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Sample records for functional genomic resources

  1. Web-Based Arabidopsis Functional and Structural Genomics Resources

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Last, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    As plant research moves to a “post-genomic” era, many diverse internet resources become available to the international research community. Arabidopsis thaliana, because of its small size, rapid life cycle and simple genome, has been a model system for decades, with much research funding and many projects devoted to creation of functional and structural genomics resources. Different types of data, including genome, transcriptome, proteome, phenome, metabolome and ionome are stored in these resources. In this chapter, a variety of genomics resources are introduced, with simple descriptions of how some can be accessed by laboratory researchers via the internet. PMID:22303243

  2. Tetrahymena functional genomics database (TetraFGD): an integrated resource for Tetrahymena functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jie; Lu, Yuming; Feng, Jinmei; Yuan, Dongxia; Tian, Miao; Chang, Yue; Fu, Chengjie; Wang, Guangying; Zeng, Honghui; Miao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila is a useful unicellular model organism for studies of eukaryotic cellular and molecular biology. Researches on T. thermophila have contributed to a series of remarkable basic biological principles. After the macronuclear genome was sequenced, substantial progress has been made in functional genomics research on T. thermophila, including genome-wide microarray analysis of the T. thermophila life cycle, a T. thermophila gene network analysis based on the microarray data and transcriptome analysis by deep RNA sequencing. To meet the growing demands for the Tetrahymena research community, we integrated these data to provide a public access database: Tetrahymena functional genomics database (TetraFGD). TetraFGD contains three major resources, including the RNA-Seq transcriptome, microarray and gene networks. The RNA-Seq data define gene structures and transcriptome, with special emphasis on exon-intron boundaries; the microarray data describe gene expression of 20 time points during three major stages of the T. thermophila life cycle; the gene network data identify potential gene-gene interactions of 15 049 genes. The TetraFGD provides user-friendly search functions that assist researchers in accessing gene models, transcripts, gene expression data and gene-gene relationships. In conclusion, the TetraFGD is an important functional genomic resource for researchers who focus on the Tetrahymena or other ciliates. Database URL: http://tfgd.ihb.ac.cn/ PMID:23482072

  3. AgBase: a functional genomics resource for agriculture

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Fiona M; Wang, Nan; Magee, G Bryce; Nanduri, Bindu; Lawrence, Mark L; Camon, Evelyn B; Barrell, Daniel G; Hill, David P; Dolan, Mary E; Williams, W Paul; Luthe, Dawn S; Bridges, Susan M; Burgess, Shane C

    2006-01-01

    Background Many agricultural species and their pathogens have sequenced genomes and more are in progress. Agricultural species provide food, fiber, xenotransplant tissues, biopharmaceuticals and biomedical models. Moreover, many agricultural microorganisms are human zoonoses. However, systems biology from functional genomics data is hindered in agricultural species because agricultural genome sequences have relatively poor structural and functional annotation and agricultural research communities are smaller with limited funding compared to many model organism communities. Description To facilitate systems biology in these traditionally agricultural species we have established "AgBase", a curated, web-accessible, public resource for structural and functional annotation of agricultural genomes. The AgBase database includes a suite of computational tools to use GO annotations. We use standardized nomenclature following the Human Genome Organization Gene Nomenclature guidelines and are currently functionally annotating chicken, cow and sheep gene products using the Gene Ontology (GO). The computational tools we have developed accept and batch process data derived from different public databases (with different accession codes), return all existing GO annotations, provide a list of products without GO annotation, identify potential orthologs, model functional genomics data using GO and assist proteomics analysis of ESTs and EST assemblies. Our journal database helps prevent redundant manual GO curation. We encourage and publicly acknowledge GO annotations from researchers and provide a service for researchers interested in GO and analysis of functional genomics data. Conclusion The AgBase database is the first database dedicated to functional genomics and systems biology analysis for agriculturally important species and their pathogens. We use experimental data to improve structural annotation of genomes and to functionally characterize gene products. AgBase is also

  4. AgBase: a functional genomics resource for agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many agricultural species and their pathogens have sequenced genomes and more are in progress. However, systems biology from functional genomics data is hindered in agricultural species because agricultural genome sequences have relatively poor structural and functional annotation and agricultural ...

  5. Resources for Functional Genomics Studies in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Stephanie E.; Hu, Yanhui; Kim, Kevin; Housden, Benjamin E.; Perrimon, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has become a system of choice for functional genomic studies. Many resources, including online databases and software tools, are now available to support design or identification of relevant fly stocks and reagents or analysis and mining of existing functional genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, etc. datasets. These include large community collections of fly stocks and plasmid clones, “meta” information sites like FlyBase and FlyMine, and an increasing number of more specialized reagents, databases, and online tools. Here, we introduce key resources useful to plan large-scale functional genomics studies in Drosophila and to analyze, integrate, and mine the results of those studies in ways that facilitate identification of highest-confidence results and generation of new hypotheses. We also discuss ways in which existing resources can be used and might be improved and suggest a few areas of future development that would further support large- and small-scale studies in Drosophila and facilitate use of Drosophila information by the research community more generally. PMID:24653003

  6. Tomato Functional Genomics Database: a comprehensive resource and analysis package for tomato functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Fei, Zhangjun; Joung, Je-Gun; Tang, Xuemei; Zheng, Yi; Huang, Mingyun; Lee, Je Min; McQuinn, Ryan; Tieman, Denise M; Alba, Rob; Klee, Harry J; Giovannoni, James J

    2011-01-01

    Tomato Functional Genomics Database (TFGD) provides a comprehensive resource to store, query, mine, analyze, visualize and integrate large-scale tomato functional genomics data sets. The database is functionally expanded from the previously described Tomato Expression Database by including metabolite profiles as well as large-scale tomato small RNA (sRNA) data sets. Computational pipelines have been developed to process microarray, metabolite and sRNA data sets archived in the database, respectively, and TFGD provides downloads of all the analyzed results. TFGD is also designed to enable users to easily retrieve biologically important information through a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools, including improved array probe annotations as well as tools to identify co-expressed genes, significantly affected biological processes and biochemical pathways from gene expression data sets and miRNA targets, and to integrate transcript and metabolite profiles, and sRNA and mRNA sequences. The suite of tools and interfaces in TFGD allow intelligent data mining of recently released and continually expanding large-scale tomato functional genomics data sets. TFGD is available at http://ted.bti.cornell.edu. PMID:20965973

  7. The Xenopus ORFeome: A resource that enables functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Ian M.; Balcha, Dawit; Hao, Tong; Shen, Yun; Trivedi, Prasad; Patrushev, Ilya; Fortriede, Joshua D.; Karpinka, John B.; Liu, Limin; Zorn, Aaron M.; Stukenberg, P. Todd; Hill, David E.; Gilchrist, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Functional characterisation of proteins and large-scale, systems-level studies are enabled by extensive sets of cloned open reading frames (ORFs) in an easily-accessible format that enables many different applications. Here we report the release of the first stage of the Xenopus ORFeome, which contains 8673 ORFs from the Xenopus Gene Collection (XGC) for Xenopus laevis, cloned into a Gateway® donor vector enabling rapid in-frame transfer of the ORFs to expression vectors. This resource represents an estimated 7871 unique genes, approximately 40% of the non-redundant X. laevis gene complement, and includes 2724 genes where the human ortholog has an association with disease. Transfer into the Gateway system was validated by 5′ and 3′ end sequencing of the entire collection and protein expression of a set of test clones. In a parallel process, the underlying ORF predictions from the original XGC collection were re-analysed to verify quality and full-length status, identifying those proteins likely to exhibit truncations when translated. These data are integrated into Xenbase, the Xenopus community database, which associates genomic, expression, function and human disease model metadata to each ORF, enabling end-users to search for ORFeome clones with links to commercial distributors of the collection. When coupled with the experimental advantages of Xenopus eggs and embryos, the ORFeome collection represents a valuable resource for functional genomics and disease modelling. PMID:26391338

  8. The Xenopus ORFeome: A resource that enables functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Grant, Ian M; Balcha, Dawit; Hao, Tong; Shen, Yun; Trivedi, Prasad; Patrushev, Ilya; Fortriede, Joshua D; Karpinka, John B; Liu, Limin; Zorn, Aaron M; Stukenberg, P Todd; Hill, David E; Gilchrist, Michael J

    2015-12-15

    Functional characterisation of proteins and large-scale, systems-level studies are enabled by extensive sets of cloned open reading frames (ORFs) in an easily-accessible format that enables many different applications. Here we report the release of the first stage of the Xenopus ORFeome, which contains 8673 ORFs from the Xenopus Gene Collection (XGC) for Xenopus laevis, cloned into a Gateway® donor vector enabling rapid in-frame transfer of the ORFs to expression vectors. This resource represents an estimated 7871 unique genes, approximately 40% of the non-redundant X. laevis gene complement, and includes 2724 genes where the human ortholog has an association with disease. Transfer into the Gateway system was validated by 5' and 3' end sequencing of the entire collection and protein expression of a set of test clones. In a parallel process, the underlying ORF predictions from the original XGC collection were re-analysed to verify quality and full-length status, identifying those proteins likely to exhibit truncations when translated. These data are integrated into Xenbase, the Xenopus community database, which associates genomic, expression, function and human disease model metadata to each ORF, enabling end-users to search for ORFeome clones with links to commercial distributors of the collection. When coupled with the experimental advantages of Xenopus eggs and embryos, the ORFeome collection represents a valuable resource for functional genomics and disease modelling. PMID:26391338

  9. Wheat EST resources for functional genomics of abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Houde, Mario; Belcaid, Mahdi; Ouellet, François; Danyluk, Jean; Monroy, Antonio F; Dryanova, Ani; Gulick, Patrick; Bergeron, Anne; Laroche, André; Links, Matthew G; MacCarthy, Luke; Crosby, William L; Sarhan, Fathey

    2006-01-01

    Background Wheat is an excellent species to study freezing tolerance and other abiotic stresses. However, the sequence of the wheat genome has not been completely characterized due to its complexity and large size. To circumvent this obstacle and identify genes involved in cold acclimation and associated stresses, a large scale EST sequencing approach was undertaken by the Functional Genomics of Abiotic Stress (FGAS) project. Results We generated 73,521 quality-filtered ESTs from eleven cDNA libraries constructed from wheat plants exposed to various abiotic stresses and at different developmental stages. In addition, 196,041 ESTs for which tracefiles were available from the National Science Foundation wheat EST sequencing program and DuPont were also quality-filtered and used in the analysis. Clustering of the combined ESTs with d2_cluster and TGICL yielded a few large clusters containing several thousand ESTs that were refractory to routine clustering techniques. To resolve this problem, the sequence proximity and "bridges" were identified by an e-value distance graph to manually break clusters into smaller groups. Assembly of the resolved ESTs generated a 75,488 unique sequence set (31,580 contigs and 43,908 singletons/singlets). Digital expression analyses indicated that the FGAS dataset is enriched in stress-regulated genes compared to the other public datasets. Over 43% of the unique sequence set was annotated and classified into functional categories according to Gene Ontology. Conclusion We have annotated 29,556 different sequences, an almost 5-fold increase in annotated sequences compared to the available wheat public databases. Digital expression analysis combined with gene annotation helped in the identification of several pathways associated with abiotic stress. The genomic resources and knowledge developed by this project will contribute to a better understanding of the different mechanisms that govern stress tolerance in wheat and other cereals. PMID

  10. Development and characterization of genomics resources for leafy spurge: A model perennial weed for functional genomics studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High throughput genomics approaches to study weed biology have so far been limited to a small number of research groups within the weed science community. In most cases, these groups have relied on heterologous approaches, since resources needed for functional genomics studies within desired species...

  11. Systematic functional genomics resource and annotation for poplar.

    PubMed

    Si, Jingna; Zhao, Xiyang; Zhao, Xinyin; Wu, Rongling

    2015-08-01

    Poplar, as a model species for forestry research, has many excellent characteristics. Studies on functional genes have provided the foundation, at the molecular level, for improving genetic traits and cultivating elite lines. Although studies on functional genes have been performed for many years, large amounts of experimental data remain scattered across various reports and have not been unified via comprehensive statistical analysis. This problem can be addressed by employing bioinformatic methodology and technology to gather and organise data to construct a Poplar Functional Gene Database, containing data on 207 poplar functional genes. As an example, the authors investigated genes of Populus euphratica involved in the response to salt stress. Four small cDNA libraries were constructed and treated with 300 mM NaCl or pure water for 6 and 24 h. Using high-throughput sequencing, they identified conserved and novel miRNAs that were differentially expressed. Target genes were next predicted and detailed functional information derived using the Gene Ontology database and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis. This information provides a primary visual schema allowing us to understand the dynamics of the regulatory gene network responding to salt stress in Populus. PMID:26243833

  12. An Update on Soybean Functional Genomics and Microarray Resources for Gene Discovery and Crop Improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA microarrays are powerful tools to analyze the expression patterns of thousands of genes simultaneously. We review recent soybean genomics projects that have produced public-sector resources for this important legume crop. As part of the NSF-sponsored “Soybean Functional Genomics Program”, we hav...

  13. Comprehensive Resources for Tomato Functional Genomics Based on the Miniature Model Tomato Micro-Tom

    PubMed Central

    Matsukura, C; Aoki, K; Fukuda, N; Mizoguchi, T; Asamizu, E; Saito, T; Shibata, D; Ezura, H

    2008-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae) is an excellent model plant for genomic research of solanaceous plants, as well as for studying the development, ripening, and metabolism of fruit. In 2003, the International Solanaceae Project (SOL, www.sgn.cornell.edu ) was initiated by members from more than 30 countries, and the tomato genome-sequencing project is currently underway. Genome sequence of tomato obtained by this project will provide a firm foundation for forthcoming genomic studies such as the comparative analysis of genes conserved among the Solanaceae species and the elucidation of the functions of unknown tomato genes. To exploit the wealth of the genome sequence information, there is an urgent need for novel resources and analytical tools for tomato functional genomics. Here, we present an overview of the development of genetic and genomic resources of tomato in the last decade, with a special focus on the activities of Japan SOL and the National Bio-Resource Project in the development of functional genomic resources of a model cultivar, Micro-Tom. PMID:19506732

  14. A diploid wheat TILLING resource for wheat functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Triticum monococcum L., an A genome diploid einkorn wheat, was the first domesticated crop. As a diploid, it is attractive genetic model for the study of gene structure and function of wheat-specific traits. Diploid wheat is currently not amenable to reverse genetics approaches such as insertion mutagenesis and post-transcriptional gene silencing strategies. However, TILLING offers a powerful functional genetics approach for wheat gene analysis. Results We developed a TILLING population of 1,532 M2 families using EMS as a mutagen. A total of 67 mutants were obtained for the four genes studied. Waxy gene mutation frequencies are known to be 1/17.6 - 34.4 kb DNA in polyploid wheat TILLING populations. The T. monococcum diploid wheat TILLING population had a mutation frequency of 1/90 kb for the same gene. Lignin biosynthesis pathway genes- COMT1, HCT2, and 4CL1 had mutation frequencies of 1/86 kb, 1/92 kb and 1/100 kb, respectively. The overall mutation frequency of the diploid wheat TILLING population was 1/92 kb. Conclusion The mutation frequency of a diploid wheat TILLING population was found to be higher than that reported for other diploid grasses. The rate, however, is lower than tetraploid and hexaploid wheat TILLING populations because of the higher tolerance of polyploids to mutations. Unlike polyploid wheat, most mutants in diploid wheat have a phenotype amenable to forward and reverse genetic analysis and establish diploid wheat as an attractive model to study gene function in wheat. We estimate that a TILLING population of 5, 520 will be needed to get a non-sense mutation for every wheat gene of interest with 95% probability. PMID:23134614

  15. The non-human primate reference transcriptome resource (NHPRTR) for comparative functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Pipes, Lenore; Li, Sheng; Bozinoski, Marjan; Palermo, Robert; Peng, Xinxia; Blood, Phillip; Kelly, Sara; Weiss, Jeffrey M.; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Zumbo, Paul; Chen, Ronghua; Schroth, Gary P.; Mason, Christopher E.; Katze, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    RNA-based next-generation sequencing (RNA-Seq) provides a tremendous amount of new information regarding gene and transcript structure, expression and regulation. This is particularly true for non-coding RNAs where whole transcriptome analyses have revealed that the much of the genome is transcribed and that many non-coding transcripts have widespread functionality. However, uniform resources for raw, cleaned and processed RNA-Seq data are sparse for most organisms and this is especially true for non-human primates (NHPs). Here, we describe a large-scale RNA-Seq data and analysis infrastructure, the NHP reference transcriptome resource (http://nhprtr.org); it presently hosts data from12 species of primates, to be expanded to 15 species/subspecies spanning great apes, old world monkeys, new world monkeys and prosimians. Data are collected for each species using pools of RNA from comparable tissues. We provide data access in advance of its deposition at NCBI, as well as browsable tracks of alignments against the human genome using the UCSC genome browser. This resource will continue to host additional RNA-Seq data, alignments and assemblies as they are generated over the coming years and provide a key resource for the annotation of NHP genomes as well as informing primate studies on evolution, reproduction, infection, immunity and pharmacology. PMID:23203872

  16. AmoebaDB and MicrosporidiaDB: functional genomic resources for Amoebozoa and Microsporidia species

    PubMed Central

    Aurrecoechea, Cristina; Barreto, Ana; Brestelli, John; Brunk, Brian P.; Caler, Elisabet V.; Fischer, Steve; Gajria, Bindu; Gao, Xin; Gingle, Alan; Grant, Greg; Harb, Omar S.; Heiges, Mark; Iodice, John; Kissinger, Jessica C.; Kraemer, Eileen T.; Li, Wei; Nayak, Vishal; Pennington, Cary; Pinney, Deborah F.; Pitts, Brian; Roos, David S.; Srinivasamoorthy, Ganesh; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Treatman, Charles; Wang, Haiming

    2011-01-01

    AmoebaDB (http://AmoebaDB.org) and MicrosporidiaDB (http://MicrosporidiaDB.org) are new functional genomic databases serving the amoebozoa and microsporidia research communities, respectively. AmoebaDB contains the genomes of three Entamoeba species (E. dispar, E. invadens and E. histolityca) and microarray expression data for E. histolytica. MicrosporidiaDB contains the genomes of Encephalitozoon cuniculi, E. intestinalis and E. bieneusi. The databases belong to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) funded EuPathDB (http://EuPathDB.org) Bioinformatics Resource Center family of integrated databases and assume the same architectural and graphical design as other EuPathDB resources such as PlasmoDB and TriTrypDB. Importantly they utilize the graphical strategy builder that affords a database user the ability to ask complex multi-data-type questions with relative ease and versatility. Genomic scale data can be queried based on BLAST searches, annotation keywords and gene ID searches, GO terms, sequence motifs, protein characteristics, phylogenetic relationships and functional data such as transcript (microarray and EST evidence) and protein expression data. Search strategies can be saved within a user’s profile for future retrieval and may also be shared with other researchers using a unique strategy web address. PMID:20974635

  17. A genome scale resource for in vivo tag-based protein function exploration in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sarov, Mihail; Murray, John; Schanze, Kristin; Pozniakovski, Andrei; Niu, Wei; Angermann, Karolin; Hasse, Susanne; Rupprecht, Michaela; Vinis, Elisabeth; Tinney, Matthew; Preston, Elicia; Zinke, Andrea; Enst, Susanne; Teichgraber, Tina; Janette, Judith; Reis, Kadri; Janosch, Stephan; Schloissnig, Siegfried; Ejsmont, Radoslaw K.; Slightam, Cindie; Xu, Xiao; Kim, Stuart K.; Reinke, Valerie; Stewart, A. Francis; Snyder, Michael; Waterston, Robert; Hyman, Anthony A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the in vivo dynamics of protein localization and their physical interactions is important for many problems in Biology. To enable systematic protein function interrogation in a multicelluar context, we built a genome-scale transgenic platform for in vivo expression of fluorescent and affinity tagged proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans under endogenous cis regulatory control. The platform combines computer-assisted transgene design, massively parallel DNA engineering and next generation sequencing to generate a resource of 14637 genomic DNA transgenes, which covers 73% of the proteome. The multipurpose tag used allows any protein of interest to be localized in vivo or affinity purified using standard tag-based assays. We illustrate the utility of the resource by systematic chromatin immunopurification and automated 4D imaging, which produced detailed DNA binding and cell/tissue distribution maps for key transcription factor proteins PMID:22901814

  18. Genomic Resources for Gene Discovery, Functional Genome Annotation, and Evolutionary Studies of Maize and Its Close Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Shi, Xue; Liu, Lin; Li, Haiyan; Ammiraju, Jetty S.S.; Kudrna, David A.; Xiong, Wentao; Wang, Hao; Dai, Zhaozhao; Zheng, Yonglian; Lai, Jinsheng; Jin, Weiwei; Messing, Joachim; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Wing, Rod A.; Luo, Meizhong

    2013-01-01

    Maize is one of the most important food crops and a key model for genetics and developmental biology. A genetically anchored and high-quality draft genome sequence of maize inbred B73 has been obtained to serve as a reference sequence. To facilitate evolutionary studies in maize and its close relatives, much like the Oryza Map Alignment Project (OMAP) (www.OMAP.org) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) resource did for the rice community, we constructed BAC libraries for maize inbred lines Zheng58, Chang7-2, and Mo17 and maize wild relatives Zea mays ssp. parviglumis and Tripsacum dactyloides. Furthermore, to extend functional genomic studies to maize and sorghum, we also constructed binary BAC (BIBAC) libraries for the maize inbred B73 and the sorghum landrace Nengsi-1. The BAC/BIBAC vectors facilitate transfer of large intact DNA inserts from BAC clones to the BIBAC vector and functional complementation of large DNA fragments. These seven Zea Map Alignment Project (ZMAP) BAC/BIBAC libraries have average insert sizes ranging from 92 to 148 kb, organellar DNA from 0.17 to 2.3%, empty vector rates between 0.35 and 5.56%, and genome equivalents of 4.7- to 8.4-fold. The usefulness of the Parviglumis and Tripsacum BAC libraries was demonstrated by mapping clones to the reference genome. Novel genes and alleles present in these ZMAP libraries can now be used for functional complementation studies and positional or homology-based cloning of genes for translational genomics. PMID:24037269

  19. UCLA's Molecular Screening Shared Resource: enhancing small molecule discovery with functional genomics and new technology.

    PubMed

    Damoiseaux, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The Molecular Screening Shared Resource (MSSR) offers a comprehensive range of leading-edge high throughput screening (HTS) services including drug discovery, chemical and functional genomics, and novel methods for nano and environmental toxicology. The MSSR is an open access environment with investigators from UCLA as well as from the entire globe. Industrial clients are equally welcome as are non-profit entities. The MSSR is a fee-for-service entity and does not retain intellectual property. In conjunction with the Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, the MSSR is unique in its dedicated and ongoing efforts towards high throughput toxicity testing of nanomaterials. In addition, the MSSR engages in technology development eliminating bottlenecks from the HTS workflow and enabling novel assays and readouts currently not available. PMID:24661210

  20. Ensembl comparative genomics resources.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Javier; Muffato, Matthieu; Beal, Kathryn; Fitzgerald, Stephen; Gordon, Leo; Pignatelli, Miguel; Vilella, Albert J; Searle, Stephen M J; Amode, Ridwan; Brent, Simon; Spooner, William; Kulesha, Eugene; Yates, Andrew; Flicek, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Evolution provides the unifying framework with which to understand biology. The coherent investigation of genic and genomic data often requires comparative genomics analyses based on whole-genome alignments, sets of homologous genes and other relevant datasets in order to evaluate and answer evolutionary-related questions. However, the complexity and computational requirements of producing such data are substantial: this has led to only a small number of reference resources that are used for most comparative analyses. The Ensembl comparative genomics resources are one such reference set that facilitates comprehensive and reproducible analysis of chordate genome data. Ensembl computes pairwise and multiple whole-genome alignments from which large-scale synteny, per-base conservation scores and constrained elements are obtained. Gene alignments are used to define Ensembl Protein Families, GeneTrees and homologies for both protein-coding and non-coding RNA genes. These resources are updated frequently and have a consistent informatics infrastructure and data presentation across all supported species. Specialized web-based visualizations are also available including synteny displays, collapsible gene tree plots, a gene family locator and different alignment views. The Ensembl comparative genomics infrastructure is extensively reused for the analysis of non-vertebrate species by other projects including Ensembl Genomes and Gramene and much of the information here is relevant to these projects. The consistency of the annotation across species and the focus on vertebrates makes Ensembl an ideal system to perform and support vertebrate comparative genomic analyses. We use robust software and pipelines to produce reference comparative data and make it freely available. Database URL: http://www.ensembl.org. PMID:26896847

  1. Ensembl comparative genomics resources

    PubMed Central

    Muffato, Matthieu; Beal, Kathryn; Fitzgerald, Stephen; Gordon, Leo; Pignatelli, Miguel; Vilella, Albert J.; Searle, Stephen M. J.; Amode, Ridwan; Brent, Simon; Spooner, William; Kulesha, Eugene; Yates, Andrew; Flicek, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Evolution provides the unifying framework with which to understand biology. The coherent investigation of genic and genomic data often requires comparative genomics analyses based on whole-genome alignments, sets of homologous genes and other relevant datasets in order to evaluate and answer evolutionary-related questions. However, the complexity and computational requirements of producing such data are substantial: this has led to only a small number of reference resources that are used for most comparative analyses. The Ensembl comparative genomics resources are one such reference set that facilitates comprehensive and reproducible analysis of chordate genome data. Ensembl computes pairwise and multiple whole-genome alignments from which large-scale synteny, per-base conservation scores and constrained elements are obtained. Gene alignments are used to define Ensembl Protein Families, GeneTrees and homologies for both protein-coding and non-coding RNA genes. These resources are updated frequently and have a consistent informatics infrastructure and data presentation across all supported species. Specialized web-based visualizations are also available including synteny displays, collapsible gene tree plots, a gene family locator and different alignment views. The Ensembl comparative genomics infrastructure is extensively reused for the analysis of non-vertebrate species by other projects including Ensembl Genomes and Gramene and much of the information here is relevant to these projects. The consistency of the annotation across species and the focus on vertebrates makes Ensembl an ideal system to perform and support vertebrate comparative genomic analyses. We use robust software and pipelines to produce reference comparative data and make it freely available. Database URL: http://www.ensembl.org. PMID:26896847

  2. The Eukaryotic Pathogen Databases: a functional genomic resource integrating data from human and veterinary parasites.

    PubMed

    Harb, Omar S; Roos, David S

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, advances in high-throughput biological techniques and the availability of computational resources including fast Internet access have resulted in an explosion of large genome-scale data sets "big data." While such data are readily available for download and personal use and analysis from a variety of repositories, often such analysis requires access to seldom-available computational skills. As a result a number of databases have emerged to provide scientists with online tools enabling the interrogation of data without the need for sophisticated computational skills beyond basic knowledge of Internet browser utility. This chapter focuses on the Eukaryotic Pathogen Databases (EuPathDB: http://eupathdb.org) Bioinformatic Resource Center (BRC) and illustrates some of the available tools and methods. PMID:25388105

  3. The Homeodomain Resource: a comprehensive collection of sequence, structure, interaction, genomic and functional information on the homeodomain protein family

    PubMed Central

    Moreland, R. Travis; Ryan, Joseph F.; Pan, Christopher; Baxevanis, Andreas D.

    2009-01-01

    The Homeodomain Resource is a curated collection of sequence, structure, interaction, genomic and functional information on the homeodomain family. The current version builds upon previous versions by the addition of new, complete sets of homeodomain sequences from fully sequenced genomes, the expansion of existing curated homeodomain information and the improvement of data accessibility through better search tools and more complete data integration. This release contains 1534 full-length homeodomain-containing sequences, 93 experimentally derived homeodomain structures, 101 homeodomain protein–protein interactions, 107 homeodomain DNA-binding sites and 206 homeodomain proteins implicated in human genetic disorders. Database URL: The Homeodomain Resource is freely available and can be accessed at http://research.nhgri.nih.gov/homeodomain/ PMID:20157477

  4. A genome-scale resource for in vivo tag-based protein function exploration in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Sarov, Mihail; Murray, John I; Schanze, Kristin; Pozniakovski, Andrei; Niu, Wei; Angermann, Karolin; Hasse, Susanne; Rupprecht, Michaela; Vinis, Elisabeth; Tinney, Matthew; Preston, Elicia; Zinke, Andrea; Enst, Susanne; Teichgraber, Tina; Janette, Judith; Reis, Kadri; Janosch, Stephan; Schloissnig, Siegfried; Ejsmont, Radoslaw K; Slightam, Cindie; Xu, Xiao; Kim, Stuart K; Reinke, Valerie; Stewart, A Francis; Snyder, Michael; Waterston, Robert H; Hyman, Anthony A

    2012-08-17

    Understanding the in vivo dynamics of protein localization and their physical interactions is important for many problems in biology. To enable systematic protein function interrogation in a multicellular context, we built a genome-scale transgenic platform for in vivo expression of fluorescent- and affinity-tagged proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans under endogenous cis regulatory control. The platform combines computer-assisted transgene design, massively parallel DNA engineering, and next-generation sequencing to generate a resource of 14,637 genomic DNA transgenes, which covers 73% of the proteome. The multipurpose tag used allows any protein of interest to be localized in vivo or affinity purified using standard tag-based assays. We illustrate the utility of the resource by systematic chromatin immunopurification and automated 4D imaging, which produced detailed DNA binding and cell/tissue distribution maps for key transcription factor proteins. PMID:22901814

  5. WheatGenome.info: A Resource for Wheat Genomics Resource.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kaitao

    2016-01-01

    An integrated database with a variety of Web-based systems named WheatGenome.info hosting wheat genome and genomic data has been developed to support wheat research and crop improvement. The resource includes multiple Web-based applications, which are implemented as a variety of Web-based systems. These include a GBrowse2-based wheat genome viewer with BLAST search portal, TAGdb for searching wheat second generation genome sequence data, wheat autoSNPdb, links to wheat genetic maps using CMap and CMap3D, and a wheat genome Wiki to allow interaction between diverse wheat genome sequencing activities. This portal provides links to a variety of wheat genome resources hosted at other research organizations. This integrated database aims to accelerate wheat genome research and is freely accessible via the web interface at http://www.wheatgenome.info/ . PMID:26519407

  6. Shanghai RAPESEED Database: a resource for functional genomics studies of seed development and fatty acid metabolism of Brassica

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guo-Zhang; Shi, Qiu-Ming; Niu, Ya; Xing, Mei-Qing; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2008-01-01

    The Shanghai RAPESEED Database (RAPESEED, http://rapeseed.plantsignal.cn/) was created to provide the solid platform for functional genomics studies of oilseed crops with the emphasis on seed development and fatty acid metabolism. The RAPESEED includes the resource of 8462 unique ESTs, of which 3526 clones are with full length cDNA; the expression profiles of 8095 genes and the Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE, 23 895 unique tags) and tag-to-gene data during seed development. In addition, a total of ∼14 700 M3 mutant populations were generated by ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis and related seed quality information was determined using the Foss NIR System. Further, the TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) platform was established based on the generated EMS mutant population. The relevant information was collected in RAPESEED database, which can be searched through keywords, nucleotide or protein sequences, or seed quality parameters, and downloaded. PMID:17916574

  7. Gramene 2013: Comparative plant genomics resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is a curated online resource for comparative functional genomics in crops and model plant species, currently hosting 27 fully and 10 partially sequenced reference genomes in its build number 38. Its strength derives from the application of a phylogenetic framework fo...

  8. Genomic Resources for Cancer Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    This page provides links to research resources, complied by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, that may be of interest to genetic epidemiologists conducting cancer research, but is not exhaustive.

  9. Panzea: A Database and Resource for Molecular and Functional Diversity in the Maize Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize, a classical model for genetic studies, is an important agronomic crop, and the genome is known to contain many natural differences in the DNA between different strains. On average, two randomly chosen maize lines have an average of one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) every ~100 bp; this...

