer's disease cell model showed that the toxicity of the ?-amyloid can be significantly modulated by FPP. Oxidative stress trigger apoptotic pathways such as the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) are preferentially activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress resulting in cell differentiation and apoptosis. FPP modulated the H?O?-induced ERK, Akt and p38 activation with the reduction of p38 phosphorylation induced by H?O?. FPP reduces the extent of the H?O?-induced DNA damage, an outcome corroborated by similar effects obtained in the benzo[a]pyrene treated cells. No genotoxic effect was observed in experiments with FPP exposed to HepG2 cells nor was FPP toxic to the PC12 cells. Oxidative stress-induced cell damage and inflammation are implicated in a variety of cancers, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular dysfunctions, neurodegenerative disorders (such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease), exercise physiology (including performance sports) and aging. These conditions could potentially benefit from functional nutraceutical/food supplements (as illustrated here with fermented papaya preparation) exhibiting anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunostimulatory (at the level of the mucus membrane) and induction of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:20870007

  19. Impact of Exotic Invertebrate Invaders on Food Web Structure and Function in the Great Lakes: a Network Analysis Approach

    E-print Network

    Impact of Exotic Invertebrate Invaders on Food Web Structure and Function in the Great Lakes a second wave of species invasions dominated by exotic invertebrates- Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha invasions (e.g., sea Lamprey and Alewife), these invertebrates inserted themselves in the lower trophic

  20. Comparative evaluation of 11 essential oils of different origin as functional antioxidants, antiradicals and antimicrobials in foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianni Sacchetti; Silvia Maietti; Mariavittoria Muzzoli; Martina Scaglianti; Stefano Manfredini; Matteo Radice; Renato Bruni

    2005-01-01

    Eleven essential oils, namely, Cananga odorata (Annonaceae), Cupressus sempervirens (Cupressaceae), Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae), Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae), Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), Pinus radiata (Pinaceae), Piper crassinervium (Piperaceae), Psidium guayava (Myrtaceae), Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae), Thymus x citriodorus (Lamiaceae) and Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), were characterized by means of GC and GC–MS and evaluated for their food functional ingredient related properties. These properties were compared

  1. Bioactive Foods and Ingredients for Health12

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Connie M.

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive compounds in foods have been gaining interest, and processes to consider them for public health recommendations are being discussed. However, the evidence base is difficult to assemble. It is difficult to demonstrate causality, and there often is not a single compound–single effect relation. Furthermore, health benefits may be due to metabolites produced by the host or gut microbiome rather than the food constituent per se. Properties that can be measured in a food may not translate to in vivo health effects. Compounds that are being pursued may increase gut microbial diversity, improve endothelial function, improve cognitive function, reduce bone loss, and so forth. A new type of bioactive component is emerging from epigenetic modifications by our diet, including microRNA transfer from our diet, which can regulate expression of human genes. Policy processes are needed to establish the level of evidence needed to determine dietary advice and policy recommendations and to set research agendas. PMID:24829482

  2. Gastrointestinal tract and the elderly: functional foods, gut microflora and healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    Saunier, K; Doré, J

    2002-09-01

    Advances in science and medicine as well as improved living standards have led to a steady increase in life expectancy. Yet ageing is associated with increased susceptibility to degenerative or infectious diseases, which may be exacerbated by a poor nutritional status. The intestinal microflora will mediate crucial events towards the protection or degradation of health. It is hence essential and timely that strategies of preventive nutrition aimed at maintaining or improving the quality of life of the ageing population be developed. "CROWNALIFE" is a newly funded EuropeanUnion project, so called because of its emphasis on the preservation of the period of independence of the elderly, recognised as the "crown of life". The project aims at assessing age-related alterations and exploring strategies to restore and maintain a balanced healthy intestinal environment. Current knowledge on the composition and function of the human intestinal microflora is still improving with the use of better methodologies and yet their evolution with ageing has not been investigated in detail. There have been a few reports that putatively protective lactic acid bacteria, in general, and bifidobacteria, in particular, seem less represented in the elderly faecal flora. We have also observed an increase in species diversity of the dominant faecal microflora with ageing. This certainly warrants confirmation and is being addressed by the investigation of age-related changes in the structure and function of the intestinal flora of the elderly in countries across Europe. Ensuing results will constitute a baseline for functional-food based strategies aimed at providing health benefits for the elderly. PMID:12408434

  3. The function of loud calls in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra): food, mate, or infant defense?

    PubMed

    Van Belle, Sarie; Estrada, Alejandro; Garber, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    Loud calling (i.e., howling) is the single most distinctive behavioral attribute of the social system of howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.), yet no general consensus exists regarding its main function. During a 28-month study of five groups of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) at Palenque National Park, Mexico, we examined whether howling mainly functioned in the defense of food resources, mates, or infants vulnerable to infanticide. We recorded 602 howling bouts. Howling occurred more frequently when monkeys were feeding, particularly on fruits, and less frequently when they were resting than would be expected by chance. Furthermore, howling was concentrated in areas of the home range in which major feeding sites were located. Howling did not occur more frequently when vulnerable infants or potentially fertile females were present versus absent, nor did the howling rate increase with an increasing number of vulnerable infants or potentially fertile females in the group. Howling bouts lasted on average 14.4?±?SE 0.5?min, and call duration was not influenced by the presence of vulnerable infants or potentially fertile females. The duration of spontaneous calls, however, was positively correlated to the percentage of feeding time in the vicinity of howling locations. In addition, vocal displays lasted longer when neighboring groups and extragroup males were within visual contact compared with spontaneous calls and calls in response to nearby calls in which there was no visual contact between callers. Our findings suggest that loud calls in black howler monkeys are multifunctional, but most frequently occur in the defense of major feeding sites. These calls also may function in the defense of infants and mates during encounters with extragroup males. PMID:24865565

  4. The impact of non-linear functional responses on the long-term evolution of food web structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Drossel; Alan J. McKane; Christopher Quince

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the long-term web structure emerging in evolutionary food web models when different types of functional responses are used. We find that large and complex webs with several trophic layers arise only if the population dynamics is such that it allows predators to focus on their best prey species. This can be achieved using modified Lotka-Volterra or Holling\\/Beddington functional

  5. Establishment of a functional secretory IgA transcytosis model system in vitro for functional food screening.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Tao; Feng, Xianqi; Zhang, Na; Xue, Changhu; Tang, Qing-Juan

    2015-07-01

    A characteristic mucosal immune response involves the production of antigen-specific secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibodies. In order to study transcytosis by mimicking the SIgA secretion and to screen for SIgA secretion-promoting substances, we developed a model system of a transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line that expresses the human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). We thus isolated the human dIgA (dimeric IgA)/pIgA (polymeric IgA) complex as the binding ligands. In the present study, a recombinant vector encoding the human pIgR gene was constructed and infected into MDCK cells. Following reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence staining, we confirmed that pIgR was expressed in the transfectant MDCK-pIgR cells and was located at the basolateral side of the cell surface. We also confirmed the coexistence of the dIgA/pIgA complex in the IgA myeloma serum. The covalent dIgA/pIgA complex was then isolated from the serum of an IgA multiple myeloma patient using an ÄKTA purifier operation system with a HiPrep 16/60 Sephacryl S-300 HR column, in order to utilize the complex as transcytosis ligands for human pIgR. Finally, we confirmed the uptake of the isolated human dIgA/pIgA complex into MDCK-pIgR cells. We demonstrated that the human dIgA/pIgA complex was transcytosed into the apical side of the monolayer cells. Therefore, our MDCK-human pIgR cell transcytosis model is an operational system and can be used for screening functional food components that promote dIgA/pIgR transcytosis as well as SIgA secretion. PMID:25776060

  6. Strain screening, fermentation, separation, and encapsulation for production of nattokinase functional food.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xuetuan; Luo, Mingfang; Xie, Yuchun; Yang, Liangrong; Li, Haojian; Xu, Lin; Liu, Huizhou

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a novel and integrated preparation technology for nattokinase functional food, including strain screening, fermentation, separation, and encapsulation. To rapidly screen a nattokinase-productive strain, PCR-based screening method was combined with fibrinolytic activity-based method, and a high productive strain, Bacillus subtilis LSSE-22, was isolated from Chinese soybean paste. Reduction of poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA) concentration may contribute to separation of nattokinase and reduction of late-onset anaphylaxis risk. Chickpeas were confirmed as the favorable substrate for enhancement of nattokinase production and reduction of ?-PGA yield. Using cracked chickpeas, the nattokinase activity reached 356.25?±?17.18 FU/g (dry weight), which is much higher than previous reports. To further reduce ?-PGA concentration, ethanol fractional extraction and precipitation were applied for separation of nattokinase. By extraction with 50 % and precipitation with 75 % ethanol solution, 4,000.58?±?192.98 FU/g of nattokinase powders were obtained, and the activity recovery reached 89?±?1 %, while ?-PGA recovery was reduced to 21?±?2 %. To improve the nattokinase stability at acidic pH condition, the nattokinase powders were encapsulated, and then coated with methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate copolymer. After encapsulation, the nattokinase was protected from being denatured under various acid conditions, and pH-responsible controlled release at simulated intestinal fluid was realized. PMID:22987066

  7. Scientific basis of biomarkers and benefits of functional foods for reduction of disease risk: cancer.

    PubMed

    Rafter, Joseph J

    2002-11-01

    One of the most promising areas for the development of functional foods lies in modification of the activity of the gastrointestinal tract by use of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. While a myriad of healthful effects have been attributed to the probiotic lactic acid bacteria, perhaps the most controversial remains that of anticancer activity. However, it must be emphasised that, to date, there is no direct experimental evidence for cancer suppression in man as a result of consumption of lactic cultures in fermented or unfermented dairy products, although there is a wealth of indirect evidence, based largely on laboratory studies. Presently, there are a large number of biomarkers available for assessing colon cancer risk in dietary intervention studies, which are validated to varying degrees. These include colonic mucosal markers, faecal water markers and immunological markers. Overwhelming evidence from epidemiological, in vivo, in vitro and clinical trial data indicates that a plant-based diet can reduce the risk of chronic disease, particularly cancer. It is now clear that there are components in a plant-based diet other than traditional nutrients that can reduce cancer risk. More than a dozen classes of these biologically active plant chemicals, now known as 'phytochemicals', have been identified. Although the vast number of naturally occurring health-enhancing substances appear to be of plant origin, there are a number of physiologically active components in animal products (such as the probiotics referred to above) that deserve attention for their potential role in cancer prevention. PMID:12495463

  8. A novel area of predictive modelling: describing the functionality of beneficial microorganisms in foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frédéric Leroy; Bart Degeest; Luc De Vuyst

    2002-01-01

    Predictive microbiology generally focuses on the potential outgrowth of spoilage bacteria and foodborne pathogens in foods. Little attention has been paid to the biokinetics of beneficial foodgrade microorganisms, such as lactic acid bacteria. The latter is commonly used in the food fermentation industry, mainly for the in situ production of the antimicrobial lactic acid to extend the shelf life of

  9. By-products of plant food processing as a source of functional compounds — recent developments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Schieber; F. C Stintzing; R Carle

    2001-01-01

    There is a rapidly growing body of literature covering the role of plant secondary metabolites in food and their potential effects on human health. Furthermore, consumers are increasingly aware of diet related health problems, therefore demanding natural ingredients which are expected to be safe and health-promoting. By-products of plant food processing represent a major disposal problem for the industry concerned,

  10. Functional foods and their expanding applications in the improvement of human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the last few decades, various epidemiological investigations have reinforced the concept that diet plays an important role in human health. These analyses have demonstrated that the types of food consumed, the composition of those foods, and the amounts consumed can all be linked to the promo...

  11. Effects of safranal, a constituent of saffron, and vitamin E on nerve functions and histopathology following crush injury of sciatic nerve in rats.

    PubMed

    Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Maroufi, Shirin; Kazemi-Shojaei, Sharare; Erfanparast, Amir; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Taati, Mina; Dabbaghi, Milad; Escort, Mona

    2014-04-15

    Safranal is one of the major components of saffron and has many biological effects such as antioxidant property. The present study investigated the effects of safranal on sciatic nerve function after induction of crush injury. We also used of vitamin E as a reference potent antioxidant agent. In anesthetized rats, right sciatic nerve was crushed using a small haemostatic forceps. Functional recovery was assessed using sciatic functional index (SFI). Acetone spray and von Frey filament tests were used for neuropathic pain assay. Histopathological changes including severities of Wallerian degeneration of sciatic nerve and gastrocnemius muscle atrophy were investigated by light microscopy. Blood levels of malodialdehyde (MDA) were also measured. The SFI values were accelerated, cold and mechanical allodynia were suppressed, the severities of Wallerian degeneration and muscular atrophy were improved, and the increased MDA level was reversed with 10 consecutive days intraperitoneal injections of 0.2 and 0.8 mg/kg of safranal and 100 mg/kg of vitamin E. It is concluded that safranal and vitamin E produced same improving effects on crushed-injured sciatic nerve functions. Inhibition of oxidative stress pathway may be involved in improving effects of safranal and vitamin E on functions and histopathology of an injured peripheral nerve. PMID:24315349

  12. Neural responses to visual food cues according to weight status: a systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Pursey, Kirrilly M; Stanwell, Peter; Callister, Robert J; Brain, Katherine; Collins, Clare E; Burrows, Tracy L

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests that specific food-related behaviors contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they used visual food cues, studied humans >18?years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies were identified that investigated the neural responses of healthy weight participants (n?=?26), healthy weight compared to obese participants (n?=?17), and weight-loss interventions (n?=?12). High-calorie food images were used in the majority of studies (n?=?36), however, image selection justification was only provided in 19 studies. Obese individuals had increased activation of reward-related brain areas including the insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to visual food cues compared to healthy weight individuals, and this was particularly evident in response to energy dense cues. Additionally, obese individuals were more responsive to food images when satiated. Meta-analysis of changes in neural activation post-weight loss revealed small areas of convergence across studies in brain areas related to emotion, memory, and learning, including the cingulate gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and precuneus. Differential activation patterns to visual food cues were observed between obese, healthy weight, and weight-loss populations. Future studies require standardization of nutrition variables and fMRI outcomes to enable more direct comparisons between studies. PMID:25988110

  13. Neural Responses to Visual Food Cues According to Weight Status: A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pursey, Kirrilly M.; Stanwell, Peter; Callister, Robert J.; Brain, Katherine; Collins, Clare E.; Burrows, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests that specific food-related behaviors contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they used visual food cues, studied humans >18?years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies were identified that investigated the neural responses of healthy weight participants (n?=?26), healthy weight compared to obese participants (n?=?17), and weight-loss interventions (n?=?12). High-calorie food images were used in the majority of studies (n?=?36), however, image selection justification was only provided in 19 studies. Obese individuals had increased activation of reward-related brain areas including the insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to visual food cues compared to healthy weight individuals, and this was particularly evident in response to energy dense cues. Additionally, obese individuals were more responsive to food images when satiated. Meta-analysis of changes in neural activation post-weight loss revealed small areas of convergence across studies in brain areas related to emotion, memory, and learning, including the cingulate gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and precuneus. Differential activation patterns to visual food cues were observed between obese, healthy weight, and weight-loss populations. Future studies require standardization of nutrition variables and fMRI outcomes to enable more direct comparisons between studies. PMID:25988110

  14. Food Chain & Food Web

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. B

    2011-10-27

    What are the differences and similarities between food chain and food web? Print (2) Garden Gate Print (1) Venn Diagram Garden Gate Venn Diagram Let's learn about the food chain and food web.Read the notes.Food Chain 4 Also, view more notes on food chain and food web. Go to the 7th title Food Chain which is before the Habitats and food chain title of the webpage.Food Chain Power Point Presentation Record what you learn ...

  15. Membrane Bioreactor Technology for the Development of Functional Materials from Sea-Food Processing Wastes and Their Potential Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Senevirathne, Mahinda

    2011-01-01

    Sea-food processing wastes and underutilized species of fish are a potential source of functional and bioactive compounds. A large number of bioactive substances can be produced through enzyme-mediated hydrolysis. Suitable enzymes and the appropriate bioreactor system are needed to incubate the waste materials. Membrane separation is a useful technique to extract, concentrate, separate or fractionate the compounds. The use of membrane bioreactors to integrate a reaction vessel with a membrane separation unit is emerging as a beneficial method for producing bioactive materials such as peptides, chitooligosaccharides and polyunsaturated fatty acids from diverse seafood-related wastes. These bioactive compounds from membrane bioreactor technology show diverse biological activities such as antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antitumor, anticoagulant, antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. This review discusses the application of membrane bioreactor technology for the production of value-added functional materials from sea-food processing wastes and their biological activities in relation to health benefits. PMID:24957872

  16. Duties and functions of veterinary public health for the management of food safety: present needs and evaluation of efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Trevisani; R. Rosmini

    2008-01-01

    Functions of veterinarians in the context of food safety assurance have changed very much in the last ten years as a consequence\\u000a of new legislation. The aim of this review is to evaluate the management tools in veterinary public health that shall be used\\u000a in response to the actual need and consider some possible key performance indicators. This review involved

  17. Repeatability and validity of a food frequency questionnaire in free-living older people in relation to cognitive function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Jia; L. C. A. Craig; L. S. Aucott; A. C. Milne; G. Mcneill

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the repeatability and validity of a self-administered, 175-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in free-living\\u000a older people and to assess whether these are influenced by cognitive function.Participants and setting: 189 free-living people aged 64–80y were recruited from participants in a previous study.Design: To assess repeatability, 102 (52M, 50F) participants completed the FFQ on two occasions three months apart.

  18. Coexistence of multiple food chains in a heterogeneous environment: Interactions among community structure, ecosystem functioning, and nutrient dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Loreau

    1996-01-01

    A model is developed and analyzed for a nutrient-limited ecosystem containing an arbitrary number of parallel plant-herbivore-detritus food chains in a heterogeneous environment, with a view to exploring interactions among community and ecosystem processes. Physical properties of the environment and functional properties of the entire ecosystem such as nutrient supply, transport, and recycling are shown to exert a profound influence

  19. Acoustic cues to Nehiyawewin constituency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Clare; Muehlbauer, Jeff

    2005-04-01

    This study examines how speakers use acoustic cues, e.g., pitch and pausing, to establish syntactic and semantic constituents in Nehiyawewin, an Algonquian language. Two Nehiyawewin speakers autobiographies, which have been recorded, transcribed, and translated by H. C. Wolfart in collaboration with a native speaker of Nehiyawewin, provide natural-speech data for the study. Since it is difficult for a non-native-speaker to reliably distinguish Nehiyawewin constituents, an intermediary is needed. The transcription provides this intermediary through punctuation marks (commas, semi-colons, em-dashes, periods), which have been shown to consistently mark constituency structure [Nunberg, CSLI 1990]. The acoustic cues are thus mapped onto the punctuated constituents, and then similar constituents are compared to see what acoustic cues they share. Preliminarily, the clearest acoustic signal to a constituent boundary is a pitch drop preceding the boundary and/or a pitch reset on the syllable following the boundary. Further, constituent boundaries marked by a period consistently end on a low pitch, are followed by a pitch reset of 30-90 Hz and have an average pause of 1.9 seconds. I also discuss cross-speaker cues, and prosodic cues that do not correlate to punctuation, with implications for the transcriptional view of orthography [Marckwardt, Oxford 1942].

  20. Two functional serotonin polymorphisms moderate the effect of food reinforcement on BMI

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Katelyn A.; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D.; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K.; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard; Faith, Myles; Allison, David; Stice, Eric; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2014-01-01

    Food reinforcement, or the motivation to eat, has been associated with increased energy intake, greater body weight and prospective weight gain. Much of the previous research on the reinforcing value of food has focused on the role of dopamine, but it may be worthwhile to examine genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin and opioid systems as these neurotransmitters have been shown to be related to reinforcement processes and to influence energy intake. We examined the relationship among 44 candidate genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine, serotonin and opioid systems, and food reinforcement and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 245 individuals. Polymorphisms in the Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-LPR) and serotonin receptor 2A genes (rs6314) moderated the effect of food reinforcement on BMI, accounting for an additional 5-10% variance and revealed a potential role of the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs6314 in the serotonin 2A receptor as a differential susceptibility factor for obesity. Differential susceptibility describes a factor that can confer either risk or protection depending on a second variable, such that rs6314 is predictive of both high and low BMI based on the level of food reinforcement, while the diathesis stress or dual-gain model influences only one end of the outcome measure. The interaction with MAOA-LPR better fit the dual-risk or diathesis stress model, with the 3.5R/4R allele conferring protection for individuals low in food reinforcement. These results provide new insight into genes theoretically involved in obesity and support the hypothesis that genetics moderate the association between food reinforcement on BMI. PMID:23544600

  1. Prediction of daily food intake as a function of measurement modality and restriction status

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Nicole R.; Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci; Berkman, Elliot T.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Eating research relies on several kinds of indices (e.g., stable, momentary, neural) to accurately reflect food-related reactivity (e.g., disinhibition) and regulation (e.g., restraint) outside the laboratory. However, the degree to which the most commonly used indices predict real-world food consumption, and whether they do so differentially, is largely unknown. Additionally, the predictive validity of these indices might vary depending on whether or not an individual is actively restricting intake. METHODS We assessed food reactivity and food craving regulation in 46 healthy participants (30 female, age 18–30) using standard measurements in three modalities: (1) self-reported (stable) traits using surveys that are popular in the eating literature, and (2) momentary craving ratings and (3) neural activation using aggregated fMRI data gathered during a food reactivity-and-regulation task. We then used these data to predict variance in real-world consumption of craved energy-dense “target” foods across two weeks among normal-weight participants randomly assigned to restrict or monitor their target food intake. RESULTS The predictive validity of 4 of the 6 indices varied significantly by restriction status. When participants were not restricting intake, momentary (B = 0.21, SE = 0.05) and neural (B = 0.08, SE = 0.04) reactivity positively predicted consumption, and stable (B = ?0.22, SE = 0.05) and momentary (B = ?0.24, SE = 0.05) regulation negatively predicted consumption. When restricting, stable (B = 0.36, SE = 0.12) and neural (B = 0.51, SE = 0.12) regulation positively predicted consumption. CONCLUSIONS Commonly used indices of regulation and reactivity differentially relate to an ecologically-valid eating measurement depending on the presence of restriction goals, and thus have strong implications for predicting real-world behaviors. PMID:25984820

  2. The use of dry Jerusalem artichoke as a functional nutrient in developing extruded food with low glycaemic index.

    PubMed

    Radovanovic, Ana; Stojceska, Valentina; Plunkett, Andrew; Jankovic, Slobodan; Milovanovic, Dragan; Cupara, Snezana

    2015-06-15

    This study considers the use of dry Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as a functional nutrient in developing food products with enhanced nutritional characteristics and low glycaemic index (GI). Three different formulations based on buckwheat and JA were developed and processed using extrusion technology. Nutritional properties including the levels of total dietary fibre (TDF), protein, inulin, total carbohydrates and lipids were analysed. A clinical study was performed on ten healthy volunteers (aged between 21 and 56) to determine the level of GI and glycaemic load (GL). The results revealed that JA significantly (P<0.05) increased the levels of TDF and inulin whilst decreasing carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. The resulting products had a significant (P<0.05) effect on IAUC between reference food and extruded products, GI and GL. Samples containing 80% of Jerusalem artichoke were considered as a low GI food whilst samples containing 30% and 60% of Jerusalem artichoke as a medium GI food. A similar trend was seen in terms of GL. PMID:25660861

  3. Functionality of liquid smoke as an all-natural antimicrobial in food preservation.

    PubMed

    Lingbeck, Jody M; Cordero, Paola; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

    2014-06-01

    The smoking of foods, especially meats, has been used as a preservation technique for centuries. Today, smoking methods often involve the use of wood smoke condensates, commonly known as liquid smoke. Liquid smoke is produced by condensing wood smoke created by the pyrolysis of sawdust or wood chips followed by removal of the carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The main products of wood pyrolysis are phenols, carbonyls and organic acids which are responsible for the flavor, color and antimicrobial properties of liquid smoke. Several common food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus have shown sensitivity to liquid smoke in vitro and in food systems. Therefore liquid smoke has potential for use as an all-natural antimicrobial in commercial applications where smoke flavor is desired. This review will cover the application and effectiveness of liquid smoke and fractions of liquid smoke as an all-natural food preservative. This review will be valuable for the industrial and research communities in the food science and technology areas. PMID:24583328

  4. Fermented milks and milk products as functional foods--a review.

    PubMed

    Shiby, V K; Mishra, H N

    2013-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages possess various nutritional and therapeutic properties. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a major role in determining the positive health effects of fermented milks and related products. The L. acidophilus and Bifidobacteria spp are known for their use in probiotic dairy foods. Cultured products sold with any claim of health benefits should meet the criteria of suggested minimum number of more than 10? cfu/g at the time of consumption. Yoghurt is redefined as a probiotic carrier food. Several food powders like yoghurt powder and curd (dahi) powder are manufactured taking into consideration the number of organisms surviving in the product after drying. Such foods, beverages and powders are highly acceptable to consumers because of their flavor and aroma and high nutritive value. Antitumor activity is associated with the cell wall of starter bacteria and so the activity remains even after drying. Other health benefits of fermented milks include prevention of gastrointestinal infections, reduction of serum cholesterol levels and antimutagenic activity. The fermented products are recommended for consumption by lactose intolerant individuals and patients suffering from atherosclerosis. The formulation of fermented dietetic preparations and special products is an expanding research area. The health benefits, the technology of production of fermented milks and the kinetics of lactic acid fermentation in dairy products are reviewed here. PMID:23391015

  5. Cortical representation of the constituent structure of sentences

    PubMed Central

    Pallier, Christophe; Devauchelle, Anne-Dominique; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2011-01-01

    Linguistic analyses suggest that sentences are not mere strings of words but possess a hierarchical structure with constituents nested inside each other. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to search for the cerebral mechanisms of this theoretical construct. We hypothesized that the neural assembly that encodes a constituent grows with its size, which can be approximately indexed by the number of words it encompasses. We therefore searched for brain regions where activation increased parametrically with the size of linguistic constituents, in response to a visual stream always comprising 12 written words or pseudowords. The results isolated a network of left-hemispheric regions that could be dissociated into two major subsets. Inferior frontal and posterior temporal regions showed constituent size effects regardless of whether actual content words were present or were replaced by pseudowords (jabberwocky stimuli). This observation suggests that these areas operate autonomously of other language areas and can extract abstract syntactic frames based on function words and morphological information alone. On the other hand, regions in the temporal pole, anterior superior temporal sulcus and temporo-parietal junction showed constituent size effect only in the presence of lexico-semantic information, suggesting that they may encode semantic constituents. In several inferior frontal and superior temporal regions, activation was delayed in response to the largest constituent structures, suggesting that nested linguistic structures take increasingly longer time to be computed and that these delays can be measured with fMRI. PMID:21224415

  6. Cortical representation of the constituent structure of sentences.

    PubMed

    Pallier, Christophe; Devauchelle, Anne-Dominique; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2011-02-01

    Linguistic analyses suggest that sentences are not mere strings of words but possess a hierarchical structure with constituents nested inside each other. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to search for the cerebral mechanisms of this theoretical construct. We hypothesized that the neural assembly that encodes a constituent grows with its size, which can be approximately indexed by the number of words it encompasses. We therefore searched for brain regions where activation increased parametrically with the size of linguistic constituents, in response to a visual stream always comprising 12 written words or pseudowords. The results isolated a network of left-hemispheric regions that could be dissociated into two major subsets. Inferior frontal and posterior temporal regions showed constituent size effects regardless of whether actual content words were present or were replaced by pseudowords (jabberwocky stimuli). This observation suggests that these areas operate autonomously of other language areas and can extract abstract syntactic frames based on function words and morphological information alone. On the other hand, regions in the temporal pole, anterior superior temporal sulcus and temporo-parietal junction showed constituent size effect only in the presence of lexico-semantic information, suggesting that they may encode semantic constituents. In several inferior frontal and superior temporal regions, activation was delayed in response to the largest constituent structures, suggesting that nested linguistic structures take increasingly longer time to be computed and that these delays can be measured with fMRI. PMID:21224415

  7. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers. PMID:24760975

  8. An analysis of food-web structure and function in a shortgrass prairie, a mountain meadow, and a lodgepole pine forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Ingham; J. C. Moore

    1989-01-01

    The structure of the below-ground detrital food web was similar in three different semiarid vegetation types: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta subsp. latifolia), mountain meadow (Agropyron smithii), and shortgrass prairie (Bouteloua gracilis). The densities of component food-web functional groups and the response to removal of component groups, differed however. As measured by biomass, bacteria were dominant in the meadow and prairie,

  9. Functional Barriers in PET Recycled Bottles. Part I. Détermination of Diffusion Coefficients in Bioriented PET with and Without Contact with Food Simulants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Y. Pennarun; P. Dole; A. Feigenbaum

    2004-01-01

    A major outcome for recycled plastics con- sists of making food packaging materials. However, any contamination of collected plastics with chemicals may then be of concern for public health. A solution to mind migration is to use a layer of virgin polymer, named functional barrier, intercalated between thé recycled layer and thé food. This article aims to provide expérimental values

  10. Pavlovian conditioning to food reward as a function of eating disorder risk.

    PubMed

    Astur, Robert S; Palmisano, Alexandra N; Hudd, Ellie C; Carew, Andrew W; Deaton, Bonnie E; Kuhney, Franchesca S; Niezrecki, Rachel N; Santos, Melissa

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the extent to which eating disorder risk affects the strength of food-reward conditioning. Eighty food-restricted undergraduates were placed into a VR environment consisting of two visually distinct rooms. Participants underwent multiple pairing sessions in which they were confined into one of the two rooms and explored a VR environment. Room A was paired with real-life M&Ms for three sessions, and Room B was paired with no food for three sessions. After a short delay, a test session was administered, and participants were given free access to the entire VR environment for 5min. Participants also completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; [11]), which is a standard screening tool of eating disorder risk. Participants displayed a significant conditioned place preference for the VR room previously paired with food, and they displayed a significant explicit preference for the M&M-paired room in a forced-choice test. There was a significant positive correlation between place preference strength and scores on the dieting subscale of the EAT-26. Additionally, ratings of the no-food room were significantly lower as dieting scores increased. This suggests that components of eating disorder risk can influence basic conditioning strength to places associated with food reward. For both males and females, additional correlations between eating disorder risk subscales and conditioning variables are discussed, and implications for future research are proposed in hopes of understanding how conditioning paradigms can provide insight into treating and preventing eating disorders. PMID:26003943

  11. Mechanical properties of foods used in experimental studies of primate masticatory function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vivo studies of jaw-muscle behavior have been integral factors in the development of our current understanding the primate masticatory apparatus. However, even though it has been shown that food textures and mechanical properties influence jaw- muscle activity during mastication, very little effo...