  10. A panel of induced pluripotent stem cells from chimpanzees: a resource for comparative functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Gallego Romero, Irene; Pavlovic, Bryan J; Hernando-Herraez, Irene; Zhou, Xiang; Ward, Michelle C; Banovich, Nicholas E; Kagan, Courtney L; Burnett, Jonathan E; Huang, Constance H; Mitrano, Amy; Chavarria, Claudia I; Friedrich Ben-Nun, Inbar; Li, Yingchun; Sabatini, Karen; Leonardo, Trevor R; Parast, Mana; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Laurent, Louise C; Loring, Jeanne F; Gilad, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Comparative genomics studies in primates are restricted due to our limited access to samples. In order to gain better insight into the genetic processes that underlie variation in complex phenotypes in primates, we must have access to faithful model systems for a wide range of cell types. To facilitate this, we generated a panel of 7 fully characterized chimpanzee induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines derived from healthy donors. To demonstrate the utility of comparative iPSC panels, we collected RNA-sequencing and DNA methylation data from the chimpanzee iPSCs and the corresponding fibroblast lines, as well as from 7 human iPSCs and their source lines, which encompass multiple populations and cell types. We observe much less within-species variation in iPSCs than in somatic cells, indicating the reprogramming process erases many inter-individual differences. The low within-species regulatory variation in iPSCs allowed us to identify many novel inter-species regulatory differences of small magnitude. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07103.001 PMID:26102527

  11. A panel of induced pluripotent stem cells from chimpanzees: a resource for comparative functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Gallego Romero, Irene; Pavlovic, Bryan J; Hernando-Herraez, Irene; Zhou, Xiang; Ward, Michelle C; Banovich, Nicholas E; Kagan, Courtney L; Burnett, Jonathan E; Huang, Constance H; Mitrano, Amy; Chavarria, Claudia I; Friedrich Ben-Nun, Inbar; Li, Yingchun; Sabatini, Karen; Leonardo, Trevor R; Parast, Mana; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Laurent, Louise C; Loring, Jeanne F; Gilad, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Comparative genomics studies in primates are restricted due to our limited access to samples. In order to gain better insight into the genetic processes that underlie variation in complex phenotypes in primates, we must have access to faithful model systems for a wide range of cell types. To facilitate this, we generated a panel of 7 fully characterized chimpanzee induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines derived from healthy donors. To demonstrate the utility of comparative iPSC panels, we collected RNA-sequencing and DNA methylation data from the chimpanzee iPSCs and the corresponding fibroblast lines, as well as from 7 human iPSCs and their source lines, which encompass multiple populations and cell types. We observe much less within-species variation in iPSCs than in somatic cells, indicating the reprogramming process erases many inter-individual differences. The low within-species regulatory variation in iPSCs allowed us to identify many novel inter-species regulatory differences of small magnitude. PMID:26102527

  12. Reannotation and extended community resources for the genome of the non-seed plant Physcomitrella patens provide insights into the evolution of plant gene structures and functions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The moss Physcomitrella patens as a model species provides an important reference for early-diverging lineages of plants and the release of the genome in 2008 opened the doors to genome-wide studies. The usability of a reference genome greatly depends on the quality of the annotation and the availability of centralized community resources. Therefore, in the light of accumulating evidence for missing genes, fragmentary gene structures, false annotations and a low rate of functional annotations on the original release, we decided to improve the moss genome annotation. Results Here, we report the complete moss genome re-annotation (designated V1.6) incorporating the increased transcript availability from a multitude of developmental stages and tissue types. We demonstrate the utility of the improved P. patens genome annotation for comparative genomics and new extensions to the cosmoss.org resource as a central repository for this plant “flagship” genome. The structural annotation of 32,275 protein-coding genes results in 8387 additional loci including 1456 loci with known protein domains or homologs in Plantae. This is the first release to include information on transcript isoforms, suggesting alternative splicing events for at least 10.8% of the loci. Furthermore, this release now also provides information on non-protein-coding loci. Functional annotations were improved regarding quality and coverage, resulting in 58% annotated loci (previously: 41%) that comprise also 7200 additional loci with GO annotations. Access and manual curation of the functional and structural genome annotation is provided via the http://www.cosmoss.org model organism database. Conclusions Comparative analysis of gene structure evolution along the green plant lineage provides novel insights, such as a comparatively high number of loci with 5’-UTR introns in the moss. Comparative analysis of functional annotations reveals expansions of moss house-keeping and metabolic genes

  13. The CATH database: an extended protein family resource for structural and functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Pearl, F. M. G.; Bennett, C. F.; Bray, J. E.; Harrison, A. P.; Martin, N.; Shepherd, A.; Sillitoe, I.; Thornton, J.; Orengo, C. A.

    2003-01-01

    The CATH database of protein domain structures (http://www.biochem.ucl.ac.uk/bsm/cath_new) currently contains 34 287 domain structures classified into 1383 superfamilies and 3285 sequence families. Each structural family is expanded with domain sequence relatives recruited from GenBank using a variety of efficient sequence search protocols and reliable thresholds. This extended resource, known as the CATH-protein family database (CATH-PFDB) contains a total of 310 000 domain sequences classified into 26 812 sequence families. New sequence search protocols have been designed, based on these intermediate sequence libraries, to allow more regular updating of the classification. Further developments include the adaptation of a recently developed method for rapid structure comparison, based on secondary structure matching, for domain boundary assignment. The philosophy behind CATHEDRAL is the recognition of recurrent folds already classified in CATH. Benchmarking of CATHEDRAL, using manually validated domain assignments, demonstrated that 43% of domains boundaries could be completely automatically assigned. This is an improvement on a previous consensus approach for which only 10–20% of domains could be reliably processed in a completely automated fashion. Since domain boundary assignment is a significant bottleneck in the classification of new structures, CATHEDRAL will also help to increase the frequency of CATH updates. PMID:12520050

  14. Fungal genome resources at NCBI.

    PubMed

    Robbertse, B; Tatusova, T

    2011-09-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ is the quickest way to find resources of interest with fungal entries. Some tools though are resources specific and can be indirectly accessed from a particular database in the Entrez system. These include graphical viewers and comparative analysis tools such as TaxPlot, TaxMap and UniGene DDD (found via UniGene Homepage). Gene and BioProject pages also serve as portals to external data such as community annotation websites, BioGrid and UniProt. There are many different ways of accessing genomic data at NCBI. Depending on the focus and goal of research projects or the level of interest, a user would select a particular route for accessing genomic databases and resources. This review article describes methods of accessing fungal genome data and provides examples that illustrate the use of analysis tools. PMID:22737589

  15. High-throughput comparison, functional annotation, and metabolic modeling of plant genomes using the PlantSEED resource.

    PubMed

    Seaver, Samuel M D; Gerdes, Svetlana; Frelin, Océane; Lerma-Ortiz, Claudia; Bradbury, Louis M T; Zallot, Rémi; Hasnain, Ghulam; Niehaus, Thomas D; El Yacoubi, Basma; Pasternak, Shiran; Olson, Robert; Pusch, Gordon; Overbeek, Ross; Stevens, Rick; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Ware, Doreen; Hanson, Andrew D; Henry, Christopher S

    2014-07-01

    The increasing number of sequenced plant genomes is placing new demands on the methods applied to analyze, annotate, and model these genomes. Today's annotation pipelines result in inconsistent gene assignments that complicate comparative analyses and prevent efficient construction of metabolic models. To overcome these problems, we have developed the PlantSEED, an integrated, metabolism-centric database to support subsystems-based annotation and metabolic model reconstruction for plant genomes. PlantSEED combines SEED subsystems technology, first developed for microbial genomes, with refined protein families and biochemical data to assign fully consistent functional annotations to orthologous genes, particularly those encoding primary metabolic pathways. Seamless integration with its parent, the prokaryotic SEED database, makes PlantSEED a unique environment for cross-kingdom comparative analysis of plant and bacterial genomes. The consistent annotations imposed by PlantSEED permit rapid reconstruction and modeling of primary metabolism for all plant genomes in the database. This feature opens the unique possibility of model-based assessment of the completeness and accuracy of gene annotation and thus allows computational identification of genes and pathways that are restricted to certain genomes or need better curation. We demonstrate the PlantSEED system by producing consistent annotations for 10 reference genomes. We also produce a functioning metabolic model for each genome, gapfilling to identify missing annotations and proposing gene candidates for missing annotations. Models are built around an extended biomass composition representing the most comprehensive published to date. To our knowledge, our models are the first to be published for seven of the genomes analyzed. PMID:24927599

  16. Genomics and Bioinformatics Resources for Crop Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Mochida, Keiichi; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Recent remarkable innovations in platforms for omics-based research and application development provide crucial resources to promote research in model and applied plant species. A combinatorial approach using multiple omics platforms and integration of their outcomes is now an effective strategy for clarifying molecular systems integral to improving plant productivity. Furthermore, promotion of comparative genomics among model and applied plants allows us to grasp the biological properties of each species and to accelerate gene discovery and functional analyses of genes. Bioinformatics platforms and their associated databases are also essential for the effective design of approaches making the best use of genomic resources, including resource integration. We review recent advances in research platforms and resources in plant omics together with related databases and advances in technology. PMID:20208064

  17. Plant functional genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtorf, Hauke; Guitton, Marie-Christine; Reski, Ralf

    2002-04-01

    Functional genome analysis of plants has entered the high-throughput stage. The complete genome information from key species such as Arabidopsis thaliana and rice is now available and will further boost the application of a range of new technologies to functional plant gene analysis. To broadly assign functions to unknown genes, different fast and multiparallel approaches are currently used and developed. These new technologies are based on known methods but are adapted and improved to accommodate for comprehensive, large-scale gene analysis, i.e. such techniques are novel in the sense that their design allows researchers to analyse many genes at the same time and at an unprecedented pace. Such methods allow analysis of the different constituents of the cell that help to deduce gene function, namely the transcripts, proteins and metabolites. Similarly the phenotypic variations of entire mutant collections can now be analysed in a much faster and more efficient way than before. The different methodologies have developed to form their own fields within the functional genomics technological platform and are termed transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and phenomics. Gene function, however, cannot solely be inferred by using only one such approach. Rather, it is only by bringing together all the information collected by different functional genomic tools that one will be able to unequivocally assign functions to unknown plant genes. This review focuses on current technical developments and their impact on the field of plant functional genomics. The lower plant Physcomitrella is introduced as a new model system for gene function analysis, owing to its high rate of homologous recombination.

  18. The Anadara trapezia transcriptome: a resource for molluscan physiological genomics.

    PubMed

    Prentis, Peter J; Pavasovic, Ana

    2014-12-01

    In this study we undertook deep sequencing of the blood cockle, Anadara trapezia, transcriptome to generate genomic resources for future functional genomics analyses. Over 27 million high quality paired end reads were assembled into 75024 contigs. Of these contigs, 29013 (38.7%) received significant BLASTx hits and gene ontology (GO) terms were assigned to 13718 of these sequences. This resource will facilitate physiological genomic studies to test the gene expression response of A. trapezia to various environmental stresses. PMID:25151889

  19. Genomic resources in fruit plants: an assessment of current status.

    PubMed

    Rai, Manoj K; Shekhawat, N S

    2015-01-01

    The availability of many genomic resources such as genome sequences, functional genomics resources including microarrays and RNA-seq, sufficient numbers of molecular markers, express sequence tags (ESTs) and high-density genetic maps is causing a rapid acceleration of genetics and genomic research of many fruit plants. This is leading to an increase in our knowledge of the genes that are linked to many horticultural and agronomically important traits. Recently, some progress has also been made on the identification and functional analysis of miRNAs in some fruit plants. This is one of the most active research fields in plant sciences. The last decade has witnessed development of genomic resources in many fruit plants such as apple, banana, citrus, grapes, papaya, pears, strawberry etc.; however, many of them are still not being exploited. Furthermore, owing to lack of resources, infrastructure and research facilities in many lesser-developed countries, development of genomic resources in many underutilized or less-studied fruit crops, which grow in these countries, is limited. Thus, research emphasis should be given to those fruit crops for which genomic resources are relatively scarce. The development of genomic databases of these less-studied fruit crops will enable biotechnologists to identify target genes that underlie key horticultural and agronomical traits. This review presents an overview of the current status of the development of genomic resources in fruit plants with the main emphasis being on genome sequencing, EST resources, functional genomics resources including microarray and RNA-seq, identification of quantitative trait loci and construction of genetic maps as well as efforts made on the identification and functional analysis of miRNAs in fruit plants. PMID:24649925

  20. Enabling functional genomics with genome engineering

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Isaac B.; Gersbach, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in genome engineering technologies have made the precise control over genome sequence and regulation possible across a variety of disciplines. These tools can expand our understanding of fundamental biological processes and create new opportunities for therapeutic designs. The rapid evolution of these methods has also catalyzed a new era of genomics that includes multiple approaches to functionally characterize and manipulate the regulation of genomic information. Here, we review the recent advances of the most widely adopted genome engineering platforms and their application to functional genomics. This includes engineered zinc finger proteins, TALEs/TALENs, and the CRISPR/Cas9 system as nucleases for genome editing, transcription factors for epigenome editing, and other emerging applications. We also present current and potential future applications of these tools, as well as their current limitations and areas for future advances. PMID:26430154

  1. Navigating yeast genome maintenance with functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Measday, Vivien; Stirling, Peter C

    2016-03-01

    Maintenance of genome integrity is a fundamental requirement of all organisms. To address this, organisms have evolved extremely faithful modes of replication, DNA repair and chromosome segregation to combat the deleterious effects of an unstable genome. Nonetheless, a small amount of genome instability is the driver of evolutionary change and adaptation, and thus a low level of instability is permitted in populations. While defects in genome maintenance almost invariably reduce fitness in the short term, they can create an environment where beneficial mutations are more likely to occur. The importance of this fact is clearest in the development of human cancer, where genome instability is a well-established enabling characteristic of carcinogenesis. This raises the crucial question: what are the cellular pathways that promote genome maintenance and what are their mechanisms? Work in model organisms, in particular the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has provided the global foundations of genome maintenance mechanisms in eukaryotes. The development of pioneering genomic tools inS. cerevisiae, such as the systematic creation of mutants in all nonessential and essential genes, has enabled whole-genome approaches to identifying genes with roles in genome maintenance. Here, we review the extensive whole-genome approaches taken in yeast, with an emphasis on functional genomic screens, to understand the genetic basis of genome instability, highlighting a range of genetic and cytological screening modalities. By revealing the biological pathways and processes regulating genome integrity, these analyses contribute to the systems-level map of the yeast cell and inform studies of human disease, especially cancer. PMID:26323482

  2. Tomato functional genomics database (TFGD): a comprehensive collection and analysis package for tomato functional genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato Functional Genomics Database (TFGD; http://ted.bti.cornell.edu) provides a comprehensive systems biology resource to store, mine, analyze, visualize and integrate large-scale tomato functional genomics datasets. The database is expanded from the previously described Tomato Expression Database...

  3. Nongenetic functions of the genome.

    PubMed

    Bustin, Michael; Misteli, Tom

    2016-05-01

    The primary function of the genome is to store, propagate, and express the genetic information that gives rise to a cell's architectural and functional machinery. However, the genome is also a major structural component of the cell. Besides its genetic roles, the genome affects cellular functions by nongenetic means through its physical and structural properties, particularly by exerting mechanical forces and by serving as a scaffold for binding of cellular components. Major cellular processes affected by nongenetic functions of the genome include establishment of nuclear structure, signal transduction, mechanoresponses, cell migration, and vision in nocturnal animals. We discuss the concept, mechanisms, and implications of nongenetic functions of the genome. PMID:27151873

  4. Gramene 2016: comparative plant genomics and pathway resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is an online resource for comparative functional genomics in crops and model plant species. Its two main frameworks are genomes (collaboration with Ensembl Plants) and pathways (The Plant Reactome and archival BioCyc databases). Since our last NAR update, the data...

  5. Xenbase: a Xenopus biology and genomics resource

    PubMed Central

    Bowes, Jeff B.; Snyder, Kevin A.; Segerdell, Erik; Gibb, Ross; Jarabek, Chris; Noumen, Etienne; Pollet, Nicolas; Vize, Peter D.

    2008-01-01

    Xenbase (www.xenbase.org) is a model organism database integrating a diverse array of biological and genomic data on the frogs, Xenopus laevis and Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis. Data is collected from other databases, high-throughput screens and the scientific literature and integrated into a number of database modules covering subjects such as community, literature, gene and genomic analysis. Gene pages are automatically assembled from data piped from the Entrez Gene, Gurdon Institute, JGI, Metazome, MGI, OMIM, PubMed, Unigene, Zfin, commercial suppliers and others. These data are then supplemented with in-house annotation. Xenbase has implemented the Gbrowse genome browser and also provides a BLAST service that allows users to specifically search either laevis or tropicalis DNA or protein targets. A table of Xenopus gene synonyms has been implemented and allows the genome, genes, publications and high-throughput gene expression data to be seamlessly integrated with other Xenopus data and to external database resources, making the wealth of developmental and functional data from the frog available to the broader research community. PMID:17984085

  6. High-throughput comparison, functional annotation, and metabolic modeling of plant genomes using the PlantSEED resource

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing number of sequenced plant genomes is placing new demands on the methods applied to analyze, annotate, and model these genomes. Today's annotation pipelines result in inconsistent gene assignments that complicate comparative analyses and prevent efficient construction of metabolic mode...

  7. Genomics and functional genomics with haloarchaea.

    PubMed

    Soppa, J; Baumann, A; Brenneis, M; Dambeck, M; Hering, O; Lange, C

    2008-09-01

    The first haloarchaeal genome was published in 2000 and today five genome sequences are available. Transcriptome and proteome analyses have been established for two and three haloarchaeal species, respectively, and more than 20 studies using these functional genomic approaches have been published in the last two years. These studies gave global overviews of metabolic regulation (aerobic and anaerobic respiration, phototrophy, carbon source usage), stress response (UV, X-rays, transition metals, osmotic and temperature stress), cell cycle-dependent transcript level regulation, and transcript half-lives. The only translatome analysis available for any prokaryotic species revealed that 10 and 20% of all transcripts are translationally regulated in Haloferax volcanii and Halobacterium salinarum, respectively. Very effective methods for the construction of in frame deletion mutants have been established recently for haloarchaea and are intensively used to unravel the biological roles of genes in this group. Bioinformatic analyses include both cross-genome comparisons as well as integration of genomic data with experimental results. The first systems biology approaches have been performed that used experimental data to construct predictive models of gene expression and metabolism, respectively. In this contribution the current status of genomics, functional genomics, and molecular genetics of haloarchaea is summarized and selected examples are discussed. PMID:18493745

  8. Gramene: a growing plant comparative genomics resource

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gramene (www.gramene.org) is a curated genetic, genomic and comparative genome analysis resource for the major crop species, such as rice, maize, wheat and many other plant (mainly grass) species. Gramene is an open-source project, with all data and software freely downloadable through the ftp site ...

  9. Resources | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    OCG provides a variety of scientific and educational resources for both cancer researchers and members of the general public. These resources are divided into the following types: OCG-Supported Resources: Tools, databases, and reagents generated by initiated and completed OCG programs for researchers, educators, and students. (Note: Databases for current OCG programs are available through program-specific data matrices)

  10. Integrating sequence, evolution and functional genomics in regulatory genomics

    PubMed Central

    Vingron, Martin; Brazma, Alvis; Coulson, Richard; van Helden, Jacques; Manke, Thomas; Palin, Kimmo; Sand, Olivier; Ukkonen, Esko

    2009-01-01

    With genome analysis expanding from the study of genes to the study of gene regulation, 'regulatory genomics' utilizes sequence information, evolution and functional genomics measurements to unravel how regulatory information is encoded in the genome. PMID:19226437

  11. Functional Genomics Tools for Papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the genome of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sequenced, the study of gene function is becoming an increasing priority. Our research is to develop an RNA-induced gene silencing tool for the study of functional genomics in papaya. We employed agrobacterium leaf infiltration to induce PTGS in '-glucuro...

  12. The coffee genome hub: a resource for coffee genomes

    PubMed Central

    Dereeper, Alexis; Bocs, Stéphanie; Rouard, Mathieu; Guignon, Valentin; Ravel, Sébastien; Tranchant-Dubreuil, Christine; Poncet, Valérie; Garsmeur, Olivier; Lashermes, Philippe; Droc, Gaëtan

    2015-01-01

    The whole genome sequence of Coffea canephora, the perennial diploid species known as Robusta, has been recently released. In the context of the C. canephora genome sequencing project and to support post-genomics efforts, we developed the Coffee Genome Hub (http://coffee-genome.org/), an integrative genome information system that allows centralized access to genomics and genetics data and analysis tools to facilitate translational and applied research in coffee. We provide the complete genome sequence of C. canephora along with gene structure, gene product information, metabolism, gene families, transcriptomics, syntenic blocks, genetic markers and genetic maps. The hub relies on generic software (e.g. GMOD tools) for easy querying, visualizing and downloading research data. It includes a Genome Browser enhanced by a Community Annotation System, enabling the improvement of automatic gene annotation through an annotation editor. In addition, the hub aims at developing interoperability among other existing South Green tools managing coffee data (phylogenomics resources, SNPs) and/or supporting data analyses with the Galaxy workflow manager. PMID:25392413

  13. The coffee genome hub: a resource for coffee genomes.

    PubMed

    Dereeper, Alexis; Bocs, Stéphanie; Rouard, Mathieu; Guignon, Valentin; Ravel, Sébastien; Tranchant-Dubreuil, Christine; Poncet, Valérie; Garsmeur, Olivier; Lashermes, Philippe; Droc, Gaëtan

    2015-01-01

    The whole genome sequence of Coffea canephora, the perennial diploid species known as Robusta, has been recently released. In the context of the C. canephora genome sequencing project and to support post-genomics efforts, we developed the Coffee Genome Hub (http://coffee-genome.org/), an integrative genome information system that allows centralized access to genomics and genetics data and analysis tools to facilitate translational and applied research in coffee. We provide the complete genome sequence of C. canephora along with gene structure, gene product information, metabolism, gene families, transcriptomics, syntenic blocks, genetic markers and genetic maps. The hub relies on generic software (e.g. GMOD tools) for easy querying, visualizing and downloading research data. It includes a Genome Browser enhanced by a Community Annotation System, enabling the improvement of automatic gene annotation through an annotation editor. In addition, the hub aims at developing interoperability among other existing South Green tools managing coffee data (phylogenomics resources, SNPs) and/or supporting data analyses with the Galaxy workflow manager. PMID:25392413

  14. New Genomic Resources for Orchardgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the initial requirements of utilizing genomic approaches in plant improvement is the availability of DNA sequence information. Toward the goal of generating sequence information for forage and pasture grasses, we are developing an EST library from orchardgrass, or cocksfoot (Dactylis glomera...

  15. PGSB/MIPS Plant Genome Information Resources and Concepts for the Analysis of Complex Grass Genomes.

    PubMed

    Spannagl, Manuel; Bader, Kai; Pfeifer, Matthias; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2016-01-01

    PGSB (Plant Genome and Systems Biology; formerly MIPS-Munich Institute for Protein Sequences) has been involved in developing, implementing and maintaining plant genome databases for more than a decade. Genome databases and analysis resources have focused on individual genomes and aim to provide flexible and maintainable datasets for model plant genomes as a backbone against which experimental data, e.g., from high-throughput functional genomics, can be organized and analyzed. In addition, genomes from both model and crop plants form a scaffold for comparative genomics, assisted by specialized tools such as the CrowsNest viewer to explore conserved gene order (synteny) between related species on macro- and micro-levels.The genomes of many economically important Triticeae plants such as wheat, barley, and rye present a great challenge for sequence assembly and bioinformatic analysis due to their enormous complexity and large genome size. Novel concepts and strategies have been developed to deal with these difficulties and have been applied to the genomes of wheat, barley, rye, and other cereals. This includes the GenomeZipper concept, reference-guided exome assembly, and "chromosome genomics" based on flow cytometry sorted chromosomes. PMID:26519405

  16. Phenotypic and genomic analysis of a fast neutron mutant population resource in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mutagenized populations have become indispensable resources for introducing variation and studying gene function in plant genomics research. We utilized fast neutron radiation to induce deletion mutations in the soybean genome and phenotypically screened the resulting population. We exposed approxim...

  17. Genome-scale resources for Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Currie, Devin H.; Raman, Babu; Gowen, Christopher M.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Land, Miriam L.; Brown, Steven D.; Covalla, Sean; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Yang, Zamin Koo; Engle, Nancy L.; et al

    2015-06-26

    Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum is a hemicellulose-degrading thermophilic anaerobe that was previously engineered to produce ethanol at high yield. For this research, a major project was undertaken to develop this organism into an industrial biocatalyst, but the lack of genome information and resources were recognized early on as a key limitation.

  18. Genomic and Breeding Resources of the Euphorbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection of a limited number of model weeds and development of genomic-based tools and resources will facilitate studies on the ecology, biology, physiology and development of weedy species. Such studies will help answer fundamental questions of concern to weed scientists. However, to ensure the we...

  19. Developing genomic resources for the apiaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Apiaceae family includes carrot, celery, cilantro, dill, fennel and numerous other spice and medicinal crops. Carrot is the most economically important member of the Apiaceae with an annual value of $600 M in the United States alone. There are few genomic resources for carrot or other Apiaceae, ...

  20. Gramene 2016: comparative plant genomics and pathway resources

    PubMed Central

    Tello-Ruiz, Marcela K.; Stein, Joshua; Wei, Sharon; Preece, Justin; Olson, Andrew; Naithani, Sushma; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Jiao, Yinping; Mulvaney, Joseph; Kumari, Sunita; Chougule, Kapeel; Elser, Justin; Wang, Bo; Thomason, James; Bolser, Daniel M.; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Walts, Brandon; Fonseca, Nuno A.; Huerta, Laura; Keays, Maria; Tang, Y. Amy; Parkinson, Helen; Fabregat, Antonio; McKay, Sheldon; Weiser, Joel; D'Eustachio, Peter; Stein, Lincoln; Petryszak, Robert; Kersey, Paul J.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Ware, Doreen

    2016-01-01

    Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is an online resource for comparative functional genomics in crops and model plant species. Its two main frameworks are genomes (collaboration with Ensembl Plants) and pathways (The Plant Reactome and archival BioCyc databases). Since our last NAR update, the database website adopted a new Drupal management platform. The genomes section features 39 fully assembled reference genomes that are integrated using ontology-based annotation and comparative analyses, and accessed through both visual and programmatic interfaces. Additional community data, such as genetic variation, expression and methylation, are also mapped for a subset of genomes. The Plant Reactome pathway portal (http://plantreactome.gramene.org) provides a reference resource for analyzing plant metabolic and regulatory pathways. In addition to ∼200 curated rice reference pathways, the portal hosts gene homology-based pathway projections for 33 plant species. Both the genome and pathway browsers interface with the EMBL-EBI's Expression Atlas to enable the projection of baseline and differential expression data from curated expression studies in plants. Gramene's archive website (http://archive.gramene.org) continues to provide previously reported resources on comparative maps, markers and QTL. To further aid our users, we have also introduced a live monthly educational webinar series and a Gramene YouTube channel carrying video tutorials. PMID:26553803

  1. Gramene 2016: comparative plant genomics and pathway resources.

    PubMed

    Tello-Ruiz, Marcela K; Stein, Joshua; Wei, Sharon; Preece, Justin; Olson, Andrew; Naithani, Sushma; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Jiao, Yinping; Mulvaney, Joseph; Kumari, Sunita; Chougule, Kapeel; Elser, Justin; Wang, Bo; Thomason, James; Bolser, Daniel M; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Walts, Brandon; Fonseca, Nuno A; Huerta, Laura; Keays, Maria; Tang, Y Amy; Parkinson, Helen; Fabregat, Antonio; McKay, Sheldon; Weiser, Joel; D'Eustachio, Peter; Stein, Lincoln; Petryszak, Robert; Kersey, Paul J; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Ware, Doreen

    2016-01-01

    Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is an online resource for comparative functional genomics in crops and model plant species. Its two main frameworks are genomes (collaboration with Ensembl Plants) and pathways (The Plant Reactome and archival BioCyc databases). Since our last NAR update, the database website adopted a new Drupal management platform. The genomes section features 39 fully assembled reference genomes that are integrated using ontology-based annotation and comparative analyses, and accessed through both visual and programmatic interfaces. Additional community data, such as genetic variation, expression and methylation, are also mapped for a subset of genomes. The Plant Reactome pathway portal (http://plantreactome.gramene.org) provides a reference resource for analyzing plant metabolic and regulatory pathways. In addition to ∼ 200 curated rice reference pathways, the portal hosts gene homology-based pathway projections for 33 plant species. Both the genome and pathway browsers interface with the EMBL-EBI's Expression Atlas to enable the projection of baseline and differential expression data from curated expression studies in plants. Gramene's archive website (http://archive.gramene.org) continues to provide previously reported resources on comparative maps, markers and QTL. To further aid our users, we have also introduced a live monthly educational webinar series and a Gramene YouTube channel carrying video tutorials. PMID:26553803

  2. Genomic resource development for shellfish of conservation concern.

    PubMed

    Timmins-Schiffman, Emma B; Friedman, Carolyn S; Metzger, Dave C; White, Samuel J; Roberts, Steven B

    2013-03-01

    Effective conservation of threatened species depends on the ability to assess organism physiology and population demography. To develop genomic resources to better understand the dynamics of two ecologically vulnerable species in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, larval transcriptomes were sequenced for the pinto abalone, Haliotis kamtschatkana kamtschatkana, and the Olympia oyster, Ostrea lurida. Based on comparative species analysis the Ostrea lurida transcriptome (41 136 contigs) is relatively complete. These transcriptomes represent the first significant contribution to genomic resources for both species. Genes are described based on biological function with particular attention to those associated with temperature change, oxidative stress and immune function. In addition, transcriptome-derived genetic markers are provided. Together, these resources provide valuable tools for future studies aimed at conservation of Haliotis kamtschatkana kamtschatkana, Ostrea lurida and related species. PMID:23280275

  3. Human genome protein function database.

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, D. K.

    1991-01-01

    A database which focuses on the normal functions of the currently-known protein products of the Human Genome was constructed. Information is stored as text, figures, tables, and diagrams. The program contains built-in functions to modify, update, categorize, hypertext, search, create reports, and establish links to other databases. The semi-automated categorization feature of the database program was used to classify these proteins in terms of biomedical functions. PMID:1807638

  4. Reconciling resource utilization and resource selection functions.

    PubMed

    Hooten, Mevin B; Hanks, Ephraim M; Johnson, Devin S; Alldredge, Mat W

    2013-11-01

    1. Analyses based on utilization distributions (UDs) have been ubiquitous in animal space use studies, largely because they are computationally straightforward and relatively easy to employ. Conventional applications of resource utilization functions (RUFs) suggest that estimates of UDs can be used as response variables in a regression involving spatial covariates of interest. 2. It has been claimed that contemporary implementations of RUFs can yield inference about resource selection, although to our knowledge, an explicit connection has not been described. 3. We explore the relationships between RUFs and resource selection functions from a hueristic and simulation perspective. We investigate several sources of potential bias in the estimation of resource selection coefficients using RUFs (e.g. the spatial covariance modelling that is often used in RUF analyses). 4. Our findings illustrate that RUFs can, in fact, serve as approximations to RSFs and are capable of providing inference about resource selection, but only with some modification and under specific circumstances. 5. Using real telemetry data as an example, we provide guidance on which methods for estimating resource selection may be more appropriate and in which situations. In general, if telemetry data are assumed to arise as a point process, then RSF methods may be preferable to RUFs; however, modified RUFs may provide less biased parameter estimates when the data are subject to location error. PMID:23574332

  5. Reconciling resource utilization and resource selection functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooten, Mevin B.; Hanks, Ephraim M.; Johnson, Devin S.; Alldredge, Mat W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: 1. Analyses based on utilization distributions (UDs) have been ubiquitous in animal space use studies, largely because they are computationally straightforward and relatively easy to employ. Conventional applications of resource utilization functions (RUFs) suggest that estimates of UDs can be used as response variables in a regression involving spatial covariates of interest. 2. It has been claimed that contemporary implementations of RUFs can yield inference about resource selection, although to our knowledge, an explicit connection has not been described. 3. We explore the relationships between RUFs and resource selection functions from a hueristic and simulation perspective. We investigate several sources of potential bias in the estimation of resource selection coefficients using RUFs (e.g. the spatial covariance modelling that is often used in RUF analyses). 4. Our findings illustrate that RUFs can, in fact, serve as approximations to RSFs and are capable of providing inference about resource selection, but only with some modification and under specific circumstances. 5. Using real telemetry data as an example, we provide guidance on which methods for estimating resource selection may be more appropriate and in which situations. In general, if telemetry data are assumed to arise as a point process, then RSF methods may be preferable to RUFs; however, modified RUFs may provide less biased parameter estimates when the data are subject to location error.

  6. Development of chloroplast genomic resources for Cynara.

    PubMed

    Curci, Pasquale L; De Paola, Domenico; Sonnante, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    In this study, new chloroplast (cp) resources were developed for the genus Cynara, using whole cp genomes from 20 genotypes, by means of high-throughput sequencing technologies. Our target species included seven globe artichokes, two cultivated cardoons, eight wild artichokes, and three other wild Cynara species (C. baetica, C. cornigera and C. syriaca). One complete cp genome was isolated using short reads from a whole-genome sequencing project, while the others were obtained by means of long-range PCR, for which primer pairs are provided here. A de novo assembly strategy combined with a reference-based assembly allowed us to reconstruct each cp genome. Comparative analyses among the newly sequenced genotypes and two additional Cynara cp genomes ('Brindisino' artichoke and C. humilis) retrieved from public databases revealed 126 parsimony informative characters and 258 singletons in Cynara, for a total of 384 variable characters. Thirty-nine SSR loci and 34 other INDEL events were detected. After data analysis, 37 primer pairs for SSR amplification were designed, and these molecular markers were subsequently validated in our Cynara genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis based on all cp variable characters provided the best resolution when compared to what was observed using only parsimony informative characters, or only short 'variable' cp regions. The evaluation of the molecular resources obtained from this study led us to support the 'super-barcode' theory and consider the total cp sequence of Cynara as a reliable and valuable molecular marker for exploring species diversity and examining variation below the species level. PMID:26354522

  7. 2004 Structural, Function and Evolutionary Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas L. Brutlag Nancy Ryan Gray

    2005-03-23

    This Gordon conference will cover the areas of structural, functional and evolutionary genomics. It will take a systematic approach to genomics, examining the evolution of proteins, protein functional sites, protein-protein interactions, regulatory networks, and metabolic networks. Emphasis will be placed on what we can learn from comparative genomics and entire genomes and proteomes.

  8. MycoCosm, an Integrated Fungal Genomics Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Shabalov, Igor; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-16

    MycoCosm is a web-based interactive fungal genomics resource, which was first released in March 2010, in response to an urgent call from the fungal community for integration of all fungal genomes and analytical tools in one place (Pan-fungal data resources meeting, Feb 21-22, 2010, Alexandria, VA). MycoCosm integrates genomics data and analysis tools to navigate through over 100 fungal genomes sequenced at JGI and elsewhere. This resource allows users to explore fungal genomes in the context of both genome-centric analysis and comparative genomics, and promotes user community participation in data submission, annotation and analysis. MycoCosm has over 4500 unique visitors/month or 35000+ visitors/year as well as hundreds of registered users contributing their data and expertise to this resource. Its scalable architecture allows significant expansion of the data expected from JGI Fungal Genomics Program, its users, and integration with external resources used by fungal community.

  9. Functional Annotation Analytics of Rhodopseudomonas palustris Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Shaneka S.; Isokpehi, Raphael D.; Brown, Shyretha D.; McAllister, Donee L.; Hall, Charnia C.; McDuffy, Wanaki M.; Medley, Tamara L.; Udensi, Udensi K.; Rajnarayanan, Rajendram V.; Ayensu, Wellington K.; Cohly, Hari H.P.

    2011-01-01

    Rhodopseudomonas palustris, a nonsulphur purple photosynthetic bacteria, has been extensively investigated for its metabolic versatility including ability to produce hydrogen gas from sunlight and biomass. The availability of the finished genome sequences of six R. palustris strains (BisA53, BisB18, BisB5, CGA009, HaA2 and TIE-1) combined with online bioinformatics software for integrated analysis presents new opportunities to determine the genomic basis of metabolic versatility and ecological lifestyles of the bacteria species. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the functional annotations available for multiple R. palustris genomes to identify annotations that can be further investigated for strain-specific or uniquely shared phenotypic characteristics. A total of 2,355 protein family Pfam domain annotations were clustered based on presence or absence in the six genomes. The clustering process identified groups of functional annotations including those that could be verified as strain-specific or uniquely shared phenotypes. For example, genes encoding water/glycerol transport were present in the genome sequences of strains CGA009 and BisB5, but absent in strains BisA53, BisB18, HaA2 and TIE-1. Protein structural homology modeling predicted that the two orthologous 240 aa R. palustris aquaporins have water-specific transport function. Based on observations in other microbes, the presence of aquaporin in R. palustris strains may improve freeze tolerance in natural conditions of rapid freezing such as nitrogen fixation at low temperatures where access to liquid water is a limiting factor for nitrogenase activation. In the case of adaptive loss of aquaporin genes, strains may be better adapted to survive in conditions of high-sugar content such as fermentation of biomass for biohydrogen production. Finally, web-based resources were developed to allow for interactive, user-defined selection of the relationship between protein family annotations and the R

  10. Kiwifruit Information Resource (KIR): a comparative platform for kiwifruit genomics.

    PubMed

    Yue, Junyang; Liu, Jian; Ban, Rongjun; Tang, Wei; Deng, Lin; Fei, Zhangjun; Liu, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The Kiwifruit Information Resource (KIR) is dedicated to maintain and integrate comprehensive datasets on genomics, functional genomics and transcriptomics of kiwifruit (Actinidiaceae). KIR serves as a central access point for existing/new genomic and genetic data. KIR also provides researchers with a variety of visualization and analysis tools. Current developments include the updated genome structure of Actinidia chinensis cv. Hongyang and its newest genome annotation, putative transcripts, gene expression, physical markers of genetic traits as well as relevant publications based on the latest genome assembly. Nine thousand five hundred and forty-seven new transcripts are detected and 21 132 old transcripts are changed. At the present release, the next-generation transcriptome sequencing data has been incorporated into gene models and splice variants. Protein-protein interactions are also identified based on experimentally determined orthologous interactions. Furthermore, the experimental results reported in peer-reviewed literature are manually extracted and integrated within a well-developed query page. In total, 122 identifications are currently associated, including commonly used gene names and symbols. All KIR datasets are helpful to facilitate a broad range of kiwifruit research topics and freely available to the research community. Database URL: http://bdg.hfut.edu.cn/kir/index.html. PMID:26656885

  11. Kiwifruit Information Resource (KIR): a comparative platform for kiwifruit genomics

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Junyang; Liu, Jian; Ban, Rongjun; Tang, Wei; Deng, Lin; Fei, Zhangjun; Liu, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The Kiwifruit Information Resource (KIR) is dedicated to maintain and integrate comprehensive datasets on genomics, functional genomics and transcriptomics of kiwifruit (Actinidiaceae). KIR serves as a central access point for existing/new genomic and genetic data. KIR also provides researchers with a variety of visualization and analysis tools. Current developments include the updated genome structure of Actinidia chinensis cv. Hongyang and its newest genome annotation, putative transcripts, gene expression, physical markers of genetic traits as well as relevant publications based on the latest genome assembly. Nine thousand five hundred and forty-seven new transcripts are detected and 21 132 old transcripts are changed. At the present release, the next-generation transcriptome sequencing data has been incorporated into gene models and splice variants. Protein–protein interactions are also identified based on experimentally determined orthologous interactions. Furthermore, the experimental results reported in peer-reviewed literature are manually extracted and integrated within a well-developed query page. In total, 122 identifications are currently associated, including commonly used gene names and symbols. All KIR datasets are helpful to facilitate a broad range of kiwifruit research topics and freely available to the research community. Database URL: http://bdg.hfut.edu.cn/kir/index.html. PMID:26656885

  12. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Victor A; Soltis, Douglas E; Carlson, John E; Farmerie, William G; Wall, P Kerr; Ilut, Daniel C; Solow, Teri M; Mueller, Lukas A; Landherr, Lena L; Hu, Yi; Buzgo, Matyas; Kim, Sangtae; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Frohlich, Michael W; Perl-Treves, Rafael; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Bliss, Barbara J; Zhang, Xiaohong; Tanksley, Steven D; Oppenheimer, David G; Soltis, Pamela S; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W; Leebens-Mack, James H

    2005-01-01

    Background The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Results Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04) generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i) proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii) many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii) phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Conclusion Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage-specific gene duplication and

  13. MorusDB: a resource for mulberry genomics and genome biology

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2014-01-01

    Mulberry is an important cultivated plant that has received the attention of biologists interested in sericulture and plant–insect interaction. Morus notabilis, a wild mulberry species with a minimal chromosome number is an ideal material for whole-genome sequencing and assembly. The genome and transcriptome of M. notabilis were sequenced and analyzed. In this article, a web-based and open-access database, the Morus Genome Database (MorusDB), was developed to enable easy-to-access and data mining. The MorusDB provides an integrated data source and an easy accession of mulberry large-scale genomic sequencing and assembly, predicted genes and functional annotations, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), transposable elements (TEs), Gene Ontology (GO) terms, horizontal gene transfers between mulberry and silkworm and ortholog and paralog groups. Transcriptome sequencing data for M. notabilis root, leaf, bark, winter bud and male flower can also be searched and downloaded. Furthermore, MorusDB provides an analytical workbench with some built-in tools and pipelines, such as BLAST, Search GO, Mulberry GO and Mulberry GBrowse, to facilitate genomic studies and comparative genomics. The MorusDB provides important genomic resources for scientists working with mulberry and other Moraceae species, which include many important fruit crops. Designed as a basic platform and accompanied by the SilkDB, MorusDB strives to be a comprehensive platform for the silkworm–mulberry interaction studies. Database URL: http://morus.swu.edu.cn/morusdb. PMID:24923822

  14. Functional Insights from Structural Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Forouhar,F.; Kuzin, A.; Seetharaman, J.; Lee, I.; Zhou, W.; Abashidze, M.; Chen, Y.; Montelione, G.; Tong, L.; et al

    2007-01-01

    Structural genomics efforts have produced structural information, either directly or by modeling, for thousands of proteins over the past few years. While many of these proteins have known functions, a large percentage of them have not been characterized at the functional level. The structural information has provided valuable functional insights on some of these proteins, through careful structural analyses, serendipity, and structure-guided functional screening. Some of the success stories based on structures solved at the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG) are reported here. These include a novel methyl salicylate esterase with important role in plant innate immunity, a novel RNA methyltransferase (H. influenzae yggJ (HI0303)), a novel spermidine/spermine N-acetyltransferase (B. subtilis PaiA), a novel methyltransferase or AdoMet binding protein (A. fulgidus AF{_}0241), an ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase (B. subtilis YvqK), a novel carboxysome pore (E. coli EutN), a proline racemase homolog with a disrupted active site (B. melitensis BME11586), an FMN-dependent enzyme (S. pneumoniae SP{_}1951), and a 12-stranded {beta}-barrel with a novel fold (V. parahaemolyticus VPA1032).

  15. Success stories in genomic medicine from resource-limited countries.

    PubMed

    Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Al Jaibeji, Hayat; Forero, Diego A; Laissue, Paul; Wonkam, Ambroise; Lopez-Correa, Catalina; Mohamed, Zahurin; Chantratita, Wasun; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Llerena, Adrian; Brand, Angela; Ali, Bassam R; Patrinos, George P

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the translation of genomic discoveries into mainstream medical practice and public health has gained momentum, facilitated by the advent of new technologies. However, there are often major discrepancies in the pace of implementation of genomic medicine between developed and developing/resource-limited countries. The main reason does not only lie in the limitation of resources but also in the slow pace of adoption of the new findings and the poor understanding of the potential that this new discipline offers to rationalize medical diagnosis and treatment. Here, we present and critically discuss examples from the successful implementation of genomic medicine in resource-limited countries, focusing on pharmacogenomics, genome informatics, and public health genomics, emphasizing in the latter case genomic education, stakeholder analysis, and economics in pharmacogenomics. These examples can be considered as model cases and be readily replicated for the wide implementation of pharmacogenomics and genomic medicine in other resource-limited environments. PMID:26081768

  16. Genomic resources in mungbean for future breeding programs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sue K.; Nair, Ramakrishnan M.; Lee, Jayern; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Among the legume family, mungbean (Vigna radiata) has become one of the important crops in Asia, showing a steady increase in global production. It provides a good source of protein and contains most notably folate and iron. Beyond the nutritional value of mungbean, certain features make it a well-suited model organism among legume plants because of its small genome size, short life-cycle, self-pollinating, and close genetic relationship to other legumes. In the past, there have been several efforts to develop molecular markers and linkage maps associated with agronomic traits for the genetic improvement of mungbean and, ultimately, breeding for cultivar development to increase the average yields of mungbean. The recent release of a reference genome of the cultivated mungbean (V. radiata var. radiata VC1973A) and an additional de novo sequencing of a wild relative mungbean (V. radiata var. sublobata) has provided a framework for mungbean genetic and genome research, that can further be used for genome-wide association and functional studies to identify genes related to specific agronomic traits. Moreover, the diverse gene pool of wild mungbean comprises valuable genetic resources of beneficial genes that may be helpful in widening the genetic diversity of cultivated mungbean. This review paper covers the research progress on molecular and genomics approaches and the current status of breeding programs that have developed to move toward the ultimate goal of mungbean improvement. PMID:26322067

  17. GEneSTATION 1.0: a synthetic resource of diverse evolutionary and functional genomic data for studying the evolution of pregnancy-associated tissues and phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mara; Cooper, Brian A; Venkat, Rohit; Phillips, Julie B; Eidem, Haley R; Hirbo, Jibril; Nutakki, Sashank; Williams, Scott M; Muglia, Louis J; Capra, J Anthony; Petren, Kenneth; Abbot, Patrick; Rokas, Antonis; McGary, Kriston L

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian gestation and pregnancy are fast evolving processes that involve the interaction of the fetal, maternal and paternal genomes. Version 1.0 of the GEneSTATION database (http://genestation.org) integrates diverse types of omics data across mammals to advance understanding of the genetic basis of gestation and pregnancy-associated phenotypes and to accelerate the translation of discoveries from model organisms to humans. GEneSTATION is built using tools from the Generic Model Organism Database project, including the biology-aware database CHADO, new tools for rapid data integration, and algorithms that streamline synthesis and user access. GEneSTATION contains curated life history information on pregnancy and reproduction from 23 high-quality mammalian genomes. For every human gene, GEneSTATION contains diverse evolutionary (e.g. gene age, population genetic and molecular evolutionary statistics), organismal (e.g. tissue-specific gene and protein expression, differential gene expression, disease phenotype), and molecular data types (e.g. Gene Ontology Annotation, protein interactions), as well as links to many general (e.g. Entrez, PubMed) and pregnancy disease-specific (e.g. PTBgene, dbPTB) databases. By facilitating the synthesis of diverse functional and evolutionary data in pregnancy-associated tissues and phenotypes and enabling their quick, intuitive, accurate and customized meta-analysis, GEneSTATION provides a novel platform for comprehensive investigation of the function and evolution of mammalian pregnancy. PMID:26567549

  18. GEneSTATION 1.0: a synthetic resource of diverse evolutionary and functional genomic data for studying the evolution of pregnancy-associated tissues and phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mara; Cooper, Brian A.; Venkat, Rohit; Phillips, Julie B.; Eidem, Haley R.; Hirbo, Jibril; Nutakki, Sashank; Williams, Scott M.; Muglia, Louis J.; Capra, J. Anthony; Petren, Kenneth; Abbot, Patrick; Rokas, Antonis; McGary, Kriston L.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian gestation and pregnancy are fast evolving processes that involve the interaction of the fetal, maternal and paternal genomes. Version 1.0 of the GEneSTATION database (http://genestation.org) integrates diverse types of omics data across mammals to advance understanding of the genetic basis of gestation and pregnancy-associated phenotypes and to accelerate the translation of discoveries from model organisms to humans. GEneSTATION is built using tools from the Generic Model Organism Database project, including the biology-aware database CHADO, new tools for rapid data integration, and algorithms that streamline synthesis and user access. GEneSTATION contains curated life history information on pregnancy and reproduction from 23 high-quality mammalian genomes. For every human gene, GEneSTATION contains diverse evolutionary (e.g. gene age, population genetic and molecular evolutionary statistics), organismal (e.g. tissue-specific gene and protein expression, differential gene expression, disease phenotype), and molecular data types (e.g. Gene Ontology Annotation, protein interactions), as well as links to many general (e.g. Entrez, PubMed) and pregnancy disease-specific (e.g. PTBgene, dbPTB) databases. By facilitating the synthesis of diverse functional and evolutionary data in pregnancy-associated tissues and phenotypes and enabling their quick, intuitive, accurate and customized meta-analysis, GEneSTATION provides a novel platform for comprehensive investigation of the function and evolution of mammalian pregnancy. PMID:26567549

  19. Evolution, language and analogy in functional genomics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, S. A.; Gaucher, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Almost a century ago, Wittgenstein pointed out that theory in science is intricately connected to language. This connection is not a frequent topic in the genomics literature. But a case can be made that functional genomics is today hindered by the paradoxes that Wittgenstein identified. If this is true, until these paradoxes are recognized and addressed, functional genomics will continue to be limited in its ability to extrapolate information from genomic sequences.

  20. Application of Functional Genomics for Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Aswathy N.; Epperson, William B.; Nanduri, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common economically important disease affecting cattle. For developing accurate diagnostics that can predict disease susceptibility/resistance and stratification, it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie BRD. To study the complex interactions among the bovine host and the multitude of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental factors associated with BRD etiology, genome-scale high-throughput functional genomics methods such as microarrays, RNA-seq, and proteomics are helpful. In this review, we summarize the progress made in our understanding of BRD using functional genomics approaches. We also discuss some of the available bioinformatics resources for analyzing high-throughput data, in the context of biological pathways and molecular interactions. Although resources for studying host response to infection are avail-able, the corresponding information is lacking for majority of BRD pathogens, impeding progress in identifying diagnostic signatures for BRD using functional genomics approaches. PMID:26526746

  1. Application of Functional Genomics for Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Rai, Aswathy N; Epperson, William B; Nanduri, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common economically important disease affecting cattle. For developing accurate diagnostics that can predict disease susceptibility/resistance and stratification, it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie BRD. To study the complex interactions among the bovine host and the multitude of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental factors associated with BRD etiology, genome-scale high-throughput functional genomics methods such as microarrays, RNA-seq, and proteomics are helpful. In this review, we summarize the progress made in our understanding of BRD using functional genomics approaches. We also discuss some of the available bioinformatics resources for analyzing high-throughput data, in the context of biological pathways and molecular interactions. Although resources for studying host response to infection are avail-able, the corresponding information is lacking for majority of BRD pathogens, impeding progress in identifying diagnostic signatures for BRD using functional genomics approaches. PMID:26526746

  2. Update on RefSeq microbial genomes resources

    PubMed Central

    Tatusova, Tatiana; Ciufo, Stacy; Federhen, Scott; Fedorov, Boris; McVeigh, Richard; O'Neill, Kathleen; Tolstoy, Igor; Zaslavsky, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    NCBI RefSeq genome collection http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome represents all three major domains of life: Eukarya, Bacteria and Archaea as well as Viruses. Prokaryotic genome sequences are the most rapidly growing part of the collection. During the year of 2014 more than 10 000 microbial genome assemblies have been publicly released bringing the total number of prokaryotic genomes close to 30 000. We continue to improve the quality and usability of the microbial genome resources by providing easy access to the data and the results of the pre-computed analysis, and improving analysis and visualization tools. A number of improvements have been incorporated into the Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline. Several new features have been added to RefSeq prokaryotic genomes data processing pipeline including the calculation of genome groups (clades) and the optimization of protein clusters generation using pan-genome approach. PMID:25510495

  3. Protein function annotation using protein domain family resources.

    PubMed

    Das, Sayoni; Orengo, Christine A

    2016-01-15

    As a result of the genome sequencing and structural genomics initiatives, we have a wealth of protein sequence and structural data. However, only about 1% of these proteins have experimental functional annotations. As a result, computational approaches that can predict protein functions are essential in bridging this widening annotation gap. This article reviews the current approaches of protein function prediction using structure and sequence based classification of protein domain family resources with a special focus on functional families in the CATH-Gene3D resource. PMID:26434392

  4. The Brachypodium genome sequence: a resource for oat genomics research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oat (Avena sativa) is an important cereal crop used as both an animal feed and for human consumption. Genetic and genomic research on oat is hindered because it is hexaploid and possesses a large (13 Gb) genome. Diploid Avena relatives have been employed for genetic and genomic studies, but only mod...

  5. Phenotypic and genomic analyses of a fast neutron mutant population resource in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mutagenized populations have become indispensable resources for introducing variation and studying gene function in plant genomics research. In this study, fast neutron (FN) radiation was used to induce deletion mutations in the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) genome. Approximately 120,000 soybea...

  6. Genomic resources and their influence on the detection of the signal of positive selection in genome scans.

    PubMed

    Manel, S; Perrier, C; Pratlong, M; Abi-Rached, L; Paganini, J; Pontarotti, P; Aurelle, D

    2016-01-01

    Genome scans represent powerful approaches to investigate the action of natural selection on the genetic variation of natural populations and to better understand local adaptation. This is very useful, for example, in the field of conservation biology and evolutionary biology. Thanks to Next Generation Sequencing, genomic resources are growing exponentially, improving genome scan analyses in non-model species. Thousands of SNPs called using Reduced Representation Sequencing are increasingly used in genome scans. Besides, genome sequences are also becoming increasingly available, allowing better processing of short-read data, offering physical localization of variants, and improving haplotype reconstruction and data imputation. Ultimately, genome sequences are also becoming the raw material for selection inferences. Here, we discuss how the increasing availability of such genomic resources, notably genome sequences, influences the detection of signals of selection. Mainly, increasing data density and having the information of physical linkage data expand genome scans by (i) improving the overall quality of the data, (ii) helping the reconstruction of demographic history for the population studied to decrease false-positive rates and (iii) improving the statistical power of methods to detect the signal of selection. Of particular importance, the availability of a high-quality reference genome can improve the detection of the signal of selection by (i) allowing matching the potential candidate loci to linked coding regions under selection, (ii) rapidly moving the investigation to the gene and function and (iii) ensuring that the highly variable regions of the genomes that include functional genes are also investigated. For all those reasons, using reference genomes in genome scan analyses is highly recommended. PMID:26562485

  7. Defining Genome Maintenance Pathways using Functional Genomic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Bansbach, Carol E.; Cortez, David

    2011-01-01

    Genome maintenance activities including DNA repair, cell division cycle control, and checkpoint signaling pathways preserve genome integrity and prevent disease. Defects in these pathways cause birth defects, neurodegeneration, premature aging, and cancer. Recent technical advances in functional genomic approaches such as expression profiling, proteomics, and RNA interference (RNAi) technologies have rapidly expanded our knowledge of the proteins that work in these pathways. In this review, we examine the use of these high-throughput methodologies in higher eukaryotic organisms for the interrogation of genome maintenance activities. PMID:21787120

  8. The Functional Genomics Initiative at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Dabney; Justice, Monica; Beattle, Ken; Buchanan, Michelle; Ramsey, Michael; Ramsey, Rose; Paulus, Michael; Ericson, Nance; Allison, David; Kress, Reid; Mural, Richard; Uberbacher, Ed; Mann, Reinhold

    1997-12-31

    The Functional Genomics Initiative at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory integrates outstanding capabilities in mouse genetics, bioinformatics, and instrumentation. The 50 year investment by the DOE in mouse genetics/mutagenesis has created a one-of-a-kind resource for generating mutations and understanding their biological consequences. It is generally accepted that, through the mouse as a surrogate for human biology, we will come to understand the function of human genes. In addition to this world class program in mammalian genetics, ORNL has also been a world leader in developing bioinformatics tools for the analysis, management and visualization of genomic data. Combining this expertise with new instrumentation technologies will provide a unique capability to understand the consequences of mutations in the mouse at both the organism and molecular levels. The goal of the Functional Genomics Initiative is to develop the technology and methodology necessary to understand gene function on a genomic scale and apply these technologies to megabase regions of the human genome. The effort is scoped so as to create an effective and powerful resource for functional genomics. ORNL is partnering with the Joint Genome Institute and other large scale sequencing centers to sequence several multimegabase regions of both human and mouse genomic DNA, to identify all the genes in these regions, and to conduct fundamental surveys to examine gene function at the molecular and organism level. The Initiative is designed to be a pilot for larger scale deployment in the post-genome era. Technologies will be applied to the examination of gene expression and regulation, metabolism, gene networks, physiology and development.

  9. BrucellaBase: Genome information resource.

    PubMed

    Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Vishnu, Udayakumar S; Khader, L K M Abdul; Sridhar, Jayavel; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2016-09-01

    Brucella sp. causes a major zoonotic disease, brucellosis. Brucella belongs to the family Brucellaceae under the order Rhizobiales of Alphaproteobacteria. We present BrucellaBase, a web-based platform, providing features of a genome database together with unique analysis tools. We have developed a web version of the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (Whatmore et al., 2007) and phylogenetic analysis of Brucella spp. BrucellaBase currently contains genome data of 510 Brucella strains along with the user interfaces for BLAST, VFDB, CARD, pairwise genome alignment and MLST typing. Availability of these tools will enable the researchers interested in Brucella to get meaningful information from Brucella genome sequences. BrucellaBase will regularly be updated with new genome sequences, new features along with improvements in genome annotations. BrucellaBase is available online at http://www.dbtbrucellosis.in/brucellabase.html or http://59.99.226.203/brucellabase/homepage.html. PMID:27164438

  10. Open chromatin reveals the functional maize genome

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers-Melnick, Eli; Vera, Daniel L.; Bass, Hank W.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular processes mediated through nuclear DNA must contend with chromatin. Chromatin structural assays can efficiently integrate information across diverse regulatory elements, revealing the functional noncoding genome. In this study, we use a differential nuclease sensitivity assay based on micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion to discover open chromatin regions in the maize genome. We find that maize MNase-hypersensitive (MNase HS) regions localize around active genes and within recombination hotspots, focusing biased gene conversion at their flanks. Although MNase HS regions map to less than 1% of the genome, they consistently explain a remarkably large amount (∼40%) of heritable phenotypic variance in diverse complex traits. MNase HS regions are therefore on par with coding sequences as annotations that demarcate the functional parts of the maize genome. These results imply that less than 3% of the maize genome (coding and MNase HS regions) may give rise to the overwhelming majority of phenotypic variation, greatly narrowing the scope of the functional genome. PMID:27185945

  11. Open chromatin reveals the functional maize genome.

    PubMed

    Rodgers-Melnick, Eli; Vera, Daniel L; Bass, Hank W; Buckler, Edward S

    2016-05-31

    Cellular processes mediated through nuclear DNA must contend with chromatin. Chromatin structural assays can efficiently integrate information across diverse regulatory elements, revealing the functional noncoding genome. In this study, we use a differential nuclease sensitivity assay based on micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion to discover open chromatin regions in the maize genome. We find that maize MNase-hypersensitive (MNase HS) regions localize around active genes and within recombination hotspots, focusing biased gene conversion at their flanks. Although MNase HS regions map to less than 1% of the genome, they consistently explain a remarkably large amount (∼40%) of heritable phenotypic variance in diverse complex traits. MNase HS regions are therefore on par with coding sequences as annotations that demarcate the functional parts of the maize genome. These results imply that less than 3% of the maize genome (coding and MNase HS regions) may give rise to the overwhelming majority of phenotypic variation, greatly narrowing the scope of the functional genome. PMID:27185945

  12. CottonDB: A resource for cotton genome research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (http://cottondb.org/) is a database and web resource for cotton genomic and genetic research. Created in 1995, CottonDB was among the first plant genome databases established by the USDA-ARS. Accessed through a website interface, the database aims to be a convenient, inclusive medium of ...

  13. HTS-DB: an online resource to publish and query data from functional genomics high-throughput siRNA screening projects

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Rebecca E.; Instrell, Rachael; Rispoli, Rossella; Jiang, Ming; Howell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) uses technologies such as RNA interference to generate loss-of-function phenotypes on a genomic scale. As these technologies become more popular, many research institutes have established core facilities of expertise to deal with the challenges of large-scale HTS experiments. As the efforts of core facility screening projects come to fruition, focus has shifted towards managing the results of these experiments and making them available in a useful format that can be further mined for phenotypic discovery. The HTS-DB database provides a public view of data from screening projects undertaken by the HTS core facility at the CRUK London Research Institute. All projects and screens are described with comprehensive assay protocols, and datasets are provided with complete descriptions of analysis techniques. This format allows users to browse and search data from large-scale studies in an informative and intuitive way. It also provides a repository for additional measurements obtained from screens that were not the focus of the project, such as cell viability, and groups these data so that it can provide a gene-centric summary across several different cell lines and conditions. All datasets from our screens that can be made available can be viewed interactively and mined for further hit lists. We believe that in this format, the database provides researchers with rapid access to results of large-scale experiments that might facilitate their understanding of genes/compounds identified in their own research. Database URL: http://hts.cancerresearchuk.org/db/public PMID:24122843

  14. Genome resource banking of biomedically important laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Agca, Yuksel

    2012-11-01

    Genome resource banking is the systematic collection, storage, and redistribution of biomaterials in an organized, logistical, and secure manner. Genome cryobanks usually contain biomaterials and associated genomic information essential for progression of biomedicine, human health, and research. In that regard, appropriate genome cryobanks could provide essential biomaterials for both current and future research projects in the form of various cell types and tissues, including sperm, oocytes, embryos, embryonic or adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and gonadal tissues. In addition to cryobanked germplasm, cryobanking of DNA, serum, blood products, and tissues from scientifically, economically, and ecologically important species has become a common practice. For revitalization of the whole organism, cryopreserved germplasm in conjunction with assisted reproductive technologies, offer a powerful approach for research model management, as well as assisting in animal production for agriculture, conservation, and human reproductive medicine. Recently, many developed and developing countries have allocated substantial resources to establish genome resources banks which are responsible for safeguarding scientifically, economically, and ecologically important wild type, mutant, and transgenic plants, fish, and local livestock breeds, as well as wildlife species. This review is dedicated to the memory of Dr. John K. Critser, who has made profound contributions to the science of cryobiology and establishment of genome research and resources centers for mice, rats, and swine. Emphasis will be given to application of genome resource banks to species with substantial contributions to the advancement of biomedicine and human health. PMID:22981880

  15. Brassica database (BRAD) version 2.0: integrating and mining Brassicaceae species genomic resources

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaobo; Wu, Jian; Liang, Jianli; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2015-01-01

    The Brassica database (BRAD) was built initially to assist users apply Brassica rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana genomic data efficiently to their research. However, many Brassicaceae genomes have been sequenced and released after its construction. These genomes are rich resources for comparative genomics, gene annotation and functional evolutionary studies of Brassica crops. Therefore, we have updated BRAD to version 2.0 (V2.0). In BRAD V2.0, 11 more Brassicaceae genomes have been integrated into the database, namely those of Arabidopsis lyrata, Aethionema arabicum, Brassica oleracea, Brassica napus, Camelina sativa, Capsella rubella, Leavenworthia alabamica, Sisymbrium irio and three extremophiles Schrenkiella parvula, Thellungiella halophila and Thellungiella salsuginea. BRAD V2.0 provides plots of syntenic genomic fragments between pairs of Brassicaceae species, from the level of chromosomes to genomic blocks. The Generic Synteny Browser (GBrowse_syn), a module of the Genome Browser (GBrowse), is used to show syntenic relationships between multiple genomes. Search functions for retrieving syntenic and non-syntenic orthologs, as well as their annotation and sequences are also provided. Furthermore, genome and annotation information have been imported into GBrowse so that all functional elements can be visualized in one frame. We plan to continually update BRAD by integrating more Brassicaceae genomes into the database. Database URL: http://brassicadb.org/brad/ PMID:26589635

  16. Brassica database (BRAD) version 2.0: integrating and mining Brassicaceae species genomic resources.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Wu, Jian; Liang, Jianli; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2015-01-01

    The Brassica database (BRAD) was built initially to assist users apply Brassica rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana genomic data efficiently to their research. However, many Brassicaceae genomes have been sequenced and released after its construction. These genomes are rich resources for comparative genomics, gene annotation and functional evolutionary studies of Brassica crops. Therefore, we have updated BRAD to version 2.0 (V2.0). In BRAD V2.0, 11 more Brassicaceae genomes have been integrated into the database, namely those of Arabidopsis lyrata, Aethionema arabicum, Brassica oleracea, Brassica napus, Camelina sativa, Capsella rubella, Leavenworthia alabamica, Sisymbrium irio and three extremophiles Schrenkiella parvula, Thellungiella halophila and Thellungiella salsuginea. BRAD V2.0 provides plots of syntenic genomic fragments between pairs of Brassicaceae species, from the level of chromosomes to genomic blocks. The Generic Synteny Browser (GBrowse_syn), a module of the Genome Browser (GBrowse), is used to show syntenic relationships between multiple genomes. Search functions for retrieving syntenic and non-syntenic orthologs, as well as their annotation and sequences are also provided. Furthermore, genome and annotation information have been imported into GBrowse so that all functional elements can be visualized in one frame. We plan to continually update BRAD by integrating more Brassicaceae genomes into the database. Database URL: http://brassicadb.org/brad/. PMID:26589635

  17. Functional genomics and cancer drug target discovery.

    PubMed

    Moody, Susan E; Boehm, Jesse S; Barbie, David A; Hahn, William C

    2010-06-01

    The recent development of technologies for whole-genome sequencing, copy number analysis and expression profiling enables the generation of comprehensive descriptions of cancer genomes. However, although the structural analysis and expression profiling of tumors and cancer cell lines can allow the identification of candidate molecules that are altered in the malignant state, functional analyses are necessary to confirm such genes as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Moreover, recent research suggests that tumor cells also depend on synthetic lethal targets, which are not mutated or amplified in cancer genomes; functional genomics screening can facilitate the discovery of such targets. This review provides an overview of the tools available for the study of functional genomics, and discusses recent research involving the use of these tools to identify potential novel drug targets in cancer. PMID:20521217

  18. The Comprehensive Phytopathogen Genomics Resource: a web-based resource for data-mining plant pathogen genomes

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, John P.; Neeno-Eckwall, Eric C.; Adhikari, Bishwo N.; Perna, Nicole T.; Tisserat, Ned; Leach, Jan E.; Lévesque, C. André; Buell, C. Robin

    2011-01-01

    The Comprehensive Phytopathogen Genomics Resource (CPGR) provides a web-based portal for plant pathologists and diagnosticians to view the genome and trancriptome sequence status of 806 bacterial, fungal, oomycete, nematode, viral and viroid plant pathogens. Tools are available to search and analyze annotated genome sequences of 74 bacterial, fungal and oomycete pathogens. Oomycete and fungal genomes are obtained directly from GenBank, whereas bacterial genome sequences are downloaded from the A Systematic Annotation Package (ASAP) database that provides curation of genomes using comparative approaches. Curated lists of bacterial genes relevant to pathogenicity and avirulence are also provided. The Plant Pathogen Transcript Assemblies Database provides annotated assemblies of the transcribed regions of 82 eukaryotic genomes from publicly available single pass Expressed Sequence Tags. Data-mining tools are provided along with tools to create candidate diagnostic markers, an emerging use for genomic sequence data in plant pathology. The Plant Pathogen Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) database is a resource for pathogens that lack genome or transcriptome data sets and contains 131 755 rDNA sequences from GenBank for 17 613 species identified as plant pathogens and related genera. Database URL: http://cpgr.plantbiology.msu.edu. PMID:22120664

  19. Resources for Biological Annotation of the Drosophila Genome

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald M. Rubin

    2005-08-08

    This project supported seed money for the development of cDNA and genetic resources to support studies of the Drosophila melanogaster genome. Key publications supported by this work that provide additional detail: (1) ''The Drosophila gene collection: identification of putative full-length cDNAs for 70% of D. melanogaster genes''; and (2) ''The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project gene disruption project: Single P-element insertions mutating 25% of vital Drosophila genes''.