  12. Application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Authentication of Functional Food Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdul Rohman; Y. B. Che Man

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the authentication of edible fats and oils has become an important issue for food producers, consumers, and regulatory authorities due to religious and economic reasons. Some high-priced edible oils such as extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), virgin coconut oil (VCO), and cod liver oil (CLO) are adulterated with lower price oils to improve profits. These oils can

  13. Developing Functional Foods Using Red Palm Olein: Pilot-Scale Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Sidhu; S. N. Al-Hooti; J. M. Al-Saqer; H. A. Al-Amiri; M. Al-Foudari; A. Al-Othman; A. Ahmad; L. Al-Haji; N. Ahmed; I. B. Mansor; J. Minal

    2004-01-01

    Red palm olein (RPOL) is newly developed edible oil rich in phytonutrients like vitamin E, carotenoids, ubiquinones, and sterols. Red palm olein and red palm shortening (RPS), when used in the pilot-scale production of extruded snacks, digestive biscuits and pan bread, enhanced the foods' contents of these health-promoting phytochemicals. The antioxidant provitamin A (?-carotene) contents in snacks and digestive biscuits

  14. Chemical Composition and Potential Health Effects of Prunes: A Functional Food?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis; Phyllis E. Bowen; Erum A. Hussain; Bernadette I. Damayanti-Wood; Norman R. Farnsworth

    2001-01-01

    Referee: Paul La Chance, Dept. of Food Science, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ Supported in part by an educational grant from California Dried Plum Board. Prunes are dried plums, fruits of Prunus domestica L., cultivated and propagated since ancient times. Most dried prunes are produced from cultivar d'Agen, especially in California and France, where the cultivar originated. After harvest, prune-making

  15. Structural and functional succession in the nematode fauna of a soil food web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ferris; M. M. Matute

    2003-01-01

    Soil microplots were amended with organic materials of varying nature and complexity but providing similar amounts of carbon. Materials were either placed on the soil surface or incorporated. Unamended and mineral fertilizer control plots were established. Plots were maintained vegetation-free so that the food web activity was fueled by resident soil organic matter and the input material. Enrichment-opportunist bacterivore nematodes

  16. Antimelanoma and Antityrosinase from Alpinia galangal Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Po-Len; Lin, Li-Ching; Chen, Yen-Ting; Hseu, You-Cheng; Wen, Zhi-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Two compounds, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (BHPHTO) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) they have been isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia galangal, and the structures of both pure constituents were determined using spectroscopic analyses. The study examined the bioeffectivenesses of the two compounds on the human melanoma A2058 and showed that significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in the cell viability assay. This research was also taken on the tests to B16-F10 cell line and showed minor inhibitory consequences of cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin contents. Our results revealed the anticancer effects of A. galangal compounds, and therefore, the target compounds could be potentially applied in the therapeutic application and the food industry. PMID:24027439

  17. A Food-Grade Approach for Functional Analysis and Modification of Native Plasmids in Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R. Paul

    2003-01-01

    While plasmids from lactic acid bacteria possess many traits that are of industrial value, their exploitation is often frustrated by an inability to conduct food-grade engineering of native plasmids or to readily screen for their transfer. Here we describe a system that uses a RepA+ temperature-sensitive helper plasmid and a RepA? cloning vector to overcome these problems while maintaining the food-grade status of the native plasmid. This strategy was used to precisely delete ltnA1 alone, or in conjunction with ltnA2 (encoding the structural proteins of the lantibiotic lacticin 3147), from the native 60.2-kb plasmid pMRC01 and to select for the transfer of pMRC01 between Lactococcus lactis strains. PMID:12514066

  18. Microencapsulated foods as a functional delivery vehicle for omega-3 fatty acids: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Earnest, Conrad P; Hammar, Molly K; Munsey, Monica; Mikus, Catherine R; David, Robert M; Bralley, J Alexander; Church, Timothy S

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that the ingestion of the omega-3 (N3) fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) positively benefit a variety of health indices. Despite these benefits the actual intake of fish derived N3 is relatively small in the United States. The primary aim of our study was to examine a technology capable of delivering omega-3 fatty acids in common foods via microencapsulation (MicroN3) in young, healthy, active participants who are at low risk for cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, we randomized 20 participants (25.4 +/- 6.2 y; 73.4 +/- 5.1 kg) to receive the double blind delivery of a placebo-matched breakfast meal (~2093 kJ) containing MicroN3 (450-550 mg EPA/DHA) during a 2-week pilot trial. Overall, we observed no differences in overall dietary macronutrient intake other than the N3 delivery during our treatment regimen. Post-test ANOVA analysis showed a significant elevation in mean (SE) plasma DHA (91.18 +/- 9.3 vs. 125.58 +/- 11.3 umol/L; P < 0.05) and a reduction in triacylglycerols (89.89 +/- 12.8 vs. 80.78 +/- 10.4 mg/dL; P < 0.05) accompanying the MicroN3 treatment that was significantly different from placebo (P < 0.05). In post study interviews, participants reported that the ingested food was well-tolerated, contained no fish taste, odor or gastrointestinal distress accompanying treatment. The use of MicroN3 foods provides a novel delivery system for the delivery of essential fatty acids. Our study demonstrates that MicroN3 foods promote the absorption of essential N3, demonstrate bioactivity within 2 weeks of ingestion and are well tolerated in young, active participants who are at low risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:19480650

  19. Food Allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    Food Allergy Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, your immune system ... it-All. Test your knowledge about food allergies. » Food Allergy Symptoms & Diagnosis Symptoms Allergic reactions to food ...

  20. Nematomorph parasites indirectly alter the food web and ecosystem function of streams through behavioural manipulation of their cricket hosts.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sato, T.; Egusa, T.; Fukushima, K.; Oda, T.; Ohte, N.; Tokuchi, Naoko; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Kanaiwa, Minoru; Murakami, Isaya; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Nematomorph parasites manipulate crickets to enter streams where the parasites reproduce. These manipulated crickets become a substantial food subsidy for stream fishes. We used a field experiment to investigate how this subsidy affects the stream community and ecosystem function. When crickets were available, predatory fish ate fewer benthic invertebrates. The resulting release of the benthic invertebrate community from fish predation indirectly decreased the biomass of benthic algae and slightly increased leaf break-down rate. This is the first experimental demonstration that host manipulation by a parasite can reorganise a community and alter ecosystem function. Nematomorphs are common, and many other parasites have dramatic effects on host phenotypes, suggesting that similar effects of parasites on ecosystems might be widespread.

  1. Multicultural Leadership for Restructured Constituencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strodl, Peter; Johnson, Burke

    A conceptual model is developed that presents leadership as process and participation by followers in urban schools in which decentralization efforts are underway. The model advances the work of urban school administrators as they deal with constituencies from diverse perspectives and predilections. Applications of the model involve behaviors that…

  2. Food consumption by young children: a function of parental feeding goals and practices.

    PubMed

    Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison E; Hoffmann, Debra A; Meers, Molly R; Koball, Afton M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2014-03-01

    Staggering health implications are associated with poor child diet. Given the importance of parents in impacting children's eating outcomes, the current study examined a theoretical framework in which both parental feeding goals and practices impact specific healthy and unhealthy child eating behaviors. Participants were 171 mothers of 3-6year old children who were diverse both socioeconomically and with regard to BMI. Mothers completed questionnaires via Mechanical Turk, an online workforce through Amazon.com. Structural Equation Modeling showed an adequate model fit in which Negative Feeding Practices (e.g., using food as a reward) mediated the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals (i.e., feeding children with health-oriented goals in mind) and Negative Eating Behaviors (e.g., consumption of candy and snacks). However, Negative Feeding Practices did not mediate the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals and Positive Eating Behaviors (i.e., fruits and vegetables). These findings suggest the important role of habitual food parenting practices in children's eating and have implications for parental health education programs. PMID:24275668

  3. Healthy and Adverse Effects of Plant-Derived Functional Metabolites: The Need of Revealing their Content and Bioactivity in a Complex Food Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Giardi, Maria T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, both food quality and its effect on human health have become a fundamental issue all over the world. As a consequence of this new and increased awareness, American, European, and Asian policymakers have strongly encouraged the research programs on food quality and safety thematic. Attempts to improve human health and to satisfy people's desire for healthcare without intake of pharmaceuticals, has led the food industry to focus attention on functional or nutraceutical food. For a long time, compounds with nutraceutical activity have been produced chemically, but the new demands for a sustainable life have gradually led the food industry to move towards natural compounds, mainly those derived from plants. Many phytochemicals are known to promote good health, but, sometimes, undesirable effects are also reported. Furthermore, several products present on the market show few benefits and sometimes even the reverse – unhealthy effects; the evidence of efficacy is often unconvincing and epidemiological studies are necessary to prove the truth of their claims. Therefore, there is a need for reliable analytical control systems to measure the bioactivity, content, and quality of these additives in the complex food matrix. This review describes the most widespread nutraceutics and an analytical control of the same using recently developed biosensors which are promising candidates for routine control of functional foods. PMID:23072533

  4. Food supplementation and testosterone interact to influence reproductive behavior and immune function in Sceloporus graciosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mayté Ruiz; Susannah S. French; Gregory E. Demas; Emília P. Martins

    2010-01-01

    The energetic resources in an organism's environment are essential for executing a wide range of life-history functions, including immunity and reproduction. Most energetic budgets, however, are limited, which can lead to trade-offs among competing functions. Increasing reproductive effort tends to decrease immunity in many cases, and increasing total energy via supplemental feedings can eliminate this effect. Testosterone (T), an important

  5. Holding Water in the Landscape; striking a balance between food production and healthy catchment function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Paul; Wilkinson, Mark; Stutter, Marc; Adams, Russell

    2015-04-01

    Here it is proposed that ~5 % of the rural landscape could be modified to hold water during storm events. Hence ~95% of land remains for food production, commercial forestry and amenity. This is a catchment scale commitment to sustainably reducing flood and drought risk, improving water quality, biodiversity and thereby climate proofing our catchments. The farmed landscape has intensified and as a result, runoff rates are no longer in balance with the catchment needs, which in turn contributes to floods, droughts and water pollution problems. The loss of infiltration rates, soil water holding capacity and the increase in ditches and drains through intense farming has resulted in a reduction of the overall water holding capacity of the landscape, therefore deeper soil and aquifer recharge rates are lower. However, adequate raw water supply and food production is also vital. Here we consider how ~5% of productive land could be used to physically hold water during and after storms. This is a simple philosophy for water stewardship that could be delivered by farmers and land managers themselves. In this poster we consider a 'treatment train' of mitigation in headwaters by the construction of:- Rural SuDs - by creating swales, bunds and grassy filters; Buffer Strips - (designed to hold water); The Ditch of The Future - by creating the prime location for holding water and recovering lost top soil and finally the better use of Small Headwater Floodplains - by storing flood water, creating wetlands, planting new forest, installing woody debris and new habitats. We present examples of where and how these measures have been installed and show the cost-effectiveness of temporarily holding storm runoff in several case study catchments taken from the UK.

  6. [Effects of a series of food substances on motor and emptying function of the gastric stump and diverting intestinal loop after stomach resection and truncal vagotomy].

    PubMed

    Loranskaia, T I; Khoromski?, L N; Benedikt, V V

    1986-01-01

    Altogether 253 patients operated on for peptic ulcer were examined for the action of 30 foods on motor and evacuatory function of the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop. 213 patients were subjected to gastric resection after Hofmeister-Finsterer and 40 patients to antrum resection and truncal vagotomy. Proceeding from the action on motor function of the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop the foods were distributed into three groups: with a stimulation, inhibitory of weak effects on the function. The first group included beef and fish broths, boiled meat, rye bread, cabbage, tomato, apple, cherry and black currant juices, rhubarb infusion, fresh kefir, carrot and pumpkin purees. The group of foods producing an inhibitory action comprised milk and milk whey, cottage cheese, sugar, butter, sunflower oil, lard, rice and oat decoctions, mashed potatoes and potato juice, buckwheat porridge and semolina, wheat bread, raw eggs, and honey. The action of the same foods was found to be different as regards the effect on the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop, on tonic and contractile functions of the organs. The dietetic management of patients undergoing gastric operations should be carried out on a strictly individualized basis with allowance made for the functions of the gastric stump and intestinal loop and for the action of foods on the organs. PMID:3962263

  7. An antioxidant bearberry ( Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) extract modulates surface hydrophobicity of a wide range of food-related bacteria: implications for functional food safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary A Dykes; Ryszard Amarowicz; Ronald B Pegg

    2003-01-01

    Plant extracts intended for use in foods may also have biological effects on bacteria. The influence of an antioxidant ethanolic bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) leaf extract on the surface hydrophobicities of 25 food-related bacteria was determined by the bacterial attachment to hydrocarbon assay. The presence of the extract caused a significant increase (p<0.05) in hydrophobicity of 14, a significant decrease (p<0.05)

  8. Nitrogen fertilizer as an oxidizing agent to mobilize trace constituents from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, W.G. [Geological Survey, Durango, CO (United States). Water Resources Div.

    1995-12-31

    Dissolved nitrate in ground water can oxidize and mobilize trace constituents from soils derived from organic-rich shales in arid and semiarid environments. Organic-rich shales of Cretaceous age in the Western US contain trace constituents such as arsenic, selenium, uranium, and vanadium. Nitrate can function as an electron acceptor for the chemical oxidation of trace constituents, or poise the redox potential high enough to inhibit the reduction of the trace constituents. Denitrification also could affect trace-constituent oxidation. Water-quality data collected by the US Department of the Interior National irrigation Water-Quality Program indicated that positive correlations exist between dissolved nitrate and dissolved trace constituents that could be accounted for by nitrate oxidation of reduced trace constituents. Laboratory experiments on the oxidation of selenium by nitrate indicated that reduced selenium species are oxidized to mobile selenium oxyanions over a period of days. Wherever irrigation occurs on soils derived from organic-rich shales in arid or semiarid environments, the oxidation and mobilization of trace constituents by nitrogen fertilizers could result in a substantial contribution to contaminant loads in irrigation drainage. Further research is needed on the speciation of trace constituents in the solid phase, on the source of nitrogen (fertilizer or animal-produced nitrogen) that affects oxidation of trace constituents, and on whether the oxidation of trace constituents is a biotic or abiotic process.

  9. APPLICATION OF ENZYME BIOTECHNOLOGY TO THE MANUFACTURE OF CARBOHYDRATE FUNCTIONAL FOOD INGREDIENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent years have seen many developments in biotechnology which are facilitating the manufacture of functional carbohydrates. These include glycosidase-based enzymatic synthesis aproaches and controlled degradation of polysaccharides. The enzymology and reactor engineering of such systems is being...

  10. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  11. Effects of marijuana extract distillate and cannabidiol on variable interval performance as a function of food deprivation.

    PubMed

    Musty, R E; Sands, R

    1978-01-01

    Lever-pressing rates plotted as a function of number of hours of food deprivation produces an inverted U curve, the activation performance curve. Since delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol depresses the response rate on variable interval (VI) performance, it may be that the response depression reflects changes in this curve. Rats were tested VI performance at five levels of food deprivation and were treated with a vehicle control, marijuana extract distillate (MED) at 7.5 and 11.25 mg/kg, cannabidiol (CBD), at 15 mg/kg or combinations: 7.5 mg/kg MED + 15 mg/kg CBD and 11.25 mg/kg MED + 15 mg/kg CBD. MED produced a depression of VI performance which was greatest at low levels of deprivation. CBD did not depress performance. When CBD was conbined with MED, potentiation of depression occurred. The potentiation depression was not additive, but occurred at high levels of deprivation. It appears that MED depresses performance most at low levels of deprivation and that CBD potentiates the depression produced by MED at high levels of deprivation. PMID:565058

  12. [Chemical constituents of Desmodium sambuense].

    PubMed

    Li, Chuankuan; Zhang, Qianjun; Huang, Zhongbi; Chen, Qing; Yao, Rongjun

    2010-09-01

    The chemical constituents of Desmodium sambuense were studied. Chromatographic techniques were applied to isolate and purify the constituents, and the structures were identified on the basis of physico-chemical and spectroscopeic methods. Thirteen compounds were isolated from the 75% ethanol extract of Desmodium sambuens and elucidated as beta-amyrin(1), betulic acid(2), daucosterol(3), triacontanoic acid(4), lup-20(29)-en-3-one(5), tetracosanoic-2,3-dihydroxypropylester(6), stigmast-5-ene-3beta, 7alpha-ol (7),methyl phaeophorbidea(8), o-hydroxy benzoic acid(9),beta-sitosterol(10),d-catechin(11), luteolin (12), epigallocatechin (13). All of the compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:21141491

  13. Infrared measurements of atmospheric constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murcray, David G.; Murcray, Frank J.; Goldman, Aaron; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Flaud, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this program is to obtain data concerning the concentration versus altitude of various constituents of interest in the photochemistry of the stratospheric ozone layer. Data pertinent to this objective are obtained using balloon-borne instruments to measure the atmospheric transmission and emission in the mid infrared. In addition to obtaining constituent profile information, the spectral data obtained are also used to identify absorption or emission features which may interfere with the retrieval of constituent data from satellite instruments using lower spectral resolution. The spectral resolution obtained with the solar spectral system is 0.0025 cm(exp -1) and represents about a factor of 5 greater resolution than any solar spectra previously obtained in this spectral region. As a result of the increase in spectral resolution, a large number of features are observed in these spectra which were not observed in previous studies. Identification and analysis of these features is in progress. The results of this analysis to date shows a number of HNO3 features which have not been observed before, and these occur where they will interfere with the retrieval of other constituents. An example of the interference is the occurrence of features in the 780.2 cm(exp -1) region which overlap the ClONO2 feature which will be used for retrieval of ClONO2 by the CLAES instrument on UARS. A number of features due to COF2 were also identified in the 1250 cm(exp -1) region which may interfere with retrieval of N2O5.

  14. Chemical constituents of Thai propolis.

    PubMed

    Athikomkulchai, Sirivan; Awale, Suresh; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kadota, Shigetoshi

    2013-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the constituents of Thai propolis led the isolation of a new phenylallylflavanone, (7?S)-8-[1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-yl]-(2S)-pinocembrin (1) and (E)-cinnamyl-(E)-cinnamylidenate (2) from methanolic extract of Thai propolis. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis. In addition to this, 19 compounds (3-21) belonging to flavonoids and phenolic esters were isolated and identified. PMID:23660244

  15. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have ...

  16. Trophic complementarity drives the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship in food webs.

    PubMed

    Poisot, Timothée; Mouquet, Nicolas; Gravel, Dominique

    2013-07-01

    The biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) relationship is central in community ecology. Its drivers in competitive systems (sampling effect and functional complementarity) are intuitive and elegant, but we lack an integrative understanding of these drivers in complex ecosystems. Because networks encompass two key components of the BEF relationship (species richness and biomass flow), they provide a key to identify these drivers, assuming that we have a meaningful measure of functional complementarity. In a network, diversity can be defined by species richness, the number of trophic levels, but perhaps more importantly, the diversity of interactions. In this paper, we define the concept of trophic complementarity (TC), which emerges through exploitative and apparent competition processes, and study its contribution to ecosystem functioning. Using a model of trophic community dynamics, we show that TC predicts various measures of ecosystem functioning, and generate a range of testable predictions. We find that, in addition to the number of species, the structure of their interactions needs to be accounted for to predict ecosystem productivity. PMID:23692591

  17. Functional food quality of Curcuma caesia, Curcuma zedoaria and Curcuma aeruginosa endemic to Northeastern India.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunbao; Roy, Subhra Saikat; Nebie, Roger H C; Zhang, Yanjun; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2013-03-01

    Curcuma spp. (Zingiberaceae) is one of the significant ingredients in food and traditional medicines. The current study was to investigate health-benefits of the rhizomes of endemic Curcuma caesia, Curcuma zedoaria and Curcuma aeruginosa using in vitro antioxidant, antiinflammatory and human tumor cell proliferation inhibitory activities. Among these, C. caesia (black turmeric) showed the best overall biological activities based on [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO), cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and -2) enzymes, and tumor cell growth inhibitory assays. The hexane and methanolic extracts of C. caesia (CCH and CCM) showed LPO inhibition by 31 and 43 %, and COX-2 enzyme by 29 and 38 %, respectively, at 100 ?g/ml. Eleven terpenoids were isolated and identified. The MTT antioxidant assay revealed that the extracts of three Curcuma spp. at 250 ?g/ml and isolates at 5 ?g/ml demonstrated activity comparable to positive controls vitamin C and t-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) at 25 ?g/ml. The extracts inhibited LPO by 40 % at 250 ?g/ml whereas pure isolates 1-11 by about 20 %. The extracts and isolates inhibited COX-1 and -2 enzymes between the ranges of 3-56 and 5-30 %, respectively. The in vitro biological activity exhibited by the extracts and isolates of C. caesia rhizome further supported its use in traditional medicine. PMID:23359084

  18. Functional alterations induced by the food contaminant furazolidone on the human tumoral intestinal cell line Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Vincentini, O; De Angelis, I; Stammati, A; Zucco, F

    1993-07-01

    Caco-2 cells, which are derived from a human colon carcinoma and are able to differentiate in culture, have been used to study the effect of furazolidone (FZ), a chemical belonging to the nitrofuran family which is frequently used for the prevention of animal infections. Its potentially toxic residues could remain in some food products of animal origin and affect human health. Toxicity has been measured by different parameters, either in undifferentiated cells (day 7 of culture), or on differentiated cells (day 21 of culture). Our results indicate that FZ may seriously affect the proliferating portion of the intestinal mucosa, while the differentiated cells appear to be more resistant. However, the slight effect recorded on the aspecific and specific functions of the differentiated cells may suggest that the specialized portion of the intestine can also be compromised by the drug. Caco 2 cells seem a good model for a deeper investigation of the mechanism involved in the toxic action of FZ. PMID:20732223

  19. Effects of Light, Food Availability and Temperature Stress on the Function of Photosystem II and Photosystem I of Coral Symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Campbell, Douglas A.; Beraud, Eric; DeZeeuw, Katrina; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background Reef corals are heterotrophic coelenterates that achieve high productivity through their photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts. Excessive seawater temperature destabilises this symbiosis and causes corals to “bleach,” lowering their photosynthetic capacity. Bleaching poses a serious threat to the persistence of coral reefs on a global scale. Despite expanding research on the causes of bleaching, the mechanisms remain a subject of debate. Methodology/Principal Findings This study determined how light and food availability modulate the effects of temperature stress on photosynthesis in two reef coral species. We quantified the activities of Photosystem II, Photosystem I and whole chain electron transport under combinations of normal and stressful growth temperatures, moderate and high light levels and the presence or absence of feeding of the coral hosts. Our results show that PS1 function is comparatively robust against temperature stress in both species, whereas PS2 and whole chain electron transport are susceptible to temperature stress. In the symbiotic dinoflagellates of Stylophora pistillata the contents of chlorophyll and major photosynthetic complexes were primarily affected by food availability. In Turbinaria reniformis growth temperature was the dominant influence on the contents of the photosynthetic complexes. In both species feeding the host significantly protected photosynthetic function from high temperature stress. Conclusions/Significance Our findings support the photoinhibition model of coral bleaching and demonstrate that PS1 is not a major site for thermal damage during bleaching events. Feeding mitigates bleaching in two scleractinian corals, so that reef responses to temperature stresses will likely be influenced by the coinciding availabilities of prey for the host. PMID:22253915

  20. Food analysis and consumer protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elke Anklam; Reto Battaglia

    2001-01-01

    Aspects of food safety and quality control are described, with a focus on consumer protection. On the assumption that there can be no ‘zero-risk’, not only in life generally but even in food, appropriate food control is required in order to assess compliance with labelling (e.g. in the case of functional food) and to ensure the safety of food. People

  1. Asymmetrical food web responses in trophic-level richness, biomass, and function following lake acidification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristy L. Hogsden; Marguerite A. Xenopoulos; James A. Rusak

    2009-01-01

    We tested for disproportional changes in annual and seasonal species richness and biomass among five trophic levels (phytoplankton,\\u000a herbivorous, omnivorous, and carnivorous zooplankton, and fish) as well as altered trophic structure and ecosystem function\\u000a following the 5-year experimental acidification of Little Rock Lake (Wisconsin, USA) from pH 6.1 to 4.7. Abiotic and biotic\\u000a controls of trophic level response during acidification

  2. Development of a solid-phase extraction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of 17beta-19-nortestosterone levels in antifatigue functional foods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Pan, Tao; Fang, Guozhen; Ma, Dongyue; Wang, Shuo

    2009-10-01

    17beta-19-nortestosterone (17beta-NT) has been illegally used in antifatigue functional foods to promote muscle growth and improve endurance. A rapid and sensitive solid-phase extraction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (SPE-ELISA) method was developed and successfully applied to analyze the levels of 17beta-NT in antifatigue functional foods. A polyclonal antibody against 17beta-NT was produced from rabbits immunized with the 17beta-NT-BSA conjugate, and a competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for the rapid detection of 17beta-NT. The concentration causing 50% inhibition (IC(50)) and the limit of detection (LOD) were found to be 0.08 and 0.0055 ng/mL, respectively; this was better than methods previously reported that had a LOD of 2.4 ng/mL. C(18) cartridges were investigated for use in removing the effects of matrix in foods, and the sample purification protocol was optimized. Using the developed SPE-ELISA method, recoveries of functional food samples were obtained in the range of 71% to 91.5%. Moreover, 2 kinds of antifatigue functional foods were analyzed using the established ELISA and HPLC methods. The correlation coefficient of the results obtained using the 2 methods was greater than 0.98. Thus, the preliminary evaluation of the SPE-ELISA method proved that it is a specific, sensitive, and precise tool that can be used for the practical detection of 17beta-NT in various antifatigue functional food samples. PMID:19799684

  3. Leukocyte numbers and function in subjects eating n-3 enriched foods: selective depression of natural killer cell levels

    PubMed Central

    Mukaro, Violet R; Costabile, Maurizio; Murphy, Karen J; Hii, Charles S; Howe, Peter R; Ferrante, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Introduction While consumption of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) has been recommended for those at risk of inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, the mechanism of their anti-inflammatory effect remains to be clearly defined, particularly in relation to the dose and type of n-3 LCPUFA. The objective of this study was to determine whether varying the levels of n-3 LCPUFA in erythrocyte membrane lipids, following dietary supplementation, is associated with altered numbers and function of circulating leukocytes conducive to protection against inflammation. Methods In a double-blind and placebo-controlled study, 44 healthy subjects aged 23 to 63 years consumed either standard or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched versions of typical processed foods, the latter allowing a target daily consumption of 1 gram n-3 LCPUFA. After six months, peripheral blood leukocyte and subpopulation proportions and numbers were assessed by flow cytometry. Leukocytes were also examined for lymphoproliferation and cytokine production, neutrophil chemotaxis, chemokinesis, bactericidal, adherence and iodination activity. Erythrocytes were analyzed for fatty-acid content. Results Erythrocyte n-3 LCPUFA levels were higher and absolute leukocyte and lymphocyte numbers were lower in subjects consuming n-3 enriched foods than in controls. There were no changes in the number of neutrophils, monocytes, T cells (CD3+), T-cell subsets (CD4+, CD8+) and B cells (CD19+). However, natural killer (NK) (CD3-CD16+CD56+) cell numbers were lower in n-3 supplemented subjects than in controls and were inversely related to the amount of eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid in erythrocytes. No significant correlations were found with respect to lymphocyte lymphoproliferation and production of IFN-? and IL-2, but lymphotoxin production was higher with greater n-3 LCPUFA membrane content. Similarly, neutrophil chemotaxis, chemokinesis, bactericidal activity and adherence did not vary with changes in erythrocyte n-3 LCPUFA levels, but the iodination reaction was reduced with higher n-3 LCPUFA content. Conclusion The data show that regular long-term consumption of n-3 enriched foods leads to lower numbers of NK cells and neutrophil iodination activity but higher lymphotoxin production by lymphocytes. These changes are consistent with decreased inflammatory reaction and tissue damage seen in patients with inflammatory disorders receiving n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. PMID:18477409

  4. ZnO-reinforced poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) bionanocomposites with antimicrobial function for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Díez-Vicente, Angel L

    2014-06-25

    Biodegradable nanocomposites were prepared by adding ZnO nanoparticles to bacterial polyester poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) via solution casting technique. The morphology, thermal, mechanical, antibacterial, barrier, and migration properties of the nanocomposites were analyzed. The nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed within PHBV without the aid of coupling agents, and acted effectively as nucleating agents, raising the crystallization temperature and the level of crystallinity of the matrix while decreasing its crystallite size. A gradual rise in thermal stability was found with increasing ZnO loading, since the nanofillers hinder the diffusion of volatiles generated during the decomposition process. The nanocomposites displayed superior stiffness, strength, toughness, and glass transition temperature, whereas they displayed reduced water uptake and oxygen and water vapor permeability compared to the neat biopolymer, related to the strong matrix-nanofiller interfacial adhesion attained via hydrogen bonding interactions. At an optimal concentration of 4.0 wt % ZnO, the tensile strength and Young's and storage moduli showed a maximum that coincided with the highest crystallinity and the best barrier properties. PHBV/ZnO films showed antibacterial activity against human pathogen bacteria, and the effect on Escherichia coli was stronger than on Staphylococcus aureus. The overall migration levels of the nanocomposites in both nonpolar and polar simulants dropped upon increasing nanoparticle content, and were well below the limits required by the current normative for food packaging materials. These sustainable nanomaterials with antimicrobial function are very promising to be used as containers for beverage and food products as well as for disposable applications like cutlery or overwrap films. PMID:24846876

  5. [Phenolic constituents from Oplopanax horridus].