  20. PhytoPath: an integrative resource for plant pathogen genomics.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Helder; Maheswari, Uma; Urban, Martin; Irvine, Alistair George; Cuzick, Alayne; McDowall, Mark D; Staines, Daniel M; Kulesha, Eugene; Hammond-Kosack, Kim Elizabeth; Kersey, Paul Julian

    2016-01-01

    PhytoPath (www.phytopathdb.org) is a resource for genomic and phenotypic data from plant pathogen species, that integrates phenotypic data for genes from PHI-base, an expertly curated catalog of genes with experimentally verified pathogenicity, with the Ensembl tools for data visualization and analysis. The resource is focused on fungi, protists (oomycetes) and bacterial plant pathogens that have genomes that have been sequenced and annotated. Genes with associated PHI-base data can be easily identified across all plant pathogen species using a BioMart-based query tool and visualized in their genomic context on the Ensembl genome browser. The PhytoPath resource contains data for 135 genomic sequences from 87 plant pathogen species, and 1364 genes curated for their role in pathogenicity and as targets for chemical intervention. Support for community annotation of gene models is provided using the WebApollo online gene editor, and we are working with interested communities to improve reference annotation for selected species. PMID:26476449

  1. PhytoPath: an integrative resource for plant pathogen genomics

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Helder; Maheswari, Uma; Urban, Martin; Irvine, Alistair George; Cuzick, Alayne; McDowall, Mark D.; Staines, Daniel M.; Kulesha, Eugene; Hammond-Kosack, Kim Elizabeth; Kersey, Paul Julian

    2016-01-01

    PhytoPath (www.phytopathdb.org) is a resource for genomic and phenotypic data from plant pathogen species, that integrates phenotypic data for genes from PHI-base, an expertly curated catalog of genes with experimentally verified pathogenicity, with the Ensembl tools for data visualization and analysis. The resource is focused on fungi, protists (oomycetes) and bacterial plant pathogens that have genomes that have been sequenced and annotated. Genes with associated PHI-base data can be easily identified across all plant pathogen species using a BioMart-based query tool and visualized in their genomic context on the Ensembl genome browser. The PhytoPath resource contains data for 135 genomic sequences from 87 plant pathogen species, and 1364 genes curated for their role in pathogenicity and as targets for chemical intervention. Support for community annotation of gene models is provided using the WebApollo online gene editor, and we are working with interested communities to improve reference annotation for selected species. PMID:26476449

  2. Assembly: a resource for assembled genomes at NCBI.

    PubMed

    Kitts, Paul A; Church, Deanna M; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Choi, Jinna; Hem, Vichet; Sapojnikov, Victor; Smith, Robert G; Tatusova, Tatiana; Xiang, Charlie; Zherikov, Andrey; DiCuccio, Michael; Murphy, Terence D; Pruitt, Kim D; Kimchi, Avi

    2016-01-01

    The NCBI Assembly database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/assembly/) provides stable accessioning and data tracking for genome assembly data. The model underlying the database can accommodate a range of assembly structures, including sets of unordered contig or scaffold sequences, bacterial genomes consisting of a single complete chromosome, or complex structures such as a human genome with modeled allelic variation. The database provides an assembly accession and version to unambiguously identify the set of sequences that make up a particular version of an assembly, and tracks changes to updated genome assemblies. The Assembly database reports metadata such as assembly names, simple statistical reports of the assembly (number of contigs and scaffolds, contiguity metrics such as contig N50, total sequence length and total gap length) as well as the assembly update history. The Assembly database also tracks the relationship between an assembly submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Consortium (INSDC) and the assembly represented in the NCBI RefSeq project. Users can find assemblies of interest by querying the Assembly Resource directly or by browsing available assemblies for a particular organism. Links in the Assembly Resource allow users to easily download sequence and annotations for current versions of genome assemblies from the NCBI genomes FTP site. PMID:26578580

  3. Assembly: a resource for assembled genomes at NCBI

    PubMed Central

    Kitts, Paul A.; Church, Deanna M.; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Choi, Jinna; Hem, Vichet; Sapojnikov, Victor; Smith, Robert G.; Tatusova, Tatiana; Xiang, Charlie; Zherikov, Andrey; DiCuccio, Michael; Murphy, Terence D.; Pruitt, Kim D.; Kimchi, Avi

    2016-01-01

    The NCBI Assembly database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/assembly/) provides stable accessioning and data tracking for genome assembly data. The model underlying the database can accommodate a range of assembly structures, including sets of unordered contig or scaffold sequences, bacterial genomes consisting of a single complete chromosome, or complex structures such as a human genome with modeled allelic variation. The database provides an assembly accession and version to unambiguously identify the set of sequences that make up a particular version of an assembly, and tracks changes to updated genome assemblies. The Assembly database reports metadata such as assembly names, simple statistical reports of the assembly (number of contigs and scaffolds, contiguity metrics such as contig N50, total sequence length and total gap length) as well as the assembly update history. The Assembly database also tracks the relationship between an assembly submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Consortium (INSDC) and the assembly represented in the NCBI RefSeq project. Users can find assemblies of interest by querying the Assembly Resource directly or by browsing available assemblies for a particular organism. Links in the Assembly Resource allow users to easily download sequence and annotations for current versions of genome assemblies from the NCBI genomes FTP site. PMID:26578580

  4. Building a model: developing genomic resources for common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) with low coverage genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Milkweeds (Asclepias L.) have been extensively investigated in diverse areas of evolutionary biology and ecology; however, there are few genetic resources available to facilitate and compliment these studies. This study explored how low coverage genome sequencing of the common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) could be useful in characterizing the genome of a plant without prior genomic information and for development of genomic resources as a step toward further developing A. syriaca as a model in ecology and evolution. Results A 0.5× genome of A. syriaca was produced using Illumina sequencing. A virtually complete chloroplast genome of 158,598 bp was assembled, revealing few repeats and loss of three genes: accD, clpP, and ycf1. A nearly complete rDNA cistron (18S-5.8S-26S; 7,541 bp) and 5S rDNA (120 bp) sequence were obtained. Assessment of polymorphism revealed that the rDNA cistron and 5S rDNA had 0.3% and 26.7% polymorphic sites, respectively. A partial mitochondrial genome sequence (130,764 bp), with identical gene content to tobacco, was also assembled. An initial characterization of repeat content indicated that Ty1/copia-like retroelements are the most common repeat type in the milkweed genome. At least one A. syriaca microread hit 88% of Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae) unigenes (median coverage of 0.29×) and 66% of single copy orthologs (COSII) in asterids (median coverage of 0.14×). From this partial characterization of the A. syriaca genome, markers for population genetics (microsatellites) and phylogenetics (low-copy nuclear genes) studies were developed. Conclusions The results highlight the promise of next generation sequencing for development of genomic resources for any organism. Low coverage genome sequencing allows characterization of the high copy fraction of the genome and exploration of the low copy fraction of the genome, which facilitate the development of molecular tools for further study of a target species and its relatives

  5. From genome to function: the Arabidopsis aquaporins

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Francoise; Rosenberg, Joshua M; Shachar-Hill, Yair; Bohnert, Hans J

    2002-01-01

    Background In the post-genomic era newly sequenced genomes can be used to deduce organismal functions from our knowledge of other systems. Here we apply this approach to analyzing the aquaporin gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. The aquaporins are intrinsic membrane proteins that have been characterized as facilitators of water flux. Originally termed major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), they are now also known as water channels, glycerol facilitators and aqua-glyceroporins, yet recent data suggest that they facilitate the movement of other low-molecular-weight metabolites as well. Results The Arabidopsis genome contains 38 sequences with homology to aquaporin in four subfamilies, termed PIP, TIP, NIP and SIP. We have analyzed aquaporin family structure and expression using the A. thaliana genome sequence, and introduce a new NMR approach for the purpose of analyzing water movement in plant roots in vivo. Conclusions Our preliminary data indicate a strongly transcellular component for the flux of water in roots. PMID:11806824

  6. StaphyloBase: a specialized genomic resource for the staphylococcal research community.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Hamed; Mutha, Naresh V R; Mahmud, Mahafizul Imran; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah; Yazdi, Amir Hessam; Ang, Mia Yang; Choo, Siew Woh

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies, many staphylococcal genomes have been sequenced. Comparative analysis of these strains will provide better understanding of their biology, phylogeny, virulence and taxonomy, which may contribute to better management of diseases caused by staphylococcal pathogens. We developed StaphyloBase with the goal of having a one-stop genomic resource platform for the scientific community to access, retrieve, download, browse, search, visualize and analyse the staphylococcal genomic data and annotations. We anticipate this resource platform will facilitate the analysis of staphylococcal genomic data, particularly in comparative analyses. StaphyloBase currently has a collection of 754 032 protein-coding sequences (CDSs), 19 258 rRNAs and 15 965 tRNAs from 292 genomes of different staphylococcal species. Information about these features is also included, such as putative functions, subcellular localizations and gene/protein sequences. Our web implementation supports diverse query types and the exploration of CDS- and RNA-type information in detail using an AJAX-based real-time search system. JBrowse has also been incorporated to allow rapid and seamless browsing of staphylococcal genomes. The Pairwise Genome Comparison tool is designed for comparative genomic analysis, for example, to reveal the relationships between two user-defined staphylococcal genomes. A newly designed Pathogenomics Profiling Tool (PathoProT) is also included in this platform to facilitate comparative pathogenomics analysis of staphylococcal strains. In conclusion, StaphyloBase offers access to a range of staphylococcal genomic resources as well as analysis tools for comparative analyses. Database URL: http://staphylococcus.um.edu.my/. PMID:24578355

  7. Functional genomics of tomato: opportunities and challenges in post-genome NGS era.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Khurana, Ashima

    2014-12-01

    The Tomato Genome Sequencing Project represented a landmark venture in the history of sequencing projects where both Sanger's and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies were employed, and a highly accurate and one of the best assembled plant genomes along with a draft of the wild relative, Solanum pimpinellifolium, were released in 2012. However, the functional potential of the major portion of this newly generated resource is still undefined. The very first challenge before scientists working on tomato functional biology is to exploit this high-quality reference sequence for tapping of the wealth of genetic variants for improving agronomic traits in cultivated tomatoes. The sequence data generated recently by 150 Tomato Genome Consortium would further uncover the natural alleles present in different tomato genotypes. Therefore, we found it relevant to have a fresh outlook on tomato functional genomics in the context of application of NGS technologies in its post-genome sequencing phase. Herein, we provide an overview how NGS technologies vis-a-vis available reference sequence have assisted each other for their mutual improvement and how their combined use could further facilitate the development of other 'omics' tools, required to propel the Solanaceae research. Additionally, we highlight the challenges associated with the application of these cutting-edge technologies. PMID:25431420

  8. Functional genomics of the chicken - a model organism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chicken has reached model organism status after genome sequencing and development of high-throughput tools for the exploration of functional elements of the genome. Functional genomics focuses on understanding the function and regulation of genes and gene products on a global or genome-wide scal...

  9. Quantitative prediction of genome-wide resource allocation in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Goelzer, Anne; Muntel, Jan; Chubukov, Victor; Jules, Matthieu; Prestel, Eric; Nölker, Rolf; Mariadassou, Mahendra; Aymerich, Stéphane; Hecker, Michael; Noirot, Philippe; Becher, Dörte; Fromion, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    Predicting resource allocation between cell processes is the primary step towards decoding the evolutionary constraints governing bacterial growth under various conditions. Quantitative prediction at genome-scale remains a computational challenge as current methods are limited by the tractability of the problem or by simplifying hypotheses. Here, we show that the constraint-based modeling method Resource Balance Analysis (RBA), calibrated using genome-wide absolute protein quantification data, accurately predicts resource allocation in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis for a wide range of growth conditions. The regulation of most cellular processes is consistent with the objective of growth rate maximization except for a few suboptimal processes which likely integrate more complex objectives such as coping with stressful conditions and survival. As a proof of principle by using simulations, we illustrated how calibrated RBA could aid rational design of strains for maximizing protein production, offering new opportunities to investigate design principles in prokaryotes and to exploit them for biotechnological applications. PMID:26498510

  10. An evolutionary classification of genomic function.

    PubMed

    Graur, Dan; Zheng, Yichen; Azevedo, Ricardo B R

    2015-03-01

    The pronouncements of the ENCODE Project Consortium regarding "junk DNA" exposed the need for an evolutionary classification of genomic elements according to their selected-effect function. In the classification scheme presented here, we divide the genome into "functional DNA," that is, DNA sequences that have a selected-effect function, and "rubbish DNA," that is, sequences that do not. Functional DNA is further subdivided into "literal DNA" and "indifferent DNA." In literal DNA, the order of nucleotides is under selection; in indifferent DNA, only the presence or absence of the sequence is under selection. Rubbish DNA is further subdivided into "junk DNA" and "garbage DNA." Junk DNA neither contributes to nor detracts from the fitness of the organism and, hence, evolves under selective neutrality. Garbage DNA, on the other hand, decreases the fitness of its carriers. Garbage DNA exists in the genome only because natural selection is neither omnipotent nor instantaneous. Each of these four functional categories can be 1) transcribed and translated, 2) transcribed but not translated, or 3) not transcribed. The affiliation of a DNA segment to a particular functional category may change during evolution: Functional DNA may become junk DNA, junk DNA may become garbage DNA, rubbish DNA may become functional DNA, and so on; however, determining the functionality or nonfunctionality of a genomic sequence must be based on its present status rather than on its potential to change (or not to change) in the future. Changes in functional affiliation are divided into pseudogenes, Lazarus DNA, zombie DNA, and Jekyll-to-Hyde DNA. PMID:25635041

  11. A public resource facilitating clinical use of genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Madeleine P.; Thakuria, Joseph V.; Zaranek, Alexander Wait; Clegg, Tom; Rosenbaum, Abraham M.; Wu, Xiaodi; Angrist, Misha; Bhak, Jong; Bobe, Jason; Callow, Matthew J.; Cano, Carlos; Chou, Michael F.; Chung, Wendy K.; Douglas, Shawn M.; Estep, Preston W.; Gore, Athurva; Hulick, Peter; Labarga, Alberto; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Lunshof, Jeantine E.; Kim, Byung Chul; Kim, Jong-Il; Li, Zhe; Murray, Michael F.; Nilsen, Geoffrey B.; Peters, Brock A.; Raman, Anugraha M.; Rienhoff, Hugh Y.; Robasky, Kimberly; Wheeler, Matthew T.; Vandewege, Ward; Vorhaus, Daniel B.; Yang, Joyce L.; Yang, Luhan; Aach, John; Ashley, Euan A.; Drmanac, Radoje; Kim, Seong-Jin; Li, Jin Billy; Peshkin, Leonid; Seidman, Christine E.; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Zhang, Kun; Rehm, Heidi L.; Church, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid advances in DNA sequencing promise to enable new diagnostics and individualized therapies. Achieving personalized medicine, however, will require extensive research on highly reidentifiable, integrated datasets of genomic and health information. To assist with this, participants in the Personal Genome Project choose to forgo privacy via our institutional review board- approved “open consent” process. The contribution of public data and samples facilitates both scientific discovery and standardization of methods. We present our findings after enrollment of more than 1,800 participants, including whole-genome sequencing of 10 pilot participant genomes (the PGP-10). We introduce the Genome-Environment-Trait Evidence (GET-Evidence) system. This tool automatically processes genomes and prioritizes both published and novel variants for interpretation. In the process of reviewing the presumed healthy PGP-10 genomes, we find numerous literature references implying serious disease. Although it is sometimes impossible to rule out a late-onset effect, stringent evidence requirements can address the high rate of incidental findings. To that end we develop a peer production system for recording and organizing variant evaluations according to standard evidence guidelines, creating a public forum for reaching consensus on interpretation of clinically relevant variants. Genome analysis becomes a two-step process: using a prioritized list to record variant evaluations, then automatically sorting reviewed variants using these annotations. Genome data, health and trait information, participant samples, and variant interpretations are all shared in the public domain—we invite others to review our results using our participant samples and contribute to our interpretations. We offer our public resource and methods to further personalized medical research. PMID:22797899

  12. Non-coding genome functions in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cebola, Inês; Pasquali, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the genetic variation associated with diabetes, through genome-wide association studies, does not reside in protein-coding regions, making the identification of functional variants and their eventual translation to the clinic challenging. In recent years, high-throughput sequencing-based methods have enabled genome-scale high-resolution epigenomic profiling in a variety of human tissues, allowing the exploration of the human genome outside of the well-studied coding regions. These experiments unmasked tens of thousands of regulatory elements across several cell types, including diabetes-relevant tissues, providing new insights into their mechanisms of gene regulation. Regulatory landscapes are highly dynamic and cell-type specific and, being sensitive to DNA sequence variation, can vary with individual genomes. The scientific community is now in place to exploit the regulatory maps of tissues central to diabetes etiology, such as pancreatic progenitors and adult islets. This giant leap forward in the understanding of pancreatic gene regulation is revolutionizing our capacity to discriminate between functional and non-functional non-coding variants, opening opportunities to uncover regulatory links between sequence variation and diabetes susceptibility. In this review, we focus on the non-coding regulatory landscape of the pancreatic endocrine cells and provide an overview of the recent developments in this field. PMID:26438568

  13. A transgenic perspective on plant functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A

    2000-01-01

    Transgenic crops are very much in the news due to the increasing public debate on their acceptance. In the scientific community though, transgenic plants are proving to be powerful tools to study various aspects of plant sciences. The emerging scientific revolution sparked by genomics based technologies is producing enormous amounts of DNA sequence information that, together with plant transformation methodology, is opening up new experimental opportunities for functional genomics analysis. An overview is provided here on the use of transgenic technology for the functional analysis of plant genes in model plants and a link made to their utilization in transgenic crops. In transgenic plants, insertional mutagenesis using heterologous maize transposons or Agrobacterium mediated T-DNA insertions, have been valuable tools for the identification and isolation of genes that display a mutant phenotype. To discover functions of genes that do not display phenotypes when mutated, insertion sequences have been engineered to monitor or change the expression pattern of adjacent genes. These gene detector insertions can detect adjacent promoters, enhancers or gene exons and precisely reflect the expression pattern of the tagged gene. Activation tag insertions can mis-express the adjacent gene and confer dominant phenotypes that help bridge the phenotype gap. Employment of various forms of gene silencing technology broadens the scope of recovering knockout phenotypes for genes with redundant function. All these transgenic strategies describing gene-phenotype relationships can be addressed by high throughput reverse genetics methods that will help provide functions to the genes discovered by genome sequencing. The gene functions discovered by insertional mutagenesis and silencing strategies along with expression pattern analysis will provide an integrated functional genomics perspective and offer unique applications in transgenic crops. PMID:11131004

  14. Functional Genomics of Drought Tolerance in Bioenergy Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Hengfu; Chen, Rick; Yang, Jun; Weston, David; Chen, Jay; Muchero, Wellington; Ye, Ning; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wullschleger, Stan D; Cheng, Zong-Ming; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan

    2014-01-01

    With the predicted trends in climate change, drought will increasingly impose a grand challenge to biomass production. Most of the bioenergy crops have some degree of drought susceptibility with low water-use efficiency (WUE). It is imperative to improve drought tolerance and WUE in bioenergy crops for sustainable biomass production in arid and semi-arid regions with minimal water input. Genetics and functional genomics can play a critical role in generating knowledge to inform and aid genetic improvement of drought tolerance in bioenergy crops. The molecular aspect of drought response has been extensively investigated in model plants like Arabidopsis, yet our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in bioenergy crops are limited. Crops exhibit various responses to drought stress depending on species and genotype. A rational strategy for studying drought tolerance in bioenergy crops is to translate the knowledge from model plants and pinpoint the unique features associated with individual species and genotypes. In this review, we summarize the general knowledge about drought responsive pathways in plants, with a focus on the identification of commonality and specialty in drought responsive mechanisms among different species and/or genotypes. We describe the genomic resources developed for bioenergy crops and discuss genetic and epigenetic regulation of drought responses. We also examine comparative and evolutionary genomics to leverage the ever-increasing genomics resources and provide new insights beyond what has been known from studies on individual species. Finally, we outline future exploration of drought tolerance using the emerging new technologies.

  15. Extracting meaning from functional genomics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Quackenbush, John . E-mail: johnq@jimmy.harvard.edu

    2005-09-01

    The completion of draft genome sequences for human, mouse, rat, and an increasing number of other species, has provided us with preliminary gene catalogues for many organisms of medical and scientific interests. Interpreting these gene lists in the context of the organism's underlying biology, however, remains difficult. The development of DNA microarrays provided one potential source of data to help interpret gene function; by profiling global patterns of gene expression across diverse conditions, it was hoped that we might be able to develop insight into biological function. But the power of these functional genomics assays, as well as assays in proteomics and metabolomics, is that they primarily give us lists of differentially expressed genes that can be correlated with particular phenotypic states, but which remain difficult to link mechanistically to the biology driving the phenotype.

  16. Ascribing Functions to Genes: Journey Towards Genetic Improvement of Rice Via Functional Genomics.

    PubMed

    Mustafiz, Ananda; Kumari, Sumita; Karan, Ratna

    2016-06-01

    Rice, one of the most important cereal crops for mankind, feeds more than half the world population. Rice has been heralded as a model cereal owing to its small genome size, amenability to easy transformation, high synteny to other cereal crops and availability of complete genome sequence. Moreover, sequence wealth in rice is getting more refined and precise due to resequencing efforts. This humungous resource of sequence data has confronted research fraternity with a herculean challenge as well as an excellent opportunity to functionally validate expressed as well as regulatory portions of the genome. This will not only help us in understanding the genetic basis of plant architecture and physiology but would also steer us towards developing improved cultivars. No single technique can achieve such a mammoth task. Functional genomics through its diverse tools viz. loss and gain of function mutants, multifarious omics strategies like transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and phenomics provide us with the necessary handle. A paradigm shift in technological advances in functional genomics strategies has been instrumental in generating considerable amount of information w.r.t functionality of rice genome. We now have several databases and online resources for functionally validated genes but despite that we are far from reaching the desired milestone of functionally characterizing each and every rice gene. There is an urgent need for a common platform, for information already available in rice, and collaborative efforts between researchers in a concerted manner as well as healthy public-private partnership, for genetic improvement of rice crop better able to handle the pressures of climate change and exponentially increasing population. PMID:27252584

  17. A New System for Comparative Functional Genomics of Saccharomyces Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Caudy, Amy A.; Guan, Yuanfang; Jia, Yue; Hansen, Christina; DeSevo, Chris; Hayes, Alicia P.; Agee, Joy; Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R.; Arellano, Hugo; Barrett, Daniel; Bauerle, Cynthia; Bisaria, Namita; Bradley, Patrick H.; Breunig, J. Scott; Bush, Erin; Cappel, David; Capra, Emily; Chen, Walter; Clore, John; Combs, Peter A.; Doucette, Christopher; Demuren, Olukunle; Fellowes, Peter; Freeman, Sam; Frenkel, Evgeni; Gadala-Maria, Daniel; Gawande, Richa; Glass, David; Grossberg, Samuel; Gupta, Anita; Hammonds-Odie, Latanya; Hoisos, Aaron; Hsi, Jenny; Hsu, Yu-Han Huang; Inukai, Sachi; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Ke, Xiaobo; Kojima, Mina; Leachman, Samuel; Lieber, Danny; Liebowitz, Anna; Liu, Julia; Liu, Yufei; Martin, Trevor; Mena, Jose; Mendoza, Rosa; Myhrvold, Cameron; Millian, Christian; Pfau, Sarah; Raj, Sandeep; Rich, Matt; Rokicki, Joe; Rounds, William; Salazar, Michael; Salesi, Matthew; Sharma, Rajani; Silverman, Sanford; Singer, Cara; Sinha, Sandhya; Staller, Max; Stern, Philip; Tang, Hanlin; Weeks, Sharon; Weidmann, Maxwell; Wolf, Ashley; Young, Carmen; Yuan, Jie; Crutchfield, Christopher; McClean, Megan; Murphy, Coleen T.; Llinás, Manuel; Botstein, David; Troyanskaya, Olga G.; Dunham, Maitreya J.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing, particularly in fungi, has progressed at a tremendous rate. More difficult, however, is experimental testing of the inferences about gene function that can be drawn from comparative sequence analysis alone. We present a genome-wide functional characterization of a sequenced but experimentally understudied budding yeast, Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum (henceforth referred to as S. bayanus), allowing us to map changes over the 20 million years that separate this organism from S. cerevisiae. We first created a suite of genetic tools to facilitate work in S. bayanus. Next, we measured the gene-expression response of S. bayanus to a diverse set of perturbations optimized using a computational approach to cover a diverse array of functionally relevant biological responses. The resulting data set reveals that gene-expression patterns are largely conserved, but significant changes may exist in regulatory networks such as carbohydrate utilization and meiosis. In addition to regulatory changes, our approach identified gene functions that have diverged. The functions of genes in core pathways are highly conserved, but we observed many changes in which genes are involved in osmotic stress, peroxisome biogenesis, and autophagy. A surprising number of genes specific to S. bayanus respond to oxidative stress, suggesting the organism may have evolved under different selection pressures than S. cerevisiae. This work expands the scope of genome-scale evolutionary studies from sequence-based analysis to rapid experimental characterization and could be adopted for functional mapping in any lineage of interest. Furthermore, our detailed characterization of S. bayanus provides a valuable resource for comparative functional genomics studies in yeast. PMID:23852385

  18. Using CAVE technology for functional genomics studies.

    PubMed

    Sensen, Christoph W

    2002-01-01

    We have established the first Java 3D-enabled CAVE (CAVE automated virtual environment). The Java application programming interface allows the complete separation of the program development from the program execution, opening new application domains for the CAVE technology. Programs can be developed on any Java-enabled computer platform, including Windows, Macintosh, and Linux workstations, and executed in the CAVE without modification. The introduction of Java, one of the major programming environments for bioinformatics, into the CAVE environment allows the rapid development applications for genome research, especially for the analysis of the spatial and temporal data that are being produced by functional genomics experiments. The CAVE technology will play a major role in the modeling of biological systems that is necessary to understand how these systems are organized and how they function. PMID:12614491

  19. A Genomic Resource for the Development, Improvement, and Exploitation of Sorghum for Bioenergy

    PubMed Central

    Brenton, Zachary W.; Cooper, Elizabeth A.; Myers, Mathew T.; Boyles, Richard E.; Shakoor, Nadia; Zielinski, Kelsey J.; Rauh, Bradley L.; Bridges, William C.; Morris, Geoffrey P.; Kresovich, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    With high productivity and stress tolerance, numerous grass genera of the Andropogoneae have emerged as candidates for bioenergy production. To optimize these candidates, research examining the genetic architecture of yield, carbon partitioning, and composition is required to advance breeding objectives. Significant progress has been made developing genetic and genomic resources for Andropogoneae, and advances in comparative and computational genomics have enabled research examining the genetic basis of photosynthesis, carbon partitioning, composition, and sink strength. To provide a pivotal resource aimed at developing a comparative understanding of key bioenergy traits in the Andropogoneae, we have established and characterized an association panel of 390 racially, geographically, and phenotypically diverse Sorghum bicolor accessions with 232,303 genetic markers. Sorghum bicolor was selected because of its genomic simplicity, phenotypic diversity, significant genomic tools, and its agricultural productivity and resilience. We have demonstrated the value of sorghum as a functional model for candidate gene discovery for bioenergy Andropogoneae by performing genome-wide association analysis for two contrasting phenotypes representing key components of structural and non-structural carbohydrates. We identified potential genes, including a cellulase enzyme and a vacuolar transporter, associated with increased non-structural carbohydrates that could lead to bioenergy sorghum improvement. Although our analysis identified genes with potentially clear functions, other candidates did not have assigned functions, suggesting novel molecular mechanisms for carbon partitioning traits. These results, combined with our characterization of phenotypic and genetic diversity and the public accessibility of each accession and genomic data, demonstrate the value of this resource and provide a foundation for future improvement of sorghum and related grasses for bioenergy production

  20. Orchidstra: an integrated orchid functional genomics database.

    PubMed

    Su, Chun-lin; Chao, Ya-Ting; Yen, Shao-Hua; Chen, Chun-Yi; Chen, Wan-Chieh; Chang, Yao-Chien Alex; Shih, Ming-Che

    2013-02-01

    A specialized orchid database, named Orchidstra (URL: http://orchidstra.abrc.sinica.edu.tw), has been constructed to collect, annotate and share genomic information for orchid functional genomics studies. The Orchidaceae is a large family of Angiosperms that exhibits extraordinary biodiversity in terms of both the number of species and their distribution worldwide. Orchids exhibit many unique biological features; however, investigation of these traits is currently constrained due to the limited availability of genomic information. Transcriptome information for five orchid species and one commercial hybrid has been included in the Orchidstra database. Altogether, these comprise >380,000 non-redundant orchid transcript sequences, of which >110,000 are protein-coding genes. Sequences from the transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) were obtained either from output reads from next-generation sequencing technologies assembled into contigs, or from conventional cDNA library approaches. An annotation pipeline using Gene Ontology, KEGG and Pfam was built to assign gene descriptions and functional annotation to protein-coding genes. Deep sequencing of small RNA was also performed for Phalaenopsis aphrodite to search for microRNAs (miRNAs), extending the information archived for this species to miRNA annotation, precursors and putative target genes. The P. aphrodite transcriptome information was further used to design probes for an oligonucleotide microarray, and expression profiling analysis was carried out. The intensities of hybridized probes derived from microarray assays of various tissues were incorporated into the database as part of the functional evidence. In the future, the content of the Orchidstra database will be expanded with transcriptome data and genomic information from more orchid species. PMID:23324169

  1. Whole genome sequencing of elite rice cultivars as a comprehensive information resource for marker assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Duitama, Jorge; Silva, Alexander; Sanabria, Yamid; Cruz, Daniel Felipe; Quintero, Constanza; Ballen, Carolina; Lorieux, Mathias; Scheffler, Brian; Farmer, Andrew; Torres, Edgar; Oard, James; Tohme, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Current advances in sequencing technologies and bioinformatics revealed the genomic background of rice, a staple food for the poor people, and provided the basis to develop large genomic variation databases for thousands of cultivars. Proper analysis of this massive resource is expected to give novel insights into the structure, function, and evolution of the rice genome, and to aid the development of rice varieties through marker assisted selection or genomic selection. In this work we present sequencing and bioinformatics analyses of 104 rice varieties belonging to the major subspecies of Oryza sativa. We identified repetitive elements and recurrent copy number variation covering about 200 Mbp of the rice genome. Genotyping of over 18 million polymorphic locations within O. sativa allowed us to reconstruct the individual haplotype patterns shaping the genomic background of elite varieties used by farmers throughout the Americas. Based on a reconstruction of the alleles for the gene GBSSI, we could identify novel genetic markers for selection of varieties with high amylose content. We expect that both the analysis methods and the genomic information described here would be of great use for the rice research community and for other groups carrying on similar sequencing efforts in other crops. PMID:25923345

  2. Whole Genome Sequencing of Elite Rice Cultivars as a Comprehensive Information Resource for Marker Assisted Selection

    PubMed Central

    Duitama, Jorge; Silva, Alexander; Sanabria, Yamid; Cruz, Daniel Felipe; Quintero, Constanza; Ballen, Carolina; Lorieux, Mathias; Scheffler, Brian; Farmer, Andrew; Torres, Edgar; Oard, James; Tohme, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Current advances in sequencing technologies and bioinformatics revealed the genomic background of rice, a staple food for the poor people, and provided the basis to develop large genomic variation databases for thousands of cultivars. Proper analysis of this massive resource is expected to give novel insights into the structure, function, and evolution of the rice genome, and to aid the development of rice varieties through marker assisted selection or genomic selection. In this work we present sequencing and bioinformatics analyses of 104 rice varieties belonging to the major subspecies of Oryza sativa. We identified repetitive elements and recurrent copy number variation covering about 200 Mbp of the rice genome. Genotyping of over 18 million polymorphic locations within O. sativa allowed us to reconstruct the individual haplotype patterns shaping the genomic background of elite varieties used by farmers throughout the Americas. Based on a reconstruction of the alleles for the gene GBSSI, we could identify novel genetic markers for selection of varieties with high amylose content. We expect that both the analysis methods and the genomic information described here would be of great use for the rice research community and for other groups carrying on similar sequencing efforts in other crops. PMID:25923345

  3. Functional genomics for food fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Smid, E J; Hugenholtz, J

    2010-01-01

    This review describes recent scientific and technological drivers of food fermentation research. In addition, a number of practical implications of the results of this development will be highlighted. The first part of the manuscript elaborates on the message that genome sequence information gives us an unprecedented view on the biodiversity of microbes in food fermentation. This information can be made applicable for tailoring relevant characteristics of food products through fermentation. The second part deals with the integration of genome sequence data into metabolic models and the use of these models for a number of topics that are relevant for food fermentation processes. The final part will be about metagenomics approaches to reveal the complexity and understand the functionality of undefined complex microbial consortia used in a diverse range of food fermentation processes. PMID:22129346

  4. InsectBase: a resource for insect genomes and transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chuanlin; Shen, Gengyu; Guo, Dianhao; Wang, Shuping; Ma, Xingzhou; Xiao, Huamei; Liu, Jinding; Zhang, Zan; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yiqun; Yu, Kaixiang; Huang, Shuiqing; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The genomes and transcriptomes of hundreds of insects have been sequenced. However, insect community lacks an integrated, up-to-date collection of insect gene data. Here, we introduce the first release of InsectBase, available online at http://www.insect-genome.com. The database encompasses 138 insect genomes, 116 insect transcriptomes, 61 insect gene sets, 36 gene families of 60 insects, 7544 miRNAs of 69 insects, 96,925 piRNAs of Drosophila melanogaster and Chilo suppressalis, 2439 lncRNA of Nilaparvata lugens, 22,536 pathways of 78 insects, 678,881 untranslated regions (UTR) of 84 insects and 160,905 coding sequences (CDS) of 70 insects. This release contains over 12 million sequences and provides search functionality, a BLAST server, GBrowse, insect pathway construction, a Facebook-like network for the insect community (iFacebook), and phylogenetic analysis of selected genes. PMID:26578584

  5. InsectBase: a resource for insect genomes and transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chuanlin; Shen, Gengyu; Guo, Dianhao; Wang, Shuping; Ma, Xingzhou; Xiao, Huamei; Liu, Jinding; Zhang, Zan; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yiqun; Yu, Kaixiang; Huang, Shuiqing; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The genomes and transcriptomes of hundreds of insects have been sequenced. However, insect community lacks an integrated, up-to-date collection of insect gene data. Here, we introduce the first release of InsectBase, available online at http://www.insect-genome.com. The database encompasses 138 insect genomes, 116 insect transcriptomes, 61 insect gene sets, 36 gene families of 60 insects, 7544 miRNAs of 69 insects, 96 925 piRNAs of Drosophila melanogaster and Chilo suppressalis, 2439 lncRNA of Nilaparvata lugens, 22 536 pathways of 78 insects, 678 881 untranslated regions (UTR) of 84 insects and 160 905 coding sequences (CDS) of 70 insects. This release contains over 12 million sequences and provides search functionality, a BLAST server, GBrowse, insect pathway construction, a Facebook-like network for the insect community (iFacebook), and phylogenetic analysis of selected genes. PMID:26578584

  6. Exploring the Yeast Acetylome Using Functional Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Supipi Kaluarachchi; Friesen, Helena; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Chong, Yolanda T.; Figeys, Daniel; Andrews, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Lysine acetylation is a dynamic posttranslational modification with a well-defined role in regulating histones. The impact of acetylation on other cellular functions remains relatively uncharacterized. We explored the budding yeast acetylome with a functional genomics approach, assessing the effects of gene overexpression in the absence of lysine deacetylases (KDACs). We generated a network of 463 synthetic dosage lethal (SDL) interactions involving class I and II KDACs, revealing many cellular pathways regulated by different KDACs. A biochemical survey of genes interacting with the KDAC RPD3 identified 72 proteins acetylated in vivo. In-depth analysis of one of these proteins, Swi4, revealed a role for acetylation in G1-specific gene expression. Acetylation of Swi4 regulates interaction with its partner Swi6, both components of the SBF transcription factor. This study expands our view of the yeast acetylome, demonstrates the utility of functional genomic screens for exploring enzymatic pathways, and provides functional information that can be mined for future studies. PMID:22579291

  7. Learning about the Human Genome. Part 2: Resources for Science Educators. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haury, David L.

    This ERIC Digest identifies how the human genome project fits into the "National Science Education Standards" and lists Human Genome Project Web sites found on the World Wide Web. It is a resource companion to "Learning about the Human Genome. Part 1: Challenge to Science Educators" (Haury 2001). The Web resources and instructional materials can…

  8. SGR: an online genomic resource for the woodland strawberry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fragaria vesca, a diploid strawberry species commonly known as the alpine or woodland strawberry, is a versatile experimental plant system and an emerging model for the Rosaceae family. An ancestral F. vesca genome contributed to the genome of the octoploid dessert strawberry (F. ×ananassa), and the extant genome exhibits synteny with other commercially important members of the Rosaceae family such as apple and peach. To provide a molecular description of floral organ and fruit development at the resolution of specific tissues and cell types, RNAs from flowers and early developmental stage fruit tissues of the inbred F. vesca line YW5AF7 were extracted and the resulting cDNA libraries sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq2000. To enable easy access as well as mining of this two-dimensional (stage and tissue) transcriptome dataset, a web-based database, the Strawberry Genomic Resource (SGR), was developed. Description SGR is a web accessible database that contains sample description, sample statistics, gene annotation, and gene expression analysis. This information can be accessed publicly from a web-based interface at http://bioinformatics.towson.edu/strawberry/Default.aspx. The SGR website provides user friendly search and browse capabilities for all the data stored in the database. Users are able to search for genes using a gene ID or description or obtain differentially expressed genes by entering different comparison parameters. Search results can be downloaded in a tabular format compatible with Microsoft excel application. Aligned reads to individual genes and exon/intron structures are displayed using the genome browser, facilitating gene re-annotation by individual users. Conclusions The SGR database was developed to facilitate dissemination and data mining of extensive floral and fruit transcriptome data in the woodland strawberry. It enables users to mine the data in different ways to study different pathways or biological processes during

  9. Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 February 2015 - 31 March 2015.

    PubMed

    Arthofer, Wolfgang; Bertini, Laura; Caruso, Carla; Cicconardi, Francesco; Delph, Lynda F; Fields, Peter D; Ikeda, Minoru; Minegishi, Yuki; Proietti, Silvia; Ritthammer, Heike; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C; Steiner, Florian M; Wachter, Gregor A; Wagner, Herbert C; Weingartner, Laura A

    2015-07-01

    This article documents the public availability of (i) raw transcriptome sequence data, assembled contigs and BLAST hits of the Antarctic plant Colobanthus quitensis grown in two different climatic conditions, (ii) the draft genome sequence data (raw reads, assembled contigs and unassembled reads) and RAD-tag read data of the marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae, (iii) transcriptome resources from four white campion (Silene latifolia) individuals from two morphologically divergent populations and (iv) nuclear DNA markers from 454 sequencing of reduced representation libraries (RRL) based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) PCR products of four species of ants in the genus Tetramorium. PMID:26095006

  10. Development of peanut EST (expressed sequence tag)-based genomic resources and tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. Peanut Genome Initiative (PGI) has widely recognized the need for peanut genome tools and resources development for mitigating peanut allergens and food safety. Genomics such as Expressed Sequence Tag (EST), microarray technologies, and whole genome sequencing provides robotic tools for profili...

  11. Development of peanut expessed sequence tag-based genomic resources and tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. Peanut Genome Initiative (PGI) has widely recognized the need for peanut genome tools and resources development for mitigating peanut allergens and food safety. Genomics such as Expressed Sequence Tag (EST), microarray technologies, and whole genome sequencing provides robotic tools for profili...

  12. More genomic resources for less-studied crops.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Leung, Hei; Ribaut, Jean-Marcel

    2010-09-01

    Many of the crop species considered to be minor on a global scale, yet are important locally for food security in the developing world, have remained less-studied crops. Recent years have witnessed the development of large-scale genomic and genetic resources, including simple sequence repeat, single nucleotide polymorphism and diversity array technology markers, expressed sequence tags or transcript reads, bacterial artificial chromosome libraries, genetic and physical maps, and genetic stocks with rich genetic diversity, such as core reference sets and introgression lines in these crops. These resources have the potential to accelerate gene discovery and initiate molecular breeding in these crops, thereby enhancing crop productivity to ensure food security in developing countries. PMID:20692061

  13. The plant glycosyltransferase clone collection for functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Lao, Jeemeng; Oikawa, Ai; Bromley, Jennifer R; McInerney, Peter; Suttangkakul, Anongpat; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M; Plahar, Hector; Chiu, Tsan-Yu; González Fernández-Niño, Susana M; Ebert, Berit; Yang, Fan; Christiansen, Katy M; Hansen, Sara F; Stonebloom, Solomon; Adams, Paul D; Ronald, Pamela C; Hillson, Nathan J; Hadi, Masood Z; Vega-Sánchez, Miguel E; Loqué, Dominique; Scheller, Henrik V; Heazlewood, Joshua L

    2014-08-01

    The glycosyltransferases (GTs) are an important and functionally diverse family of enzymes involved in glycan and glycoside biosynthesis. Plants have evolved large families of GTs which undertake the array of glycosylation reactions that occur during plant development and growth. Based on the Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZy) database, the genome of the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana codes for over 450 GTs, while the rice genome (Oryza sativa) contains over 600 members. Collectively, GTs from these reference plants can be classified into over 40 distinct GT families. Although these enzymes are involved in many important plant specific processes such as cell-wall and secondary metabolite biosynthesis, few have been functionally characterized. We have sought to develop a plant GTs clone resource that will enable functional genomic approaches to be undertaken by the plant research community. In total, 403 (88%) of CAZy defined Arabidopsis GTs have been cloned, while 96 (15%) of the GTs coded by rice have been cloned. The collection resulted in the update of a number of Arabidopsis GT gene models. The clones represent full-length coding sequences without termination codons and are Gateway® compatible. To demonstrate the utility of this JBEI GT Collection, a set of efficient particle bombardment plasmids (pBullet) was also constructed with markers for the endomembrane. The utility of the pBullet collection was demonstrated by localizing all members of the Arabidopsis GT14 family to the Golgi apparatus or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Updates to these resources are available at the JBEI GT Collection website http://www.addgene.org/. PMID:24905498

  14. Selfish drive can trump function when animal mitochondrial genomes compete.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hansong; O'Farrell, Patrick H

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial genomes compete for transmission from mother to progeny. We explored this competition by introducing a second genome into Drosophila melanogaster to follow transmission. Competitions between closely related genomes favored those functional in electron transport, resulting in a host-beneficial purifying selection. In contrast, matchups between distantly related genomes often favored those with negligible, negative or lethal consequences, indicating selfish selection. Exhibiting powerful selfish selection, a genome carrying a detrimental mutation displaced a complementing genome, leading to population death after several generations. In a different pairing, opposing selfish and purifying selection counterbalanced to give stable transmission of two genomes. Sequencing of recombinant mitochondrial genomes showed that the noncoding region, containing origins of replication, governs selfish transmission. Uniparental inheritance prevents encounters between distantly related genomes. Nonetheless, in each maternal lineage, constant competition among sibling genomes selects for super-replicators. We suggest that this relentless competition drives positive selection, promoting change in the sequences influencing transmission. PMID:27270106

  15. From bacterial genome to functionality; case bifidobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Marco; O'Connell-Motherway, Mary; Leahy, Sinead; Moreno-Munoz, Jose Antonio; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2007-11-30

    The availability of complete bacterial genome sequences has significantly furthered our understanding of the genetics, physiology and biochemistry of the microorganisms in question, particularly those that have commercially important applications. Bifidobacteria are among such microorganisms, as they constitute mammalian commensals of biotechnological significance due to their perceived role in maintaining a balanced gastrointestinal (GIT) microflora. Bifidobacteria are therefore frequently used as health-promoting or probiotic components in functional food products. A fundamental understanding of the metabolic activities employed by these commensal bacteria, in particular their capability to utilize a wide range of complex oligosaccharides, can reveal ways to provide in vivo growth advantages relative to other competing gut bacteria or pathogens. Furthermore, an in depth analysis of adaptive responses to nutritional or environmental stresses may provide methodologies to retain viability and improve functionality during commercial preparation, storage and delivery of the probiotic organism. PMID:17629975

  16. The function of genomes in bioenergetic organelles.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, John F

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondria and chloroplasts are energy-transducing organelles of the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They originated as bacterial symbionts whose host cells acquired respiration from the precursor of the mitochondrion, and oxygenic photosynthesis from the precursor of the chloroplast. The host cells also acquired genetic information from their symbionts, eventually incorporating much of it into their own genomes. Genes of the eukaryotic cell nucleus now encode most mitochondrial and chloroplast proteins. Genes are copied and moved between cellular compartments with relative ease, and there is no obvious obstacle to successful import of any protein precursor from the cytosol. So why are any genes at all retained in cytoplasmic organelles? One proposal is that these small but functional genomes provide a location for genes that is close to, and in the same compartment as, their gene products. This co-location facilitates rapid and direct regulatory coupling. Redox control of synthesis de novo is put forward as the common property of those proteins that must be encoded and synthesized within mitochondria and chloroplasts. This testable hypothesis is termed CORR, for co-location for redox regulation. Principles, predictions and consequences of CORR are examined in the context of competing hypotheses and current evidence. PMID:12594916

  17. RSIADB, a collective resource for genome and transcriptome analyses in Rhizoctonia solani AG1 IA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Ai, Peng; Zhang, Jinfeng; Deng, Qiming; Wang, Shiquan; Li, Shuangcheng; Zhu, Jun; Li, Ping; Zheng, Aiping

    2016-01-01

    Rice [Oryza sativa (L.)] feeds more than half of the world's population. Rhizoctonia solaniis a major fungal pathogen of rice causing extreme crop losses in all rice-growing regions of the world. R. solani AG1 IA is a major cause of sheath blight in rice. In this study, we constructed a comprehensive and user-friendly web-based database, RSIADB, to analyse its draft genome and transcriptome. The database was built using the genome sequence (10,489 genes) and annotation information for R. solani AG1 IA. A total of six RNAseq samples of R. solani AG1 IA were also analysed, corresponding to 10, 18, 24, 32, 48 and 72 h after infection of rice leaves. The RSIADB database enables users to search, browse, and download gene sequences for R. solani AG1 IA, and mine the data using BLAST, Sequence Extractor, Browse and Construction Diagram tools that were integrated into the database. RSIADB is an important genomic resource for scientists working with R. solani AG1 IA and will assist researchers in analysing the annotated genome and transcriptome of this pathogen. This resource will facilitate studies on gene function, pathogenesis factors and secreted proteins, as well as provide an avenue for comparative analyses of genes expressed during different stages of infection. Database URL:http://genedenovoweb.ticp.net:81/rsia/index.php. PMID:27022158

  18. RSIADB, a collective resource for genome and transcriptome analyses in Rhizoctonia solani AG1 IA

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Peng; Zhang, Jinfeng; Deng, Qiming; Wang, Shiquan; Li, Shuangcheng; Zhu, Jun; Li, Ping; Zheng, Aiping

    2016-01-01

    Rice [Oryza sativa (L.)] feeds more than half of the world’s population. Rhizoctonia solani is a major fungal pathogen of rice causing extreme crop losses in all rice-growing regions of the world. R. solani AG1 IA is a major cause of sheath blight in rice. In this study, we constructed a comprehensive and user-friendly web-based database, RSIADB, to analyse its draft genome and transcriptome. The database was built using the genome sequence (10 489 genes) and annotation information for R. solani AG1 IA. A total of six RNAseq samples of R. solani AG1 IA were also analysed, corresponding to 10, 18, 24, 32, 48 and 72 h after infection of rice leaves. The RSIADB database enables users to search, browse, and download gene sequences for R. solani AG1 IA, and mine the data using BLAST, Sequence Extractor, Browse and Construction Diagram tools that were integrated into the database. RSIADB is an important genomic resource for scientists working with R. solani AG1 IA and will assist researchers in analysing the annotated genome and transcriptome of this pathogen. This resource will facilitate studies on gene function, pathogenesis factors and secreted proteins, as well as provide an avenue for comparative analyses of genes expressed during different stages of infection. Database URL: http://genedenovoweb.ticp.net:81/rsia/index.php PMID:27022158

  19. The personal genome browser: visualizing functions of genetic variants

    PubMed Central

    Juan, Liran; Teng, Mingxiang; Zang, Tianyi; Hao, Yafeng; Wang, Zhenxing; Yan, Chengwu; Liu, Yongzhuang; Li, Jie; Zhang, Tianjiao; Wang, Yadong

    2014-01-01

    Advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have brought us into the individual genome era. Projects such as the 1000 Genomes Project have led the individual genome sequencing to become more and more popular. How to visualize, analyse and annotate individual genomes with knowledge bases to support genome studies and personalized healthcare is still a big challenge. The Personal Genome Browser (PGB) is developed to provide comprehensive functional annotation and visualization for individual genomes based on the genetic–molecular–phenotypic model. Investigators can easily view individual genetic variants, such as single nucleotide variants (SNVs), INDELs and structural variations (SVs), as well as genomic features and phenotypes associated to the individual genetic variants. The PGB especially highlights potential functional variants using the PGB built-in method or SIFT/PolyPhen2 scores. Moreover, the functional risks of genes could be evaluated by scanning individual genetic variants on the whole genome, a chromosome, or a cytoband based on functional implications of the variants. Investigators can then navigate to high risk genes on the scanned individual genome. The PGB accepts Variant Call Format (VCF) and Genetic Variation Format (GVF) files as the input. The functional annotation of input individual genome variants can be visualized in real time by well-defined symbols and shapes. The PGB is available at http://www.pgbrowser.org/. PMID:24799434

  20. The personal genome browser: visualizing functions of genetic variants.

    PubMed

    Juan, Liran; Teng, Mingxiang; Zang, Tianyi; Hao, Yafeng; Wang, Zhenxing; Yan, Chengwu; Liu, Yongzhuang; Li, Jie; Zhang, Tianjiao; Wang, Yadong

    2014-07-01

    Advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have brought us into the individual genome era. Projects such as the 1000 Genomes Project have led the individual genome sequencing to become more and more popular. How to visualize, analyse and annotate individual genomes with knowledge bases to support genome studies and personalized healthcare is still a big challenge. The Personal Genome Browser (PGB) is developed to provide comprehensive functional annotation and visualization for individual genomes based on the genetic-molecular-phenotypic model. Investigators can easily view individual genetic variants, such as single nucleotide variants (SNVs), INDELs and structural variations (SVs), as well as genomic features and phenotypes associated to the individual genetic variants. The PGB especially highlights potential functional variants using the PGB built-in method or SIFT/PolyPhen2 scores. Moreover, the functional risks of genes could be evaluated by scanning individual genetic variants on the whole genome, a chromosome, or a cytoband based on functional implications of the variants. Investigators can then navigate to high risk genes on the scanned individual genome. The PGB accepts Variant Call Format (VCF) and Genetic Variation Format (GVF) files as the input. The functional annotation of input individual genome variants can be visualized in real time by well-defined symbols and shapes. The PGB is available at http://www.pgbrowser.org/. PMID:24799434

  1. openSNP–A Crowdsourced Web Resource for Personal Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Greshake, Bastian; Bayer, Philipp E.; Rausch, Helge; Reda, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Genome-Wide Association Studies are widely used to correlate phenotypic traits with genetic variants. These studies usually compare the genetic variation between two groups to single out certain Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that are linked to a phenotypic variation in one of the groups. However, it is necessary to have a large enough sample size to find statistically significant correlations. Direct-To-Consumer (DTC) genetic testing can supply additional data: DTC-companies offer the analysis of a large amount of SNPs for an individual at low cost without the need to consult a physician or geneticist. Over 100,000 people have already been genotyped through Direct-To-Consumer genetic testing companies. However, this data is not public for a variety of reasons and thus cannot be used in research. It seems reasonable to create a central open data repository for such data. Here we present the web platform openSNP, an open database which allows participants of Direct-To-Consumer genetic testing to publish their genetic data at no cost along with phenotypic information. Through this crowdsourced effort of collecting genetic and phenotypic information, openSNP has become a resource for a wide area of studies, including Genome-Wide Association Studies. openSNP is hosted at http://www.opensnp.org, and the code is released under MIT-license at http://github.com/gedankenstuecke/snpr. PMID:24647222

  2. MSeqDR: A Centralized Knowledge Repository and Bioinformatics Web Resource to Facilitate Genomic Investigations in Mitochondrial Disease.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lishuang; Diroma, Maria Angela; Gonzalez, Michael; Navarro-Gomez, Daniel; Leipzig, Jeremy; Lott, Marie T; van Oven, Mannis; Wallace, Douglas C; Muraresku, Colleen Clarke; Zolkipli-Cunningham, Zarazuela; Chinnery, Patrick F; Attimonelli, Marcella; Zuchner, Stephan; Falk, Marni J; Gai, Xiaowu

    2016-06-01

    MSeqDR is the Mitochondrial Disease Sequence Data Resource, a centralized and comprehensive genome and phenome bioinformatics resource built by the mitochondrial disease community to facilitate clinical diagnosis and research investigations of individual patient phenotypes, genomes, genes, and variants. A central Web portal (https://mseqdr.org) integrates community knowledge from expert-curated databases with genomic and phenotype data shared by clinicians and researchers. MSeqDR also functions as a centralized application server for Web-based tools to analyze data across both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, including investigator-driven whole exome or genome dataset analyses through MSeqDR-Genesis. MSeqDR-GBrowse genome browser supports interactive genomic data exploration and visualization with custom tracks relevant to mtDNA variation and mitochondrial disease. MSeqDR-LSDB is a locus-specific database that currently manages 178 mitochondrial diseases, 1,363 genes associated with mitochondrial biology or disease, and 3,711 pathogenic variants in those genes. MSeqDR Disease Portal allows hierarchical tree-style disease exploration to evaluate their unique descriptions, phenotypes, and causative variants. Automated genomic data submission tools are provided that capture ClinVar compliant variant annotations. PhenoTips will be used for phenotypic data submission on deidentified patients using human phenotype ontology terminology. The development of a dynamic informed patient consent process to guide data access is underway to realize the full potential of these resources. PMID:26919060

  3. Soybean Knowledge Base (SoyKB): a Web Resource for Soybean Translational Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Trupti; Patil, Kapil; Fitzpatrick, Michael R.; Franklin, Levi D.; Yao, Qiuming; Cook, Jeffrey R.; Wang, Zhem; Libault, Marc; Brechenmacher, Laurent; Valliyodan, Babu; Wu, Xiaolei; Cheng, Jianlin; Stacey, Gary; Nguyen, Henry T.; Xu, Dong

    2012-01-17

    Background: Soybean Knowledge Base (SoyKB) is a comprehensive all-inclusive web resource for soybean translational genomics. SoyKB is designed to handle the management and integration of soybean genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics data along with annotation of gene function and biological pathway. It contains information on four entities, namely genes, microRNAs, metabolites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Methods: SoyKB has many useful tools such as Affymetrix probe ID search, gene family search, multiple gene/ metabolite search supporting co-expression analysis, and protein 3D structure viewer as well as download and upload capacity for experimental data and annotations. It has four tiers of registration, which control different levels of access to public and private data. It allows users of certain levels to share their expertise by adding comments to the data. It has a user-friendly web interface together with genome browser and pathway viewer, which display data in an intuitive manner to the soybean researchers, producers and consumers. Conclusions: SoyKB addresses the increasing need of the soybean research community to have a one-stop-shop functional and translational omics web resource for information retrieval and analysis in a user-friendly way. SoyKB can be publicly accessed at http://soykb.org/.

  4. Microbial Genome Analysis and Comparisons: Web-based Protocols and Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully annotated genome sequences of many microorganisms are publicly available as a resource. However, in-depth analysis of these genomes using specialized tools is required to derive meaningful information. We describe here the utility of three powerful publicly available genome databases and ana...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF GENOMIC RESOURCES FOR GARLIC AND ONION: GOALS OF A FUNDED USDA-IFAFS GRANT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enormous genomic resources are being developed for model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. However, it is not clear how broadly these genomic resources can be applied to the genetic improvement of more distantly related plants. Asparagus, garlic, and onion are the most economically important no...

  6. Current and future resources for functional metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kathy N.; Cheng, Jiujun; Engel, Katja; Neufeld, Josh D.; Charles, Trevor C.

    2015-01-01

    Functional metagenomics is a powerful experimental approach for studying gene function, starting from the extracted DNA of mixed microbial populations. A functional approach relies on the construction and screening of metagenomic libraries—physical libraries that contain DNA cloned from environmental metagenomes. The information obtained from functional metagenomics can help in future annotations of gene function and serve as a complement to sequence-based metagenomics. In this Perspective, we begin by summarizing the technical challenges of constructing metagenomic libraries and emphasize their value as resources. We then discuss libraries constructed using the popular cloning vector, pCC1FOS, and highlight the strengths and shortcomings of this system, alongside possible strategies to maximize existing pCC1FOS-based libraries by screening in diverse hosts. Finally, we discuss the known bias of libraries constructed from human gut and marine water samples, present results that suggest bias may also occur for soil libraries, and consider factors that bias metagenomic libraries in general. We anticipate that discussion of current resources and limitations will advance tools and technologies for functional metagenomics research. PMID:26579102

  7. flyDIVaS: A Comparative Genomics Resource for Drosophila Divergence and Selection

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Craig E.; Kulathinal, Rob J.

    2016-01-01

    With arguably the best finished and expertly annotated genome assembly, Drosophila melanogaster is a formidable genetics model to study all aspects of biology. Nearly a decade ago, the 12 Drosophila genomes project expanded D. melanogaster’s breadth as a comparative model through the community-development of an unprecedented genus- and genome-wide comparative resource. However, since its inception, these datasets for evolutionary inference and biological discovery have become increasingly outdated, outmoded, and inaccessible. Here, we provide an updated and upgradable comparative genomics resource of Drosophila divergence and selection, flyDIVaS, based on the latest genomic assemblies, curated FlyBase annotations, and recent OrthoDB orthology calls. flyDIVaS is an online database containing D. melanogaster-centric orthologous gene sets, CDS and protein alignments, divergence statistics (% gaps, dN, dS, dN/dS), and codon-based tests of positive Darwinian selection. Out of 13,920 protein-coding D. melanogaster genes, ∼80% have one aligned ortholog in the closely related species, D. simulans, and ∼50% have 1–1 12-way alignments in the original 12 sequenced species that span over 80 million yr of divergence. Genes and their orthologs can be chosen from four different taxonomic datasets differing in phylogenetic depth and coverage density, and visualized via interactive alignments and phylogenetic trees. Users can also batch download entire comparative datasets. A functional survey finds conserved mitotic and neural genes, highly diverged immune and reproduction-related genes, more conspicuous signals of divergence across tissue-specific genes, and an enrichment of positive selection among highly diverged genes. flyDIVaS will be regularly updated and can be freely accessed at www.flydivas.info. We encourage researchers to regularly use this resource as a tool for biological inference and discovery, and in their classrooms to help train the next generation of

  8. flyDIVaS: A Comparative Genomics Resource for Drosophila Divergence and Selection.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Craig E; Kulathinal, Rob J

    2016-01-01

    With arguably the best finished and expertly annotated genome assembly, Drosophila melanogaster is a formidable genetics model to study all aspects of biology. Nearly a decade ago, the 12 Drosophila genomes project expanded D. melanogaster's breadth as a comparative model through the community-development of an unprecedented genus- and genome-wide comparative resource. However, since its inception, these datasets for evolutionary inference and biological discovery have become increasingly outdated, outmoded, and inaccessible. Here, we provide an updated and upgradable comparative genomics resource of Drosophila divergence and selection, flyDIVaS, based on the latest genomic assemblies, curated FlyBase annotations, and recent OrthoDB orthology calls. flyDIVaS is an online database containing D. melanogaster-centric orthologous gene sets, CDS and protein alignments, divergence statistics (% gaps, dN, dS, dN/dS), and codon-based tests of positive Darwinian selection. Out of 13,920 protein-coding D. melanogaster genes, ∼80% have one aligned ortholog in the closely related species, D. simulans, and ∼50% have 1-1 12-way alignments in the original 12 sequenced species that span over 80 million yr of divergence. Genes and their orthologs can be chosen from four different taxonomic datasets differing in phylogenetic depth and coverage density, and visualized via interactive alignments and phylogenetic trees. Users can also batch download entire comparative datasets. A functional survey finds conserved mitotic and neural genes, highly diverged immune and reproduction-related genes, more conspicuous signals of divergence across tissue-specific genes, and an enrichment of positive selection among highly diverged genes. flyDIVaS will be regularly updated and can be freely accessed at www.flydivas.info We encourage researchers to regularly use this resource as a tool for biological inference and discovery, and in their classrooms to help train the next generation of

  9. A genome resource to address mechanisms of developmental programming: determination of the fetal sheep heart transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Laura A; Glenn, Jeremy P; Spradling, Kimberly D; Nijland, Mark J; Garcia, Roy; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    The pregnant sheep has provided seminal insights into reproduction related to animal and human development (ovarian function, fertility, implantation, fetal growth, parturition and lactation). Fetal sheep physiology has been extensively studied since 1950, contributing significantly to the basis for our understanding of many aspects of fetal development and behaviour that remain in use in clinical practice today. Understanding mechanisms requires the combination of systems approaches uniquely available in fetal sheep with the power of genomic studies. Absence of the full range of sheep genomic resources has limited the full realization of the power of this model, impeding progress in emerging areas of pregnancy biology such as developmental programming. We have examined the expressed fetal sheep heart transcriptome using high-throughput sequencing technologies. In so doing we identified 36,737 novel transcripts and describe genes, gene variants and pathways relevant to fundamental developmental mechanisms. Genes with the highest expression levels and with novel exons in the fetal heart transcriptome are known to play central roles in muscle development. We show that high-throughput sequencing methods can generate extensive transcriptome information in the absence of an assembled and annotated genome for that species. The gene sequence data obtained provide a unique genomic resource for sheep specific genetic technology development and, combined with the polymorphism data, augment annotation and assembly of the sheep genome. In addition, identification and pathway analysis of novel fetal sheep heart transcriptome splice variants is a first step towards revealing mechanisms of genetic variation and gene environment interactions during fetal heart development. PMID:22508961

  10. GeneProf data: a resource of curated, integrated and reusable high-throughput genomics experiments

    PubMed Central

    Halbritter, Florian; Kousa, Anastasia I.; Tomlinson, Simon R.

    2014-01-01

    GeneProf Data (http://www.geneprof.org) is an open web resource for analysed functional genomics experiments. We have built up a large collection of completely processed RNA-seq and ChIP-seq studies by carefully and transparently reanalysing and annotating high-profile public data sets. GeneProf makes these data instantly accessible in an easily interpretable, searchable and reusable manner and thus opens up the path to the advantages and insights gained from genome-scale experiments to a broader scientific audience. Moreover, GeneProf supports programmatic access to these data via web services to further facilitate the reuse of experimental data across tools and laboratories. PMID:24174536

  11. A genome-wide resource for the analysis of protein localisation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sarov, Mihail; Barz, Christiane; Jambor, Helena; Hein, Marco Y; Schmied, Christopher; Suchold, Dana; Stender, Bettina; Janosch, Stephan; K J, Vinay Vikas; Krishnan, R T; Krishnamoorthy, Aishwarya; Ferreira, Irene R S; Ejsmont, Radoslaw K; Finkl, Katja; Hasse, Susanne; Kämpfer, Philipp; Plewka, Nicole; Vinis, Elisabeth; Schloissnig, Siegfried; Knust, Elisabeth; Hartenstein, Volker; Mann, Matthias; Ramaswami, Mani; VijayRaghavan, K; Tomancak, Pavel; Schnorrer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila genome contains >13000 protein-coding genes, the majority of which remain poorly investigated. Important reasons include the lack of antibodies or reporter constructs to visualise these proteins. Here, we present a genome-wide fosmid library of 10000 GFP-tagged clones, comprising tagged genes and most of their regulatory information. For 880 tagged proteins, we created transgenic lines, and for a total of 207 lines, we assessed protein expression and localisation in ovaries, embryos, pupae or adults by stainings and live imaging approaches. Importantly, we visualised many proteins at endogenous expression levels and found a large fraction of them localising to subcellular compartments. By applying genetic complementation tests, we estimate that about two-thirds of the tagged proteins are functional. Moreover, these tagged proteins enable interaction proteomics from developing pupae and adult flies. Taken together, this resource will boost systematic analysis of protein expression and localisation in various cellular and developmental contexts. PMID:26896675

  12. Gramene: A Resource for Comparative Analysis of Plants Genomes and Pathways.

    PubMed

    Tello-Ruiz, Marcela Karey; Stein, Joshua; Wei, Sharon; Youens-Clark, Ken; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Ware, Doreen

    2016-01-01

    Gramene is an integrated informatics resource for accessing, visualizing, and comparing plant genomes and biological pathways. Originally targeting grasses, Gramene has grown to host annotations for economically important and research model crops, including wheat, potato, tomato, banana, grape, poplar, and Chlamydomonas. Its strength derives from the application of a phylogenetic framework for genome comparison and the use of ontologies to integrate structural and functional annotation data. This chapter outlines system requirements for end users and database hosting, data types and basic navigation within Gramene, and provides examples of how to (1) view a phylogenetic tree for a family of transcription factors, (2) explore genetic variation in the orthologues of a gene with a known trait association, and (3) upload, visualize, and privately share end user data into a new genome browser track.Moreover, this is the first publication describing Gramene's new web interface-intended to provide a simplified portal to the most complete and up-to-date set of plant genome and pathway annotations. PMID:26519404

  13. MicroScope--an integrated microbial resource for the curation and comparative analysis of genomic and metabolic data.

    PubMed

    Vallenet, David; Belda, Eugeni; Calteau, Alexandra; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Engelen, Stefan; Lajus, Aurélie; Le Fèvre, François; Longin, Cyrille; Mornico, Damien; Roche, David; Rouy, Zoé; Salvignol, Gregory; Scarpelli, Claude; Thil Smith, Adam Alexander; Weiman, Marion; Médigue, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    MicroScope is an integrated platform dedicated to both the methodical updating of microbial genome annotation and to comparative analysis. The resource provides data from completed and ongoing genome projects (automatic and expert annotations), together with data sources from post-genomic experiments (i.e. transcriptomics, mutant collections) allowing users to perfect and improve the understanding of gene functions. MicroScope (http://www.genoscope.cns.fr/agc/microscope) combines tools and graphical interfaces to analyse genomes and to perform the manual curation of gene annotations in a comparative context. Since its first publication in January 2006, the system (previously named MaGe for Magnifying Genomes) has been continuously extended both in terms of data content and analysis tools. The last update of MicroScope was published in 2009 in the Database journal. Today, the resource contains data for >1600 microbial genomes, of which ∼300 are manually curated and maintained by biologists (1200 personal accounts today). Expert annotations are continuously gathered in the MicroScope database (∼50 000 a year), contributing to the improvement of the quality of microbial genomes annotations. Improved data browsing and searching tools have been added, original tools useful in the context of expert annotation have been developed and integrated and the website has been significantly redesigned to be more user-friendly. Furthermore, in the context of the European project Microme (Framework Program 7 Collaborative Project), MicroScope is becoming a resource providing for the curation and analysis of both genomic and metabolic data. An increasing number of projects are related to the study of environmental bacterial (meta)genomes that are able to metabolize a large variety of chemical compounds that may be of high industrial interest. PMID:23193269

  14. STINGRAY: system for integrated genomic resources and analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The STINGRAY system has been conceived to ease the tasks of integrating, analyzing, annotating and presenting genomic and expression data from Sanger and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platforms. Findings STINGRAY includes: (a) a complete and integrated workflow (more than 20 bioinformatics tools) ranging from functional annotation to phylogeny; (b) a MySQL database schema, suitable for data integration and user access control; and (c) a user-friendly graphical web-based interface that makes the system intuitive, facilitating the tasks of data analysis and annotation. Conclusion STINGRAY showed to be an easy to use and complete system for analyzing sequencing data. While both Sanger and NGS platforms are supported, the system could be faster using Sanger data, since the large NGS datasets could potentially slow down the MySQL database usage. STINGRAY is available at http://stingray.biowebdb.org and the open source code at http://sourceforge.net/projects/stingray-biowebdb/. PMID:24606808

  15. REVIEW: Zebrafish: A Renewed Model System For Functional Genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiao-Yan

    2008-01-01

    In the post genome era, a major goal in molecular biology is to determine the function of the many thousands of genes present in the vertebrate genome. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) provides an almost ideal genetic model to identify the biological roles of these novel genes, in part because their embryos are transparent and develop rapidly. The zebrafish has many advantages over mouse for genome-wide mutagenesis studies, allowing for easier, cheaper and faster functional characterization of novel genes in the vertebrate genome. Many molecular research tools such as chemical mutagenesis, transgenesis, gene trapping, gene knockdown, TILLING, gene targeting, RNAi and chemical genetic screen are now available in zebrafish. Combining all the forward, reverse, and chemical genetic tools, it is expected that zebrafish will make invaluable contribution to vertebrate functional genomics in functional annotation of the genes, modeling human diseases and drug discoveries.