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Hua; Luo, Wei; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Nie, Ming-Kun; Shi, Shu-Yun; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng

    2014-05-01

    The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic techniques indluding silica gel, reverse phase silica gel, sephadex LH-20 and pre-HPLC and identified by their physicochemical properties and spectral data. Sixteen phenolic compounds had been isolated and n-butanol extracts which were fractionated from the ethanol extract of Oplopanax horridus roots bark. Their structures were identified as below, including 7 phenylpropanoid compounds, ferulic acid (1), 3-acetylcaffeic acid (2), caffeic acid (3), homovanillyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 3-hydroxyphenethyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), 3, 5-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), and 3-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7). Three coumarins, scopoletin (8), esculetin (9) and 3'-angeloyl-4'-acetyl-cis-knellactone (10). And 6 lignan compounds, (+)-isolaricires-inol-9'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (11), 3, 3'-dimethoxy-4, 9, 9'-trihydroxy-4', 7-epoxy-5', 8-lignan-4, 9-bis-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (12), (+)-5, 5'-dimethoxylariciresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (13), (-)-5,5'-dimethoxylariciresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (14), (-)-pinoresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (15), and (+)-5, 5'-dimethoxylariciresinol 9'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (16). All compounds were isolated and identified for the first time from this plant All the constituents except compounds 4, 6, 12 and 13 were obtained for the first time from the genus Oplopanax. PMID:25282894

  6. Comparison of the effects of the degree of food restriction during rearing on ovarian function at the onset of lay in unselected ducks (anas platyrhynchos) and in a line selected for improved food efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Hocking

    1990-01-01

    1. Ovarian structure and function at sexual maturity in two lines of ducks (selected or not selected for juvenile food efficiency), fed ad libitum or restricted to achieve 0.50, 0.65 or 0.80 of unrestricted body weight at 24 weeks, were compared in a randomised block factorial experiment.2. Selected ducks were larger but not fatter or older at sexual maturity, had

  7. The relation between the psychological functioning of children with Down syndrome and their urine peptide levels and levels of serum antibodies to food proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Egil Nygaard; Karl Ludvig Reichelt; Joseph F. Fagan

    2001-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the relation between psychological functioning of subjects with Down syndrome, and their levels of urine peptide and serum antibodies to food proteins. Meth- ods: 55 children with Down syndrome in a cross-sectional study. Psychological functioning was measured by the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition, McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities and Fagan's computer based test of novelty preference.

  8. Maternal consumption of a docosahexaenoic acid-containing functional food during pregnancy: benefit for infant performance on problem-solving but not on recognition memory tasks at

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle P Judge; Ofer Harel; Carol J Lammi-Keefe

    Background: There are few studies reporting on docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n3) supplementation during pregnancy and infant cognitive function. DHA supplementation in pregnancy and infant problem solving in the first year have not been investigated. Objective:Wetestedthehypothesisthatinfantsborntowomenwho consumed a DHA-containing functional food during pregnancy would demonstrate better problem-solving abilities and recognition memory than would infants born to women who consumed the pla-

  9. Naturally Occurring Food Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Laurie C.; Matulka, Ray A.; Burdock, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States. PMID:22069686

  10. Naturally occurring food toxins.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Laurie C; Matulka, Ray A; Burdock, George A

    2010-09-01

    Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States. PMID:22069686

  11. [Chemical food contaminants].

    PubMed

    Schrenk, D

    2004-09-01

    Chemical food contaminants are substances which are neither present naturally in the usual raw material used for food production nor are added during the regular production process. Examples are environmental pollutants or contaminants derived from agricultural production of crops or livestock or from inadequate manufacturing of the food product itself. More difficult is the classification of those compounds formed during regular manufacturing such as products of thermal processes including flavoring substances. In these cases, it is common practice to call those compounds contaminants which are known for their adverse effects such as acrylamide, whereas constituents which add to the food-specific flavor such as Maillard products formed during roasting, baking etc. are not termed contaminants. From a toxicological viewpoint this distinction is not always clear-cut. Important groups of chemical contaminants are metals such as mercury or lead, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and related pollutants, which are regularly found in certain types of food originating from background levels of these compounds in our environment. Furthermore, natural toxins form microorganisms or plants, and compounds formed during thermal treatment of food are of major interest. In general, a scientific risk assessment has to be carried out for any known contaminant. This comprises an exposure analysis and a toxicological and epidemiological assessment. On these grounds, regulatory and/or technological measures can often improve the situation. Major conditions for a scientific risk assessment and a successful implementation of regulations are highly developed food quality control, food toxicology and nutritional epidemiology. PMID:15378171

  12. A Prospective Cohort Study of the Effects of Adjuvant Breast Cancer Chemotherapy on Taste Function, Food Liking, Appetite and Associated Nutritional Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Boltong, Anna; Aranda, Sanchia; Keast, Russell; Wynne, Rochelle; Francis, Prudence A.; Chirgwin, Jacqueline; Gough, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Background ‘Taste’ changes are commonly reported during chemotherapy. It is unclear to what extent this relates to actual changes in taste function or to changes in appetite and food liking and how these changes affect dietary intake and nutritional status. Patients and methods This prospective, repeated measures cohort study recruited participants from three oncology clinics. Women (n?=?52) prescribed adjuvant chemotherapy underwent standardised testing of taste perception, appetite and food liking at six time points to measure change from baseline. Associations between taste and hedonic changes and nutritional outcomes were examined. Results Taste function was significantly reduced early in chemotherapy cycles (p<0.05) but showed recovery by late in the cycle. Ability to correctly identify salty, sour and umami tastants was reduced. Liking of sweet food decreased early and mid-cycle (p<0.01) but not late cycle. Liking of savory food was not significantly affected. Appetite decreased early in the cycle (p<0.001). Reduced taste function was associated with lowest kilojoule intake (r?=?0.31; p?=?0.008) as was appetite loss with reduced kilojoule (r?=?0.34; p?=?0.002) and protein intake (r?=?0.36; p?=?0.001) early in the third chemotherapy cycle. Decreased appetite early in the third and final chemotherapy cycles was associated with a decline in BMI (p?=?<0.0005) over the study period. Resolution of taste function, food liking and appetite was observed 8 weeks after chemotherapy completion. There was no association between taste change and dry mouth, oral mucositis or nausea. Conclusion The results reveal, for the first time, the cyclical yet transient effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on taste function and the link between taste and hedonic changes, dietary intake and nutritional outcomes. The results should be used to inform reliable pre-chemotherapy education. PMID:25078776

  13. Effects of insulin and leptin in the ventral tegmental area and arcuate hypothalamic nucleus on food intake and brain reward function in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Bruijnzeel, Adrie W.; Corrie, Lu W.; Rogers, Jessica A.; Yamada, Hidetaka

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence for a role of insulin and leptin in food intake, but the effects of these adiposity signals on the brain reward system are not well understood. Furthermore, the effects of insulin and leptin on food intake in females are underinvestigated. These studies investigated the role of insulin and leptin in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc) on food intake and brain reward function in female rats. The intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the effects of insulin and leptin on the reward system. Elevations in brain reward thresholds are indicative of a decrease in brain reward function. The bilateral administration of leptin into the VTA (15–500 ng/side) or Arc (15–150 ng/side) decreased food intake for 72 h. The infusion of leptin into the VTA or Arc resulted in weight loss during the first 48 (VTA) or 24 h (Arc) after the infusions. The administration of insulin (0.005–5 mU/side) into the VTA or Arc decreased food intake for 24 h but did not affect body weights. The bilateral administration of low, but not high, doses of leptin (15 ng/side) or insulin (0.005 mU/side) into the VTA elevated brain reward thresholds. Neither insulin nor leptin in the Arc affected brain reward thresholds. These studies suggest that a small increase in leptin or insulin levels in the VTA leads to a decrease in brain reward function. A relatively large increase in insulin or leptin levels in the VTA or Arc decreases food intake. PMID:21255613

  14. Consumers' salient beliefs regarding dairy products in the functional food era: a qualitative study using concepts from the theory of planned behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inadequate consumption of dairy products without appropriate dietary substitution may have deleterious health consequences. Social research reveals the factors that may impede compliance with dietary recommendations. This is particularly important given the recent introduction of functional dairy products. One of the challenges for public health professionals is to demonstrate the efficacy of nutrition education in improving attitudes toward nutrient rich foods. The aim of this study was to explore the salient beliefs of adult weight loss trial participants regarding both traditional and functional dairy products and to compare these with a control group not exposed to nutrition education. Methods Six focus groups were conducted, three with weight loss trial completers (n = 15) that had received nutrition education and three with individuals from the same region (n = 14) to act as controls. Transcribed focus groups were coded using the Theory of Planned Behaviour theoretical framework. Results Non-trial participants perceived dairy foods as weight inducing and were sceptical of functional dairy products. A lack of time/ability to decipher dairy food labels was also discussed by these individuals. In contrast trial participants discussed several health benefits related to dairy foods, practised label reading and were confident in their ability to incorporate dairy foods into their diet. Normative beliefs expressed were similar for both groups indicating that these were more static and less amenable to change through nutrition education than control and behavioural beliefs. Conclusions Nutrition education provided as a result of weight loss trial participation influenced behavioural and control beliefs relating to dairy products. This study provides a proof of concept indication that nutrition education may improve attitudes towards dairy products and may thus be an important target for public health campaigns seeking to increase intake of this food group. PMID:22047610

  15. Polyphenol-rich foods in the Mediterranean diet are associated with better cognitive function in elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Valls-Pedret, Cinta; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Medina-Remón, Alexander; Quintana, Melibea; Corella, Dolores; Pintó, Xavier; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Brain oxidative processes play a major role in age-related cognitive decline, thus consumption of antioxidant-rich foods might help preserve cognition. Our aim was to assess whether consumption of antioxidant-rich foods in the Mediterranean diet relates to cognitive function in the elderly. In asymptomatic subjects at high cardiovascular risk (n = 447; 52% women; age 55-80 y) enrolled in the PREDIMED study, a primary prevention dietary-intervention trial, we assessed food intake and cardiovascular risk profile, determined apolipoprotein E genotype, and used neuropsychological tests to evaluate cognitive function. We also measured urinary polyphenols as an objective biomarker of intake. Associations between energy-adjusted food consumption, urinary polyphenols, and cognitive scores were assessed by multiple linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Consumption of some foods was independently related to better cognitive function. The specific associations [regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals)] were: total olive oil with immediate verbal memory [0.755 (0.151-1.358)]; virgin olive oil and coffee with delayed verbal memory [0.163 (0.010-0.316) and 0.294 (0.055-0.534), respectively]; walnuts with working memory [1.191 (0.061-2.322)]; and wine with Mini-Mental State Examination scores [0.252 (0.006-0.496)]. Urinary polyphenols were associated with better scores in immediate verbal memory [1.208 (0.236-2.180)]. Increased consumption of antioxidant-rich foods in general and of polyphenols in particular is associated with better cognitive performance in elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk. The results reinforce the notion that Mediterranean diet components might counteract age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22349682

  16. Food Chains and Food Webs - Balance within Natural Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    VU Bioengineering RET Program,

    With a continued focus on the Sonoran Desert, students are introduced to the concepts of food chains and food webs through a PowerPoint® presentation. They learn the difference between producers and consumers and study how these organisms function within their communities as participants in various food chains. They further understand ecosystem differences by learning how multiple food chains link together to form intricate and balanced food webs. At lesson end, students construct food webs using endemic desert species.

  17. Therapeutic actions of garlic constituents.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, K C

    1996-01-01

    Most studies on garlic during the past 15 years have been primarily in the fields of cardiovascular and cancer research. Cardiovascular studies have been mainly related to atherosclerosis, where effects were examined on serum cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides. Although the studies were not consistent in relation to the dosage, standardization of garlic preparations, and period of treatment, most findings suggest that garlic decreases cholesterol and triglycerides levels in patients with increased levels of these lipids. Lowering of serum lipids by garlic ingestion may decrease the atherosclerosis process. The other major beneficial effect of garlic is due to its antithrombotic actions. This field of garlic research has been extensively studied. Garlic extracts and several garlic constituents demonstrate significant antithrombotic actions both in vitro and in vivo systems. Allicin and adenosine are the most potent antiplatelet constituents of garlic because of their in vitro effects. Since both allicin and adenosine are rapidly metabolized in human blood and other tissues, it is doubtful that these compounds contribute to any antithrombotic actions in the body. In addition, ajoene also seems not to be an active antiplatelet principle, because it is not naturally present in garlic, garlic powders, or other commercial garlic preparations. Only a small amount of ajoene can be found in garlic oil-macerates; however, ajoene is being developed as a drug for treatment of thromboembolic disorders. Recent findings on the identification of potent enzyme inhibiting activities of adenosine deaminase and cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase in garlic extracts are interesting, and may have a significant role in the pharmacological actions in the body. Presence of such enzyme inhibitors in garlic may perhaps explain several clinical effects in the body, including the antithrombotic, vasodilatory, and anticancer actions. Epidemiological studies have suggested that garlic plays a significant role in the reduction of deaths caused by malignant diseases. This had led many investigators to examine garlic and garlic constituents for their antitumor and cytotoxic actions both in vitro and in laboratory animals. The data from these investigations suggest that garlic contains several potentially important agents that possess antitumor and anticarcinogenic properties. In summary, the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data have proved that garlic contains many biologically and pharmacologically important compounds, which are beneficial to human health from cardiovascular, neoplastic, and several other diseases. Numerous studies are in progress all over the world to develop effective and odorless garlic preparations, as well as to isolate the active principles that may be therapeutically useful. PMID:8788216

  18. Food phenolics and lactic acid bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Héctor Rodríguez; José Antonio Curiel; José María Landete; Blanca de las Rivas; Félix López de Felipe; Carmen Gómez-Cordovés; José Miguel Mancheño; Rosario Muñoz

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are important constituents of food products of plant origin. These compounds are directly related to sensory characteristics of foods such as flavour, astringency, and colour. In addition, the presence of phenolic compounds on the diet is beneficial to health due to their chemopreventive activities against carcinogenesis and mutagenesis, mainly due to their antioxidant activities. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

  19. [Chemical constituents from Vaccinium bracteatum].

    PubMed

    Qu, Jing; Chen, Xia; Niu, Chang-Shan; Yu, Shi-Shan

    2014-02-01

    The chemical constituents of Vaccinium bracteatum were studied by means of macroporous resin, ODS column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Eleven compounds were isolated from this plant. By using ESI-MS and NMR, the structures of the eleven compounds were determined as 10-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-6alpha-hydroxyl-dihydromonotropein (1), 10-O-cis-p-coumaroyl -6alpha-hydroxyl-dihydromonotropein (2), vaccinoside (3), 10-O-cis-p-coumaroyl monotropein (4), isolariciresinol-9-O-beta-D-xyloside (5), tectoridin (6), vicenin-3 (7), quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (8), quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (9), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (10), and quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide (11), respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 are new, and compounds 4, 6 and 7 are isolated from the genus Vaccinium for the first time. PMID:25204147

  20. Antimicrobial constituents of Rhus glabra.

    PubMed

    Saxena, G; McCutcheon, A R; Farmer, S; Towers, G H; Hancock, R E

    1994-04-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract and isolated constituents of Rhus glabra (Anacardiaceae), a species used in folk medicine by North American native people, was evaluated against 11 microorganisms, including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The extract was subsequently fractionated and monitored by bioassays leading to the isolation of three antibacterial compounds, the methyl ester of 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (methyl gallate) (minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) 12.5 micrograms/ml), 4-methoxy-3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (MIC 25 micrograms/ml) and gallic acid (MIC > 1000 micrograms/ml). The first two compounds are reported here for the first time from Rhus glabra. Their structures were established using spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:8072309

  1. Cytotoxic constituents from Podocarpus fasciculus.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yu-Jen; Hwang, Shy-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Der; Liao, Chia-Ching; Liang, Yu-Han; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Ho, Hsiu-O

    2008-04-01

    A new diterpene, 16-hydroxy communic acid (1), along with thirty one known compounds including five norditerpenes (2-6), twenty two flavonoids containing four biflavonoids (7-10), nine monoflavonoids (11-19) and nine flavanoid glycosides (20-28), as well as four phenolic constituents (29-32) were isolated from the 95% ethanolic extract of Podocarpus fasciculus. The structure of 1 was elucidated using spectral methods. Of these isolates, nagilactone C (2) showed the most significant inhibitory effects against DLD cells (human colon carcinoma) (ED(50)=2.57 microg/ml) and compounds 7, 8, 10, 11, and 12 had moderate cytotoxic activity against human KB (human oral epithelium carcinoma), Hela (human cervical carcinoma), Hepa (human hepatoma), DLD (colon carcinoma), and A-549 (human lung carcinoma) tumor cell lines. Preliminary structure-activity relationship studies of the isolated diterpenoids and biflavonoids are discussed. PMID:18379113

  2. Lidar measurements of atmospheric constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitkamp, Klaus C. H.

    1996-12-01

    The advent of depth-resolving, remote measurement techniques for the determination of atmospheric constituents added a new dimension to the investigation of atmospheric phenomena. In this paper optical, or lidar, techniques suited for this purpose are reviewed. After a presentation of the processes used and the algorithms necessary to extract the interesting information from the optical return signals, a few considerations about the necessary instrumentation are presented. For illustration, one example is shown of results obtained with elastic backscatter, differential absorption and scattering. Raman lidar, and Raman DIAL. Of the numerous new developments in actual progress, one example, BELINDA, has been chosen that in a way marks the borderline between elastic backscatter and differential absorption lidar.

  3. Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) in foods: a comprehensive review on consumption, functionality, safety, and regulatory matters.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Melanie A; Weil, Jorge; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2010-04-01

    Caffeine ranks as one of the top most commonly consumed dietary ingredients throughout the world. It is naturally found in coffee beans, cacao beans, kola nuts, guarana berries, and tea leaves including yerba mate. The total daily intake, as well as the major source of caffeine varies globally; however, coffee and tea are the 2 most prominent sources. Soft drinks are also a common source of caffeine as well as energy drinks, a category of functional beverages. Moderate caffeine consumption is considered safe and its use as a food ingredient has been approved, within certain limits, by numerous regulatory agencies around the world. Performance benefits attributed to caffeine include physical endurance, reduction of fatigue, and enhancing mental alertness and concentration. Caffeine has also been recently linked to weight loss and consequent reduction of the overall risks for developing the metabolic syndrome. However, the caloric contribution of caffeine-sweetened beverages needs to be considered in the overall energy balance. Despite all these benefits the potential negative effects of excessive caffeine intake should also be considered, particularly in children and pregnant women. PMID:20492310

  4. Analysis of the Functional Morphology of Mouthparts of the Beetle Priacma serrata, and a Discussion of Possible Food Sources

    PubMed Central

    Hörnschemeyer, Thomas; Bond, Jake; Young, Philippe G.

    2013-01-01

    With the help of scanning electron microscopy, high resolution X-ray tomography (µCT), and finite element analysis, the mechanical and functional properties of the mandibles and associated muscles of the beetle Priacma serrata (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Archostemata) were studied. The combination of these techniques allowed for studying mechanical properties of the headmandible- system without using living animals. The µCT analysis delivered precise volumetric data of the geometry of the system to be studied. Dimensions of the cuticle of the parts involved could be readily deduced from the µCT-data. Thus, an exact representation of the specimen without significant artifacts like deformations and misalignments, usually resulting from histological sectioning, could be reconstructed. A virtual 3D model built from these data allowed for investigating different stress scenarios with finite element analysis. Combining these methods showed that P. serrata most likely uses its robustly-built mandibles for cutting hard material. In combination with available information on its habitat, possible food sources are discussed. PMID:24786670

  5. Food search through the eyes of a monkey: a functional substitution approach for assessing the ecology of primate color vision.

    PubMed

    Melin, A D; Kline, D W; Hickey, C M; Fedigan, L M

    2013-06-28

    Efficient detection and selection of reddish fruits against green foliage has long been thought to be a major selective pressure favoring the evolution of primate trichromatic color vision. This has recently been questioned by studies of free-ranging primates that fail to show predicted differences in foraging efficiency between dichromats and trichromats. In the present study, we use a unique approach to evaluate the adaptive significance of trichromacy for fruit detection by undertaking a functional substitution model. The color vision phenotypes of neotropical monkeys are simulated for human observers, who use a touch-sensitive computer interface to search for monkey food items in digital images taken under natural conditions. We find an advantage to trichromatic phenotypes - especially the variant with the most spectrally separated visual pigments - for red, yellow and greenish fruits, but not for dark (purple or black) fruits. These results indicate that trichromat advantage is task-specific, and that shape, size and achromatic contrast variation between ripe and unripe fruits cannot completely mitigate the advantage of color vision. Similarities in fruit foraging performance between primates with different phenotypes in the wild likely reflect the behavioral flexibility of dichromats in overcoming a chromatic disadvantage. PMID:23643907

  6. Chemical constituents of fugitive dust.

    PubMed

    Van Pelt, R Scott; Zobeck, Ted M

    2007-07-01

    Wind erosion selectively winnows the fine, most chemically concentrated portions of surface soils and results in the inter-regional transport of fugitive dust containing plant nutrients, trace elements and other soil-borne contaminants. We sampled and analyzed surface soils, sediments in transport over eroding fields, and attic dust from a small area of the Southern High Plains of Texas to characterize the physical nature and chemical constituents of these materials and to investigate techniques that would allow relatively rapid, low cost techniques for estimating the chemical constituents of fugitive dust from an eroding field. From chemical analyses of actively eroding sediments, it would appear that Ca is the only chemical species that is enriched more than others during the process of fugitive dust production. We found surface soil sieved to produce a sub-sample with particle diameters in the range of 53-74 microm to be a reasonably good surrogate for fugitive dust very near the source field, that sieved sub-samples with particle diameters <10 microm have a crustal enrichment factor of approximately 6, and that this factor, multiplied by the chemical contents of source soils, may be a reasonable estimator of fugitive PM(10) chemistry from the soils of interest. We also found that dust from tractor air cleaners provided a good surrogate for dust entrained by tillage and harvesting operations if the chemical species resulting from engine wear and exhaust were removed from the data set or scaled back to the average of enrichment factors noted for chemical species with no known anthropogenic sources. Chemical analyses of dust samples collected from attics approximately 4 km from the nearest source fields indicated that anthropogenic sources of several environmentally important nutrient and trace element species are much larger contributors, by up to nearly two orders of magnitude, to atmospheric loading and subsequent deposition than fugitive dust from eroding soils. PMID:17285256

  7. Apparatus and method for separating constituents

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P. (McMurray, PA); Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A centrifugal separator apparatus and method for improving the efficiency of the separation of constituents in a fluid stream. A cyclone separator includes an assembly for separately discharging both constituents through the same end of the separator housing. A rotary separator includes a rotary housing having a baffle disposed therein for minimizing the differential rotational velocities of the constituents in the housing, thereby decreasing turbulence, and increasing efficiency. The intensity of the centrifugal force and the time which the constituents reside within the housing can be independently controlled to improve efficiency of separation.

  8. A cytotoxic constituent from Sophora flavescens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youn Kwan Kim; Byung Sun Min; Ki Hwan Bae

    1997-01-01

    A cytotoxic constituent was isolated by bioassay-guided procedure from the roots ofSophora flavescens Aiton (Leguminosae). The constituent was identified as sophoraflavanone G (I) by means of chemical methods and in comparsion with spectral data of standard compound. The ED50 values of constituent I were 0.78, 1.57, 2.14 and 8.59 ?g\\/ml against A549, HeLa, K562 and L1210 cell lines respectively.\\u000a ConstituentI

  9. Food nanotechnology – an overview

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, Bhupinder S

    2010-01-01

    Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packaging materials may extend food life, improve food safety, alert consumers that food is contaminated or spoiled, repair tears in packaging, and even release preservatives to extend the life of the food in the package. Nanotechnology applications in the food industry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. Nanotechnology holds great promise to provide benefits not just within food products but also around food products. In fact, nanotechnology introduces new chances for innovation in the food industry at immense speed, but uncertainty and health concerns are also emerging. EU/WE/global legislation for the regulation of nanotechnology in food are meager. Moreover, current legislation appears unsuitable to nanotechnology specificity. PMID:24198465

  10. Comparison of Marketed Cosmetic Products Constituents with the Antigens Included in Cosmetic-related Patch Test

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Seung Hyun; Choi, You Won; Myung, Ki Bum

    2010-01-01

    Background Currently, cosmetic series (Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden) is the most widely used cosmetic-related patch test in Korea. However, no studies have been conducted on how accurately it reflects the constituents of the cosmetics in Korea. Objective We surveyed the constituents of various cosmetics and compare with the cosmetic series, to investigate whether it is accurate in determining allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics sold in Korea. Methods Cosmetics were classified into 11 categories and the survey was conducted on the constituents of 55 cosmetics, with 5 cosmetics in each category. The surveyed constituents were classified by chemical function and compared with the antigens of cosmetic series. Results 155 constituents were found in 55 cosmetics, and 74 (47.7%) of constituents were included as antigen. Among them, only 20 constituents (27.0%) were included in cosmetic series. A significant number of constituents, such as fragrance, vehicle and surfactant were not included. Only 41.7% of antigens in cosmetic series were found to be in the cosmetics sampled. Conclusion The constituents not included in the patch test but possess antigenicity are widely used in cosmetics. Therefore, the patch test should be modified to reflect ingredients in the marketed products that may stimulate allergies. PMID:20711261

  11. Processing of food, body and emotional stimuli in anorexia nervosa: a systematic review and meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yikang; Hu, Xiaochen; Wang, Jijun; Chen, Jue; Guo, Qian; Li, Chunbo; Enck, Paul

    2012-11-01

    The characteristics of the cognitive processing of food, body and emotional information in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are debatable. We reviewed functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to assess whether there were consistent neural basis and networks in the studies to date. Searching PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and Google Scholar between January 1980 and May 2012, we identified 17 relevant studies. Activation likelihood estimation was used to perform a quantitative meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. For both food stimuli and body stimuli, AN patients showed increased hemodynamic response in the emotion-related regions (frontal, caudate, uncus, insula and temporal) and decreased activation in the parietal region. Although no robust brain activation has been found in response to emotional stimuli, emotion-related neural networks are involved in the processing of food and body stimuli among AN. It suggests that negative emotional arousal is related to cognitive processing bias of food and body stimuli in AN. PMID:22945872

  12. Functionally Structured Genomes in Lactobacillus kunkeei Colonizing the Honey Crop and Food Products of Honeybees and Stingless Bees.

    PubMed

    Tamarit, Daniel; Ellegaard, Kirsten M; Wikander, Johan; Olofsson, Tobias; Vásquez, Alejandra; Andersson, Siv G E

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus kunkeei is the most abundant bacterial species in the honey crop and food products of honeybees. The 16 S rRNA genes of strains isolated from different bee species are nearly identical in sequence and therefore inadequate as markers for studies of coevolutionary patterns. Here, we have compared the 1.5 Mb genomes of ten L. kunkeei strains isolated from all recognized Apis species and another two strains from Meliponini species. A gene flux analysis, including previously sequenced Lactobacillus species as outgroups, indicated the influence of reductive evolution. The genome architecture is unique in that vertically inherited core genes are located near the terminus of replication, whereas genes for secreted proteins and putative host-adaptive traits are located near the origin of replication. We suggest that these features have resulted from a genome-wide loss of genes, with integrations of novel genes mostly occurring in regions flanking the origin of replication. The phylogenetic analyses showed that the bacterial topology was incongruent with the host topology, and that strains of the same microcluster have recombined frequently across the host species barriers, arguing against codiversification. Multiple genotypes were recovered in the individual hosts and transfers of mobile elements could be demonstrated for strains isolated from the same host species. Unlike other bacteria with small genomes, short generation times and multiple rRNA operons suggest that L. kunkeei evolves under selection for rapid growth in its natural growth habitat. The results provide an extended framework for reductive genome evolution and functional genome organization in bacteria. PMID:25953738

  13. Functionally Structured Genomes in Lactobacillus kunkeei Colonizing the Honey Crop and Food Products of Honeybees and Stingless Bees

    PubMed Central

    Tamarit, Daniel; Ellegaard, Kirsten M.; Wikander, Johan; Olofsson, Tobias; Vásquez, Alejandra; Andersson, Siv G.E.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus kunkeei is the most abundant bacterial species in the honey crop and food products of honeybees. The 16 S rRNA genes of strains isolated from different bee species are nearly identical in sequence and therefore inadequate as markers for studies of coevolutionary patterns. Here, we have compared the 1.5 Mb genomes of ten L. kunkeei strains isolated from all recognized Apis species and another two strains from Meliponini species. A gene flux analysis, including previously sequenced Lactobacillus species as outgroups, indicated the influence of reductive evolution. The genome architecture is unique in that vertically inherited core genes are located near the terminus of replication, whereas genes for secreted proteins and putative host-adaptive traits are located near the origin of replication. We suggest that these features have resulted from a genome-wide loss of genes, with integrations of novel genes mostly occurring in regions flanking the origin of replication. The phylogenetic analyses showed that the bacterial topology was incongruent with the host topology, and that strains of the same microcluster have recombined frequently across the host species barriers, arguing against codiversification. Multiple genotypes were recovered in the individual hosts and transfers of mobile elements could be demonstrated for strains isolated from the same host species. Unlike other bacteria with small genomes, short generation times and multiple rRNA operons suggest that L. kunkeei evolves under selection for rapid growth in its natural growth habitat. The results provide an extended framework for reductive genome evolution and functional genome organization in bacteria. PMID:25953738

  14. Infrared Measurements of Atmospheric Constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murcray, Frank J.

    1998-01-01

    This research program studies atmospheric trace gas concentrations and altitude distributions, particularly for those gases that are important in stratospheric chemistry and radiative balance. Measurements are made with infrared remote sensing instruments, either ground based or balloon-borne. Most of the ground based instruments are part of the Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC), including a very high spectral resolution solar absorption spectrometer at Mauna Loa Observatory and similar system at McMurdo Station, Antarctica (operated in collaboration with the New Zealand NIWA). Additionally, we are deriving stratospheric constituent data from the spectra obtained at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program's site in north-central Oklahoma. We have an atmospheric emission spectrometer system at the South Pole (with additional support from NSF), and an identical NSF support instrument at Eureka, NWT, Canada. Our balloon-borne instruments include a very high resolution solar absorption spectrometer system, a smaller, slightly lower resolution solar spectrometer system, a high resolution atmospheric emission spectrometer, and several medium resolution emission spectrometers (CAESRs) that are usually flown piggyback. During the past year, we participated in the MANTRA balloon flight from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, with the high resolution solar spectrometer system. Several of our instruments were extensively compared to (UARS) Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite observations, and so provide a data set with known connections to UARS. In the longer term, the data can be used to relate UARS data to (EOS) Earth Observing System and (ADEOS) Advanced Airborne Earth Observing System.