  16. CucCAP - Developing genomic resources for the cucurbit community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. cucurbit community has initiated a USDA-SCRI funded cucurbit genomics project, CucCAP: Leveraging applied genomics to increase disease resistance in cucurbit crops. Our primary objectives are: develop genomic and bioinformatic breeding tool kits for accelerated crop improvement across the...

  17. Retroelements and their impact on genome evolution and functioning.

    PubMed

    Gogvadze, Elena; Buzdin, Anton

    2009-12-01

    Retroelements comprise a considerable fraction of eukaryotic genomes. Since their initial discovery by Barbara McClintock in maize DNA, retroelements have been found in genomes of almost all organisms. First considered as a "junk DNA" or genomic parasites, they were shown to influence genome functioning and to promote genetic innovations. For this reason, they were suggested as an important creative force in the genome evolution and adaptation of an organism to altered environmental conditions. In this review, we summarize the up-to-date knowledge of different ways of retroelement involvement in structural and functional evolution of genes and genomes, as well as the mechanisms generated by cells to control their retrotransposition. PMID:19649766

  18. What everybody should know about the rat genome and its online resources.

    PubMed

    Twigger, Simon N; Pruitt, Kim D; Fernández-Suárez, Xosé M; Karolchik, Donna; Worley, Kim C; Maglott, Donna R; Brown, Garth; Weinstock, George; Gibbs, Richard A; Kent, Jim; Birney, Ewan; Jacob, Howard J

    2008-05-01

    It has been four years since the original publication of the draft sequence of the rat genome. Five groups are now working together to assemble, annotate and release an updated version of the rat genome. As the prevailing model for physiology, complex disease and pharmacological studies, there is an acute need for the rat's genomic resources to keep pace with the rat's prominence in the laboratory. In this commentary, we describe the current status of the rat genome sequence and the plans for its impending 'upgrade'. We then cover the key online resources providing access to the rat genome, including the new SNP views at Ensembl, the RefSeq and Genes databases at the US National Center for Biotechnology Information, Genome Browser at the University of California Santa Cruz and the disease portals for cardiovascular disease and obesity at the Rat Genome Database. PMID:18443589

  19. A Functional Simulator of Spacecraft Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liceaga, Carlos A.; Troutman, Patrick A.

    1997-01-01

    The SPAcecraft SIMulator (SPASIM) simulates the functions and resources of a spacecraft to quickly perform Phase A trade-off analyses and uncover any operational bottlenecks during any part of the mission. Failure modes and operational contingencies can be evaluated allowing optimization for a range of mission scenarios. The payloads and subsystems are simulated, using a hierarchy of graphical models, in terms of how their functions affect resources such as propellant, power, and data. Any of the inputs and outputs of the payloads and subsystems can be plotted during the simulation. Most trade-off analyses, including those that compare current versus advanced technology, can be performed by changing values in the parameter menus. However, when a component is replaced by one with a different functional architecture, its graphical model can also be modified or replaced by drawing from a component library. SPASIM has been validated using several spacecraft designs which were at least at the Critical Design Review level. The user and programmer guide, including figures, is available on line as a hyper text document. This is an easy-to-use and expand tool which is based on MATLAB and SIMULINK. It runs on SGI workstations and PCs under Windows 95 or NT.

  20. Physical mapping resources for large plant genomes: radiation hybrids for wheat D-genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    lines with an average deletion frequency of ~10% were identified for developing high density marker scaffolds of the D-genome. Conclusions The RH panel reported here is the first developed for any wild ancestor of a major cultivated plant species. The results provided insight into various aspects of RH mapping in plants, including the genetically effective cell number for wheat (for the first time) and the potential implementation of this technique in other plant species. This RH panel will be an invaluable resource for mapping gene based markers, developing a complete marker scaffold for the whole genome sequence assembly, fine mapping of markers and functional characterization of genes and gene networks present on the D-genome. PMID:23127207

  1. Characterizing genomic alterations in cancer by complementary functional associations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Wook; Botvinnik, Olga B; Abudayyeh, Omar; Birger, Chet; Rosenbluh, Joseph; Shrestha, Yashaswi; Abazeed, Mohamed E; Hammerman, Peter S; DiCara, Daniel; Konieczkowski, David J; Johannessen, Cory M; Liberzon, Arthur; Alizad-Rahvar, Amir Reza; Alexe, Gabriela; Aguirre, Andrew; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Greulich, Heidi; Vazquez, Francisca; Weir, Barbara A; Van Allen, Eliezer M; Tsherniak, Aviad; Shao, Diane D; Zack, Travis I; Noble, Michael; Getz, Gad; Beroukhim, Rameen; Garraway, Levi A; Ardakani, Masoud; Romualdi, Chiara; Sales, Gabriele; Barbie, David A; Boehm, Jesse S; Hahn, William C; Mesirov, Jill P; Tamayo, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Systematic efforts to sequence the cancer genome have identified large numbers of mutations and copy number alterations in human cancers. However, elucidating the functional consequences of these variants, and their interactions to drive or maintain oncogenic states, remains a challenge in cancer research. We developed REVEALER, a computational method that identifies combinations of mutually exclusive genomic alterations correlated with functional phenotypes, such as the activation or gene dependency of oncogenic pathways or sensitivity to a drug treatment. We used REVEALER to uncover complementary genomic alterations associated with the transcriptional activation of β-catenin and NRF2, MEK-inhibitor sensitivity, and KRAS dependency. REVEALER successfully identified both known and new associations, demonstrating the power of combining functional profiles with extensive characterization of genomic alterations in cancer genomes. PMID:27088724

  2. The FunGenES Database: A Genomics Resource for Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Priit; Aksoy, Irène; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Bader, Michael; Billon, Nathalie; Boeuf, Hélène; Bourillot, Pierre-Yves; Buchholz, Frank; Dani, Christian; Doss, Michael Xavier; Forrester, Lesley; Gitton, Murielle; Henrique, Domingos; Hescheler, Jürgen; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Hübner, Norbert; Karantzali, Efthimia; Kretsovali, Androniki; Lubitz, Sandra; Pradier, Laurent; Rai, Meena; Reimand, Jüri; Rolletschek, Alexandra; Sachinidis, Agapios; Savatier, Pierre; Stewart, Francis; Storm, Mike P.; Trouillas, Marina; Vilo, Jaak; Welham, Melanie J.; Winkler, Johannes; Wobus, Anna M.; Hatzopoulos, Antonis K.

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have high self-renewal capacity and the potential to differentiate into a large variety of cell types. To investigate gene networks operating in pluripotent ES cells and their derivatives, the “Functional Genomics in Embryonic Stem Cells” consortium (FunGenES) has analyzed the transcriptome of mouse ES cells in eleven diverse settings representing sixty-seven experimental conditions. To better illustrate gene expression profiles in mouse ES cells, we have organized the results in an interactive database with a number of features and tools. Specifically, we have generated clusters of transcripts that behave the same way under the entire spectrum of the sixty-seven experimental conditions; we have assembled genes in groups according to their time of expression during successive days of ES cell differentiation; we have included expression profiles of specific gene classes such as transcription regulatory factors and Expressed Sequence Tags; transcripts have been arranged in “Expression Waves” and juxtaposed to genes with opposite or complementary expression patterns; we have designed search engines to display the expression profile of any transcript during ES cell differentiation; gene expression data have been organized in animated graphs of KEGG signaling and metabolic pathways; and finally, we have incorporated advanced functional annotations for individual genes or gene clusters of interest and links to microarray and genomic resources. The FunGenES database provides a comprehensive resource for studies into the biology of ES cells. PMID:19727443

  3. Partnering for functional genomics research conference: Abstracts of poster presentations

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This reports contains abstracts of poster presentations presented at the Functional Genomics Research Conference held April 16--17, 1998 in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Attention is focused on the following areas: mouse mutagenesis and genomics; phenotype screening; gene expression analysis; DNA analysis technology development; bioinformatics; comparative analyses of mouse, human, and yeast sequences; and pilot projects to evaluate methodologies.

  4. SNUGB: a versatile genome browser supporting comparative and functional fungal genomics

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyongyong; Park, Jongsun; Choi, Jaeyoung; Park, Bongsoo; Kim, Seungill; Ahn, Kyohun; Choi, Jaehyuk; Choi, Doil; Kang, Seogchan; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2008-01-01

    Background Since the full genome sequences of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were released in 1996, genome sequences of over 90 fungal species have become publicly available. The heterogeneous formats of genome sequences archived in different sequencing centers hampered the integration of the data for efficient and comprehensive comparative analyses. The Comparative Fungal Genomics Platform (CFGP) was developed to archive these data via a single standardized format that can support multifaceted and integrated analyses of the data. To facilitate efficient data visualization and utilization within and across species based on the architecture of CFGP and associated databases, a new genome browser was needed. Results The Seoul National University Genome Browser (SNUGB) integrates various types of genomic information derived from 98 fungal/oomycete (137 datasets) and 34 plant and animal (38 datasets) species, graphically presents germane features and properties of each genome, and supports comparison between genomes. The SNUGB provides three different forms of the data presentation interface, including diagram, table, and text, and six different display options to support visualization and utilization of the stored information. Information for individual species can be quickly accessed via a new tool named the taxonomy browser. In addition, SNUGB offers four useful data annotation/analysis functions, including 'BLAST annotation.' The modular design of SNUGB makes its adoption to support other comparative genomic platforms easy and facilitates continuous expansion. Conclusion The SNUGB serves as a powerful platform supporting comparative and functional genomics within the fungal kingdom and also across other kingdoms. All data and functions are available at the web site . PMID:19055845

  5. The Bemisia tabaci functional genomic project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci, the genome of the whitefly and its expression has not been investigated on a large scale. To address this general shortage of information, we have constructed several cDNA libraries from virulifurous and non-viruliferous whiteflies. A cDNA spotted microarray was constructed in parall...

  6. Strawberry Part 3 - structural and functional genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The area of strawberry genomics is rapidly changing because of the burgeoning interest in, and need for, reference plants for the Rosaceae family, which contains many important fruit, nut, ornamental and wood crops, including peach, apple, almond, rose and cherry. This chapter describes the current...

  7. PlantGDB: A Resource for Comparative Plant Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PlantGDB (http://www.plantgdb.org/) is a genomics database encompassing sequence data for green plants (Viridiplantae). PlantGDB provides annotated transcript assemblies for >100 plant species, with transcripts mapped to their cognate genomic context where available, integrated with a variety of seq...

  8. Genomic resources for valuable woody ornamental landscape plants such as hydrangea macrophylla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New and improved ornamental landscape plants are typically produced by conventional breeding. Unfortunately, long generation times for woody plants can significantly slow progress. Incorporating genomic and biotechnology resources provides more information when designing breeding strategies and ac...

  9. Transposable elements in fish functional genomics: technical challenges and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Parinov, Serguei; Emelyanov, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The recent introduction of several transposable elements in zebrafish opens new frontiers for genetic manipulation in this important vertebrate model. This review discusses transposable elements as mutagenesis tools for fish functional genomics. We review various mutagenesis strategies that were previously applied in other genetic models, such as Drosophila, Arabidopsis, and mouse, that may be beneficial if applied in fish. We also discuss the forthcoming challenges of high-throughput functional genomics in fish. PMID:18047698

  10. Defining functional DNA elements in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Kellis, Manolis; Wold, Barbara; Snyder, Michael P.; Bernstein, Bradley E.; Kundaje, Anshul; Marinov, Georgi K.; Ward, Lucas D.; Birney, Ewan; Crawford, Gregory E.; Dekker, Job; Dunham, Ian; Elnitski, Laura L.; Farnham, Peggy J.; Feingold, Elise A.; Gerstein, Mark; Giddings, Morgan C.; Gilbert, David M.; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Green, Eric D.; Guigo, Roderic; Hubbard, Tim; Kent, Jim; Lieb, Jason D.; Myers, Richard M.; Pazin, Michael J.; Ren, Bing; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Weng, Zhiping; White, Kevin P.; Hardison, Ross C.

    2014-01-01

    With the completion of the human genome sequence, attention turned to identifying and annotating its functional DNA elements. As a complement to genetic and comparative genomics approaches, the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements Project was launched to contribute maps of RNA transcripts, transcriptional regulator binding sites, and chromatin states in many cell types. The resulting genome-wide data reveal sites of biochemical activity with high positional resolution and cell type specificity that facilitate studies of gene regulation and interpretation of noncoding variants associated with human disease. However, the biochemically active regions cover a much larger fraction of the genome than do evolutionarily conserved regions, raising the question of whether nonconserved but biochemically active regions are truly functional. Here, we review the strengths and limitations of biochemical, evolutionary, and genetic approaches for defining functional DNA segments, potential sources for the observed differences in estimated genomic coverage, and the biological implications of these discrepancies. We also analyze the relationship between signal intensity, genomic coverage, and evolutionary conservation. Our results reinforce the principle that each approach provides complementary information and that we need to use combinations of all three to elucidate genome function in human biology and disease. PMID:24753594

  11. Characterizing genomic alterations in cancer by complementary functional associations | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Systematic efforts to sequence the cancer genome have identified large numbers of mutations and copy number alterations in human cancers. However, elucidating the functional consequences of these variants, and their interactions to drive or maintain oncogenic states, remains a challenge in cancer research. We developed REVEALER, a computational method that identifies combinations of mutually exclusive genomic alterations correlated with functional phenotypes, such as the activation or gene dependency of oncogenic pathways or sensitivity to a drug treatment.

  12. Development of genomic resources for Pacific Herring through targeted transcriptome pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Steven B; Hauser, Lorenz; Seeb, Lisa W; Seeb, James E

    2012-01-01

    Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) support commercially and culturally important fisheries but have experienced significant additional pressure from a variety of anthropogenic and environmental sources. In order to provide genomic resources to facilitate organismal and population level research, high-throughput pyrosequencing (Roche 454) was carried out on transcriptome libraries from liver and testes samples taken in Prince William Sound, the Bering Sea, and the Gulf of Alaska. Over 40,000 contigs were identified with an average length of 728 bp. We describe an annotated transcriptome as well as a workflow for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery and validation. A subset of 96 candidate SNPs chosen from 10,933 potential SNPs, were tested using a combination of Sanger sequencing and high-resolution melt-curve analysis. Five SNPs supported between-ocean-basin differentiation, while one SNP associated with immune function provided high differentiation between Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island within the Gulf of Alaska. These genomic resources provide a basis for environmental physiology studies and opportunities for marker development and subsequent population structure analysis. PMID:22383979

  13. Coordinated international action to accelerate genome-to-phenome with FAANG, The Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the organization of a nascent international effort - the "Functional Annotation of ANimal Genomes" project - whose aim is to produce comprehensive maps of functional elements in the genomes of domesticated animal species....

  14. Assigning protein functions by comparative genome analysis protein phylogenetic profiles

    DOEpatents

    Pellegrini, Matteo; Marcotte, Edward M.; Thompson, Michael J.; Eisenberg, David; Grothe, Robert; Yeates, Todd O.

    2003-05-13

    A computational method system, and computer program are provided for inferring functional links from genome sequences. One method is based on the observation that some pairs of proteins A' and B' have homologs in another organism fused into a single protein chain AB. A trans-genome comparison of sequences can reveal these AB sequences, which are Rosetta Stone sequences because they decipher an interaction between A' and B. Another method compares the genomic sequence of two or more organisms to create a phylogenetic profile for each protein indicating its presence or absence across all the genomes. The profile provides information regarding functional links between different families of proteins. In yet another method a combination of the above two methods is used to predict functional links.

  15. Determining protein function and interaction from genome analysis

    DOEpatents

    Eisenberg, David; Marcotte, Edward M.; Thompson, Michael J.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Yeates, Todd O.

    2004-08-03

    A computational method system, and computer program are provided for inferring functional links from genome sequences. One method is based on the observation that some pairs of proteins A' and B' have homologs in another organism fused into a single protein chain AB. A trans-genome comparison of sequences can reveal these AB sequences, which are Rosetta Stone sequences because they decipher an interaction between A' and B. Another method compares the genomic sequence of two or more organisms to create a phylogenetic profile for each protein indicating its presence or absence across all the genomes. The profile provides information regarding functional links between different families of proteins. In yet another method a combination of the above two methods is used to predict functional links.

  16. A High-Definition View of Functional Genetic Variation from Natural Yeast Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Anders; Simpson, Jared T.; Salinas, Francisco; Barré, Benjamin; Parts, Leopold; Zia, Amin; Nguyen Ba, Alex N.; Moses, Alan M.; Louis, Edward J.; Mustonen, Ville; Warringer, Jonas; Durbin, Richard; Liti, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The question of how genetic variation in a population influences phenotypic variation and evolution is of major importance in modern biology. Yet much is still unknown about the relative functional importance of different forms of genome variation and how they are shaped by evolutionary processes. Here we address these questions by population level sequencing of 42 strains from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its closest relative S. paradoxus. We find that genome content variation, in the form of presence or absence as well as copy number of genetic material, is higher within S. cerevisiae than within S. paradoxus, despite genetic distances as measured in single-nucleotide polymorphisms being vastly smaller within the former species. This genome content variation, as well as loss-of-function variation in the form of premature stop codons and frameshifting indels, is heavily enriched in the subtelomeres, strongly reinforcing the relevance of these regions to functional evolution. Genes affected by these likely functional forms of variation are enriched for functions mediating interaction with the external environment (sugar transport and metabolism, flocculation, metal transport, and metabolism). Our results and analyses provide a comprehensive view of genomic diversity in budding yeast and expose surprising and pronounced differences between the variation within S. cerevisiae and that within S. paradoxus. We also believe that the sequence data and de novo assemblies will constitute a useful resource for further evolutionary and population genomics studies. PMID:24425782

  17. Comparative genomics and functional annotation of bacterial transporters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

    2008-03-01

    Transport proteins are difficult to study experimentally, and because of that their functional characterization trails that of enzymes. The comparative genomic analysis is a powerful approach to functional annotation of proteins, which makes it possible to utilize the genomic sequence data from thousands of organisms. The use of computational techniques allows one to identify candidate transporters, predict their structure and localization in the membrane, and perform detailed functional annotation, which includes substrate specificity and cellular role. We overview the main techniques of analysis of transporters' structure and function. We consider the most popular algorithms to identify transmembrane segments in protein sequences and to predict topology of multispanning proteins. We describe the main approaches of the comparative genomics, and how they may be applied to the analysis of transporters, and provide examples showing how combinations of these techniques is used for functional annotation of new transporter specificities in known families, characterization of new families, and prediction of novel transport mechanisms.

  18. Megx.net: integrated database resource for marine ecological genomics.

    PubMed

    Kottmann, Renzo; Kostadinov, Ivalyo; Duhaime, Melissa Beth; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Yilmaz, Pelin; Hankeln, Wolfgang; Waldmann, Jost; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Megx.net is a database and portal that provides integrated access to georeferenced marker genes, environment data and marine genome and metagenome projects for microbial ecological genomics. All data are stored in the Microbial Ecological Genomics DataBase (MegDB), which is subdivided to hold both sequence and habitat data and global environmental data layers. The extended system provides access to several hundreds of genomes and metagenomes from prokaryotes and phages, as well as over a million small and large subunit ribosomal RNA sequences. With the refined Genes Mapserver, all data can be interactively visualized on a world map and statistics describing environmental parameters can be calculated. Sequence entries have been curated to comply with the proposed minimal standards for genomes and metagenomes (MIGS/MIMS) of the Genomic Standards Consortium. Access to data is facilitated by Web Services. The updated megx.net portal offers microbial ecologists greatly enhanced database content, and new features and tools for data analysis, all of which are freely accessible from our webpage http://www.megx.net. PMID:19858098

  19. Megx.net: integrated database resource for marine ecological genomics

    PubMed Central

    Kottmann, Renzo; Kostadinov, Ivalyo; Duhaime, Melissa Beth; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Yilmaz, Pelin; Hankeln, Wolfgang; Waldmann, Jost; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Megx.net is a database and portal that provides integrated access to georeferenced marker genes, environment data and marine genome and metagenome projects for microbial ecological genomics. All data are stored in the Microbial Ecological Genomics DataBase (MegDB), which is subdivided to hold both sequence and habitat data and global environmental data layers. The extended system provides access to several hundreds of genomes and metagenomes from prokaryotes and phages, as well as over a million small and large subunit ribosomal RNA sequences. With the refined Genes Mapserver, all data can be interactively visualized on a world map and statistics describing environmental parameters can be calculated. Sequence entries have been curated to comply with the proposed minimal standards for genomes and metagenomes (MIGS/MIMS) of the Genomic Standards Consortium. Access to data is facilitated by Web Services. The updated megx.net portal offers microbial ecologists greatly enhanced database content, and new features and tools for data analysis, all of which are freely accessible from our webpage http://www.megx.net. PMID:19858098

  20. Exploiting Genomics Resources to Identify Candidate Genes Underlying Antioxidants Content in Tomato Fruit.

    PubMed

    Calafiore, Roberta; Ruggieri, Valentino; Raiola, Assunta; Rigano, Maria M; Sacco, Adriana; Hassan, Mohamed I; Frusciante, Luigi; Barone, Amalia

    2016-01-01

    The tomato is a model species for fleshy fruit development and ripening, as well as for genomics studies of others Solanaceae. Many genetic and genomics resources, including databases for sequencing, transcriptomics and metabolomics data, have been developed and are today available. The purpose of the present work was to uncover new genes and/or alleles that determine ascorbic acid and carotenoids accumulation, by exploiting one Solanum pennellii introgression lines (IL7-3) harboring quantitative trait loci (QTL) that increase the content of these metabolites in the fruit. The higher ascorbic acid and carotenoids content in IL7-3 was confirmed at three fruit developmental stages. The tomato genome reference sequence and the recently released S. pennellii genome sequence were investigated to identify candidate genes (CGs) that might control ascorbic acid and carotenoids accumulation. First of all, a refinement of the wild region borders in the IL7-3 was achieved by analyzing CAPS markers designed in our laboratory. Afterward, six CGs associated to ascorbic acid and one with carotenoids metabolism were identified exploring the annotation and the Gene Ontology terms of genes included in the region. Variants between the sequence of the wild and the cultivated alleles of these genes were investigated for their functional relevance and their potential effects on the protein sequences were predicted. Transcriptional levels of CGs in the introgression region were extracted from RNA-Seq data available for the entire S. pennellii introgression lines collection and verified by Real-Time qPCR. Finally, seven IL7-3 sub-lines were genotyped using 28 species-specific markers and then were evaluated for metabolites content. These analyses evidenced a significant decrease in transcript abundance for one 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and one L-ascorbate oxidase homolog, whose role in the accumulation of carotenoids and ascorbic acid is discussed. Comprehensively, the reported

  1. Exploiting Genomics Resources to Identify Candidate Genes Underlying Antioxidants Content in Tomato Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Calafiore, Roberta; Ruggieri, Valentino; Raiola, Assunta; Rigano, Maria M.; Sacco, Adriana; Hassan, Mohamed I.; Frusciante, Luigi; Barone, Amalia

    2016-01-01

    The tomato is a model species for fleshy fruit development and ripening, as well as for genomics studies of others Solanaceae. Many genetic and genomics resources, including databases for sequencing, transcriptomics and metabolomics data, have been developed and are today available. The purpose of the present work was to uncover new genes and/or alleles that determine ascorbic acid and carotenoids accumulation, by exploiting one Solanum pennellii introgression lines (IL7-3) harboring quantitative trait loci (QTL) that increase the content of these metabolites in the fruit. The higher ascorbic acid and carotenoids content in IL7-3 was confirmed at three fruit developmental stages. The tomato genome reference sequence and the recently released S. pennellii genome sequence were investigated to identify candidate genes (CGs) that might control ascorbic acid and carotenoids accumulation. First of all, a refinement of the wild region borders in the IL7-3 was achieved by analyzing CAPS markers designed in our laboratory. Afterward, six CGs associated to ascorbic acid and one with carotenoids metabolism were identified exploring the annotation and the Gene Ontology terms of genes included in the region. Variants between the sequence of the wild and the cultivated alleles of these genes were investigated for their functional relevance and their potential effects on the protein sequences were predicted. Transcriptional levels of CGs in the introgression region were extracted from RNA-Seq data available for the entire S. pennellii introgression lines collection and verified by Real-Time qPCR. Finally, seven IL7-3 sub-lines were genotyped using 28 species-specific markers and then were evaluated for metabolites content. These analyses evidenced a significant decrease in transcript abundance for one 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and one L-ascorbate oxidase homolog, whose role in the accumulation of carotenoids and ascorbic acid is discussed. Comprehensively, the reported

  2. Functional diversity in resource use by fungi.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Krista L; Bent, Elizabeth; Borneman, James; Majumder, Arundhati; Allison, Steven D; Tresederi, Kathleen K

    2010-08-01

    Fungi influence nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, as they are major regulators of decomposition and soil respiration. However, little is known about the substrate preferences of individual fungal species outside of laboratory culture studies. If active fungi differ in their substrate preferences in situ, then changes in fungal diversity due to global change may dramatically influence nutrient cycling in ecosystems. To test the responses of individual fungal taxa to specific substrates, we used a nucleotide-analogue procedure in the boreal forest of Alaska (USA). Specifically, we added four organic N compounds commonly found in plant litter (arginine, glutamate, lignocellulose, and tannin-protein) to litterbags filled with decomposed leaf litter (black spruce and aspen) and assessed the responses of active fungal species using qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction), oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rRNA genes, and sequencing. We also compared the sequences from our experiment with a concurrent warming experiment to see if active fungi that targeted more recalcitrant compounds would respond more positively to soil warming. We found that individual fungal taxa responded differently to substrate additions and that active fungal communities were different across litter types (spruce vs. aspen). Active fungi that targeted lignocellulose also responded positively to experimental warming. Additionally, resource-use patterns in different fungal taxa were genetically correlated, suggesting that it may be possible to predict the ecological function of active fungal communities based on genetic information. Together, these results imply that fungi are functionally diverse and that reductions in fungal diversity may have consequences for ecosystem functioning. PMID:20836454

  3. Reptilian Transcriptomes v2.0: An Extensive Resource for Sauropsida Genomics and Transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Tzika, Athanasia C.; Ullate-Agote, Asier; Grbic, Djordje; Milinkovitch, Michel C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the availability of deep-sequencing techniques, genomic and transcriptomic data remain unevenly distributed across phylogenetic groups. For example, reptiles are poorly represented in sequence databases, hindering functional evolutionary and developmental studies in these lineages substantially more diverse than mammals. In addition, different studies use different assembly and annotation protocols, inhibiting meaningful comparisons. Here, we present the “Reptilian Transcriptomes Database 2.0,” which provides extensive annotation of transcriptomes and genomes from species covering the major reptilian lineages. To this end, we sequenced normalized complementary DNA libraries of multiple adult tissues and various embryonic stages of the leopard gecko and the corn snake and gathered published reptilian sequence data sets from representatives of the four extant orders of reptiles: Squamata (snakes and lizards), the tuatara, crocodiles, and turtles. The LANE runner 2.0 software was implemented to annotate all assemblies within a single integrated pipeline. We show that this approach increases the annotation completeness of the assembled transcriptomes/genomes. We then built large concatenated protein alignments of single-copy genes and inferred phylogenetic trees that support the positions of turtles and the tuatara as sister groups of Archosauria and Squamata, respectively. The Reptilian Transcriptomes Database 2.0 resource will be updated to include selected new data sets as they become available, thus making it a reference for differential expression studies, comparative genomics and transcriptomics, linkage mapping, molecular ecology, and phylogenomic analyses involving reptiles. The database is available at www.reptilian-transcriptomes.org and can be enquired using a wwwblast server installed at the University of Geneva. PMID:26133641

  4. Reptilian Transcriptomes v2.0: An Extensive Resource for Sauropsida Genomics and Transcriptomics.

    PubMed

    Tzika, Athanasia C; Ullate-Agote, Asier; Grbic, Djordje; Milinkovitch, Michel C

    2015-06-01

    Despite the availability of deep-sequencing techniques, genomic and transcriptomic data remain unevenly distributed across phylogenetic groups. For example, reptiles are poorly represented in sequence databases, hindering functional evolutionary and developmental studies in these lineages substantially more diverse than mammals. In addition, different studies use different assembly and annotation protocols, inhibiting meaningful comparisons. Here, we present the "Reptilian Transcriptomes Database 2.0," which provides extensive annotation of transcriptomes and genomes from species covering the major reptilian lineages. To this end, we sequenced normalized complementary DNA libraries of multiple adult tissues and various embryonic stages of the leopard gecko and the corn snake and gathered published reptilian sequence data sets from representatives of the four extant orders of reptiles: Squamata (snakes and lizards), the tuatara, crocodiles, and turtles. The LANE runner 2.0 software was implemented to annotate all assemblies within a single integrated pipeline. We show that this approach increases the annotation completeness of the assembled transcriptomes/genomes. We then built large concatenated protein alignments of single-copy genes and inferred phylogenetic trees that support the positions of turtles and the tuatara as sister groups of Archosauria and Squamata, respectively. The Reptilian Transcriptomes Database 2.0 resource will be updated to include selected new data sets as they become available, thus making it a reference for differential expression studies, comparative genomics and transcriptomics, linkage mapping, molecular ecology, and phylogenomic analyses involving reptiles. The database is available at www.reptilian-transcriptomes.org and can be enquired using a wwwblast server installed at the University of Geneva. PMID:26133641

  5. The Human Resources Function and the Growing Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Diane

    1987-01-01

    Discusses factors in a changing society that will make it necessary for companies to revamp their human resources function. Topics include technology, demographics, emerging career categories, human resources planning, benefits, legal trends, and training and development. Tells how to revamp the human resources function. (CH)

  6. Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria and their environmental interactions. Moreover, functional genomics approaches have been used to understand the response of lactic acid bacteria to their environment. The results have been instrumental in understanding the adaptation of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal and industrial food fermentations as well as their interactions with the human host. Collectively, this has led to a detailed analysis of genes involved in colonization, persistence, interaction and signaling towards to the human host and its health. Finally, massive parallel genome re-sequencing has provided new opportunities in applied genomics, specifically in the characterization of novel non-GMO strains that have potential to be used in the food industry. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art of these functional genomics approaches and their impact in understanding, applying and designing lactic acid bacteria for food and health. PMID:25186768

  7. Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health.

    PubMed

    Douillard, François P; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-08-29

    Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria and their environmental interactions. Moreover, functional genomics approaches have been used to understand the response of lactic acid bacteria to their environment. The results have been instrumental in understanding the adaptation of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal and industrial food fermentations as well as their interactions with the human host. Collectively, this has led to a detailed analysis of genes involved in colonization, persistence, interaction and signaling towards to the human host and its health. Finally, massive parallel genome re-sequencing has provided new opportunities in applied genomics, specifically in the characterization of novel non-GMO strains that have potential to be used in the food industry. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art of these functional genomics approaches and their impact in understanding, applying and designing lactic acid bacteria for food and health. PMID:25186768

  8. Functional Analysis of the Human Genome:. Study of Genetic Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Lap-Chee

    2003-04-01

    I will divide my remarks into 3 parts. First, I will give a brief summary of the Human Genome Project. Second, I will describe our work on human chromosome 7 to illustrate how we could contribute to the Project and disease research. Third, I would like to bring across the argument that study of genetic disease is an integral component of the Human Genome Project. In particular, I will use cystic fibrosis as an example to elaborate why I consider disease study is a part of functional genomics.