  15. [Chemical constituents from Commelina communis].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hong-E; Zhou, Xing-Dong; Meng, Ling-Jie; Qin, Fang-Min; Zhou, Guang-Xiong

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents from Commelina communis, fifteen compounds were separated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS column chromatography, and semi-preparative HPLC. By analyses of NMR and MS data as well as their physical and chemical properties, the structures of these compounds were identified as chrysoeriol-7-O-beta-D-glucoside( 1), methyl gallate(2), p-coumaric acid(3), protocatechuic acid(4), caffeic acid(5), p-hydroxybenzoic acid(6), 2-phenethyl-beta-D-gly-cosidase(7) , rhaponticin(8) , (7S, 8R) -dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-9-O-beta-D-glucoside (9), isovitexin (10) , isofurcatain (11), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside(12) , quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (13) , isoquercitrin (14) , and 1, 2-dihydro-6, 8-dime-thoxy-7-1-(3, 5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl) -N1, N2-bis-[2-( 4-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl] -2, 3-naphthalene dicarboxamide (15). Compounds 2, 5-9, 11, 13 were obtained from the genus Commelina for the first time. PMID:24422397

  16. [Antitussive constituents of Disporum cantoniense].

    PubMed

    Gan, Xiu-Hai; Zhao, Chao; Liang, Zhi-Yuan; Gong, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Hua-Guo; Zhou, Xin

    2013-12-01

    The antitussive activity assay for the root extraction of Disporum cantoniense was carried out with coughing mice induced by ammonia liquor. The results showed that the ethanol and water extractions of D. cantoniense possess strong antitussive activity, and the high dose of the former was better than positive control, and then the constituents of the ethanol extraction were separated and purified by various modern chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified by physico-chemical properties and spectroscopic data. As a result, eight compounds were isolated and identified as stigmast-4-en-3-one(1), (22E, 24R)-ergosta-5, 7, 22-trien-3beta-ol(2), obtucarbamate A(3), obtucarbamate B(4), neotigogenin(5), azo-2, 2'-bis[Z-(2,3-dihydroxy-4-methyl-5-methoxy) phenyl ethylene] (6),dimethyl {[carbonylbis (azanediyl)] bis( 2-methyl-5, 1-phenylene) j dicarbamate (7) , and quercetin-3-O-pB-D-glucopyranoside(8). All compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time, and the result of bioactivity-directed isolation showed that compounds 3, 4, and 6 had obvious effect on antitussive activity, and compound 6 had the same level as positive control. PMID:24791497

  17. Honey ameliorates influence of hemorrhage and food restriction on renal and hepatic functions, and hematological and biochemical variables.

    PubMed

    Al-Waili, Noori S; Saloom, Khelod Y; Akmal, Mohammod; Al-Waili, Faiza; Al-Waili, Thia N; Al-Waili, Ali N; Ali, Amjed

    2006-01-01

    The objectives were to assess the effects of various diets, including total food restriction with 50% honey feeding, total food restriction with 50% dextrose feeding or adlibitum (control group) commercial regular diet, on the hematology and biochemical variables, and to assess the effects of the various diets on the influence of acute blood loss on the same parameters. Thirty Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups, 10 rats each: group A, fed a commercial regular diet; group B, total food restriction with 50% dextrose feeding; and group C, total food restriction with 50% honey feeding. After 8 days of feeding, rats were subjected to acute blood loss (6 ml/kg) and blood investigations were performed. After acute blood loss, the same feedings were continued for a further 8 days and the blood tests were repeated at day 8 post-bleeding. Total food restriction with 50% dextrose feeding compared with commercial regular diet reduces hematological and biochemical variables. Total food restriction with 50% honey feeding compared with total food restriction with 50% dextrose feeding causes a greater reduction in fasting blood glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and triacylglycerol. Acute blood loss causes elevation of white blood cells, lymphocyte percentage, fasting blood sugar, blood urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase and triacylglycerol, and a reduction in serum albumen, protein, cholesterol, AST, serum creatinine and hemoglobin; the results are significant (P<0.05) concerning fasting blood glucose, AST, alkaline phosphatase, serum albumin and protein. A significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, white blood cells, BUN, AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and triacylglycerol, and a significant elevation of hemoglobin and serum albumin are obtained after acute blood loss in rats on total food restriction with 50% honey feeding as compared with the other two groups. Total food restriction with 50% honey feeding increases serum albumin, serum protein, fasting blood glucose, and causes lower reduction in hemoglobin as compared with the other groups. Conclusively, honey feeding during total food restriction significantly modifies and ameliorates biochemical and hematological changes observed after acute blood loss. This will pave the way to use honey as part of bleeding management and during a food restriction regimen. PMID:17135025

  18. The function of polydomy: the ant Crematogaster torosa preferentially forms new nests near food sources and fortifies outstations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele C. Lanan; Anna Dornhaus; Judith L. Bronstein

    2011-01-01

    Many ant species are polydomous, forming multiple spatially segregated nests that exchange workers and brood. However, why\\u000a polydomy occurs is still uncertain. We investigated whether colonies of Crematogaster torosa form new polydomous nests to better exploit temporally stable food resources. Specifically, we tested the effect of food\\u000a presence or absence and distance on the likelihood that colonies would form a

  19. Promotion of quality standard of herbal medicine by constituent removing and adding

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dan; Li, Junxian; Xiong, Yin; Zhang, Congen; Luo, Jiaoyang; Han, Yumei; Wang, Ruiling; Jin, Cheng; Qian, Hong; Li, Jiangyu; Qiu, Lingling; Peng, Cheng; Lin, Yuling; Song, Xueai; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2014-01-01

    To identify major active constituents and measure their levels in a typical medicinal herb–Rhizoma coptidis, we applied the concept of removing and adding, taking inspiration from functional genetic methods. As this herb has bacteriostatic properties and is used to treat bacterial diarrhea, we examined the effects of individual constituents (berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, jateorrhizine and columbamine) on the growth of Shigella dysenteriae with microcalorimetry. The removing and adding procedures revealed that berberine and coptisine were the main antibacterial constituents of R. coptidis, with bacteriostatic activities of 54.10% and 39.75%, respectively. The relative levels of berberine and coptisine in R. coptidis were 8.08%–31.92% and 4.05%–14.45%, respectively. On the basis of whole effect, the method of constituents removing and adding, coupled with a bioassay, is a useful strategy to identify the active constituents and measure their levels in herbal medicines, which may provide reference to other natural products. PMID:24413194

  20. Will isomalto-oligosaccharides, a well-established functional food in Asia, break through the European and American market? The status of knowledge on these prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Dorothee; Delzenne, Nathalie; Blecker, Christophe; Hanon, Emilien; Deroanne, Claude; Paquot, Michel

    2011-05-01

    This critical review article presents the current state of knowledge on isomalto-oligosaccharides, some well known functional oligosaccharides in Asia, to evaluate their potential as emergent prebiotics in the American and European functional food market. It includes first a unique inventory of the different families of compounds which have been considered as IMOs and their specific structure. A description has been given of the different production methods including the involved enzymes and their specific activities, the substrates, and the types of IMOs produced. Considering the structural complexity of IMO products, specific characterization methods are described, as well as purification methods which enable the body to get rid of digestible oligosaccharides. Finally, an extensive review of their techno-functional and nutritional properties enables placing IMOs inside the growing prebiotic market. This review is of particular interest considering that IMO commercialization in America and Europe is a topical subject due to the recent submission by Bioneutra Inc. (Canada) of a novel food file to the UK Food Standards Agency, as well as several patents for IMO production. PMID:21491266

  1. New parasites and predators follow the introduction of two fish species to a subarctic lake: implications for food-web structure and functioning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amundsen, Per-Arne; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Knudsen, Rune; Primicerio, Raul; Kristoffersen, Roar; Klemetsen, Anders; Kuris, Armand M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduced species can alter the topology of food webs. For instance, an introduction can aid the arrival of free-living consumers using the new species as a resource, while new parasites may also arrive with the introduced species. Food-web responses to species additions can thus be far more complex than anticipated. In a subarctic pelagic food web with free-living and parasitic species, two fish species (arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus and three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus) have known histories as deliberate introductions. The effects of these introductions on the food web were explored by comparing the current pelagic web with a heuristic reconstruction of the pre-introduction web. Extinctions caused by these introductions could not be evaluated by this approach. The introduced fish species have become important hubs in the trophic network, interacting with numerous parasites, predators and prey. In particular, five parasite species and four predatory bird species depend on the two introduced species as obligate trophic resources in the pelagic web and could therefore not have been present in the pre-introduction network. The presence of the two introduced fish species and the arrival of their associated parasites and predators increased biodiversity, mean trophic level, linkage density, and nestedness; altering both the network structure and functioning of the pelagic web. Parasites, in particular trophically transmitted species, had a prominent role in the network alterations that followed the introductions.

  2. New parasites and predators follow the introduction of two fish species to a subarctic lake: implications for food-web structure and functioning.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Per-Arne; Lafferty, Kevin D; Knudsen, Rune; Primicerio, Raul; Kristoffersen, Roar; Klemetsen, Anders; Kuris, Armand M

    2013-04-01

    Introduced species can alter the topology of food webs. For instance, an introduction can aid the arrival of free-living consumers using the new species as a resource, while new parasites may also arrive with the introduced species. Food-web responses to species additions can thus be far more complex than anticipated. In a subarctic pelagic food web with free-living and parasitic species, two fish species (arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus and three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus) have known histories as deliberate introductions. The effects of these introductions on the food web were explored by comparing the current pelagic web with a heuristic reconstruction of the pre-introduction web. Extinctions caused by these introductions could not be evaluated by this approach. The introduced fish species have become important hubs in the trophic network, interacting with numerous parasites, predators and prey. In particular, five parasite species and four predatory bird species depend on the two introduced species as obligate trophic resources in the pelagic web and could therefore not have been present in the pre-introduction network. The presence of the two introduced fish species and the arrival of their associated parasites and predators increased biodiversity, mean trophic level, linkage density, and nestedness; altering both the network structure and functioning of the pelagic web. Parasites, in particular trophically transmitted species, had a prominent role in the network alterations that followed the introductions. PMID:23053223

  3. Therapeutic Implications of Black Seed and Its Constituent Thymoquinone in the Prevention of Cancer through Inactivation and Activation of Molecular Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H.; Alzohairy, Mohammad A.; Khan, Masood A.; Aly, Salah M.

    2014-01-01

    The cancer is probably the most dreaded disease in both men and women and also major health problem worldwide. Despite its high prevalence, the exact molecular mechanisms of the development and progression are not fully understood. The current chemotherapy/radiotherapy regime used to treat cancer shows adverse side effect and may alter gene functions. Natural products are generally safe, effective, and less expensive substitutes of anticancer chemotherapeutics. Based on previous studies of their potential therapeutic uses, Nigella sativa and its constituents may be proved as good therapeutic options in the prevention of cancer. Black seeds are used as staple food in the Middle Eastern Countries for thousands of years and also in the treatment of diseases. Earlier studies have shown that N. sativa and its constituent thymoquinone (TQ) have important roles in the prevention and treatment of cancer by modulating cell signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the role of N. sativa and its constituents TQ in the prevention of cancer through the activation or inactivation of molecular cell signaling pathways. PMID:24959190

  4. Effects of intrauterine food restriction and long-term dietary supplementation with L-arginine on age-related changes in renal function and structure of rats.

    PubMed

    Gil, Frida Zaladek; Lucas, Sandra Regina R; Gomes, Guiomar Nascimento; Cavanal, Maria De Fátima; Coimbra, Terezila Machado

    2005-05-01

    We have previously demonstrated that restricting intrauterine food by 50% in 3-mo-old rats produced lower nephron numbers and early-onset hypertension, the latter being normalized by L-arginine administration. In 18-mo-old rats, such restriction increased glomerulosclerosis. In this study, we expanded our investigation, evaluating functional, morphologic, and immunohistochemical parameters in intrauterine-food-restricted 18-mo-old rats, either receiving L-arginine (RA18) or not (R18). Age-matched, non-food-restricted controls were assigned to similar groups with L-arginine (CA18) and without (C18). After weaning, L-arginine was given daily for 17 mo. No functional or morphologic changes were observed in C18 rats. The R18 rats developed early-onset hypertension, which persisted throughout the observation period, as well as significant proteinuria from 12 mo on. In RA18 rats, L-arginine decreased both blood pressure levels and proteinuria, and glomerular diameter was significantly smaller than in R18 rats (115.63 +/- 2.2 versus 134.8 +/- 1.0 mum, p < 0.05). However, in RA18 rats, glomerular filtration rate remained depressed. Although L-arginine prevented glomerulosclerosis (R18 = 14%, RA18 = 4%; p < 0.05), glomerular expression of fibronectin and desmin was still greater in RA18 rats than in controls. Our data show that, although L-arginine prevented hypertension and proteinuria, glomerular injury still occurred, suggesting that intrauterine food restriction may be one of the leading causes of impaired renal function in adult life. PMID:15774822

  5. Benefits and limitations of food processing by high-pressure technologies: effects on functional compounds and abiotic contaminants Beneficios y limitaciones del procesamiento de alimentos por tecnologías de alta presión: efectos en componentes funcionales y contaminantes abióticos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zamantha Escobedo-Avellaneda; Mirian Pateiro Moure; Nattaporn Chotyakul; J. Antonio Torres; Jorge Welti-Chanes; Concepción Pérez Lamela

    2011-01-01

    The continuing and worldwide growth of pressure processing technologies to pasteurize and sterilize foods justifies the need to study the effects on functional compounds and abiotic contaminants as affected by high-pressure processing (HPP) and pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP). Substantially more research will be required to determine the complex effects of the food matrix on chemical reactions leading to losses of

  6. Charitable food assistance as symbolic gesture: an ethnographic study of food banks in Ontario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie Tarasuk; Joan M. Eakin

    2003-01-01

    Community-based charitable food assistance programs have recently been established in several affluent nations to distribute public and corporate food donations to ‘the needy’. In Canada, food banks comprise the primary response to hunger and food insecurity, but problems of unmet food need persist. We conducted an ethnographic study of food bank work in southern Ontario to examine the functioning of

  7. ILSI Brazil International Workshop on Functional Foods: a narrative review of the scientific evidence in the area of carbohydrates, microbiome, and health

    PubMed Central

    Meheust, Agnès; Augustin, Livia; Benton, David; Ber?ík, P?emysl; Birkett, Anne; Eldridge, Alison L.; Faintuch, Joel; Hoffmann, Christian; Jones, Julie Miller; Kendall, Cyril; Lajolo, Franco; Perdigon, Gabriela; Prieto, Pedro Antonio; Rastall, Robert A.; Sievenpiper, John L.; Slavin, Joanne; de Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel

    2013-01-01

    To stimulate discussion around the topic of ‘carbohydrates’ and health, the Brazilian branch of the International Life Sciences Institute held the 11th International Functional Foods Workshop (1–2 December 2011) in which consolidated knowledge and recent scientific advances specific to the relationship between carbohydrates and health were presented. As part of this meeting, several key points related to dietary fiber, glycemic response, fructose, and impacts on satiety, cognition, mood, and gut microbiota were realized: 1) there is a need for global harmonization of a science-based fiber definition; 2) low-glycemic index foods can be used to modulate the postprandial glycemic response and may affect diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes; 3) carbohydrate type may influence satiety and satiation; glycemic load and glycemic index show links to memory, mood, and concentration; 4) validated biomarkers are needed to demonstrate the known prebiotic effect of carbohydrates; 5) negative effects of fructose are not evident when human data are systematically reviewed; 6) new research indicates that diet strongly influences the microbiome; and 7) there is mounting evidence that the intestinal microbiota has the ability to impact the gut–brain axis. Overall, there is much promise for development of functional foods that impact the microbiome and other factors relevant to health, including glycemic response (glycemic index/glycemic load), satiety, mood, cognition, and weight management. PMID:23399638

  8. 21 CFR 501.100 - Animal food; exemptions from labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...have any technical or functional effect in that food. For the purposes of...that are added to a food for their technical or functional effect in the processing...have any technical or functional effect in that food. (iii)...

  9. Food components and caries.

    PubMed

    Bowen, W H

    1994-07-01

    For many decades, sugars have been the dietary constituents receiving the most attention in relation to their effects on dental caries. Frequently, however, there is little relationship between the amount of sugar in a food and its ability to induce caries. Therefore, it is clear that constituents in the diet can influence the ability of plaque to lower the pH of sugar solutions. For instance, replacing sugar in foods with xylitol, sorbitol, saccharin, or aspartame may lead to a reduction in the incidence of dental caries. All these sugar substitutes are non-cariogenic, and some may possess cariostatic properties. The presence of arginine-rich proteins in the diet may provide a ready source of this amino acid, which is the substrate for the arginine deiminase pathway which can result in a rapid elevation of plaque pH values. Proline can act as an acceptor for protons from lactate in the Stickland reaction. This is a major but much-neglected metabolic pathway in dental plaque. The presence of fat in experimental diets has been shown to affect their cariogenicity. The effects have been ascribed to enhanced clearance of sugars from the mouth. It is also conceivable that several fatty acids express a potent antibacterial effect. The presence of calcium and phosphorus has been shown to influence the cariogenicity of foods; the effect, however, is restricted to the food containing the minerals. Evidence suggests that pyridoxine (vitamin B6) may exert a cariostatic effect by enhancing decarboxylation activity in dental plaque. It is clear that sugar alone is not the sole determinant of whether food is cariogenic. Furthermore, myriad substances may hinder or enhance the caries-promoting properties of sugars in the diet. PMID:7865078

  10. Antihepatoxic constituents of Garcinia kola seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Iwu

    1985-01-01

    Summary Kolaviron, a fraction of defatted methanolic extract and biflavanones ofGarcinia kola seeds significantly antagonized the lethal poisoning of mice with phalloidin. Garcinia biflavanones GB1, GB2 and kolaflavanone were isolated as the active constituents.

  11. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)); Shah, N.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The technical objectives of this project are: (1) To define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and to characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail. (2) To elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes (involving basic principles of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics) by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur; and (3) to develop, based on the information required in (1) and (2), a tractable process'' model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the nature and distribution of products. 26 refs., 151 figs., 51 tabs.

  12. Food safety

    MedlinePLUS

    Food safety refers to the conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food to prevent contamination and ... Poor food safety practices can cause infection from a foodborne illness. Symptoms of foodborne illnesses vary, but they usually include ...

  13. Food Allergies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system ... had a serious reaction. Back Continue How Are Food Allergies Treated? There is no special medicine for ...

  14. Food Timeline

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lynne Olver, Chief Librarian, Morris County Library (NJ)

    The Food Timeline was created as an independent research project on food history and period recipes. The timeline begins before 17,000 B.C. with gatherable foods (shellfish, eggs, mushrooms) and chronicles the appearance of cultivated plants, domesticated food animals, and commercial food products up to the present day. Each type of food is represented by a link to additional information on it, and there are also links to period recipes appearing in chronological order on the timeline.

  15. Food allergens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean D. Metcalfe

    1985-01-01

    The clinical expression of food hypersensitivity or food allergy is usually the end-result of a series of complex interactions among ingested food antigens, the digestive tract, tissue mast cells and circulating basophils, and food antigen-specific IgE. In some well-defined, food-induced diseases, such as gluten-induced enteropathy, additional immunologic mechanisms are involved. An understanding of the nature of antigens in foods capable

  16. Rethinking brain food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    If omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are the functional food du jour, then that "jour" must first have been the 5th day of creation (according to Genesis 1:21), when the marine fish were created and exhorted to be fruitful and multiply. The exact time when these marine species became "brain food" for peopl...

  17. Optimization of continuous hydrogen fermentation of food waste as a function of solids retention time independent of hydraulic retention time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Hyoun Kim; Sun-Kee Han; Hang-Sik Shin

    2008-01-01

    Four anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) were used for hydrogen fermentation and fed with food waste (4.4±0.2% volatile solids (VS) containing 27g carbohydrate-COD\\/L). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of solids retention time (SRT) in the range 24–160h and hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the range 24–42h. Achieving high SRT independent of HRT with internal sludge

  18. Food allergy to wheat: differences in immunoglobulin E-binding proteins as a function of age or symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrice Battais; Philippe Courcoux; Yves Popineau; Gisèle Kanny; Denise Anne Moneret-Vautrin; Sandra Denery-Papini

    2005-01-01

    Allergy to wheat in foods occurs in both children and adults and induces various symptoms. Specific allergens were found in adults with wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). However, no data clearly indicated whether the immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses of children or adults with other symptoms were linked to similar or different allergens. Profiles of IgE-binding proteins were compared in wheat-allergic patients

  19. Harnessing functional food strategies for the health challenges of space travel—Fermented soy for astronaut nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole D. Buckley; Claude P. Champagne; Adriana I. Masotti; Lisa E. Wagar; Thomas A. Tompkins; Julia M. Green-Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts face numerous health challenges during long-duration space missions, including diminished immunity, bone loss and increased risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Changes in the intestinal flora of astronauts may contribute to these problems. Soy-based fermented food products could provide a nutritional strategy to help alleviate these challenges by incorporating beneficial lactic acid bacteria, while reaping the benefits of soy isoflavones. We

  20. Warming shifts top-down and bottom-up control of pond food web structure and function.

    PubMed

    Shurin, Jonathan B; Clasen, Jessica L; Greig, Hamish S; Kratina, Pavel; Thompson, Patrick L

    2012-11-01

    The effects of global and local environmental changes are transmitted through networks of interacting organisms to shape the structure of communities and the dynamics of ecosystems. We tested the impact of elevated temperature on the top-down and bottom-up forces structuring experimental freshwater pond food webs in western Canada over 16 months. Experimental warming was crossed with treatments manipulating the presence of planktivorous fish and eutrophication through enhanced nutrient supply. We found that higher temperatures produced top-heavy food webs with lower biomass of benthic and pelagic producers, equivalent biomass of zooplankton, zoobenthos and pelagic bacteria, and more pelagic viruses. Eutrophication increased the biomass of all organisms studied, while fish had cascading positive effects on periphyton, phytoplankton and bacteria, and reduced biomass of invertebrates. Surprisingly, virus biomass was reduced in the presence of fish, suggesting the possibility for complex mechanisms of top-down control of the lytic cycle. Warming reduced the effects of eutrophication on periphyton, and magnified the already strong effects of fish on phytoplankton and bacteria. Warming, fish and nutrients all increased whole-system rates of net production despite their distinct impacts on the distribution of biomass between producers and consumers, plankton and benthos, and microbes and macrobes. Our results indicate that warming exerts a host of indirect effects on aquatic food webs mediated through shifts in the magnitudes of top-down and bottom-up forcing. PMID:23007089

  1. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter of the food yeast Candida utilis strain NRRL Y-660 is functional in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    González, Tania; Eng, Felipe; Fraga, Reinaldo; Fonseca, Jennifer; Amores, Isis

    2013-11-01

    The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter of the food yeast Candida utilis strain NRRL Y-660 was cloned to create a novel integrative vector for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The new binary vector harbors ?-glucuronidase activity as reporter and kanamicin/geneticin resistance as selection marker. Recombinant clones of A. tumefaciens show kanamycin resistance and high ?-glucuronidase activity under the control of the C. utilis promoter. This finding can be explained by the presence of a prokaryotic core in the yeast promoter, predicted by in silico analysis of the sequence. This is the first report about functionality of a yeast promoter in A. tumefaciens. PMID:23873160

  2. Antioxidant content of foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-based foods, especially fruits, vegetables, and nuts, contain bioactive components which have various biological functions, including free radical scavenging and metal chelating (antioxidant), inhibition of lipid peroxidation, anti-inflammatory properties, etc. Oxidative stress may contribute...

  3. World Food Clock

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twyman, Luke

    The Scout Staff keeps an eye out for sites that are both informative and interactive, and the World Food Clock does not disappoint. A true feat of graphic design, we loved this site for its innovative and effective presentation of information. The World Food Clock succeeds in providing relevant statistics in an easily digestible manner, with clean and informative visual representations. Likewise, the navigation is both fun and functional, allowing the user to have a stimulating learning experience about global consumption and production.How much food is being consumed around the world right now? It's a vast question that can be answered by the World Food Clock. This interesting website draws on information provided by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and presents a streaming set of data on global food consumption, global food waste, and other informative topics. It's visually arresting and users can scroll down to look through different "clocks" that track statistics such as the land used to grow wasted food and the stages of food waste, which include production, processing, and consumption. This is a wonderful tool for folks with an interest in food security, environmental studies, public health, and international relations. It could also be used in any number of design courses to illustrate a range of techniques and visualization strategies.

  4. CONSTITUENTS OF ELEMENTARY BODIES OF VACCINIA

    PubMed Central

    Hoagland, Charles L.; Ward, S. M.; Smadel, Joseph E.; Rivers, Thomas M.

    1941-01-01

    A search by means of spectroscopic and enzymatic techniques has failed to demonstrate either cytochrome or cytochrome oxidase in purified elementary bodies of vaccinia. A constituent of the virus which catalyzes the oxidation of cystein has been found and identified as copper in a concentration amounting to 0.05 per cent of the dry weight of the virus. The copper constituent was not removed by repeated washing, ultrafiltration, dialysis against 0.1 molar potassium cyanide, or by electrodialysis over a pH range which did not inactivate the virus. During the process of purification of the virus a 25-fold increase of the copper constituent was observed. Emission spectra obtained from the dry virus also revealed copper but no significant traces of other metallic substances. No biological rôle can yet be ascribed to the copper component of virus. PMID:19871116

  5. Food Groups

    MedlinePLUS

    Welcome to the Five Food Groups MyPlate illustrates the five food groups that are the building blocks for a healthy diet using a familiar image – ... half your grains whole. >> See Grains Group Protein Foods Go lean with protein. >> See Protein Foods Group ...

  6. Food allergy: separating the science from the mythology.

    PubMed

    Brandtzaeg, Per

    2010-07-01

    Numerous genes are involved in innate and adaptive immunity and these have been modified over millions of years. During this evolution, the mucosal immune system has developed two anti-inflammatory strategies: immune exclusion by the use of secretory antibodies to control epithelial colonization of microorganisms and to inhibit the penetration of potentially harmful agents; and immunosuppression to counteract local and peripheral hypersensitivity against innocuous antigens, such as food proteins. The latter strategy is called oral tolerance when induced via the gut. Homeostatic mechanisms also dampen immune responses to commensal bacteria. The mucosal epithelial barrier and immunoregulatory network are poorly developed in newborns. The perinatal period is, therefore, critical with regard to the induction of food allergy. The development of immune homeostasis depends on windows of opportunity during which innate and adaptive immunity are coordinated by antigen-presenting cells. The function of these cells is not only orchestrated by microbial products but also by dietary constituents, including vitamin A and lipids, such as polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. These factors may in various ways exert beneficial effects on the immunophenotype of the infant. The same is true for breast milk, which provides immune-inducing factors and secretory immunoglobulin A, which reinforces the gut epithelial barrier. It is not easy to dissect the immunoregulatory network and identify variables that lead to food allergy. This Review discusses efforts to this end and outlines the scientific basis for future food allergy prevention. PMID:20606633

  7. Sesquiterpene constituents of the liverwort Calypogeia muelleriana.

    PubMed

    Warmers, Ute; Wihstutz, Kolja; Bülow, Nils; Fricke, Christiane; König, Wilfried A.

    1998-11-20

    The lipophilic constituents of the liverwort Calypogeia muelleriana were investigated. A new sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, maali-1,3-diene, and two sesquiterpene alcohols with an aromadendrane skeleton, 3-hydroxyledene and 4,5-dehydroviridiflorol, were isolated and identified. The structure elucidation was carried out mainly by NMR spectroscopic techniques ((1)H-, (13)C-, (1)H(1)H-COSY-, HMQC-, HMBC- and NOESY experiments). The majority of the constituents of the liverwort volatiles show a conspicuous biogenetic relationship, which becomes even more obvious in the stereochemical correlations. PMID:11711089

  8. Gluelump model with transverse constituent gluons

    E-print Network

    F. Buisseret

    2008-08-22

    We show that C-odd gluelumps can be successfully described as bound states of a single transverse constituent gluon evolving in the flux-tube-like potential generated by a static color-octet source. The use of a helicity degree of freedom rather than a spin one for the constituent gluon forbids the states that are not observed in lattice QCD. Our model leads to a gluelump mass spectrum in remarkable agreement with the available lattice data provided that an additional parity-splitting mass term is introduced. We argue that such a term is due to instanton-induced interactions in gluelumps.

  9. Azimuthal spin asymmetries in light-cone constituent quark models

    SciTech Connect

    Boffi, S.; Pasquini, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Efremov, A. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, 141980 (Russian Federation); Schweitzer, P. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States)

    2009-05-01

    We present results for all leading-twist azimuthal spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive lepton-nucleon deep-inelastic scattering due to T-even transverse-momentum dependent parton distribution functions on the basis of a light-cone constituent quark model. Attention is paid to discuss the range of applicability of the model, especially with regard to the scale dependence of the observables and the transverse-momentum dependence of the distributions. We find good agreement with available experimental data and present predictions to be further tested by future CLAS, COMPASS, and HERMES data.

  10. IRRAS, a new tool in food science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel B. J Meinders; Geertruida G. M van den Bosch; Harmen H. J de Jongh

    2000-01-01

    This report illustrates that infra-red reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) is a new powerful and promising technique to obtain detailed molecular information of biomolecules at and near the air\\/water interface of complex food solutions. Here it is demonstrated that in combination with spectral simulation, this technique can provide information on local concentration, conformation and orientation of different constituents simultaneously. Furthermore, dynamics

  11. Beyond water activity: Recent advances based on an alternative approach to the assessment of food quality and safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise Slade; Harry Levine; David S. Reid

    1991-01-01

    Water, the most abundant constituent of natural foods, is a ubiquitous plasticizer of most natural and fabricated food ingredients and products. Many of the new concepts and developments in modern food science and technology revolve around the role of water, and its manipulation, in food manufacturing, processing, and preservation. This article reviews the, effects of water, as a near?universal solvent

  12. How does the resuspension of the biofilm alter the functioning of the benthos-pelagos coupled food web of a bare mudflat in Marennes-Oléron Bay (NE Atlantic)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Béat, Blanche; Dupuy, Christine; Agogué, Hélène; Carpentier, Alexandre; Chalumeau, Julien; Como, Serena; David, Valérie; De Crignis, Margot; Duchêne, Jean-Claude; Fontaine, Camille; Feunteun, Eric; Guizien, Katell; Hartmann, Hans; Lavaud, Johann; Lefebvre, Sébastien; Lefrançois, Christel; Mallet, Clarisse; Montanié, Hélène; Mouget, Jean-Luc; Orvain, Francis; Ory, Pascaline; Pascal, Pierre-Yves; Radenac, Gilles; Richard, Pierre; Vézina, Alain F.; Niquil, Nathalie

    2014-09-01

    Intertidal mudflats are ecosystems submitted to natural hydrodynamical forcings during each tide. When the offshore water flows at high tide, a proportion of the biofilm produced at low tide can be resuspended in the water column and interact with the pelagic food web. As a consequence, the resuspension creates a link between the benthos and the pelagos, modifying their properties and the stability of the meta-ecosystem they form together. The aim of this study is to describe the consequences of the microbial biofilm resuspension on the pelagic food web, and to investigate the question of the stability of the benthos-pelagos coupling resulting from the biofilm resuspension. Two food webs were considered, corresponding to different hydrodynamical conditions in summer condition: one allowing the biofilm massive resuspension, and one without resuspension, but with particle sedimentation. The Monte-Carlo Markov Chain Linear Modelling was used to estimate the unknown flows of the food web. The comparison of the Ecological Network Analysis indices for the two food webs allowed defining their respective differences of structure and functioning. The results showed that the massive resuspension of the microbial biofilm stimulates pelagic primary production and microbial food web via a higher bacterivory. The higher activity of the whole system coupled with both a drop in the specialisation of the trophic pathways and a low cycling activity demonstrated that when massive resuspension occurs, the system is disturbed. In contrast, when sedimentation occurs, the food webs show functioning features pointing out to a higher stability of the whole system.

  13. Mesospheric constituent variations during electron precipitation events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Aikin; H. J. P. Smith

    1999-01-01

    The response of mesospheric constituents to energetic electron deposition events is modeled on a diurnal scale for two precipitation scenarios. In the first example, upper limit electron fluxes representative of diffuse aurora are employed. The other case considers the 10-day precipitation event of May 1992 observed by the Upper Atmosphere Research satellite Particle Environment Monitor (UARS\\/PEM). Since the UARS Halogen

  14. Earth GRAM-99 and Trace Constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Keller, Vernon W.

    2004-01-01

    Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-99) is an engineering-level model of Earth's atmosphere. It provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly- and geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0-27 km, GRAM thermodynamics and winds are based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. Above 120 km, GRAM is based on the NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model. In the intervening altitude region, GRAM is based on Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) climatology that also forms the basis of the 1986 COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). Atmospheric composition is represented in GRAM by concentrations of both major and minor species. Above 120 km, MET provides concentration values for N2, O2, Ar, O, He, and H. Below 120 km, species represented also include H2O, O3, N2O, CO, CH4, and CO2. At COSPAR 2002 a comparison was made between GRAM constituents below 120 km and those provided by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) climatology. No current need to update GRAM constituent climatology in that height range was identified. This report examines GRAM (MET) constituents between 100 and 1000 km altitudes. Discrepancies are noted between GRAM (MET) constituent number densities and mass density or molecular weight. Near 110 km altitude, there is up to about 25% discrepancy between MET number density and mass density (with mass density being valid and number densities requiring adjustment). Near 700 km altitude there is also up to about 25% discrepancy between MET number density and mean molecular weight (with molecular weight requiring adjustment). In neither case are MET mass density estimates invalidated. These discrepancies have been traced to MET subroutines SLV (which affects 90-170 km height range) and SLVH (which affects helium above 440 km altitude). With these discrepancies corrected, results are presented to illustrate GRAM (MET) constituent mole fractions in terms of height-latitude cross sections from 100 to 1000 km altitude, and latitude-longitude 'maps' at 450 km (approximate height of International Space Station). Plans are discussed for an update of MET (and GRAM) to correct these constituent inconsistencies and to incorporate several new thermospheric model features.

  15. Food Allergy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar L. Frick

    \\u000a IgE-mediated food allergies are part of a spectrum of adverse reactions to foods including immune and nonimmune mechanisms.\\u000a Anaphylaxis is the most serious and life-threatening manifestation of food allergy. Asthma, rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and\\u000a urticaria\\/angioedema also result from IgE-mediated reactions to foods. Not only ingestion of an allergenic food, but inhalation\\u000a of food allergens may cause reactions. There are many

  16. Food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Julie; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2011-01-01

    Food allergies affect up to 6% of young children and 3%–4% of adults. They encompass a range of disorders that may be IgE and/or non-IgE mediated, including anaphylaxis, pollen food syndrome, food-protein–induced enterocolitis syndrome, food-induced proctocolitis, eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and atopic dermatitis. Many complex host factors and properties of foods are involved in the development of food allergy. With recent advances in the understanding of how these factors interact, the development of several novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies is underway and showing promise. PMID:21364287

  17. Functional changes due to invasive species: Food web shifts at shallow Posidonia oceanica seagrass beds colonized by the alien macroalga Caulerpa racemosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deudero, S.; Box, A.; Alós, J.; Arroyo, N. L.; Marbà, N.

    2011-06-01

    Multiple stable isotope analyses were used to examine the trophic shifts at faunal assemblages within the invading macroalga Caulerpa racemosa in comparison to established communities of Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows. Sampling of macrobenthic invertebrates and their potential food sources of algal mats and seagrass meadows in Mallorca (NW Mediterranean) showed differences in species composition of faunal and primary producers among seagrass and C. racemosa. Accordingly, changes in food web structure and trophic guilds were observed, not only at species level but also at community level. The carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures of herbivores, detritivores and deposit feeders confirmed that the seagrass provided a small contribution to the macrofaunal organisms. ? 13C at the P. oceanica seagrass and at the C. racemosa assemblages differed, ranging from -6.19 to -21.20‰ and -2.67 to -31.41‰, respectively. ? 15N at the Caulerpa mats was lower (ranging from 2.64 to 10.45‰) than that at the seagrass meadows (3.51-12. 94‰). Significant differences in isotopic signatures and trophic level among trophic guilds at P. oceanica and C. racemosa were found. N fractionation at trophic guild level considerable differed between seagrass and macroalgae mats, especially for detritivores, deposit feeders, and herbivores. Filter feeders slightly differed with a relatively lower N signal at the seagrass and CR values at community level and at trophic guild level were higher in the C. racemosa invaded habitats indicating an increase in diversity of basal resource pools. C. racemosa did seem to broaden the niche diversity of the P. oceanica meadows it colonised at the base of the food web, may be due to the establishment of a new basal resource. The extent of the effects of invasive species on ecosystem functioning is a fundamental issue in conservation ecology. The observed changes in invertebrate and macrophytic composition, stable isotope signatures of concomitant species and consequent trophic guild and niche breadth shifts at invaded Caulerpa beds increase our understanding of the seagrass systems.

  18. Use of a new functional dual coating (FDC) assay to measure low toxin levels in serum and food samples following an outbreak of human botulism.

    PubMed

    Jones, Russell G A; Marks, James D

    2013-06-01

    Clostridium botulinum type A toxin is the most prevalent cause of naturally occurring outbreaks of human botulism in the world. The active dichain neurotoxin molecule is composed of a heavy chain (H-chain) of ~100 kDa with the carboxy-terminal end consisting of a receptor-binding (HC) domain, while the amino-terminal (HN) domain is linked by a critical disulfide bond to a light chain (L-chain) of ~50 kDa. Although the mouse bioassay (MBA) is traditionally used to confirm the presence of toxin in serum or food, its sensitivity is insufficient to detect low toxin levels in approximately 30 to 60?% of botulism patients. A novel FDC (functional dual coating) microtitre plate immuno-biochemical assay, which quantifies botulinum toxicity by measuring the HC domain linked with L-chain endopeptidase activity, was modified to allow human serum (lysed or unlysed) to be tested without interference from the matrix, with toxin detection down to 0.03 mouse LD50 per ml serum or 0.13 pg ml(-1) using just 100 µl of clinical samples. The assay was specific for type A toxin and could additionally be applied to whole blood and food samples. Low levels of 1 to 2 mouse LD50 per ml serum of type A toxin were quantified for the first time using the modified FDC assay in two severely intoxicated UK patients who required mechanical ventilation and antitoxin. Toxin levels in recovered food sample extracts were also detected and one MBA-negative sample was found to contain 0.32 LD50 per ml extract. The FDC assay provides a real alternative for public health laboratories to unambiguously confirm all cases of type A botulism and, due to its sensitivity, a promising new tool in toxin pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:23518650

  19. Food Allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food Allergy Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share ... National Institutes of Health for research in food allergy. We are committed to supporting efforts to help ...

  20. Food Chain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Idaho PTV

    2011-09-04

    This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K describes how energy moves through nature. You will learn about the food chain, and its members: producers, consumers, scavengers. It shows where humans fit into the food chain.

  1. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  2. Food Webs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The representation depicts 4 different food webs: Antarctica, the African Grasslands, the Australia Grasslands and a Marine environment. A separate food web for scavengers and decomposers is present in the African Grasslands section. Viewers must first build the web by moving boxes with the organism's picture and name to the appropriate spot on a grid. Clues describing food requirements are given as the boxes are moved. When the boxes are correctly placed a complete food web (with arrows) is displayed.

  3. Food Webs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Wood

    2010-10-06

    Food web reading. Build a food web and design a creature. Requires downloaded program. Download your assignment Food Web Assignment Sheet. Use the following sites and activities to answer the questions. Do not start the creature creator until Mr. Wood has seen your food web and completed assignment and allowed you to move on. Type your answers on the sheet and edit it to fit one page. When ...

  4. Harnessing functional food strategies for the health challenges of space travel—Fermented soy for astronaut nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Nicole D.; Champagne, Claude P.; Masotti, Adriana I.; Wagar, Lisa E.; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Green-Johnson, Julia M.

    2011-04-01

    Astronauts face numerous health challenges during long-duration space missions, including diminished immunity, bone loss and increased risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Changes in the intestinal flora of astronauts may contribute to these problems. Soy-based fermented food products could provide a nutritional strategy to help alleviate these challenges by incorporating beneficial lactic acid bacteria, while reaping the benefits of soy isoflavones. We carried out strain selection for the development of soy ferments, selecting strains of lactic acid bacteria showing the most effective growth and fermentation ability in soy milk ( Streptococcus thermophilus ST5, Bifidobacterium longum R0175 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052). Immunomodulatory bioactivity of selected ferments was assessed using an in vitro challenge system with human intestinal epithelial and macrophage cell lines, and selected ferments show the ability to down-regulate production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 following challenge with tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The impact of fermentation on vitamin B1 and B6 levels and on isoflavone biotransformation to agluconic forms was also assessed, with strain variation-dependent biotransformation ability detected. Overall this suggests that probiotic bacteria can be successfully utilized to develop soy-based fermented products targeted against health problems associated with long-term space travel.

  5. Food Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

  6. Food jags

    MedlinePLUS

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... mealtimes positive. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  7. Combining fructooligosaccharide and dried plum has the greatest effect on restoring bone mineral density among select functional foods and bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Arjmandi, Bahram H; Johnson, Catherine D; Campbell, Sara C; Hooshmand, Shirin; Chai, Sheau C; Akhter, Mohammed P

    2010-04-01

    Functional foods and/or their bioactive compounds playing a role in improving skeletal health have received considerable attention. The objective of the present study was to determine the extent to which certain functional foods as (1) whole, e.g., dried plum (DP), figs, dates, raisin, and blueberry, (2) fractionated, e.g., DP puree, DP juice, and DP pulp/skin, or (3) isolated, e.g., DP polyphenols, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, forms reverse bone loss in an ovariectomized (Ovx) rat model of osteoporosis. Additionally, some of these components were tested in reversal of bone loss in combination. For this purpose, 180 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 15 groups (n = 12) and either Ovx (14 groups) or sham-operated (Sham, one group). Rats were maintained on a semipurified standard diet for 45 days after surgery to establish bone loss. Thereafter, rats were placed on one of the following dietary treatments for 60 days: casein-based diet (Sham and Ovx). The remaining 13 Ovx groups were placed on various treatment diets. Results showed that diets supplemented with 5% FOS + 7.5% DP was most effective in reversing both right femur and fourth lumbar bone mineral density and fourth lumbar calcium loss while significantly decreasing trabecular separation. There were no significant effects of treatment on serum or urine measures of bone turnover. Although other treatments were good at altering some bone parameters, none had the success in altering several bone health indicators as the diets supplemented with 5% FOS + 7.5% DP. The findings of this study suggest the combination of 5% FOS + 7.5% DP is capable of reversing Ovx-induced bone loss. PMID:20132045

  8. Comparison of serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine as kidney function biomarkers in healthy geriatric cats fed reduced protein foods enriched with fish oil, L-carnitine, and medium-chain triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Yerramilli, M; Obare, E; Yerramilli, M; Yu, S; Jewell, D E

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether feeding cats reduced protein and phosphorus foods with added fish oil, L-carnitine, and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) altered serum biomarkers of renal function. Thirty-two healthy cats, mean age 14.0 (8.3-19.6) years, were fed control food or one of two experimental foods for 6 months. All foods had similar concentrations of moisture, protein, and fat (approximately 8.0%, 26.5%, and 20.0%, respectively). Both experimental foods contained added fish oil (1.5%) and L-carnitine (500?mg/kg). Experimental-food 2 also contained increased MCT (10.5% from coconut oil), 1.5% added corn oil, and reduced animal fat. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), serum biochemistries, renal function biomarkers including serum creatinine (sCr) and symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA), and plasma metabolomic profiles were measured at baseline, and at 1.5, 3, and 6 months. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Although both experimental foods altered plasma fatty acids, carnitine and related metabolites, and lysophospholipid concentrations, there were no changes in renal function biomarkers. There was, however, a benefit in using SDMA versus sCr to assess renal function in older cats with less total lean mass. Compared with cats <12 years, those >15 years had lower total lean mass (P?

  9. CONSTITUENTS OF ELEMENTARY BODIES OF VACCINIA

    PubMed Central

    Hoagland, Charles L.; Smadel, Joseph E.; Rivers, Thomas M.

    1940-01-01

    The results of chemical analyses reveal that it is possible to secure preparations of elementary bodies of vaccinia that possess a considerable uniformity in their chemical constituents. Furthermore, the amounts of certain of these constituents, namely, nitrogen, alpha-amino nitrogen after hydrolysis, phosphorus, total fat, phospholipid, neutral fat, reducing sugar after hydrolysis, and cystine, in the purified virus are significantly different from those in the various materials discarded during the process of purification. The amounts of phospholipid and neutral fat in the virus preparations are not appreciably affected by extraction with ethyl ether or by digestion with lipase, procedures which do not inactivate the virus. Cholesterol, on the contrary, is apparently completely removed by these manipulations, and hence is not considered to play an important part in the economy of the virus. PMID:19870995

  10. CONSTITUENTS OF ELEMENTARY BODIES OF VACCINIA

    PubMed Central

    Hoagland, Charles L.; Ward, S. M.; Smadel, Joseph E.; Rivers, Thomas M.

    1941-01-01

    Suspensions of purified elementary bodies of vaccinia exhibit fluorescence in the presence of ultraviolet light. This fluorescent constituent can be separated by chromatographic methods provided the virus is first denatured by acid and heat. By means of the specific protein of d-amino acid oxidase it has been possible to identify the flavin constituent as flavin-adenine-dinucleotide and show that it can participate in the oxidative deamination of d-alanine. By means of microbiological assay the flavin component has been quantitatively measured and shown to compare favorably in concentration with that observed in animal cells and in some bacteria; its concentration in virus is lower than that observed in yeast. The demonstration that it exists as an integral portion of the virus is not conclusive. So far, however, it has been separated from the elementary bodies only by means which in themselves inactivate the virus. PMID:19871122

  11. Antigenotoxic potential of certain dietary constituents.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Yogeshwer; Arora, Annu; Taneja, Pankaj

    2003-01-01

    The human diet contains a variety of compounds that exhibit chemopreventive effects towards an array of xenobiotics. In the present study, the antigenotoxic potential of selected dietary constituents including Diallyl sulfide (DAS), Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), Curcumin (CUR), and Black tea polyphenols (BTP) has been evaluated in the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation and mammalian in vivo cytogenetic assays. In addition, the anticlastogenic effect of the above dietary constituents was identified towards Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and cyclophosphamide- (CP) induced cytogenetic damage in mouse bone marrow cells. The induction of BaP and CP induced chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei formation, and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were found to be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by DAS, I3C, CUR, and BTP. Thus the study reveals the antimutagenic potential of these dietary compounds towards BaP- and CP-induced genotoxicity in microbial and mammalian test systems. PMID:12616623

  12. Food Chains and Food Webs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-14

    This lesson explains how energy travels through an ecosystem. This flow can be diagrammed in food chains and food webs as shown in the lesson's illustrations. Key terms are hyperlinked so students can easily view definitions of new concepts.

  13. Photoperiod, Ambient Temperature, and Food Availability Interact to Affect Reproductive and Immune Function in Adult Male Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory E. Demas; Randy J. Nelson

    1998-01-01

    Winter is often stressful. Increased energetic demands in winter and concurrent reductions in energy availability can lead to an energetic imbalance and compromise survival. To increase the odds of surviving winter, individuals of some nontropical rodent species have evolved mechanisms to enhance immune function in advance of harsh winter conditions. Short day lengths provide a proximate cue for enhancement of

  14. A Functional mathematical index for predicting effects of food processing on eight sweet potato(Ipomoea batatas)cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper we apply an improved functional mathematical index (FMI), modified from those presented in previous publications, to define the influence of different cooking processes of eight sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars on composition of six bioactive phenolic compounds (flavonoids). Th...

  15. Inclusion of Fermented Foods in Food Guides around the World

    PubMed Central

    Chilton, Stephanie N.; Burton, Jeremy P.; Reid, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Fermented foods have been a well-established part of the human diet for thousands of years, without much of an appreciation for, or an understanding of, their underlying microbial functionality, until recently. The use of many organisms derived from these foods, and their applications in probiotics, have further illustrated their impact on gastrointestinal wellbeing and diseases affecting other sites in the body. However, despite the many benefits of fermented foods, their recommended consumption has not been widely translated to global inclusion in food guides. Here, we present the case for such inclusion, and challenge health authorities around the world to consider advocating for the many benefits of these foods. PMID:25580813

  16. Phytochemical constituents of some Indian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Dhandapani, R.; Sabna, B.

    2008-01-01

    Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardie glycoside distribution in seven medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Aegle marmelos, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Moringa pterygosperma, Pongamia pinnata, Sida acuta and Tridax procumbens. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India. PMID:22557280

  17. [Food allergy].

    PubMed

    Kanny, G

    2001-11-01

    Food allergy is an important public health problem. The prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy is estimated at 3.24% of French population. Clinical pictures are varied: atopic dermatitis, urticaria and oedema, asthma, rhinitis, anaphylactic shock. Their comparative frequencies change with age. The risk of fatal anaphylactic reactions (acute asthma, anaphylactic shock, laryngeal oedema) is underlined. The role of risk factors on expression of food allergy is important: exercise, concomitant intake of alcohol, aspirin NAIDS, beta-blockers or converting enzyme inhibitors. The modifications of food habits and of food allergenicity by agro-alimentary technology, the consumption of novel foods and masked allergens explain the present aspects of food allergy. The role of intestinal flora and early diversification of food influence the acquisition of tolerance. The diagnosis of food allergy depends of the expert appraisement of the allergologist. Oral challenge tests distinguish sensitisation from true food allergy. Treatment is based on targeted eviction diet. Contact with food allergen must be avoided by other way: skin (cosmetic), respiratory tract and drug intake. The control of risk factors is essential. PMID:11797470

  18. Ambient methods and apparatus for rapid laser trace constituent analysis

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Stuart C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jeffery, Charles L. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring trace amounts of constituents in samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence under ambient conditions. The laser induced fluorescence is performed at a selected wavelength corresponding to an absorption state of a selected trace constituent. The intensity value of the emission decay signal which is generated by the trace constituent is compared to calibrated emission intensity decay values to determine the amount of trace constituent present.

  19. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Boni, A.A.; Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (USA)); Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA)); Huffman, G.P.; Huggins, F.E. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Objectives of this project are: (1) define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and (2) characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail; elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur; and develop, based on the information required in a. and b. above, a tractable process'' model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the nature and distribution of products. The work discussed highlights recent accomplishments in modeling synthetic char particle combustion times and temperatures with allowance for oxygen dissociation in the char boundary layer; in developing a continuum model for residual ash information and char fragmentation, permitting a more detailed time-resolved study of ash coalescence within a burning char particle; and in continuing development of the engineering model for ash particle formation. 40 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Quantitative characterization of food products by two-dimensional D-T2 and T1-T2 distribution functions in a static gradient.

    PubMed

    Hürlimann, Martin D; Burcaw, Lauren; Song, Yi-Qiao

    2006-05-01

    We present new NMR techniques to characterize food products that are based on the measurement of two-dimensional diffusion-T2 relaxation and T1-T2 relaxation distribution functions. These measurements can be performed in magnets of modest strength and low homogeneity and do not require pulsed gradients. As an illustration, we present measurements on a range of dairy products that include milks, yogurt, cream, and cheeses. The two-dimensional distribution functions generally exhibit two distinct components that correspond to the aqueous phase and the liquid fat content. The aqueous phase exhibits a relatively sharp peak, characterized by a large T1/T2 ratio of around 4. The diffusion coefficient and relaxation times are reduced from the values for bulk water by an amount that is sample specific. The fat signal has a similar signature in all samples. It is characterized by a wide T2 distribution and a diffusion coefficient of 10(-11) m2/s for a diffusion time of 40 ms, determined by bounded diffusion in the fat globules of 3 microm diameter. PMID:16300777

  1. Measurement of the antioxidant status of dietary constituents, low density lipoproteins and plasma.

    PubMed

    Rice-Evans, C; Miller, N

    1997-10-01

    There is a considerable interest in antioxidants as bioactive components of food and as nutritional agents with a role in the maintenance of health and in disease prevention. There are situations in which knowledge of the individual levels of specific antioxidant components might be less useful than the total antioxidant potency of the medium concerned, the total antioxidant activity being determined by the combined reducing activities of its constituents. Such situations might be in the understanding of the structure-activity relationships of pure antioxidant compounds, in the determination of the antioxidant contributions of specific dietary components and how this relates to the antioxidant composition and activities of the individual constituents, and in the study of decreases in plasma antioxidant activity in individuals under oxidative stress in specific disease states. This article describes the application of the ABTS radical cation method to the measurement of the total antioxidant activity in order to address these questions. PMID:9430403

  2. Food Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Roetter; H. VAN KEULEN

    2007-01-01

    The ultimate aim of activities and interventions aimed at guaranteeing food security is to arrive at a healthy and well-nourished\\u000a population that can take on, to the maximum of its capacities, the development of its own community, area or country. In these\\u000a efforts, agriculture, in its role as food producer, plays a crucial role. (Sufficient quality) food should be available

  3. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  4. Successes and failures of the constituent quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Our approach considers the model as a possible bridge between QCD and the experimental data and examines its predictions to see where these succeed and where they fail. We also attempt to improve the model by looking for additional simple assumptions which give better fits to the experimental data. But we avoid complicated models with too many ad hoc assumptions and too many free parameters; these can fit everything but teach us nothing. We define our constituent quark model by analogy with the constituent electron model of the atom and the constituent nucleon model of the nucleus. In the same way that an atom is assumed to consist only of constituent electrons and a central Coulomb field and a nucleus is assumed to consist only of constituent nucleons hadrons are assumed to consist only of their constituent valence quarks with no bag, no glue, no ocean, nor other constituents. Although these constituent models are oversimplified and neglect other constituents we push them as far as we can. Atomic physics has photons and vacuum polarization as well as constituent electrons, but the constituent model is adequate for calculating most features of the spectrum when finer details like the Lamb shift are neglected. 54 references.

  5. Modeling of Alkane Oxidation Using Constituents and Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Jasette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

    2010-01-01

    It is currently not possible to perform simulations of turbulent reactive flows due in particular to complex chemistry, which may contain thousands of reactions and hundreds of species. This complex chemistry results in additional differential equations, making the numerical solution of the equation set computationally prohibitive. Reducing the chemical kinetics mathematical description is one of several important goals in turbulent reactive flow modeling. A chemical kinetics reduction model is proposed for alkane oxidation in air that is based on a parallel methodology to that used in turbulence modeling in the context of the Large Eddy Simulation. The objective of kinetic modeling is to predict the heat release and temperature evolution. This kinetic mechanism is valid over a pressure range from atmospheric to 60 bar, temperatures from 600 K to 2,500 K, and equivalence ratios from 0.125 to 8. This range encompasses diesel, HCCI, and gas-turbine engines, including cold ignition. A computationally efficient kinetic reduction has been proposed for alkanes that has been illustrated for n-heptane using the LLNL heptane mechanism. This model is consistent with turbulence modeling in that scales were first categorized into either those modeled or those computed as progress variables. Species were identified as being either light or heavy. The heavy species were decomposed into defined 13 constituents, and their total molar density was shown to evolve in a quasi-steady manner. The light species behave either in a quasi-steady or unsteady manner. The modeled scales are the total constituent molar density, Nc, and the molar density of the quasi-steady light species. The progress variables are the total constituent molar density rate evolution and the molar densities of the unsteady light species. The unsteady equations for the light species contain contributions of the type gain/loss rates from the heavy species that are modeled consistent with the developed mathematical forms for the total constituent molar density rate evolution; indeed, examination of these gain/loss rates shows that they also have a good quasi-steady behavior with a functional form resembling that of the constituent rate. This finding highlights the fact that the fitting technique provides a methodology that can be repeatedly used to obtain an accurate representation of full or skeletal kinetic models. Assuming success with the modified reduced model, the advantage of the modeling approach is clear. Because this model is based on the Nc rate rather than on that of individual heavy species, even if the number of species increases with increased carbon number in the alkane group, providing that the quasi-steady rate aspect persists, then extension of this model to higher alkanes should be conceptually straightforward, although it remains to be seen if the functional fits would remain valid or would require reconstruction.