  9. High-throughput functional genomics using CRISPR-Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Shalem, Ophir; Sanjana, Neville E.; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Forward genetic screens are powerful tools for the discovery and functional annotation of genetic elements. Recently, the RNA-guided CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-associated Cas9 nuclease has been combined with genome-scale guide RNA libraries for unbiased, phenotypic screening. In this Review, we describe recent advances using Cas9 for genome-scale screens, including knockout approaches that inactivate genomic loci and strategies that modulate transcriptional activity. We discuss practical aspects of screen design, provide comparisons with RNA interference (RNAi) screening, and outline future applications and challenges. PMID:25854182

  10. New resources inform study of genome size, content, and organization in nonavian reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Janes, Daniel E.; Organ, Christopher; Valenzuela, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Genomic resources for studies of nonavian reptiles have recently improved and will reach a new level of access once the genomes of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) and the green anole (Anolis carolinensis) have been published. Eleven speakers gathered for a symposium on reptilian genomics and evolutionary genetics at the 2008 meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology in San Antonio, Texas. Presentations described results of reptilian genetic studies concerning molecular evolution, chromosomal evolution, genomic architecture, population dynamics, endocrinology and endocrine disruption, and the evolution of developmental mechanisms. The presented studies took advantage of the recent generation of genetic and genomic tools and resources. Novel findings demonstrated the positive impact made by the improved availability of resources like genome annotations and bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The symposium was timely and important because it provided a vehicle for the dissemination of novel findings that advance the field. Moreover, this meeting fostered the synergistic interaction of the participants as a group, which is anticipated to encourage the funding and creation of further resources such as additional BAC libraries and genomic projects. Novel data have already been collected and studies like those presented in this symposium promise to shape and improve our understanding of overall amniote evolution. Additional reptilian taxa such as the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), and garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) should be the foci of future genomic projects. We hope that the following articles in this volume will help promote these efforts by describing the conclusions and the potential that the improvement of genomic resources for nonavian reptiles can continue having in this important area of integrative and comparative biology. PMID:21669805

  11. GiardiaDB and TrichDB: integrated genomic resources for the eukaryotic protist pathogens Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Aurrecoechea, Cristina; Brestelli, John; Brunk, Brian P; Carlton, Jane M; Dommer, Jennifer; Fischer, Steve; Gajria, Bindu; Gao, Xin; Gingle, Alan; Grant, Greg; Harb, Omar S; Heiges, Mark; Innamorato, Frank; Iodice, John; Kissinger, Jessica C; Kraemer, Eileen; Li, Wei; Miller, John A; Morrison, Hilary G; Nayak, Vishal; Pennington, Cary; Pinney, Deborah F; Roos, David S; Ross, Chris; Stoeckert, Christian J; Sullivan, Steven; Treatman, Charles; Wang, Haiming

    2009-01-01

    GiardiaDB (http://GiardiaDB.org) and TrichDB (http://TrichDB.org) house the genome databases for Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis, respectively, and represent the latest additions to the EuPathDB (http://EuPathDB.org) family of functional genomic databases. GiardiaDB and TrichDB employ the same framework as other EuPathDB sites (CryptoDB, PlasmoDB and ToxoDB), supporting fully integrated and searchable databases. Genomic-scale data available via these resources may be queried based on BLAST searches, annotation keywords and gene ID searches, GO terms, sequence motifs and other protein characteristics. Functional queries may also be formulated, based on transcript and protein expression data from a variety of platforms. Phylogenetic relationships may also be interrogated. The ability to combine the results from independent queries, and to store queries and query results for future use facilitates complex, genome-wide mining of functional genomic data. PMID:18824479

  12. GiardiaDB and TrichDB: integrated genomic resources for the eukaryotic protist pathogens Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Aurrecoechea, Cristina; Brestelli, John; Carlton, Jane M.; Dommer, Jennifer; Fischer, Steve; Gajria, Bindu; Gao, Xin; Gingle, Alan; Harb, Omar S.; Heiges, Mark; Innamorato, Frank; Iodice, John; Kissinger, Jessica C.; Kraemer, Eileen; Li, Wei; Miller, John A.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Nayak, Vishal; Pennington, Cary; Pinney, Deborah F.; Roos, David S.; Ross, Chris; Sullivan, Steven; Treatman, Charles; Wang, Haiming

    2009-01-01

    GiardiaDB (http://GiardiaDB.org) and TrichDB (http://TrichDB.org) house the genome databases for Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis, respectively, and represent the latest additions to the EuPathDB (http://EuPathDB.org) family of functional genomic databases. GiardiaDB and TrichDB employ the same framework as other EuPathDB sites (CryptoDB, PlasmoDB and ToxoDB), supporting fully integrated and searchable databases. Genomic-scale data available via these resources may be queried based on BLAST searches, annotation keywords and gene ID searches, GO terms, sequence motifs and other protein characteristics. Functional queries may also be formulated, based on transcript and protein expression data from a variety of platforms. Phylogenetic relationships may also be interrogated. The ability to combine the results from independent queries, and to store queries and query results for future use facilitates complex, genome-wide mining of functional genomic data. PMID:18824479

  13. Exploring the post-genomic world: differing explanatory and manipulatory functions of post-genomic sciences

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Christina; Carlson, Siobhan M.; McDonald, Fiona; Jones, Mavis; Graham, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Richard Lewontin proposed that the ability of a scientific field to create a narrative for public understanding garners it social relevance. This article applies Lewontin's conceptual framework of the functions of science (manipulatory and explanatory) to compare and explain the current differences in perceived societal relevance of genetics/genomics and proteomics. We provide three examples to illustrate the social relevance and strong cultural narrative of genetics/genomics for which no counterpart exists for proteomics. We argue that the major difference between genetics/genomics and proteomics is that genomics has a strong explanatory function, due to the strong cultural narrative of heredity. Based on qualitative interviews and observations of proteomics conferences, we suggest that the nature of proteins, lack of public understanding, and theoretical complexity exacerbates this difference for proteomics. Lewontin's framework suggests that social scientists may find that omics sciences affect social relations in different ways than past analyses of genetics. PMID:27134568

  14. Distinguishing between "function" and "effect" in genome biology.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, W Ford; Brunet, Tyler D P; Linquist, Stefan; Gregory, T Ryan

    2014-05-01

    Much confusion in genome biology results from conflation of possible meanings of the word "function." We suggest that, in this connection, attention should be paid to evolutionary biologists and philosophers who have previously dealt with this problem. We need only decide that although all genomic structures have effects, only some of them should be said to have functions. Although it will very often be difficult or impossible to establish function (strictly defined), it should not automatically be assumed. We enjoin genomicists in particular to pay greater attention to parsing biological effects. PMID:24814287

  15. The Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) System: An Expanding Comparative Analysis Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitz, Victor M.; Chen, I-Min A.; Palaniappan, Krishna; Chu, Ken; Szeto, Ernest; Grechkin, Yuri; Ratner, Anna; Anderson, Iain; Lykidis, Athanasios; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2009-09-13

    The integrated microbial genomes (IMG) system serves as a community resource for comparative analysis of publicly available genomes in a comprehensive integrated context. IMG contains both draft and complete microbial genomes integrated with other publicly available genomes from all three domains of life, together with a large number of plasmids and viruses. IMG provides tools and viewers for analyzing and reviewing the annotations of genes and genomes in a comparative context. Since its first release in 2005, IMG's data content and analytical capabilities have been constantly expanded through regular releases. Several companion IMG systems have been set up in order to serve domain specific needs, such as expert review of genome annotations. IMG is available at .

  16. Functional genomic analysis of chromosomal aberrations in a compendium of 8000 cancer genomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Min; Xi, Ruibin; Luquette, Lovelace J.; Park, Richard W.; Johnson, Mark D.; Park, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    A large database of copy number profiles from cancer genomes can facilitate the identification of recurrent chromosomal alterations that often contain key cancer-related genes. It can also be used to explore low-prevalence genomic events such as chromothripsis. In this study, we report an analysis of 8227 human cancer copy number profiles obtained from 107 array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) studies. Our analysis reveals similarity of chromosomal arm-level alterations among developmentally related tumor types as well as a number of co-occurring pairs of arm-level alterations. Recurrent (“pan-lineage”) focal alterations identified across diverse tumor types show an enrichment of known cancer-related genes and genes with relevant functions in cancer-associated phenotypes (e.g., kinase and cell cycle). Tumor type-specific (“lineage-restricted”) alterations and their enriched functional categories were also identified. Furthermore, we developed an algorithm for detecting regions in which the copy number oscillates rapidly between fixed levels, indicative of chromothripsis. We observed these massive genomic rearrangements in 1%–2% of the samples with variable tumor type-specific incidence rates. Taken together, our comprehensive view of copy number alterations provides a framework for understanding the functional significance of various genomic alterations in cancer genomes. PMID:23132910

  17. The Protein Information Resource: an integrated public resource of functional annotation of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cathy H.; Huang, Hongzhan; Arminski, Leslie; Castro-Alvear, Jorge; Chen, Yongxing; Hu, Zhang-Zhi; Ledley, Robert S.; Lewis, Kali C.; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Orcutt, Bruce C.; Suzek, Baris E.; Tsugita, Akira; Vinayaka, C. R.; Yeh, Lai-Su L.; Zhang, Jian; Barker, Winona C.

    2002-01-01

    The Protein Information Resource (PIR) serves as an integrated public resource of functional annotation of protein data to support genomic/proteomic research and scientific discovery. The PIR, in collaboration with the Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS) and the Japan International Protein Information Database (JIPID), produces the PIR-International Protein Sequence Database (PSD), the major annotated protein sequence database in the public domain, containing about 250 000 proteins. To improve protein annotation and the coverage of experimentally validated data, a bibliography submission system is developed for scientists to submit, categorize and retrieve literature information. Comprehensive protein information is available from iProClass, which includes family classification at the superfamily, domain and motif levels, structural and functional features of proteins, as well as cross-references to over 40 biological databases. To provide timely and comprehensive protein data with source attribution, we have introduced a non-redundant reference protein database, PIR-NREF. The database consists of about 800 000 proteins collected from PIR-PSD, SWISS-PROT, TrEMBL, GenPept, RefSeq and PDB, with composite protein names and literature data. To promote database interoperability, we provide XML data distribution and open database schema, and adopt common ontologies. The PIR web site (http://pir.georgetown.edu/) features data mining and sequence analysis tools for information retrieval and functional identification of proteins based on both sequence and annotation information. The PIR databases and other files are also available by FTP (ftp://nbrfa.georgetown.edu/pir_databases). PMID:11752247

  18. Leveraging Comparative Genomics to Identify and Functionally Characterize Genes Associated with Sperm Phenotypes in Python bivittatus (Burmese Python)

    PubMed Central

    Rutllant, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Comparative genomics approaches provide a means of leveraging functional genomics information from a highly annotated model organism's genome (such as the mouse genome) in order to make physiological inferences about the role of genes and proteins in a less characterized organism's genome (such as the Burmese python). We employed a comparative genomics approach to produce the functional annotation of Python bivittatus genes encoding proteins associated with sperm phenotypes. We identify 129 gene-phenotype relationships in the python which are implicated in 10 specific sperm phenotypes. Results obtained through our systematic analysis identified subsets of python genes exhibiting associations with gene ontology annotation terms. Functional annotation data was represented in a semantic scatter plot. Together, these newly annotated Python bivittatus genome resources provide a high resolution framework from which the biology relating to reptile spermatogenesis, fertility, and reproduction can be further investigated. Applications of our research include (1) production of genetic diagnostics for assessing fertility in domestic and wild reptiles; (2) enhanced assisted reproduction technology for endangered and captive reptiles; and (3) novel molecular targets for biotechnology-based approaches aimed at reducing fertility and reproduction of invasive reptiles. Additional enhancements to reptile genomic resources will further enhance their value. PMID:27200191

  19. Leveraging Comparative Genomics to Identify and Functionally Characterize Genes Associated with Sperm Phenotypes in Python bivittatus (Burmese Python).

    PubMed

    Irizarry, Kristopher J L; Rutllant, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Comparative genomics approaches provide a means of leveraging functional genomics information from a highly annotated model organism's genome (such as the mouse genome) in order to make physiological inferences about the role of genes and proteins in a less characterized organism's genome (such as the Burmese python). We employed a comparative genomics approach to produce the functional annotation of Python bivittatus genes encoding proteins associated with sperm phenotypes. We identify 129 gene-phenotype relationships in the python which are implicated in 10 specific sperm phenotypes. Results obtained through our systematic analysis identified subsets of python genes exhibiting associations with gene ontology annotation terms. Functional annotation data was represented in a semantic scatter plot. Together, these newly annotated Python bivittatus genome resources provide a high resolution framework from which the biology relating to reptile spermatogenesis, fertility, and reproduction can be further investigated. Applications of our research include (1) production of genetic diagnostics for assessing fertility in domestic and wild reptiles; (2) enhanced assisted reproduction technology for endangered and captive reptiles; and (3) novel molecular targets for biotechnology-based approaches aimed at reducing fertility and reproduction of invasive reptiles. Additional enhancements to reptile genomic resources will further enhance their value. PMID:27200191

  20. Construction of genome-wide physical BAC contigs using mapped cDNA as probes: Toward an integrated BAC library resource for genome sequencing and analysis. Annual report, July 1995--January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, S.C.; Bocskai, D.; Cao, Y.

    1997-12-31

    The goal of human genome project is to characterize and sequence entire genomes of human and several model organisms, thus providing complete sets of information on the entire structure of transcribed, regulatory and other functional regions for these organisms. In the past years, a number of useful genetic and physical markers on human and mouse genomes have been made available along with the advent of BAC library resources for these organisms. The advances in technology and resource development made it feasible to efficiently construct genome-wide physical BAC contigs for human and other genomes. Currently, over 30,000 mapped STSs and 27,000 mapped Unigenes are available for human genome mapping. ESTs and cDNAs are excellent resources for building contig maps for two reasons. Firstly, they exist in two alternative forms--as both sequence information for PCR primer pairs, and cDoreen genomic libraries efficiently for large number of DNA probes by combining over 100 cDNA probes in each hybridization. Second, the linkage and order of genes are rather conserved among human, mouse and other model organisms. Therefore, gene markers have advantages over random anonymous STSs in building maps for comparative genomic studies.

  1. New Genomic Resources for Pasture and Range Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the initial requirements of utilizing genomic approaches in plant improvements is the availability of DNA sequence information. Toward the goal of generating sequence information for forage and pasture grasses, we are developing EST libraries from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) and sever...

  2. Budding off: bringing functional genomics to Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew Z; Bennett, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    Candidaspecies are the most prevalent human fungal pathogens, withCandida albicansbeing the most clinically relevant species.Candida albicansresides as a commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract but is a frequent cause of opportunistic mucosal and systemic infections. Investigation ofC. albicansvirulence has traditionally relied on candidate gene approaches, but recent advances in functional genomics have now facilitated global, unbiased studies of gene function. Such studies include comparative genomics (both between and withinCandidaspecies), analysis of total RNA expression, and regulation and delineation of protein-DNA interactions. Additionally, large collections of mutant strains have begun to aid systematic screening of clinically relevant phenotypes. Here, we will highlight the development of functional genomics inC. albicansand discuss the use of these approaches to addressing both commensalism and pathogenesis in this species. PMID:26424829

  3. Functional genomics of Plasmodium falciparum using metabolic modelling and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheim, Rebecca D.; Soldati-Favre, Dominique; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is an obligate intracellular parasite and the leading cause of severe malaria responsible for tremendous morbidity and mortality particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Successful completion of the P. falciparum genome sequencing project in 2002 provided a comprehensive foundation for functional genomic studies on this pathogen in the following decade. Over this period, a large spectrum of experimental approaches has been deployed to improve and expand the scope of functionally annotated genes. Meanwhile, rapidly evolving methods of systems biology have also begun to contribute to a more global understanding of various aspects of the biology and pathogenesis of malaria. Herein we provide an overview on metabolic modelling, which has the capability to integrate information from functional genomics studies in P. falciparum and guide future malaria research efforts towards the identification of novel candidate drug targets. PMID:23793264

  4. RNAi and functional genomics in plant parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Rosso, M N; Jones, J T; Abad, P

    2009-01-01

    Plant nematology is currently undergoing a revolution with the availability of the first genome sequences as well as comprehensive expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries from a range of nematode species. Several strategies are being used to exploit this wealth of information. Comparative genomics is being used to explore the acquisition of novel genes associated with parasitic lifestyles. Functional analyses of nematode genes are moving toward larger scale studies including global transcriptome profiling. RNA interference (RNAi) has been shown to reduce expression of a range of plant parasitic nematode genes and is a powerful tool for functional analysis of nematode genes. RNAi-mediated suppression of genes essential for nematode development, survival, or parasitism is revealing new targets for nematode control. Plant nematology in the genomics era is now facing the challenge to develop RNAi screens adequate for high-throughput functional analyses. PMID:19400649

  5. Genomic resources for identification of the minimal N2 -fixing symbiotic genome.

    PubMed

    diCenzo, George C; Zamani, Maryam; Milunovic, Branislava; Finan, Turlough M

    2016-09-01

    The lack of an appropriate genomic platform has precluded the use of gain-of-function approaches to study the rhizobium-legume symbiosis, preventing the establishment of the genes necessary and sufficient for symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) and potentially hindering synthetic biology approaches aimed at engineering this process. Here, we describe the development of an appropriate system by reverse engineering Sinorhizobium meliloti. Using a novel in vivo cloning procedure, the engA-tRNA-rmlC (ETR) region, essential for cell viability and symbiosis, was transferred from Sinorhizobium fredii to the ancestral location on the S. meliloti chromosome, rendering the ETR region on pSymB redundant. A derivative of this strain lacking both the large symbiotic replicons (pSymA and pSymB) was constructed. Transfer of pSymA and pSymB back into this strain restored symbiotic capabilities with alfalfa. To delineate the location of the single-copy genes essential for SNF on these replicons, we screened a S. meliloti deletion library, representing > 95% of the 2900 genes of the symbiotic replicons, for their phenotypes with alfalfa. Only four loci, accounting for < 12% of pSymA and pSymB, were essential for SNF. These regions will serve as our preliminary target of the minimal set of horizontally acquired genes necessary and sufficient for SNF. PMID:26768651

  6. First TILLING Platform in Cucurbita pepo: A New Mutant Resource for Gene Function and Crop Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Dólera, Nelly; Troadec, Christelle; Moya, Manuel; del Río-Celestino, Mercedes; Pomares-Viciana, Teresa; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Picó, Belén; Román, Belén; Gómez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Although the availability of genetic and genomic resources for Cucurbita pepo has increased significantly, functional genomic resources are still limited for this crop. In this direction, we have developed a high throughput reverse genetic tool: the first TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) resource for this species. Additionally, we have used this resource to demonstrate that the previous EMS mutant population we developed has the highest mutation density compared with other cucurbits mutant populations. The overall mutation density in this first C. pepo TILLING platform was estimated to be 1/133 Kb by screening five additional genes. In total, 58 mutations confirmed by sequencing were identified in the five targeted genes, thirteen of which were predicted to have an impact on the function of the protein. The genotype/phenotype correlation was studied in a peroxidase gene, revealing that the phenotype of seedling homozygous for one of the isolated mutant alleles was albino. These results indicate that the TILLING approach in this species was successful at providing new mutations and can address the major challenge of linking sequence information to biological function and also the identification of novel variation for crop breeding. PMID:25386735

  7. Phytozome Comparative Plant Genomics Portal

    SciTech Connect

    Goodstein, David; Batra, Sajeev; Carlson, Joseph; Hayes, Richard; Phillips, Jeremy; Shu, Shengqiang; Schmutz, Jeremy; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-09-09

    The Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Institute is a genomics user facility supporting DOE mission science in the areas of Bioenergy, Carbon Cycling, and Biogeochemistry. The Plant Program at the JGI applies genomic, analytical, computational and informatics platforms and methods to: 1. Understand and accelerate the improvement (domestication) of bioenergy crops 2. Characterize and moderate plant response to climate change 3. Use comparative genomics to identify constrained elements and infer gene function 4. Build high quality genomic resource platforms of JGI Plant Flagship genomes for functional and experimental work 5. Expand functional genomic resources for Plant Flagship genomes

  8. Integrative Transcriptome, Genome and Quantitative Trait Loci Resources Identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Candidate Genes for Growth Traits in Turbot.

    PubMed

    Robledo, Diego; Fernández, Carlos; Hermida, Miguel; Sciara, Andrés; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Cabaleiro, Santiago; Caamaño, Rubén; Martínez, Paulino; Bouza, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Growth traits represent a main goal in aquaculture breeding programs and may be related to adaptive variation in wild fisheries. Integrating quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and next generation sequencing can greatly help to identify variation in candidate genes, which can result in marker-assisted selection and better genetic structure information. Turbot is a commercially important flatfish in Europe and China, with available genomic information on QTLs and genome mapping. Muscle and liver RNA-seq from 18 individuals was carried out to obtain gene sequences and markers functionally related to growth, resulting in a total of 20,447 genes and 85,344 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Many growth-related genes and SNPs were identified and placed in the turbot genome and genetic map to explore their co-localization with growth-QTL markers. Forty-five SNPs on growth-related genes were selected based on QTL co-localization and relevant function for growth traits. Forty-three SNPs were technically feasible and validated in a wild Atlantic population, where 91% were polymorphic. The integration of functional and structural genomic resources in turbot provides a practical approach for QTL mining in this species. Validated SNPs represent a useful set of growth-related gene markers for future association, functional and population studies in this flatfish species. PMID:26901189

  9. Using Genomic Resources to Guide Research Directions. The Arabinogalactan Protein Gene Family as a Test Case1

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Carolyn J.; Rumsewicz, Michael P.; Johnson, Kim L.; Jones, Brian J.; Gaspar, Yolanda M.; Bacic, Antony

    2002-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are extracellular hydroxyproline-rich proteoglycans implicated in plant growth and development. The protein backbones of AGPs are rich in proline/hydroxyproline, serine, alanine, and threonine. Most family members have less than 40% similarity; therefore, finding family members using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool searches is difficult. As part of our systematic analysis of AGP function in Arabidopsis, we wanted to make sure that we had identified most of the members of the gene family. We used the biased amino acid composition of AGPs to identify AGPs and arabinogalactan (AG) peptides in the Arabidopsis genome. Different criteria were used to identify the fasciclin-like AGPs. In total, we have identified 13 classical AGPs, 10 AG-peptides, three basic AGPs that include a short lysine-rich region, and 21 fasciclin-like AGPs. To streamline the analysis of genomic resources to assist in the planning of targeted experimental approaches, we have adopted a flow chart to maximize the information that can be obtained about each gene. One of the key steps is the reformatting of the Arabidopsis Functional Genomics Consortium microarray data. This customized software program makes it possible to view the ratio data for all Arabidopsis Functional Genomics Consortium experiments and as many genes as desired in a single spreadsheet. The results for reciprocal experiments are grouped to simplify analysis and candidate AGPs involved in development or biotic and abiotic stress responses are readily identified. The microarray data support the suggestion that different AGPs have different functions. PMID:12177459

  10. Integrative Transcriptome, Genome and Quantitative Trait Loci Resources Identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Candidate Genes for Growth Traits in Turbot

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, Diego; Fernández, Carlos; Hermida, Miguel; Sciara, Andrés; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Cabaleiro, Santiago; Caamaño, Rubén; Martínez, Paulino; Bouza, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Growth traits represent a main goal in aquaculture breeding programs and may be related to adaptive variation in wild fisheries. Integrating quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and next generation sequencing can greatly help to identify variation in candidate genes, which can result in marker-assisted selection and better genetic structure information. Turbot is a commercially important flatfish in Europe and China, with available genomic information on QTLs and genome mapping. Muscle and liver RNA-seq from 18 individuals was carried out to obtain gene sequences and markers functionally related to growth, resulting in a total of 20,447 genes and 85,344 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Many growth-related genes and SNPs were identified and placed in the turbot genome and genetic map to explore their co-localization with growth-QTL markers. Forty-five SNPs on growth-related genes were selected based on QTL co-localization and relevant function for growth traits. Forty-three SNPs were technically feasible and validated in a wild Atlantic population, where 91% were polymorphic. The integration of functional and structural genomic resources in turbot provides a practical approach for QTL mining in this species. Validated SNPs represent a useful set of growth-related gene markers for future association, functional and population studies in this flatfish species. PMID:26901189

  11. Population genomics of resource exploitation: insights from gene expression profiles of two Daphnia ecotypes fed alternate resources.

    PubMed

    Dudycha, Jeffry L; Brandon, Christopher S; Deitz, Kevin C

    2012-02-01

    Consumer-resource interactions are a central issue in evolutionary and community ecology because they play important roles in selection and population regulation. Most consumers encounter resource variation at multiple scales, and respond through phenotypic plasticity in the short term or evolutionary divergence in the long term. The key traits for these responses may influence resource acquisition, assimilation, and/or allocation. To identify relevant candidate genes, we experimentally assayed genome-wide gene expression in pond and lake Daphnia ecotypes exposed to alternate resource environments. One was a simple, high-quality laboratory diet, Ankistrodesmus falcatus. The other was the complex natural seston from a large lake. In temporary ponds, Daphnia generally experience high-quality, abundant resources, whereas lakes provide low-quality, seasonally shifting resources that are chronically limiting. For both ecotypes, we used replicate clones drawn from a number of separate populations. Fourteen genes were differentially regulated with respect to resources, including genes involved in gut processes, resource allocation, and activities with no obvious connection to resource exploitation. Three genes were differentially regulated in both ecotypes; the others may play a role in ecological divergence. Genes clearly linked to gut processes include two peritrophic matrix proteins, a Niemann-Pick type C2 gene, and a chymotrypsin. A pancreatic lipase, an epoxide hydrolase, a neuroparsin, and an UDP-dependent glucuronyltransferase are potentially involved in resource allocation through effects on energy processing and storage or hormone pathways. We performed quantitative rt-PCR for eight genes in independent samples of three clones of each of the two ecotypes. Though these largely confirmed observed differential regulation, some genes' expression was highly variable among clones. Our results demonstrate the value of matching the level of biological replication in

  12. Population genomics of resource exploitation: insights from gene expression profiles of two Daphnia ecotypes fed alternate resources

    PubMed Central

    Dudycha, Jeffry L; Brandon, Christopher S; Deitz, Kevin C

    2012-01-01

    Consumer–resource interactions are a central issue in evolutionary and community ecology because they play important roles in selection and population regulation. Most consumers encounter resource variation at multiple scales, and respond through phenotypic plasticity in the short term or evolutionary divergence in the long term. The key traits for these responses may influence resource acquisition, assimilation, and/or allocation. To identify relevant candidate genes, we experimentally assayed genome-wide gene expression in pond and lake Daphnia ecotypes exposed to alternate resource environments. One was a simple, high-quality laboratory diet, Ankistrodesmus falcatus. The other was the complex natural seston from a large lake. In temporary ponds, Daphnia generally experience high-quality, abundant resources, whereas lakes provide low-quality, seasonally shifting resources that are chronically limiting. For both ecotypes, we used replicate clones drawn from a number of separate populations. Fourteen genes were differentially regulated with respect to resources, including genes involved in gut processes, resource allocation, and activities with no obvious connection to resource exploitation. Three genes were differentially regulated in both ecotypes; the others may play a role in ecological divergence. Genes clearly linked to gut processes include two peritrophic matrix proteins, a Niemann–Pick type C2 gene, and a chymotrypsin. A pancreatic lipase, an epoxide hydrolase, a neuroparsin, and an UDP-dependent glucuronyltransferase are potentially involved in resource allocation through effects on energy processing and storage or hormone pathways. We performed quantitative rt-PCR for eight genes in independent samples of three clones of each of the two ecotypes. Though these largely confirmed observed differential regulation, some genes’ expression was highly variable among clones. Our results demonstrate the value of matching the level of biological replication

  13. Functional genomics identifies drivers of medulloblastoma dissemination.

    PubMed

    Mumert, Michael; Dubuc, Adrian; Wu, Xiaochong; Northcott, Paul A; Chin, Steven S; Pedone, Carolyn A; Taylor, Michael D; Fults, Daniel W

    2012-10-01

    Medulloblastomas are malignant brain tumors that arise in the cerebellum in children and disseminate via the cerebrospinal fluid to the leptomeningeal spaces of the brain and spinal cord. Challenged by the poor prognosis for patients with metastatic dissemination, pediatric oncologists have developed aggressive treatment protocols, combining surgery, craniospinal radiation, and high-dose chemotherapy, that often cause disabling neurotoxic effects in long-term survivors. Insights into the genetic control of medulloblastoma dissemination have come from transposon insertion mutagenesis studies. Mobilizing the Sleeping Beauty transposon in cerebellar neural progenitor cells caused widespread dissemination of typically nonmetastatic medulloblastomas in Patched(+/-) mice, in which Shh signaling is hyperactive. Candidate metastasis genes were identified by sequencing the insertion sites and then mapping these sequences back to the mouse genome. To determine whether genes located at transposon insertion sites directly caused medulloblastomas to disseminate, we overexpressed candidate genes in Nestin(+) neural progenitors in the cerebella of mice by retroviral transfer in combination with Shh. We show here that ectopic expression of Eras, Lhx1, Ccrk, and Akt shifted the in vivo growth characteristics of Shh-induced medulloblastomas from a localized pattern to a disseminated pattern in which tumor cells seeded the leptomeningeal spaces of the brain and spinal cord. PMID:22875024

  14. Functional Genomic Analysis of C. elegans Molting

    PubMed Central

    Frand, Alison R; Russel, Sascha

    2005-01-01

    Although the molting cycle is a hallmark of insects and nematodes, neither the endocrine control of molting via size, stage, and nutritional inputs nor the enzymatic mechanism for synthesis and release of the exoskeleton is well understood. Here, we identify endocrine and enzymatic regulators of molting in C. elegans through a genome-wide RNA-interference screen. Products of the 159 genes discovered include annotated transcription factors, secreted peptides, transmembrane proteins, and extracellular matrix enzymes essential for molting. Fusions between several genes and green fluorescent protein show a pulse of expression before each molt in epithelial cells that synthesize the exoskeleton, indicating that the corresponding proteins are made in the correct time and place to regulate molting. We show further that inactivation of particular genes abrogates expression of the green fluorescent protein reporter genes, revealing regulatory networks that might couple the expression of genes essential for molting to endocrine cues. Many molting genes are conserved in parasitic nematodes responsible for human disease, and thus represent attractive targets for pesticide and pharmaceutical development. PMID:16122351

  15. A genome-wide resource for the analysis of protein localisation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sarov, Mihail; Barz, Christiane; Jambor, Helena; Hein, Marco Y; Schmied, Christopher; Suchold, Dana; Stender, Bettina; Janosch, Stephan; KJ, Vinay Vikas; Krishnan, RT; Krishnamoorthy, Aishwarya; Ferreira, Irene RS; Ejsmont, Radoslaw K; Finkl, Katja; Hasse, Susanne; Kämpfer, Philipp; Plewka, Nicole; Vinis, Elisabeth; Schloissnig, Siegfried; Knust, Elisabeth; Hartenstein, Volker; Mann, Matthias; Ramaswami, Mani; VijayRaghavan, K; Tomancak, Pavel; Schnorrer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila genome contains >13000 protein-coding genes, the majority of which remain poorly investigated. Important reasons include the lack of antibodies or reporter constructs to visualise these proteins. Here, we present a genome-wide fosmid library of 10000 GFP-tagged clones, comprising tagged genes and most of their regulatory information. For 880 tagged proteins, we created transgenic lines, and for a total of 207 lines, we assessed protein expression and localisation in ovaries, embryos, pupae or adults by stainings and live imaging approaches. Importantly, we visualised many proteins at endogenous expression levels and found a large fraction of them localising to subcellular compartments. By applying genetic complementation tests, we estimate that about two-thirds of the tagged proteins are functional. Moreover, these tagged proteins enable interaction proteomics from developing pupae and adult flies. Taken together, this resource will boost systematic analysis of protein expression and localisation in various cellular and developmental contexts. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12068.001 PMID:26896675

  16. Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 April 2015 - 31 May 2015.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca; Boscari, E; Coelho, Maria Manuela; Congiu, L; Grapputo, A; Grosso, Ana Rita; Jesus, Tiago Filipe; Luebert, Federico; Mansion, Guilhem; Muller, Ludo A H; Töre, Demet; Vidotto, M; Zane, L

    2015-09-01

    This article documents the public availability of transcriptomic resources for (i) the stellate sturgeon Acipenser stellatus, (ii) the flowering plant Campanula gentilis and (iii) two endemic Iberian fish, Squalius carolitertii and Squalius torgalensis. PMID:26261041

  17. Genomic Resources Notes Accepted 1 August 2015 - 31 September 2015.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Annegret; Kremer, Antoine; Le Provost, Grégoire; Lesur, Isabelle; Lin, Gonhua; Martin, Francis; Plomion, Christophe; Wu, Aiguo; Zhao, Fang

    2016-01-01

    This article documents the public availability of transcriptomic resources for (i) the Hazelnut tree (Corylus avellana L.) and (ii) the oriental rat flea and primary plague vector, Xenopsylla cheopis. PMID:26768197

  18. What's that gene (or protein)? Online resources for exploring functions of genes, transcripts, and proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, James R. A.

    2014-01-01

    The genomic era has enabled research projects that use approaches including genome-scale screens, microarray analysis, next-generation sequencing, and mass spectrometry–based proteomics to discover genes and proteins involved in biological processes. Such methods generate data sets of gene, transcript, or protein hits that researchers wish to explore to understand their properties and functions and thus their possible roles in biological systems of interest. Recent years have seen a profusion of Internet-based resources to aid this process. This review takes the viewpoint of the curious biologist wishing to explore the properties of protein-coding genes and their products, identified using genome-based technologies. Ten key questions are asked about each hit, addressing functions, phenotypes, expression, evolutionary conservation, disease association, protein structure, interactors, posttranslational modifications, and inhibitors. Answers are provided by presenting the latest publicly available resources, together with methods for hit-specific and data set–wide information retrieval, suited to any genome-based analytical technique and experimental species. The utility of these resources is demonstrated for 20 factors regulating cell proliferation. Results obtained using some of these are discussed in more depth using the p53 tumor suppressor as an example. This flexible and universally applicable approach for characterizing experimental hits helps researchers to maximize the potential of their projects for biological discovery. PMID:24723265

  19. MicrobesOnline: an integrated portal for comparative and functional genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Dehal, Paramvir S.; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; Price, Morgan N.; Bates, John T.; Baumohl, Jason K.; Chivian, Dylan; Friedland, Greg D.; Huang, Katherine H.; Keller, Keith; Novichkov, Pavel S.; Dubchak, Inna L.; Alm, Eric J.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2009-09-17

    Since 2003, MicrobesOnline (http://www.microbesonline.org) has been providing a community resource for comparative and functional genome analysis. The portal includes over 1000 complete genomes of bacteria, archaea and fungi and thousands of expression microarrays from diverse organisms ranging from model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to environmental microbes such as Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Shewanella oneidensis. To assist in annotating genes and in reconstructing their evolutionary history, MicrobesOnline includes a comparative genome browser based on phylogenetic trees for every gene family as well as a species tree. To identify co-regulated genes, MicrobesOnline can search for genes based on their expression profile, and provides tools for identifying regulatory motifs and seeing if they are conserved. MicrobesOnline also includes fast phylogenetic profile searches, comparative views of metabolic pathways, operon predictions, a workbench for sequence analysis and integration with RegTransBase and other microbial genome resources. The next update of MicrobesOnline will contain significant new functionality, including comparative analysis of metagenomic sequence data. Programmatic access to the database, along with source code and documentation, is available at http://microbesonline.org/programmers.html.