  6. Central Administration of Leptin to Ovariectomized Ewes Inhibits Food Intake without Affecting the Secretion of Hormones from the Pituitary Gland: Evidence for a Dissociation of Effects on Appetite and Neuroendocrine Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BELINDA A. HENRY; JAMES W. GODING; WARREN S. ALEXANDER; ALAN J. TILBROOK; BENEDICT J. CANNY; FRANK DUNSHEA; ALEXANDRA RAO; ASHLEY MANSELL; IAIN J. CLARKE

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the effect of leptin on food intake and neuroen- docrine function in ovariectomized ewes. Groups (n 5 5) received intracerebroventricular infusions of either vehicle or leptin (20 mg\\/h) for 3 days and were blood sampled ove r6ho ndays 21, 2, and for 3 h on day 3 relative to the onset of the infusion. The animals were

  7. Glycosidic constituents from in vitro Anoectochilus formosanus.

    PubMed

    Du, X M; Sun, N Y; Irino, N; Shoyama, Y

    2000-11-01

    The glycosidic constituents of whole plants of Anoectochilus formosanus propagated by tissue culture were investigated. A new compound, 2-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxymethyl)-5-hydroxymethylfuran, along with the known compounds, 3-(R)-3-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxybutanolide (kinsenoside), 3-(R)-3-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxybutanoic acid, 1-O-isopropyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, (R)-(+)-3,4-dihydroxy-butanoic acid y-lactone, 4-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)benzyl alcohol, (6R,9S)-9-hydroxy-megastigma-4,7-dien-3-one-9-O-beta-glucopy ranoside, and corchoionoside C were isolated. PMID:11086921

  8. Fatty Acid Composition and Volatile Constituents of Protaetia brevitarsis Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Hyelim; Youn, Kumju; Kim, Minji; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

    2013-01-01

    A total of 48 different volatile oils were identified form P. brevitarsis larvae by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acids (48.67%) were detected as the major group in P. brevitarsis larvae comprising the largest proportion of the volatile compounds, followed by esters (19.84%), hydrocarbons (18.90%), alcohols (8.37%), miscellaneous (1.71%), aldehydes (1.35%) and terpenes (1.16%). The major volatile constituents were 9-hexadecenoic acid (16.75%), 6-octadecenoic acid (14.88%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (11.06%). The composition of fatty acid was also determined by GC analysis and 16 fatty acids were identified. The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (C18:1, 64.24%) followed by palmitic acid (C16:0, 15.89%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 10.43%) and linoleic acid (C18:2, 4.69%) constituting more than 95% of total fatty acids. The distinguished characteristic of the fatty acid profile of P. brevitarsis larvae was the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (80.54% of total fatty acids) versus saturated fatty acids (19.46% of total fatty acids). Furthermore, small but significant amounts of linoleic, linolenic and ?-linolenic acids bestow P. brevitarsis larvae with considerable nutritional value. The novel findings of the present study provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of the insect as a nutritionally promising food source and a possibility for more effective utilization. PMID:24471125

  9. Food Groups and Nutrients

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Perry

    2007-11-08

    State core objective: 3rd grade Health Standard 6 Objective 2. Students will learn the basic nutrient groups and be able to identify the functions of those nutrients. There is an interactive food pyramid for you to explore and several games that will help you learn how each nutrient is used in our bodies! Learning about nutrition is fun and useful! When you have learned all about the nutrient groups you will create your own food pyramid with your favorite foods and how they help your body. There are five basic food groups: Grains, vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy. These groups are organized into a pyramid, showing about how much of each you should eat each day. There is also a small section for sugars and fats. This pyramid will let you explore what ...

  10. Statistical analysis of constituent particles in 7075-T6 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, D. G.; Wei, R. P.; Wang, M. Z.

    2006-11-01

    Pitting corrosion is a primary degradation mechanism that affects the durability and integrity of aluminum alloy structures especially in aircraft. The heterogeneity of aluminum alloys is directly responsible for pitting corrosion because about 200 constituent particles per mm2 are on polished surfaces. Corrosion pits commence at surface particles and evolve into severe pits by sustained growth through particle clusters. Severe pits are nuclei for subsequent corrosion fatigue cracking. Thus, heterogeneous clusters of constituent particles are critical to the quality of aluminum alloys subjected to deleterious environments. Models for structural reliability including corrosion fundamentally depend on quantitative descriptions of the spatial statistics of the particles and particle clusters, including their location, size, and density. The primary purpose of this effort is to statistically estimate the distribution functions of the key geometrical properties of the constituent particles in 7075-T6 aluminum alloy and their role in pitting corrosion.

  11. Hydrogeomorphology and river impoundment affect food-chain length of diverse Neotropical food webs

    E-print Network

    Hoeinghaus, David J.

    Hydrogeomorphology and river impoundment affect food-chain length of diverse Neotropical food webs-900 Parana´, Brasil. Food-chain length is a central characteristic of ecological communities that affects community structure and ecosystem function. What determines the length of food chains is not well resolved

  12. Food Allergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of food allergy appears to be increasing, as is our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, treatment options, identifying, and characterizing allergenic proteins within food sources. The aim of this book is to translate how this vast array of information may fit into development o...

  13. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes and for the control of insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  14. Food Allergies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish and shellfish. These eight foods account for 90% of food allergies. Most people ... outgrow allergies to milk, eggs, soybean products and wheat, not all do. People rarely outgrow allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish ... Anaphylaxis Network Questions to Ask Your ...

  15. Food allergens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Aalberse

    1997-01-01

    A food allergen may be defined as a substance that reacts with IgE antibodies, induces allergic sensitisation or induces allergic reactions. Some allergens only induce allergic sensitisation but do not provoke symptoms, while others bind IgE but do not induce mast cell degranulation. There is no common structure that can predict whether a given antigen may be a strong food

  16. Food & Community

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    With an increased concern over the nature of food production across the globe, it would make sense that a number of organizations and foundations would see fit to address these conditions through any number of crucial initiatives. Launched in 2000, Food & Society is one such initiative. Created by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, the purpose of the initiative is â??to support the creation and expansion of community-based food systems that are locally owned and controlled, environmentally sound, and health promoting.â? On their homepage, visitors can sign up to receive news updates and look through a calendar of upcoming events. Another highlight of the homepage is the â??Food in the Newsâ?, which features the latest information on such topics as farmersâ?? markets and recent reports, such as â??Perceptions of the U.S. Food System: What and How Americans Think About Their Foodâ?.

  17. Food porn.

    PubMed

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

  18. Importance of functional ingredients in yak milk-derived food on health of Tibetan nomads living under high-altitude stress: a review.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xusheng; Long, Ruijun; Kreuzer, Michael; Ding, Luming; Shang, Zhanhuan; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Yang; Cui, Guangxin

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan nomads have lived since ancient times in the unique and harsh environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau with average altitudes over 4000 m. These people have been able to live and multiply healthily over numerous generations under the extreme stress of high-altitude environment, including cold, hypoxia, and strong ultraviolet radiation, and with a simple diet devoid of vegetables and fruits for most of the year. Their survival depends heavily on yak milk, and its products comprise the main portion of their daily diet. In this review, yak milk and its derived products are examined in detail and compared with milk from other ruminant species. Yak milk products seem to be particularly rich in functional and bioactive components, which may play a role in maintaining the health status of Tibetan nomads. This includes particular profiles of amino acids and fatty acids, and high levels of antioxidant vitamins, specific enzymes, and bacteria with probiotic activity (yoghurt is the main food). Based on that, it is proposed that the Tibetan nomads have developed a nutritional mechanism adapted to cope with the specific challenges posed by the environment of the world's highest plateau. Systematic studies are required to demonstrate this in a more mechanistic way. PMID:24188303

  19. Gentio-oligosaccharides from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-1426 dextransucrase as prebiotics and as a supplement for functional foods with anti-cancer properties.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Damini; Goyal, Arun

    2015-02-11

    Gentio-oligosaccharides (GnOS) were synthesized by the acceptor reaction of dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-1426 with gentiobiose and sucrose. GnOS were purified by gel permeation chromatography using a Bio-Gel P-2 column and identified by mass spectrometry. The purified GnOS (degree of polymerization ?3) were investigated for their in vitro prebiotic and cytotoxic activity. GnOS exhibited a significantly lower degree of digestibility of 18.1% by simulated human gastric juice (pH 1.0) and 7.1% by human ?-amylase (pH 7.0) after 6 h, whereas inulin, a standard prebiotic, showed 39.7% and 12.8% of digestibility, respectively. The prebiotic score showed that GnOS significantly supported the growth of probiotics such as Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus and was comparable to that of inulin. The selective inhibitory effect of GnOS on human colon carcinoma (HT-29) cells revealed its potential as an anti-cancer agent that can serve as a functional food additive for the benefit of human health. PMID:25524369

  20. Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT) is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF). The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread. PMID:21995616

  1. Inhibition of Cancer Cell Proliferation and Antiradical Effects of Decoction, Hydroalcoholic Extract, and Principal Constituents of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.

    PubMed

    Statti, Giancarlo; Marrelli, Mariangela; Conforti, Filomena; Spagnoletti, Antonella; Tacchini, Massimo; Fimognari, Carmela; Brognara, Eleonora; Gambari, Roberto; Sacchetti, Gianni; Guerrini, Alessandra

    2015-06-01

    Indian Sarsaparilla (Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.) is widely used in Indian traditional medicine. In the present work, we explored the effects of decoction, traditional Ayurvedic preparation, and hydroalcoholic extract, a phytocomplex more traditionally studied and commercialized as food supplement in western medicine, from the roots as possible source of chemicals with new functional potential linked to their nutritional uses. The antiproliferative and antioxidant properties were assayed. To test antiproliferative affects, different cancer cell lines, growing both as monolayers (CaCo2, MCF-7, A549, K562, MDA-MB-231, Jurkat, HepG2, and LoVo) and in suspension (K562 and Jurkat) were used. The decoction showed strong activity on HepG2 cells, while the hydroalcoholic extracts were active on HepG2, LoVo, MCF-7, K562, and Jurkat cell lines. Weak inhibition of cancer cell proliferation was observed for the principal constituents of the preparations: 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid, and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that were tested alone. The antiradical activity was tested with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt tests and inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Interesting result has also been obtained for hydroalcoholic extract regarding genoprotective potential (58.79% of inhibition at 37.5?µg/mL). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25753739

  2. Functional analysis of the gene encoding immunity to lactacin F, lafI, and its use as a Lactobacillus-specific, food-grade genetic marker.

    PubMed Central

    Allison, G E; Klaenhammer, T R

    1996-01-01

    Lactacin F is a two-component class II bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus johnsonii VPI 11088. The laf operon is composed of the bacteriocin structural genes, lafA and lafX, and a third open reading frame, ORFZ. Two strategies were employed to study the function of ORFZ. This gene was disrupted in the chromosome of NCK64, a lafA729 lafX ORFZ derivative of VPI 11088. A disruption cassette consisting of ORFZ interrupted with a cat gene was cloned into pSA3 and introduced into NCK64. Manipulation of growth temperatures and antibiotic selection resulted in homologous recombination which disrupted the chromosomal copy of ORFZ with the cat gene. This ORFZ mutation resulted in loss of immunity to lactacin F but had little effect on production of LafX, which is not bactericidal without LafA. Expression of ORFZ in this ORFZ- background rescued the immune phenotype. Expression of ORFZ in a bacteriocin-sensitive derivative of VPI 11088 also reestablished immunity. These data indicate that ORFZ, renamed lafI, encodes the immunity factor for the lactacin F system. The sensitivity of various Lactobacillus strains to lactacin F was further evaluated. Lactacin F inhibited 11 strains including several members of the A1, A2, A3, A4, B1, and B2 L. acidophilus homology groups. Expression of lafI in bacteriocin-sensitive strains L. acidophilus ATCC 4356, L. acidophilus NCFM/N2, L. fermentum NCDO1750, L. gasseri ATCC 33323, and L. johnsonii ATCC 33200 provided immunity to lactacin F. Furthermore, it was shown that lactacin F production by VPI 11088 could be used to select for L. fermentum NCDO1750 transformants containing the recombinant plasmid encoding LafI. The data demonstrate that lafI is functional in heterologous hosts, suggesting that it may be a suitable food-grade genetic marker for use in lactobacillus species. PMID:8953716

  3. Enzymatic solubilization of nitrogenous constituents of carrots 

    E-print Network

    Curry, James Cannon

    1971-01-01

    rm derived ira Tra et a ~aan nina; and iitin, a ~ enzyme obtained from the latex of the fig tree (Ficus carica), were chosen. A-12-C was chosen because it had been investigated previ- ously in the food processing context and the reported data could...

  4. Variability of volatile constituents in Artemisia maritima in western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Jaitak, Vikas; Singh, Bikram; Kaul, V K

    2008-05-10

    Chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia maritima, collected from three different high altitude locations in western Himalaya was studied by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry. Twenty-five constituents were identified in the oil distilled from the sample from Pooh, of which 1,8-cineole (23.8%) and chrysanthenone (17.54%) were the major constituents. Twenty volatile constituents were identified from the sample collected from Rhongtong pass, of which chrysanthenone (38.1%) and 1,8-cineole (37.3%) were the major constituents. In the oil distilled from the sample collected from Lahaul-Spiti 28 constituents were identified, of which 1,8-cineole (44.22%), camphor (9.16%) and borneol (10.94%) were the major constituents. In this sample chrysanthenone was present in very low percentage. PMID:18569692

  5. Food-Borne Noroviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noroviruses have emerged as the number one cause of food-borne illness in the United States. In this book chapter, the current molecular classification criteria are described as well as the current information regarding the molecular biology of the virus and its putative gene functions. Identifica...

  6. Space Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  7. Food Grab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    1979-01-01

    In this outdoor activity, learners design devices that will catch prey or gather plants. After testing their devices, learners investigate the food-gathering adaptations of animals in their activity site. Activity background information gives multiple examples of real animals and their food-grabbing mechanisms including shark jaws, rodent teeth, hawk talons, etc. Learners consider the concept of food-gathering adaptations of animals and compare them with human methods. An extension of this activity is observing various animals around the neighborhood as they capture prey and eat plants.

  8. Constituent gluons and the static quark potential

    E-print Network

    Jeff Greensite; Adam P. Szczepaniak

    2015-05-19

    We suggest that Hamiltonian matrix elements between physical states in QCD might be approximated, in Coulomb gauge, by "lattice-improved" tree diagrams; i.e. tree diagram contributions with dressed ghost, transverse gluon, and Coulomb propagators obtained from lattice simulations. Such matrix elements can be applied to a variational treatment of hadronic states which include constituent gluons. As an illustration and first application of this hybrid approach, we derive a variational estimate of the heavy quark potential for distances up to 2.5 fm. The Coulomb string tension in SU(3) gauge theory is about a factor of four times greater than the asymptotic string tension. In our variational approach, using for simplicity a single variational parameter, we can reduce this overshoot by nearly the factor required. The building blocks of our approach are Coulomb gauge propagators, and in this connection we present new lattice results for the ghost and transverse gluon propagators in position space.

  9. Constituent gluons and the static quark potential

    E-print Network

    Greensite, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    We suggest that Hamiltonian matrix elements between physical states in QCD might be approximated, in Coulomb gauge, by "lattice-improved" tree diagrams; i.e. tree diagram contributions with dressed ghost, transverse gluon, and Coulomb propagators obtained from lattice simulations. Such matrix elements can be applied to a variational treatment of hadronic states which include constituent gluons. As an illustration and first application of this hybrid approach, we derive a variational estimate of the heavy quark potential for distances up to 2.5 fm. The Coulomb string tension in SU(3) gauge theory is about a factor of four times greater than the asymptotic string tension. In our variational approach, using for simplicity a single variational parameter, we can reduce this overshoot by nearly the factor required. The building blocks of our approach are Coulomb gauge propagators, and in this connection we present new lattice results for the ghost and transverse gluon propagators in position space.

  10. [Chemical constituents from rizomes of Homalomena occulta].

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Rui; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 was used to study the chemical constituents of Homalomena occulta. The chemical structures of the separated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data analyseS. Twelve compounds were obtained and identified as 5-pentylresorcinol-b-glucoside (1), protocatechuic acid (2), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), vanillic acid (4), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancarboxylic acid (5), 2-furoic acid (6), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (7), (R) -malic acid (8), (R) -dimethyl malate (9), trimethyl 1,2,3-propanetricarboxylate (10), 4-hydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-one (11) and (1S, 2S, 4S)-p-menthane-1,2, 4-triol (12). Among them, compound 1 was a new natural product, and compounds 4-12 were isolated from the genus for the first time. PMID:24199565

  11. Isentropic Compression Studies of Energetic Composite Constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Melvin; Hall, Clint; Hobbs, Mike; Gustavsen, Rick; Hooks, Daniel; Sheffield, Steve

    2007-06-01

    A series of quasi-isentropic magnetic pulse compression experiments using the Sandia Z accelerator and DICE small pulser have provided new insights in material behavior of the various constituents typically used in energetic composites. In this presentation, we overview a method used to determine appropriate constitutive and EOS property data using the combination of forward and backward procedures with optimization software. Sensitivity analysis is presented to assess the uncertainties of the experimental measurements and their effects in determining material response. These data interrogation techniques were applied at a ramp loading condition up to 50 Kbar over duration of ˜500 ns in panel configurations containing explosive crystals (HMX and RDX), binders (Estane, Teflon, Kel F and HTPB) and composites (PBX9501, PBS9501, Al/Teflon).

  12. Mechanical Properties of Constituent Phases in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazeli, K.; Hogan, J. D.; El Mir, C.; Ramesh, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The strength, failure and fragmentation of planetary materials play important roles in determining the consequence of asteroid collisions. Following disruption, additional mechanisms (i.e., thermal erosion, continued impact) may occur. Understanding the short-duration, impact failure and its failure processes are important when interpreting these catastrophic impacts is of interest. In addition, determining physical and mechanical properties of asteroids and lunar rock components could potentially provide an insightful knowledge about the mechanistic driven events that lead to formation and evolution of solar system. In this study, we investigate the stress-state and strain-rate dependent behavior of meteorite (GRO 85209). The mechanical response of the meteorite's constituent phases are evaluated and linked to the failure processes.

  13. [Chemical constituents of Camellia sinensis var. assamica].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong-Bo; Li, Bao-Min; Liu, Chao; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2013-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Camellia sinensis var. assamica. The compounds were isolated by NKA Macroporous resin silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, RP-C18 column chromatographies and semi-preparative HPLC,and their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Thirteen compounds were isolated and identified as caffeine (1), theobromine (2), gallic acid (3), (+)-catechin (4), ampelopsin (5), (-)-epicatechin (6), (-)-epiafzelechin (7), (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (8), (-)-epiafzelechin-3-O-gallate (9) , (+)-catechin-3-O-gallate (10) , (+)-afzelechin-3-O-gallate (11), quemefin-3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosid (12), and (-)-epicatechin-3-O-p-hydroxybenzoate (13). Compounds 2, 5, 10-13 were isolated from this plant for the first time, and compound 11 is a new natural product. PMID:23944074

  14. Relativistic constituent quark model with infrared confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Branz, Tanja; Faessler, Amand; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Ivanov, Mikhail A. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Koerner, Juergen G. [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2010-02-01

    We refine the relativistic constituent quark model developed in our previous papers to include the confinement of quarks. It is done, first, by introducing the scale integration in the space of {alpha} parameters, and, second, by cutting this scale integration on the upper limit which corresponds to an infrared cutoff. In this manner one removes all possible thresholds present in the initial quark diagram. The cutoff parameter is taken to be the same for all physical processes. We adjust other model parameters by fitting the calculated quantities of the basic physical processes to available experimental data. As an application, we calculate the electromagnetic form factors of the pion and the transition form factors of the {omega} and {eta} Dalitz decays.

  15. Bioactive constituents of Cirsium japonicum var. australe.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wan-Chun; Wu, Yang-Chang; Dankó, Balázs; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Hsieh, Chi-Ting; Tsai, Yu-Chi; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Martins, Ana; Hohmann, Judit; Hunyadi, Attila; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2014-07-25

    Cirsium japonicum var. australe, used as a folk medicine in Taiwan, has been employed traditionally in the treatment of diabetes and inflammatory symptoms. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of its ethanolic extract, utilizing centrifugal partition chromatography monitored by DPPH-TLC analysis, led to the isolation of three new acetylenic phenylacrylic acid esters (1-3) and two new polyacetylenes (4 and 5), together with seven known compounds (6-12). The structures of 1-5 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The absolute configurations of 4 and 7 were determined utilizing Mosher's method and ECD/CD experiments. The DPPH scavenging activity of the constituents isolated from the C. japonicum var. australe ethanolic extract was evaluated. The potential antidiabetic activity of some of the isolates was evaluated using in vitro cellular glucose uptake and oil red staining assays. PMID:25025240

  16. [Chemical constituents of bufadienolides in cinobufacino injection].

    PubMed

    Han, Ling-Yu; Si, Nan; Liu, Jun-Qiu; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Yang, Jian; Bian, Bao-Lin; Wang, Hong-Jie

    2014-11-01

    Cinobufacino injection is purified from water extraction of the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans, which has been widely used for various cancers in clinic with significant anti-tumor effects. Bufadienolides were regarded as the main active constituents of cinobufacino injection in previous reports. In present study, 6 bufadienolides were isolated and purified from Cinobufacino injection. Their structures were identified as 3-epi-?-bufarenogin (1), ?-bufarenogin (2), 3-epi-arenobufagin (3), arenobufagin (4), 3-epi-gamabufotalin (5), and 3-oxo-arenobufagin (6), separately. Among them, 1 and 3 were new compounds, 5 and 6 were new natural products. Compounds 1, 2 and compounds 3, 4 were two pairs configuration isomers at C-3, separately. PMID:25757284

  17. Phenolic constituents of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels.

    PubMed

    Maranz, Steven; Wiesman, Zeev; Garti, Nissim

    2003-10-01

    Analysis of the phenolic constituents of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels by LC-MS revealed eight catechin compounds-gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, gallocatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate-as well as quercetin and trans-cinnamic acid. The mean kernel content of the eight catechin compounds was 4000 ppm (0.4% of kernel dry weight), with a 2100-9500 ppm range. Comparison of the profiles of the six major catechins from 40 Vitellaria provenances from 10 African countries showed that the relative proportions of these compounds varied from region to region. Gallic acid was the major phenolic compound, comprising an average of 27% of the measured total phenols and exceeding 70% in some populations. Colorimetric analysis (101 samples) of total polyphenols extracted from shea butter into hexane gave an average of 97 ppm, with the values for different provenances varying between 62 and 135 ppm of total polyphenols. PMID:14518954

  18. Food Chain Security and Vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Sébastien; Delvenne, Pierre; Claisse, Frédéric

    In our contemporary societies, the food chain could be defined as a macro-technical system, which depends on a wide variety of actors and risks analysis methods. In this contribution, risks related to the food chain are defined in terms of "modern risks" (Beck 1992). The whole national economic sector of food production/distribution is vulnerable to a local accident, which can affect the functioning of food chain, the export programs and even the political system. Such a complex socio-technical environment is undoubtedly vulnerable to intentional act such as terrorism.

  19. Simulation approach to understanding the processes that structure food webs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. I. Jager; R. H. Gardner; D. L. DeAngelis; W. M. Post

    1984-01-01

    A simulation model of food web dynamics, WEB, was constructed and used in Monte Carlo experiments to study the relationship between structure and function in food webs. Four main experiments were designed using WEB. The first tested the robustness of food web structures at equilibrium to variations in the functional response of predators in the food web to the densities

  20. Food Justice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-03-02

    In this adaptation of a video that high school students created in collaboration with the Environmental Justice League of Rhode Island, learn what's whack about our current food systems and the many actions individuals can take to address these issues.

  1. Food Allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tools Print this page Get email updates Order publications Volunteer for Clinical Studies Help people who are suffering from chronic, serious, or life-threatening illnesses related to food allergy by volunteering for NIAID clinical ...

  2. Food Process Engineering Food Safety and Technology

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    Food Process Engineering Food Safety and Technology Food Safety and Technology National Center for Food Safety and Technology IIT Moffett Campus 6502 S. Archer Road Summit-Argo, IL 60501 708 Ravishankar The National Center for Food Safety and Technology (NCFST), with IIT faculty, U.S. Food and Drug

  3. LOCAL FOOD DIGEST: Food Hub Overview

    E-print Network

    Netoff, Theoden

    the local foods value chain. Very low profit margins, lack of subsidies, dispersed rural populationsLOCAL FOOD DIGEST: Food Hub Overview Greg Schweser Associate Director, Sustainable Local Foods, University of Minnesota Humphrey School of Public Affairs LOCAL FOOD MOVEMENT Food hub development has become

  4. Functional Foods from Cereal Grains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiwan S. Sidhu; Yearul Kabir; Fatma G. Huffman

    2007-01-01

    Cereal grains and germs are good sources of various phytochemicals. The major phytochemicals present in cereal grains are: phenolic acids, flavones, phytic acid, flavanoids, coumarins, and terpenes. Cereal germs are good sources of ferulic acid, phytic acid, glutathione, and phytosterols. In addition, the cereal germ acontains the vitamins E, B1, B2, and B3, the minerals P, K, Mg, Ca, Zn,

  5. Diabetes dietary management alters responses to food pictures in brain regions associated with motivation and emotion: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Chechlacz; P. Rotshtein; S. Klamer; K. Porubská; S. Higgs; D. Booth; A. Fritsche; H. Preissl; H. Abele; N. Birbaumer; A. Nouwen

    2009-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  We hypothesised that living with type 2 diabetes would enhance responses to pictures of foods in brain regions known to be\\u000a involved in learnt food sensory motivation and that these stronger activations would relate to scores for dietary adherence\\u000a in diabetes and to measures of potential difficulties in adherence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We compared brain responses to food images of 11 people with

  6. Food and Your Bones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You are here Home » Food and Your Bones Food and Your Bones The food that you eat ... taking multivitamins or supplements . Good-for-Your-Bones Foods Food Nutrient Dairy products such as low-fat ...

  7. Understanding Food Labels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  8. Naturally Occurring Lactococcal Plasmid pAH90 Links Bacteriophage Resistance and Mobility Functions to a Food-Grade Selectable Marker

    PubMed Central

    O' Sullivan, David; Ross, R. Paul; Twomey, Denis P.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Hill, Colin; Coffey, Aidan

    2001-01-01

    The bacteriophage resistance plasmid pAH90 (26,490 bp) is a natural cointegrate plasmid formed via homologous recombination between the type I restriction-modification specificity determinants (hsdS) of two smaller lactococcal plasmids, pAH33 (6,159 bp) and pAH82 (20,331 bp), giving rise to a bacteriophage-insensitive mutant following phage challenge (D. O'Sullivan, D. P. Twomey, A. Coffey, C. Hill, G. F. Fitzgerald, and R. P. Ross, Mol. Microbiol. 36:866–876; 2000). In this communication we provide evidence that the recombination event is favored by phage infection. The entire nucleotide sequence of plasmid pAH90 was determined and found to contain 24 open reading frames (ORFs) responsible for phenotypes which include restriction-modification, phage adsorption inhibition, plasmid replication, cadmium resistance, cobalt transport, and conjugative mobilization. The cadmium resistance property, encoded by the cadA gene, which has an associated regulatory gene (cadC), is of particular interest, as it facilitated the selection of pAH90 in other phage-sensitive lactococci after electroporation. In addition, we report the identification of a group II self-splicing intron bounded by two exons which have the capacity to encode a relaxase implicated in conjugation in gram-positive bacteria. The functionality of this intron was evident by demonstrating splicing in vivo. Given that pAH90 encodes potent phage defense systems which act at different stages in the phage lytic cycle, the linkage of these with a food-grade selectable marker on a replicon that can be mobilized among lactococci has significant potential for natural strain improvement for industrial dairy fermentations which are susceptible to phage inhibition. PMID:11157264

  9. Global patterns of aquatic food chain length

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jake Vander Zanden; William W. Fetzer

    2007-01-01

    Food chain length is a fundamental ecosystem property, and plays a central role in determining ecosystem functioning. Recent advances in the field of stable isotope ecology allow the estimation of food chain length (FCL) from stable nitrogen isotope (d15N) data. We conducted a global literature synthesis and estimated FCL for 219 lake, stream, and marine ecosystems. Streams had shorter food

  10. Food emulsifiers—Science and art

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nat H. Nash; Lawrence M. Brickman

    1972-01-01

    General classifications of food emulsifiers are presented, and their functions are discussed. Examples of many food products\\u000a are given, and recommended emulsifier usage levels are presented. Some of the food applications cited include: cakes, icings,\\u000a toppings, bread, sweet goods, frozen desserts, coffee whiteners, peanut butter, margarine and confectionery coatings.

  11. Food Stamps. Learning Packet No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Washington, DC. Clearinghouse for Offender Literacy Programs.