  20. MicrobesOnline: an integrated portal for comparative and functional genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Dehal, Paramvir; Joachimiak, Marcin; Price, Morgan; Bates, John; Baumohl, Jason; Chivian, Dylan; Friedland, Greg; Huang, Kathleen; Keller, Keith; Novichkov, Pavel; Dubchak, Inna; Alm, Eric; Arkin, Adam

    2011-07-14

    Since 2003, MicrobesOnline (http://www.microbesonline.org) has been providing a community resource for comparative and functional genome analysis. The portal includes over 1000 complete genomes of bacteria, archaea and fungi and thousands of expression microarrays from diverse organisms ranging from model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to environmental microbes such as Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Shewanella oneidensis. To assist in annotating genes and in reconstructing their evolutionary history, MicrobesOnline includes a comparative genome browser based on phylogenetic trees for every gene family as well as a species tree. To identify co-regulated genes, MicrobesOnline can search for genes based on their expression profile, and provides tools for identifying regulatory motifs and seeing if they are conserved. MicrobesOnline also includes fast phylogenetic profile searches, comparative views of metabolic pathways, operon predictions, a workbench for sequence analysis and integration with RegTransBase and other microbial genome resources. The next update of MicrobesOnline will contain significant new functionality, including comparative analysis of metagenomic sequence data. Programmatic access to the database, along with source code and documentation, is available at http://microbesonline.org/programmers.html.

  1. MicrobesOnline: an integrated portal for comparative and functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Dehal, Paramvir S; Joachimiak, Marcin P; Price, Morgan N; Bates, John T; Baumohl, Jason K; Chivian, Dylan; Friedland, Greg D; Huang, Katherine H; Keller, Keith; Novichkov, Pavel S; Dubchak, Inna L; Alm, Eric J; Arkin, Adam P

    2010-01-01

    Since 2003, MicrobesOnline (http://www.microbesonline.org) has been providing a community resource for comparative and functional genome analysis. The portal includes over 1000 complete genomes of bacteria, archaea and fungi and thousands of expression microarrays from diverse organisms ranging from model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to environmental microbes such as Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Shewanella oneidensis. To assist in annotating genes and in reconstructing their evolutionary history, MicrobesOnline includes a comparative genome browser based on phylogenetic trees for every gene family as well as a species tree. To identify co-regulated genes, MicrobesOnline can search for genes based on their expression profile, and provides tools for identifying regulatory motifs and seeing if they are conserved. MicrobesOnline also includes fast phylogenetic profile searches, comparative views of metabolic pathways, operon predictions, a workbench for sequence analysis and integration with RegTransBase and other microbial genome resources. The next update of MicrobesOnline will contain significant new functionality, including comparative analysis of metagenomic sequence data. Programmatic access to the database, along with source code and documentation, is available at http://microbesonline.org/programmers.html. PMID:19906701

  2. The Genomic Threading Database: a comprehensive resource for structural annotations of the genomes from key organisms.

    PubMed

    McGuffin, Liam J; Street, Stefano A; Bryson, Kevin; Sørensen, Søren-Aksel; Jones, David T

    2004-01-01

    Currently, the Genomic Threading Database (GTD) contains structural assignments for the proteins encoded within the genomes of nine eukaryotes and 101 prokaryotes. Structural annotations are carried out using a modified version of GenTHREADER, a reliable fold recognition method. The Gen THREADER annotation jobs are distributed across multiple clusters of processors using grid technology and the predictions are deposited in a relational database accessible via a web interface at http://bioinf.cs.ucl.ac.uk/GTD. Using this system, up to 84% of proteins encoded within a genome can be confidently assigned to known folds with 72% of the residues aligned. On average in the GTD, 64% of proteins encoded within a genome are confidently assigned to known folds and 58% of the residues are aligned to structures. PMID:14681393

  3. Update on Genomic Databases and Resources at the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    PubMed

    Tatusova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), as a primary public repository of genomic sequence data, collects and maintains enormous amounts of heterogeneous data. Data for genomes, genes, gene expressions, gene variation, gene families, proteins, and protein domains are integrated with the analytical, search, and retrieval resources through the NCBI website, text-based search and retrieval system, provides a fast and easy way to navigate across diverse biological databases.Comparative genome analysis tools lead to further understanding of evolution processes quickening the pace of discovery. Recent technological innovations have ignited an explosion in genome sequencing that has fundamentally changed our understanding of the biology of living organisms. This huge increase in DNA sequence data presents new challenges for the information management system and the visualization tools. New strategies have been designed to bring an order to this genome sequence shockwave and improve the usability of associated data. PMID:27115625

  4. GeneWeaver: finding consilience in heterogeneous cross-species functional genomics data.

    PubMed

    Bubier, Jason A; Phillips, Charles A; Langston, Michael A; Baker, Erich J; Chesler, Elissa J

    2015-10-01

    A persistent challenge lies in the interpretation of consensus and discord from functional genomics experimentation. Harmonizing and analyzing this data will enable investigators to discover relations of many genes to many diseases, and from many phenotypes and experimental paradigms to many diseases through their genomic substrates. The GeneWeaver.org system provides a platform for cross-species integration and interrogation of heterogeneous curated and experimentally derived functional genomics data. GeneWeaver enables researchers to store, share, analyze, and compare results of their own genome-wide functional genomics experiments in an environment containing rich companion data obtained from major curated repositories, including the Mouse Genome Database and other model organism databases, along with derived data from highly specialized resources, publications, and user submissions. The data, largely consisting of gene sets and putative biological networks, are mapped onto one another through gene identifiers and homology across species. A versatile suite of interactive tools enables investigators to perform a variety of set analysis operations to find consilience among these often noisy experimental results. Fast algorithms enable real-time analysis of large queries. Specific applications include prioritizing candidate genes for quantitative trait loci, identifying biologically valid mouse models and phenotypic assays for human disease, finding the common biological substrates of related diseases, classifying experiments and the biological concepts they represent from empirical data, and applying patterns of genomic evidence to implicate novel genes in disease. These results illustrate an alternative to strict emphasis on replicability, whereby researchers classify experimental results to identify the conditions that lead to their similarity. PMID:26092690

  5. Annotating the Function of the Human Genome with Gene Ontology and Disease Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yang; Zhou, Wenyang; Ren, Jun; Dong, Lixiang

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidences indicated that function annotation of human genome in molecular level and phenotype level is very important for systematic analysis of genes. In this study, we presented a framework named Gene2Function to annotate Gene Reference into Functions (GeneRIFs), in which each functional description of GeneRIFs could be annotated by a text mining tool Open Biomedical Annotator (OBA), and each Entrez gene could be mapped to Human Genome Organisation Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) gene symbol. After annotating all the records about human genes of GeneRIFs, 288,869 associations between 13,148 mRNAs and 7,182 terms, 9,496 associations between 948 microRNAs and 533 terms, and 901 associations between 139 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and 297 terms were obtained as a comprehensive annotation resource of human genome. High consistency of term frequency of individual gene (Pearson correlation = 0.6401, p = 2.2e − 16) and gene frequency of individual term (Pearson correlation = 0.1298, p = 3.686e − 14) in GeneRIFs and GOA shows our annotation resource is very reliable.

  6. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the “invertebrates,” but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a “Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance” (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site (http://giga.nova.edu) has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture. PMID:24336862

  7. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): developing community resources to study diverse invertebrate genomes.

    PubMed

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather; Collins, Allen G; Collins, Timothy; Crandall, Keith; Distel, Daniel; Dunn, Casey; Giribet, Gonzalo; Haddock, Steven; Knowlton, Nancy; Martindale, Mark; Medina, Mónica; Messing, Charles; O'Brien, Stephen J; Paulay, Gustav; Putnam, Nicolas; Ravasi, Timothy; Rouse, Greg W; Ryan, Joseph F; Schulze, Anja; Wörheide, Gert; Adamska, Maja; Bailly, Xavier; Breinholt, Jesse; Browne, William E; Diaz, M Christina; Evans, Nathaniel; Flot, Jean-François; Fogarty, Nicole; Johnston, Matthew; Kamel, Bishoy; Kawahara, Akito Y; Laberge, Tammy; Lavrov, Dennis; Michonneau, François; Moroz, Leonid L; Oakley, Todd; Osborne, Karen; Pomponi, Shirley A; Rhodes, Adelaide; Santos, Scott R; Satoh, Nori; Thacker, Robert W; Van de Peer, Yves; Voolstra, Christian R; Welch, David Mark; Winston, Judith; Zhou, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the "invertebrates," but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a "Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance" (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site (http://giga.nova.edu) has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture. PMID:24336862

  8. Genomic Functionalization: The Next Revolution In Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Peter; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Imbro, Paula M.

    2014-07-01

    We have implemented a ligand-alignment algorithm into our developed computational pipeline for identifying specificity-determining features (SDFs) in protein-ligand complexes. Given a set of protein-ligand complex structures, the algorithm aligns the complexes by ligand rather than by the C -RMSD or standard approach, providing a single reference frame for extracting SDFs. We anticipate that this ligand-alignment capability will be highly useful for protein function prediction. We already have a database containing > 20 K ligand-protein complex crystal structures taken from the Protein Data Bank. By aligning these proteins to single reference frames using ligand alignment, we can submit the complexes to our pipeline for SDF extraction. The SDFs derived from this training procedure can be used as thumbprints that are hallmarks of individual enzyme classes. These SDF thumbprints may then serve as guides to the prediction of function of new unknown proteins.

  9. Functional Genomics of Rice Pollen and Seed Development by Genome-wide Transcript Profiling and Ds Insertion Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shu-Ye; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2011-01-01

    Rice pollen and seed development are directly related to grain yield. To further improve rice yield, it is important for us to functionally annotate the genes controlling pollen/seed development and to use them for rice breeding. Here we first carried out a genome-wide expression analysis with an emphasis on genes being involved in rice pollen and seed development. Based on the transcript profiling, we have identified and functionally classified 82 highly expressed pollen-specific, 12 developing seed-specific and 19 germinating seed-specific genes. We then presented the utilization of the maize transposon Dissociation (Ds) insertion lines for functional genomics of rice pollen and seed development and as alternative germplasm resources for rice breeding. We have established a two-element Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) gene trap tagging system and generated around 20,000 Ds insertion lines. We have subjected these lines for screens to obtain high and low yield Ds insertion lines. Some interesting lines have been obtained with higher yield or male sterility. Flanking Sequence Tags (FSTs) analyses showed that these Ds-tagged genes encoded various proteins including transcription factors, transport proteins, unknown functional proteins and so on. They exhibited diversified expression patterns. Our results suggested that rice could be improved not only by introducing foreign genes but also by knocking out its endogenous genes. This finding might provide a new way for rice breeder to further improve rice varieties. PMID:21209789

  10. Functional genomic response of apple to fire blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this project is to use a functional genomic analysis to characterize the response of apple (Malus x domestica) to fire blight disease and in doing so, identify new opportunities for improving fire blight resistance. cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA-AFLP analysis were ...

  11. Development of a TILLING Population for Sorghum Functional Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need for a systematically mutagenized population to link gene function to sequence is becoming increasingly urgent as the sorghum genome sequencing is completed. A project was initiated to generate Annotated Individually-pedigreed Mutagenized Sorghum (AIMS) lines using (EMS) ethyl methane sulf...

  12. Performing integrative functional genomics analysis in GeneWeaver.org.

    PubMed

    Jay, Jeremy J; Chesler, Elissa J

    2014-01-01

    Functional genomics experiments and analyses give rise to large sets of results, each typically quantifying the relation of molecular entities including genes, gene products, polymorphisms, and other genomic features with biological characteristics or processes. There is tremendous utility and value in using these data in an integrative fashion to find convergent evidence for the role of genes in various processes, to identify functionally similar molecular entities, or to compare processes based on their genomic correlates. However, these gene-centered data are often deposited in diverse and non-interoperable stores. Therefore, integration requires biologists to implement computational algorithms and harmonization of gene identifiers both within and across species. The GeneWeaver web-based software system brings together a large data archive from diverse functional genomics data with a suite of combinatorial tools in an interactive environment. Account management features allow data and results to be shared among user-defined groups. Users can retrieve curated gene set data, upload, store, and share their own experimental results and perform integrative analyses including novel algorithmic approaches for set-set integration of genes and functions. PMID:24233775

  13. Resurrection of DNA function in vivo from an extinct genome.

    PubMed

    Pask, Andrew J; Behringer, Richard R; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2008-01-01

    There is a burgeoning repository of information available from ancient DNA that can be used to understand how genomes have evolved and to determine the genetic features that defined a particular species. To assess the functional consequences of changes to a genome, a variety of methods are needed to examine extinct DNA function. We isolated a transcriptional enhancer element from the genome of an extinct marsupial, the Tasmanian tiger (Thylacinus cynocephalus or thylacine), obtained from 100 year-old ethanol-fixed tissues from museum collections. We then examined the function of the enhancer in vivo. Using a transgenic approach, it was possible to resurrect DNA function in transgenic mice. The results demonstrate that the thylacine Col2A1 enhancer directed chondrocyte-specific expression in this extinct mammalian species in the same way as its orthologue does in mice. While other studies have examined extinct coding DNA function in vitro, this is the first example of the restoration of extinct non-coding DNA and examination of its function in vivo. Our method using transgenesis can be used to explore the function of regulatory and protein-coding sequences obtained from any extinct species in an in vivo model system, providing important insights into gene evolution and diversity. PMID:18493600

  14. Resurrection of DNA Function In Vivo from an Extinct Genome

    PubMed Central

    Pask, Andrew J.; Behringer, Richard R.; Renfree, Marilyn B.

    2008-01-01

    There is a burgeoning repository of information available from ancient DNA that can be used to understand how genomes have evolved and to determine the genetic features that defined a particular species. To assess the functional consequences of changes to a genome, a variety of methods are needed to examine extinct DNA function. We isolated a transcriptional enhancer element from the genome of an extinct marsupial, the Tasmanian tiger (Thylacinus cynocephalus or thylacine), obtained from 100 year-old ethanol-fixed tissues from museum collections. We then examined the function of the enhancer in vivo. Using a transgenic approach, it was possible to resurrect DNA function in transgenic mice. The results demonstrate that the thylacine Col2A1 enhancer directed chondrocyte-specific expression in this extinct mammalian species in the same way as its orthologue does in mice. While other studies have examined extinct coding DNA function in vitro, this is the first example of the restoration of extinct non-coding DNA and examination of its function in vivo. Our method using transgenesis can be used to explore the function of regulatory and protein-coding sequences obtained from any extinct species in an in vivo model system, providing important insights into gene evolution and diversity. PMID:18493600

  15. MELOGEN: an EST database for melon functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Blanca, José; Roig, Cristina; González-To, Mireia; Picó, Belén; Truniger, Verónica; Gómez, Pedro; Deleu, Wim; Caño-Delgado, Ana; Arús, Pere; Nuez, Fernando; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Puigdomènech, Pere; Aranda, Miguel A

    2007-01-01

    Background Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is one of the most important fleshy fruits for fresh consumption. Despite this, few genomic resources exist for this species. To facilitate the discovery of genes involved in essential traits, such as fruit development, fruit maturation and disease resistance, and to speed up the process of breeding new and better adapted melon varieties, we have produced a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from eight normalized cDNA libraries from different tissues in different physiological conditions. Results We determined over 30,000 ESTs that were clustered into 16,637 non-redundant sequences or unigenes, comprising 6,023 tentative consensus sequences (contigs) and 10,614 unclustered sequences (singletons). Many potential molecular markers were identified in the melon dataset: 1,052 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 356 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found. Sixty-nine percent of the melon unigenes showed a significant similarity with proteins in databases. Functional classification of the unigenes was carried out following the Gene Ontology scheme. In total, 9,402 unigenes were mapped to one or more ontology. Remarkably, the distributions of melon and Arabidopsis unigenes followed similar tendencies, suggesting that the melon dataset is representative of the whole melon transcriptome. Bioinformatic analyses primarily focused on potential precursors of melon micro RNAs (miRNAs) in the melon dataset, but many other genes potentially controlling disease resistance and fruit quality traits were also identified. Patterns of transcript accumulation were characterised by Real-Time-qPCR for 20 of these genes. Conclusion The collection of ESTs characterised here represents a substantial increase on the genetic information available for melon. A database (MELOGEN) which contains all EST sequences, contig images and several tools for analysis and data mining has been created. This set of sequences constitutes

  16. The functional matrix hypothesis revisited. 3. The genomic thesis.

    PubMed

    Moss, M L

    1997-09-01

    Although the initial versions of the functional matrix hypothesis (FMH) theoretically posited the ontogenetic primacy of "function," it is only in recent years that advances in the morphogenetic, engineering, and computer sciences provided an integrated experimental and numerical data base that permitted recent significant revisions of the FMH--revisions that strongly support the primary role of function in craniofacial growth and development. Acknowledging that the currently dominant scientific paradigm suggests that genomic, instead of epigenetic (functional) factors, regulate (cause, control) such growth, an analysis of this continuing controversy was deemed useful. Accordingly the method of dialectical analysis, is employed, stating a thesis, an antithesis, and a resolving synthesis based primarily on an extensive review of the pertinent current literature. This article extensively reviews the genomic hypothesis and offers a critique intended to remove some of the unintentional conceptual obscurantism that has recently come to surround it. PMID:9294365

  17. A Functional Genomics Approach to Tanshinone Biosynthesis Provides Stereochemical Insights

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Tanshinones are abietane-type norditerpenoid quinone natural products that are the bioactive components of the Chinese medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The initial results from a functional genomics-based investigation of tanshinone biosynthesis, specifically the functional identification of the relevant diterpene synthases from S. miltiorrhiza, are reported. The cyclohexa-1,4-diene arrangement of the distal ring poises the resulting miltiradiene for the ensuing aromatization and hydroxylation to ferruginol suggested for tanshinone biosynthesis. PMID:19905026

  18. A functional genomics approach to tanshinone biosynthesis provides stereochemical insights.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Hillwig, Matthew L; Huang, Luqi; Cui, Guanghong; Wang, Xueyong; Kong, Jianqiang; Yang, Bin; Peters, Reuben J

    2009-11-19

    Tanshinones are abietane-type norditerpenoid quinone natural products that are the bioactive components of the Chinese medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The initial results from a functional genomics-based investigation of tanshinone biosynthesis, specifically the functional identification of the relevant diterpene synthases from S. miltiorrhiza, are reported. The cyclohexa-1,4-diene arrangement of the distal ring poises the resulting miltiradiene for the ensuing aromatization and hydroxylation to ferruginol suggested for tanshinone biosynthesis. PMID:19905026

  19. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025

    PubMed Central

    Bruford, Michael W.; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J.; Amaral, Andreia J.; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F.; Hall, Stephen J. G.; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L.; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional data. The final conference of the ESF Genomic Resources program aimed to address these interdisciplinary problems in an attempt to contribute to the agenda for research and policy development directions during the coming decade. By 2020, according to the Convention on Biodiversity's Aichi Target 13, signatories should ensure that “…the genetic diversity of …farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives …is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity.” However, the real extent of genetic erosion is very difficult to measure using current data. Therefore, this challenging target demands better coverage, understanding and utilization of genomic and environmental data, the development of optimized ways to integrate these data with social and other sciences and policy analysis to enable more flexible, evidence-based models to underpin FAnGR conservation. At the conference, we attempted to identify the most important problems for effective livestock genomic resource conservation during the next decade. Twenty priority questions were identified that could be broadly categorized into challenges related to methodology, analytical approaches, data management and conservation. It should be acknowledged here that while the focus of our meeting was predominantly around genetics, genomics and animal science, many of the practical challenges facing conservation of genomic resources are

  20. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025.

    PubMed

    Bruford, Michael W; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J; Amaral, Andreia J; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F; Hall, Stephen J G; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-Ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional data. The final conference of the ESF Genomic Resources program aimed to address these interdisciplinary problems in an attempt to contribute to the agenda for research and policy development directions during the coming decade. By 2020, according to the Convention on Biodiversity's Aichi Target 13, signatories should ensure that "…the genetic diversity of …farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives …is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity." However, the real extent of genetic erosion is very difficult to measure using current data. Therefore, this challenging target demands better coverage, understanding and utilization of genomic and environmental data, the development of optimized ways to integrate these data with social and other sciences and policy analysis to enable more flexible, evidence-based models to underpin FAnGR conservation. At the conference, we attempted to identify the most important problems for effective livestock genomic resource conservation during the next decade. Twenty priority questions were identified that could be broadly categorized into challenges related to methodology, analytical approaches, data management and conservation. It should be acknowledged here that while the focus of our meeting was predominantly around genetics, genomics and animal science, many of the practical challenges facing conservation of genomic resources are

  1. A whole-genome, radiation hybrid mapping resource of hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vijay K; Heesacker, Adam; Riera-Lizarazu, Oscar; Gunn, Hilary; Wang, Shichen; Wang, Yi; Gu, Young Q; Paux, Etienne; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Kumar, Ajay; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Lazo, Gerard; Zemetra, Robert; Akhunov, Eduard; Friebe, Bernd; Poland, Jesse; Gill, Bikram S; Kianian, Shahryar; Leonard, Jeffrey M

    2016-04-01

    Generating a contiguous, ordered reference sequence of a complex genome such as hexaploid wheat (2n = 6x = 42; approximately 17 GB) is a challenging task due to its large, highly repetitive, and allopolyploid genome. In wheat, ordering of whole-genome or hierarchical shotgun sequencing contigs is primarily based on recombination and comparative genomics-based approaches. However, comparative genomics approaches are limited to syntenic inference and recombination is suppressed within the pericentromeric regions of wheat chromosomes, thus, precise ordering of physical maps and sequenced contigs across the whole-genome using these approaches is nearly impossible. We developed a whole-genome radiation hybrid (WGRH) resource and tested it by genotyping a set of 115 randomly selected lines on a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. At the whole-genome level, 26 299 SNP markers were mapped on the RH panel and provided an average mapping resolution of approximately 248 Kb/cR1500 with a total map length of 6866 cR1500 . The 7296 unique mapping bins provided a five- to eight-fold higher resolution than genetic maps used in similar studies. Most strikingly, the RH map had uniform bin resolution across the entire chromosome(s), including pericentromeric regions. Our research provides a valuable and low-cost resource for anchoring and ordering sequenced BAC and next generation sequencing (NGS) contigs. The WGRH developed for reference wheat line Chinese Spring (CS-WGRH), will be useful for anchoring and ordering sequenced BAC and NGS based contigs for assembling a high-quality, reference sequence of hexaploid wheat. Additionally, this study provides an excellent model for developing similar resources for other polyploid species. PMID:26945524

  2. Biomedical applications and studies of molecular evolution: a proposal for a primate genomic library resource.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Evan E; DeJong, Pieter J

    2002-05-01

    The anticipated completion of two of the most biomedically relevant genomes, mouse and human, within the next three years provides an unparalleled opportunity for the large-scale exploration of genome evolution. Targeted sequencing of genomic regions in a panel of primate species and comparison to reference genomes will provide critical insight into the nature of single-base pair variation, mechanisms of chromosomal rearrangement, patterns of selection, and species adaptation. Although not recognized as model "genetic organisms" because of their longevity and low fecundity, 30 of the approximately 300 primate species are targets of biomedical research. The existence of a human reference sequence and genomic primate BAC libraries greatly facilitates the recovery of genes/genomic regions of high biological interest because of an estimated maximum neutral nucleotide sequence divergence of 25%. Primate species, therefore, may be regarded as the ideal model "genomic organisms". Based on existing BAC library resources, we propose the construction of a panel of primate BAC libraries from phylogenetic anchor species for the purpose of comparative medicine as well as studies of genome evolution. PMID:11997334

  3. dbWGFP: a database and web server of human whole-genome single nucleotide variants and their functional predictions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiaxin; Wu, Mengmeng; Li, Lianshuo; Liu, Zhuo; Zeng, Wanwen; Jiang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The recent advancement of the next generation sequencing technology has enabled the fast and low-cost detection of all genetic variants spreading across the entire human genome, making the application of whole-genome sequencing a tendency in the study of disease-causing genetic variants. Nevertheless, there still lacks a repository that collects predictions of functionally damaging effects of human genetic variants, though it has been well recognized that such predictions play a central role in the analysis of whole-genome sequencing data. To fill this gap, we developed a database named dbWGFP (a database and web server of human whole-genome single nucleotide variants and their functional predictions) that contains functional predictions and annotations of nearly 8.58 billion possible human whole-genome single nucleotide variants. Specifically, this database integrates 48 functional predictions calculated by 17 popular computational methods and 44 valuable annotations obtained from various data sources. Standalone software, user-friendly query services and free downloads of this database are available at http://bioinfo.au.tsinghua.edu.cn/dbwgfp. dbWGFP provides a valuable resource for the analysis of whole-genome sequencing, exome sequencing and SNP array data, thereby complementing existing data sources and computational resources in deciphering genetic bases of human inherited diseases. PMID:26989155

  4. dbWGFP: a database and web server of human whole-genome single nucleotide variants and their functional predictions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiaxin; Wu, Mengmeng; Li, Lianshuo; Liu, Zhuo; Zeng, Wanwen; Jiang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The recent advancement of the next generation sequencing technology has enabled the fast and low-cost detection of all genetic variants spreading across the entire human genome, making the application of whole-genome sequencing a tendency in the study of disease-causing genetic variants. Nevertheless, there still lacks a repository that collects predictions of functionally damaging effects of human genetic variants, though it has been well recognized that such predictions play a central role in the analysis of whole-genome sequencing data. To fill this gap, we developed a database named dbWGFP (a database and web server of human whole-genome single nucleotide variants and their functional predictions) that contains functional predictions and annotations of nearly 8.58 billion possible human whole-genome single nucleotide variants. Specifically, this database integrates 48 functional predictions calculated by 17 popular computational methods and 44 valuable annotations obtained from various data sources. Standalone software, user-friendly query services and free downloads of this database are available at http://bioinfo.au.tsinghua.edu.cn/dbwgfp. dbWGFP provides a valuable resource for the analysis of whole-genome sequencing, exome sequencing and SNP array data, thereby complementing existing data sources and computational resources in deciphering genetic bases of human inherited diseases. PMID:26989155

  5. Genomic islands predict functional adaptation in marine actinobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, Kevin; Jenkins, Caroline; Nett, Markus; Udwary, Daniel; Gontang, Erin; McGlinchey, Ryan; Foster, Brian; Lapidus, Alla; Podell, Sheila; Allen, Eric; Moore, Bradley; Jensen, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Linking functional traits to bacterial phylogeny remains a fundamental but elusive goal of microbial ecology 1. Without this information, it becomes impossible to resolve meaningful units of diversity and the mechanisms by which bacteria interact with each other and adapt to environmental change. Ecological adaptations among bacterial populations have been linked to genomic islands, strain-specific regions of DNA that house functionally adaptive traits 2. In the case of environmental bacteria, these traits are largely inferred from bioinformatic or gene expression analyses 2, thus leaving few examples in which the functions of island genes have been experimentally characterized. Here we report the complete genome sequences of Salinispora tropica and S. arenicola, the first cultured, obligate marine Actinobacteria 3. These two species inhabit benthic marine environments and dedicate 8-10percent of their genomes to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Despite a close phylogenetic relationship, 25 of 37 secondary metabolic pathways are species-specific and located within 21 genomic islands, thus providing new evidence linking secondary metabolism to ecological adaptation. Species-specific differences are also observed in CRISPR sequences, suggesting that variations in phage immunity provide fitness advantages that contribute to the cosmopolitan distribution of S. arenicola 4. The two Salinispora genomes have evolved by complex processes that include the duplication and acquisition of secondary metabolite genes, the products of which provide immediate opportunities for molecular diversification and ecological adaptation. Evidence that secondary metabolic pathways are exchanged by Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) yet are fixed among globally distributed populations 5 supports a functional role for their products and suggests that pathway acquisition represents a previously unrecognized force driving bacterial diversification

  6. Using The ENCODE Resource For Functional Annotation Of Genetic Variants

    PubMed Central

    Pazin, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary This article illustrates the use of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) resource to generate or refine hypotheses from genomic data on disease and other phenotypic traits. First, the goals and history of ENCODE and related epigenomics projects are reviewed. Second, the rationale for ENCODE and the major data types used by ENCODE are briefly described, as are some standard heuristics for their interpretation. Third, the use of the ENCODE resource is examined. Standard use cases for ENCODE, accessing the ENCODE resource, and accessing data from related projects are discussed. Finally, access to resources from ENCODE and related epigenomics projects are reviewed. (Although the focus of this article is the use of ENCODE data, some of the same approaches can be used with the data from other projects.) While this article is focused on the case of interpreting genetic variation data, essentially the same approaches can be used with the ENCODE resource, or with data from other projects, to interpret epigenomic and gene regulation data, with appropriate modification (Rakyan et al. 2011; Ng et al. 2012). Such approaches could allow investigators to use genomic methods to study environmental and stochastic processes, in addition to genetic processes. PMID:25762420

  7. Neocaridina denticulata: A Decapod Crustacean Model for Functional Genomics.

    PubMed

    Mykles, Donald L; Hui, Jerome H L

    2015-11-01

    A decapod crustacean model is needed for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying physiological processes, such as reproduction, sex determination, molting and growth, immunity, regeneration, and response to stress. Criteria for selection are: life-history traits, adult size, availability and ease of culture, and genomics and genetic manipulation. Three freshwater species are considered: cherry shrimp, Neocaridina denticulata; red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii; and redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus. All three are readily available, reproduce year round, and grow rapidly. The crayfish species require more space for culture than does N. denticulata. The transparent cuticle of cherry shrimp provides for direct assessment of reproductive status, stage of molt, and tissue-specific expression of reporter genes, and facilitates screening of mutations affecting phenotype. Moreover, a preliminary genome of N. denticulata is available and efforts toward complete genome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing have been initiated. Neocaridina denticulata possesses the best combination of traits that make it most suitable as a model for functional genomics. The next step is to obtain the complete genome sequence and to develop molecular technologies for the screening of mutants and for manipulating tissue-specific gene expression. PMID:26002561

  8. VectorBase: improvements to a bioinformatics resource for invertebrate vector genomics.

    PubMed

    Megy, Karine; Emrich, Scott J; Lawson, Daniel; Campbell, David; Dialynas, Emmanuel; Hughes, Daniel S T; Koscielny, Gautier; Louis, Christos; Maccallum, Robert M; Redmond, Seth N; Sheehan, Andrew; Topalis, Pantelis; Wilson, Derek

    2012-01-01

    VectorBase (http://www.vectorbase.org) is a NIAID-supported bioinformatics resource for invertebrate vectors of human pathogens. It hosts data for nine genomes: mosquitoes (three Anopheles gambiae genomes, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus), tick (Ixodes scapularis), body louse (Pediculus humanus), kissing bug (Rhodnius prolixus) and tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans). Hosted data range from genomic features and expression data to population genetics and ontologies. We describe improvements and integration of new data that expand our taxonomic coverage. Releases are bi-monthly and include the delivery of preliminary data for emerging genomes. Frequent updates of the genome browser provide VectorBase users with increasing options for visualizing their own high-throughput data. One major development is a new population biology resource for storing genomic variations, insecticide resistance data and their associated metadata. It takes advantage of improved ontologies and controlled vocabularies. Combined, these new features ensure timely release of multiple types of data in the public domain while helping overcome the bottlenecks of bioinformatics and annotation by engaging with our user community. PMID:22135296

  9. Functional Genomics Using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Deletion Collections.

    PubMed

    Nislow, Corey; Wong, Lai Hong; Lee, Amy Huei-Yi; Giaever, Guri

    2016-01-01

    Constructed by a consortium of 16 laboratories, the Saccharomyces genome-wide deletion collections have, for the past decade, provided a powerful, rapid, and inexpensive approach for functional profiling of the yeast genome. Loss-of-function deletion mutants were systematically created using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based gene deletion strategy to generate a start-to-stop codon replacement of each open reading frame by homologous recombination. Each strain carries two molecular barcodes that serve as unique strain identifiers, enabling their growth to be analyzed in parallel and the fitness contribution of each gene to be quantitatively assessed by hybridization to high-density oligonucleotide arrays or through the use of next-generation sequencing technologies. Functional profiling of the deletion collections, using either strain-by-strain or parallel assays, provides an unbiased approach to systematically survey the yeast genome. The Saccharomyces yeast deletion collections have proved immensely powerful in contributing to the understanding of gene function, including functional relationships between genes and genetic pathways in response to diverse genetic and environmental perturbations. PMID:27587784

  10. Final progress report, Construction of a genome-wide highly characterized clone resource for genome sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Nierman, William C.

    2000-02-14

    At TIGR, the human Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) end sequencing and trimming were with an overall sequencing success rate of 65%. CalTech human BAC libraries A, B, C and D as well as Roswell Park Cancer Institute's library RPCI-11 were used. To date, we have generated >300,000 end sequences from >186,000 human BAC clones with an average read length {approx}460 bp for a total of 141 Mb covering {approx}4.7% of the genome. Over sixty percent of the clones have BAC end sequences (BESs) from both ends representing over five-fold coverage of the genome by the paired-end clones. The average phred Q20 length is {approx}400 bp. This high accuracy makes our BESs match the human finished sequences with an average identity of 99% and a match length of 450 bp, and a frequency of one match per 12.8 kb contig sequence. Our sample tracking has ensured a clone tracking accuracy of >90%, which gives researchers a high confidence in (1) retrieving the right clone from the BA C libraries based on the sequence matches; and (2) building a minimum tiling path of sequence-ready clones across the genome and genome assembly scaffolds.