    This package of instructional materials is designed to aid adults in prison to perform the functional skill of applying for food stamps. The materials consist of instructions for teachers, a sample application for food stamps, a student's work sheet and answer sheet, vocabulary flash cards, and resource materials on food stamps. (MKM)

  12. Saffron (Crocus sativus) aqueous extract and its constituent crocin reduces stress-induced anorexia in mice.

    PubMed

    Halataei, Bahar-al-Sadat; Khosravi, Maryam; Arbabian, Sedigheh; Sahraei, Hedayat; Golmanesh, Leila; Zardooz, Homeira; Jalili, Cyrus; Ghoshooni, Hassan

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, the effects of an ethanol and aqueous extract of saffron Crocus sativus and its constituents safranal and crocin on the stress-induced reduction in food intake, weight gain and anorexic time in mice were investigated. Male albino mice (20-25?g) were irregularly exposed to a trial of electroshock stress for 7?days. Then, the anorexic time as well as the animal's food intake and weight were recorded. In addition, blood samples were obtained on days 1 and 7 for corticosterone determination. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the aqueous but not the ethanol extract (10, 50 and 100?mg/kg) significantly reduced the anorexic time. The results were similar for crocin (1, 5 and 10?mg/kg; i.p.). In addition, a reduction in weight gain was observed in the controls as well as in the groups that received alcohol extract or safranal. However, this was not observed in animals treated with aqueous extract or crocin. The plasma corticosterone level did not increase in the aqueous extract and crocin treated animals. It can be concluded that the saffron aqueous extract and its constituent crocin reduce side effects of electroshock stress in mice. PMID:21503997

  13. Original article Major constituents, leptin, and non-protein nitrogen

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Major constituents, leptin, and non-protein nitrogen compounds in mares' colostrum of the major constituents differed significantly in pre-suckle colostrum from subsequent samples. Leptin levels) and skimmed (7.8 ng HE.mL­1 ± 0.52 ng.mL­1, SEM) pre-suckle colostrum, declined sharply at 6 hours postpartum

  14. 2005 Nature Publishing Group The abundances of constituents of

    E-print Network

    Atreya, Sushil

    from the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS), including altitude profiles of the constituents? The Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS)3 on the Huygens probe was designed to help answer, isotopic ratios and trace species (including organic compounds). The primary constituents were confirmed

  15. Budding of Liposomes Role of Intrinsic Shape of Membrane Constituents

    E-print Network

    Iglic, Ales

    CHAPTER 8 Budding of Liposomes ­ Role of Intrinsic Shape of Membrane Constituents Ales Iglic1,Ã-Constituent Energy 255 3. Liposomes Composed of a Single Kind of Phospholipid Molecules 256 3.1. The two-state model of the pear shape and the ADE model 269 4. Spherical Budding in Liposomes Composed of Two Kinds of Molecules

  16. Volatile Constituents of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Fruits from Cuba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge A. Pino; Ariel Ortega; Aristides Rosado

    1999-01-01

    Volatile constituents obtained from four cultivars of guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruits by simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction, and analyzed by GC\\/MS. More than 40 compounds were identified in each cultivar, 17 of which have been identified for the first time as volatile constituents of guava. Each cultivar has a typical composition, characterized by a specific ratio between die main components

  17. Food preservative based on propolis: Bacteriostatic activity of propolis polyphenols and flavonoids upon Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enzo A. Tosi; Edmundo Ré; Marta E. Ortega; Ampelio F. Cazzoli

    2007-01-01

    Propolis was tested as food preserver, due its recognized bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties. Furthermore, most propolis components are natural constituents of food and recognized as safe substances. Fifteen propolis from Santa Fe, Argentine in 20% w\\/w ethanolic extracts, were tested upon Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 by agar diffusion and plate culture methods. Considering propolis physicochemical characteristics and inhibitory effects, tested

  18. The EPR detection of foods preserved with the use of ionizing radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Stachowicz; G. Burlinska; J. Michalik; A. Dziedzic-Goclawska; K. Ostrowski

    1995-01-01

    Solid constituents extracted from irradiated foods have been examined by the epr (esr) spectroscopy. It has been proved that some epr active species produced by radiation in foods are specific and stable enough to be used for the detection of irradiation treatment. The most promising results have been obtained with bones extracted from frozen raw meat (beef, pork, poultry and

  19. Nuclear pore complex: novel glycoprotein constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.I.

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the production of anti-nuclear monoclonal antibodies, and their use in identifying some of the constituents of the nuclear pore complex. Studies are described using an antibody that recognizes predominantly a 62 kD protein (p62) of rat liver nuclei. This protein remains associated with the nuclear pore complex-lamina fraction that results from treatment of nuclei with DNase, RNase and nonionic detergent. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed a strikingly punctate pattern of nuclear rim staining. Using immunogold electron microscopy, p62 was specifically localized to the pore complex. Pulse chase analysis of labelled tissue culture cells showed that p62 is synthesized as a soluble cytoplasmic precursor. Additionally, p62 is posttranslationally modified by the addition of GlcNAc residues. These proteins have been shown to contain O-linked monosaccharidic GlcNAc residues. Pulse chase labelling of tissue culture cells with /sup 35/S-methionine indicates that most of the sugar is added within 5 min of synthesis, when p62 is soluble and cytosolic. Tunicamycin does not prevent glycosylation and the M/sub r/ of p62 is not affected by endoglycosidase H. Thus, the addition of GlcNAc appears to be carried out by a cytoplasmically disposed transferase and is clearly distinct from the N- and O-linked glycosylation pathways in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex.

  20. Vertical constituent transport in the mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Summers, Michael E.; Bevilacqua, Richard M.; Deland, Matthew T.; Allen, Mark

    1987-01-01

    Ground-based microwave spectroscopy measurements of mesospheric CO and H2O vertical mixing ratio profiles are used to infer vertical mixing rates in the upper mesosphere. The CO and H2O data consistently imply vertical eddy diffusion coefficients in the 70- to 85-km region of 100,000-200,000 sq cm/s during spring through summer at midlatidues. Although chemical acceleration of vertical transport is substantial for O and O3, below the mesopause, the divergences of their associated fluxes are modest, with at most a factor of 2 effect on the concentrations of O and O3 for measured variability in gravity wave activity. Comparison of Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) O3 data with model results reinforces the conclusions of slow vertical mixing in the upper mesosphere as a consequence of the reduced HO(x) catalytic loss of odd oxygen. The changes in chemical rate constants recommended by Rusch and Eckman (1985), in conjunction with slow vertical mixing, yield good agreement with SME O3 data. The slow vertical mixing deduced in this study is consistent with upper limits obtained from studies of the mesospheric heat budget and could be construed as evidence for an advectively controlled mesosphere. A comparison of the vertical eddy diffusion coefficients for momentum stresses, constituent transport, and heat transport suggests that the eddy Prandtl number must be of order 10.

  1. [Chemical constituents from roots of Andrographis paniculata].

    PubMed

    Xu, Chong; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of the roots of Andrographis paniculata, 28 compounds were isolated and identified from the 80% ethanol extract. There are 20 flavonoids: 5, 5'-dihydroxy-7, 8, 2'-trimetroxyflavone (1), 5-hydroxy-7, 8, 2', 6'-tetramethoxyflavone (2), 5, 3'-dihydroxy-7, 8, 4'-trimethoxyflavone (3), 2'-hydroxy-5, 7, 8-trimethoxyflavone (4), 5-hydroxy-7, 8, 2', 3', 4'-pentamethoxyflavone (6), wightin (7), 5, 2', 6'-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone 2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), 5, 7, 8, 2'-tetramethoxyflavone (10), 5-hydroxy-7, 8-dimethoxyflavanone (11), 5-hydroxy-7, 8-dimethoxyflavone (12), 5, 2'-dihydroxy-7, 8-dimethoxyflavone (13), 5-hydroxy-7, 8, 2', 5'-tetramethoxyflavone (14), 5-hydroxy-7, 8, 2', 3'-tetramethoxyflavone (15), 5-hydroxy-7, 8, 2'-trimethoxyflavone (16), 5, 4'-dihydroxy-7, 8, 2', 3'-tetramethoxyflavone (17), dihydroneobaicalein (18), andrographidine A (19), andrographidine B (20), andrographidine C (21) and 5, 2'-dihydroxy-7, 8-dimethoxyflavone 2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (22); three diterpenoids: andrograpanin (23), neoandrographolide (24) and andrographolide (25); two phenylpropanoids: trans-cinnamic acid (26) and 4-hydroxy-2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (5); and oleanolic acid (9), beta-sitosterol (27) and beta-daucosterol (28). Compound 1 is a new flavone, compound 4 is a new natural product, compounds 2, 3 and 5 were isolated from the Androggraphis genus for the first time and compounds 6-9 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:21626787

  2. Biologically active constituents of Aglaia erythrosperma.

    PubMed

    Phongmaykin, Jarinporn; Kumamoto, Takuya; Ishikawa, Tsutomu; Saifah, Ekarin; Suttisri, Rutt

    2011-10-01

    From the fruits and leaves of Aglaia erythrosperma (Meliaceae), 10 chemical constituents were isolated and identified, i.e. the dammarane triterpenoids cabraleadiol (1), cabraleahydroxylactone (2), ethyl eichlerianoate (3), eichlerialactone (4), aglinin A (5), cabralealactone (6), the aglaialactone 5,6-desmethylenedioxy-5-methoxy-aglalactone (7), the flavagline 4'-demethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxy-methyl rocaglate (8) and two coumarins: scoparone and scopoletin. Flavagline 8 exhibited antimalarial activity with an IC(50) value of 7.30 µg mL(-1) and was strongly cytotoxic against small cell lung cancer (NCI-H187), epidermoid carcinoma (KB) and breast cancer (BC) cell lines, with IC(50) values of 2.17, 2.10 and 0.11 µg mL(-1), respectively. Aglinin A (5) displayed moderate cytotoxicity against all the three cancer cell lines, whereas ethyl eichlerianoate (3), cabralealactone (6) and the aglaialactone 7 were exclusively cytotoxic to NCI-H187 cell line. Cabraleahydroxylactone (2) showed antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type-1 with an IC(50) value of 3.20 µg mL(-1), in comparison with the standard acyclovir (IC(50)?= 1.90 µg mL(-1)). When tested for antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Ra, compounds 1-4 and 6-8 displayed minimum inhibitory concentration in the range of 25-50 µg mL(-1). PMID:22011221

  3. Constituents of south Indian vetiver oils.

    PubMed

    Mallavarapu, Gopal Rao; Syamasundar, Kodakandla V; Ramesh, S; Rao, Bhaskaruni R Rajeswara

    2012-02-01

    The essential oils isolated from vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash.] roots collected from four locations in south India were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Eighty constituents, representing 94.5-97.8% of the oils, have been identified. The oils from Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kundapur, and Mettupalayam were rich in sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes with cedrane, bisabolane, eudesmane, eremophilane, and zizaane skeletons. The main components of the four essential oils were: eudesma-4,6-diene (delta-selinene) + beta-vetispirene (3.9-6.1%), beta-vetivenene (0.9-9.4%), 13-nor-trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-11-one + amorph-4-en-10-ol (5.0-6.4%), trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-12-ol (vetiselinenol) + (E)-opposita-4(15),7(11)-dien-12-ol (3.7-5.9%), eremophila-1 (10),11-dien-2alpha-ol (nootkatol) + ziza-6(13)-en-12-ol (khusimol) (16.1-19.2%), and eremophila-1(10),7(11)-dien-2alpha-ol (isonootkatol) + (E)-eremophila-1(10),7(11)-12-ol (isovalencenol) (5.6-6.9%). The important compounds that impart the characteristic vetiver odor are: khusimene, delta-selinene, beta-vetivenene, cyclocopacamphan-12-ol (epimers A and B), vetiselinenol, khusimol, isovalencenol, khusimone, alpha-vetivone, and beta-vetivone. The chemical profiles of the oils are comparable to Haitian vetiver oil. PMID:22474964

  4. Antiosteoporotic activity and constituents of Podocarpium podocarpum.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qi; Ma, Xue-Qin; Hu, Chang-Ling; Lin, Bing; Xu, Li-Sheng; Zheng, Cheng-Jian; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2015-01-15

    Our study aimed to investigate the antiosteoporotic properties of the ethanol extract of Podocarpium podocarpum (DC.) Yang et Huang (PE) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and to characterize the active constituents. As a result, PE significantly inhibited the increased urinary Ca excretion and activity of bone resorption markers including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), deoxypyridinoline crosslinks and cathepsin K in OVX rats, whereas exhibited little effects on the body, uterus and vagina weight. Detailed micro-CT analysis showed that PE notably enhanced bone quality, with increased bone mineral content (BMC), bone volume fraction (BVF), connectivity density (CD), tissue mineral content (TMC), tissue mineral density (TMD) and trabecular number (Tb. N), and decreased trabecular separation (Tb. Sp), in OVX animal. Those findings implied that PE had notable antiosteoporotic effect, especially effective in preventing bone resorption, with little side-effects on reproductive tissue. Further chemical investigation led to the isolation of 17 flavonoids, most of which showed significantly stimulatory effect on osteoblastic proliferation, ALP activity and mineralized nodes formation as well as inhibitory effect on osteoclastic TRAP activity in osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells. Our results indicated that PE, with abundant flavonoids, had remarkable antiosteoporotic activity and therefore can be a promising candidate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis induced by estrogen deficiency through herbal remedy. PMID:25636877

  5. CONSTITUENTS OF ELEMENTARY BODIES OF VACCINIA

    PubMed Central

    Hoagland, Charles L.; Ward, S. M.; Smadel, Joseph E.; Rivers, Thomas M.

    1942-01-01

    Purified elementary bodies of vaccinia have been tested with a variety of substrates and found to possess phosphatase, catalase, and lipase activity. Tests for malate, succinate, pyruvate, and lactate dehydrogenases were negative. Interpretation of these results is complicated by the observation that elementary bodies of vaccinia adsorb relatively large quantities of certain enzymes from dilute solutions. These enzymes are not eluted by procedures of washing and centrifuging similar to those carried out in the preparation of the virus. For this reason, the presence of phosphatase, catalase, and lipase in the purified virus may well be accounted for on the basis of adsorption from the host tissues which are known to be rich in these particular enzymes. That some degree of specificity in this adsorption is to be recognized is shown by the failure of the virus to adsorb urease, an enzyme of vegetable origin. Until some method can be devised which will distinguish between the enzymes of the host cell and those which may be integral parts of the virus it would seem that the problem of the enzyme constituents of vaccine virus is incapable of definite solution. PMID:19871226

  6. An itinerant antiferromagnetic metal without magnetic constituents.

    PubMed

    Svanidze, E; Wang, Jiakui K; Besara, T; Liu, L; Huang, Q; Siegrist, T; Frandsen, B; Lynn, J W; Nevidomskyy, Andriy H; Gam?a, Monika B; Aronson, M C; Uemura, Y J; Morosan, E

    2015-01-01

    The origin of magnetism in metals has been traditionally discussed in two diametrically opposite limits: itinerant and local moments. Surprisingly, there are very few known examples of materials that are close to the itinerant limit, and their properties are not universally understood. In the case of the two such examples discovered several decades ago, the itinerant ferromagnets ZrZn2 and Sc3In, the understanding of their magnetic ground states draws on the existence of 3d electrons subject to strong spin fluctuations. Similarly, in Cr, an elemental itinerant antiferromagnet with a spin density wave ground state, its 3d electron character has been deemed crucial to it being magnetic. Here, we report evidence for an itinerant antiferromagnetic metal with no magnetic constituents: TiAu. Antiferromagnetic order occurs below a Néel temperature of 36?K, about an order of magnitude smaller than in Cr, rendering the spin fluctuations in TiAu more important at low temperatures. This itinerant antiferromagnet challenges the currently limited understanding of weak itinerant antiferromagnetism, while providing insights into the effects of spin fluctuations in itinerant-electron systems. PMID:26166042

  7. Food addiction and neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; von Deneen, Karen M; Tian, Jie; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious epidemic and one of the leading global health problems. However, much of the current debate has been fractious, and etiologies of obesity have been attributed to eating behavior (i.e. fast food consumption), personality, depression, addiction or genetics. One of the interesting new hypotheses for explaining the development of obesity involves a food addiction model, which suggests that food is not eaten as much for survival as pleasure and that hedonic overeating is relevant to both substance-related disorders and eating disorders. Accumulating evidence has shown that there are a number of shared neural and hormonal pathways as well as distinct differences in these pathways that may help researchers discover why certain individuals continue to overeat despite health and other consequences, and becomes more and more obese. Functional neuroimaging studies have further revealed that pleasant smelling, looking, and tasting food has reinforcing characteristics similar to drugs of abuse. Many of the brain changes reported for hedonic eating and obesity are also seen in various types of addictions. Most importantly, overeating and obesity may have an acquired drive similar to drug addiction with respect to motivation and incentive craving. In both cases, the desire and continued satisfaction occur after early and repeated exposure to stimuli. The acquired drive for eating food and relative weakness of the satiety signal would cause an imbalance between the drive and hunger/reward centers in the brain and their regulation. In the current paper, we first provide a summary of literature on food addition from eight different perspectives, and then we proposed a research paradigm that may allow screening of new pharmacological treatment on the basis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). PMID:21492080

  8. Microencapsulation in food science and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Nazzaro, Filomena; Orlando, Pierangelo; Fratianni, Florinda; Coppola, Raffaele

    2012-04-01

    Microencapsulation can represent an excellent example of microtechnologies applied to food science and biotechnology. Microencapsulation can be successfully applied to entrap natural compounds, like essential oils or vegetal extracts containing polyphenols with well known antimicrobial properties to be used in food packaging. Microencapsulation preserves lactic acid bacteria, both starters and probiotics, in food and during the passage through the gastrointestinal tract, and may contribute to the development of new functional foods. PMID:22024623

  9. MRI of plants and foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van As, Henk; van Duynhoven, John

    2013-04-01

    The importance and prospects for MRI as applied to intact plants and to foods are presented in view of one of humanity's most pressing concerns, the sustainable and healthy feeding of a worldwide increasing population. Intact plants and foods have in common that their functionality is determined by complex multiple length scale architectures. Intact plants have an additional level of complexity since they are living systems which critically depend on transport and signalling processes between and within tissues and organs. The combination of recent cutting-edge technical advances and integration of MRI accessible parameters has the perspective to contribute to breakthroughs in understanding complex regulatory plant performance mechanisms. In food science and technology MRI allows for quantitative multi-length scale structural assessment of food systems, non-invasive monitoring of heat and mass transport during shelf-life and processing, and for a unique view on food properties under shear. These MRI applications are powerful enablers of rationally (re)designed food formulations and processes. Limitations and bottlenecks of the present plant and food MRI methods are mainly related to short T2 values and susceptibility artefacts originating from small air spaces in tissues/materials. We envisage cross-fertilisation of solutions to overcome these hurdles in MRI applications in plants and foods. For both application areas we witness a development where MRI is moving from highly specialised equipment to mobile and downscaled versions to be used by a broad user base in the field, greenhouse, food laboratory or factory.

  10. Cardioprotective and Anti-oxidant Effects of the Terpenoid Constituents of Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb 761)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Pietri; Eziana Maurelli; Katy Drieu; Marcel Culcasi

    1997-01-01

    Hemodynamic and electron spin resonance analyses were used to assess thein vivoandin vitrocardioprotective and antioxidant effects of therapeutically relevant doses ofGinkgo bilobaextract (EGb 761) and its terpenoid constituents (ginkgolides A and B, bilobalide) in the rat. Significant anti-ischemic effects, indicating improved myocardial functional recovery, were observed after repeated (15-day) oral treatments with both EGb 761 (60 mg\\/kg\\/day) and ginkgolide A

  11. Structural analysis of monocyte activation constituents in cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junji Akaki; Yasunori Matsui; Hiroaki Kojima; Satomi Nakajima; Kaeko Kamei; Makoto Tamesada

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that mycelia of the Cordyceps sinensis (CS) can function as an immunostimulant. However, the active constituents of the mycelia are not well known. In this study, we investigated which components of the mycelia of CS induce monocyte activation and then structurally analyzed the active components.Assay of the effect of crude-(CS-P), soluble-(CS-Ps) and insoluble-(CS-Pp), polysaccharides extracted from

  12. FOOD AND DRINK REGULATIONS Serving hot food

    E-print Network

    O'Mahony, Donal E.

    1 FOOD AND DRINK REGULATIONS Serving hot food Home made hot food may not be served at events conditions must be adhered to: · The caterer must have HSE Food Hygiene Certification, which is to be approved by the College Catering Manager two weeks in advance of any event. · The provider of the food

  13. Tyrosinase activity of Greyia flanaganii (Bolus) constituents.

    PubMed

    Mapunya, M B; Hussein, A A; Rodriguez, B; Lall, N

    2011-08-15

    Hyper-pigmentation of the skin is a common problem that is prevalent in middle aged and elderly people. It is caused by over production of melanin. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin production. Ethanolic extract of Greyia flanaganii leaves showed significant (P<0.05) antityrosinase activity exhibiting the IC?? of 32.62 ?g/ml. The total extract was further investigated for its toxicity and effect on melanin production by melanocytes cells, and showed significant inhibition (P<0.05) (20%) of melanin production at 6.25 ?g/ml and low levels of cytotoxicity (IC??<400 ?g/ml). The amount of antioxidants necessary to decrease the initial DPPH absorbance by 50% (EC??) by the total ethanolic extract was found to be 22.01 ?g/ml. The effect of G. flanaganii against acne causing bacteria, Propionibacterium acnes, was investigated using microdilution assay. The MIC of the extract of G. flanaganii was found to be 250 ?g/ml. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of (3S)-4-hydroxyphenethyl 3-hydroxy-5-phenylpentanoate (1), 2',4',6'-trihydroxydihydrochalcone (2), 2',6',4-trihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone (3), 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone (4), 5,7-dihydroxyflavanone [(2S)-pinocembrin] (5), 2',6'-dihydroxy-4',4-dimethoxy dihydrochalcone (6) and (2R,3R)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-3-O-acetylflavanone (7). The isolated compounds were tested for their antioxidant, cytotoxicity, tyrosinase inhibition and antibacterial activities. Compound 2 exhibited significant (P<0.05) antityrosinase activity exhibiting the IC?? of 69.15 ?M. The isolated compounds showed low toxicity of the cells with reduction of melanin content of the cells. All compounds tested showed good radical scavenging activity. These data indicates that G. flanaganii extract and its isolated phenolic constituents could be possible skin lightening agents. PMID:21680165

  14. Weaning Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Described in this issue of "Children in the Tropics" are handicraft, semi-industrial, and industrial projects which produce weaning foods in developing countries. The introductory section briefly discusses the global epidemiology of malnutrition and offers guidelines for combatting malnutrition. Chapter I provides a framework for reflection on the…

  15. Food Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkman, Susan J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…

  16. Food Webs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners construct possible food webs for six different ecosystems as they learn about the roles of different kinds of living organisms. Learners will also discuss and classify producers vs. consumers and different kinds of consumers (herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, decomposers and scavengers). This lesson guide includes background information, variations and bilingual (English/Spanish) cards.

  17. Oleuropein as a bioactive constituent added in milk and yogurt.

    PubMed

    Zoidou, Evangelia; Magiatis, Prokopios; Melliou, Eleni; Constantinou, Maria; Haroutounian, Serkos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2014-09-01

    Oleuropein is a bioactive natural product from olives known to display a broad variety of health beneficial properties. However its presence in most edible olives is lowered due to debittering. In this respect, we envisaged the incorporation of oleuropein into dairy products (cow's milk and yogurt) aiming to produce novel functional foods. Additionally, an analytical method for the monitoring of oleuropein in milk and yogurt was also developed and validated. Oleuropein was not affected during heat treatment of milk, while during the milk fermentation process it was not hydrolysed by the produced acids. Oleuropein was not metabolised by lactic acid bacteria, did not inhibit their growth and its stability in the final products was proven. The novel products displayed same taste, colour and texture as the conventional ones. Results herein indicate that oleuropein can be added as an active ingredient in milk and yogurt preparations to provide two novel functional dairy products. PMID:24731349

  18. Fungal isolation and enumeration in foods.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Dante Javier; Silva, Julio Oscar; Oliver, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    Humans have now been growing and storing enough food for a long enough time that some rapidly evolving organisms, such as fungi, are moving into niches created by the exploitation of certain plants as food. Food is expected to be nutritious. The most important of the physicochemical conditions that affects fungal growth is related to the biological state of the food. Living foods, particularly fresh fruits, vegetables, and also grains and nuts before harvest, possess powerful defense mechanisms against microbial invasion. When the specific microorganisms overcome defense mechanisms, the spoilage of a living food starts. Other factors to consider are water activity, hydrogen ion concentration, temperature, gas tension, consistency, nutrient status, specific solute effect, and preservation. The consequences of mold contamination of foods are diverse: unsightly appearance, chemical (removal or change of most of the constituents) and nutritional value changes, modification of organoleptic quality, difficulties in preservation, occupational hazards (mycoses, allergies), and toxicoses (mycotoxicoses). It is possible to recognize a succession of three distinct mycoflora during the storage of cereals, but they can also be mixed: 1. Field fungi growing and established before harvesting (Alternaria, Fusarium, Helminthosporium, Cladosporium). 2. Storage fungi taking over and dominanting in the silo (Aspergillus and Penicillium). 3. Advanced decay fungi (Papulospora, Sordaria, Fusarium graminearum, and members of the order Mucorales). PMID:15156024

  19. Assembly constraints drive co-evolution among ribosomal constituents

    PubMed Central

    Mallik, Saurav; Akashi, Hiroshi; Kundu, Sudip

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis, a central and essential cellular process, occurs through sequential association and mutual co-folding of protein–RNA constituents in a well-defined assembly pathway. Here, we construct a network of co-evolving nucleotide/amino acid residues within the ribosome and demonstrate that assembly constraints are strong predictors of co-evolutionary patterns. Predictors of co-evolution include a wide spectrum of structural reconstitution events, such as cooperativity phenomenon, protein-induced rRNA reconstitutions, molecular packing of different rRNA domains, protein–rRNA recognition, etc. A correlation between folding rate of small globular proteins and their topological features is known. We have introduced an analogous topological characteristic for co-evolutionary network of ribosome, which allows us to differentiate between rRNA regions subjected to rapid reconstitutions from those hindered by kinetic traps. Furthermore, co-evolutionary patterns provide a biological basis for deleterious mutation sites and further allow prediction of potential antibiotic targeting sites. Understanding assembly pathways of multicomponent macromolecules remains a key challenge in biophysics. Our study provides a ‘proof of concept’ that directly relates co-evolution to biophysical interactions during multicomponent assembly and suggests predictive power to identify candidates for critical functional interactions as well as for assembly-blocking antibiotic target sites. PMID:25956649

  20. Double parton correlations in Light-Front constituent quark models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, Matteo; Scopetta, Sergio; Traini, Marco; Vento, Vicente

    2015-03-01

    Double parton distribution functions (dPDF) represent a tool to explore the 3D proton structure. They can be measured in high energy proton-proton and proton nucleus collisions and encode information on how partons inside a proton are correlated among each other. dPFDs are studied here in the valence quark region, by means of a constituent quark model, where two particle correlations are present without any additional prescription. This framework allows to understand the dynamical origin of the correlations and to clarify which, among the features of the results, are model independent. Use will be made of a relativistic light-front scheme, able to overcome some drawbacks of the previous calculation. Transverse momentum correlations, due to the exact treatment of the boosts, are predicted and analyzed. The role of spin correlations is also shown. Due to the covariance of the approach, some symmetries of the dPDFs are seen unambigously. For the valence sector, also the study of the QCD evolution of the model results, which can be performed safely thanks to the property of good support, has been also completed.

  1. Assembly constraints drive co-evolution among ribosomal constituents.

    PubMed

    Mallik, Saurav; Akashi, Hiroshi; Kundu, Sudip

    2015-06-23

    Ribosome biogenesis, a central and essential cellular process, occurs through sequential association and mutual co-folding of protein-RNA constituents in a well-defined assembly pathway. Here, we construct a network of co-evolving nucleotide/amino acid residues within the ribosome and demonstrate that assembly constraints are strong predictors of co-evolutionary patterns. Predictors of co-evolution include a wide spectrum of structural reconstitution events, such as cooperativity phenomenon, protein-induced rRNA reconstitutions, molecular packing of different rRNA domains, protein-rRNA recognition, etc. A correlation between folding rate of small globular proteins and their topological features is known. We have introduced an analogous topological characteristic for co-evolutionary network of ribosome, which allows us to differentiate between rRNA regions subjected to rapid reconstitutions from those hindered by kinetic traps. Furthermore, co-evolutionary patterns provide a biological basis for deleterious mutation sites and further allow prediction of potential antibiotic targeting sites. Understanding assembly pathways of multicomponent macromolecules remains a key challenge in biophysics. Our study provides a 'proof of concept' that directly relates co-evolution to biophysical interactions during multicomponent assembly and suggests predictive power to identify candidates for critical functional interactions as well as for assembly-blocking antibiotic target sites. PMID:25956649

  2. Food safety in food security and food trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurian J. ed. Unnevehr

    2003-01-01

    CONTENTS: Overview \\/ Laurian J. Unnevehr; Food Safety as a Public Health Issue for Developing Countries \\/ Fritz K. Käferstein; Mycotoxin Food Safety Risk in Developing Countries \\/ Ramesh V. Bhat and Siruguri Vasanthi; Trends in Food Safety Standards and Regulation: Implications for Developing Countries \\/ Julie A. Caswell; Food Safety Issues in International Trade \\/ Spencer Henson; Balancing Risk

  3. Food-Web Models Predict Species Abundances in Response to Habitat Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas J Gotelli; Aaron M Ellison

    2006-01-01

    Plant and animal population sizes inevitably change following habitat loss, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. We experimentally altered habitat volume and eliminated top trophic levels of the food web of invertebrates that inhabit rain-filled leaves of the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea. Path models that incorporated food-web structure better predicted population sizes of food-web constituents than

  4. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  5. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  6. Food Allergy Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food Allergy Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... diagnosis of food allergy. back to top Oral food challenge Caution Because oral food challenges can cause ...

  7. Norovirus: Food Handlers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology For Food Workers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Norovirus and Working With Food CDC Vital Signs Report Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks, Food ...

  8. The Science of Food

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)

    2010-01-01

    A series of resources and inquiry lessons on nutrition and food-related concepts such as photosynthesis, food webs, food contaminants, food borne parasites or bacterial infections and choosing a healthy diet.

  9. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours. PMID:23336563

  10. Food Court

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grace M. Burton

    2008-01-01

    This unit of four lessons from NCTM's Illuminations lets students conduct surveys and represent data in a variety of ways. They also find and compare measures of center. The lessons center around a food court, where students create and use menus in a meaningful way. Topics covered include bar graphs, line plots, and pictographs, measures of center, and probability of events. Individual lessons link to related tools where appropriate, and include questions for students, assessment options, and teacher reflection questions.

  11. A Primer on Food Additives. 

    E-print Network

    Anonymous,

    1979-01-01

    of their workers. The readers' loud reactions became a pow erful, moving force that helped persuade Con gress to pass the Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906 as well as the Meat Inspection Act of the same year. The First Food Revolution Before the Civil War... and formaldehyde were used generously -and carelessly. The Government Steps In The strong leadership of Harvey Washington Wiley finally made food and drug protection an operating function of the Federal Government. Dr. Wiley, chief chemist for the U. S...

  12. Tabanone a new phytotoxic constituent of cogongrass (Imperta culindrica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.] is a troublesome invasive weedy species with reported allelopathic properties. The phytotoxicity of different constituents isolated from roots and aerial parts of this species was evaluated on Lactuca sativa and Agrostis stolonifera. No significant phytot...

  13. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization, Burning, and Grazing on Reserve Constituents

    E-print Network

    Owensby, Clenton E.

    Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization, Burning, and Grazing on Reserve Constituents of Big Bluestem of nitrogen fertilization, burning, and grazing on total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) and nitrogen and nitrogen reserves were lowered when growth exceeded photosynthetic production and nutrient assimilation

  14. Initial eccentricity and constituent quark number scaling of elliptic flow in ideal and viscous dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, A. K. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2010-04-15

    In the Israel-Stewart theory of dissipative hydrodynamics, the scaling properties of elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions are studied. The initial energy density of the fluid was fixed to reproduce STAR data on phi-meson multiplicity in 0-5% Au+Au collisions such that, irrespective of fluid viscosity, entropy at the freeze-out is similar in ideal or in viscous evolution. The initial eccentricity or constituent quark number scaling is only approximate in ideal or minimally viscous (eta/s=1/4pi) fluid. Eccentricity scaling becomes nearly exact in more viscous fluid (eta/s>=0.12). However, in more viscous fluid, constituent quark number scaled elliptic flow for mesons and baryons splits into separate scaling functions. Simulated flows also do not exhibit 'universal scaling'; that is, elliptic flow scaled by the constituent quark number and charged particles v{sub 2} is not a single function of transverse kinetic energy scaled by the quark number. From a study of the violation of universal scaling, we obtain an estimate of quark-gluon plasma viscosity, eta/s=0.12+-0.03. The error is statistical only. The systematic error in eta/s could be as large.

  15. Impact of Resolution Aware Moist Physics on Constituent Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molod, Andrea; Colarco, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The current version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Atmospheric General Circulation Model (GEOS-5 AGCM) of the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center was designed to function seamlessly across many different resolutions and applications. The GEOS-5 AGCM moist physics parameterizations include "resolution aware" parameters that resulted in improved behavior of the GEOS-5 AGCM high resolution simulations and more uniformity of model mean state across resolutions and applications. The two governing parameters that are specified a priori as a function of horizontal resolution are the critical relative humidity used for large scale condensation, and a parameter which governs the minimum allowable entrainment used for the "stochastic Tokioka trigger" of the convective parameterization. The overarching motivation for the implementation of the resolution aware behavior was the expectation that as resolution increases, subgrid scale variability decreases and the AGCM dynamics resolves some of the convective motions. At high resolution, therefore, the convective mass flux is partially inhibited, and more of the AGCMs precipitation is due to grid scale processes. Results will be shown to demonstrate that these two changes at high resolution have a profound impact on the behavior of the GEOS-5 Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS-5 CCM). Convective transport of passive tracers, gases and aerosols is inhibited, and the hydrostatic dynamical transport does not completely compensate. In addition, the rates of aerosol scavenging are currently different for convective and grid scale sources of precipitation, and so the total scavenging rates at high resolution were affected. These results demonstrate the need for the implementation of extensions of the resolution aware behavior to constituent transport.

  16. Cannabivarin and Tetrahydrocannabivarin, Two New Constituents of Hashish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frans W. H. M. Merkus

    1971-01-01

    WE have identified two more constituents of hashish to add to the constituents of hashish already known1. In 1969 Vollner et al.2 identified cannabidivarin, a cannabidiol homologue in which the side chain is C3H7 instead of C5H11. All cannabinoids found until then had contained an olivetyl group (n-amylresorcinol). This was the first cannabinoid found which contained a divarinyl group (n-propylresorcinol).

  17. Antifungal activity of tuberose absolute and some of its constituents.

    PubMed

    Nidiry, Eugene Sebastian J; Babu, C S Bujji

    2005-05-01

    The antifungal activity of the absolute of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa ) and some of its constituents were evaluated against the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on potato-dextrose-agar medium. Tuberose absolute showed only mild activity at a concentration of 500 mg/L. However, three constituents present in the absolute, namely geraniol, indole and methyl anthranilate exhibited significant activity showing total inhibition of the mycelial growth at this concentration. PMID:16106389

  18. Food additives and allergy.

    PubMed

    Weber, R W

    1993-03-01

    There is ample evidence that food additives of several sorts may precipitate adverse reactions. Some of these have catastrophic potential such as sulfite sensitivity in asthmatic patients. Fortunately, asthmatic responses to a variety of additives are certainly not as prevalent as once feared, and are probably unusual. Restricted diets are of no general benefit in asthmatic patients. In contrast to asthma, urticarial or other cutaneous reactions to food additives are more common. A restricted diet for a few months' duration may be beneficial, although the mechanism through which this is achieved is unclear. Suspected food additive sensitivities are best documented by oral challenges, preferably in a double-blind manner. Challenges in asthmatic patients need to be done with patients continuing on their routine medications to avoid false positives. All care should be taken to titrate the doses and schedule the doses appropriately, since several of these agents could provoke large drops in pulmonary function. With urticarial patients, an adequate baseline of urticarial activity needs to be established before the challenges so that fluctuations in normal activity are not construed as a positive result. Despite a large number of studies evaluating the role of food additives in hyperkinesis, results are not uniform. Evidence does suggest that there is a small subset of primarily younger children in whom additives will impact on behavior. As with asthma and additives, the problem appears to be much smaller than originally postulated. PMID:8452311

  19. Polysaccharides and food processing.

    PubMed

    Pilnik, W; Rombouts, F M

    1985-10-01

    The rôle of polysaccharides during processing and for the quality of foods is discussed. Starch is the most important energy source for man. Most other polysaccharides are not metabolized for energy, but play an important rôle as dietary fibres. Pectins, alginates, carrageenans, and galactomannans are discussed as functional food additives in relation to their structure and their rheological behaviour, stability and interactions. Endogenous polysaccharides of fruits and vegetables and in products derived from them are responsible for such phenomena as texture (changes), press yields, ease of filtration and clarification, cloud stability, and mouth feel. To achieve desirable properties, the action of endogenous enzymes on polysaccharides must be inactivated and/or exogenous enzymes added as processing aids. This is also true for overcoming haze phenomena in clear juices or to break down undesirable microbial polysaccharides. Dough properties for bread baking can be improved by enzymic breakdown of a restrictive pentoglycan network. Network formation may come about by oxidative coupling of phenol rings of ferulic acid bound to hemicelluloses by ester links. Gels may be made by inducing oxidative coupling in natural or synthetic systems. Stagnation in development of new polysaccharide food additives is ascribed to difficulties in obtaining government approval for food use. PMID:3000594

  20. Package Those Foods!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Student groups are challenged to create food packages for specific foods. They focus on three components in the design of their food packages; the packages must keep the food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in the food, and present the food appealingly. They design their packaging to meet these requirements.

  1. Recovery of alkali metal constituents from catalytic coal conversion residues

    DOEpatents

    Soung, Wen Y. (Houston, TX)

    1984-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation (32) or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by contacting them (46, 53, 61, 69) with water or an aqueous solution to remove water-soluble alkali metal constituents and produce an aqueous solution enriched in said constituents. The aqueous solution thus produced is then contacted with carbon dioxide (63) to precipitate silicon constituents, the pH of the resultant solution is increased (81), preferably to a value in the range between about 12.5 and about 15.0, and the solution of increased pH is evaporated (84) to increase the alkali metal concentration. The concentrated aqueous solution is then recycled to the conversion process (86, 18, 17) where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  2. Individual Constituents from Essential Oils Inhibit Biofilm Mass Production by Multi-Drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Espina, Laura; Pagán, Rafael; López, Daniel; García-Gonzalo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus represents a problem in both the medical field and the food industry, because the biofilm structure provides protection to embedded cells and it strongly attaches to surfaces. This circumstance is leading to many research programs seeking new alternatives to control biofilm formation by this pathogen. In this study we show that a potent inhibition of biofilm mass production can be achieved in community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive strains using plant compounds, such as individual constituents (ICs) of essential oils (carvacrol, citral, and (+)-limonene). The Crystal Violet staining technique was used to evaluate biofilm mass formation during 40 h of incubation. Carvacrol is the most effective IC, abrogating biofilm formation in all strains tested, while CA-MRSA was the most sensitive phenotype to any of the ICs tested. Inhibition of planktonic cells by ICs during initial growth stages could partially explain the inhibition of biofilm formation. Overall, our results show the potential of EOs to prevent biofilm formation, especially in strains that exhibit resistance to other antimicrobials. As these compounds are food additives generally recognized as safe, their anti-biofilm properties may lead to important new applications, such as sanitizers, in the food industry or in clinical settings. PMID:26102069

  3. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  4. Preharvest food safety.

    PubMed

    Childers, A B; Walsh, B

    1996-07-23

    Preharvest food safety is essential for the protection of our food supply. The production and transport of livestock and poultry play an integral part in the safety of these food products. The goals of this safety assurance include freedom from pathogenic microorganisms, disease, and parasites, and from potentially harmful residues and physical hazards. Its functions should be based on hazard analysis and critical control points from producer to slaughter plant with emphasis on prevention of identifiable hazards rather than on removal of contaminated products. The production goal is to minimize infection and insure freedom from potentially harmful residues and physical hazards. The marketing goal is control of exposure to pathogens and stress. Both groups should have functional hazard analysis and critical control points management programs which include personnel training and certification of producers. These programs must cover production procedures, chemical usage, feeding, treatment practices, drug usage, assembly and transportation, and animal identification. Plans must use risk assessment principles, and the procedures must be defined. Other elements would include preslaughter certification, environmental protection, control of chemical hazards, live-animal drug-testing procedures, and identification of physical hazards. PMID:8784512

  5. [Application of molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction in the separation and determination of active constituents from natural compounds].

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangfang; Shi, Yanping

    2013-07-01

    The active constituents of natural medicine resources are complicated and in low content, which are difficult to be extracted and separated by general methods. Molecularly imprinted polymers are functional porous materials with molecular-specific recognition sites to a particular target molecule. The molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction has been used as a sample preparation technique for the separation of active constituents from natural medicine resources. The target molecules in a mixture of chemical species can be recognized selectively. In this review, the applications of the molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for the determination and separation of active constituents (e. g. flavonoids, polyphenols, alkaloids, organic acids, phenylpropanoids, terpenoids, etc. ) from natural compounds in recent years are summarized. PMID:24164030

  6. Native American food and medicinal plants, 8. Water-soluble constituents of Lomatium dissectum.

    PubMed

    VanWagenen, B C; Huddleston, J; Cardellina, J H

    1988-01-01

    A continuing investigation of the umbellifer Lomatium dissectum has resulted in the isolation of a known flavonoid [1] and three coumarin glycosides [2-4], two of which are previously unreported. One of these new compounds [4] contains apiose, a sugar uncommon in the coumarins. The ichthyotoxicity of the plant extracts has been traced to the tetronic acids isolated earlier in this study. PMID:3373223

  7. Chapter 5 Nanostructured Materials in the Food Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ann Augustin; Peerasak Sanguansri

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves the application, production, and processing of materials at the nanometer scale. Biological- and physical-inspired approaches, using both conventional and innovative food processing technologies to manipulate matter at this scale, provide the food industry with materials with new functionalities. Understanding the assembly behavior of native and modified food components is essential in developing nanostructured materials. Functionalized nanostructured materials are

  8. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...a) Any standardized food that contains a sulfiting...sulfiting agents that is functional and provided for in...present in the finished food at a detectable level...sulfiting agent that has no functional effect in the food and that would,...

  9. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...a) Any standardized food that contains a sulfiting...sulfiting agents that is functional and provided for in...present in the finished food at a detectable level...sulfiting agent that has no functional effect in the food and that would,...

  10. Phenolic constituents in commercial aqueous Quillaja (Quillaja saponaria Molina) wood extracts.

    PubMed

    Maier, Christiane; Conrad, Jürgen; Carle, Reinhold; Weiss, Jochen; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin

    2015-02-18

    Phenolic compounds in aqueous, saponin-rich soapbark tree (Quillaja saponaria Molina) extracts were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized by HPLC-PDA-MS(n) and NMR spectroscopy. (+)-Piscidic acid represented the major constituent (75-87% (w/w) of total phenolics) in all examined extracts (n = 4), ranging from 22.1 ± 0.1 to 34.0 ± 0.2 mg/g of dry matter (DM). Derivatives of p-coumaric acid were present at concentrations from 2.2 to 9.3 mg/g of DM (8.1-20.4% of total phenolics), whereas other phenolic constituents such as glucosyringic acid and vanillic acid derivatives accounted for less than 7% of total phenolics. Generally, all Quillaja extracts showed a highly similar but unique pattern, potentially being useful to authenticate Quillaja extracts in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical formulations. Furthermore, the desired antioxidant activity as well as undesired browning reactions in the final product might also be explained by these phenolic compounds, which were identified for the first time in Q. saponaria extracts. PMID:25625186

  11. Macro and trace mineral constituents and radionuclides in mushrooms: health benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Borovi?ka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews and updates data on macro and trace elements and radionuclides in edible wild-grown and cultivated mushrooms. A huge biodiversity of mushrooms and spread of certain species over different continents makes the study on their multi-element constituents highly challenging. A few edible mushrooms are widely cultivated and efforts are on to employ them (largely Agaricus spp., Pleurotus spp., and Lentinula edodes) in the production of selenium-enriched food (mushrooms) or nutraceuticals (by using mycelia) and less on species used by traditional medicine, e.g., Ganoderma lucidum. There are also attempts to enrich mushrooms with other elements than Se and a good example is enrichment with lithium. Since minerals of nutritional value are common constituents of mushrooms collected from natural habitats, the problem is however their co-occurrence with some hazardous elements including Cd, Pb, Hg, Ag, As, and radionuclides. Discussed is also the problem of erroneous data on mineral compounds determined in mushrooms. PMID:23179616

  12. Hypersensitivity reactions to vaccine constituents: a case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Jonathan S; Berger, Emily M; Brauer, Jeremy A; Cohen, David E

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines are composed of immunogens, preservatives, adjuvants, antibiotics, and manufacturing by-products. Components of vaccines may rarely elicit adverse reactions in susceptible individuals, thus raising concerns regarding vaccine safety. In this report, we add to the medical literature 3 cases of cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity to the vaccine preservative aluminum. We provide a review of major constituents in vaccines that have elicited immediate-type or delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions and describe their clinical manifestations. We include a table of the Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines, which lists the quantities of major components including ovalbumin (egg protein), gelatin, aluminum, neomycin, 2-phenoxyethanol, thimerosal, and formaldehyde. Our goals were to inform physicians on the variety of hypersensitivity reactions to common vaccines and to provide information on the choice of vaccines in patients with suspected hypersensitivity. PMID:22653170

  13. Essential oils and their principal constituents as antimicrobial agents for synthetic packaging films.

    PubMed

    Kuorwel, Kuorwel K; Cran, Marlene J; Sonneveld, Kees; Miltz, Joseph; Bigger, Stephen W

    2011-01-01

    Spices and herbal plant species have been recognized to possess a broad spectrum of active constituents that exhibit antimicrobial (AM) activity. These active compounds are produced as secondary metabolites associated with the volatile essential oil (EO) fraction of these plants. A wide range of AM agents derived from EOs have the potential to be used in AM packaging systems which is one of the promising forms of active packaging systems aimed at protecting food products from microbial contamination. Many studies have evaluated the AM activity of synthetic AM and/or natural AM agents incorporated into packaging materials and have demonstrated effective AM activity by controlling the growth of microorganisms. This review examines the more common synthetic and natural AM agents incorporated into or coated onto synthetic packaging films for AM packaging applications. The focus is on the widely studied herb varieties including basil, oregano, and thyme and their EOs. PMID:22416718

  14. Food Chains and Webs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Thompson

    2007-02-21

    Learn more about food chains, food webs, and how the organisms in them affect each other. In class, you have learned what food webs and food chains are. Today, you will explore how the organisms in these systems interact. Step One: Food Chains What happens when you take something out of a food chain? Go to the Chain Reaction website: Chain Reaction--Food Chains This internet site will help you ...

  15. Photochemistry of minor constituents in the troposphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H LEVYII

    1973-01-01

    Altitude profiles for the number densities of NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO2, CH3O, CH3O2, H2C--O, OH, and HO2 are calculated as a function of time of day with a steady-state photochemical model in which the altitude profiles for the number densities of H2O, CH4, H2, CO, O3, and the sum of NO and NO2 are fixed at values appropriate to

  16. Use of environmental tobacco smoke constituents as markers for exposure

    SciTech Connect

    LaKind, J.S. [LaKind Associates (United States)] [LaKind Associates (United States); Jenkins, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Naiman, D.Q. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences] [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Ginevan, M.E. [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States)] [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States); Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G. [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, the authors discuss the merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the markers. Neither nicotine nor UVPM were good predictors for RSP. However, nicotine and UVPM were good qualitative predictors of each other. Nicotine was correlated with other gas-phase constituents. Comparisons between UVPM and other particulate-phase constituents were performed. Its relation with FPM was excellent, with UVPM approximately 1 1/2 times FPM. The correlation between UVPM and solanesol was good, but the relationship between the two was not linear. The relation between UVPM and scopoletin was not good, largely because of noise in the scopoletin measures around its limit of detection. The authors considered the relation between nicotine and saliva cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine. The two were highly correlated on the group level.

  17. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  18. Nanostructured materials in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Sanguansri, Peerasak

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves the application, production, and processing of materials at the nanometer scale. Biological- and physical-inspired approaches, using both conventional and innovative food processing technologies to manipulate matter at this scale, provide the food industry with materials with new functionalities. Understanding the assembly behavior of native and modified food components is essential in developing nanostructured materials. Functionalized nanostructured materials are finding applications in many sectors of the food industry, including novel nanosensors, new packaging materials with improved mechanical and barrier properties, and efficient and targeted nutrient delivery systems. An improved understanding of the benefits and the risks of the technology based on sound scientific data will help gain the acceptance of nanotechnology by the food industry. New horizons for nanotechnology in food science may be achieved by further research on nanoscale structures and methods to control interactions between single molecules. PMID:19878860

  19. Membrane composition and dynamics: a target of bioactive virgin olive oil constituents.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Jaramillo, Sara; Varela, Lourdes M; Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2014-06-01

    The endogenous synthesis of lipids, which requires suitable dietary raw materials, is critical for the formation of membrane bilayers. In eukaryotic cells, phospholipids are the predominant membrane lipids and consist of hydrophobic acyl chains attached to a hydrophilic head group. The relative balance between saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated acyl chains is required for the organization and normal function of membranes. Virgin olive oil is the richest natural dietary source of the monounsaturated lipid oleic acid and is one of the key components of the healthy Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil also contains a unique constellation of many other lipophilic and amphipathic constituents whose health benefits are still being discovered. The focus of this review is the latest evidence regarding the impact of oleic acid and the minor constituents of virgin olive oil on the arrangement and behavior of lipid bilayers. We highlight the relevance of these interactions to the potential use of virgin olive oil in preserving the functional properties of membranes to maintain health and in modulating membrane functions that can be altered in several pathologies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Structure and Function: Relevance in the Cell's Physiology, Pathology and Therapy. PMID:24440426

  20. Food Protection Management Program

    E-print Network

    Food Protection Management Program http://foodsafety.tamu.edu Relevance The Centers for Disease illnesses are attributed to improper handling of food prepared away from home. Because almost half of our food dollars is spent on food prepared outside the home, food safety is a top concern among consumers

  1. Food Allergy An Overview

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Food Allergy An Overview NIAID National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases U;#12;National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Food Allergy An Overview U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH Is Food Allergy? 5 What Is an Allergic Reaction to Food? 8 What Is Anaphylaxis? 10 Common Food Allergies

  2. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  3. Attributing Illness to Food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael B. Batz; Michael P. Doyle; J. Glenn Morris; John Painter; Ruby Singh; Robert V. Tauxe; Michael R. Taylor; Fo Wong

    2005-01-01

    Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the

  4. Food Allergy: An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhoda Sheryl Kagan

    2003-01-01

    Food allergy affects between 5% and 7.5% of children and between 1% and 2% of adults. The greater prevalence of food allergy in children reflects both the increased predisposition of children to develop food allergies and the development of immunologic tolerance to certain foods over time. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated food allergies can be classified as those that persist indefi- nitely

  5. Functional Programming SS12 Solution -Exam (V3B) 15.08.2012

    E-print Network

    Ábrahám, Erika

    Cave to represent hamster caves which can contain dierent types of food. data HamsterCave food = EmptyTunnel | FoodTunnel food | Branch (HamsterCave food) (HamsterCave food) deriving Show 1 #12;Functional Programming SS12 Solution - Exam (V3B) 15.08.2012 The data structure HamsterFood is used to represent food for hamsters

  6. Functional Programming SS12 Solution -Exam (V3M) 15.08.2012

    E-print Network

    Ábrahám, Erika

    Cave to represent hamster caves which can contain dierent types of food. data HamsterCave food = EmptyTunnel | FoodTunnel food | Branch (HamsterCave food) (HamsterCave food) deriving Show 1 #12;Functional Programming SS12 Solution - Exam (V3M) 15.08.2012 The data structure HamsterFood is used to represent food for hamsters

  7. Methods of using adsorption media for separating or removing constituents

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herbst, R. Scott (Idaho Falls, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Blackfoot, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID)

    2011-10-25

    Methods of using an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises contacting an adsorption medium with a feed stream comprising at least one constituent and removing the at least one constituent from the feed stream. The adsorption medium comprises a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) matrix and at least one metal hydroxide homogenously dispersed therein. The adsorption medium may comprise from approximately 15 wt % to approximately 90 wt % of the PAN and from approximately 10 wt % to approximately 85 wt % of the at least one metal hydroxide. The at least one metal hydroxide may be selected from the group consisting of ferric hydroxide, zirconium hydroxide, lanthanum hydroxide, cerium hydroxide, titanium hydroxide, copper hydroxide, antimony hydroxide, and molybdenum hydroxide.

  8. Determination of blood constituents reference values in broilers.

    PubMed

    Meluzzi, A; Primiceri, G; Giordani, R; Fabris, G

    1992-02-01

    Eight hundred broilers were examined to define the reference values of nine blood constituents (total proteins, albumin, total and free cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium, and phosphorus). The broilers, coming from 20 different commercial poultry operations, were equally divided into different groups according to age (21 and 45 days), strain (Arbor Acres and Hybro), sex, and sampling season (summer or winter). Age and sampling season were the variation sources that most influenced the values of the hematochemical variables examined. The interaction of age with strain influenced total proteins total and free cholesterol, triglycerides, and ALP. The interaction of age with sampling season influenced all hematochemical constituents except triglycerides. Reference limits defined by .975 and .025 fractiles were computed for each blood constituent according to the significance of different variation sources and their combinations. Reference limits defined herein could be used as indicators of metabolic and health conditions of a poultry farm. PMID:1546045

  9. Response Surface Plots for the Behavioral Pattern of Yersinia enterocolitica in Chocolate Milk as Affected by Trans-Cinnamaldehyde, a Spice Essential Oil Constituent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kattathara H. Divya; Mandyam Chakravarathy Varadaraj

    Response surface plots were generated to determine the behavior of a native food isolate of Yersinia enterocolitica CFR 2301 in chocolate milk with added trans-cinnamaldehyde, an active spice essential oil constituent. The minimum inhibitory\\u000a and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) for Y. enterocolitica in broth systems were 0.1 and 0.3?µl\\/ml, respectively, while in chocolate milk, the MBC was 0.9?µl\\/ml. In

  10. Estuarine Food for Thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M�ller-Solger, A. B.; M�ller-Navarra, D. B.

    2002-12-01

    Recent research in animal and human nutrition has shown the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) such as the n-3 LC-PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These LC-PUFA are needed for healthy development and functioning of the nervous and vascular systems. De novo synthesis or elongation to LC-PUFA in animals is inefficient at best; thus sufficient amounts of these PUFA must be supplied by food sources. Algae, especially diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cryptophytes, are the quantitatively most important producers of EPA and DHA. These types of algae often dominate estuarine producer communities. The upper San Francisco Estuary is no exception, and we found its LC-PUFA-rich phytoplankton biomass, but not the quantitatively prevalent terrestrial plant detritus, to be highly predictive of zooplankton (Daphnia) growth. In contrast, in freshwater lakes dominated by relatively LC-PUFA-poor phytoplankton, EPA, not total phytoplankton biomass, best predicted Daphnia growth. The commonly high abundance of LC-PUFA-rich algae in estuaries may help explain the high trophic efficiencies in these systems and resulting high consumer production. Moreover, LC-PUFA-rich estuarine food resources may also provide essential nutrition and associated health and evolutionary benefits to land-dwelling consumers of such foods, including humans. Ensuring LC-PUFA-rich, uncontaminated estuarine production is thus an important goal for estuarine restoration and a convincing argument for estuarine conservation.

  11. Modeling of constituent redistribution in U Pu Zr metallic fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Hayes, S. L.; Hofman, G. L.; Yacout, A. M.

    2006-12-01

    A computer model was developed to analyze constituent redistribution in U-Pu-Zr metallic nuclear fuels. Diffusion and thermochemical properties were parametrically determined to fit the postirradiation data from a fuel test performed in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). The computer model was used to estimate redistribution profiles of fuels proposed for the conceptual designs of small modular fast reactors. The model results showed that the level of redistribution of the fuel constituents of the designs was similar to the measured data from EBR-II.

  12. Stark cell optoacoustic detection of constituent gases in sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, J. S.; Shumate, M. S. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    An optoacoustic detector for gas analysis is implemented with Stark effect cell modulation for switching a beam in and out of coincidence with a spectral line of a constituent gas in order to eliminate the heating effect of laser energy in the cell as a source of background noise. By using a multiline laser, and linearly sweeping the DC bias voltage while exciting the cell with a multiline laser, it is possible to obtain a spectrum from which to determine the combinations of excited constituents and determine their concentrations in parts per million.

  13. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  14. Two-Pion Exchange Interaction Between Constituent Quarks

    E-print Network

    D. O. Riska; G. E. Brown

    1999-05-11

    The two-pion exchange interaction between constituent quarks is shown to enhance the effect of the the isospin dependent spin-spin component of the one-pion exchange interaction, and to cancel out its tensor component. It therefore provides a partial explanation for the phenomenological observation that the hyperfine interaction between constituent quarks is well described by a flavor dependent spin-spin interaction, which is attractive at short and repulsive at long range. The spin-orbit component of the two-pion exchange interaction is stronger than and has the opposite sign from that associated with the linear confining interaction in the $P-$shell multiplets.

  15. Rationale and constituencies for the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kristine A.

    1992-01-01

    In order to maximize the benefits from prospective space-exploration endeavors, and to enlist the support of as many constituencies as possible, NASA is either conducting or developing programs which emphasize different aspects of the Space Exploration Initiative. Attention is presently given to the cases of education using space exploration themes as teaching tools and technology transfer from government to private industry. Only on the basis of the establishment of such constituencies, will it be possible to sustain funding over the three decades foreseen as required for a Mars exploration effort.

  16. Lobelia chinensis: chemical constituents and anticancer activity perspective.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Wan; Chen, Wen-Rong; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Long, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2014-02-01

    Research has demonstrated that many chemical constituents dominated by piperidine alkaloids and flavonoids, such as lobelanidine, lobeline, and lobelanine, have been obtained from Lobelia chinensis Lour. Experimental studies and clinical applications have also indicated that L. chinensis possesses a number of pharmacological activities (e.g., diuretic, choleretic, breathing excitement, anti-venom, anti-bacterial, and anticancer). This paper focuses on the properties, chemical constituents, and anticancer activity of L. chinensis to clarify the connection among them, and identify the active anticancer compounds. This work serves as the foundation for further research and development of L. chinensis. PMID:24636059

  17. [Studies on the constituents and biological activities of simaroubaceous plants].

    PubMed

    Ohmoto, T

    1995-04-01

    In search of new compounds in simaroubaceous plants, we have been investigating naturally occurring substances [alkaloids, quassinoids, limonoids and picrotoxane-type terpenoids] on the following subjects: I. chemical studies on the constituents of Japanese simaroubaceous plants (I-1 and 2), II. chemical studies on the constituents of Indonesian and Chinese simaroubaceous plants (II-1-9), III. biological activities of the isolated natural compounds mainly and the chemical modification analogs (III-1-9). This article reviews the results obtained in our laboratory since 1976 on the subjects of I, II and III. PMID:7602495

  18. Experimental study of the constituents of space wash water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    Data are presented that quantify some of the various constituents of human origin that may be expected in space wash water. The experiments were conducted under controlled conditions with a simulated crew of two male and two female subjects. The data show that the expected wash water constituents originating from human secretions are substantially lower than theoretical projections have indicated. Average daily quantities as well as individual extremes are given for both shower and laundry water. In addition, concentrations are presented for a projected model of wash water usage in a space station.

  19. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  20. Systematic generation of constituent models of particle families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés-Pérez, Raúl E.; ?ytkow, Jan M.

    1996-08-01

    A recurrent task in elementary particle physics involves building constituent models for particle families that can account for the particles' quantum numbers. We describe a systematic computerized approach to this task based on artificial intelligence principles, and discuss the output of two implemented programs that find constituent models of some standard families using additive quantum numbers. We also illustrate the capability to search for alternative quark models for single exotic particles in terms of the standard quarks. Although the current programs make use of very limited constraints on models, they serve as a foundation upon which more elaborate model-building programs can be designed.